Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Suratissa; Upaka Sanjeewa Rathnayake
Faunal diversity and distribution in the Nasese Shore, Suva, Fiji Islands were studied April–August 2014. The belt transect method was employed to study the species richness and abundance of the fauna. Opportunistic observations were performed to supplement the species richness of the selected habitat types: sandy, rocky and muddy (SRM; Habitat 1); mangrove and sandy (MNS; Habitat 2); muddy and sandy (MS; Habitat 3); and rocky and coral (RC; Habitat 4). Sampling was performed during high and ...
Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Suratissa
Full Text Available Ocean supplies a significant amount of food to human population. However, marine ecosystem is under a threat due to the increasing marine pollution. Fiji Islands, located in South Pacific sea, are experiencing such a threat. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effects of pollution on the diversity of marine gastropods in Nasese Shore, Suva, Fiji Islands. A detailed opportunistic survey was conducted; 85 species of marine gastropods molluscas were recorded belonging to 29 families in four different habitats (Habitat 1, Habitat 2, Habitat 3 and Habitat 4 at Nasese Shore during April–September 2014. Compared with Habitat 4, all three other habitats were polluted by frequently added sewages and domestic effluents via artificial and natural creeks to the coastal area. Therefore, diversity and abundance of the gastropods were significantly lower in those three habitats. Furthermore, a higher human consumption rate for some of the gastropods was observed.
Raj, U; Haq, H; Oshima, Y; Yasumoto, T
Five species of crabs commonly occurring on Suva barrier reef, Fiji Islands, were tested for the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins. All 35 specimens of Atergatis floridus and all 18 specimens of Zosimus aeneus tested were lethal to mice, whilst none of 12 specimens of Carpilius maculatus, 8 of C. convexus and 10 of Eriphia sebana tested were lethal. A. floridus contained saxitoxin (55--60%), neosaxitoxin (35--40%), gonyautoxin-II (less than 5%) and a new toxin previously found in a toxic dinoflagellate, Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressa, and tentatively coded PBT (1%). Z. aeneus contained the same components, with additional trace amounts of gonyautoxin-I and III, but neosaxitoxin was the major component in this species. Comparison with the results of testing Okinawan specimens of Z. aeneus, A. floridus and Platipodia granulosa suggests that the toxin profile is specific to species.
Isley, C. F.; Nelson, P. F.; Taylor, M. P.; Mani, F. S.; Maata, M.; Atanacio, A.; Stelcer, E.; Cohen, D. D.
Concentrations of particulate air pollution in Suva, Fiji, have been largely unknown and consequently, current strategies to reduce health risk from air pollution in Suva are not targeted effectively. This lack of air quality data is common across the Pacific Island Countries. A monitoring study, during 2014 and 2015, has characterised the fine particulate air quality in Suva, representing the most detailed study to date of fine aerosol air pollutants for the Pacific Islands; with sampling at City, Residential (Kinoya) and Background (Suva Point) sites. Meteorology for Suva, as it relates to pollutant dispersion for this period of time, has also been analysed. The study design enables the contribution of maritime air and the anthropogenic emissions to be carefully distinguished from each other and separately characterised. Back trajectory calculations show that a packet of air sampled at the Suva City site has typically travelled 724 km in the 24-h prior to sampling, mainly over open ocean waters; inferring that pollutants would also be rapidly transported away from Suva. For fine particulates, Suva City reported a mid-week PM2.5 of 8.6 ± 0.4 μg/m3, averaged over 13-months of gravimetric sampling. Continuous monitoring (Osiris laser photometer) suggests that some areas of Suva may experience levels exceeding the WHO PM2.5 guideline of 10 μg/m3, however, compared to other countries, Fiji's PM2.5 is low. Peak aerosol particulate levels, at all sites, were experienced at night-time, when atmospheric conditions were least favourable to dispersion of air pollutants. Suva's average ambient concentrations of black carbon in PM2.5, 2.2 ± 0.1 μg/m3, are, however, similar to those measured in much larger cities. With any given parcel of air spending only seven minutes, on average, over the land area of Suva Peninsula, these black carbon concentrations are indicative that significant combustion emissions occur within Suva. Many other communities in the Pacific Islands
Isley, C F; Nelson, P F; Taylor, M P; Stelcer, E; Atanacio, A J; Cohen, D D; Mani, F S; Maata, M
Health implications of air pollution vary dependent upon pollutant sources. This work determines the value, in terms of reduced mortality, of reducing ambient particulate matter (PM2.5: effective aerodynamic diameter 2.5μm or less) concentration due to different emission sources. Suva, a Pacific Island city with substantial input from combustion sources, is used as a case-study. Elemental concentration was determined, by ion beam analysis, for PM2.5 samples from Suva, spanning one year. Sources of PM2.5 have been quantified by positive matrix factorisation. A review of recent literature has been carried out to delineate the mortality risk associated with these sources. Risk factors have then been applied for Suva, to calculate the possible mortality reduction that may be achieved through reduction in pollutant levels. Higher risk ratios for black carbon and sulphur resulted in mortality predictions for PM2.5 from fossil fuel combustion, road vehicle emissions and waste burning that surpass predictions for these sources based on health risk of PM2.5 mass alone. Predicted mortality for Suva from fossil fuel smoke exceeds the national toll from road accidents in Fiji. The greatest benefit for Suva, in terms of reduced mortality, is likely to be accomplished by reducing emissions from fossil fuel combustion (diesel), vehicles and waste burning. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Lau, A. Y. Annie; Terry, James P.; Ziegler, Alan; Pratap, Arti; Harris, Daniel
The characteristics of a reef-top boulder field created by a local submarine landslide tsunami are presented for the first time. Our examination of large reef-derived boulders deposited by the 1953 tsunami near Suva City, Fiji, revealed that shorter-than-normal-period tsunami waves generated by submarine landslides can create a boulder field resembling a storm boulder field due to relatively short boulder transport distances. The boulder-inferred 1953 tsunami flow velocity is estimated at over 9 m s- 1 at the reef edge. Subsequent events, for example Cyclone Kina (1993), appear to have remobilised some large boulders. While prior research has demonstrated headward retreat of Suva Canyon in response to the repeated occurrence of earthquakes over the past few millennia, our results highlight the lingering vulnerability of the Fijian coastlines to high-energy waves generated both in the presence (tsunami) and absence (storm) of submarine failures and/or earthquakes. To explain the age discrepancies of U-Th dated coral comprising the deposited boulders, we introduce a conceptual model showing the role of repeated episodes of tsunamigenic submarine landslides in removing reef front sections through collapse. Subsequent high-energy wave events transport boulders from exposed older sections of the reef front onto the reef where they are deposited as 'new' boulders, alongside freshly detached sections of the living reef. In similar situations where anachronistic deposits complicate the deposition signal, age-dating of the coral boulders should not be used as a proxy for determining the timing of the submarine landslides or the tsunamis that generated them.
Full Text Available Background. Many studies examining smoking uptake among young people in the Pacific have not included their exposure to tobacco control promotions in the media in their assessment. This study examines how Fijian students view tobacco and tobacco-related media depictions to gain insight into both drivers of smoking uptake and potential directions for prevention interventions. Methods. A sample of thirty Fijian students (15 male and 15 female aged 14–17 years, was recruited from a Suva school between September and October 2013 and participated in a one-to-one in-depth interview about their views on tobacco use, media consumption patterns and preferences and awareness of tobacco use in media. Results. Despite radical developments in access to media, television remains the most popular. Yet, the majority of participants were unaware of any protobacco imagery on television or other entertainment media. Tobacco-related imagery was more likely to be seen in connection with point of sale advertising and branding. The advertising potential of the shop counter was acutely apparent to some participants and this space was considered highly influential. Conclusions. Despite the fact that the recently introduced graphic health warnings were generally well received, more can be done to extend the use of media for tobacco control benefits in Fiji.
Waqa, Gade; McCool, Judith; Snowdon, Wendy; Freeman, Becky
Many studies examining smoking uptake among young people in the Pacific have not included their exposure to tobacco control promotions in the media in their assessment. This study examines how Fijian students view tobacco and tobacco-related media depictions to gain insight into both drivers of smoking uptake and potential directions for prevention interventions. A sample of thirty Fijian students (15 male and 15 female) aged 14-17 years, was recruited from a Suva school between September and October 2013 and participated in a one-to-one in-depth interview about their views on tobacco use, media consumption patterns and preferences and awareness of tobacco use in media. Despite radical developments in access to media, television remains the most popular. Yet, the majority of participants were unaware of any protobacco imagery on television or other entertainment media. Tobacco-related imagery was more likely to be seen in connection with point of sale advertising and branding. The advertising potential of the shop counter was acutely apparent to some participants and this space was considered highly influential. Despite the fact that the recently introduced graphic health warnings were generally well received, more can be done to extend the use of media for tobacco control benefits in Fiji.
Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).
This document reports on a workshop on emergent literacy in early childhood held in Fiji. The workshop was sponsored by UNICEF and the Fiji Ministry of Education. The course objectives were to: (1) review education philosophies and methodologies currently influencing early childhood education in Fiji; (2) gain extended knowledge on language…
Gade Waqa; Judith McCool; Wendy Snowdon; Becky Freeman
Background. Many studies examining smoking uptake among young people in the Pacific have not included their exposure to tobacco control promotions in the media in their assessment. This study examines how Fijian students view tobacco and tobacco-related media depictions to gain insight into both drivers of smoking uptake and potential directions for prevention interventions. Methods. A sample of thirty Fijian students (15 male and 15 female) aged 14–17 years, was recruited from a Suva school ...
The Pacific Islands Internet Project (PIIP) aims to expose interested parties to emerging technologies by creating initial, core national Internet-based information systems, and by training users on how to take advantage of such systems for sustainable development purposes. PIIP works closely with Small Islands Development States Network SIDSNET (http://www.sidsnet.org) and Asia and Pacific Development Information Programme APDIP (http://www.apdip.net), both UNDP initiatives in this field. The Target Beneficiaries are 15 countries in the sub-region including Tuvalu, Niue and Tokelau which are still without Internet access. PIIP will assist these three countries in their connectivity needs and all other countries in other components of the project. Priority is given to the smaller island states. There are four components to the project. These are: Connectivity (WWW access for Tuvalu, Niue and Tokelau); Training and Awareness (through national seminars and training programmes); Internet Applications (in areas such as telemedicine, distance education, SIDSnet and other fields in the private sector); and Policy (work with telecom and regional organisations in facilitating national telecommunications policies that provide a basis for development of an ICT strategy). Some of the progress made since the inception of PIIP are covered in this paper.
Fisher, Robert N; Niukula, Jone; Watling, Dick; Harlow, Peter S
The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji. Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species. One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province. Gau is the fifth largest island in Fiji and maintains excellent upland forests in the higher elevations. We describe this population from Gau Island as a new species, Brachylophus gau sp. nov., in recognition of its type locality.
Fisher, Robert N.; Niukula, Jone; Watling, Dick; Harlow, Peter S.
The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji. Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species. One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province. Gau is the fifth largest island in Fiji and maintains excellent upland forests in the higher elevations. We describe this population from Gau Island as a new species, Brachylophus gau sp. nov., in recognition of its type locality.
Chand, Prerna; Kamiya, Takahiro
A new marine species of the genus Paracypria (Paracypria fijiensis n. sp.) is reported from the Fiji Islands, a small island archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean. This is the first report of a Paracypria species from the Fiji Islands. Descriptions of soft parts and valves of Paracypria fijiensis n. sp. are presented herein, and morphological comparisons are made with existing Paracypria species from Australia, Japan and New Caledonia. Although eight coastal sites were sampled across the Fiji Islands, the new Paracypria species was found at only three sites. Large numbers of P. fijiensis n. sp. were recorded from intertidal flats, indicating it to be highly tolerant of the dynamic intertidal zone conditions.
Asante, Augustine D; Irava, Wayne; Limwattananon, Supon; Hayen, Andrew; Martins, Joao; Guinness, Lorna; Ataguba, John E; Price, Jennifer; Jan, Stephen; Mills, Anne; Wiseman, Virginia
Background Universal health coverage (UHC) is critical to global poverty alleviation and equity of health systems. Many low-income and middle-income countries, including small island states in the Pacific, have committed to UHC and reforming their health financing systems to better align with UHC goals. This study provides the first comprehensive evidence on equity of the health financing system in Fiji, a small Pacific island state. The health systems of such states are poorly covered in the international literature. Methods The study employs benefit and financing incidence analyses to evaluate the distribution of health financing benefits and burden across the public and private sectors. Primary data from a cross-sectional survey of 2000 households were used to assess healthcare benefits and secondary data from the 2008–2009 Fiji Household Income and Expenditure Survey to assess health financing contributions. These were analysed by socioeconomic groups to determine the relative benefit and financing incidence across these groups. Findings The distribution of healthcare benefits in Fiji slightly favours the poor—around 61% of public spending for nursing stations and 26% of spending for government hospital inpatient care were directed to services provided to the poorest 20% of the population. The financing system is significantly progressive with wealthier groups bearing a higher share of the health financing burden. Conclusions The healthcare system in Fiji achieves a degree of vertical equity in financing, with the poor receiving a higher share of benefits from government health spending and bearing a lower share of the financing burden than wealthier groups. PMID:28589017
Full Text Available Two new prenylated stilbenes with an irregular sesquiterpenyl side chain, solomonin B (1 and solomonin C (2, together with four known compounds, glyasperin A (3, isolated for the first time from propolis, kumatakenin (4, macarangin (5 and mangiferolic acid (6 were isolated from ethanol extract of propolis from Fiji islands. The compounds structures were determined based on their spectral data analysis (1D- and 2D NMR, UV and HREIMS and comparison with literature data. The chemical composition of propolis from Fiji islands was determined for the first time.
The Paradoxosomatidae of the Fiji Islands are discussed. As a result of the reexamination of the type material the taxonomic position of Orthomorpha lampra Chamberlin and Prionopeltis dasys Chamberlin is cleared. O. lampra is a senior synonym of Gyrodrepanum bimontanum (Carl), P. dasys a junior
McKerracher, Luseadra; Collard, Mark; Henrich, Joseph
Women often experience novel food aversions and cravings during pregnancy. These appetite changes have been hypothesized to work alongside cultural strategies as adaptive responses to the challenges posed by pregnancy (e.g., maternal immune suppression). Here, we report a study that assessed whether data from an indigenous population in Fiji are consistent with the predictions of this hypothesis. We found that aversions focus predominantly on foods expected to exacerbate the challenges of pregnancy. Cravings focus on foods that provide calories and micronutrients while posing few threats to mothers and fetuses. We also found that women who experience aversions to specific foods are more likely to crave foods that meet nutritional needs similar to those provided by the aversive foods. These findings are in line with the predictions of the hypothesis. This adds further weight to the argument that appetite changes may function in parallel with cultural mechanisms to solve pregnancy challenges.
Beatty, Christopher D; Sánchez Herrera, Melissa; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Rashed, Arash; Van Gossum, Hans; Kelso, Scott; Sherratt, Thomas N
The study of island fauna has greatly informed our understanding of the evolution of diversity. We here examine the phylogenetics, biogeography, and diversification of the damselfly genera Nesobasis and Melanesobasis, endemic to the Fiji Islands, to explore mechanisms of speciation in these highly speciose groups. Using mitochondrial (COI, 12S) and nuclear (ITS) replicons, we recovered garli-part maximum likelihood and mrbayes Bayesian phylogenetic hypotheses for 26 species of Nesobasis and eight species/subspecies of Melanesobasis. Biogeographical patterns were explored using lagrange and bayes-lagrange and interpreted through beast relaxed clock dating analyses. We found that Nesobasis and Melanesobasis have radiated throughout Fiji, but are not sister groups. For Nesobasis, while the two largest islands of the archipelago-Viti Levu and Vanua Levu-currently host two distinct species assemblages, they do not represent phylogenetic clades; of the three major groupings each contains some Viti Levu and some Vanua Levu species, suggesting independent colonization events across the archipelago. Our beast analysis suggests a high level of species diversification around 2-6 Ma. Our ancestral area reconstruction (rasp-lagrange) suggests that both dispersal and vicariance events contributed to the evolution of diversity. We thus conclude that the evolutionary history of Nesobasis and Melanesobasis is complex; while inter-island dispersal followed by speciation (i.e., peripatry) has contributed to diversity, speciation within islands appears to have taken place a number of times as well. This speciation has taken place relatively recently and appears to be driven more by reproductive isolation than by ecological differentiation: while species in Nesobasis are morphologically distinct from one another, they are ecologically very similar, and currently are found to exist sympatrically throughout the islands on which they are distributed. We consider the potential for
Mangubhai, Francis; Mugler, France
After Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji is the second largest island nation in the South-west Pacific and the hub of the region. Nearly all Fiji Islanders have either Fijian or Fiji Hindi as their first language, in roughly equal numbers, while the former colonial language, English, with very few native speakers, has retained an important role,…
Feussner, Klaus-Dieter; Ragini, Kavita; Kumar, Rohitesh; Soapi, Katy M; Aalbersberg, William G; Harper, Mary Kay; Carte, Brad; Ireland, Chris M
Over the past 30 years, approximately 140 papers have been published on marine natural products chemistry and related research from the Fiji Islands. These came about from studies starting in the early 1980s by the research groups of Crews at the University of California Santa Cruz, Ireland at the University of Utah, Gerwick from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the University of California at San Diego and the more recent groups of Hay at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) and Jaspars from the University of Aberdeen. This review covers both known and novel marine-derived natural products and their biological activities. The marine organisms reviewed include invertebrates, plants and microorganisms, highlighting the vast structural diversity of compounds isolated from these organisms. Increasingly during this period, natural products chemists at the University of the South Pacific have been partners in this research, leading in 2006 to the development of a Centre for Drug Discovery and Conservation (CDDC).
Brens, R., Jr.; Jenner, F. E.; Bullock, E. S.; Hauri, E. H.; Turner, S.; Rushmer, T. A.
The North Fiji Basin (NFB), and connected Lau Basin, is located in a complex area of volcanism. The NFB is a back-arc basin (BAB) that is a result of an extinct subduction zone, incorporating the complicated geodynamics of two rotating landmasses: Fiji and the Vanuatu island arc. Collectively this makes the spreading centers of the NFB the highest producing spreading centers recorded. Here we present volatile concentrations, major, and trace element data for a previously undiscovered triple junction spreading center in the NFB. We show our enrichment samples contain some of the highest water contents yet reported from (MORB). The samples from the NFB exhibit a combination of MORB-like major chemical signatures along with high water content similar to ocean island basalts (OIB). This peculiarity in geochemistry is unlike other studied MORB or back-arc basin (to our knowledge) that is not attributed to subduction related signatures. Our results employ the use of volatiles (carbon dioxide and water) and their constraints (Nb and Ce) combined with trace element ratios to indicate a potential source for the enrichment in the North Fiji Basin. The North Fiji Basin lavas are tholeiitic with similar major element composition as averaged primitive normal MORB; with the exception of averaged K2O and P2O5, which are still within range for observed normal MORB. For a mid-ocean ridge basalt, the lavas in the NFB exhibit a large range in volatiles: H2O (0.16-0.9 wt%) and CO2 (80-359 ppm). The NFB lavas have volatile levels that exceed the range of MORB and trend toward a more enriched source. In addition, when compared to MORB, the NFB lavas are all enriched in H2O/Ce. La/Sm values in the NFB lavas range from 0.9 to 3.8 while, Gd/Yb values range from 1.2 to 2.5. The NFB lavas overlap the MORB range for both La/Sm (~1.1) and Gd/Yb (~1.3). However, they span a larger range outside of the MORB array. High La/Sm and Gd/Yb ratios (>1) are indications of deeper melting within the
Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie
This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...
Narayan, Paresh Kumar [School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Law, Deakin University, Melbourne (Australia); Narayan, Seema [School of Economics, Finance and Marketing, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Prasad, Arti [Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University (Australia)
In this paper, we examine the relationship between oil price and the Fiji-US exchange rate using daily data for the period 2000-2006. We use the generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) and exponential GARCH (EGARCH) models to estimate the impact of oil price on the nominal exchange rate. We find that a rise in oil prices leads to an appreciation of the Fijian dollar vis-a-vis the US dollar. (author)
Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.
Full Text Available In this age of digital natives we are immersed in digital information 247. Individuals organizations and government have their share of information systems to mange and use in the various processes of their digital existence. Being a small island state and still developing amidst various problems Fiji cannot afford losses due to cybercrime. This paper aims to create awareness in regards to some major cybercrimes in Fiji in the year 2016. We believe that the cases and solutions discussed will assist in enforcing better cyber security measures to prevent being victims of such cybercrimes in the future.
Fang, Te-Yung; Rafai, Eric; Wang, Pa-Chun; Bai, Chiy-Huey; Jiang, Peng-Long; Huang, Shu-Nuan; Chen, You-Ju; Chao, Yi-Ting; Wang, Chen-Hsu; Chang, Chia-Hsiu
Otitis media (OM), as a common infectious disease, is a major cause of hearing impairment among the general population. OM remains a major public health threat in the Pacific islands, but the risks of OM have not been thoroughly explored in this region. The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence, clinical features, and quality-of-life impacts of OM in Fiji. In the medical service trip entitled "Healing and Hope - Taiwan Cathay Heart and Hearing Medical Mission to Fiji" (TCHHMMF), we conducted a cross-sectional OM survey study in Suva and Sigatoka areas (Korolevu, Cuvu, and Lomawai) in the summer of 2015. The otitis media - 6 (OM-6) was used to survey the OM-related quality of life. In the 467 pediatric patients (aged 0-18 years old) screened, 13 (2.78%) have acute otitis media (AOM), 37 (7.92%) have otitis media with effusion (OME), and 19 (4.1%) have chronic otitis media (COM). Age (OR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.77) is a significant predictor of AOM, whereas male gender (OR 2.46, 95% CI: 1.13-5.37), smoke exposure (OR 2.81, 95% CI: 1.01-7.82), and concomitant chronic sinusitis (OR 6.05, 95% CI: 2.31-15.88) are significant predictors of OME. The mean OM-6 item scores are highest in caregiver concerns (3.8), physical suffering (3.7), and hearing loss (3.4) domains. OM is an important primary care disease in Fiji that remains under-served. It is critical to educate professionals, parents, and patients to detect and to improve care for OM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Temple, Beth; Griffiths, Ulla Kou; Mulholland, Edward Kim; Ratu, Felisita Tupou; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Russell, Fiona Mary
Pneumonia is the most common reason for visiting an outpatient facility among children Fiji. The objective of this study is to describe for the first time the costs associated with an episode of outpatient pneumonia in Fiji, in terms of cost both to the government health sector and to the household. Costs were estimated for 400 clinically diagnosed pneumonia cases from two outpatient facilities, one in the capital, Suva, and one in a peri-urban and rural area, Nausori. Household expenses relating to transport costs, treatment costs and indirect costs were determined primarily through structured interview with the caregiver. Unit costs were collected from a variety of sources. Patient-specific costs were summarised as average costs per facility. The overall average societal cost associated with an episode of outpatient pneumonia was $18.98, ranging from $14.33 in Nausori to $23.67 in Suva. Household expenses represent a significant proportion of the societal cost (29% in Nausori and 45% in Suva), with transport costs the most important household cost item. Health sector expenses were dominated by personnel costs at both sites. Both the average total household expenses and the average total health sector expenses were significantly greater in Suva than Nausori. A single episode of outpatient pneumonia represents a significant cost both to the government health sector and to affected households. Given the high incidence of this disease in Fiji, this places a considerable burden on society. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available We report on the first survey of chytridiomycosis (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis- Bd in the endangered Fijian ground frog (Platymantis vitiana population on Viwa-Tailevu, Fiji Islands. This fungal pathogen has been implicated as the primary cause of amphibian declines worldwide. Few cases have been reported from tropical Asia however it was recently documented in 4 species of frogs in Indonesia. Two hundred individual frogs were swabbed from 5 different sites on Viwa Island. Swabs were tested to quantify the number of Bd zoospore equivalents using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR technique. We found zero (% prevalence of Bd in ground frogs. The lack of Bd may be due to 1 hot weather all year round inhibiting the spread of Bd, 2 Bd may be absent from Viwa Island due to a lack of amphibian introductions (not introduced or importation of exotic frogs such as Rana catesbeia-na, or Xenopus spp or pet trade spp or 3 the lack of introduction by human vectors due to the geographic isolation, and low visitation of non-local people into the island. While it is difficult to test these hypotheses, a precautionary approach would suggest an effective quarantine is required to protect Fiji’s endemic frogs from future disease outbreak. Conservation effort and research is needed at international level to assist the Fiji government in monitoring and protecting their unique endemic amphibians from outbreaks of B. dendrobatidis.
Aaheim, Asbjoern; Sygna, Linda
This paper discusses the possible economic consequences of a change in the tuna fisheries in the Pacific Ocean resulting from climate change. On the background of Lehodey's (2000) study of potential changes in the tuna fisheries, we survey possible economic impacts in terms of quantities and values and give examples of macroeconomic impacts. The two main effects of climate change on tuna fishing are likely to be a decline in the total stock and a migration of the stock westwards. This will lead to various changes in the catch in different countries. The price of the fish in the export market may also change as a result. The Pacific islands are generally dependent on fisheries, and may therefore be vulnerable to these changes, although some will probably gain while others will lose. Based on a very simple macroeconomic model, it is shown that the resulting effects for the national economy in general may diverge substantially from the expected. This applies, in particular, if the national economies are inflexible and a large part of the population relies on subsistence production, which is the case for many developing countries. (author)
Herman, Josephine; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; McCaig, Eddie; Jackson, Rod
To estimate the incidence and demographic characteristics associated with road traffic injuries (RTIs) resulting in deaths or hospital admission for 12 hours or more in Viti Levu, Fiji. Analysis of the prospective population-based Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals database (October 2005 - September 2006). Of the 374 RTI cases identified (17% of all injuries), 72% were males and one third were aged 15-29 years. RTI fatalities (10.3 per 100,000 per year) were higher among Indians compared to Fijians. Two-thirds of deaths (largely ascribed to head, chest and abdominal trauma) occurred before hospital admission. While the RTI fatality rate was comparable to the global average for high-income countries, the level of motorisation in Fiji is considerably lower. To avert rising RTI rates with increasing motorisation, Fiji requires a robust road safety strategy alongside effective trauma-care services and a reliable population-based RTI surveillance system. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Pacific countries are sovereign nations with distinctive histories, ethnicity, customs, primary resources, economies, and health systems. Despite these and other acknowledged differences, similarities exist in many areas such as geography, legal history, and culture. Many share the experience of colonization, with imported British laws and the subsequent experience of independence. Most Pacific countries are also developing countries. This article broadly describes approaches to legislating in public health in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands and notes common elements in their public health laws, in particular, in relation to administration, allocation of powers and responsibilities, interaction with local government, communicable disease control, and nuisance. The article concludes that many Pacific public health laws could deliver better support for current health policy, more sensitivity to the culture and customs of the region, and better management of public health risk through laws that are better suited to their Pacific environment, easier to understand, more flexible, and more relevant to current health policy.
Full Text Available Cultured pearl farming in Fiji relies on wild spat collection to supply the oysters used for pearl production. This supply can be inconsistent and a research program was implemented to determine recruitment of pearl oysters to spat collectors at sites throughout Fiji as a basis for developing a national spat collection program to improve reliability of oyster supply to the industry. Twenty-nine sites across Fiji were used in this study. Spat collectors consisted of a 100 m longline from which 310 individual spat collectors were suspended. Spat collectors were deployed for a period of 10–15 months when the number of pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera and Pteria penguin spat attached to each collector was counted and shell size recorded. A total of 5478 P. margaritifera juveniles were collected from all sites with the highest number of recruits (693 and the highest number of recruits per collector (2.10 ± 0.17 occurring at Nacobau (Vanua Levu. The largest mean dorso-ventral measurement (DVM of P. margaritifera at any site was 8.61 ± 0.30 cm while the smallest was 4.26 ± 0.13 cm. Some sites did not record any P. margaritifera recruitment during the study and these were generally sites with relatively turbid water. A total of 4224 Pt. penguin were collected from all sites, with the highest number of recruits (495 recorded from Namarai (Viti Levu. The mean DVM of Pt. penguin ranged from 7.53 cm to 13.62 cm across sites. Results indicate that Pt. penguin have greater tolerance of more turbid inshore sites than P. margaritifera based on greater levels of recruitment at these sites. Results identified sites supporting high levels of pearl oyster recruitment as a basis for an ongoing national spat collection program, and support better targeting of spat collection activities that maximise oyster supply to the Fijian pearl industry. The national spat collection program will generate significant livelihood benefits across
Watson, Conall H; Coriakula, Jeremaia; Ngoc, Dung Tran Thi; Flasche, Stefan; Kucharski, Adam J; Lau, Colleen L; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; le Polain de Waroux, Olivier; Rawalai, Kitione; Van, Tan Trinh; Taufa, Mere; Baker, Stephen; Nilles, Eric J; Kama, Mike; Edmunds, W John
Empirical data on contact patterns can inform dynamic models of infectious disease transmission. Such information has not been widely reported from Pacific islands, nor strongly multi-ethnic settings, and few attempts have been made to quantify contact patterns relevant for the spread of gastrointestinal infections. As part of enteric fever investigations, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of the general public in Fiji, finding that within the 9,650 mealtime contacts reported by 1,814 participants, there was strong like-with-like mixing by age and ethnicity, with higher contact rates amongst iTaukei than non-iTaukei Fijians. Extra-domiciliary lunchtime contacts follow these mixing patterns, indicating the overall data do not simply reflect household structures. Inter-ethnic mixing was most common amongst school-age children. Serological responses indicative of recent Salmonella Typhi infection were found to be associated, after adjusting for age, with increased contact rates between meal-sharing iTaukei, with no association observed for other contact groups. Animal ownership and travel within the geographical division were common. These are novel data that identify ethnicity as an important social mixing variable, and use retrospective mealtime contacts as a socially acceptable metric of relevance to enteric, contact and respiratory diseases that can be collected in a single visit to participants. Application of these data to other island settings will enable communicable disease models to incorporate locally relevant mixing patterns in parameterisation.
Kool, Bridget; Raj, Naina; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi
Background Globally, head injury is a substantial cause of mortality and morbidity. A disproportionately greater burden is borne by low- and middle-income countries. The incidence and characteristics of fatal and hospitalised head injuries in Fiji are unknown. Methods Using prospective data from the Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospital system, the epidemiology of fatal and hospitalised head injuries was investigated (2004–2005). Results In total, 226 hospital admissions and 50 fatalities (66% died prior to admission) with a principal diagnosis of head injury were identified (crude annual rates of 34.7 and 7.7/100,000, respectively). Males were more likely to die and be hospitalised as a result of head injury than females. The highest fatality rate was among those in the 30–44-year age group. Road traffic crashes were the leading causes of injuries resulting in death (70%), followed by ‘hit by person or object’ and falls (14% each). Among people admitted to hospital, road traffic crashes (34.5%) and falls (33.2%) were the leading causes of injury. The leading cause of head injuries in children was falls, in 15–29-year-olds road traffic crashes, and in adults aged 30–44 years or 45 years and older ‘hit by person or object’. Among the two major ethnic groups, Fijians had higher rates of falls and ‘hit by person or object’ and Indians higher rates for road traffic crashes. There were no statistically significant differences between the overall rates of head injuries or the fatal and non-fatal rates among Fijians or Indians by gender following age standardisation to the total Fijian national population. Conclusion Despite underestimating the overall burden, this study identified head injury to be a major cause of death and hospitalisation in Fiji. The predominance of males and road traffic-related injuries is consistent with studies on head injuries conducted in other low- and middle-income countries. The high fatality rate among those aged 30–44
Ethan E. Cochrane
Full Text Available Remote islands and their human, animal and plant populations have long fascinated archaeologists, biologists and geographers. In this article, the chronology, diversity and interactions of human cultures in some small islands of the Fiji archipelago are explored, particularly through the application of sophisticated chemical analyses of the composition of prehistoric pottery.
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
This report provides a longitudinal study of the Fiji economy covering more than 2 decades of growth and development. It presents an economic update and outlook for the Fiji economy and assesses the key drivers of performance across key economic sectors. The report identifies potential reform strategies that can guide future policy action, assist in accelerating growth, and strengthen pro-poor policy development in Fiji.
Etienne, Samuel; Terry, James P.
Tropical Cyclone (TC) Tomas in March 2010 was a category-4 storm that struck the northern and eastern islands of Fiji in the southwest Pacific, with the coast of Taveuni Island in particular experiencing a significant surge and high waves as the eye passed within 30 km. Post-storm field investigations of the coastal geomorphic impacts concentrated on an area in central Taveuni (S16°50' 179°52'W) where protected fringing reefs and coastlines form part of the Bouma National Heritage Park (BNHP). Here, a range of cyclone constructional imprints were found to have supplemented existing coastal sediments. Fresh coral boulders strewn across reef platforms indicate that TC Tomas had sufficient power to deliver new coral blocks, but that this material comprises a relatively minor component (20%) of pre-existing boulder fields. Comparison between the dimensions of fresh (max. 4.9 m3) and older blocks (max. > 40 m3) reveals that unknown earlier events (storms or tsunamis) produced much larger debris, and therefore presumably generated much stronger flow velocities across the fringing reefs than TC Tomas. Analysis of calcarenite slabs quarried from in situ beachrock exposures was particularly useful for calculating storm-surge flow velocities at the shoreline, giving mean values of 3.4 and 1.9 m/s for run-up and backwash, respectively. Several elongate tongues (max. length 75 m) of fresh coral gravel were also constructed perpendicular to the reef crest. A conceptual model of debris accretion based on wave refraction across a crescent-shaped reef front is developed to explain their formation, but which does not rely on the simultaneous existence of a reef-parallel rubble rampart. Overall, the patchy and discontinuous nature of cyclogenic accretionary features across reef, beach and back-beach locations indicates the potential challenges for identification and interpretation of palaeo-cyclone events within the sedimentary record on affected coastlines in the South Pacific
Devi, Aruna; Wilkinson, Jenny; Mahony, Timothy; Vanniasinkam, Thiru
Data on campylobacteriosis in developed countries are well documented; in contrast, few studies on campylobacteriosis have been conducted in developing countries. This study was undertaken to test for Campylobacter in human faecal samples sent to the two major pathology laboratories in Fiji. A total of 408 diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from the two major hospital pathology laboratories in Central Fiji (Suva) and Western Fiji (Lautoka) between December 2012 and February 2013 and from June to July 2013. Samples were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Campylobacter was detected in 241/408 (59.1%) of samples tested using PCR. Samples from children aged less than five accounted for 21.6% of positive cases. Campylobacter was detected in 59.1% of diarrhoeal samples collected from the two main laboratories in Fiji. A high proportion of children under five years with Campylobacter has been reported in other countries and could be due to parents being more likely to seek medical attention. Further studies are required to confirm the species of Campylobacter that are predominantly associated with gastroenteritis in Fiji.
Mohammed, Jalal; North, Nicola; Ashton, Toni
Decentralisation aims to bring services closer to the community and has been advocated in the health sector to improve quality, access and equity, and to empower local agencies, increase innovation and efficiency and bring healthcare and decision-making as close as possible to where people live and work. Fiji has attempted two approaches to decentralisation. The current approach reflects a model of deconcentration of outpatient services from the tertiary level hospital to the peripheral health centres in the Suva subdivision. Using a modified decision space approach developed by Bossert, this study measures decision space created in five broad categories (finance, service organisation, human resources, access rules, and governance rules) within the decentralised services. Fiji's centrally managed historical-based allocation of financial resources and management of human resources resulted in no decision space for decentralised agents. Narrow decision space was created in the service organisation category where, with limited decision space created over access rules, Fiji has seen greater usage of its decentralised health centres. There remains limited decision space in governance. The current wave of decentralisation reveals that, whilst the workload has shifted from the tertiary hospital to the peripheral health centres, it has been accompanied by limited transfer of administrative authority, suggesting that Fiji's deconcentration reflects the transfer of workload only with decision-making in the five functional areas remaining largely centralised. As such, the benefits of decentralisation for users and providers are likely to be limited. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...
Traces the history of English in Fiji, especially in relation to education. The role of English in interethnic communication and as a language of wider communication with the outside world is discussed, and features of Fiji English, a local language variety, are described. (Author/CB)
Presents a 50-year history of school library development and national educational programs in Fiji and discusses the future of Fiji's elementary and secondary school libraries. Examines obstacles to school library development including government ignorance, lack of trained librarians, changes in school curriculum, lack of financing, and high costs…
Brett, M.; Mattey, D.; Stephens, M.
Oxygen isotopes in speleothem provide opportunities to construct precisely dated records of palaeoclimate variability, underpinned by an understanding of both the regional climate and local controls on isotopes in rainfall and groundwater. For tropical islands, a potential means to reconstruct past rainfall variability is to exploit the generally high correlation between rainfall amount and δ18O: the 'amount effect'. The GNIP program provides δ18O data at monthly resolution for several tropical Pacific islands but there are few data for precipitation isotopes at daily resolution, for investigating the amount effect over different timescales in a tropical maritime setting. Timescales are important since meteoric water feeding a speleothem has undergone storage and mixing in the aquifer system and understanding how the isotope amount effect is preserved in aquifer recharge has fundamental implications on the interpretation of speleothem δ18O in terms of palaeo-precipitation. The islands of Fiji host speleothem caves. Seasonal precipitation is related to the movement of the South Pacific Convergence Zone, and interannual variations in rainfall are coupled to ENSO behaviour. Individual rainfall events are stratiform or convective, with proximal moisture sources. We have daily resolution isotope data for rainfall collected at the University of the South Pacific in Suva, covering every rain event in 2012 and 2013. δ18O varies between -18‰ and +3‰ with the annual weighted averages at -7.6‰ and -6.8‰ respectively, while total recorded rainfall amount is similar in both years. We shall present analysis of our data compared with GNIP, meteorological data and back trajectory analyses to demonstrate the nature of the relationship between rainfall amount and isotopic signatures over this short timescale. Comparison with GNIP data for 2012-13 will shed light on the origin of the amount effect at monthly and seasonal timescales in convective, maritime, tropical
Murray, Kathryn; Carter, Peter
Drowning is a newly comprehended public health concern in Fiji. Defined as "the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersions or immersion in liquid," drowning has been identified as one of Fiji's 5 leading causes of death for those aged 1 to 29 years. The aim of this article was to develop the most parsimonious model that can be used to explain the number of monthly fatal drowning cases in Fiji. Based on a cross-section of 187 drowning incidents from January 2012 to April 2015, this observational study found the number of monthly drownings in Fiji was significantly affected by monthly rainfall ( P = .008, 95% confidence interval = 0.10-0.62) and the number of days comprising public holidays/weekends ( P = .018, 95% confidence interval = 0.06-0.60). Furthermore, the multiple coefficient of determination ( r 2 = .4976) indicated that almost half the variation in drownings was explained by rainfall and public holidays/weekend periods. Inadequate supervision, an inability to identify or carry out safe rescue techniques, and limited water-safety knowledge were identified as common risk factors. To overcome this preventable cause of death, technically guided interventions need to be actively embedded into a range of government policies and community health promotions, disaster management, and education programs.
A new genus of Stratiomyidae, Vitilevumyia gen. nov. (type species, V. bobwoodleyi, sp. nov.) is described from the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. It exhibits an unusual combination of character states, but is tentatively placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae. ...
Treacy, Kaye; Tiko, Poniparte; Harish, Sarita; Nairn, Prabha
A Numeracy Strategy was trialled in 30 at-risk schools in Fiji. A Training Needs Analysis and a review of the Fiji Islands Literacy and Numeracy Assessment helped decide on the focus of the trial. Teachers were introduced to Classroom Based Assessment and child centred pedagogy, which they used over a four-week period. Students showed considerable…
Naisaki, Asilika; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Taoi, Mabel; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi
Although childhood injury rates in low- and middle-income countries are known to be high, contemporary data on this topic from Pacific Island countries and territories are scant. We describe the epidemiology of childhood injuries resulting in death or hospital admission in Fiji using a population-based registry. A cross-sectional analysis of the Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals system investigated the characteristics associated with childhood injuries (Fiji. Priority actions should include investment in technical support and research to identify local contextual and social determinants that inform the development and implementation of effective injury prevention interventions as a child health survival strategy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Describes origins of Fiji Indians and their unique language, Fiji Hindi, and discusses this language as a marker of identity in modern dialects brought to Fiji by Indian indentured laborers. The mixed dialect, Fiji Hindi, developed from these original forms of speech, is highlighted, and the role of Hindi and English in the development of Fiji…
Full Text Available We buy work play and essentially live online. As our lives progressively depend on information technology services the necessity to protect our information from being maliciously disrupted is critical. Anything that is networked can be hacked and with the increasing dependence on the Internet everything is being networked therefore everything is vulnerable. This paper discusses common computer crimes threats reflects on challenges amp weaknesses of computer crime amp cybercrime laws in Fiji and provides novel recommendations for the way forward in fight against cybercrime.
Le présent Guide de la Suva permet au lecteur de se retrouver dans les dispositions légales sur l’assurance-accidents. Il est divisé en trois parties: La première partie commente en neuf chapitres la loi sur l’assurance-accidents et la loi fédérale sur la partie générale du droit des assurances sociales, ainsi que leurs ordonnances. Chaque chapitre est précédé des questions les plus fréquemment posées à propos des sujets qui y sont traités. Les réponses succinctes à ces questions facilitent l’approche des différents sujets et donnent un aperçu du contenu du chapitre. Dans la partie explicative, les dispositions concernées font l’objet d’une référence dans la marge. La deuxième partie contient toutes les lois et ordonnances importantes pour l’acti vité quotidienne de la Suva (parfois seulement sous forme d’extraits). Des couleurs différentes permettent de mieux les distinguer. La troisième partie regroupe les moyens d’information et les adresses de la Suva les plus imp...
This essay contributes to the cross-cultural literature on childhood homicides by examining 16 infanticidal homicides that occurred in Fiji over an 11-year period. The results are compared with infanticide studies conducted in other societies. Official police data recorded in a Homicide and Manslaughter register are analyzed. These are supplemented by newspaper reports of infanticides and semi-structured interviews conducted with key criminal justice and medical personnel intimately associated with infanticide cases. The findings show that most infanticide defendants were young, poor, Fijian, with little formal education, living with nonparental kin at the time of the crime. The infanticides were precipitated by unwanted pregnancies brought on by nonmarital and extramarital sex. Pregnancy is carried to full gestation without knowledge of family, friends and neighbors of offenders and the infant is killed immediately following birth. The current findings demonstrate that the patterns of maternal infant killings in Fiji are congruous in many significant ways with those in advanced industrialized societies. It is concluded that additional research in non-Western, nonindustrialized nations is imperative to contribute to the development of sound conclusions about, and remedies for infanticide.
Talbot, Sandra; Palmer, A.G.; Sage, G.K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Swem, Ted; Brimm, D.J.
We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency.
Cammock, Radilaite; Priest, Patricia; Lovell, Sarah; Herbison, Peter
iTaukei women's awareness and practice of family planning methods was investigated in New Zealand and Fiji to ascertain differences in behaviour within the context of changing developmental settings. The study was cross-sectional in nature and recruited women aged 18 years and over from three suburbs in Suva, Fiji, and five cities in New Zealand. Overall, 352 women participated in the study, 212 in Fiji and 140 in New Zealand. The study found that living in New Zealand was significantly associated with lower odds of being aware of family planning (OR 0.4, 95%CI 0.2-0.9, p=0.029) and using family planning methods (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.2-0.9, p=0.027). Tertiary education was found to increase the odds of being aware (OR 2.8, 95%CI 1.3-6.2, p=0.009) and of using (OR 3.9, 95%CI 1.9-7.8, p=0.000) family planning. Despite the greater availability of services and higher standards of living experienced in New Zealand compared with Fiji, there was no improvement in awareness and use of family planning among New Zealand participants. Implications for public health: Reduced awareness and use of family planning in New Zealand indicates a need for better targeting of services among minority Pacific ethnic groups. © 2018 The Authors.
Glaus, Kerstin B J; Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; White, William T; Brunnschweiler, Juerg M
Limited information is available on artisanal and subsistence shark fisheries across the Pacific. The aim of this study was to investigate Fiji's inshore fisheries which catch sharks. In January and February 2013, 253 semi-directive interviews were conducted in 117 villages and at local harbours on Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Ovalau and a number of islands of the Mamanuca and Yasawa archipelagos. Of the 253 interviewees, 81.4% reported to presently catch sharks, and 17.4% declared that they did not presently catch any sharks. Of the 206 fishers that reported to catch sharks, 18.4% targeted sharks and 81.6% caught sharks as bycatch. When targeted, primary use of sharks was for consumption or for sale. Sharks caught as bycatch were frequently released (69.6%), consumed (64.9%) or shared amongst the community (26.8%). Fishers' identification based on an identification poster and DNA barcoding revealed that at least 12 species of elasmobranchs, 11 shark and one ray species (Rhynchobatus australiae) were caught. This study, which is the first focused exploration of the shark catch in Fiji's inshore fisheries, suggests that the country's artisanal shark fisheries are small but have the potential to develop into larger and possibly more targeted fisheries.
Suurest huvist AS Suva toodetud laulu- ja tantsupeo "ÜhesHingamine" temaatikaga sokkide ja põlvikute vastu. 25. laulu- ja 18. tantsupeo kunstniku Liina Tepandi ja AS Suva disaineri Leila Tamme kujundatud sokkide ja põlvikute mudelite ja värvide valikust
Wiseman, Virginia; Lagarde, Mylene; Batura, Neha; Lin, Sophia; Irava, Wayne; Roberts, Graham
Despite the centrality of health personnel to the health of the population, the planning, production and management of human resources for health remains underdeveloped in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In addition to the general shortage of health workers, there are significant inequalities in the distribution of health workers within LMICs. This is especially true for countries like Fiji, which face major challenges in distributing its health workforce across many inhabited islands. In this study, we describe and measure health worker distributional inequalities in Fiji, using data from the 2007 Population Census, and Ministry of Health records of crude death rates and health workforce personnel. We adopt methods from the economics literature including the Lorenz Curve/Gini Coefficient and Theil Index to measure the extent and drivers of inequality in the distribution of health workers at the sub-national level in Fiji for three categories of health workers: doctors, nurses, and all health workers (doctors, nurses, dentists and health support staff). Population size and crude death rates are used as proxies for health care needs. There are greater inequalities in the densities of health workers at the provincial level, compared to the divisional level in Fiji - six of the 15 provinces fall short of the recommended threshold of 2.3 health workers per 1,000 people. The estimated decile ratios, Gini co-efficient and Thiel index point to inequalities at the provincial level in Fiji, mainly with respect to the distribution of doctors; however these inequalities are relatively small. While populations with lower mortality tend to have a slightly greater share of health workers, the overall distribution of health workers on the basis of need is more equitable in Fiji than for many other LMICs. The overall shortage of health workers could be addressed by creating new cadres of health workers; employing increasing numbers of foreign doctors, including
Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Gounder, Shakti; Tamani, Talatoka; Daulako, Mary Raori; Underwood, Frank; Mainawalala, Sakiusa; Nawadra-Taylor, Vasiti; Rafai, Eric; Gillini, Laura
During 2002-2013, a total of 1,890 tuberculosis cases were recorded in Fiji. Notification rates per 100,000 population increased from 17.4 cases in 2002 to 28.4 in 2013. Older persons were most affected, but tuberculosis also increased sharply in persons 25-44 years of age.
Gounder, Shakti; Tamani, Talatoka; Daulako, Mary Raori; Underwood, Frank; Mainawalala, Sakiusa; Nawadra-Taylor, Vasiti; Rafai, Eric; Gillini, Laura
During 2002–2013, a total of 1,890 tuberculosis cases were recorded in Fiji. Notification rates per 100,000 population increased from 17.4 cases in 2002 to 28.4 in 2013. Older persons were most affected, but tuberculosis also increased sharply in persons 25–44 years of age. PMID:26890215
Chen, J.; Wiens, D.; Wei, S. S.; Zha, Y.; Julià, J.; Cai, C.; Chen, Y. J.
In order to investigate the crustal thickness and lithospheric structure beneath active and inactive volcanic arcs in Fiji and Tonga, we analyzed receiver functions from teleseismic P waves as well as Rayleigh waves from teleseismic earthquakes and ambient noise. The data were recorded by stations from three previous temporary seismic arrays deployed on the islands during 1993-1995, 2001-2002, and 2009-2010. Receiver functions were calculated with an iterative deconvolution in the time domain. We used an H-k stacking method to get preliminary Moho depth estimates under the island arcs, after assuming constant seismic average crustal P velocity. We also determined the shear wave velocity structure beneath each station from a 1-D combined inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curves from ambient noise cross correlation at 8s - 20s and teleseismic surface waves at 20s-90s. The joint inversion models reveal that the Moho beneath the main islands of the Fiji plateau is 26-31 km deep, whereas the crust under the outer islands - including the Lau Ridge - is generally thinner, with Moho depths of 21-23.5 km. The thinnest crust (16 km) is found beneath Moala Island located between the Fiji Platform and the Lau Ridge. Crustal thickness beneath several Tonga islands is about 18-20 km. A relatively high velocity lithosphere (Vs of 4.4 - 4.5 km/s) extends to only about 60 km depth beneath the outer Fiji Islands and Lau Ridge, but to depths of 90 km underneath the main islands of the Fiji Plateau. The much thicker crust and lithosphere of the Fiji plateau relative to the Lau Ridge and Tonga Arc reflects its much longer geological history of arc crust building, going back to the early Miocene.
A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification....
Moolenbeek, R.G.; Röckel, D.; Bouchet, P.
A little less than 100 species of cones are known in the literature from waters around the Fiji islands, all intertidal to subtidal. We report here on the species taken by recent offshore and deep-water benthic sampling expeditions. Samples were taken to depths of 1300 m, although cones were taken
Fourteen species of shrimps belonging to four genera of the family Atyidae are reported from the Fiji Islands. Three genera are represented by only one species each: Antecaridina lauensis (Edmondson, 1935), Atyoida pilipes (Newport, 1847) and Atyopsis spinipes (Newport, 1847) while the fourth,
Waqa-Sakiti, Hilda; Winder, Linton; Lingafelter, Steven W.
Abstract A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification. PMID:26692805
Gyaneshwar, Rajat; Naidu, Swaran; Raban, Magdalena Z; Naidu, Sheetal; Linhart, Christine; Morrell, Stephen; Tukana, Isimeli; Taylor, Richard
of the survey highlight the need for individual and community interventions to address the high levels of NCD/RFs. Evaluation of interventions is needed in order to inform NCD control policies in Fiji and other Pacific Island nations.
Aug 15, 2010 ... Using portfolios to assess professional competence and development in medical laboratory sciences. Christian C Ezeala, PhD, MSc, MICR (UK), CSci (UK), AIMLS, Lecturer, Department of Health Sciences, Fiji School of Medicine, Fiji. National University, Suva, Fiji Islands; Formerly Senior Lecturer/HOD, ...
Shipley, Gerhard P; Taylor, Diana A; N'Yeurt, Antoine D R; Tyagi, Anand; Tiwari, Geetanjali; Redd, Alan J
We present the most comprehensive genetic characterization to date of five Fijian island populations: Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Kadavu, the Lau Islands, and Rotuma, including nonrecombinant Y (NRY) chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and haplogroups. As a whole, Fijians are genetically intermediate between Melanesians and Polynesians, but the individual Fijian island populations exhibit significant genetic structure reflecting different settlement experiences in which the Rotumans and the Lau Islanders were more influenced by Polynesians, and the other Fijian island populations were more influenced by Melanesians. In particular, Rotuman and Lau Islander NRY chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and Rotuman mtDNA hypervariable segment 1 region haplotypes more closely resemble those of Polynesians, while genetic markers of the other populations more closely resemble those of the Near Oceanic Melanesians. Our findings provide genetic evidence supportive of modifying regional boundaries relative to Fiji, as has been suggested by others based on a variety of nongenetic evidence. Specifically, for the traditional Melanesia/Polynesia/Micronesia scheme, our findings support moving the Melanesia-Polynesia boundary to include Rotuma and the Lau Islands in Polynesia. For the newer Near/Remote Oceania scheme, our findings support keeping Rotuma and the Lau Islands in Remote Oceania and locating the other Fijian island populations in an intermediate or "Central Oceania" region to better reflect the great diversity of Oceania.
Two new species of Trimma are described from Fiji. Trimma bathum n. sp. lacks scales on the cheeks, opercle and predorsal midline, has 18-19 unbranched pectoral fin rays, an unbranched 5th pelvic fin ray that is 40-56% the length of the 4th ray, 17-18 gill rakers on the outer surface of the first gill arch, a U-shaped interorbital and a narrow slit-like postorbital trench, a low, median fleshy ridge extending half-way towards the orbit from the origin of the first dorsal fin, and, when freshly collected, a pink head and body with most body scales having an orange-brown spot or short bar at their centres. The species is currently known only from off Suva Harbour, Viti Levu, Fiji. Trimma finistrinum n. sp. has a bony interorbital equal to the pupil diameter, a fully scaled nape of 12-14 scales, a second dorsal spine that may reach posteriorly to the middle of the second dorsal fin, the papillae in the longitudinal row immediately below the eye either single or with two papillae in a vertical row, unbranched pectoral fin rays, usually a branched fifth pelvic-fin ray that is about half length of the fourth ray, and a large diffuse dark blotch on the posterior part of the caudal peduncle. A colour pattern of a brownish body with most body scales having golden- to greenish-yellow (pale in preservative) centres is unique among species of the genus. The species is currently recorded only from off the north and east coasts of Viti Levu, Fiji.
Stewart, Lee; Usher, Kim; Nadakuitavuki, Rigieta; Tollefson, Joanne
Nurse leaders in Fiji are currently involved in meeting the challenges of being at the forefront of an AusAID supported Health Sector Improvement process. Fiji is experiencing the same shortages of health professionals (including nurses) as is occurring internationally, while simultaneously striving to improve the quality of its health services. This paper provides information about the current situation in relation to health services in Fiji, and describes strategies being undertaken by the nurse leaders of Fiji to meet the challenge of leading an exciting reform process. James Cook University, School of Nursing Sciences, has been privileged to support the provision of contemporary leadership and management education for current and future nurse leaders in the Fiji Health Sector as a component of a current education program to educate registered nurses to bachelor level. This paper will provide an overview of the current Fiji Health Sector Improvement Program, with a particular focus on the preparation of nurse leaders. There is an ongoing need to understand beliefs and values, and styles of interaction and communication, and indeed, ideas about time. With collaboration between Australian academics and Fiji tutors from the Fiji School of Nursing, the program appears to be remarkably successful.
Hopf, Suzanne C; McLeod, Sharynne
The World Health Organization's World report on disability calls upon all nations to 'remove the barriers which prevent [people with disabilities] from participating in their communities; getting a quality education, finding decent work, and having their voices heard' (p. 5). People with communication disability (PWCD), as a consequence of their atypical communication, may be more likely to be excluded from society, and denied their basic human rights, than other people with disability. Fiji, a multicultural and multilingual nation in the south-western Pacific Ocean, has limited services for PWCD. Service providers in Fiji include disability care workers, special education teachers, traditional healers, and a small number of visiting volunteer speech-language pathologists. This paper outlines the historical and current barriers to, and drivers of change for, service development for PWCD in Fiji. Five barriers to service development for PWCD in Fiji were identified. (1) A major structural barrier is the small population size to develop appropriate infrastructure including professional education programs. (2) Geographical barriers include the dispersed geography across 300 islands, low population density, the rural-urban divide, and risk of disaster from cyclones and flooding. (3) Linguistic diversity, while culturally important, can present a barrier to the provision of quality services that are available in the languages spoken by PWCD. (4) Cultural barriers include historical political instability, although Fiji has become more stable due to the recent democratic elections. The social climate affects development of services that are appropriate for different dominant cultural groups. (5) Financial barriers include low gross domestic product, low financial security and low human development index; however, the financial outlook for Fiji is steadily improving due to the change in political stability. Three levels of drivers of change were identified. Macro
Kumar, Margaret Kamla
Explores the notion of diglossia in the three main languages of Fiji--Bauab Fijian, Shudh Hindi, and English. Discussion focuses on situating the languages both historically and socially in a multilingual context. (Author/VWL)
Chand, Prerna; Kamiya, Takahiro
The genus Xestoleberis has a global distribution, and although they are predominant in shallow marine environments adapted to both sediment and algal habitats, only two species of this genus, Xestoleberis curta (Brady, 1866) and Xestoleberis variegata Brady, 1880, have previously been reported from the Fiji archipelago. Herein we report seven new species of the genus Xestoleberis from intertidal environments of fringing reef flats of the Fiji Islands: Xestoleberis becca n. sp., Xestoleberis concava n. sp., Xestoleberis gracilariaii n. sp., Xestoleberis marcula n. sp., Xestoleberis natuvuensis n. sp., Xestoleberis penna n. sp. and Xestoleberis petrosa n. sp. With the exception of X. becca n. sp., Xestoleberis species show restricted distribution within Fijian waters. The possible causes for their distribution patterns are suggested to be physical barriers imposed by the fast flowing Bligh Water currents, and islands separated by deep ocean waters.
Sikk, Rein, 1961-
AS Suva sokkide müügiedust, tootearendusest. Vabriku disainer on Leila Tamm. Suurt tähelepanu pälvinud rahvusmustritega etnosari sündis koostöös Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tekstiilieriala üliõpilastega. Kalevala sarja sokkidega minnakse Soome turule
Kinner, Stuart A; Winter, Rebecca; Saxton, Kate
To examine the health of prisoners and ex-prisoners in Fiji, including risk behaviours, service access and HIV status. Longitudinal study of 198 men and women recruited prior to release from prison in Fiji, interviewed in the weeks preceding release, and again 1 and 4 months post-release. Dried blood spot samples taken at baseline were tested for HIV. Eighty percent of participants completed at least one follow-up interview. The prevalence of HIV was low (1%), despite evidence of widespread STI and BBV risk behaviours. A history of risky substance use was normative and more than a third reported high psychological distress prior to release. Fewer than one in four reported accessing health care within a month of release from prison. The health needs of this population are significant but differ in important ways from those of incarcerated populations in other countries. Further research is needed to inform evidence-based care for prisoners and ex-prisoners in Pacific Island nations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Fiji is a multilingual country in the South Pacific with English, Fijian and Hindi being the official languages. As is inevitable in multilingual societies, language use is functional with Fiji Hindi and Fijian being the mother tongues of the two main ethnic groups in the country, the Indo-Fijians and the Fijians. English, because of Fiji's…
Thompson, Corinne N; Kama, Mike; Acharya, Shrish; Bera, Una; Clemens, John; Crump, John A; Dawainavesi, Aggie; Dougan, Gordon; Edmunds, W John; Fox, Kimberley; Jenkins, Kylie; Khan, M Imran; Koroivueta, Josefa; Levine, Myron M; Martin, Laura B; Nilles, Eric; Pitzer, Virginia E; Singh, Shalini; Raiwalu, Ratu Vereniki; Baker, Stephen; Mulholland, Kim
The country of Fiji, with a population of approximately 870 000 people, faces a growing burden of several communicable diseases including the bacterial infection typhoid fever. Surveillance data suggest that typhoid has become increasingly common in rural areas of Fiji and is more frequent amongst young adults. Transmission of the organisms that cause typhoid is facilitated by faecal contamination of food or water and may be influenced by local behavioural practices in Fiji. The Fijian Ministry of Health, with support from Australian Aid, hosted a meeting in August 2012 to develop comprehensive control and prevention strategies for typhoid fever in Fiji. International and local specialists were invited to share relevant data and discuss typhoid control options. The resultant recommendations focused on generating a clearer sense of the epidemiology of typhoid in Fiji and exploring the contribution of potential transmission pathways. Additionally, the panel suggested steps such as ensuring that recommended ciprofloxacin doses are appropriate to reduce the potential for relapse and reinfection in clinical cases, encouraging proper hand hygiene of food and drink handlers, working with water and sanitation agencies to review current sanitation practices and considering a vaccination policy targeting epidemiologically relevant populations. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Holbrook, Jarita C.
Today there are many coastal communities that are home to navigators who use stars for position finding at night; I was, however, unaware of this fact when I began researching celestial navigation practices in 1997. My project focused on three communities: the Moce Islanders of Fiji, the Kerkennah Islanders in Tunisia, and the U.S. Navy officers and students at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. My goal was to answer the question of why people continue to navigate by the stars, but also to understand the role of technology in their navigation practices. Using anthropology techniques of ethnography including participant observation, formal and informal interviews, audio and videotaping, I gathered data over five years at the three communities. I began by learning the details of how they use the stars for navigation. Next, I learned about who did the navigation and where they learned to navigate. I gathered opinions on various navigation aids and instruments, and opinions about the future of using the stars for navigation. I listened to the stories that they told about navigating. In the United States I worked in English, in Fiji, in Fijian and English, and in Tunisia, French and English. For the formal interviews I worked with translators. The navigators use stars for navigating today but the future of their techniques is not certain. Though practiced today, these celestial navigation traditions have undergone and continue to undergo changes. New navigational technologies are part of the stimulation for change, thus 'a meeting of different worlds' is symbolized by peoples encounters with these technologies.
Wainiqolo, I; Kafoa, B; McCaig, E; Kool, B; McIntyre, R; Ameratunga, S
Whilst more than 90% of injury related deaths are estimated to occur in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs), the epidemiology of fatal and hospitalised injuries in Pacific Island Countries has received scant attention. This study describes the development and piloting of a population-based trauma registry in Fiji to address this gap in knowledge. The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH) system was an active surveillance system designed to identify injuries resulting in death or a hospital admission in Viti Levu, Fiji. During the pilot conducted over five months in 2005, Accident and Emergency registers, admission folders and morgue registers from 8 of Viti Levu's 12 hospitals, and an additional 3 hospitals in other parts of the country were reviewed by hospital staff and medical students to identify cases and extract a minimum data set that included demographic factors; the mechanism, nature and context of injury; substance use; and discharge outcomes. The system was audited to identify and redress difficulties with data quality in a manner that also supported local capacity development and training in injury surveillance and data management. This pilot study demonstrated the potential to collect high quality data on injuries that can pose a significant threat to life in Fiji using a mechanism that also increased the capability of health professionals to recognise the significance of injury as a public health issue. The injury surveillance system piloted provides the opportunity to inform national injury control strategies in Fiji and increase the capacity for injury prevention and more focused research addressing risk factors in the local context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In January 1949 Professor H. J. Lam, director of the Rijksherbarium, Leyden, on his way to the 7th Pacific Science Congress in New Zealand, spending some time in Fiji, was shown by Mr B. E. V. Parham, Department of Agriculture, Suva, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands, a slender tree, cultivated in the
Reddy, R; Kafoa, B; Wainiqolo, I; Kool, B; Gentles, D; McCaig, E; Ameratunga, S
Workplace injury rates in low and middle-income countries are known to be high. Contemporary data on this topic from Pacific Island countries and territories are scant. To describe the epidemiology of fatal and hospitalized workplace injuries in Fiji using a population-based trauma registry. An analysis of data from a prospective population-based surveillance registry investigated the characteristics associated with workplace injuries resulting in death or hospital admission among people aged 15 years and older in Viti Levu, the largest island in the Republic of Fiji, from October 2005 to September 2006. Incidence rates were calculated using denominator data from the 2004-05 Fiji Employment Survey. One hundred and eighty-nine individuals met the study eligibility criteria (including nine deaths). This corresponded to annual injury-related hospitalization and death rates of 73.4 and 3.7 per 100 000 workers, respectively. Males accounted for 95% of injuries, and hospitalization rates were highest among those aged 15-29 years (33 per 100 000 workers). Fijian and Indian workers had similar rates of admission to hospital (38.3 and 31.8 per 100 000 workers, respectively). Fractures (40%) and 'cuts/bites/open wounds' (32%) were the commonest types of injury while 'being hit by a person or object' (34%), falls (27%) and 'cutting or piercing' injuries (27%) were the commonest mechanisms. Overall, 7% of injuries were deemed intentional. Acknowledging the likely underestimation of the overall burden of workplace injuries, these findings support the need to identify context-specific risk factors and effective approaches to preventing workplace injuries in Fiji.
McFerson, Hazel M.
Compares and contrasts the recent years of ethnic conflict in Somali and Fiji. The widely divergent reactions of both populations dispels the belief that ethnic pluralism is both a necessary and sufficient condition for violent conflict in a society. Provides succinct portraits of both societies and their cultures. (MJP)
All localities in Viti Levu and Vanua Levu can be found on the 1:250.000 maps, which are published by the Directorate of Overseas Surveys and are sold by Edward Stanford Ltd., 12-14 Long Acre, London WC2E 9LP. Maps 1:50.00 of the Fiji Islands, contoured, are also sold by Edward Stanford Ltd. (a
Morrow, Georgina; Bowen, Kathryn
Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the Fiji National Climate Change Policy, and a selection of relevant sectoral policies, account for these human health effects of climate change. The study employed a three-pronged policy analysis to evaluate: 1) the content of the Fijian National Climate Change Policy and to what extent health was incorporated within this; 2) the context within which the policy was developed; 3) the relevant processes; and 4) the actors involved. A selection of relevant sectoral policies were also analysed to assess the extent to which these included climate change and health considerations. The policy analysis showed that these three health impacts of climate change were only considered to a minor extent, and often indirectly, in both the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and the corresponding National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, as well as the Public Health Act. Furthermore, supporting documents in relevant sectors including water and agriculture made no mention of climate change and health impacts. The projected health impacts of climate change should be considered as part of reviewing the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, and the Public Health Act. In the interest of public health, this should include strategies for combating dengue fever, malnutrition, and water-borne disease. Related sectoral policies in water and agriculture should also be revised to consider climate change and its impact on human
Law, Irwin; Fong, James J; Buadromo, Eka M; Samuela, Josaia; Patel, Mahomed S; Garland, Suzanne M; Mulholland, E Kim; Russell, Fiona M
There are few population-based data on the disease burden of cervical cancer from developing countries, especially South Pacific islands. This study aimed to determine the incidence and mortality associated with cervical cancer and the coverage of Papanicolaou (Pap) cervical cytology in 20- to 69-year-old women in Fiji from 2004 to 2007. National data on the incident cases of histologically confirmed cervical cancer and the associated deaths, and on Pap smear results were collected from all pathology laboratories, and cancer and death registries in Fiji from 2004 to 2007. There were 413 incident cases of cervical cancer and 215 related deaths during the study timeframe. The annualised incidence and mortality rates in 20- to 69-year-old Melanesian Fijian women, at 49.7 per 100?000 (95% confidence interval (CI): 43.7-56.4) and 32.3 per 100?000 (95% CI: 26.9-38.4) respectively, were significantly higher than among 20- to 69-year-old Indo-Fijian women at 35.2 per 100?000 (PFiji is high, whereas Pap smear coverage is very low. Greater investment in alternative screening strategies and preventive measures should be integrated into a comprehensive, strategic cervical cancer control program in Fiji.
Raman, Shanti; Iljadica, Alexandra; Gyaneshwar, Rajat; Taito, Rigamoto; Fong, James
To develop a standardized process of perinatal mortality audit (PMA) and improve the capacity of health workers to identify and correct factors underlying preventable deaths in Fiji. In a pilot study, clinicians and healthcare managers in obstetrics and pediatrics were trained to investigate stillbirths and neonatal deaths according to current guidelines. A pre-existing PMA datasheet was refined for use in Fiji and trialed in three divisional hospitals in 2011-12. Key informant interviews identified factors influencing PMA uptake. Overall, 141 stillbirths and neonatal deaths were analyzed (57 from hospital A and 84 from hospital B; forms from hospital C excluded because incomplete/illegible). Between-site variations in mortality were recorded on the basis of the level of tertiary care available; 28 (49%) stillbirths were recorded in hospital A compared with 53 (63%) in hospital B. Substantial health system factors contributing to preventable deaths were identified, and included inadequate staffing, problems with medical equipment, and lack of clinical skills. Leadership, teamwork, communication, and having a standardized process were associated with uptake of PMA. The use of PMAs by health workers in Fiji and other Pacific island countries could potentially rectify gaps in maternal and neonatal service delivery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Spatial-demographic tendencies in present development of settlements on mountain Suva Planina are characterized by territorial grouping and decreasing number of settlements, positive demographic development of a small group of settlements, and several decades of desertion of a great number of settlements. All these characteristics, both individually and in interaction, have led to formation of specific differences in settlement development and in present situation between groups of settlements located in various altitude zones. They have also led to differentiation of settlement areas with negative and variable (positive and negative development tendencies.
Jarić, Snežana; Mačukanović-Jocić, Marina; Djurdjević, Lola; Mitrović, Miroslava; Kostić, Olga; Karadžić, Branko; Pavlović, Pavle
This study documents the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal importance of plants in the Suva planina mountain region (south-eastern Serbia). It is reflected in their high diversity and their wide range of uses in the treatment of the local population. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of data collected in the Suva planina region with relevant data from the Western Balkans, which included identifying the 'most popular' plants, as well as those species which are used specifically for treatment solely in the research area. Ethnobotanical research was carried out between 2012 and 2014 and data was collected through both open and semi-structured interviews with locals. A total of 66 people were interviewed (37 women and 29 men), aged between 49 and 90 (with a mean age of 71). This study identified 128 plants and 2 fungi which are used in ethnomedicine, 5 plant species used in ethnoveterinary medicine, and 16 plants used for 'other' purposes. Lamiaceae (20), Asteraceae (17), Rosaceae (16), Brassicaceae (5), Alliaceae (4) and Apiaceae (4) have the greatest diversity of species. Results showed that Achillea mellefolium, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Gentiana lutea, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Salvia officinalis, Sempervivum tectorum, Tilia cordata and Thymus sepyllum are the 'most popular' medicinal plants (UV=1). Those plants with the most phytotherapeutic uses are Gentiana cruciata (14), H. perforatum (11) and A. sativum (10), while the most common conditions treated with medicinal plants are respiratory (79), urogenital (53), gastrointestinal (51), skin (43) and those relating to the circulatory system (35). A comparative analysis of the data collected in the research area and that from other parts of the Western Balkans showed that there are great similarities within Serbia between Suva planina and the Zlatibor region (37.2%) and Kopaonik Mt. (32
Jenney, Adam; Holt, Deborah; Ritika, Roselyn; Southwell, Paul; Pravin, Shalini; Buadromo, Eka; Carapetis, Jonathan; Tong, Steven; Steer, Andrew
There are few data describing the microbiology and genetic typing of Staphylococcus aureus that cause infections in developing countries. In this study we observed S. aureus infections in Pacific Island nation of Fiji in both the community and hospital setting with an emphasis on clonal complex (CC) genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. S. aureus was commonly found in impetigo lesions of school children and was recovered from 57% of impetigo lesions frequently in conjunction with group A streptococcal infection. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) comprised 7% (20/299) of isolates and were all non-multi-resistant and all genotyped as CC1. In contrast, there was a diverse selection of 17 CCs among the 105 genotyped methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) strains. Isolates of the rare, phylogenetically divergent and non-pigmented CC75 lineage (also called S. argenteus) were found in Fiji.From hospitalized patients the available 36 MRSA isolates from a 9-month period were represented by five CCs. The most common CCs were CC1 and CC239. CC1 is likely to be a community-acquired strain, reflecting what was found in the school children, whereas the CC239 is the very successful multi-drug resistant MRSA nosocomial lineage. Of 17 MSSA isolates, 59% carried genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. The S. aureus bacteraemia incidence rate of 50 per 100,000 population is among the highest reported in the literature and likely reflects the high overall burden of staphylococcal infections in this population. S. aureus is an important cause of disease in Fiji and there is considerable genotypic diversity in community skin infections in Fijian schoolchildren. Community acquired- (CA)- MRSA is present at a relatively low prevalence (6.7%) and was solely to CC1 (CA-MRSA). The globally successful CC239 is also a significant pathogen in Fiji.
Brian, Garry; Ramke, Jacqueline; Szetu, John; Qoqonokana, Mundi Qalo
To characterize cataract and its surgery among adults aged ≥40 years in Fiji. Population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster random sampling. 1381 (= 73.0% participation); eight provinces on Viti Levu. Interview-based questionnaire; visual acuity measured; autorefraction; dilated ocular examination. Prevalence; predictors; surgical outcomes. Being Indian (P = 0.001), elderly (P Fiji population aged ≥40 years, prevalence of cataract-induced low vision and blindness were each 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-2.4%). At least one eye of 4.6% and both of 1.8% participants had surgery (86.4% extracapsular). Gender (P = 0.213), age (P = 0.472) and rural/urban domicile (P = 0.895) were not predictors of surgery among those who required it in at least one eye. After intraocular lens surgery: 50.7% had pupillary posterior capsular opacification; mean spherical equivalent was -1.37 ± 1.95D (range, -6.38 to +2.25D); mean cylindrical error was 2.31 ± 1.75D (range, 0.0 to 8.75D); ≥N8 for 39.5%; ≥6/18 for 56.6%; Fiji population aged ≥40 years, Cataract Surgical Coverage (Person) was 47.5% (95%CI 29.2-65.8%) at Fiji cataract services and outcomes compare favourably with those of neighbouring Papua New Guinea and Timor Leste. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Taylor, Richard; Carter, Karen; Naidu, Shivnay; Linhart, Christine; Azim, Syed; Rao, Chalapati; Lopez, Alan D
To examine trends in infant mortality rate (IMR), adult mortality and life expectancy (LE) in the two major Fijian ethnic groups since 1975. Estimates of IMR, adult mortality (15-59 years) and LE by ethnicity are calculated from previously unreported Fiji Ministry of Health data and extracted from published sources. Over 1975-2008: IMR decreased from 33 to 20 deaths/1,000 live births in i-Taukei (Fiji Melanesians); and 38 to 18 in Fijians of Indian descent. Increased adult male mortality among i-Taukei and decline among Fijians of Indian descent led to an equal probability of dying in 2007 of 29%; while in female adults the probability trended upwards in i-Taukei to 25%, and declined in Fijians of Indian descent to 17%. Life expectancy in both ethnicities increased until 1985 (to 64 years for males; 68 for females) then forming a plateau in males of both ethnicities, and Fijian females of Indian descent, but declining in i-Taukei females to 66 years in 2007. Despite IMR declines over 1975-2008, LE for i-Taukei and Fijians of Indian descent has not increased since 1985, and has actually decreased in i-Taukei women, consistent with trends in adult mortality (15-59 years). Mortality analyses in Fiji that consider the entire population mask divergent trends in the major ethnic groups. This situation is most likely a consequence of non-communicable disease mortality, requiring further assessment and a strengthened response.
Although English is a colonial heritage in Fiji, it links the country's different ethnic groups and is the language of instruction for formal education. This paper examines pedagogical and cultural implications of the present primary English curriculum, based on findings from an empirical study of primary English teaching in Fiji. It reviews the…
Khan, Shana Nigar
Education is a human right and Fiji's tertiary education board recently declared that all tertiary institutions in Fiji must abide by the framework in order to meet student-customers' needs. The Fiji National University's (FNU's) destiny to be Fiji's leading higher education provider could be a reality if students and staff's expectations are…
Price, Allison A.; Jackson, Matthew G.; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Kurz, Mark D.; Gill, Jim; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Jenner, Frances; Brens, Raul; Arculus, Richard
We present new Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-He isotopic data for 65 volcanic samples from the northern Lau and North Fiji Basins. This includes 47 lavas obtained from 40 dredge sites spanning an east-west transect across the Lau and North Fiji basins, 10 ocean island basalt (OIB)-type lavas collected from seven Fijian islands, and eight OIB lavas sampled on Rotuma. For the first time, we are able to map clear north-south and east-west geochemical gradients in 87Sr/86Sr across the northern Lau and North Fiji Basins: lavas with the most geochemically enriched radiogenic isotopic signatures are located in the northeast Lau Basin, while signatures of geochemical enrichment are diminished to the south and west away from the Samoan hot spot. Based on these geochemical patterns and plate reconstructions of the region, these observations are best explained by the addition of Samoa, Rurutu, and Rarotonga hot spot material over the past 4 Ma. We suggest that underplated Samoan material has been advected into the Lau Basin over the past ˜4 Ma. As the slab migrated west (and toward the Samoan plume) via rollback over time, younger and hotter (and therefore less viscous) underplated Samoan plume material was entrained. Thus, entrainment efficiency of underplated plume material was enhanced, and Samoan plume signatures in the Lau Basin became stronger as the trench approached the Samoan hot spot. The addition of subducted volcanoes from the Cook-Austral Volcanic Lineament first from the Rarotonga hot spot, then followed by the Rurutu hot spot, contributes to the extreme geochemical signatures observed in the northeast Lau Basin.
Linhart, Christine; Tukana, Isimeli; Lin, Sophia; Taylor, Richard; Morrell, Stephen; Vatucawaqa, Penina; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul
To examine trends from 1980 to 2011 in daily tobacco smoking by sex, ethnicity, age, and urban/rural in Fiji Melanesian (i-Taukei) and Indian adults aged 25-64 years. Unit record data from five population-based surveys (n = 14 528) allowed classification of participants as: (1) never-smoker, ex-smoker, or non-daily smoker; or (2) daily smoker, reporting smoking Fiji in both sexes and ethnicities during the past 30 years, which is consistent with declines in tobacco apparent consumption and household expenditure. However, prevalence remains high in men at around 27% in 2011, with plateau at this level in i-Taukei. This is the first study to show nationally representative population trends in tobacco smoking in a developing country over such a long period (>30 years) based on empirical unit record data (n = 14 528). Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality throughout the Pacific Island region. This is the first study to show evidence of substantial declines over several decades in a cardiovascular disease risk factor in a Pacific Island country, and provides important evidence for further research into the interventions and events which may have facilitated this decline.
The migration of rugby players from Fiji and neighbouring Pacific Island nations poses fundamental questions about the way in which sport is embedded in historical, political, social and global dynamics, all of which give specific meanings to sports and those who play it. An approach that bestows a
Lau, Colleen L; Watson, Conall H; Lowry, John H; David, Michael C; Craig, Scott B; Wynwood, Sarah J; Kama, Mike; Nilles, Eric J
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the Pacific Islands. In Fiji, two successive cyclones and severe flooding in 2012 resulted in outbreaks with 576 reported cases and 7% case-fatality. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and used an eco-epidemiological approach to characterize risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji, and aimed to provide an evidence base for improving the effectiveness of public health mitigation and intervention strategies. Antibodies indicative of previous or recent infection were found in 19.4% of 2152 participants (81 communities on the 3 main islands). Questionnaires and geographic information systems data were used to assess variables related to demographics, individual behaviour, contact with animals, socioeconomics, living conditions, land use, and the natural environment. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables associated with the presence of Leptospira antibodies included male gender (OR 1.55), iTaukei ethnicity (OR 3.51), living in villages (OR 1.64), lack of treated water at home (OR 1.52), working outdoors (1.64), living in rural areas (OR 1.43), high poverty rate (OR 1.74), living Fiji are complex and multifactorial, with environmental factors playing crucial roles. With global climate change, severe weather events and flooding are expected to intensify in the South Pacific. Population growth could also lead to more intensive livestock farming; and urbanization in developing countries is often associated with urban and peri-urban slums where diseases of poverty proliferate. Climate change, flooding, population growth, urbanization, poverty and agricultural intensification are important drivers of zoonotic disease transmission; these factors may independently, or potentially synergistically, lead to enhanced leptospirosis transmission in Fiji and other similar settings.
Full Text Available Forty-seven species are discussed. One new genus (Daedaluncus gen. n. and 15 new species (Adoxophyes vitilevu sp. n., Adoxophyes niuwudi sp. n., Atriscripta strigana sp. n., Helictophanes saccifera sp. n., Loboschiza oxybela sp. n., Epinotia prepuncus sp. n., Daedaluncus fijiensis sp. n., Coenobiodes vitiae sp. n., Tritopterna rakiraki sp. n., Spilosoma oligospina sp. n., Strepsicrates rotundata sp. n., Eccoptocera platamon sp. n., Herpystis sunia sp. n., Herpystis spinoa sp. n., Cryptophlebia ferrugulla sp. n. are described and illustrated.
Chand, Atishnal Elvin; Kumar, Sushil
Very low frequency (VLF) signals from navigational transmitters propagate through the Earth-ionosphere waveguide formed by the Earth and the lower conducting ionosphere and show the pronounced minima during solar terminator transition between transmitter and receiver. Pronounced amplitude minima observed on 19.8 kHz (NWC transmitter) and 24.8 kHz (NLK transmitter) signals recorded at Suva (18.149°S, 178.446°E), Fiji, during 2013-2014, have been used to estimate the VLF modal interference distance (DMS) and nighttime D region VLF reflection height (hN). The NWC transmitter signal propagates mostly in west-east direction, and the NLK transmitter follows a transequatorial path propagating significantly in the east-west direction. The values of DMS calculated using midpath terminator speed are 2103 ± 172 km and 2507 ± 373 km for these paths having west-east and east-west components of VLF subionospheric propagation, respectively, which agree with previously published results and within 10% with theoretical values. We have also compared the DMS estimated using a terminator time method with that calculated using terminator speed for a particular day and found both the values to be consistent. The hN values were found to be maximum during winter of Southern Hemisphere for NWC signal and winter of Northern Hemisphere for NLK signal VLF propagation paths to Suva. The hN also shows significant day-to-day and seasonal variabilities with a maximum of about 10 km and 23 km for NWC and NLK signal propagation paths, respectively, which could be due to the atmospheric gravity waves associated with solar terminator transition, as well as meteorological factors such as strong lightnings.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the attitudes and perceptions of primary health care doctors in Fiji regarding the importance of eye care in diabetes mellitus (DM management, to explore current eye care practice, and to investigate awareness and use of relevant clinical practice guidelines. The study builds on earlier research conducted in Fiji that identified a rapid increase of late-stage DR patients presenting for treatment, at a time when surgery was the only option.
Full Text Available Fiji’s history is interspersed with ethnic conflict, military coups, new constitutions and democratic elections. Ethnic tensions started to increase in the 1960s and reached its peak with violent indigenous Fijian ethnic assertion in the form of military coups in 1987. Following the coup, the constitution adopted at independence was abrogated and a constitution that provided indigenous political hegemony was promulgated in 1990. However, by 1993, there were serious and irreparable divisions within the indigenous Fijian community, forcing coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka to spearhead a constitution review. The result of the review was the multiracial 1997 Constitution which failed to resolve deep seated ethnic tensions, resulting in another nationalist coup in 2000 and a mutiny at the military barracks in December of that year. Following the failed mutiny, the Commander of the Republic of the Fiji Military Forces, Voreqe Bainimarama, publicly criticised nationalist policies of the government of Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase, culminating in another military coup in 2006. The new military government started plans to de-ethnise the Fijian state and promulgated a constitution that promoted ethnic equality. Post independence Fiji is characterised by these conflicts over ethnocracy. The ethnic hegemony of indigenous Fijian chiefs is set against inter-ethnic counter hegemony. While democratic politics encourages inter-ethic alliance-building, the ethnic hegemony of the chiefs has been asserted by force. Latterly, the fragmentation of the ethnic hegemony has reconfigured inter-ethnic alliances, and the military has emerged as a vehicle for de-ethnicisation. The article analyses this cyclical pattern of ethnic hegemony and multiethnic counter hegemony as a struggle over (and against Fijian ethnocracy.
Taoi, Mable; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Naisaki, Asilika; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi
Background Over 95% of burn deaths are estimated to occur in low-and-middle-income countries. However, the epidemiology of burn-related injuries in Pacific Island Countries is unclear. This study investigated the incidence and demographic characteristics associated with fatal and hospitalised burns in Fiji. Methods This cross-sectional study utilised the Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospital database to estimate the population-based incidence and contextual characteristics associated with burns resulting in death or hospital admission (≥12 h) during a 12-month period commencing 1st October 2005. Results 116 people were admitted to hospital or died as a result of burns during the study period accounting for an overall annual incidence of 17.8/100,000 population, and mortality rate of 3.4/100,000. Most (92.2%) burns occurred at home, and 85.3% were recorded as unintentional. Burns were disproportionately higher among Fijian children compared with Fijian–Indian children with the converse occurring in adulthood. In adults, Indian women were at particularly high risk of death from self-inflicted burns as a consequence of ‘conflict situations’. Conclusion Burns are a significant public health burden in Fiji requiring prevention and management strategies informed by important differences in the context of these injuries among the major ethic groups of the country. PMID:22342176
Taoi, Mable; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Naisaki, Asilika; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi
Over 95% of burn deaths are estimated to occur in low-and-middle-income countries. However, the epidemiology of burn-related injuries in Pacific Island Countries is unclear. This study investigated the incidence and demographic characteristics associated with fatal and hospitalised burns in Fiji. This cross-sectional study utilised the Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospital database to estimate the population-based incidence and contextual characteristics associated with burns resulting in death or hospital admission (≥12h) during a 12-month period commencing 1st October 2005. 116 people were admitted to hospital or died as a result of burns during the study period accounting for an overall annual incidence of 17.8/100,000 population, and mortality rate of 3.4/100,000. Most (92.2%) burns occurred at home, and 85.3% were recorded as unintentional. Burns were disproportionately higher among Fijian children compared with Fijian-Indian children with the converse occurring in adulthood. In adults, Indian women were at particularly high risk of death from self-inflicted burns as a consequence of 'conflict situations'. Burns are a significant public health burden in Fiji requiring prevention and management strategies informed by important differences in the context of these injuries among the major ethic groups of the country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Lal, Vincent; Bridgen, Phil; Votadroka, Waisea; Raju, Rupantri; Aalbersberg, William
This article gives an overview of a range of persistent organic pollutant chemical levels in shellfish (Batissa violacea and Anadara antiquata) species and eel (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) from Fiji. As there is limited data in published literature to date, this paper reports first data on a range of persistent organic pollutants and highlights the more prominent POP chemicals present in marine biota in Fiji. A significant number of POP chemicals were detected (e.g. 17 PCDD/PCDF, 12dl-PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants), the concentrations found were generally low (e.g. parts per billion level). The low levels of contamination are indicative of a low input from long range and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. Also concentrations of POPs in eel and shellfish from Fiji are low in comparison to wild species in other regions and are within acceptable limits for POP chemicals in fish and fishery products set by the European Union. It describes also results of early studies on basic POPs levels in shellfish in several Pacific Island Countries, which generally show relatively low levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available AIM: To describe the demographic features and visual outcomes of patients presenting to photo-screening services, and treated for sight threatening retinopathy (STR in a low resource setting, Fiji. METHODS: A retrospective review of all new patients who presented for diabetic photo-screening at the Diabetic Eye Clinic, Suva in 2010. Fundus images were graded using standardised guidelines. Patient demographics, retinopathy grading and visual acuity data were extracted from the database and analyzed. Patients that received laser therapy and still attending follow up in 2012 were examined for disease progression RESULTS: Totally 2236 patients were photo-screened, 87% (3870/4472 of images were gradable. STR was observed in 26% (988/3870 with advanced STR (proliferative retinopathy/severe maculopathy in 10% (385/3870. Of those with STR, 59% had BCVA ≥6/18, 31% with advanced STR were <6/60. Male gender [odds ratio (OR 1.59; 1.20-2.12], history of hypertension (OR 1.36; 1.03-1.80 and peripheral neuropathy (OR 1.41; 1.01-1.95 were predictive of advanced STR. In 2012, 32% (315/988 attended follow up with 69% exhibiting advanced STR compared with 53% of the same cohort in 2010. Laser photocoagulation was administered to 212 eyes (212/3870, 5% with retinopathy and maculopathy progression observed in 52% and 33% respectively. BCVA ≥6/18 was noted in 67% (143/212 of treated eyes. Improved glycaemic control (OR 46.52; 1.50-1441.90 amongst those with advanced STR was predictive of eyes that maintained good vision. CONCLUSION: In Fiji, a quarter of new patients presenting to photo-screening have STR with a third of those with advanced STR having already loss vision. Improved glycaemic control and timely treatment of patients with sight threatening complications is important in halting disease progression.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. Method The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (≥12 hours stay in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. Results The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29% and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%. The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Conclusions Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.
Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Herman, Josephine; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi
Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH) database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (≥ 12 hours stay) in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission) and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29%) and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%). The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.
Morris, C; Bala, S; South, G R; Lako, J; Lober, M; Simos, T
This report describes for the first time the supply chain of Caulerpa racemosa in three Pacific Island countries. The harvesting and marketing of C. racemosa are important subsistence activities for villagers in Fiji and Samoa, less so in Tonga. At least 150 harvesters are involved in Fiji, some 100 in Samoa and only a handful in Tonga. The annual combined crop is of some 123 t valued at around US$266,492. In Fiji, it is projected that supply does not meet local demand and there is a potential export market that is currently operating at a pilot project level. In Samoa, the supply is considered adequate for the current market. In Tonga, harvesting is carried out by a few families and supplies a niche market in that country. The possibilities of field cultivation of Caulerpa have been explored but, at present, with only limited success in Samoa. The supply chain is simple in all three countries, and only in Fiji are middlemen involved in the distribution process. The limitations for marketing include the fact that only a few sites supply most of the crop in all the three countries, that all sites need to be conserved through sustainable harvesting methods, the short shelf life of the crop and a lack of information on the carrying capacity of harvest sites. Caulerpa remains a crop that fulfils a niche market but has the potential to be scaled up for additional livelihood development in the future.
Dubey, Akash D.
In recent times, most of the developing countries have concentrated themselves on evolving with the help of Information and Communication Technologies, Republic of Fiji being one of them. Fiji National University, one of the leading universities in Fiji has been playing a very important role for the development of the country. In this paper, the…
More than 250,000 of Fiji's citizens are descendants of Indian indentured laborers of diverse origins. There are still distinct social groups based on language, religion, and place of origin. However, nearly all Fiji Indians speak one language called Fiji Hindustani. Other languages, such as Gujarati, Panjabi, Tamil, and Telugu, are still spoken,…
Full Text Available Embarking on fieldwork in a country and culture that is foreign to oneself will always present challenges alongside the wonderful learning opportunities. Bringing the family along for the ride increases both sides of that equation. This narrative article reflects on the experiences of staying on a remote island in Fiji for social science fieldwork. It looks at the issue of cross-cultural research, and the impacts of the presence of the researcher's family. There are many issues to consider, and changes from what may be a usual research practice, and the presence of the family impacts upon every stage of the research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1501170
Morrison, Clare; Rounds, Isaac; Watling, Dick
Recovery planning is a key component of many threatened species conservation initiatives and can be a powerful awareness raising tool. One of the largest impediments to conservation efforts in the Pacific region however, is the lack of ecological data and its subsequent effects on the development of feasible and useful recovery plans for threatened species. Without these plans, the understaffed, underfunded and often technically ill-equipped conservation agencies face huge difficulties in planning, prioritizing and conducting conservation activities to adequately protect biodiversity. The Fiji sago palm, Metroxylon vitiense, is an endemic endangered palm species whose survival is heavily dependent on a feasible species recovery plan. It is geographically restricted and threatened by habitat destruction and overexploitation for thatch for the tourism industry and palm heart consumption by local consumers. Despite its threatened status, M. vitiense is not currently protected by national or international legislation. Recent field surveys and extensive stakeholder consultation have resulted in the production of a species recovery plan highlighting the importance of the species and advocating sustainable harvesting rather than complete bans to promote conservation. This article summarizes the recovery plan and its current effects on the status of M. vitiense in Fiji. We also discuss the role of different stakeholders in the conservation of M. vitiense, including the absence of significant behavioral changes by the largest consumer - the tourism industry, and the importance of recovery plans for biodiversity conservation in the Pacific.
Morrison, Clare; Rounds, Isaac; Watling, Dick
Recovery planning is a key component of many threatened species conservation initiatives and can be a powerful awareness raising tool. One of the largest impediments to conservation efforts in the Pacific region however, is the lack of ecological data and its subsequent effects on the development of feasible and useful recovery plans for threatened species. Without these plans, the understaffed, underfunded and often technically ill-equipped conservation agencies face huge difficulties in planning, prioritizing and conducting conservation activities to adequately protect biodiversity. The Fiji sago palm, Metroxylon vitiense, is an endemic endangered palm species whose survival is heavily dependent on a feasible species recovery plan. It is geographically restricted and threatened by habitat destruction and overexploitation for thatch for the tourism industry and palm heart consumption by local consumers. Despite its threatened status, M. vitiense is not currently protected by national or international legislation. Recent field surveys and extensive stakeholder consultation have resulted in the production of a species recovery plan highlighting the importance of the species and advocating sustainable harvesting rather than complete bans to promote conservation. This article summarizes the recovery plan and its current effects on the status of M. vitiense in Fiji. We also discuss the role of different stakeholders in the conservation of M. vitiense, including the absence of significant behavioral changes by the largest consumer - the tourism industry, and the importance of recovery plans for biodiversity conservation in the Pacific.
Kuehn, Rebecca; Fong, James; Taylor, Richard; Gyaneshwar, Rajanishwar; Carter, Karen
Previous studies indicate that cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer and most common cause of cancer mortality among women in Fiji. There is little published data on the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Pacific countries. To determine the incidence 2003-2009 of, and mortality 2003-2008 from, cervical cancer by ethnicity and period in Fiji, identify evidence of secular change and relate these data to other Pacific countries, Australia and New Zealand. Counts of incident cervical cancer cases (2003-2009) and unit record mortality data (2003-2008) from the Fiji Ministry of Health were used to calculate age-standardised (to the WHO World Population) cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, and cervical or uterine cancer mortality rates, by ethnicity, with 95% confidence intervals. On the basis of comparison of cervical cancer mortality with cervical or uterine cancer mortality in Fiji with similar populations, misclassification of cervical cancer deaths is unlikely. There is no evidence of secular change in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates for the study period. For women of all ages and ethnicities, the age-standardised incidence rate of cervical cancer (2003-2009) was 27.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.4-29.8) and the age-standardised mortality rate (2003-2008) was 23.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 21.5-26.4). The mortality/incidence ratio was 87%. Fijians had statistically significant higher age-standardised incidence and mortality rates than Indians. Fiji has one of the highest estimated rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the Pacific region. Cervical cancer screening in Fiji needs to be expanded and strengthened. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Neeraj A. Sharma
Full Text Available Computing technology has evolved in such dramatic ways that a child can use such technology and their features. Internet is one such technology which allows peripheral devices to be connected to each other creating a network to share information. In the same way information can be attacked. In this paper we will be discussing the different types of cyber-attack that recently took place in Fiji. Common attacks discussed in this review paper are phishing email scams website defacement and skimming. Apart from common preventative methods some novel recommendations have been made. We believe the Fiji experiences and recommendations will assist technology users prepare better against such attacks.
Broustis, Ioannis; Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Syrivelis, Dimitris; Krishnamurthy, Srikanth V.; Tassiulas, Leandros
The IEEE 802.11 protocol inherently provides the same long-term throughput to all the clients associated with a given access point (AP). In this paper, we first identify a clever, low-power jamming attack that can take advantage of this behavioral trait: the placement of a low-power jammer in a way that it affects a single legitimate client can cause starvation to all the other clients. In other words, the total throughput provided by the corresponding AP is drastically degraded. To fight against this attack, we design FIJI, a cross-layer anti-jamming system that detects such intelligent jammers and mitigates their impact on network performance. FIJI looks for anomalies in the AP load distribution to efficiently perform jammer detection. It then makes decisions with regards to optimally shaping the traffic such that: (a) the clients that are not explicitly jammed are shielded from experiencing starvation and, (b) the jammed clients receive the maximum possible throughput under the given conditions. We implement FIJI in real hardware; we evaluate its efficacy through experiments on a large-scale indoor testbed, under different traffic scenarios, network densities and jammer locations. Our measurements suggest that FIJI detects such jammers in real-time and alleviates their impact by allocating the available bandwidth in a fair and efficient way.
Puamau, Priscilla Qolisaya
Presents a post-colonial reading of affirmative action (AA) policies in Fiji, arguing that AA was a deliberate response by various predominantly indigenous Fijian post-colonial governments to counter the effects of a discriminatory colonial history that produced significant educational and employment inequality. Analyzes the mixed outcomes of AA…
Conall H Watson
Full Text Available Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi. To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases. We enrolled and assayed plasma of 1787 participants for anti-Vi IgG; 1,531 of these were resident in mainland areas that had not been previously vaccinated against S. Typhi (seropositivity 32.3% (95%CI 28.2 to 36.3%, 256 were resident on Taveuni island, which had been previously vaccinated (seropositivity 71.5% (95%CI 62.1 to 80.9%. The seroprevalence on the Fijian mainland is one to two orders of magnitude higher than expected from confirmed case surveillance incidence, suggesting substantial subclinical or otherwise unreported typhoid. We found no significant differences in seropositivity prevalences by ethnicity, which is in contrast to disease surveillance data in which the indigenous iTaukei Fijian population are disproportionately affected. Using multivariable logistic regression, seropositivity was associated with increased age (odds ratio 1.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.4 per 10 years, the presence of a pit latrine (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1 to 2.3 as opposed to a septic tank or piped sewer, and residence in settlements rather than residential housing or villages (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.7. Increasing seropositivity with age is suggestive of low-level endemic transmission in Fiji. Improved sanitation where pit latrines are used and addressing potential transmission routes in settlements may reduce exposure to S. Typhi. Widespread unreported infection suggests there may be a role for typhoid
Wate, Jillian T; Snowdon, Wendy; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Mavoa, Helen; Goundar, Ramneek; Kama, Ateca; Swinburn, Boyd
Obesity has been increasing in adolescents in Fiji and obesogenic dietary patterns need to be assessed to inform health promotion. The objective of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents in peri-urban Fiji and determine their relationships with standardized body mass index (BMI-z). This study analysed baseline measurements from the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) Project. The sample comprised 6,871 adolescents aged 13-18 years from 18 secondary schools on the main island of Viti Levu, Fiji. Adolescents completed a questionnaire that included diet-related variables; height and weight were measured. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between dietary patterns and BMI-z, while controlling for confounders and cluster effect by school. Of the total sample, 24% of adolescents were overweight or obese, with a higher prevalence among Indigenous Fijians and females. Almost all adolescents reported frequent consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) (90%) and low intake of fruit and vegetables (74%). Over 25% of participants were frequent consumers of takeaways for dinner, and either high fat/salt snacks, or confectionery after school. Nearly one quarter reported irregular breakfast (24%) and lunch (24%) consumption on school days, while fewer adolescents (13%) ate fried foods after school. IndoFijians were more likely than Indigenous Fijians to regularly consume breakfast, but had a high unhealthy SSB and snack consumption.Regular breakfast (p<0.05), morning snack (p<0.05) and lunch (p<0.05) consumption were significantly associated with lower BMI-z. Consumption of high fat/salt snacks, fried foods and confectionery was lower among participants with higher BMI-z. This study provides important information about Fijian adolescents' dietary patterns and associations with BMI-z. Health promotion should target reducing SSB, increasing fruit and vegetables consumption, and
Watson, Conall H; Baker, Stephen; Lau, Colleen L; Rawalai, Kitione; Taufa, Mere; Coriakula, Jerimaia; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Van, Tan Trinh; Ngoc, Dung Tran Thi; Hens, Niel; Lowry, John H; de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Cano, Jorge; Jenkins, Kylie; Mulholland, E Kim; Nilles, Eric J; Kama, Mike; Edmunds, W John
Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases. We enrolled and assayed plasma of 1787 participants for anti-Vi IgG; 1,531 of these were resident in mainland areas that had not been previously vaccinated against S. Typhi (seropositivity 32.3% (95%CI 28.2 to 36.3%)), 256 were resident on Taveuni island, which had been previously vaccinated (seropositivity 71.5% (95%CI 62.1 to 80.9%)). The seroprevalence on the Fijian mainland is one to two orders of magnitude higher than expected from confirmed case surveillance incidence, suggesting substantial subclinical or otherwise unreported typhoid. We found no significant differences in seropositivity prevalences by ethnicity, which is in contrast to disease surveillance data in which the indigenous iTaukei Fijian population are disproportionately affected. Using multivariable logistic regression, seropositivity was associated with increased age (odds ratio 1.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.4) per 10 years), the presence of a pit latrine (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1 to 2.3) as opposed to a septic tank or piped sewer, and residence in settlements rather than residential housing or villages (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.7). Increasing seropositivity with age is suggestive of low-level endemic transmission in Fiji. Improved sanitation where pit latrines are used and addressing potential transmission routes in settlements may reduce exposure to S. Typhi. Widespread unreported infection suggests there may be a role for typhoid
Cribb, Phillip; Whistler, Arthur
Orchids are one of the largest families of flowering plants in the Pacific region, especially in the tropics. Despite the remoteness of Tonga, Niue, and the Cook Islands, orchids have reached them in some numbers. Both terrestrial and epiphytic genera are well represented in the floras of these distant but neighboring archipelagos. Most of the species are found elsewhere in the Pacific, particularly in Fiji, Samoa, and the Society Islands. The affinities of these orchids can be traced to New ...
Herman, Josephine; Ameratunga, Shanthi N; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Robinson, Elizabeth; McCaig, Eddie; Jackson, Rod
Sleepiness has been shown to be a risk factor for road crashes in high-income countries, but has received little attention in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the prevalence of sleepiness and sleep-related disorders among drivers of four-wheel motor vehicles in Fiji. Using a two-stage cluster sampling roadside survey conducted over 12 months, we recruited a representative sample of people driving four-wheel motor vehicles on the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire sought self-report information on driver characteristics including sleep-related measures. The 752 motor vehicle drivers recruited (84% response rate) were aged 17-75 years, with most driving in Viti Levu undertaken by male subjects (93%), and those identifying with Indian (70%) and Fijian (22%) ethnic groups. Drivers who reported that they were not fully alert accounted for 17% of driving, while a further 1% of driving was undertaken by those who reported having difficulty staying awake or feeling sleepy. A quarter of the driving time among 15-24-year-olds included driving while sleepy or not fully alert, with a similar proportion driving while chronically sleep deprived (ie, with less than five nights of adequate sleep in the previous week=27%). Driving while acutely or chronically sleep deprived was generally more common among Fijians compared with Indians. Driving while not fully alert is relatively common in Fiji. Sleepiness while driving may be an important contributor to road traffic injuries in this and other low- and middle-income countries.
Tukana, Andrew; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce
There are few publications on brucellosis within the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The reason is possibly because the cattle population has been reportedly free of the disease for many years until a re-emergence occurred in the Fiji Islands (Viti Levu) in 2009. This paper reports on the outbreak of brucellosis in Fiji and its progression between 2009 and 2013 in the context of an overview of brucellosis in the Pacific Island community. Review of the literature found only 28 articles with the oldest record of brucellosis being in 1965 in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and from human cases in Tonga in 1980. The Fiji outbreak of Brucella abortus occurred in cattle in 2009 (Wainivesi basin) in the Tailevu province. Prior to the outbreak, Fiji declared freedom from B. abortus to OIE in 1996 after a successful eradication campaign. During the course of the outbreak investigation, serum samples were collected from between 9790 and 21,624 cattle per annum between 2009 and 2013 from 87 farms on the main island of Fiji (Viti Levu). Blood samples were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) in 2009 and the indirect ELISA test in subsequent years. At the time of the outbreak in Fiji (2009) the apparent prevalence in cattle was 1.50% and this has fluctuated since the outbreak. The True Prevalence (TP) for the main island in Fiji for the indirect ELISA tests was 2.40% in 2010, reached a peak of 3.49% in 2011 then reduced to 0.12% by 2013. The significant reduction in prevalence compared to 2010 is most likely due to the control programs being implemented in Fiji. The re-emergence of B. abortus in Fiji could be attributed to the lack of monitoring for the disease until 2009 combined with inadequate management of exposed animals, thus illustrating how important it is for authorities not to become complacent. Continued awareness and monitoring for brucellosis is essential if future outbreaks are to be avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Charpy, Loïc (ed.); Charpy Roubaud, Claude (ed.); Newell, P. (ed.)
Cet ouvrage comprend les contributions suivantes. p. 1 : phytoplankton biomass and productivity in the Great Astrolabe Lagoon. p. 5 : nutrients and particulate organic matter in The Great Astrolabe Reef Lagoon. p. 11 : sediment constituents in the Great Astrolabe Reef lagoon (Fiji). p. 17 : soft substrate macrobenthos of Fiji's Great Astrolabe Reef lagoon : list of taxons, densities and their biomass. p. 47 : composition et diversité de la méiofaune du lagon de "Great Astrolabe Reef" (Fiji). ...
Lal, Brij V.
To read this evocative book is to be thrust into a Fiji that has, for the moment, been snuffed out by military might: a Fiji of political parties, parliamentary politics, elections, manifestoes, campaigns, democractic defence of interests, party manoeuvres, and constitutional protection of rights and freedoms. It is a comprehensive and eloquent re-telling of the story of Fiji politics from independence in 1970 to 1999 through the perspective of Fiji’s greatest living statesman, Jai Ram Reddy,...
Schindelin, Johannes; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Frise, Erwin; Kaynig, Verena; Longair, Mark; Pietzsch, Tobias; Preibisch, Stephan; Rueden, Curtis; Saalfeld, Stephan; Schmid, Benjamin; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; White, Daniel James; Hartenstein, Volker; Eliceiri, Kevin; Tomancak, Pavel; Cardona, Albert
Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.
Syed S. Ghani
Full Text Available The current work observes the trends in Lautoka’s temperature and relative humidity during the period 2003 – 2013, which were analyzed using the recently updated data obtained from Fiji Meteorological Services (FMS. Four elements, mean maximum temperature, mean minimum temperature along with diurnal temperature range (DTR and mean relative humidity are investigated. From 2003–2013, the annual mean temperature has been enhanced between 0.02 and 0.080C. The heating is more in minimum temperature than in maximum temperature, resulting in a decrease of diurnal temperature range. The statistically significant increase was mostly seen during the summer months of December and January. Mean Relative Humidity has also increased from 3% to 8%. The bases of abnormal climate conditions are also studied. These bases were defined with temperature or humidity anomalies in their appropriate time sequences. These established the observed findings and exhibited that climate has been becoming gradually damper and heater throughout Lautoka during this period. While we are only at an initial phase in the probable inclinations of temperature changes, ecological reactions to recent climate change are already evidently noticeable. So it is proposed that it would be easier to identify climate alteration in a small island nation like Fiji.
Groom, Scott V C; Tuiwawa, Marika V; Stevens, Mark I; Schwarz, Michael P
Morphology-based studies have suggested a very depauperate bee fauna for islands in the South West Pacific, and recent genetic studies since have indicated an even smaller endemic fauna with many bee species in this region resulting from human-aided dispersal. These introduced species have the potential to both disrupt native pollinator suites as well as augment crop pollination, but for most species the timings of introduction are unknown. We examined the distribution and nesting biology of the long-tongued bee Braunsapis puangensis that was first recorded from Fiji in 2007. This bee has now become widespread in Fiji and both its local abundance and geographical range are likely to increase dramatically. The impacts of this invasion are potentially enormous for agriculture and native ecosystems, but they also provide opportunities for understanding how social insect species adapt to new environments. We outline the major issues associated with this recent invasion and argue that a long-term monitoring study is needed. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Magee, A. D.; Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A. S.; Royle, S. A.
To better understand perceptions, impacts and adaptation strategies related to tropical cyclones (TCs) in urban environments of the Southwest Pacific (SWP), a survey (with 130 participants) was conducted across three island nations; Fiji, Vanuatu and Tonga. The key aims of this study include: (i) understanding local perceptions of TC activity, (ii) investigating physical impacts of TC activity, and (iii) uncovering adaptation strategies used to offset the impacts of TCs. It was found that current methods of adaptation generally occur at the local level immediately prior to a TC event (preparation of property, gathering of food, setting up of community centres). This method of adaptation appears to be effective, however higher level adaptation measures (such as the development of building codes as developed in Fiji) may reduce vulnerability further. The survey responses also highlight that there is significant scope to provide education programs specifically aimed at improving the understanding of weather related aspects of TCs. Finally, we investigate the potential to merge ecological traditional knowledge with the non-traditional knowledge of empirical and climate mode based weather forecasts to improve forecasting of TCs, which would ultimately reduce vulnerability and increase adaptive capacity.
Petersen, S; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Waqa, G; Goundar, R; Swinburn, B
To investigate the relationship between excess weight (overweight and obesity) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of secondary school children in Fiji, by gender, age and ethnicity. The study comprised 8947 children from forms 3-6 (age 12-18 years) in 18 secondary schools on Viti Levu, the main island of Fiji. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from measured height and weight, and weight status was classified according to the International Obesity Task Force recommendations. HRQoL was measured by the self-report version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. HRQoL was similar in children with obesity and normal weight. Generally, this was replicated when analyzed separately by gender and ethnicity, but age stratification revealed disparities. In 12-14-year-old children, obesity was associated with better HRQoL, owing to better social and school functioning and well-being, and in 15-18-year olds with poorer HRQoL, owing to worse physical, emotional and social functioning and well-being (Cohen's d 0.2-0.3). Children with a BMI in the overweight range also reported a slightly lower HRQoL than children with a BMI in the normal weight range, but although statistically significant, the size of this difference was trivial (Cohen's d Fiji. This is in contradiction to the negative relationship between excess weight and HRQoL shown in studies from other countries and cultures. The assumption that a large body size is associated with a lower quality of life cannot be held universally. Although a generally low HRQoL among children in Fiji may be masking or overriding the potential effect of excess weight on HRQoL, socio-economic and/or socio-cultural factors, may help to explain these relationships.
Patel, Rajeev; Huggard, Peter; van Toledo, Annik
This study examined the levels of occupational stress and burnout among surgeons in Fiji. A document set comprising a cover letter; a consent form; a sociodemographic and supplementary information questionnaire; the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI); the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12); the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); and the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) questionnaires were provided to surgeons from three public divisional hospitals in Fiji. Thirty-six of 43 (83.7%) invited surgeons participated in the study. According to their MBI scores, surgeons suffered from low (10, 27.8%), moderate (23, 63.9%), and high (3, 8.3%) levels of burnout. Comparatively, 23 (63.9%) demonstrated moderate burnout according to their ProQOL scores. Substantial psychiatric morbidity was observed in 16 (44.0%) surgeons per their GHQ-12 scores. Consumption of alcohol was noted in 29 (80.6%) surgeons, and 12 (33.4%) had AUDIT scores characterizing their alcohol use in excess of low-risk guidelines or as harmful or hazardous drinking. Surgeons of Fijian nationality showed higher MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores compared with surgeons of other nationalities. Surgeons with an awareness of the availability of counseling services at their hospitals showed low AUDIT and ProQOL burnout scores. Smokers, alcohol drinkers, and kava drinkers showed higher AUDIT scores. This study highlights a level of occupational stress and burnout among surgeons in Fiji and a lack of awareness of their mental and physical well-being. The authors recommend that occupational stress and burnout intervention strategies be put in place in hospitals in Fiji.
Gary M. Hardee
Full Text Available As journalists experiment with developing immersive journalism—first-person, interactive experiences of news events—guidelines are needed to help bridge a disconnect between the requirements of journalism and the capabilities of emerging technologies. Many journalists need to better understand the fundamental concepts of immersion and the capabilities and limitations of common immersive technologies. Similarly, developers of immersive journalism works need to know the fundamentals that define journalistic professionalism and excellence and the key requirements of various types of journalistic stories. To address these gaps, we have developed a Framework for the Immersion-Journalism Intersection (FIJI. In FIJI, we have identified four domains of knowledge that intersect to define the key requirements of immersive journalism: the fundamentals of immersion, common immersive technologies, the fundamentals of journalism, and the major types of journalistic stories. Based on these key requirements, we have formally defined four types of immersive journalism that are appropriate for public dissemination. In this article, we discuss the history of immersive journalism, present the four domains and key intersection of FIJI, and provide a number of guidelines for journalists new to creating immersive experiences.
Ezeala, Christian C.; Swami, Niraj S.; Lal, Nilesh; Hussain, Shagufta
Secondary education in Fiji ends with the Form 7 examination. Predictive validity for academic success of Form 7 scores which form the basis for admission into the Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery programme of the Fiji School of Medicine was examined via a cohort of 129 students. Success rates for year 1 in 2008, 2009, and 2010 were 90.7…
Hopf, Suzanne C.; McLeod, Sharynne; McDonagh, Sarah H.
This study explored linguistic multi-competence in Fiji students and their conversational partners through a description of linguistic diversity in one school community. Students' caregivers (n = 75), teachers (n = 25) and year 4 students (n = 40) in an urban school of Fiji completed paper-based questionnaires regarding: 75 students, 75 mothers,…
Indigenous knowledge is multidimensional encompassing the beliefs, practices, arts, spirituality and other forms of traditional and cultural experiences that belong to Indigenous communities globally. In order to protect, preserve and recognize the knowledge of the Indigenous people of Fiji, known as the iTaukei, the University of Fiji has…
Hopf, Suzanne C; McLeod, Sharynne; McDonagh, Sarah H
Fiji is a multilingual nation with few assessment tools addressing children's communication. This article describes the validation of the Intelligibility in Context Scale for Fiji English, Standard Fijian, and Fiji Hindi. Informants were caregivers of 65 typically developing multilingual children (aged 5;3-10;5) attending a Fiji primary school. The students spoke an average of 2.9 languages (range = 1-5). Their main language was Standard Fijian (41.5%), Fiji Hindi (23.1%), Fiji English (20.0%), or Fijian dialect (15.4%). An ICS mean score of 4.6 was obtained for main language (ICS-ML) and 4.4 for Fiji English (ICS-FE) indicating that students were usually to always intelligible. There were no significant differences between main language, number of languages spoken, gender, age, or socio-economic status. Both scales had good internal consistency, but were not correlated with speech accuracy measures possibly due to ceiling effects. Further validation with younger children is recommended. The ICS may be a useful tool for Fiji with comparative results to other international studies.
Broesch, Tanya; Rochat, Philippe; Olah, Kata; Broesch, James; Henrich, Joseph
The first relationship between an infant and her caregiver, typically the mother, lays the foundation for cognitive, social, and emotional development. Maternal responsiveness and affect mirroring have been studied extensively in Western societies yet very few studies have systematically examined these caregiving features in non-Western settings. Sixty-six mother-infant dyads (7 months, SD = 3.1) were observed in a small-scale, rural island society in Fiji, a village in Kenya, and an urban center in the United States. Mothers responded similarly to infant bids overall, but differences were found across societies in the ways mothers selectively respond to affective displays. This has implications for understanding early emotion socialization as well as understanding variation in infant social ecologies across the globe. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Macanawai, Setareki
This study reports the outcomes of focus group discussions reflected in presentations of concept maps relating to the implementation of inclusive education in the Pacific based on the views of 39 stakeholders from four countries (Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu). Five themes emerged, with one of the strongest being that of culture,…
Glaus, Kerstin B. J.; Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; White, William T.; Brunnschweiler, Juerg M.
Limited information is available on artisanal and subsistence shark fisheries across the Pacific. The aim of this study was to investigate Fiji’s inshore fisheries which catch sharks. In January and February 2013, 253 semi-directive interviews were conducted in 117 villages and at local harbours on Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Ovalau and a number of islands of the Mamanuca and Yasawa archipelagos. Of the 253 interviewees, 81.4% reported to presently catch sharks, and 17.4% declared that they did not presently catch any sharks. Of the 206 fishers that reported to catch sharks, 18.4% targeted sharks and 81.6% caught sharks as bycatch. When targeted, primary use of sharks was for consumption or for sale. Sharks caught as bycatch were frequently released (69.6%), consumed (64.9%) or shared amongst the community (26.8%). Fishers’ identification based on an identification poster and DNA barcoding revealed that at least 12 species of elasmobranchs, 11 shark and one ray species (Rhynchobatus australiae) were caught. This study, which is the first focused exploration of the shark catch in Fiji’s inshore fisheries, suggests that the country’s artisanal shark fisheries are small but have the potential to develop into larger and possibly more targeted fisheries.
The islands of Fiji, in the Western Pacific, are exposed to a wide range of natural hazards. Tropical storms and associated floods are recurring natural phenomena, but it has been regularly alleged that Fijians lack preparation, over-rely on state assistance in post-disaster situations or engage in risky behaviours that aggravate the negative impact of floods. Risk reduction strategies, which are now implemented by government authorities and international organisations, heavily promote the principle of 'community preparedness'. Both community awareness programmes and capacity-building programmes are conducted throughout the country in the most vulnerable communities. This paper analyses how the inhabitants of Lomanikoro village, in the low areas of the Rewa Delta, perceive and manage existing flood risks. It examines social and cultural factors that contribute to shape risk response locally-in particular, why villagers may be reluctant to adopt some recommended preparedness measures and resettle in higher, safer zones. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.
Jokim Veu Kitolelei
Full Text Available Sustainable management of coastal resources depends on human knowledge and perceptions of natural resources and coastal environments. However, empirical evidence has been limited in order to understand linkages between knowledge, perceptions and collective actions to achieve sustainable resource management. This case study analyzed perceptions and knowledge among diverse stakeholders: villagers, government officials, scientists and staff of a non-governmental organization who are collaboratively working in a Fijian coastal community to manage the local coastal resources. Analyses were made using the integrated local environmental knowledge (ILEK concept and frameworks of discourse analysis to clarify interlinkages between perceptions, knowledge and collective actions for a variety of examples. Research was conducted in Kumi village on the island of Viti Levu in Fiji, and the investigated projects included the management of a locally managed marine area, seaweed aquaculture, sea cucumber restoration and ginger plantations. These initiatives have shown that diverse knowledge on coastal resources and environments influence perceptions among people in a complex way, and transformation of perceptions produced new sets of knowledge through the generation of hypotheses regarding the management of coastal resources. Collective actions were promoted by the transformation of perceptions, and social learning processes were mobilized by these collective actions. Traditional institutions, cultures and leadership roles deeply embedded in the local communities had strong influences on shared perceptions among community members to provide foundations for collective actions. Dynamic transformations of perceptions promoted by integrated knowledge among community members were critical enablers of collective actions to achieve sustainable resource management.
du Toit, Rènée; Ramke, Jacqueline; Palagyi, Anna; Brian, Garry
Little information is available regarding the perceived need, previous acquisition, use and willingness to pay for spectacles in Fiji, on which to base spectacle provision services. Using a rapid appraisal technique, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 174 urban and rural households in Fiji's Central Province to assist in planning eye-care services. Problems with distance and/or near vision comprised 85.8 per cent of reported eye problems and started between the ages of 40 and 64 years for 54.8 per cent of people surveyed. Of these vision problems, no treatment was sought for 24.2 per cent and of the remainder, spectacles were the treatment for 65.5 per cent. At least one person in 51.7 per cent of households previously or currently used spectacles, and 90 per cent of these reported using them for near tasks. Spectacle usage occurred in more urban (61.8 per cent) than rural (47.1 per cent) households. The majority (54.0 per cent) were willing to pay over FJD10 for spectacles in the future, although more rural (21.8 per cent) than urban (7.3 per cent) households were willing to pay less than FJD10 (USD 4.70). Where spectacles had been received at no cost in the past, 89.5 per cent were prepared to pay FJD10 or more for these in the future. Given the high number of reported visual problems, it should be a priority to construct a sustainable spectacle system for Fiji. This will require further consultation with the community and government but it should be possible to design a system responsive to the financial and other needs of urban and rural Fijians.
Hong, Huachang; Song, Qianyun; Mazumder, Asit; Luo, Qian; Chen, Jianrong; Lin, Hongjun; Yu, Haiying; Shen, Liguo; Liang, Yan
The purpose of this study was to develop the multiple regression models to evaluate the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) during chlorination of source water with low specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) in Yangtze River Delta, China. The results showed that the regression models of THMs exhibited good accuracy and precision, and 86-97 % of the calculated values fell within ±25 % of the measured values. While the HANs models showed relatively weak evaluation ability, as only 75-83 % of the calculated values were within ±25 % of the measured values. The organic matter [dissolved organic carbon (DOC) or UV absorbance at 254 nm] and bromide exerted the most important influence on the formation of HANs. While for THMs, besides the organic matter and bromide, reaction time was also a key factor. Comparing the models for total THMs (T-THMs) in this study with others revealed that the regression models from the low SUVA waters may have low DOC coefficients, but high bromide coefficients as compared with those from the high SUVA waters.
Chaar, Betty B.; Vera, Numa; Pillai, Alvish S.; Lim, Jessy S.; Bero, Lisa; Moles, Rebekah J.
Objectives Medicine access is a human right; yet, concerningly, there are international instances of shortages. Quantitative data has allowed WHO to propose global solutions; however, individualised understanding of specific regions is still required to work towards national solutions. Fiji has an established issue with medication supply and the aim of this study was to use qualitative methods to gain a fuller understanding of this context. Methods Semi-structured interviews were used to gain the perspective of key stakeholders involved in the Fijian medicine supply chain in regards to causes, impacts and possible solutions of medicine shortages. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the interview data. Results In total, 48 stakeholders participated and the information was synthesised into three main themes, causes, impacts and solutions and the sub-themes including; political, system and patient causes, adverse health effects on patients, professional dissatisfaction, monetary loss and loss of faith in the health system, workarounds, operation improvements, government intervention and education and training. Conclusions The situation in Fiji is not dissimilar to other instances of shortages around the world and hence international solutions like that proposed by WHO are feasible; however, they must be modified to be uniquely Fijian to work in this context. PMID:28582409
Walker, Josephine; Chaar, Betty B; Vera, Numa; Pillai, Alvish S; Lim, Jessy S; Bero, Lisa; Moles, Rebekah J
Medicine access is a human right; yet, concerningly, there are international instances of shortages. Quantitative data has allowed WHO to propose global solutions; however, individualised understanding of specific regions is still required to work towards national solutions. Fiji has an established issue with medication supply and the aim of this study was to use qualitative methods to gain a fuller understanding of this context. Semi-structured interviews were used to gain the perspective of key stakeholders involved in the Fijian medicine supply chain in regards to causes, impacts and possible solutions of medicine shortages. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the interview data. In total, 48 stakeholders participated and the information was synthesised into three main themes, causes, impacts and solutions and the sub-themes including; political, system and patient causes, adverse health effects on patients, professional dissatisfaction, monetary loss and loss of faith in the health system, workarounds, operation improvements, government intervention and education and training. The situation in Fiji is not dissimilar to other instances of shortages around the world and hence international solutions like that proposed by WHO are feasible; however, they must be modified to be uniquely Fijian to work in this context.
Gaunavinaka, Lavenia; Balak, Dashika; Varman, Sumanthla; Ram, Sharan; Graham, Stephen M
Urethral discharge is a common presentation of sexually transmitted infection (STI) in men and known pathogens include Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. There are no published data of the burden of urethral discharge among men in Fiji. To evaluate urethral discharge among men to determine the incidence, the frequency of recurrence and reported at-risk behaviour. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of clinical records of all men presenting with urethral discharge to two major reproductive health clinics. Data collected included self-reported at-risk behaviours, results of abnormal syphilis serology and antibiotics prescribed. The frequency of recurrence in the following 1-2 years of initial presentation was determined along with microbiological findings from urethral swab in this group. A total of 748 males presented with urethral discharge to the clinic in one year. This represents an incidence rate of at least 295 per 100,000 adult males per year in the study population. Within the next 1-2 years of the initial presentation, 102 (14%) of these re-presented out of which 42 had urethral swab taken for etiological diagnosis. The commonest isolate was Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Results of syphilis tests were available for 560 (75%) of patients and 29 (5%) were positive. Recurrence was not associated with self-reported at-risk behaviours. The incidence of urethral discharge among males in Fiji is very high and prevention strategies are urgently needed.
Full Text Available The domestic and export market of chrysanthemum cut-flower require a prime and consistent cuality. Meanwhile, manual grading system based on human vision resulting in quality inconsistentcy. The objective of this study was to develop computer program for quality evaluation of Yellow Fiji chysanthemum cut-flower using image processing. The cut-flowers were classified into different quality standards (AA,A.B.C based on the steam length and straightness, and flower diameter. Then results indicated a strong relationship between quality parameters extracted from the image and those obtained from direct meaurement for grade AA,A,B and C with R2=0.98, R2=0.97, R2=0.97, and R2=0.98 respectively for length of stem. Also with R2=0.90, R2=0.87, R2=88, and R2=88 respectively for diamter of flower. The validation of the computer program for the quality evaluation of Yellow Fiji chrysanthemum cut-flower performed a hight a ccuracy of 100% for AA grade, 90% for A grade, 85% for B grade, and 100% for C grade.
Mohammed, North, and Ashton find that decentralization in Fiji shifted health-sector workloads from tertiary hospitals to peripheral health centres, but with little transfer of administrative authority from the centre. Decision-making in five functional areas analysed remains highly centralized. They surmise that the benefits of decentralization in terms of services and outcomes will be limited. This paper invokes Faguet's (2012) model of local government responsiveness and accountability to explain why this is so - not only for Fiji, but in any country that decentralizes workloads but not the decision space of local governments. A competitive dynamic between economic and civic actors that interact to generate an open, competitive politics, which in turn produces accountable, responsive government can only occur where real power and resources have been devolved to local governments. Where local decision space is lacking, by contrast, decentralization is bound to fail because it has not really happened in the first place. © 2016 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Herman, Josephine; Kafoa, Berlin; Wainiqolo, Iris; Robinson, Elizabeth; McCaig, Eddie; Connor, Jennie; Jackson, Rod; Ameratunga, Shanthi
Published studies investigating the role of driver sleepiness in road crashes in low and middle-income countries have largely focused on heavy vehicles. We investigated the contribution of driver sleepiness to four-wheel motor vehicle crashes in Fiji, a middle-income Pacific Island country. The population-based case control study included 131 motor vehicles involved in crashes where at least one person died or was hospitalised (cases) and 752 motor vehicles identified in roadside surveys (controls). An interviewer-administered questionnaire completed by drivers or proxies collected information on potential risks for crashes including sleepiness while driving, and factors that may influence the quantity or quality of sleep. Following adjustment for confounders, there was an almost six-fold increase in the odds of injury-involved crashes for vehicles driven by people who were not fully alert or sleepy (OR 5.7, 95%CI: 2.7, 12.3), or those who reported less than 6 h of sleep during the previous 24 h (OR 5.9, 95%CI: 1.7, 20.9). The population attributable risk for crashes associated with driving while not fully alert or sleepy was 34%, and driving after less than 6 h sleep in the previous 24 h was 9%. Driving by people reporting symptoms suggestive of obstructive sleep apnoea was not significantly associated with crash risk. Driver sleepiness is an important contributor to injury-involved four-wheel motor vehicle crashes in Fiji, highlighting the need for evidence-based strategies to address this poorly characterised risk factor for car crashes in less resourced settings. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Brian, Garry; Pearce, Matthew G; Ramke, Jacqueline
To characterize refractive error, presbyopia and their correction among adults aged ≥ 40 years in Fiji, and contribute to a regional overview of these conditions. A population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster random sampling. Presenting distance and near vision were measured and dilated slitlamp examination performed. The survey achieved 73.0% participation (n=1381). Presenting binocular distance vision ≥ 6/18 was achieved by 1223 participants. Another 79 had vision impaired by refractive error. Three of these were blind. At threshold 6/18, 204 participants had refractive error. Among these, 125 had spectacle-corrected presenting vision ≥ 6/18 ("met refractive error need"); 79 presented wearing no (n=74) or under-correcting (n=5) distance spectacles ("unmet refractive error need"). Presenting binocular near vision ≥ N8 was achieved by 833 participants. At threshold N8, 811 participants had presbyopia. Among these, 336 attained N8 with presenting near spectacles ("met presbyopia need"); 475 presented with no (n=402) or under-correcting (n=73) near spectacles ("unmet presbyopia need"). Rural residence was predictive of unmet refractive error (p=0.040) and presbyopia (p=0.016) need. Gender and household income source were not. Ethnicity-gender-age-domicile-adjusted to the Fiji population aged ≥ 40 years, "met refractive error need" was 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.7-11.9%), "unmet refractive error need" was 4.8% (95%CI 3.6-5.9%), "refractive error correction coverage" was 68.3% (95%CI 54.4-82.2%),"met presbyopia need" was 24.6% (95%CI 22.4-26.9%), "unmet presbyopia need" was 33.8% (95%CI 31.3-36.3%), and "presbyopia correction coverage" was 42.2% (95%CI 37.6-46.8%). Fiji refraction and dispensing services should encourage uptake by rural dwellers and promote presbyopia correction. Lack of comparable data from neighbouring countries prevents a regional overview.
Tsukakoshi, Tatsuhiko; Samuela, Josaia; Rafai, Eric V; Rabuatoka, Uraia; Honda, Sumihisa; Kamiya, Yasuhiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Morita, Kouichi
In Fiji, hepatitis B (HB) vaccine was introduced into childhood immunization program in 1989 and has been administered as a pentavalent since 2006. This study aimed to: (i) survey and examine the extent to which HB infection continue to occur in children, adolescents and adults in Fiji, and (ii) determine HB coverage rates and timeliness of vaccine administration to children. Serum samples of children, adolescents and adults (aged 6 months to Fiji's HB vaccine control program is achieving its objectives.
Shaiza Z. Janif
Full Text Available In the interests of improving engagement with Pacific Island communities to enable development of effective and sustainable adaptation strategies to climate change, we looked at how traditional oral narratives in rural/peripheral Fiji communities might be used to inform such strategies. Interviews were undertaken and observations made in 27 communities; because the custodians of traditional knowledge were targeted, most interviewees were 70-79 years old. The view that oral traditions, particularly those referring to environmental history and the observations/precursors of environmental change, were endangered was widespread and regretted. Interviewees' personal experiences of extreme events (natural disasters were commonplace but no narratives of historical (unwitnessed by interviewees events were found. In contrast, experiences of previous village relocations attributable (mainly to environmental change were recorded in five communities while awareness of environmentally driven migration was more common. Questions about climate change elicited views dominated by religious/fatalist beliefs but included some more pragmatic ones; the confusion of climate change with climate variability, which is part of traditional knowledge, was widespread. The erosion of traditional environmental knowledge in the survey communities over recent decades has been severe and is likely to continue apace, which will reduce community self-sufficiency and resilience. Ways of conserving such knowledge and incorporating it into adaptation planning for Pacific Island communities in rural/peripheral locations should be explored.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population. © 2016 APJPH.
Gregory J Barord
Full Text Available The extant species of Nautilus and Allonautilus (Cephalopoda inhabit fore-reef slope environments across a large geographic area of the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans. While many aspects of their biology and behavior are now well-documented, uncertainties concerning their current populations and ecological role in the deeper, fore-reef slope environments remain. Given the historical to current day presence of nautilus fisheries at various locales across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, a comparative assessment of the current state of nautilus populations is critical to determine whether conservation measures are warranted. We used baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS to make quantitative photographic records as a means of estimating population abundance of Nautilus sp. at sites in the Philippine Islands, American Samoa, Fiji, and along an approximately 125 km transect on the fore reef slope of the Great Barrier Reef from east of Cairns to east of Lizard Island, Australia. Each site was selected based on its geography, historical abundance, and the presence (Philippines or absence (other sites of Nautilus fisheries The results from these observations indicate that there are significantly fewer nautiluses observable with this method in the Philippine Islands site. While there may be multiple possibilities for this difference, the most parsimonious is that the Philippine Islands population has been reduced due to fishing. When compared to historical trap records from the same site the data suggest there have been far more nautiluses at this site in the past. The BRUVS proved to be a valuable tool to measure Nautilus abundance in the deep sea (300-400 m while reducing our overall footprint on the environment.
Full Text Available Sovereign Pacific island states attract little attention from the great powers. They achieved independence peacefully, mostly from the United Kingdom, and have generally maintained functional democratic societies. Nonetheless, some Pacific states have struggled with the political, institutional and economic legacy of colonization. Tensions between indigenous norms and practices and the expectations of a transposed Western model of society have led to crises. This paper focuses on two Pacific Island states, Fiji and the Solomon Islands. The collapse of the state in the Solomons at the turn of this century, and repeated military coups in Fiji, are due in part to the failure of British-derived institutions to be fully accepted. In both these countries, indigenous people have proposed reforms of these inherited models. Nonetheless, as we shall see, the recent rewriting of these two countries’ constitutions has maintained the fundamentals of the Westminster system, and a government by Westernized indigenous élites.
Abigail S Golden
Full Text Available Harnessing the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK of local communities has the potential to enhance conservation planning in developing regions. Marine protected areas (MPAs that incorporate traditional beliefs about reef tenure are generally more successful in reaching conservation goals and ensuring the participation of local fishermen on vulnerable tropical reef systems. Fiji possesses a unique system of traditional reef management in which local clans or villages, called mataqali, control individual units of a reef, known as qoliqoli, and make independent management decisions based on traditional beliefs and conservation concerns. This is an example of a system, known as customary marine tenure, which has attracted interest from conservation scientists hoping to set up MPAs in vulnerable regions. As one example of this grassroots participation, Nagigi village on the Fijian island of Vanua Levu has expressed interest in setting up an MPA in part of its qoliqoli because of concerns about overfishing. In response to this interest, we took a two-pronged approach to assessing Nagigi's fishery status and conservation needs, first conducting a fishery-independent species survey using destructive sampling and then focusing on fisheries targets identified through fisher interviews. These interviews allowed us to identify heavily targeted species, assess villagers' understanding of reef dynamics over 30 or 40 years of fisheries expansion, and evaluate village support and expectations for a proposed conservation program. Based on our findings we recommend a temporary closure to be in effect for at least three years, allowing one of the more important fishery targets, Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775; Lethrinidae, to complete at least one generation within the reserve. The methodology of matching the proposed marine protected area with the life histories and ecologies of heavily targeted species identified through fisherman and -woman interviews can
Golden, Abigail S.; Naisilsisili, Waisea; Ligairi, Isikele; Drew, Joshua A.
Harnessing the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of local communities has the potential to enhance conservation planning in developing regions. Marine protected areas (MPAs) that incorporate traditional beliefs about reef tenure are generally more successful in reaching conservation goals and ensuring the participation of local fishermen on vulnerable tropical reef systems. Fiji possesses a unique system of traditional reef management in which local clans or villages, called mataqali, control individual units of a reef, known as qoliqoli, and make independent management decisions based on traditional beliefs and conservation concerns. This is an example of a system, known as customary marine tenure, which has attracted interest from conservation scientists hoping to set up MPAs in vulnerable regions. As one example of this grassroots participation, Nagigi village on the Fijian island of Vanua Levu has expressed interest in setting up an MPA in part of its qoliqoli because of concerns about overfishing. In response to this interest, we took a two-pronged approach to assessing Nagigi's fishery status and conservation needs, first conducting a fishery-independent species survey using destructive sampling and then focusing on fisheries targets identified through fisher interviews. These interviews allowed us to identify heavily targeted species, assess villagers' understanding of reef dynamics over 30 or 40 years of fisheries expansion, and evaluate village support and expectations for a proposed conservation program. Based on our findings we recommend a temporary closure to be in effect for at least three years, allowing one of the more important fishery targets, Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775; Lethrinidae), to complete at least one generation within the reserve. The methodology of matching the proposed marine protected area with the life histories and ecologies of heavily targeted species identified through fisherman and -woman interviews can offer a template
Bossert, Thomas J
The study of decentralization in Fiji shows that increasing capacities is not necessarily related to increasing decision space of local officials, which is in contrast with earlier studies in Pakistan. Future studies should address the relationship among decision space, capacities, and health system performance. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM incidence is traditionally derived from cohort studies that are not always feasible, representative, or available. The present study estimates T2DM incidence in Fijian adults from T2DM prevalence estimates assembled from surveys of 25–64 year old adults conducted over 30 years (n = 14,288. Methods T2DM prevalence by five-year age group from five population-based risk factor surveys conducted over 1980–2011 were variously adjusted for urban-rural residency, ethnicity, and sex to previous censuses (1976, 1986, 1996, 2009 to improve representativeness. Prevalence estimates were then used to calculate T2DM incidence based on birth cohorts from the age-period (Lexis matrix following the Styblo technique, first used to estimate annual risk of tuberculosis infection (incidence from sequential Mantoux population surveys. Poisson regression of year, age, sex, and ethnicity strata (n = 160 was used to develop projections of T2DM prevalence and incidence to 2020 based on various scenarios of population weight measured by body mass index (BMI change. Results T2DM prevalence and annual incidence increased in Fiji over 1980–2011. Prevalence was higher in Indians and men than i-Taukei and women. Incidence was higher in Indians and women. From regression analyses, absolute reductions of 2.6 to 5.1% in T2DM prevalence (13–26% lower, and 0.5–0.9 per 1000 person-years in incidence (8–14% lower, could be expected in 2020 in adults if mean population weight could be reduced by 1–4 kg, compared to the current period trend in weight gain. Conclusions This is the first application of the Styblo technique to calculate T2DM incidence from population-based prevalence surveys over time. Reductions in population BMI are predicted to reduce T2DM incidence and prevalence in Fiji among adults aged 25–64 years.
Morrell, Stephen; Lin, Sophia; Tukana, Isimeli; Linhart, Christine; Taylor, Richard; Vatucawaqa, Penina; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence is traditionally derived from cohort studies that are not always feasible, representative, or available. The present study estimates T2DM incidence in Fijian adults from T2DM prevalence estimates assembled from surveys of 25-64 year old adults conducted over 30 years (n = 14,288). T2DM prevalence by five-year age group from five population-based risk factor surveys conducted over 1980-2011 were variously adjusted for urban-rural residency, ethnicity, and sex to previous censuses (1976, 1986, 1996, 2009) to improve representativeness. Prevalence estimates were then used to calculate T2DM incidence based on birth cohorts from the age-period (Lexis) matrix following the Styblo technique, first used to estimate annual risk of tuberculosis infection (incidence) from sequential Mantoux population surveys. Poisson regression of year, age, sex, and ethnicity strata (n = 160) was used to develop projections of T2DM prevalence and incidence to 2020 based on various scenarios of population weight measured by body mass index (BMI) change. T2DM prevalence and annual incidence increased in Fiji over 1980-2011. Prevalence was higher in Indians and men than i-Taukei and women. Incidence was higher in Indians and women. From regression analyses, absolute reductions of 2.6 to 5.1% in T2DM prevalence (13-26% lower), and 0.5-0.9 per 1000 person-years in incidence (8-14% lower), could be expected in 2020 in adults if mean population weight could be reduced by 1-4 kg, compared to the current period trend in weight gain. This is the first application of the Styblo technique to calculate T2DM incidence from population-based prevalence surveys over time. Reductions in population BMI are predicted to reduce T2DM incidence and prevalence in Fiji among adults aged 25-64 years.
EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.
de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Watson, Conall; Nikolay, Birgit; Lowry, John H; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Van, Tan Trinh; Ngoc, Dung Tran Thi; Rawalai, Kitione; Taufa, Mere; Coriakula, Jerimaia; Lau, Colleen L; Nilles, Eric J; Edmunds, W John; Kama, Mike; Baker, Stephen; Cano, Jorge
Fiji recently experienced a sharp increase in reported typhoid fever cases. To investigate geographic distribution and environmental risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection, we conducted a cross-sectional cluster survey with associated serologic testing for Vi capsular antigen-specific antibodies (a marker for exposure to Salmonella Typhi in Fiji in 2013. Hotspots with high seroprevalence of Vi-specific antibodies were identified in northeastern mainland Fiji. Risk for Vi seropositivity increased with increased annual rainfall (odds ratio [OR] 1.26/quintile increase, 95% CI 1.12-1.42), and decreased with increased distance from major rivers and creeks (OR 0.89/km increase, 95% CI 0.80-0.99) and distance to modeled flood-risk areas (OR 0.80/quintile increase, 95% CI 0.69-0.92) after being adjusted for age, typhoid fever vaccination, and home toilet type. Risk for exposure to Salmonella Typhi and its spatial distribution in Fiji are driven by environmental factors. Our findings can directly affect typhoid fever control efforts in Fiji.
Terry, James P.; Etienne, Samuel
Transported coastal boulders have increasingly come to represent a valuable element of investigations within the broader framework of multi-proxy approaches applied to coastal hazard studies. Through a case study on Taveuni Island in Fiji, this paper outlines some approaches and hindrances to effective timing of prehistorical high-energy marine inundation events (storms and tsunamis) on tropical coastlines from the evidence of reef-platform carbonate boulders. Various sources of errors are outlined that investigators must consider when attempting to use carbonate boulder ages as a surrogate for timing past events. On Taveuni, uranium : thorium dates with a high level of precision (1-7 years) suggest that major inundation events have a return period of approximately 40-45 years since 1650 AD. Of particular importance, considerably different age dates are provided by coral samples sourced from the top and bottom (i.e. opposite faces) of individual boulders, so highlighting interpretation biases that must be avoided.
Mayfield, Anderson B; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Dempsey, Alexandra C
Given the numerous threats against Earth's coral reefs, there is an urgent need to develop means of assessing reef coral health on a proactive timescale. Molecular biomarkers may prove useful in this endeavor because their expression should theoretically undergo changes prior to visible signs of health decline, such as the breakdown of the coral-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis. Herein 13 molecular- and physiological-scale biomarkers spanning both eukaryotic compartments of the anthozoan-Symbiodinium mutualism were assessed across 70 pocilloporid coral colonies sampled from reefs of Fiji's easternmost province, Lau. Eleven colonies were identified as outliers upon employment of a detection method based partially on the Mahalanobis distance; these corals were hypothesized to have been displaying aberrant sub-cellular behavior with respect to their gene expression signatures, as they were characterized not only by lower Symbiodinium densities, but also by higher levels of expression of several stress-targeted genes. Although these findings could suggest that the sampled colonies were physiologically compromised at the time of sampling, further studies are warranted to state conclusively whether these 11 scleractinian coral colonies are more stress-prone than nearby conspecifics that demonstrated statistically normal phenotypes.
Becker, Anne E; Fay, Kristen E; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Khan, A Nisha; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Gilman, Stephen E
Mass media exposure has been associated with an increased risk of eating pathology. It is unknown whether indirect media exposure--such as the proliferation of media exposure in an individual's social network--is also associated with eating disorders. To test hypotheses that both individual (direct) and social network (indirect) mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in Fiji. We assessed several kinds of mass media exposure, media influence, cultural orientation and eating pathology by self-report among adolescent female ethnic Fijians (n=523). We fitted a series of multiple regression models of eating pathology, assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), in which mass media exposures, sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were entered as predictors. Both direct and indirect mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in unadjusted analyses, whereas in adjusted analyses only social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology. This result was similar when eating pathology was operationalised as either a continuous or a categorical dependent variable (e.g. odds ratio OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.15-2.23 relating social network media exposure to upper-quartile EDE-Q scores). Subsequent analyses pointed to individual media influence as an important explanatory variable in this association. Social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology in this Fijian study sample, independent of direct media exposure and other cultural exposures. Findings warrant further investigation of its health impact in other populations.
du Toit, Rènée; Ramke, Jacqueline; Naduvilath, Thomas; Brian, Garry
To determine the awareness, use, and barriers to use of eye services in Fiji's Central Province. A cross-sectional survey study design with random clusters of households was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted (152 females and 22 males). For 267 household members, presenting distance and near visual acuities were measured, and the perception of and satisfaction with their vision were recorded. Most (86%; 150/174) respondents were aware of at least one conventional eye care service. However, only 66% (121/183) of household members with previous eye problems had consulted one of these; the proportion was even lower for those in the older age groups (p visual impairment (60:40). Despite this, females and males attended the hospital eye clinic (47:53) or sought treatment from conventional services (51:49) nearly equally. The reasons given for not seeking conventional care were "fatalistic attitude" ("did not bother", "could manage", or accepted the condition: 57%), expense (12%), and fear (8%). Central Province Fijians, particularly the old, rural, and female, under-utilise conventional eye care services. As in developing countries elsewhere, fatalistic attitudes to visual impairment are a significant contributor to this. To improve eye health, planning and implementation of eye care services must overcome under-utilisation by addressing local barriers to uptake through community participation in education and affirmative action.
Weeks, Rebecca; Jupiter, Stacy D
Adaptive management of natural resources is an iterative process of decision making whereby management strategies are progressively changed or adjusted in response to new information. Despite an increasing focus on the need for adaptive conservation strategies, there remain few applied examples. We describe the 9-year process of adaptive comanagement of a marine protected area network in Kubulau District, Fiji. In 2011, a review of protected area boundaries and management rules was motivated by the need to enhance management effectiveness and the desire to improve resilience to climate change. Through a series of consultations, with the Wildlife Conservation Society providing scientific input to community decision making, the network of marine protected areas was reconfigured so as to maximize resilience and compliance. Factors identified as contributing to this outcome include well-defined resource-access rights; community respect for a flexible system of customary governance; long-term commitment and presence of comanagement partners; supportive policy environment for comanagement; synthesis of traditional management approaches with systematic monitoring; and district-wide coordination, which provided a broader spatial context for adaptive-management decision making. Co-Manejo Adaptativo de una Red de Áreas Marinas Protegidas en Fiyi. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.
Tukana, Andrew; Gummow, B
Little is published on risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in Pacific island communities. The 2009 re-emergence of bovine brucellosis in Fiji enabled us to do an interview-based questionnaire survey of 81 farms in the Wainivesi locality of the Tailevu province on the main island of Fiji to investigate what risk factors could have played a role in the re-emergence of the disease. The survey was conducted on 68 farms that had no positive cases of bovine brucellosis and on 13 farms in the same area where cattle had returned a positive result to the Brucella Rose Bengal test. Descriptive statistical methods were used to describe the demographic data while univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between the selected risk factors and the presence of brucellosis on the farms at the time of the outbreak. The demographics of Fijian dairy farms are presented in the article and the biosecurity implications of those farming systems are discussed. Two risk factors were strongly associated with farms having brucellosis, and these were history of reactor cattle to brucellosis and or bovine tuberculosis on the farm (OR = 29, P ≤ 0.01) and farms that practised sharing of water sources for cattle within and with outside farms (OR = 39, P ≤ 0.01). Possible reasons why these were risk factors are also discussed. The potential risks for human health was also high as the use of personal protective equipment was low (15%). A high proportion of farmers (62%) could not recognise brucellosis thus contributing to the low frequency of disease reports (44%) made. The article also highlights other important risk factors which could be attributed to farming practices in the region and which could contribute to public health risks and the re-emergence of diseases.
Sivakumaran, Hemalatha; George, Kuruvilla; Naker, Gunu; Nadanachandran, Kathir
We aim to describe the experience and findings of mental health clinics held during medical service camps in the rural settings of Fiji. Descriptive data collated at the end of the medical camps across 2011-2014 are used to highlight the main findings. The exposure to mental health assessments and brief interventions at these camps was a validating experience for both individuals and medical students attending the clinics. The most common presentations can be categorised under symptoms of depression, anxiety and relationship problems. The accessibility of mental health support services is a challenge in Fiji. Medical service camps can form an important pathway in promoting mental health awareness, especially amongst the rural communities of Fiji, and a useful platform for medical students to acquire some clinical exposure. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Amaradasa, R.; Turpin, T
This paper reviews the status of science, technology and innovation indicators in Fiji and other Pacific Island countries. Data are drawn from interviews with senior officials in Fiji, regional policy documents, and data held at the University of the South Pacific. The limited data available is mostly held in separate national agencies with little national or regional collaboration. The paper argues that the paucity of S&T data available for policy making or analysis is symptomatic of the nature of development in the region and the inappropriateness of indicators designed primarily for industrialised economies. It concludes with an observation that the drive toward sustainable development is steering a regional move toward development of an S,T&I indicator hub located across one or more Pacific Island countries. (Author)
Webster, Jacqui; Pillay, Arti; Suku, Arleen; Gohil, Paayal; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Schultz, Jimaima; Wate, Jillian; Trieu, Kathy; Hope, Silvia; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj; Jan, Stephen; Bell, Colin
This paper reports the process evaluation and costing of a national salt reduction intervention in Fiji. The population-wide intervention included engaging food industry to reduce salt in foods, strategic health communication and a hospital program. The evaluation showed a 1.4 g/day drop in salt intake from the 11.7 g/day at baseline; however, this was not statistically significant. To better understand intervention implementation, we collated data to assess intervention fidelity, reach, context and costs. Government and management changes affected intervention implementation, meaning fidelity was relatively low. There was no active mechanism for ensuring food companies adhered to the voluntary salt reduction targets. Communication activities had wide reach but most activities were one-off, meaning the overall dose was low and impact on behavior limited. Intervention costs were moderate (FJD $277,410 or $0.31 per person) but the strategy relied on multi-sector action which was not fully operationalised. The cyclone also delayed monitoring and likely impacted the results. However, 73% of people surveyed had heard about the campaign and salt reduction policies have been mainstreamed into government programs. Longer-term monitoring of salt intake is planned through future surveys and lessons from this process evaluation will be used to inform future strategies in the Pacific Islands and globally.
Fischer, Georg; Sarnat, Eli M; Economo, Evan P
The Fijian islands, a remote archipelago in the southwestern Pacific, are home to a number of spectacular endemic radiations of plants and animals. Unlike most Pacific archipelagos, these evolutionary radiations extend to social insects, including ants. One of the most dramatic examples of ant radiation in Fiji has occurred in the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole. Most of the 17 native Fijian Pheidole belong to one of two species groups that descended from a single colonization, yet have evolved dramatically contrasting morphologies: the spinescent P. roosevelti species group, and the more morphologically conservative P. knowlesi species group. Here we revise the knowlesi group, in light of recent phylogenetic results, and enhanced with modern methods of X-ray microtomography. We recognize six species belonging to this group, including two of which we describe as new: Pheidole caldwelli Mann, Pheidole kava sp. n., Pheidole knowlesi Mann, P. ululevu sp. n., P. vatu Mann, and P. wilsoni Mann. Detailed measurements and descriptions, identification keys, and high-resolution images for queens, major and minor workers are provided. In addition, we include highly detailed 3D surface reconstructions for all available castes.
Magee, Andrew D.; Verdon-Kidd, Danielle C.; Kiem, Anthony S.; Royle, Stephen A.
The destruction caused by tropical cyclone (TC) Pam in March 2015 is considered one of the worst natural disasters in the history of Vanuatu. It has highlighted the need for a better understanding of TC impacts and adaptation in the Southwest Pacific (SWP) region. Therefore, the key aims of this study are to (i) understand local perceptions of TC activity, (ii) investigate impacts of TC activity and (iii) uncover adaptation strategies used to offset the impacts of TCs. To address these aims, a survey (with 130 participants from urban areas) was conducted across three SWP small island states (SISs): Fiji, Vanuatu and Tonga (FVT). It was found that respondents generally had a high level of risk perception and awareness of TCs and the associated physical impacts, but lacked an understanding of the underlying weather conditions. Responses highlighted that current methods of adaptation generally occur at the local level, immediately prior to a TC event (preparation of property, gathering of food, finding a safe place to shelter). However higher level adaptation measures (such as the modification to building structures) may reduce vulnerability further. Finally, we discuss the potential of utilising weather-related traditional knowledge and non-traditional knowledge of empirical and climate-model-based weather forecasts to improve TC outlooks, which would ultimately reduce vulnerability and increase adaptive capacity. Importantly, lessons learned from this study may result in the modification and/or development of existing adaptation strategies.
Ogle, Graham D; Morrison, Melinda K; Silink, Martin; Taito, Rigamoto S
Determine the incidence and prevalence of diabetes in children Fiji. Data on all new cases from 2001 to 2012 was collected from the three paediatric diabetes services through the International Diabetes Federation Life for a Child Program. There was no formal secondary ascertainment source, however the medical community is small and all known cases are believed to be included. Forty-two children aged Fiji is very low. Furthermore, its occurrence is markedly more frequent in Indo-Fijians than in native Fijians. Type 2 and neonatal diabetes also occur. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.
Becker, Anne E.; Fay, Kristen E.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Khan, A. Nisha; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Gilman, Stephen E.
Background Mass media exposure has been associated with an increased risk of eating pathology. It is unknown whether indirect media exposure – such as the proliferation of media exposure in an individual’s social network – is also associated with eating disorders. Aims To test hypotheses that both individual (direct) and social network (indirect) mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in Fiji. Method We assessed several kinds of mass media exposure, media influence, cultural orientation and eating pathology by self-report among adolescent female ethnic Fijians (n = 523). We fitted a series of multiple regression models of eating pathology, assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE–Q), in which mass media exposures, sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were entered as predictors. Results Both direct and indirect mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in unadjusted analyses, whereas in adjusted analyses only social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology. This result was similar when eating pathology was operationalised as either a continuous or a categorical dependent variable (e.g. odds ratio OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.15–2.23 relating social network media exposure to upper-quartile EDE–Q scores). Subsequent analyses pointed to individual media influence as an important explanatory variable in this association. Conclusions Social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology in this Fijian study sample, independent of direct media exposure and other cultural exposures. Findings warrant further investigation of its health impact in other populations. PMID:21200076
Alison Patricia Newell
Full Text Available Domestic sea transport is critical to all aspects of life in the Pacific, providing access to markets and health and education services, as well as enabling cultural and social connectivity. Current sea transport services are entirely dependent upon use of increasingly expensive fossil fuels. Whilst there has been increasing research on international shipping, very little focus has been given to date to domestic shipping in the Pacific, and in particular at the local, village level. Recent studies have highlighted lack of data, particularly at a village level, as being a major impediment to progressing a shift to more sustainable transport.The importance of transport in achieving sustainable development and green growth is being increasingly highlighted by Pacific Leaders as a key priority, and particularly the need to find alternatives to reduce the region’s crippling dependency on imported fossil fuels. Small Island Developing States (SIDS in other regions also face similar challenges.This paper provides a summary of the findings of a village-based assessment of transport and fossil fuel use in Solodamu Village, Kadavu, Fiji carried out in 2009 and 2011. The objectives of the surveys were to gauge the overall sea, land and air transport use by the village and the fossil fuel footprint of the village by collecting data on a household by household basis. We then go on to outline how this assessment methodology has been expanded for an island group and highlight the potential of using this in other SIDS, so building the data sets available for more accurate analysis of both transport need and fossil fuel use to better address the issues of fossil fuel dependency and sustainable transport for the Pacific.
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…
In this paper I examine these three aspects in detail with respect to the price subsidy that Fiji's sugar industry has been receiving over the last three decades. Price stability is measured by examining the conditional variance by estimating a GARCH (1,1) model and price certainty aspect is examined by testing if the forecast ...
Cammock, Radilaite; Herbison, Peter; Lovell, Sarah; Priest, Patricia
The aim of the study was to identify unmet need and family planning access among indigenous Fijian or iTaukei women living in New Zealand and Fiji. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken between 2012-2013 in five major cities in New Zealand: Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin; and in three suburbs in Fiji. Women who did not want any (more) children but were not using any form of contraception were defined as having an unmet need. Access experiences involving cost and health provider interactions were assessed. Unmet need in New Zealand was 26% and similar to the unmet need found in Fiji (25%). Cost and concern over not being seen by a female provider were the most problematic access factors for women. There is a need for better monitoring and targeting of family planning services among minority Pacific groups, as the unmet need found in New Zealand was three times the national estimate overall and similar to the rate found in Fiji. Cost remains a problem among women trying to access family planning services. Gendered traditional roles in sexual and reproductive health maybe an area from which more understanding into cultural sensitivities and challenges may be achieved.
Lee, Chih-Yih; Sparks, Paul
Technology has greatly impacted educational systems around the world, even in the most geographically isolated places. This study utilizes an ethnographic approach to examine the patterns of learning in a kindergarten in Mana, Fiji. Data comprised of interviews, observations and examination of related artifacts. The results provide baseline data…
Schellart, W. P.; Lister, G. S.; Jessell, M. W.
In most backarc basins, extension is perpendicular to the arc. Thus individual spreading ridges extend approximately parallel to the arc. In the North Fiji Basin, however, several ancient and active spreading ridges strike 70°-90° to the New Hebrides arc. These high-angle spreading ridges relocated
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
This technical and vocational education (TVE) profile on Fiji is one in a series of profiles of UNESCO member countries. It is intended to be a handy reference on TVE systems, staff development, technical cooperation, and information networking. Part I, General Information, covers the following: location, area, and physical features; economic and…
Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Wate, Jillian; Tukana, Isimeli; Sacks, Gary
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of mortality in Fiji, a middle-income country in the Pacific. Some food products processed sold and marketed by the food industry are major contributors to the NCD epidemic, and the food industry is widely identified as having strong economic and political power. However, little research has been undertaken on the attempts by the food industry to influence public health-related policies and programs in its favour. The "corporate political activity" (CPA) of the food industry includes six strategies (information and messaging; financial incentives; constituency building; legal strategies; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilisation). For this study, we aimed to gain a detailed understanding of the CPA strategies and practices of major food industry actors in Fiji, interpreted through a public health lens. We implemented a systematic approach to monitor the CPA of the food industry in Fiji for three months. It consisted of document analysis of relevant publicly available information. In parallel, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 stakeholders involved in diet- and/or public health-related issues in Fiji. Both components of the study were thematically analysed. We found evidence that the food industry adopted a diverse range of strategies in an attempt to influence public policy in Fiji, with all six CPA strategies identified. Participants identified that there is a substantial risk that the widespread CPA of the food industry could undermine efforts to address NCDs in Fiji. Despite limited public disclosure of information, such as data related to food industry donations to political parties and lobbying, we were able to identify many CPA practices used by the food industry in Fiji. Greater transparency from the food industry and the government would help strengthen efforts to increase their accountability and support NCD prevention. In other low- and middle-income countries, it
McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.
Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.
Kim, Eunkyoung; Cho, Yoon-Min; Kwon, Soonman; Park, Kunhee
Rising demand for services of cancer patients has been recognised by the Government of Fiji as a national health priority. Increasing attention has been paid to the lack of service of radiation therapy or radiotherapy in Fiji. This study aims to estimate and compare the costs and benefits of introducing radiation oncology services in Fiji from the societal perspective. Time horizon for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) was 15 years from 2021 to 2035. The benefits and costs were converted to the present values of 2016. Estimates for the CBA model were taken from previous studies and expert opinions and data obtained from field visits to Fiji in January 2016. Sensitivity analyses with changing assumptions were undertaken. The estimated net benefit, applying the national minimum wage (NMW) to measure monetary value for life-year gained, was -31,624,421 FJD with 0.69 of benefit-cost (B/C) ratio. If gross national income (GNI) per capita was used for the value of life years, net benefit was 3,975,684 FJD (B/C ratio: 1.04). With a pessimistic scenario, establishing the center appeared to be not cost-beneficial, and the net benefit was -53,634,682 FJD (B/C ratio: 0.46); net benefit with an optimistic scenario was estimated 23,178,189 FJD (B/C ratio: 1.20). Based on the CBA results from using GNI per capita instead of the NMW, this project would be cost-beneficial. Introducing a radiation oncology center in Fiji would have potential impacts on financial sustainability, financial protection, and accessibility and equity of the health system. Copyright © 2017 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Watters, David A K; Ewing, Hamish; McCaig, Eddie
The Pacific Islands Project (PIP), funded by AusAid and managed by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS), has progressed through three phases from 1995 to 2010. During this time, it has sent over 520 teams to 11 Pacific Island Countries, providing over 60,000 consultations and some 16,000 procedures. In addition to this delivery of specialist medical and surgical services that were not previously available in-country, the project has contributed as a partner in capacity building with the Fiji School of Medicine and Ministries of Health of the individual nations. By 2011, Fiji School of Medicine, which began postgraduate specialist training in 1998, had awarded 51 doctors a diploma in surgery (1 year), 20 of whom had completed their Masters in Medicine (4 years). PIP was independently evaluated on completion of every phase, including the bridging Phase III (2006-2010). The project delivered on its design, to deliver services, and also helped build capacity. The relationship established with the RACS throughout the project allowed Pacific Island graduates to access the Rowan Nicks scholarship, and the majority of MMed graduates received International Travel Grants to attend the Annual Scientific Meeting. PIP has been a highly successful partnership in delivering and building specialist medical services. Although AusAid contributed some $20 million over 16 years, the value added from pro bono contributions by Specialist Teams, Specialty Coordinators and the Project Directors amounted to an equivalent amount. With the emergence of Pacific Island-trained specialists, PIP is ready to move into a new phase where the agendas are set, monitored and managed within the Pacific, and RACS fulfils the role of a service provider. A critical mass of Pacific Island surgeons has been trained, so that sub-specialization will be an option for the general surgeons of the larger island nations. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of
Greenwell, James; McCool, Judith; Kool, Jacob; Salusalu, Mosese
The Pacific island nation of Fiji Islands has high rates of endemic typhoid fever which is difficult to diagnose and often underreported. However, the majority of cases are preventable through use of safe water; adequate sanitation; vaccination; and, most sustainable of all, simple hygienic behaviour, such as hand washing with soap (HWWS). Despite many attempts by public health authorities, little progress has been made in the area of environmental adaptation and behaviour change. To explore perceptions of typhoid fever risk among urban squatters and behavioural determinants surrounding HWWS, indigenous Fijians living in informal settlements with high typhoid fever incidence were invited to participate in focus group discussions. In-depth interviews were conducted with community leaders. Perceptions of typhoid fever suggest confusion about risk factors, symptoms and communicability. Environmental barriers for hand washing were related to water and soap access. Standard social marketing approaches have been trialled with little clear evidence of impact. Despite this, we continue to advocate for the social and cultural determinants of typhoid prevention to remain central to future public health strategies. Despite behaviour change being notoriously difficult, we argue that community-driven behaviour adaptation initiatives based on sound epidemiological evidence and health communication theory are likely to have significant impact and greater likelihood of sustainability.
Full Text Available Problem/context: The Pacific island nation of Fiji Islands has high rates of endemic typhoid fever which is difficult to diagnose and often underreported. However, the majority of cases are preventable through use of safe water; adequate sanitation; vaccination; and, most sustainable of all, simple hygienic behaviour, such as hand washing with soap (HWWS. Despite many attempts by public health authorities, little progress has been made in the area of environmental adaptation and behaviour change. Action: To explore perceptions of typhoid fever risk among urban squatters and behavioural determinants surrounding HWWS, indigenous Fijians living in informal settlements with high typhoid fever incidence were invited to participate in focus group discussions. In-depth interviews were conducted with community leaders. Outcome: Perceptions of typhoid fever suggest confusion about risk factors, symptoms and communicability. Environmental barriers for hand washing were related to water and soap access. Standard social marketing approaches have been trialled with little clear evidence of impact. Despite this, we continue to advocate for the social and cultural determinants of typhoid prevention to remain central to future public health strategies. Discussion: Despite behaviour change being notoriously difficult, we argue that community-driven behaviour adaptation initiatives based on sound epidemiological evidence and health communication theory are likely to have significant impact and greater likelihood of sustainability.
Snowdon, Wendy; Raj, Astika; Reeve, Erica; Guerrero, Rachael L T; Fesaitu, Jioje; Cateine, Katia; Guignet, Charlene
There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Processed foods in stores. The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging.
Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Robinson, Elizabeth; Herman, Josephine; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi
To investigate the association between kava use and the risk of four-wheeled motor vehicle crashes in Fiji. Kava is a traditional beverage commonly consumed in many Pacific Island Countries. Herbal anxiolytics containing smaller doses of kava are more widely available. Data for this population-based case-control study were collected from drivers of 'case' vehicles involved in serious injury-involved crashes (where at least one road user was killed or admitted to hospital for 12 hours or more) and 'control' vehicles representative of 'driving time' in the study base. Structured interviewer administered questionnaires collected self-reported participant data on demographic characteristics and a range of risk factors including kava use and potential confounders. Unconditional logistic regression models estimated odds ratios relating to the association between kava use and injury-involved crash risk. Overall, 23% and 4% of drivers of case and control vehicles, respectively, reported consuming kava in the 12 hours prior to the crash or road survey. After controlling for assessed confounders, driving following kava use was associated with a four-fold increase in the odds of crash involvement (Odds ratio: 4.70; 95% CI: 1.90-11.63). The related population attributable risk was 18.37% (95% CI: 13.77-22.72). Acknowledging limited statistical power, we did not find a significant interaction in this association with concurrent alcohol use. In this study conducted in a setting where recreational kava consumption is common, driving following the use of kava was associated with a significant excess of serious-injury involved road crashes. The precautionary principle would suggest road safety strategies should explicitly recommend avoiding driving following kava use, particularly in communities where recreational use is common.
Sun, Jimin; Fu, Tao; Mao, Haiyan; Wang, Zhen; Pan, Junhang; Rutherford, Shannon; Ren, Jiangping; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Yin; Zhu, Zhihong; Qi, Xiaohua; Gong, Zhenyu; Liu, Qiyong; Yu, Hongjie; Zhu, Liebo; Chen, Wenxian; Chen, Zhiping; Zhang, Yanjun; Chen, Enfu
Zika virus is currently causing extensive outbreaks in a number of countries in South and Central America and the Caribbean and has been associated with foetal abnormalities. We report an outbreak of Zika virus infection in a Chinese tour-group returning from a nine day holiday in Fiji and Samoa. The index case was a 38-year old male who developed symptoms while travelling back from Fiji to Hong Kong on the 14th February, 2016. A field investigation was initiated to define the epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of Zika virus infection in this tour group and revealed two further symptomatic infections and one asymptomatic infection among the 33 travellers; an overall infection attack rate of 12% in these travellers. Active surveillance led to detection of Zika virus RNA in the serum of one case four days prior to onset of symptoms and detection of Zika virus in saliva from one asymptomatic infection.
Linhart, Christine; Tukana, Isimeli; Lin, Sophia; Taylor, Richard; Morrell, Stephen; Vatucawaqa, Penina; Magliano, Dianna; Zimmet, Paul
To analyse trends during 1980-2011 in hypertension prevalence and SBP/DBP by sex in Fiji Melanesian (i-Taukei) and Indian adults aged 25-64 years; and to assess effects of BMI. Unit record data from five population-based surveys were included (n = 14, 191). Surveys were adjusted to the nearest previous census to improve national representativeness. Hypertension was defined as SBP at least 140 mmHg and/or DBP at least 90 mmHg and/or on medication for hypertension. Regression (Poisson and linear) was used to assess period trends. Over 1980-2011 hypertension prevalence (%) and mean blood pressure (BP) (SBP/DBP mmHg) increased significantly (P Fiji during 1980-2011 with no indication of decline, contributing to significant premature mortality from cardiovascular disease.
de-mer, a sea cucumber that is considered a delicacy in Asia. In exchange for both of these resources, traders provided the Fijians with cloth, metal...the colony to raise soldiers for active service, many Fijians also travelled to New Zealand, Australia, England and even the French Foreign Legion to...1945 Trade Unions Formed 1921 Protests Against Elections 1987 1987 Coup Taukei Violence 1987 2nd Coup/Fiji declared Republic 1987 French Nuclear Testing
Devi, Arpana A; Abbott, Paul V
This paper seeks to provide the reader with an overview of the endodontic curriculum in Fiji from 2009 to 2013. It also intends to inform readers of the changes in endodontic teaching, the learning methods utilised, curriculum development, the transition from block teaching to partial block teaching combined with longitudinal teaching, and the future plans for the endodontic module. © 2015 Australian Society of Endodontology.
Wei, S. Shawn; Zha, Yang; Shen, Weisen; Wiens, Douglas A.; Conder, James A.; Webb, Spahr C.
We investigate the upper mantle seismic structure in the Tonga-Lau-Fiji region by jointly fitting the phase velocities of Rayleigh waves from ambient-noise and two-plane-wave tomography. The results suggest a wide low-velocity zone beneath the Lau Basin, with a minimum SV-velocity of about 3.7 ± 0.1 km/s, indicating upwelling hot asthenosphere with extensive partial melting. The variations of velocity anomalies along the Central and Eastern Lau Spreading Centers suggest varying mantle porosity filled with melt. In the north where the spreading centers are distant from the Tonga slab, the inferred melting commences at about 70 km depth, and forms an inclined zone in the mantle, dipping to the west away from the arc. This pattern suggests a passive decompression melting process supplied by the Australian plate mantle from the west. In the south, as the supply from the Australian mantle is impeded by the Lau Ridge lithosphere, flux melting controlled by water from the nearby slab dominates in the back-arc. This source change results in the rapid transition in geochemistry and axial morphology along the spreading centers. The remnant Lau Ridge and the Fiji Plateau are characterized by a 60-80 km thick lithosphere underlain by a low-velocity asthenosphere. Our results suggest the removal of the lithosphere of the northeastern Fiji Plateau-Lau Ridge beneath the active Taveuni Volcano. Azimuthal anisotropy shows that the mantle flow direction rotates from trench-perpendicular beneath Fiji to spreading-perpendicular beneath the Lau Basin, which provides evidence for the southward flow of the mantle wedge and the Samoan plume.
Louise S. L. Teh
Full Text Available Understanding the socio-economic factors that are associated with fishers’ willingness to delay gratification may be useful for designing appropriate fisheries management and conservation policies. We aim to identify the predictors of low discounting behaviour among fishers, which is analogous to having a longer-term outlook. We base our empirical study on two small-scale tropical reef fisheries in Sabah, Malaysia, and Fiji. We use an experimental approach to identify fishers with low discount rates, and then use a logistic regression model to identify predictors of low discount rates. We find that 42% of the respondents have low discount rates, and that site and village level variables are significant predictors of low discount rates. Within Sabah and Fiji, boat ownership and relative catch differentiate low discounting from non-low discounting fishers, but these variables have contradictory effects in Sabah and Fiji. Overall, our results imply that a substantial proportion of reef fishers may be willing to engage in conservation initiatives; however, local socio-cultural, economic, and ecological conditions have to be considered first during the process of designing management interventions.
Varman, S; Bullen, C; Tayler-Smith, K; Van Den Bergh, R; Khogali, M
Childhood obesity is of growing public health concern in Fiji. The study setting was primary schools in Fiji's Western Division. 1) To assess primary schools' compliance with national school canteen guidelines, 2) to understand reasons for non-compliance, and 3) to assess the relationship between compliance with the guidelines and students' body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2010 by public health dieticians of the Ministry of Health on annual visits to primary schools. Among 230 schools, 33 (14%) had no canteen data. Of the 197 schools with data, only 31 (16%) were fully compliant with national school canteen guidelines, while the remaining 166 (84%) did not fully comply with the guidelines. This was irrespective of school location or whether the canteen was school or commercially operated. In a random sample (n = 44 schools), overweight and obesity were more common among children in non-compliant schools than in fully compliant schools (40% vs. 32%, P schools in Fiji's Western Division did not comply with school canteen guidelines, which is worrying given the increasing rates of overweight children. Given the association between non-compliance and student overweight/obesity, further action is needed to ensure that these guidelines are implemented.
An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...
Mattey, D.; Stephens, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Brett, M.
The modern tropical Fiji climate is characterised by seasonal rainfall controlled by the position of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). Interannual rainfall is strongly modulated on decadal timescales by ENSO with higher rainfall associated with La Nina events. Voli Voli cave near Sigatoga (Viti Levu) is a stream passage that has been monitored since 2009. A U-Th dated laminated speleothem spans a 1500 year interval across the transition from the Medieval Warm Period into the Little Ice Age marked by a fabric change from finely laminated calcite with thin clay layers, to white well-laminated calcite. The older record is characterised by rising δ13C values followed by a rapid decrease in δ13C around 1200 AD. Evidence from cave monitoring shows that cave air CO2 levels are strongly seasonal as a result of greater ventilation by winter trade winds and high resolution δ13C record shows regularly spaced peaks correlated with paired laminae and cycles in P and S which provide annual markers driven by rainfall and seasonal ventilation. δ18O values remain relatively unchanged throughout the record but micromilling at sub-annual resolution reveals systematic cycles in δ18O that span groups of paired laminae with an inferred periodicity of 3-7 years i.e. a similar frequency to modern ENSO. The presence of these sub-decadal cycles in δ18O may be a result of a combination of factors. The amplitude of 2-3‰ would be equivalent to an amount-effect related change in annual precipitation of around 50% but an additional smoothing process, perhaps a result of aquifer storage, is required to attenuate interannual variance in precipitation. The Voli Voli record provides evidence of an underlying climatic change to more frequent La Niña conditions from 1200 AD and may be associated with increased conflict, shifts in settlements and changes in subsistence strategies on the island. Coeval speleothem isotope records from tropical Pacific Islands provide a provide a
Tervonen, Hanna; Foliaki, Sunia; Bray, Freddie; Roder, David
Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs) comprise 20,000-30,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean. PICTs face challenges in relation to small population sizes, geographic dispersion, increasing adoption of unhealthy life-styles and the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases, including cancer. This study reviews data on cancer incidence and mortality in the PICTs, with special focus on indigenous populations. PICTs with populations of GLOBOCAN 2012 database. Scientific and grey literature was narratively reviewed for publications published after 2000. Of the 21 PICTs, seven countries were included in the GLOBOCAN 2012 (Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, New Caledonia, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu). The highest cancer incidence and mortality rates were reported in New Caledonia (age-standardized incidence and mortality rates 297.9 and 127.3 per 100.000) and French Polynesia (age-standardized incidence and mortality rates 255.0 and 134.4 per 100.000), with relatively low rates in other countries. Literature indicated that cancer was among the leading causes of deaths in most PICTs; thus they now experience a double burden of cancers linked to infections and life-style and reproductive factors. Further, ethnic differences in cancer incidence and mortality have been reported in some PICTs, including Fiji, Guam, New Caledonia and Northern Mariana Islands. Cancer incidence in the PICTs was recorded to be relatively low, with New Caledonia and French Polynesia being exceptions. Low recorded incidence is likely to be explained by incomplete cancer registration as cancer had an important contribution to mortality. Further endeavors are needed to develop and strengthen cancer registration infrastructure and practices and to improve data quality and registration coverage in the PICTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ravuvu, Amerita; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne-Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian
Trade agreements are increasingly recognised as playing an influential role in shaping national food environments and the availability and nutritional quality of the food supply. Global monitoring of food environments and trade policies can strengthen the evidence base for the impact of trade policy on nutrition, and support improved policy coherence. Using the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol, we reviewed available food supply data to understand associations between Fiji's commitments under WTO trade agreements and food import volume trends. First, a desk review was conducted to map and record in one place Fiji's commitments to relevant existing trade agreements that have implications for Fiji's national food environment under the domains of the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol. An excel database was developed to document the agreements and their provisions. The second aspect of the research focused on data extraction. We began with identifying food import volumes into Fiji by country of origin, with a particular focus on a select number of 'healthy and unhealthy' foods. We also developed a detailed listing of transnational food corporations currently operating in Fiji. The study suggests that Fiji's WTO membership, in conjunction with associated economic and agricultural policy changes have contributed to increased availability of both healthy and less healthy imported foods. In systematically monitoring the import volume trends of these two categories of food, the study highlights an increase in healthy foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables and whole-grain refined cereals. The study also shows that there has been an increase in less healthy foods including fats and oils; meat; processed dairy products; energy-dense beverages; and processed and packaged foods. By monitoring the trends of imported foods at country level from the perspective of trade agreements, we are able to develop appropriate and targeted interventions to improve diets and health. This
Tibi, R.; Wiens, D. A.
Recordings of deep Fiji-Tonga earthquakes from an array of 15 broadband seismographs in Fiji are stacked and searched for reflections and conversions from upper mantle discontinuities near the Fiji-Tonga slab. The Fiji array operated as part of the SAFT (Seismic Arrays in Fiji and Tonga) experiment from July 2001 to August 2002. In comparison with the commonly used teleseismic approaches, the short path lengths for the local data provide smaller Fresnel zones and high frequency content for precise mapping of discontinuity topography and sharpness. This is particularly important for a subduction zone, where variations in temperature and water content may be expected which should cause changes in the elevation and sharpness of the discontinuities. We study the phases s410p, P660p and S660p where they arrive at least 10 seconds after the direct P wave and prior to the S wave accross the array. To anhance low-amplitude reflections/conversions, deconvolved seismograms from each event are aligned on the maximum amplitude of the direct P wave and slant stacked. Preliminary results indicate that for the northern part of the Fiji-Tonga subduction zone, the 660-km discontinuity varies between 660 and 670 km in depth. In the central part we observe converted phases consistent with a ``410'' depth of 380 km, indicating the effect of the cold subducting plate. The reflections/conversions show only a slight frequency shift relative to the direct P waveforms, suggesting the discontinuities are relatively sharp. The thickness for the 660-km discontinuity is estimated as between 2 and 6 km.
Ravuvu, Amerita; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian
Despite the growing rates of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases, globally, public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade agreements and the nutritional risks associated with it. Specific trade agreements appear to have played an influential role in the volume and types of foods entering different countries, yet there is currently no systematic and objective monitoring of trade agreements for their impacts on food environments. Recently, INFORMAS was set up to monitor and benchmark food environments, government policies and private sector actions within countries and globally. One of its projects/modules focuses on trade policy and in particular the food-related aspects of trade agreements. This paper describes the INFORMAS trade protocol, an approach to collecting food-related information about four domains of trade: trade in goods; trade in services and foreign direct investment; domestic supports, and policy space. Specifically, the protocol is tested in Fiji. The development and testing of this protocol in Fiji represents the first effort to set out a framework and process for objectively monitoring trade agreements and their impacts on national food supply and the wider food environment. It has shown that entry into WTO trade agreements contributed to the nutrition transition in Fiji through the increased availability of imported foods with varying nutritional quality. We observed an increase in imports of both healthy and less healthy foods. The application of the monitoring protocol also highlights challenges for data collection associated with each trade domain that should be considered for future data collection and analysis in other low and middle income countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Gounder, Shakti; Tayler-Smith, Katherine; Khogali, Mohammed; Raikabula, Maopa; Harries, Anthony D
In Fiji, patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) currently submit three sputum specimens for smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli, but there is little information about how well this practice is carried out. A cross-sectional retrospective review was carried out in all four TB diagnostic laboratories in Fiji to determine among new patients presenting with suspected PTB in 2011: the quality of submitted sputum; the number of sputum samples submitted; the relationship between quality and number of submitted samples to smear-positivity; and positive yield from first, second and third samples. Of 1940 patients with suspected PTB, 3522 sputum samples were submitted: 997 (51.4%) patients submitted one sample, 304 (15.7%) patients submitted two samples and 639 (32.9%) submitted three samples. Sputum quality was recorded in 2528 (71.8%) of samples, of which 1046 (41.4%) were of poor quality. Poor quality sputum was more frequent in females, inpatients and children (0-14 years). Good quality sputum and a higher number of submitted samples positively correlated with smear-positivity for acid-fast bacilli. There were 122 (6.3%) patients with suspected PTB who were sputum smear positive. Of those, 89 had submitted three sputum samples: 79 (89%) were diagnosed based on the first sputum sample, 6 (7%) on the second sample and 4 (4%) on the third sample. This study shows that there are deficiencies in the practice of sputum smear examination in Fiji with respect to sputum quality and recommended number of submitted samples, although the results support the continued use of three sputum samples for TB diagnosis. Ways to improve sputum quality and adherence to recommended guidelines are needed.
Engelman, Daniel; Mataika, Reapi L; Kado, Joseph H; Ah Kee, Maureen; Donath, Susan; Parks, Tom; Steer, Andrew C
Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) can detect subclinical cases; however, adequate adherence to secondary antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) is required to alter disease outcomes. We aimed to investigate the adherence to SAP among young people with RHD diagnosed through echocardiographic screening in Fiji and to investigate factors associated with adherence. Patients diagnosed with RHD through echocardiographic screening in Fiji from 2006 to 2014 were included. Dates of benzathine penicillin G injections were collected from 76 health clinics nationally from December 2011 to December 2014. Adherence was measured using the proportion of days covered (PDC). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify characteristics associated with any adherence (≥1 injection received) and adequate adherence (PDC ≥0.80). Of 494 patients, 268 (54%) were female and the median age was 14 years. Overall, 203 (41%) had no injections recorded and just 33 (7%) had adequate adherence. Multivariate logistic regression showed increasing age (OR 0.93 per year, 95% CI 0.87-0.99) and time since diagnosis ≥1.5 years (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37-0.79) to be inversely associated with any adherence. Non-iTaukei ethnicity (OR 2.58, 95%CI 1.04-6.33) and urban residence (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.54-7.36) were associated with adequate adherence, whereas time since diagnosis ≥1.5 years (OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.17-0.83) was inversely associated with adequate adherence. Adherence to SAP after screening in Fiji is currently inadequate for individual patient protection or population disease control. Secondary prevention should be strengthened before further screening can be justified. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lin, Sophia; Tukana, Isimeli; Linhart, Christine; Morrell, Stephen; Taylor, Richard; Vatucawaqa, Penina; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul
No systematic comparison has been conducted in Fiji using all suitable surveys of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity prevalence after standardizing methodology and definitions. Unit records from six surveys of Fiji adults were variously adjusted for age, ethnicity (Fiji Melanesians, i-Taukei, and Fijians of Asian Indian descent [Indians]) and urban-rural by sex to previous censuses. Trends were assessed using meta-regression (random effect models) and estimates projected to 2020. Poisson regression of strata was used to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) increases on T2DM period trends. Over 1980-2011, T2DM prevalence increased in i-Taukei men (3.2% to 11.1%; 1.32%/5 years) and women (5.3% to 13.6%; 1.40%/5 years) and Indian men (11.1% to 17.9%; 1.24%/5 years) and women (11.2% to 19.9%; 1.71%/5 years). Projected T2DM prevalence in 2020 is 13.3% and 16.7% in i-Taukei men and women, and 23.4% and 24.1% in Indian men and women, respectively. Obesity prevalence increased in i-Taukei men (12.6% to 28.9%; 2.99%/5 years) and women (30.1% to 52.9%; 3.84%/5 years) and in Indian men (2.8% to 9.4%; 1.21%/5 years) and women (13.2% to 26.6%; 2.61%/5 years). Projected obesity prevalence in 2020 is 34.0% and 60.0% in i-Taukei and women, and 11.4% and 31.0% in Indian men and women, respectively. After age-adjustment, an estimated 27%, 25%, 16% and 18% of the T2DM period trend is attributable to BMI in i-Taukei men and women and Indian men and women, respectively. Prevalence of T2DM in Fiji is projected to continue increasing, driven by rising obesity, with consequences for premature mortality and life expectancy. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Diabetes published by Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine (SJTU), Chinese Society of Endocrinology and Chinese Endocrinologist Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Macleod, Colin K; Butcher, Robert; Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Pavluck, Alexandre L; Willis, Rebecca; Alexander, Neal; Mabey, David C W; Cikamatana, Luisa; Kama, Mike; Rafai, Eric; Roberts, Chrissy H; Solomon, Anthony W
Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experience of local healthcare workers who do not consider trachoma to be highly prevalent. We aimed to determine whether conjunctival infection with Ct could be detected in one administrative division of Fiji. A population-based survey of 2306 individuals was conducted using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. Population prevalence of active trachoma in children and trichiasis in adults was estimated using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 1009 children aged 1-9 years. DNA from swabs was tested for the presence of the Ct plasmid and human endogenous control. The prevalence of active trachoma in 1-9 year olds was 3.4%. The age-adjusted prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI: 1.4-4.3%). The unadjusted prevalence of ocular Ct infection in 1-9 year-olds was 1.9% (19/1009), and the age-adjusted infection prevalence was 2.3% (95% CI: 0.4-2.5%). The median DNA load was 41 Ct plasmid copies per swab (min 20, first quartile 32, mean 6665, third quartile 161, max 86354). There was no association between current infection and follicular trachoma. No cases of trachomatous trichiasis were identified. The Western Division of Fiji has a low prevalence of clinical trachoma. Ocular Ct infections were observed, but they were predominantly low load infections and were not correlated with clinical signs. Our study data suggest that trachoma does not meet the WHO definition of a public health problem in this Division of Fiji, but the inconsistency with
Colin K Macleod
Full Text Available Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct. While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experience of local healthcare workers who do not consider trachoma to be highly prevalent. We aimed to determine whether conjunctival infection with Ct could be detected in one administrative division of Fiji.A population-based survey of 2306 individuals was conducted using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. Population prevalence of active trachoma in children and trichiasis in adults was estimated using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 1009 children aged 1-9 years. DNA from swabs was tested for the presence of the Ct plasmid and human endogenous control.The prevalence of active trachoma in 1-9 year olds was 3.4%. The age-adjusted prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI: 1.4-4.3%. The unadjusted prevalence of ocular Ct infection in 1-9 year-olds was 1.9% (19/1009, and the age-adjusted infection prevalence was 2.3% (95% CI: 0.4-2.5%. The median DNA load was 41 Ct plasmid copies per swab (min 20, first quartile 32, mean 6665, third quartile 161, max 86354. There was no association between current infection and follicular trachoma. No cases of trachomatous trichiasis were identified.The Western Division of Fiji has a low prevalence of clinical trachoma. Ocular Ct infections were observed, but they were predominantly low load infections and were not correlated with clinical signs. Our study data suggest that trachoma does not meet the WHO definition of a public health problem in this Division of Fiji, but the
La Vincente, S F; Mielnik, D; Jenkins, K; Bingwor, F; Volavola, L; Marshall, H; Druavesi, P; Russell, F M; Lokuge, K; Mulholland, E K
in a Pacific Island nation. In a challenging environment with limited community knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer, media controversy and a short lead-time for community education, Fiji has implemented an HPV vaccine campaign that was largely acceptable to the community and achieved a high level of participation. Community sensitisation and education is critical and should include a focus on the local health workforce and the vaccine target group.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Islands for the United States. The Islands layer contains all islands within a NAVSTREETS coverage area. An island is represented as a polygonal feature. The...
Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Richards, Lauren K.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E.; Becker, Anne E.
Objective The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. Method We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). Results We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition—and where globalization is also influencing local social norms—may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. PMID:25139374
Cocks, Naomi; Rainima-Qaniuci, Merelesita; Yalen, Chelsea; Macleod, Colin; Nakolinivalu, Apisalome; Migchelsen, Stephanie; Roberts, Chrissy H; Butcher, Robert; Kama, Mike; Mabey, David; Marks, Michael
Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in several countries in the Pacific. In co-endemic countries there may be potential synergies between both control programmes. We undertook a cluster randomised trachoma and yaws seroprevalence survey of children in the Western Division of Fiji. Children were examined for skin lesions consistent with active yaws. A dried blood spot was collected which was tested using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test and an ELISA to detect antibodies against Pgp3. A total of 607 children from 305 households across 23 villages were recruited into the survey. On skin examination, no child had clinical evidence of yaws, and the TPPA assay was negative in all children (0%, 95% CI 0.0-0.6). The seroprevalence of Pgp3 antibodies was 20.9% (95% CI 17.8-24.6%). In this study there was neither clinical nor serological evidence that transmission of yaws was ongoing. The Pgp3 seroprevalence pattern was consistent with either low level transmission of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis or exposure to C. trachomatis in the birth canal which is consistent with a survey conducted in the same region in 2013. These data suggest neither yaws nor ocular chlamydia infection are a significant public health problem in the Western Division of Fiji. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Damato, Erika M; Murray, Neil; Szetu, John; Sikivou, Biu Telaite; Emma, Stephanie; McGhee, Charles N J
To report the spectrum of retinopathy at first presentation to photoscreening services, to determine the proportion of patients that present with sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR), and to raise awareness of the burden of diabetic eye disease in Fiji. This retrospective observational cohort study used data from the initial visit of all new patients presenting to the diabetes retinal screening service at the Pacific Eye Institute in Fiji over the 3-month period between July and September 2012. Patients were assessed using a detailed questionnaire regarding diabetes type, duration of disease, medications, complications and co-morbidities, and blood sugar control. Patients subsequently underwent non-mydriatic fundus photography according to Pacific diabetes retinal screening guidelines. Images were graded at the time of acquisition, and data were entered onto a computerized database. For the purposes of this study, information regarding retinopathy grading, visual acuity and patient demographics was used. A total of 522 new patients were screened over the 3-month period. STDR was observed in 27% of patients, with 15% observed to have bilateral STDR. Diabetes control was generally poor. Blindness and visual impairment were observed in 2.7% and 6.7% of the cohort, respectively. Severe and advanced diabetic retinopathy was present in this population presenting to screening. This was observed 4 years after the formal expansion of the screening services and reflects the high prevalence of diabetes in the population. The need for increased public awareness and greater resource allocation into diabetes and its complications is emphasized.
Full Text Available Objective: A cluster of suspected hepatitis A cases was notified to the Fiji Ministry of Health on 22 October 2013. An outbreak investigation team was mobilized to confirm the existence of an outbreak of hepatitis A and advise appropriate public health interventions. Methods: A case definition for the outbreak investigation was established, and standardized data collection tools were used to collect information on clinical presentation and risk factors. An environmental assessment was also conducted. Results: There were 160 clinical cases of hepatitis A of which 15 were laboratory-confirmed. The attack rate was 349 per 10 000 population in the Nukuloa nursing zone; there were no reported deaths. Residents of the Nukuloa settlement were 6.6 times more likely to present with symptomatic hepatitis A infection (95% confidence interval: 3.8–12.6 compared with residents of another village with a different water supply. Discussion: This is the first significant hepatitis A outbreak documented in Ba subdivision and possibly in Fiji. Enhanced surveillance of hepatitis A may reveal other clusters in the country. Improving the primary water source dramatically reduced the occurance of disease in the affected community and adjacent areas.
Witter, Trevor; Poudevigne, Melanie; Lambrick, Danielle M; Faulkner, James; Lucero, Adam A; Page, Rachel; Perry, Lane G; Tarrant, Michael A; Stoner, Lee
The current review will look at modifiable lifestyle (physical inactivity, poor nutrition, risky alcohol behavior and cigarette smoking) and cardio-metabolic (obesity, diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol and high blood pressure) cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Indigenous-Fijian and Indo-Fijian subgroups. A framework for monitoring and managing these risk factors will be presented. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized and synthesized. Compared to Indo-Fijians, Indigenous-Fijians have higher rates of obesity (17% vs 11%) and hypertension (21% vs 16%), but lower rates of diabetes mellitus (12% vs 21%) and high cholesterol (33% vs 39%). Indigenous-Fijians report higher rates of prescribed physical activity (25% vs 21%), but poorer recommended vegetable intake (48% vs 56%), greater risky alcohol behavior (17% vs 15%) and a much greater prevalence of cigarette smoking (45% vs 24%). Both Indigenous-Fijians and Indo-Fijians report a low prevalence of recommended fruit intake (17% vs 15%). Fiji is progressing through demographic and epidemiological transitions, including a decline in infectious diseases and improved life expectancy. However, in concert with other developing nations, 'modernization' is accompanied by increased mortality from non-communicable diseases, with CVD being the most prevalent. This transition has been associated with changes to socio-cultural aspects of Fiji, including poor lifestyle choices that may contribute to a cluster of cardio-metabolic conditions which precede CVD. © Royal Society for Public Health 2013.
Gerbasi, Margaret E; Richards, Lauren K; Thomas, Jennifer J; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E; Becker, Anne E
The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n = 523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition--and where globalization is also influencing local social norms--may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Getahun, Aneley; Rafai, Eric; Tolosa, Maria Ximena; Dawainavesi, Akanisi; Tabua, Anaseini Maisema; Tabua, Josefa
A cluster of suspected hepatitis A cases was notified to the Fiji Ministry of Health on 22 October 2013. An outbreak investigation team was mobilized to confirm the existence of an outbreak of hepatitis A and advise appropriate public health interventions. A case definition for the outbreak investigation was established, and standardized data collection tools were used to collect information on clinical presentation and risk factors. An environmental assessment was also conducted. There were 160 clinical cases of hepatitis A of which 15 were laboratory-confirmed. The attack rate was 349 per 10,000 population in the Nukuloa nursing zone; there were no reported deaths. Residents of the Nukuloa settlement were 6.6 times more likely to present with symptomatic hepatitis A infection (95% confidence interval: 3.8-12.6) compared with residents of another village with a different water supply. This is the first significant hepatitis A outbreak documented in Ba subdivision and possibly in Fiji. Enhanced surveillance of hepatitis A may reveal other clusters in the country. Improving the primary water source dramatically reduced the occurance of disease in the affected community and adjacent areas.
Jenkins, Aaron Peter; Jupiter, Stacy; Mueller, Ute; Jenney, Adam; Vosaki, Gandercillar; Rosa, Varanisese; Naucukidi, Alanieta; Mulholland, Kim; Strugnell, Richard; Kama, Mike; Horwitz, Pierre
The impact of environmental change on transmission patterns of waterborne enteric diseases is a major public health concern. This study concerns the burden and spatial nature of enteric fever, attributable to Salmonella Typhi infection in the Central Division, Republic of Fiji at a sub-catchment scale over 30-months (2013-2015). Quantitative spatial analysis suggested relationships between environmental conditions of sub-catchments and incidence and recurrence of typhoid fever. Average incidence per inhabited sub-catchment for the Central Division was high at 205.9/100,000, with cases recurring in each calendar year in 26% of sub-catchments. Although the numbers of cases were highest within dense, urban coastal sub-catchments, the incidence was highest in low-density mountainous rural areas. Significant environmental determinants at this scale suggest increased risk of exposure where sediment yields increase following runoff. The study suggests that populations living on large systems that broaden into meandering mid-reaches and floodplains with alluvial deposition are at a greater risk compared to small populations living near small, erosional, high-energy headwaters and small streams unconnected to large hydrological networks. This study suggests that anthropogenic alteration of land cover and hydrology (particularly via fragmentation of riparian forest and connectivity between road and river networks) facilitates increased transmission of typhoid fever and that environmental transmission of typhoid fever is important in Fiji.
Lui, Paraniala Silas; Sarangapany, Jeganathan; Begley, Kim; Musson, Rachel; Ram, Sharan; Kishore, Kamal
A cross-sectional survey was conducted to identify the attitudes and behaviours of health care workers (HCWs) in health care settings (HCS) in Fiji involving 369 participants. Self-rated knowledge of HIV and sexually transmissible infections (STIs) varied depending on whether the HCS was divisional or sub-divisional, and varied between the various national divisions. HCWs with experience in HIV, reproductive health and antenatal clinics had higher self-rated HIV knowledge. A high proportion had a fear of catching HIV from HIV-positive clients. This study found high levels of negative attitudes towards clients from vulnerable groups with regards to the transmission and spread of HIV. Study participants also reported observing differential treatment by their colleagues if a client was known to have or was suspected of having HIV. There is a need for further HIV education of HCWs, with training focussed on occupational risk, and on reducing stigma and discrimination of those living with or vulnerable to HIV in Fiji.
Peiris-John, Roshini; Kafoa, Berlin; Wainiqolo, Iris; Reddy, Ravi Krishnan; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi N
This study investigated the incidence and characteristics of poisoning fatalities and hospital admissions among indigenous Fijians and Indians in Viti Levu, Fiji. Individuals with a mechanism of injury classified as poisoning were identified using the Fiji injury surveillance in hospitals system, a population-based registry established for 12 months in Viti Levu, and analysed using population-based denominators. The mean annual rates of fatalities and hospitalisations were 2.3 and 26.0 per 100 000, respectively. Over two-thirds of poisonings occurred among people of Indian ethnicity. Most intentional poisoning admissions occurred among women (58.3%) and in 15–29-year-old individuals (73.8%). Unintentional poisoning admission rates were highest among Indian boys aged 0–14 years. While over 75% of events occurred at home, the substances involved were not systematically identified. The findings indicate the need for a strategy that addresses the differing contexts across age group, gender and ethnicity, and a lead agency responsible for implementing and monitoring its effectiveness. PMID:23353079
Brown, Stephen; Wakeling, Lara; Peck, Blake; Naiker, Mani; Hill, Dolores; Naidu, Keshni
Attitude to the subject of chemistry was quantified in first-year undergraduate nursing students, at two geographically distinct universities. A purpose-designed diagnostic instrument (ASCI) was given to students at Federation University, Australia (n= 114), and at Fiji National University, Fiji (n=160). Affective and cognitive sub-scales within ASCI showed reasonable internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha for the cognitive sub-scale was 0.786 and 0.630, and 0.787 and 0.788 for affective sub-scale for the Federation University and Fiji National University students, respectively. Mean (SD) score for the cognitive sub-scale was 10.5 (5.6) and 15.2 (4.1) for students at Federation University and Fiji National University, respectively (PFiji National University, respectively (P < 0.001, t-test). An exploratory factor analysis (n=274) confirmed a two-factor solution consistent with affective and cognitive sub-scales, each with good internal consistency. Quantifying attitude to chemistry in undergraduate nursing students using ASCI may have utility in assessing the impact of novel teaching strategies used in the education of nursing students in areas of bioscience and chemistry. However, geographically distinct populations of undergraduate nurses may show very different attitudes to chemistry.
Asante, Augustine D; Price, Jennifer; Hayen, Andrew; Irava, Wayne; Martins, Joao; Guinness, Lorna; Ataguba, John E; Limwattananon, Supon; Mills, Anne; Jan, Stephen; Wiseman, Virginia
Equitable health financing remains a key health policy objective worldwide. In low and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is evidence that many people are unable to access the health services they need due to financial and other barriers. There are growing calls for fairer health financing systems that will protect people from catastrophic and impoverishing health payments in times of illness. This study aims to assess equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste in order to support government efforts to improve access to healthcare and move towards universal health coverage in the two countries. The study employs two standard measures of equity in health financing increasingly being applied in LMICs-benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and financing incidence analysis (FIA). In Fiji, we will use a combination of secondary and primary data including a Household Income and Expenditure Survey, National Health Accounts, and data from a cross-sectional household survey on healthcare utilisation. In Timor-Leste, the World Bank recently completed a health equity and financial protection analysis that incorporates BIA and FIA, and found that the distribution of benefits from healthcare financing is pro-rich. Building on this work, we will explore the factors that influence the pro-rich distribution. The study is approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of University of New South Wales, Australia (Approval number: HC13269); the Fiji National Health Research Committee (Approval # 201371); and the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health (Ref MS/UNSW/VI/218). Study outcomes will be disseminated through stakeholder meetings, targeted multidisciplinary seminars, peer-reviewed journal publications, policy briefs and the use of other web-based technologies including social media. A user-friendly toolkit on how to analyse healthcare financing equity will be developed for use by policymakers and development partners in the region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group
Moriconi, Chiara; Palmieri, Valentina; Di Santo, Riccardo; Tornillo, Giusy; Papi, Massimiliano; Pilkington, Geoff; De Spirito, Marco; Gumbleton, Mark
Time-series image capture of in vitro 3D spheroidal cancer models embedded within an extracellular matrix affords examination of spheroid growth and cancer cell invasion. However, a customizable, comprehensive and open source solution for the quantitative analysis of such spheroid images is lacking. Here, the authors describe INSIDIA (INvasion SpheroID ImageJ Analysis), an open-source macro implemented as a customizable software algorithm running on the FIJI platform, that enables high-throughput high-content quantitative analysis of spheroid images (both bright-field gray and fluorescent images) with the output of a range of parameters defining the spheroid "tumor" core and its invasive characteristics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
This paper presents the findings of a four country study conducted by the Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific-International through its affiliates in Fiji Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea and Kiribati to demonstrate the linkage between young men, mental health and violence in the Pacific. The findings common among the four studies arise from the sociocultural and economic transitions occurring across the Pacific Region, where recent years have shown that the Pacific lifestyle has become increasingly stressful and violent. Limited opportunity to participate in the modern lifestyle and its economy has led to personal mental stress, social exclusion, unemployment and the growth of a subgroup of disaffected young people, who resort to a range of means to acquire their daily needs and, among whom, the norms that govern the use of violence differ from those of the general community.
Brian, Garry; du Toit, Renee; Ramke, Jacqueline; Szetu, John
To characterize causes, risk factors and outcomes for ocular trauma among adults aged ≥40 years in Fiji. Population-based cross-sectional survey; multistage cluster random sampling. 1381 (= 73.0% participation); eight provinces on Viti Levu. Interview-based questionnaire. Visual acuity measurement. Dilated ocular examination. Circumstances, management and consequences of self-reported ocular trauma. Of participants, 20.6% recalled ocular trauma: being Melanesian (P 15 years: 38.5% occurred inside the home, most by sharp objects (51.6%) and domestic violence (28.4%); agricultural activities caused 20.6% of injuries; non-agricultural workplace incidents caused 16.2%, with chemicals responsible for 27.5% of these; public alcohol consumption was associated with 13.8% of injuries, mostly by assault (91.2%). Conventional medical services were the primary source of care for 47.2% of injured participants: 61.9% attended on injury day. For trauma: sample prevalence of vision impairment in at least one eye was 1.7% (95% confidence interval 1.1-2.4%), and 0.1% (95% confidence interval 0.02-0.5) for bilateral blindness. Injury at ≤15 years (P = 0.008) and at the workplace (P = 0.044) were predictive of ongoing vision impairment. Of visually impaired eyes, 36% had corneal opacity that may have been caused by relatively minor trauma. Ophthalmic service strengthening (including minor corneal trauma management) and specific injury prevention strategies (including behaviour change education and advocacy for legislation) are required to decrease the ocular trauma burden in Fiji. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Pillay, Arti; Trieu, Kathy; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Sukhu, Arleen; Schultz, Jimaima; Wate, Jillian; Bell, Colin; Moodie, Marj; Snowdon, Wendy; Ma, Gary; Rogers, Kris; Webster, Jacqui
Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to assess the impact of a complex, multi-faceted intervention to reduce population salt intake in Fiji between 2012 and 2016. The intervention combined initiatives to engage food businesses to reduce salt in foods and meals with targeted consumer behavior change programs. There were 169 participants at baseline (response rate 28.2%) and 272 at 20 months (response rate 22.4%). The mean salt intake from 24-h urine samples was estimated to be 11.7 grams per day (g/d) at baseline and 10.3 g/d after 20 months (difference: -1.4 g/day, 95% CI -3.1 to 0.3, p = 0.115). Sub-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in female salt intake in the Central Division but no differential impact in relation to age or ethnicity. Whilst the low response rate means it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about these changes, the population salt intake in Fiji, at 10.3 g/day, is still twice the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended maximum intake. This project also assessed iodine intake levels in women of child-bearing age and found that they were within recommended guidelines. Existing policies and programs to reduce salt intake and prevent iodine deficiency need to be maintained or strengthened. Monitoring to assess changes in salt intake and to ensure that iodine levels remain adequate should be built into future surveys.
Opoliner, April; Blacker, Deborah; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Becker, Anne
The CES-D is a commonly used self-report assessment for depressive symptomatology. However, its psychometric properties have not been evaluated in Fiji. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of English language and Fijian vernacular versions in ethnic Fijian adolescent schoolgirls. As part of the HEALTHY Fiji study, ethnic Fijian female adolescents (N = 523) completed the CES-D. Participants selected to respond in English or the local vernacular. Reliability (internal consistency, item-total score correlation, and test-retest estimates), validity (associations with other proxies for depression) and factor structure were assessed. Evaluations considered differences between language versions. In this sample, the CES-D had a Cronbach's α of 0.81 and item-total score correlation coefficients ranged between 0.2 and 0.63. One week test-retest reliability (ICC(2)) was 0.57. CES-D scores were higher among individuals who endorsed feelings of depression and suicidality compared to those who did not. ROC analyses of the CES-D versus binary depression and suicidality variables produced AUCs around 0.70 and did not support a discrete cut-off for significant disturbance. Findings were similar across the two language groups. The CES-D has acceptable reliability and validity among ethnic Fijian female adolescents in English and in the Fijian vernacular language. Findings support its utility as a dimensional measure for depressive symptomatology in this study population. Further examination of its clinical utility for case finding for depression in Fijian school-based and community populations is warranted. © The Author(s) 2013.
Goodwin, Ian D; Browning, Stuart A; Anderson, Atholl J
Debate about initial human migration across the immense area of East Polynesia has focused upon seafaring technology, both of navigation and canoe capabilities, while temporal variation in sailing conditions, notably through climate change, has received less attention. One model of Polynesian voyaging observes that as tradewind easterlies are currently dominant in the central Pacific, prehistoric colonization canoes voyaging eastward to and through central East Polynesia (CEP: Society, Tuamotu, Marquesas, Gambier, Southern Cook, and Austral Islands) and to Easter Island probably had a windward capacity. Similar arguments have been applied to voyaging from CEP to New Zealand against prevailing westerlies. An alternative view is that migration required reliable off-wind sailing routes. We investigate the marine climate and potential voyaging routes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), A.D. 800-1300, when the initial colonization of CEP and New Zealand occurred. Paleoclimate data assimilation is used to reconstruct Pacific sea level pressure and wind field patterns at bidecadal resolution during the MCA. We argue here that changing wind field patterns associated with the MCA provided conditions in which voyaging to and from the most isolated East Polynesian islands, New Zealand, and Easter Island was readily possible by off-wind sailing. The intensification and poleward expansion of the Pacific subtropical anticyclone culminating in A.D. 1140-1260 opened an anomalous climate window for off-wind sailing routes to New Zealand from the Southern Austral Islands, the Southern Cook Islands, and Tonga/Fiji Islands.
Iredale, Robyn; Voigt-Graf, Carmen; Khoo, Siew-Ean
The international mobility of teachers is gaining increased attention as particular developing countries become significant sources of supply for more developed countries that have shortages. Most attention so far has focused on Africa's contribution to the United Kingdom workforce. This article examines the patterns of teacher migration for…
Romani, Lucia; Whitfeld, Margot J; Koroivueta, Josefa; Kama, Mike; Wand, Handan; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Tuicakau, Meciusela; Koroi, Aminiasi; Ritova, Raijieli; Andrews, Ross; Kaldor, John M; Steer, Andrew C
Scabies and associated impetigo are under-recognized causes of morbidity in many developing countries. To strengthen the evidence base for scabies control we undertook a trial of mass treatment for scabies. We report on the occurrence and predictors of scabies and impetigo in participants at baseline. Participants were recruited in six island communities and were examined for the presence of scabies and impetigo. In addition to descriptive analyses, logistic regression models were fit to assess the association between demographic variables and outcome of interest. The study enrolled 2051 participants. Scabies prevalence was 36.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.3-38.5), highest in children 5-9 years (55.7%). Impetigo prevalence was 23.4% (95% CI 21.5-25.2) highest in children aged 10-14 (39.0%). People with scabies were 2.8× more likely to have impetigo. The population attributable risk of scabies as a cause of impetigo was 36.3% and 71.0% in children aged less than five years. Households with four or more people sharing the same room were more likely to have scabies and impetigo (odds ratios [OR] 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2 and OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.2 respectively) compared to households with rooms occupied by a single individual. This study confirms the high burden of scabies and impetigo in Fiji and the association between these two conditions, particularly in young children. Overcrowding, young age, and clinical distribution of lesion are important risk factors for scabies and impetigo. Further studies are needed to investigate whether the decline of endemic scabies would translate into a definite reduction of the burden of associated complications.
Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Law, Irwin; Buadromo, Eka; Stevens, Matthew P; Fong, James; Samuela, Josaia; Patel, Mahomed; Mulholland, E Kim; Russell, Fiona M; Garland, Suzanne M
There is currently limited information about human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in women in the South Pacific region. This study's objective was to determine HPV genotypes present in cervical cancer (CC) and precancers (cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN) 3) in Fiji. Cross-sectional analysis evaluated archival CC and CIN3 biopsy samples from 296 women of Melanesian Fijian ethnicity (n=182, 61.5%) and Indo-Fijian ethnicity (n=114, 38.5%). HPV genotypes were evaluated using the INNO-LiPA assay in archival samples from CC (n=174) and CIN3 (n=122) among women in Fiji over a 5-year period from 2003 to 2007. Overall, 99% of the specimens tested were HPV DNA-positive for high-risk genotypes, with detection rates of 100%, 97.4% and 100% in CIN3, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenosquamous carcinoma biopsies, respectively. Genotypes 16 and 18 were the most common (77%), followed by HPV 31 (4.3%). Genotype HPV 16 was the most common identified (59%) in CIN3 specimens, followed by HPV 31 (9%) and HPV 52 (6.6%). Multiple genotypes were detected in 12.5-33.3% of specimens, depending on the pathology. These results indicated that the two most prevalent CC-associated HPV genotypes in Fiji parallel those described in other regions worldwide, with genotype variations thereafter. These data suggest that the currently available bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines could potentially reduce cervical cancers in Fiji by over 80% and reduce precancers by at least 60%.
Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.
older to younger land masses, and syndromes including loss of dispersability and secondary woodiness in herbaceous plant lineages. Further developments in Earth system science, molecular biology, and trait data for islands hold continued promise for unlocking many of the unresolved questions...
Balak, Dashika A.; Ram, Sharan; Devi, Rachel R.; Graham, Stephen M.
Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ≤500 cells/mm3. Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.5). No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350 cells/mm3 or 500 cells/mm3. The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ≤2300 cells/μL had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ≤350 cells/mm3 and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ≤500 cells/mm3 it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji. PMID:25400669
Eastwood, Erin K; López, Elora H; Drew, Joshua A
Coral reef fish serve as food sources to coastal communities worldwide, yet are vulnerable to mounting anthropogenic pressures like overfishing and climate change. Marine reserve networks have become important tools for mitigating these pressures, and one of the most critical factors in determining their spatial design is the degree of connectivity among different populations of species prioritized for protection. To help inform the spatial design of an expanded reserve network in Fiji, we used rapidly evolving mitochondrial genes to investigate connectivity patterns of three coral reef species targeted by fisheries in Fiji: Epinephelus merra (Serranidae), Halichoeres trimaculatus (Labridae), and Holothuria atra (Holothuriidae). The two fish species, E. merra and Ha. trimaculatus, exhibited low genetic structuring and high amounts of gene flow, whereas the sea cucumber Ho. atra displayed high genetic partitioning and predominantly westward gene flow. The idiosyncratic patterns observed among these species indicate that patterns of connectivity in Fiji are likely determined by a combination of oceanographic and ecological characteristics. Our data indicate that in the cases of species with high connectivity, other factors such as representation or political availability may dictate where reserves are placed. In low connectivity species, ensuring upstream and downstream connections is critical.
Oliver, Paul M.; Clegg, Jonathan R.; Fisher, Robert N.; Richards, Stephen J.; Taylor, Peter N.; Jocque, Merlijn M. T.
The East Melanesian Islands have been a focal area for research into island biogeography and community ecology. However, previously undescribed and biogeographically significant new species endemic to this region continue to be discovered. Here we describe a phylogenetically distinct (~20% divergence at the mitochondrial ND2 gene) and biogeographically disjunct new species of gecko in the genus Gehyra, from the Admiralty and St Matthias Islands. Gehyra rohan sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the combination of its very large size, ring of bright orange scales around the eye, moderate degree of lateral folding on the limbs and body, and aspects of head, body and tail scalation. Molecular data indicate mid to late Miocene divergence of the new species from nearest relatives occurring nearly 2000 kilometres away in Vanuatu and Fiji. Large Gehyra have not been recorded on the intervening large islands of the Bismark Archipelago (New Britain and New Ireland) and the Solomon Islands, suggesting this dispersal pre-dated the current configuration of these islands, extinction in intervening regions, or potentially elements of both. Conversely, low genetic divergence between disjunct samples on Manus and Mussau implies recent overseas dispersal via either natural or anthropogenic means.
Oliver, Paul M; Clegg, Jonathan R; Fisher, Robert N; Richards, Stephen J; Taylor, Peter N; Jocque, Merlijn M T
The East Melanesian Islands have been a focal area for research into island biogeography and community ecology. However, previously undescribed and biogeographically significant new species endemic to this region continue to be discovered. Here we describe a phylogenetically distinct (~20% divergence at the mitochondrial ND2 gene) and biogeographically disjunct new species of gecko in the genus Gehyra, from the Admiralty and St Matthias Islands. Gehyra rohan sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the combination of its very large size, ring of bright orange scales around the eye, moderate degree of lateral folding on the limbs and body, and aspects of head, body and tail scalation. Molecular data indicate mid to late Miocene divergence of the new species from nearest relatives occurring nearly 2000 kilometres away in Vanuatu and Fiji. Large Gehyra have not been recorded on the intervening large islands of the Bismark Archipelago (New Britain and New Ireland) and the Solomon Islands, suggesting this dispersal pre-dated the current configuration of these islands, extinction in intervening regions, or potentially elements of both. Conversely, low genetic divergence between disjunct samples on Manus and Mussau implies recent overseas dispersal via either natural or anthropogenic means.
Waqa, Gade; Bell, Colin; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj
There is limited research on the use of evidence to inform policy-making in the Pacific. This study aims to identify and describe factors that facilitate or limit the use of evidence in food-related policy-making in the Health and Agriculture Ministries in Fiji. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with selected policy-makers in two government ministries that were instrumental in the development of food-related policies in Fiji designed to prevent Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Snowball sampling was used to recruit, as key informants, senior policy-makers in management positions such as national advisors and directors who were based at either the national headquarters or equivalent. Interviewees were asked about their experiences in developing food-related or other policies, barriers or facilitators encountered in the policy development and implementation process and the use of evidence. Each interview lasted approximately 45-60 minutes, and was conducted in English. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed, thematically coded and analyzed using N-Vivo 8.0 software. Thirty-one policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MoHMS n = 18) and the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA n = 13) in Fiji participated in the study. Whilst evidence is sometimes used in food-related policy-making in both the Health and Agriculture Ministries (including formal evidence such as published research and informal evidence such as personal experiences and opinions), it is not yet embedded as an essential part of the process. Participants indicated that a lack of resources, poor technical support in terms of training, the absence of clear strategies for improving competent use of evidence, procedures regarding engagement with other stakeholders across sectors, varying support from senior managers and limited consultation across sectors were barriers to evidence use. The willingness of organizations to create a culture of using evidence was
Lako, J V; Nguyen, V C
The dietary patterns of indigenous Fijians are changing rapidly. Dietary relationships in regard to the prevalence of diabetes are poorly studied in Fiji. A survey was conducted to show the relationship of dietary patterns and other lifestyle factors for the development of diabetes among urban indigenous women in Fiji. A sample of 200 Fijian women aged 30-39 who agreed to participate were interviewed by the use of semiquantitative food frequency, 3 day-24 h recall study. Physical activity and ceremonial dietary customs were also taken into consideration. Anthropometry included measurements of height, weight, waist and hip. Total percentage bodyfat measurements and glycosuria tests were also conducted. The results showed high rates of obesity manifested in high percentage bodyfat, high body mass index (BMI) and high waist and hip ratio (WHR). The mean 24 h dietary intake exhibited a moderate intake of protein, high intake of fat and a low intake of carbohydrate. The carbohydrate reduction was a result from the decline in consumption of traditional staples. Consumption of cereals and related products favored the high intake of butter and margarine and also encouraged the use of cooking oil in frying varieties of flour products. The daily intake of anti-oxidant vitamins of beta-carotene and vitamin E were low, however there was a high intake of vitamin C. The food frequency study revealed cassava, bread and sugar were consumed daily as the main carbohydrate foods. Fish and meat were the most frequently consumed protein foods. The main beverage was sweet tea with whole-cream milk. Butter, margarine, coconut cream, cheap lamb flaps and cooking oil provided the main sources of fat. Levels of physical activity included high sedentary lifestyles with a high rate of subjects being overweight and obese. Ceremonial dietary customs showed a high consumption of meat and fish. Fruits were rarely consumed. Glycosuria existed among the age group under study. The impact of dietary
We analyze deep and intermediate-depth earthquakes at the Tonga-Fiji region in order to reveal the distribution of scattering objects in the mid-lower mantle. By array processing waveform data recorded at regional seismograph stations in the US, Alaska, and Japan, we investigate S-to-P scattering waves in the P coda, which arise from kilometer-scale chemically distinct objects in the mid-lower mantle beneath Tonga-Fiji. With ten scatterers previously reported by the author included, twenty-three mid-lower mantle scatterers have been detected below 900 km depth, while scatterers deeper than 1900 km have not been identified. Strong mid-lower mantle S-to-P scattering most frequently occurs at the scatterers located within a depth range between 1400 km and 1600 km. The number of scatterers decreases below 1600 km depth, and the deeper objects tend to be weaker. The scatterer distribution may reflect diminishing elastic anomalies of basaltic rocks with depth relative to the surrounding mantle rocks, which mineral physics has predicted to occur. The predominant occurrence of strong S-to-P scattering waves within a narrow depth range may reflect significant reduction of rigidity due to the ferro-elastic transformation of stishovite in basaltic rocks. Very large signals associated with mid-mantle scatterers are observed only for a small portion of the entire earthquake-array pairs. Such infrequent observations of large scattering signals, combined with quite large event-to-event differences in the scattering intensity for each scatterer, suggest both that the strong arrivals approximately represent ray theoretical S-to-P converted waves at objects with a plane geometry. The plane portions of the strong scatterers may often dip steeply, with the size exceeding 100 km. For a few strong scatterers, the range of receivers showing clear scattered waves varies substantially from earthquake-array pair to pair. Some of the scatterers are also observed at different arrays that have
Full Text Available In 2010-2011, the Vancouver Island Transgender Needs Assessment, a community-based, applied research project, sought to identify the health and social needs of trans people on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. An advisory board consisting of trans-identified community members and trans-service providers guided this descriptive analysis. A total of 54 individuals identifying as transgender participated in a survey modeled after the TransPULSE Ontario instrument. Of the participants, 43% identified on the transmasculine spectrum, 39% on the transfeminine spectrum, and 18% as transgender/genderqueer only. Participants were surveyed in regard to education, employment, and income; housing; health care needs and services; suicidality; violence; life satisfaction and attitudes toward self; posttransition experiences; and community belonging. They reported health care, social support, and public education/acceptance as top needs. The article concludes with a specific needs profile and a community-generated set of recommendations stressing the need for an island-based information and resourcing center.
STEER, A. C.; JENNEY, A. J. W.; OPPEDISANO, F.; BATZLOFF, M. R.; HARTAS, J.; PASSMORE, J.; RUSSELL, F. M.; KADO, J. H. H.; CARAPETIS, J. R.
SUMMARY We undertook a 5-year retrospective study of group A streptococcal (GAS) bacteraemia in Fiji, supplemented by a 9-month detailed retrospective study of β-haemolytic streptococcal (BHS) infections. The all-age incidence of GAS bacteraemia over 5 years was 11·6/100 000. Indigenous Fijians were 4·7 times more likely to present with invasive BHS disease than people of other ethnicities, and 6·4 times more likely than Indo-Fijians. The case-fatality rate for invasive BHS infections was 28%. emm-typing was performed on 23 isolates: 17 different emm-types were found, and the emm-type profile was different from that found in industrialized nations. These data support the contentions that elevated rates of invasive BHS and GAS infections are widespread in developing countries, and that the profile of invasive organisms in these settings reflects a wide diversity of emm-types and a paucity of types typically found in industrialized countries. PMID:17631691
House, Bailey R
Contingent reciprocity is an important foundation of human cooperation, but we know little about how reciprocal behavior develops across diverse societies, nor about how the development of reciprocal behavior is related to the development of prosocial behavior more broadly. Three- to 16-year-old children were presented with the opportunity to control the allocation of real food rewards in a binary-choice cooperative dilemma. Within dyads children alternated making choices across multiple trials, and reciprocal behavior emerged in three diverse populations (rural Fijian villages, and urban communities in both Fiji and the United States) by age 7-8. There was more societal variation in prosocial behavior than in reciprocal behavior, and there were more substantial differences between Fijians and Americans than between rural and urban populations. This suggests that the development of prosocial behavior is not driven entirely by the development of reciprocity, and differences in prosocial behavior across rural Fijians and urban Americans may not be due only to differences across rural and urban populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pastula, Daniel M; Khan, Aalisha Sahu; Sharp, Tyler M; Biaukula, Viema L; Naivalu, Taina K; Rafai, Eric; Ermias Belay; Staples, J Erin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga I; Laven, Janeen J; Bennett, Elizabeth J; Jenney, Adam W J; Naidu, Ravi Narayan; Lanciotti, Robert S; Galloway, Renee L; Nilles, Eric J; Sejvar, James J; Kama, Mike
In 2014, we investigated a cluster of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) in Fiji that occurred during a dengue epidemic. We designed a case-control study to determine the etiology. Cases were patients meeting Brighton Collaboration criteria for GBS with onset from February 2014 to May 2014. Controls were persons without symptoms of GBS who were matched by age group and location. We collected information on demographics and potential exposures. Serum samples were tested for evidence of recent arboviral or Leptospira spp. infections. Nine cases of GBS were identified for an incidence of five cases per 100,000 population/year. Median age of cases was 27years (range: 0.8-52); five (56%) were male. Six (67%) reported an acute illness prior to GBS onset. Among the 9 cases and 28 controls enrolled, odds ratios for reported exposures or antibodies against various arboviruses or Leptospira spp. were not statistically significant. No clear etiologies were identified for this unusual GBS cluster. There was a temporal association between the GBS cluster and a dengue epidemic, but we were unable to substantiate an epidemiologic or laboratory association. Further study is needed to explore potential associations between arboviral infections and GBS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Scobie, Heather M; Nilles, Eric; Kama, Mike; Kool, Jacob L; Mintz, Eric; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Hyde, Terri B; Dawainavesi, Akanisi; Singh, Sheetalpreet; Korovou, Samuel; Jenkins, Kylie; Date, Kashmira
After a category 4 cyclone that caused extensive population displacement and damage to water and sanitation infrastructure in Fiji in March 2010, a typhoid vaccination campaign was conducted as part of the post-disaster response. During June-December 2010, 64,015 doses of typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine were administered to persons ≥ 2 years of age, primarily in cyclone-affected areas that were typhoid endemic. Annual typhoid fever incidence decreased during the post-campaign year (2011) relative to preceding years (2008-2009) in three subdivisions where a large proportion of the population was vaccinated (incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals: 0.23, 0.13-0.41; 0.24, 0.14-0.41; 0.58, 0.40-0.86), and increased or remained unchanged in 12 subdivisions where little to no vaccination occurred. Vaccination played a role in reducing typhoid fever incidence in high-incidence areas after a disaster and should be considered in endemic settings, along with comprehensive control measures, as recommended by the World Health Organization. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Bonaldo, Roberta M; Pires, Mathias M; Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; Hoey, Andrew S; Hay, Mark E
The establishment of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs is a common management strategy for conserving the diversity, abundance, and biomass of reef organisms. Generally, well-managed and enforced MPAs can increase or maintain the diversity and function of the enclosed coral reef, with some of the benefits extending to adjacent non-protected reefs. A fundamental question in coral reef conservation is whether these benefits arise within small MPAs (Fiji. The MPAs exhibited greater species richness, density, and biomass of fishes than non-MPAs. Furthermore, MPAs contained a greater abundance and biomass of grazing herbivores and piscivores as well as a greater abundance of cleaners than fished areas. We also found differences in fish associations when foraging, with feeding groups being generally more diverse and having greater biomass within MPAs than adjacent non-MPAs. Grazing by parrotfishes was 3-6 times greater, and macroalgal browsing was 3-5 times greater in MPAs than in non-MPAs. On average, MPAs had 260-280% as much coral cover and only 5-25% as much macroalgal cover as their paired non-MPA sites. Finally, two of the three MPAs had three-fold more coral recruits than adjacent non-MPAs. The results of this study indicate that small MPAs benefit not only populations of reef fishes, but also enhance ecosystem processes that are critical to reef resilience within the MPAs.
Jenney, Adam; Kado, Joseph; Good, Michael F.; Batzloff, Michael; Waqatakirewa, Lepani; Mullholland, E. Kim; Carapetis, Jonathan R.
We undertook a prospective active surveillance study of invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) disease in Fiji over a 23-month period, 2005–2007. We identified 64 cases of invasive GAS disease, which represents an average annualized all-ages incidence of 9.9 cases/100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.6–12.6). Rates were highest in those >65 years of age and in those <5 years, particularly in infants, for whom the incidence was 44.9/100,000 (95% CI 18.1–92.5). The case-fatality rate was 32% and was associated with increasing age and underlying coexisting disease, including diabetes and renal disease. Fifty-five of the GAS isolates underwent emm sequence typing; the types were highly diverse, with 38 different emm subtypes and no particular dominant type. Our data support the view that invasive GAS disease is common in developing countries and deserves increased public health attention. PMID:19193265
Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd
Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups.
McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Fisher, Robert N
Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17-20 × 14-16) μm, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10-11 × 7-8) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28-35 × 18-24) μm, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14-16 × 10-12) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.
Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia
The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scabies is recognised as a major public health problem in many countries, and is responsible for significant morbidity due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin causing impetigo, abscesses and cellulitis, that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as septicaemia, kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 75 communities, including villages and settlements in both urban and rural areas, were randomly selected from 305 communities across the four administrative divisions, and all residents in each location were invited to participate in skin examination by trained personnel. The study enrolled 10,887 participants. The prevalence of scabies was 23.6%, and when adjusted for age structure and geographic location based on census data, the estimated national prevalence was 18.5%. The prevalence was highest in children aged five to nine years (43.7%, followed by children aged less than five (36.5%, and there was also an indication of prevalence increasing again in older age. The prevalence of scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. The prevalence of impetigo was 19.6%, with a peak in children aged five to nine years (34.2%. Scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo, with an estimated 93% population attributable risk. CONCLUSIONS: As far as we are aware, this is the first national survey of scabies and impetigo ever conducted. We found that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in
Filicide, or parental murder of offspring, constitutes a major portion of lethal violence perpetrated against children worldwide. Despite the global nature of the phenomenon, researchers have focused their studies on the developed industrialized societies with the consequent neglect of small, developing societies. Second, there is a paucity of empirical data on child homicide committed by fathers. This study therefore explores the nature and extent of paternal filicides in Fiji, a non-Western society, and the social and cultural forces underlying them in order to enhance our knowledge of the phenomenon. Information was obtained from a number of sources, including (a) a police homicide logbook, (b) newspaper reports of homicide, and (c) detailed interviews conducted with criminal justice and medical personnel. Information from these data sources were consolidated to construct case histories of paternal filicides. These cases were then analyzed for dominant themes. Case illustrations are presented in the text. Several of the study's findings are congruent with other studies of paternal filicides: poor, working class fathers were the offenders in all cases. As a corollary, their victims were from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Regarding location, paternal filicides occurred in the home of the offender and victim. The filicides were the culmination of stresses and strains associated with marital disharmony and excessive corporal child-control strategies. The general conclusion of this study is that further research in non-Western societies has the potential to increase our understanding of the social factors and processes involved in paternal child murders. We will then be better positioned to craft effective intervention strategies.
Simon A. Reid
Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis occur as a result of the often complex interactions that exist at the human-animal-environment interface. The most obvious consequence of this complexity is the need for the health sector to partner with institutions in other sectors of society such as agriculture, labour and local government. This multisectoral engagement is complicated by the different agendas and cultures of the various institutions and their ability to “see” their role and ant benefits in a collaborative response. Methods The research used a realist review methodology combined with systems thinking frameworks to determine the optimal strategy and governance for the prevention and control of leptospirosis in Fiji. The process included facilitated workshops with multiple stakeholders to determine the needs, issues and potential interventions that was guided by a synthesis of locally available data and information on the impact of leptospirosis. This process was informed by interviews with bureaucrats from different government ministries. Results Stakeholders concurred that leptospirosis generally only received wide-spread attention in outbreaks, when there is media coverage of deaths or a large number of hospitalisations. In general, all ministries expressed support for a multisectoral strategy but saw the Ministry of Health and Medical Services as the lead agency with overall responsibility. The final consultation workshop yielded a clearly articulated goal to reduce the case fatality rate attributable to leptospirosis by 50% by 2020 and 4 overarching strategies: 1 improved clinical management of leptospirosis, 2 improved surveillance for leptospirosis, 3 enhanced communication to minimise risk and improve health seeking behaviours, and 4 strengthening coordination and governance structures. Conclusion Human mortality and morbidity remained the primary drive for government action, defining leptospirosis as a
Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Barnett, Adam
Shark-based tourism that uses bait to reliably attract certain species to specific sites so that divers can view them is a growing industry globally, but remains a controversial issue. We evaluate multi-year (2004-2011) underwater visual (n = 48 individuals) and acoustic tracking data (n = 82 transmitters; array of up to 16 receivers) of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from a long-term shark feeding site at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve and reefs along the Beqa Channel on the southern coast of Viti Levu, Fiji. Individual C. leucas showed varying degrees of site fidelity. Determined from acoustic tagging, the majority of C. leucas had site fidelity indexes >0.5 for the marine reserve (including the feeding site) and neighbouring reefs. However, during the time of the day (09:00-12:00) when feeding takes place, sharks mainly had site fidelity indexes <0.5 for the feeding site, regardless of feeding or non-feeding days. Site fidelity indexes determined by direct diver observation of sharks at the feeding site were lower compared to such values determined by acoustic tagging. The overall pattern for C. leucas is that, if present in the area, they are attracted to the feeding site regardless of whether feeding or non-feeding days, but they remain for longer periods of time (consecutive hours) on feeding days. The overall diel patterns in movement are for C. leucas to use the area around the feeding site in the morning before spreading out over Shark Reef throughout the day and dispersing over the entire array at night. Both focal observation and acoustic monitoring show that C. leucas intermittently leave the area for a few consecutive days throughout the year, and for longer time periods (weeks to months) at the end of the calendar year before returning to the feeding site.
Romani, Lucia; Koroivueta, Josefa; Steer, Andrew C.; Kama, Mike; Kaldor, John M.; Wand, Handan; Hamid, Mohammed; Whitfeld, Margot J.
Background Scabies is recognised as a major public health problem in many countries, and is responsible for significant morbidity due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin causing impetigo, abscesses and cellulitis, that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as septicaemia, kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 75 communities, including villages and settlements in both urban and rural areas, were randomly selected from 305 communities across the four administrative divisions, and all residents in each location were invited to participate in skin examination by trained personnel. The study enrolled 10,887 participants. The prevalence of scabies was 23.6%, and when adjusted for age structure and geographic location based on census data, the estimated national prevalence was 18.5%. The prevalence was highest in children aged five to nine years (43.7%), followed by children aged less than five (36.5%), and there was also an indication of prevalence increasing again in older age. The prevalence of scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous) Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. The prevalence of impetigo was 19.6%, with a peak in children aged five to nine years (34.2%). Scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo, with an estimated 93% population attributable risk. Conclusions As far as we are aware, this is the first national survey of scabies and impetigo ever conducted. We found that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in endemic communities
Romani, Lucia; Koroivueta, Josefa; Steer, Andrew C; Kama, Mike; Kaldor, John M; Wand, Handan; Hamid, Mohammed; Whitfeld, Margot J
Scabies is recognised as a major public health problem in many countries, and is responsible for significant morbidity due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin causing impetigo, abscesses and cellulitis, that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as septicaemia, kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. A total of 75 communities, including villages and settlements in both urban and rural areas, were randomly selected from 305 communities across the four administrative divisions, and all residents in each location were invited to participate in skin examination by trained personnel. The study enrolled 10,887 participants. The prevalence of scabies was 23.6%, and when adjusted for age structure and geographic location based on census data, the estimated national prevalence was 18.5%. The prevalence was highest in children aged five to nine years (43.7%), followed by children aged less than five (36.5%), and there was also an indication of prevalence increasing again in older age. The prevalence of scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous) Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. The prevalence of impetigo was 19.6%, with a peak in children aged five to nine years (34.2%). Scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo, with an estimated 93% population attributable risk. As far as we are aware, this is the first national survey of scabies and impetigo ever conducted. We found that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in endemic communities.
Juerg M Brunnschweiler
Full Text Available Shark-based tourism that uses bait to reliably attract certain species to specific sites so that divers can view them is a growing industry globally, but remains a controversial issue. We evaluate multi-year (2004-2011 underwater visual (n = 48 individuals and acoustic tracking data (n = 82 transmitters; array of up to 16 receivers of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from a long-term shark feeding site at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve and reefs along the Beqa Channel on the southern coast of Viti Levu, Fiji. Individual C. leucas showed varying degrees of site fidelity. Determined from acoustic tagging, the majority of C. leucas had site fidelity indexes >0.5 for the marine reserve (including the feeding site and neighbouring reefs. However, during the time of the day (09:00-12:00 when feeding takes place, sharks mainly had site fidelity indexes <0.5 for the feeding site, regardless of feeding or non-feeding days. Site fidelity indexes determined by direct diver observation of sharks at the feeding site were lower compared to such values determined by acoustic tagging. The overall pattern for C. leucas is that, if present in the area, they are attracted to the feeding site regardless of whether feeding or non-feeding days, but they remain for longer periods of time (consecutive hours on feeding days. The overall diel patterns in movement are for C. leucas to use the area around the feeding site in the morning before spreading out over Shark Reef throughout the day and dispersing over the entire array at night. Both focal observation and acoustic monitoring show that C. leucas intermittently leave the area for a few consecutive days throughout the year, and for longer time periods (weeks to months at the end of the calendar year before returning to the feeding site.
Jones, A M
This article compares nonformal education (NFE) and training options for women among the small island countries of Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Tonga, Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Data were obtained from 4 groups (the government agency for women, the national women's organization, a nongovernmental organization, and the university extension center) that operated an NFE course during 1992-94. Interviews were conducted among the tutor and 5 women from the selected NFE programs who had attended research workshops. Over 200 women were interviewed. Caribbean country NFE programs included a varied program of instruction that included, for example, self-defense, assertiveness training, and women-in-trade programs. South Pacific training programs included, for example, training of trainers, leadership training, women and traditional medicine, and women in development. Regional papers in preparation for the 1995 Beijing Conference included research findings on NFE, including workshop findings. Facilitators from Niue and Tonga were more satisfied with women's status in their countries than those in Fiji and Kiribati, but women in all 4 countries said things were changing. Women reported benefits from NFE programs such as new information, acquiring new skills, visiting new places, and sharing experiences with other women. In Kiribati and Tonga, women were disappointed in lack of follow-up. Caribbean women were self-aware, but gained insight into their lack of rights and justice. Not all programs empowered women. NFE providers and participants were unable to identify significant outcomes.
Becker, Anne E
Although the relationship between media exposure and risk behavior among youth is established at a population level, the specific psychological and social mechanisms mediating the adverse effects of media on youth remain poorly understood. This study reports on an investigation of the impact of the introduction of television to a rural community in Western Fiji on adolescent ethnic Fijian girls in a setting of rapid social and economic change. Narrative data were collected from 30 purposively selected ethnic Fijian secondary school girls via semi-structured, open-ended interviews. Interviews were conducted in 1998, 3 years after television was first broadcast to this region of Fiji. Narrative data were analyzed for content relating to response to television and mechanisms that mediate self and body image in Fijian adolescents. Data in this sample suggest that media imagery is used in both creative and destructive ways by adolescent Fijian girls to navigate opportunities and conflicts posed by the rapidly changing social environment. Study respondents indicated their explicit modeling of the perceived positive attributes of characters presented in television dramas, but also the beginnings of weight and body shape preoccupation, purging behavior to control weight, and body disparagement. Response to television appeared to be shaped by a desire for competitive social positioning during a period of rapid social transition. Understanding vulnerability to images and values imported with media will be critical to preventing disordered eating and, potentially, other youth risk behaviors in this population, as well as other populations at risk.
Delailomaloma, N. H.
The Fiji economy has undergone structural transformation as the importance of agriculture, construction, social and community services, finance, and insurance declined, whereas that of hotels and catering, transportation, communication, and mining rose. Capacity utilization, including absorption of already trained and educated people into…
Stewart, Robert A. C.
The status of and efforts toward educational equity in the bi-ethnic community in the independent nation of Fiji are examined in the context of participation in higher education, particularly at the University of the South Pacific. It is noted that at the university, which serves 11 countries and about 60 cultures, despite an affirmative action…
A Family Life Education (FLE) curriculum was introduced in Fiji schools in 2010 in response to concern about increasing teenage pregnancies and young people's vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections and other health and social problems. However, conservative and suspicious parental attitudes towards FLE have been an obstacle. The need for…
Background In 1997, regional specialist training was established in Fiji, consisting of one-year Postgraduate Diplomas followed by three-year master’s degree programs in anesthesia, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics and surgery. The evolution of these programs during the first 12 years is presented. Case description A case study utilizing mixed methods was carried out, including a prospective collection of enrolment and employment data, supplemented by semi-structured interviews. Between 1997 and 2009, 207 doctors (113 from Fiji and 94 from 13 other countries or territories in the Pacific) trained to at least the Postgraduate Diploma level. For Fiji graduates, 29.2% migrated permanently to developed countries, compared to only 8.5% for regional graduates (P Fiji is having an increasingly positive impact on the specialist workforce in the Pacific. With forethought, many of the difficulties we encountered may have been avoidable. Our experiences may help others who are establishing or expanding postgraduate training in developing countries to optimize the benefit of postgraduate training on their national and regional workforces. PMID:23270525
Meerow, Alan W; Wisser, Randall J; Brown, J Steven; Kuhn, David N; Schnell, Raymond J; Broschat, Timothy K
Using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite DNA loci, we analyzed genetic variation within Cocos nucifera germplasm collections at two locations in south Florida, representing eight cultivars. The loci were also used in a parentage analysis of progeny of the 'Fiji Dwarf' variety at both locations. A total of 67 alleles were detected, with eight the highest number at any one locus. These loci identified 83 of the 110 individual palms. Gene diversity of the 15 loci ranged from 0.778 to 0.223, with a mean of 0.574. 'Fiji Dwarf', 'Malayan Dwarf', 'Green Niño' and 'Red Spicata' cultivars resolve as distinct clusters in a neighbor joining tree using modified Rogers distance, while the tall varieties form two aggregates. The highest gene diversity was found in the tall cultivars (H = 0.583 cumulatively), and the lowest in the 'Malayan Dwarf' (H = 0.202). After the tall coconuts, the 'Fiji Dwarf' was most genetically diverse (H = 0.436), and had the largest number of unique alleles. Genetic identity is highest among the 'Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes, and between the tall varieties. The 'Red Malayan Dwarf' is genetically distinct from the 'Green' and 'Yellow Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes, which cannot be distinguished with the SSR loci used. Off-type 'Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes (putative hybrids with talls) can be identified genotypically. Parentage analyses of 30 'Fiji Dwarf' progeny propagated from five adults surrounded by other cultivars estimate that only 20% of the progeny were out-crossed to the other varieties, while 40-46% were possible selfs. This suggests that a seed-production orchard of the variety maintained at reasonable distance from other varieties, will likely yield only 'Fiji Dwarf' genotypes. Our data are discussed in the context of hypotheses of coconut dissemination around the world.
This paper presents a theorised classroom-based narrative discussing the author's interdisciplinary approach to the teaching of English dramatic literatures--in particular, Sophocles' "Oedipus the King" and Shakespeare's "Macbeth"--to i-Taukei, Indo-Fijian and Pacific Islander tertiary students at a South Pacific university.…
Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.
An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.
yellow-nosed albatross Thalassarche carteri breed at. Marion Island. Of the remaining species, the lesser or black-faced sheathbill Chionis minor breeds at both islands, but is not strictly a seabird. It is one of two sheathbills that to- gether constitute the family Chionidae. Sheathbills for- age within seabird, especially penguin, ...
Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole
Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....
Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Baensch, Harald
Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day ranged from 0 to 40. Whereas the number of C. leucas counted at the feeding site increased over the years, shark numbers decreased over the course of a calendar year with fewest animals counted in November. Externally visible reproductive status information indicates that the species' seasonal departure from the feeding site may be related to reproductive activity.
Palo Alto, CA 94304 - Dr. Raja Kumar P. Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, Dessei, Ethiopia. - Prof. Raja T.K. Department of Chemistry, School of Applied Sciences, College of Engineering, Science and Technology, Fiji National University, Samabula Campus, Suva, Fiji.
Jk28o *29. *30, ൧. *32. *33. *34. Jk350 *36. 37. 38. 39. 40, 410 42. Toxorhynchites (Toxorhynehitesl inornatus (Walker) (introduced...43. Toxorhynchites (Toxorhynchiteel splendens (Wiedemann) (introduced) Aedes (Levua) suvae Stone and Bohart (Fiji Is. only) Aedes (0chZerotatu.s...Tripteroides (Tripteroides) purpuratus (Edwards) (Fiji Is o only) Tripteroides (Rachionotomyia! rotumanus (Edwards) (Rotuma I. only) Toxorhynchites
Sverker C. Jagers
Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...
Kristin Verena Kaltdorf
Full Text Available Automatic image reconstruction is critical to cope with steadily increasing data from advanced microscopy. We describe here the Fiji macro 3D ART VeSElecT which we developed to study synaptic vesicles in electron tomograms. We apply this tool to quantify vesicle properties (i in embryonic Danio rerio 4 and 8 days past fertilization (dpf and (ii to compare Caenorhabditis elegans N2 neuromuscular junctions (NMJ wild-type and its septin mutant (unc-59(e261. We demonstrate development-specific and mutant-specific changes in synaptic vesicle pools in both models. We confirm the functionality of our macro by applying our 3D ART VeSElecT on zebrafish NMJ showing smaller vesicles in 8 dpf embryos then 4 dpf, which was validated by manual reconstruction of the vesicle pool. Furthermore, we analyze the impact of C. elegans septin mutant unc-59(e261 on vesicle pool formation and vesicle size. Automated vesicle registration and characterization was implemented in Fiji as two macros (registration and measurement. This flexible arrangement allows in particular reducing false positives by an optional manual revision step. Preprocessing and contrast enhancement work on image-stacks of 1nm/pixel in x and y direction. Semi-automated cell selection was integrated. 3D ART VeSElecT removes interfering components, detects vesicles by 3D segmentation and calculates vesicle volume and diameter (spherical approximation, inner/outer diameter. Results are collected in color using the RoiManager plugin including the possibility of manual removal of non-matching confounder vesicles. Detailed evaluation considered performance (detected vesicles and specificity (true vesicles as well as precision and recall. We furthermore show gain in segmentation and morphological filtering compared to learning based methods and a large time gain compared to manual segmentation. 3D ART VeSElecT shows small error rates and its speed gain can be up to 68 times faster in comparison to manual
Waqa, Gade; Mavoa, Helen; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; McCabe, Marita; Kremer, Peter; Swinburn, Boyd
The importance of using research evidence in decisionmaking at the policy level has been increasingly recognized. However, knowledge brokering to engage researchers and policymakers in government and non-government organizations is challenging. This paper describes and evaluates the knowledge exchange processes employed by the Translational Research on Obesity Prevention in Communities (TROPIC) project that was conducted from July 2009 to April 2012 in Fiji. TROPIC aimed to enhance: the evidence-informed decisionmaking skills of policy developers; and awareness and utilization of local and other obesity-related evidence to develop policies that could potentially improve the nation's food and physical activity environments. The specific research question was: Can a knowledge brokering approach advance evidence-informed policy development to improve eating and physical activity environments in Fiji. The intervention comprised: recruiting organizations and individuals; mapping policy environments; analyzing organizational capacity and support for evidence-informed policymaking (EIPM); developing EIPM skills; and facilitating development of evidence-informed policy briefs. Flexible timetabling of activities was essential to accommodate multiple competing priorities at both individual and organizational levels. Process diaries captured the duration, frequency and type of each interaction and/or activity between the knowledge brokering team and participants or their organizations. Partnerships were formalized with high-level officers in each of the six participating organization. Participants (n = 49) developed EIPM skills (acquire, assess, adapt and apply evidence) through a series of four workshops and applied this knowledge to formulate briefs with ongoing one-to-one support from TROPIC team members. A total of 55% of participants completed the 12 to18 month intervention, and 63% produced one or more briefs (total = 20) that were presented to higher
Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Snowdon, Wendy; Latu, Catherine; Coriakula, Jeremaia; Allender, Steven; Bell, Colin
Obesity and non-communicable diseases are significant public health issues globally and particularly in the Pacific. Poor diet is a major contributor to this issue and policy change is a powerful lever to improve food security and diet quality. This study aims to apply systems thinking to identify the causes and consequences of poor evidence use in food-related policymaking in selected government ministries in Fiji and to illicit strategies to strengthen the use of evidence in policymaking. The Ministry of Health and Medical Services and the Ministry of Agriculture in Fiji were invited through their respective Permanent Secretaries to participate in the study. Three 180-minute group model building (GMB) workshops were conducted separately in each ministry over three consecutive days with selected policymakers who were instrumental in developing food-related policies designed to prevent non-communicable diseases. The GMB workshops mapped the process of food-related policymaking and the contribution of scientific and local evidence to the process, and identified actions to enhance the use of evidence in policymaking. An average of 10 policymakers participated from each ministry. The causal loop diagrams produced by each ministry illustrated the causes and consequences of insufficient evidence use in developing food policies or precursors of the specific actions. These included (1) consultation, (2) engagement with stakeholders, (3) access and use of evidence, and (4) delays in policy processes. Participants agreed to potential leverage points on the themes above, addressing pertinent policymaker challenges in precursor control, including political influence, understanding of trade policies, competing government priorities and level of awareness on the problem. Specific actions for strengthening evidence use included training in policy development and research skills, and strengthening of coordination between ministries. The GMB workshops improved participants
South, G Robin; Skelton, Posa A; Veitayaki, Joeli; Resture, Alan; Carpenter, Clive; Pratt, Craig; Lawedrau, Alena
Aspects of transboundary, water shortage, and fisheries issues are discussed in the context of the recently completed Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) for the Pacific Islands. The region encompasses some 30 million km2 and approximately 12% of the world's ocean space, and features great geographic, demographic and developmental diversity. Global change, especially sea level rise and sea surface temperature increases, is the dominant transboundary concern as it impacts all aspects of life. Water shortage and unsustainable fishing issues are selected for discussion, as they will dominate the region into the foreseeable future, and they are illustrated with examples from Fiji, Kiribati, and Tonga. The environmental impacts are exacerbated by socioeconomic issues such as high population growth rates, urban drift, the breakdown of traditional life styles and the rapid adoption of the cash economy. Policy options that may assist in addressing these issues are proposed.
In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…
Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Jupiter, Stacy; Adams, Vanessa M
The efficacy of protected areas varies, partly because socioeconomic factors are not sufficiently considered in planning and management. Although integrating socioeconomic factors into systematic conservation planning is increasingly advocated, research is needed to progress from recognition of these factors to incorporating them effectively in spatial prioritization of protected areas. We evaluated 2 key aspects of incorporating socioeconomic factors into spatial prioritization: treatment of socioeconomic factors as costs or objectives and treatment of stakeholders as a single group or multiple groups. Using as a case study the design of a system of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) in Kubulau, Fiji, we assessed how these aspects affected the configuration of no-take MPAs in terms of trade-offs between biodiversity objectives, fisheries objectives, and equity in catch losses among fisher stakeholder groups. The achievement of fisheries objectives and equity tended to trade-off concavely with increasing biodiversity objectives, indicating that it is possible to achieve low to mid-range biodiversity objectives with relatively small losses to fisheries and equity. Importantly, the extent of trade-offs depended on the method used to incorporate socioeconomic data and was least severe when objectives were set for each fisher stakeholder group explicitly. We found that using different methods to incorporate socioeconomic factors that require similar data and expertise can result in plans with very different impacts on local stakeholders. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.
. Surveys were undertaken from 19 November to 13 December 1997 and from 18 to 31 December 2001. At Marion Island, eggs are laid between 23 October and 19 December, with 70% laid from 2 to 14 November (Williams 1980). The area.
Isabel Maria Madaleno
Full Text Available The Tuvalu Group is made of nine small low-lying coral atoll and reef islands, located in the South Pacific, about 1,100 km north of Fiji. With a total area of 26 km2, it has about 11,000 residents, generally fishermen and breadfruit, taro, pulaka and coconut subsistence farmers. The people of Tuvalu are mostly of Polynesian origin, their culture and physical type being quite homogeneous. In order to develop an ethno-geographic study, during the month of February 2010, the Portuguese Tropical Research Institute has conducted a scientific mission to the atoll of Funafuti, widely known to be endangered due to the rising sea level. The objectives of the project were twofold: to evaluate the Pacific people's awareness to climate change and, consequently, to evaluate their perception of death. The survey consisted of fifty-eight semi-structured interviews. Results have shown that nearly two thirds of the remote islanders fear not the rising sea levels, as they are mostly Christians and therefore fearless of death. They emphatically trust that Divine Providence will bet on their survival.
Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie
American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.
The section features Earth Island's Dolphin Safe tuna . label (asking readers to look for tuna cans without the Dolphin Safe label and alert us so we can have the cans removed from store shelves...
Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used
With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... Island. DATES: This rule will be effective and enforced from 7:50 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on October 5, 2013...
McCabe, M P; Mavoa, H; Ricciardelli, L A; Schultz, J T; Waqa, G; Fotu, K F
This paper reports on the findings of studies that were conducted as part of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project. The studies evaluated the types of messages that adolescents received in relation to body image, physical activity and eating. The participants were male and female adolescents from Fiji (two cultural groups), Tonga, New Zealand (Tongans) and Australia (European Australians). Three studies were conducted: interviews with 48 adolescents (24 male, 24 female) from each cultural group, questionnaires with 600 adolescents (300 male, 300 female) from each cultural group and the perceptual distortion study with 100 adolescents (50 male, 50 female) from the two cultural groups in Fiji and European Australians. The results demonstrate that parents, peers, the media, as well as religious influences impact on the type of body valued by adolescents in each of the cultural groups, as well as their levels of body satisfaction. These influences also shape the type and volume of food consumed, and the type and frequency of physical activity. The results of these studies highlight the major role played by the broader societal values in shaping the nature of the messages that adolescents receive in relation to their body size, eating and physical activity. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.
Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.
... Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, PSEG Long Island LLC (PSEG LI), Long Island Electric...
Simonsen, Dorthe Gert
mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...
The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.
Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.
This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.
Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...
McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C
Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...
This article profiles the educational system of Prince Edward Island and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. (Contains references.) (CR)
The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...
Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)
Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.
McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J; Ebi, Kristie L
Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries-Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a "likelihood versus impact" matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate change, the health risks entailed, and the limited capacity
McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J.; Ebi, Kristie L.
Background: Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries—Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Objective: We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. Methods: This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a “likelihood versus impact” matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. Results: The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Conclusion: Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate
Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl
The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13-16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 24.3% and obesity of 6.1% in the six countries, ranging in terms of overweight or obesity and obesity from 12.0% and 0.4% in Vanuatu to 58.7% and 21.1% in Tonga, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, being female was associated with overweight, carbonated soft drink use with obesity, sedentary behaviour with overweight or obesity, suicidal ideation with overweight, having close friends and peer support with overweight and obesity, parental or guardian supervision with overweight, and parental or guardian bonding was associated with overweight or obesity. High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were found and several factors identified which can help guide interventions.
Webster, Jacqui; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj; Viali, Satu; Schultz, Jimaima; Bell, Colin; Land, Mary-Anne; Downs, Shauna; Christoforou, Anthea; Dunford, Elizabeth; Barzi, Federica; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce
There is broad consensus that diets high in salt are bad for health and that reducing salt intake is a cost-effective strategy for preventing chronic diseases. The World Health Organization has been supporting the development of salt reduction strategies in the Pacific Islands where salt intakes are thought to be high. However, there are no accurate measures of salt intake in these countries. The aims of this project are to establish baseline levels of salt intake in two Pacific Island countries, implement multi-pronged, cross-sectoral salt reduction programs in both, and determine the effects and cost-effectiveness of the intervention strategies. Intervention effectiveness will be assessed from cross-sectional surveys before and after population-based salt reduction interventions in Fiji and Samoa. Baseline surveys began in July 2012 and follow-up surveys will be completed by July 2015 after a 2-year intervention period.A three-stage stratified cluster random sampling strategy will be used for the population surveys, building on existing government surveys in each country. Data on salt intake, salt levels in foods and sources of dietary salt measured at baseline will be combined with an in-depth qualitative analysis of stakeholder views to develop and implement targeted interventions to reduce salt intake. Salt reduction is a global priority and all Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed on a target to reduce salt intake by 30% by 2025, as part of the global action plan to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases. The study described by this protocol will be the first to provide a robust assessment of salt intake and the impact of salt reduction interventions in the Pacific Islands. As such, it will inform the development of strategies for other Pacific Island countries and comparable low and middle-income settings around the world.
Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.
Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.
Reyburn, Rita; Nand, Devina; Nguyen, Cattram; Naidu, Shivnay; Bali, Arishma; Rokovutoro, Miriama; Ratu, Tupou; Kumar, Simon; Lewis, Donald; Smith, Varanisese; Russell, Fiona
Post-licensure studies to evaluate vaccine impact are an important component of introducing new vaccines. Such studies often rely on routinely collected data but the limitations to these data must be understood. To validate administrative data for use in 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccine impact evaluations we have audited the two electronic database capturing hospital admissions in Fiji for completeness and consistency. Hospital admission data for one week per year between 2007-2011 and 2014-2015 was collected from ward registers for selected hospitals. Ward registers were defined as the reference standard and compared to data captured in electronic databases. Data quality was assessed for completeness of admissions data (percentage of admissions in the electronic database, expressed as sensitivity), consistency of complete reporting (determined by identifying variables associated to complete reporting), and completeness of coding (percentage of admissions in the electronic database with an assigned ICD-10-AM code). Over all hospitals and years, the sensitivity for completeness of admission data was 83% (95% CI: 81.3, 84.6). Consistency of complete reporting varied and was highest at tertiary hospitals using the electronic database (sensitivity: 89.1%, 95% CI: 87.4, 90.7). The overall completeness of coding at tertiary hospitals was 90.8% (95% CI: 90.5, 91.1) with annual and hospital variation. The administrative data in the electronic databases in Fiji are of reasonable quality for the vaccine impact evaluation. This quantification of the missing data can be used to adjust the vaccine impact estimates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys.We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji.We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18% reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97% individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7-11.3%. iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation.Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT.
Parks, Tom; Kado, Joseph; Miller, Anne E; Ward, Brenton; Heenan, Rachel; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Bärnighausen, Till W; Mirabel, Mariana; Bloom, David E; Bailey, Robin L; Tukana, Isimeli N; Steer, Andrew C
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008-2012 in people aged 5-69 years. Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8-10.0) and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4-331.5) due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0-69 years. Valuing life using Fiji's per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011-2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses. Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases.
Full Text Available Rheumatic heart disease (RHD is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008-2012 in people aged 5-69 years.Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8-10.0 and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4-331.5 due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0-69 years. Valuing life using Fiji's per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011-2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses.Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases.
Macleod, Colin; Yalen, Chelsea; Butcher, Robert; Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Rainima-Qaniuci, Mere; Haffenden, Chris; Watson, Conall; Cocks, Naomi; Cikamatana, Luisa; Roberts, Chrissy H; Marks, Michael; Rafai, Eric; Mabey, David C W; Kama, Mike; Solomon, Anthony W
The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys. We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji. We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18%) reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97%) individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7-11.3%). iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation. Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT.
Montenegro, Alvaro; Callaghan, Richard T.; Fitzpatrick, Scott M.
The peopling of Remote Oceania was one of the last great waves of human migration in the ancient past. Beginning around 3500 BP, peoples from Island Southeast Asia began colonizing western Micronesia, and shortly thereafter ca. 3400 BP, Lapita groups began moving east from Near Oceania (e.g., the Solomons and Bismarck Archipelago) to islands in Eastern Melanesia and West Polynesia, including Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa. It is remarkable that over the next 2500 years, even the most remote islands, known now to represent the distant nodes of the Polynesian triangle (New Zealand, Hawaii, and Easter Island), were eventually visited by Austronesian speakers and their descendants across this seemingly boundless ocean. One of the more enduring questions - and one that has perplexed scholars for decades - is how and when these ancient seafarers were able to develop navigational/wayfinding techniques and seafaring technologies to overcome a number of environmental challenges. This would ultimately help determine what combination of social and environmental stimuli forced or encouraged people to colonize some of the most isolated patches of land on earth. To advance our understanding of ancient Pacific colonization strategies, we integrate seafaring simulation models, ease of eastward travel estimates based on land distribution and wind pattern analysis, and new climatic datasets for precipitation in Micronesia and Polynesia to examine intra-annual variations in wind and precipitation that would have influenced travel. Combined with statistical modeling of winds and currents, we argue that: land distribution could have contributed to the pause in eastward expansion seen at about 3000 BP; simple downwind sailing and downwind sailing during eastward spells are viable navigation strategies for reaching islands to the east; seasonality of eastward winds would facilitate voyage planning and increase chances of success; knowledge of annual and interannual variability
On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.
Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr
Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....
1998). At Marion. Island, mean surface air temperature increased by 1.2°C between 1969 and 1999 and annual precipitation de- creased after the mid 1960s (Smith 2002). Mean sea surface temperature (SST) increased by 1.4°C between. 1949 and 2002 (Mélice et al. in press). At the same time, there was growing concern ...
transmission caused by structures are approximated in this class of wave models. 1.5.3 Task 3. Modeling channel hydrodynamics The Tangier Island boat ...the Tangier Island Boat Canal 2.1 Purpose A numerical modeling study investigated waves and hydrodynamics in and adjacent to the western portion of...fishing fleet, the U.S. Army Engineer District, Norfolk (CENAO) maintains the Tangier Island boat canal. CENAO is considering the construction of
Boyoung eKim; Grant eGoodall
To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during ch...
Kussakin, Oleg G.; Kostina, Elena E.
A description of the intertidal biota of volcanic Yankich Island (Ushishir Islands, Kuril Islands) is given. The species composition and vertical distribution pattern of the intertidal communities at various localities are described in relation to environmental factors, such as nature of the substrate, surf conditions and volcanic vent water. The macrobenthos is poor in the areas directly influenced by high temperature (20-40°C) and high sulphur content. There are no marked changes in the int...
Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80
Dassié, Emilie P.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Corrège, Thierry; Wu, Henry C.; Lemley, Gavin M.; Howe, Steve; Cabioch, Guy
The limited availability of oceanographic data in the tropical Pacific Ocean prior to the satellite era makes coral-based climate reconstructions a key tool for extending the instrumental record back in time, thereby providing a much needed test for climate models and projections. We have generated a unique regional network consisting of five Porites coral δ18O time series from different locations in the Fijian archipelago. Our results indicate that using a minimum of three Porites coral δ18O records from Fiji is statistically sufficient to obtain a reliable signal for climate reconstruction, and that application of an approach used in tree ring studies is a suitable tool to determine this number. The coral δ18O composite indicates that while sea surface temperature (SST) variability is the primary driver of seasonal δ18O variability in these Fiji corals, annual average coral δ18O is more closely correlated to sea surface salinity (SSS) as previously reported. Our results highlight the importance of water mass advection in controlling Fiji coral δ18O and salinity variability at interannual and decadal time scales despite being located in the heavy rainfall region of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Fiji δ18O composite presents a secular freshening and warming trend since the 1850s coupled with changes in both interannual (IA) and decadal/interdecadal (D/I) variance. The changes in IA and D/I variance suggest a re-organization of climatic variability in the SPCZ region beginning in the late 1800s to period of a more dominant interannual variability, which could correspond to a southeast expansion of the SPCZ.
Steven W Purcell
Full Text Available Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1 appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.
Purcell, Steven W
Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.
Carter Karen L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality statistics are essential for population health assessment. Despite limitations in data availability, Pacific Island Countries are considered to be in epidemiological transition, with non-communicable diseases increasingly contributing to premature adult mortality. To address rapidly changing health profiles, countries would require mortality statistics from routine death registration given their relatively small population sizes. Methods This paper uses a standard analytical framework to examine death registration systems in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. Results In all countries, legislation on death registration exists but does not necessarily reflect current practices. Health departments carry the bulk of responsibility for civil registration functions. Medical cause-of-death certificates are completed for at least hospital deaths in all countries. Overall, significantly more information is available than perceived or used. Use is primarily limited by poor understanding, lack of coordination, limited analytical skills, and insufficient technical resources. Conclusion Across the region, both registration and statistics systems need strengthening to improve the availability, completeness, and quality of data. Close interaction between health staff and local communities provides a good foundation for further improvements in death reporting. System strengthening activities must include a focus on clear assignment of responsibility, provision of appropriate authority to perform assigned tasks, and fostering ownership of processes and data to ensure sustained improvements. These human elements need to be embedded in a culture of data sharing and use. Lessons from this multi-country exercise would be applicable in other regions afflicted with similar issues of availability and quality of vital statistics.
Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B
For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.
Oestergaard, Iben [ed.
This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)
Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A
Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments.We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.
Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.
Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant
To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.
Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.
... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...
Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard
developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics...... and influential factors impact on the development of the singleisland or multi-island smart energy system are different. This paper presents the influential factors of the island smart energy system development by the literature analysis. Meanwhile, taking Philippines as a case study to investigate...... the differences between the single-island and multi-island smart energy system, and examine the integration challenges of the multi-island smart energy system in the Philippines. The integration challenges of the national energy system with island smart energy development are discussed with suggestions....
Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.
Maulana, Alvaryan; Benita, Tania
As an archipelagic country, Indonesia consist of thousands of island. Some of them are big enough to contain growth and become the center of settlement and activity in Indonesia. However, growth and habitation are not only mushrooming in main island. Several small island also experience growth and become densely population places and simply become a city within island. This study aims to identify island city in Indonesia and creating the typology of the island city. This study is using exploratory approach and heavily rely on statistical figure of every single autonomous region as data sources. Eventually, this study found twelve (12) island cities in Indonesia, and three distinctive typology of island cities.
Patiño, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert James; Borges, Paulo A. V.
Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...
Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore
One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.
Sia Rosalind Juo Ling
Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.
Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour
nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over......Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... where the botanical survey was exhaustive. As no animals and humans are found on the nunataks, this change in diversity over a period of just 42 years must relate to environmental changes probably being climate-driven. This suggests that even the flora of fairly small and isolated ice-free areas reacts...
Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter
Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196
Siomar C Soares
Full Text Available The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1 deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2 insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS. In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands.
Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.
The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.
Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.
Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.
Author Affiliations. Sushil Kumar1 S K Singh2 A K Gwal2. Physics Division, School of Engineering and Physics, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji; Space Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462 026, India ...
article/15413 2018-02-20T22:04:23Z bjt:ART Signal modelling in speaker recognition Sharma, A; University of the South Pacific, Department of Engineering, GPO Box 1168, Suva, Fiji speaker recognition system; signal modeling; autoregressive ...
Decentralisation has been described as an empty concept that lacks clarity. Yet there is an enduring interest in the process of decentralisation within health systems and public services more generally. Many claims about the benefits of decentralisation are not supported by evidence. It may be useful as an organising framework for analysis of health systems but in this context it lacks conceptual clarity and particularly often ignores level context issues given the focus on a principal-agent/vertical centre/local axis or other aspects of limits on autonomy such as standards for professional practice. Both these aspects are relevant in discussing the establishment of "decentralised" health centres in Fiji. In the end decentralisation may be nothing more than a useful descriptive label that can be used in an increasingly wide range of ways but actually have little meaning in practice as an analytical concept. © 2016 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bustamante, Arturo Vargas
For more than three decades healthcare decentralization has been promoted in developing countries as a way of improving the financing and delivery of public healthcare. Decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization would determine the role and scope of responsibility of local authorities. Jalal Mohammed, Nicola North, and Toni Ashton analyze decision autonomy within decentralized services in Fiji. They conclude that the narrow decision space allowed to local entities might have limited the benefits of decentralization on users and providers. To discuss the costs and benefits of healthcare decentralization this paper uses the U-form and M-form typology to further illustrate the role of decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization. This paper argues that when evaluating healthcare decentralization, it is important to determine whether the benefits from decentralization are greater than its costs. The U-form and M-form framework is proposed as a useful typology to evaluate different types of institutional arrangements under healthcare decentralization. Under this model, the more decentralized organizational form (M-form) is superior if the benefits from flexibility exceed the costs of duplication and the more centralized organizational form (U-form) is superior if the savings from economies of scale outweigh the costly decision-making process from the center to the regions. Budgetary and financial autonomy and effective mechanisms to maintain local governments accountable for their spending behavior are key decision autonomy variables that could sway the cost-benefit analysis of healthcare decentralization. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert; Henrich, Joseph
Using samples from three diverse populations, we test evolutionary hypotheses regarding how people reason about the inheritance of various traits. First, we provide a framework for differentiat-ing the outputs of mechanisms that evolved for reasoning about variation within and between (a) biological taxa and (b) culturally evolved ethnic categories from (c) a broader set of beliefs and categories that are the outputs of structured learning mechanisms. Second, we describe the results of a modified "switched-at-birth" vignette study that we administered among children and adults in Puno (Peru), Yasawa (Fiji), and adults in the United States. This protocol permits us to study perceptions of prenatal and social transmission pathways for various traits and to differentiate the latter into vertical (i.e., parental) versus horizontal (i.e., peer) cultural influence. These lines of evidence suggest that people use all three mechanisms to reason about the distribution of traits in the population. Participants at all three sites develop expectations that morphological traits are under prenatal influence, and that belief traits are more culturally influenced. On the other hand, each population holds culturally specific beliefs about the degree of social influence on non-morphological traits and about the degree of vertical transmission-with only participants in the United States expecting parents to have much social influence over their children. We reinterpret people's differentiation of trait transmission pathways in light of humans' evolutionary history as a cultural species. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Euichi Hirose; Budhi Hascaryo Iskandar; Yusli Wardiatno
Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2...
Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei
The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...
Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard
the differences between the single-island and multi-island smart energy system, and examine the integration challenges of the multi-island smart energy system in the Philippines. The integration challenges of the national energy system with island smart energy development are discussed with suggestions....
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island ...the coastal problem involves circulation around islands , which has been less studied over the years. Island circulation is distinguished from...processes include boundary currents, eddies shed in the island’s wake, and island coastally trapped waves. This project aims to improve the understanding
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...
Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun
In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.
... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone.... This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and...
Full Text Available Island studies research has traditionally focused on relatively rural, peripheral, and isolated communities, yet island cities (strongly urbanized small islands or archipelagos or major population centres of large islands or archipelagos also represent an important research area. Island spatiality has a host of historical and continuing effects on urban development, influencing urban densification and agglomeration, zonal differentiation, and neighbourhood formation in cities both big and small. This special section of Island Studies Journal includes papers on the island cities and urban archipelagos of Peel (Isle of Man, British Isles, Nuuk (Greenland, Palma de Majorca (Spain, Belize City (Belize, and Mumbai (India. The Island Cities and Urban Archipelagos research network seeks to help enrich wider island studies scholarship and contribute to introducing the island dimension to urban studies.
and recreational purposes include groupers (Cephalapholis argus), porgy (Monotaxis grandoculis), and jacks (Carangidae). Sharks are abundant...Possibly Extinct on Wake Island Swiftlet, Guam; Yayaguak (Collecalia bartschi) Endangered Crow, Mariana; Aga (Corvus kubaryi) Endangered
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A summary report describing the discussion and recommendations resulting from a multidisciplinary review of the biological program at Cat Island NWR.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...
Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The shoreline along the...approximately 235°. The island is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico , the Galveston Entrance Channel to the northeast, West Bay to the northwest, and San...plants on both ends of the island are the best strategies to widen the beaches of Galveston Island, improve tourism , and better protect the island
Donald Ames Person
Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-...
Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.
to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...
Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.
Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.
Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano
Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...
Butcher, Robert; Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Rainima-Qaniuci, Mere; Haffenden, Chris; Watson, Conall; Cocks, Naomi; Cikamatana, Luisa; Roberts, Chrissy H.; Marks, Michael; Rafai, Eric; Mabey, David C. W.; Kama, Mike; Solomon, Anthony W.
Background The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is “at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes”, reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji’s Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys. Methods We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji. Results We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18%) reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97%) individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7–11.3%). iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation. Conclusion Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT. PMID:28114364
Parks, Tom; Kado, Joseph; Miller, Anne E.; Ward, Brenton; Heenan, Rachel; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Bärnighausen, Till W.; Mirabel, Mariana; Bloom, David E.; Bailey, Robin L.; Tukana, Isimeli N.; Steer, Andrew C.
Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008–2012 in people aged 5–69 years. Methods and Findings Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8–10.0) and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4–331.5) due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0–69 years. Valuing life using Fiji’s per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011–2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses. Conclusions Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases. PMID:26371755
Full Text Available Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia. Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.
Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli
Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic foxes, introduced to Alaid and Nizki islands in 1911, 1920 and 1935, were removed from the two islands in 1975 and 1976 by means of shooting and trapping...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Protection Island and San Juan Islands NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To document migratory bird use and response following elimination of introduced Arctic foxes from an island in the western Aleutian Islands. Fox elimination from an...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report...
There are a number of well-recognized bioscience companies located in the greater Providence area. They represent a significant and growing source of jobs and future revenue, which promises to play a role in the revitalization and expansion of Rhode Island's economy. In an effort to support these companies and to showcase their research, the Rhode Island Medical Journal is highlighting five of these innovative enterprises in this issue. The companies selected are members of the Rhode Island BioScience Leaders organization, and their research spans a wide range of science, from biologics and informatics to innovative coatings for medical devices. They include ProThera Biologics, EpiVax, Tivorsan Pharmaceuticals, BioIntraface, and VeroScience.
M. Y. Grishchenko
Full Text Available Modern cities are characterized by special urban landscape and special urban climate. Urban heat island is a phenomenon closely associated with urban territories. There are many methods developed for studying urban heat island, they can be combined into two groups: imagery-based methods and physicomathematical methods. Using spatial imagery can provide revealing thermal anomalies evolution in time and space, spatial distribution of various thermal anomalies, differences in quantitative measures of various thermal anomalies. Despite the fact that imagery-based methods are seemed to be very widespread among scientists all over the world, still there are some problems with using spatial imagery. The best spatial resolution of accessible thermal imagery is 60 m (ETM+ sensor, and sometimes it is not enough for urban studies (many urban objects have smaller dimensions. The problem of urban heat island is rather serious in modern world, and it needs data of very good quality.
Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...
Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...
Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project
(Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized
Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...
As part of its General Management Plan (GMP) process, Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) seeks to develop a long-term management model to protect Fire Islands resources, while facilitating a safe, rewarding, and relevant experience for the publi...
... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....
... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/rhodeisland.html Libraries in Rhode Island To use the sharing features ... Island Hospital / a Lifespan Partner Peters Health Sciences Library 593 Eddy Street Providence, RI 02903-4971 401- ...
... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke ... Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of ...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...
This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.
... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...
The “Island Biogeography; ecology, evolution, and conservation” is an excellent textbook for the island biology. After a brief chapter “The natural laboratory paradigm”, in which the structure of the book is described, the second chapter gives a comprehensive description of the physical characteristics of the islands; their origin, formation, geological evolution, and natural physical disturbances. In chapter 3, the status of the global biodiversity distribution on the Earth’s islands is shor...
Bjornstad, Bruce N.
This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.
Regteren Altena, van C.O.
CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31
This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…
We develop some statistical methods to determine these external genetic elements or genomic islands in genomes based on their differential oligonucleotide usage patterns compared to the rest of the genome. Genomic islands identiﬁed by these unsupervised statistical methods include integron and pathogenicity islands.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rhode Island. 32.59 Section 32.59 Wildlife... § 32.59 Rhode Island. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing and are listed in alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. Block Island National Wildlife...
Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B; Algar, Adam C
Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M-M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland-island (M-I) and island-island (I-I) species turnover with predictions of the M-M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M-M model should successfully predict M-I and I-I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M-I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I-I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland-island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts.
Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…
Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, Richard J.
the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted Whistle...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little...
Xavier Barceló Pinya
Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.
Paulo A.V. Borges
Full Text Available Island biogeographical research is becoming more and more fashionable, with the continuous identification of new challenges that are critical for the advancement of science. In this contribution we identify biases and limitations associated with island biogeographical studies, and also describe recent advances and propose new perspectives. The main proposals include: 1 downscaling island biogeographical studies to local/plot scale; 2 investigating geographical patterns of intra-specific genetic variation to infer dispersal processes among and within islands; 3 using applied biogeographical research to respond to the current island biodiversity crisis; and 4 applying new computer-intensive methods such as artificial intelligence (AI approaches.
... by the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997, requires us to develop a CCP for each... libraries in northwestern Washington: Anacortes Public Library, Bellingham Public Library, Clinton Public Library, Coupeville Public Library, Evergreen State College Library, Island Public Library, Jefferson...
, Small Island States [including Comoros, Mauritius, São Tomé and Principe, Seychelles,. Timor-Leste and Oceania (Cook Islands, Fiji, Nauru, Kiribati, Palau, Marshall Islands, Niue, Samoa,. Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tuvalu, ...
As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.
Matthews, Thomas J.; Guilhaumon, François; Triantis, Kostas A.
Aim: We undertook the largest comparative study to date of the form of the island species–area relationship (ISAR) using 207 habitat island datasets and 601 true island datasets. We also undertook analyses of (a) the factors influencing z- and c-values of the power (log–log) model and (b) how z...... and c vary between different island types. Location: Global. Methods: We used an information theoretic approach to compare the fit of 20 ISAR models to 207 habitat island datasets. Model performance was ranked according to pre-set criteria, including metrics of generality and efficiency. We also fitted......, and was the highest ranked model overall. In general, the more complex models performed badly. Average z-values were significantly lower for habitat island datasets than for true islands, and were higher for mountaintop and urban habitat islands than for other habitat island types. Average c-values were significantly...
Brown, Andrew N; Ward-Panckhurst, Liane; Cooper, Gabrielle
Limited human resources are a major impediment to achieving the UN health-related Millennium Development Goals in a number of Pacific Island Countries (PICs). Lack of education capacity to support competency development in medicine supply management is one of the main issues affecting workforce development in this region, which is characterised by disparate service delivery due to the range of environments in which supply occurs (ie urban, rural and remote), geographical challenges and cultural practices associated with teaching and learning. The supply of medicines, and an adequate pharmacy workforce with appropriate competencies is crucial to ensuring a well-functioning pharmaceutical system. In this region approximately 80% of patients access healthcare in rural areas without a pharmacist, thus local health personnel must be competent in pharmaceutical management relevant to the local context and culture. A new approach involves a partnership between the UN Population Fund Suva Sub-Regional Office, University of Canberra, Ministry of Health officials and the heath personnel within identified PICs, starting with the need to understand local culture and its impact on learning and teaching, and the mapping of competency requirements and an understanding of currently available information and materials. This information will be used to develop and trial new pedagogical approaches to training health personnel involved in essential medicines supply management, to improve medicines availability for patients in their own environment. The focus of this review was to determine what cultural and learning factors need to be considered when developing a curriculum for South Pacific pharmaceutical health personnel who work across a range of practice environments. A 'realist methodology' consisting of a systematic investigation of the published literature and a targeted review of the 'grey' literature was used. All relevant literature was retrieved and coded manually using
Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.
Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.
A. E. Scheidegger
Full Text Available A study is made of the orientations (strikes/trends of joints, valleys, ridges and lineaments, i.e. of the (potentially morphotectonic features, of the Mascarene Islands (Reunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean. It turns out that a connection exists between these features on all islands. For the joints alone, the results for Mauritius as a whole agree closely with those for Rodrigues as a whole, and also partially with those of Reunion. Inasmuch as the trends of the valleys, ridges and lineaments are related to the trends (strikes of the joints, a common morphotectonic predesign seems to be present for all features studied. The morphotectonic orientations on the island also agree closely with the trends of fracture zones, ridges and trenches in the nearby ocean bottom; which has had a bearing on the theories of the origin of the Mascarene Islands. Generally, a hot-spot origin is preferred for Reunion, and may be for Mauritius as well, although differing opinions have also been voiced. The dynamics of a hot-spot is hard to reconcile with the close fit of the joint strikes in Réunion with the trends of the Madagascar and Rodrigues fracture zones. The closely agreeing joint maxima in Mauritius and Rodrigues í across the deep Mauritius trench í also agree with the trend of that trench and with the trend of the Rodrigues fracture zone. Thus, it would appear as most likely that the trends of joints and of fracture zones are all part of the same pattern and are due to the same cause: viz. to action of the neotectonic stress field.
Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R; Fernández-Palacios, José María
Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014-an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7-11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries(1)-demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Williams, Kelly Porter
Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.
James C. Russell
Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.
Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.
Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.
Lu, Jianbo; Dung, Lizhong; Xu, Gaofu
In this paper, the typical area of fragmentation in Thousand-island Lake region was selected to study the effects of islanding on plant species diversity after reservoir built. 26 quadrates were installed on 18 small, medium and large islands to investigate the species and number of trees and shrubs, with inland as the control One-way variance analysis (ANOVA) showed that the species richness of trees was significantly different (F = 13.055, P = 0.000) among all kinds of islands, which was significantly higher on large islands than on small and medium ones, but not significantly different from that on inland. The species richness of shrubs was not significantly different among all kinds of islands and inland. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the species richness of trees was significantly positively correlated with island area, while the correlation between specie richness of shrubs and island area was not significant. Shannon-Wiener Index (H) analysis suggested that the diversity of both trees and shrubs on large islands was the highest, followed by on inland, but the diversity of shrubs was larger on small than on medium islands. The analysis of Simpson index and Pielou index showed that the species evenness of trees was the highest, but the dominance was the lowest on medium and large islands, while the species evenness of shrubs was the highest on medium and small islands, but the dominance was the lowest on small islands.
Gray, Alan; Cavers, Stephen
Island biogeography theory is fundamentally reliant on measuring the number of species per island and hence has taxonomy at its foundation. Yet as a metric used in tests of the theory, island species richness (S) has varied with time according to the level of taxonomic effort (a function of the rate of finding and describing species). Studies using a derivative of S, single-island endemic species richness (SIE S), may be prone to change in taxonomic effort. Decreases or increases in species numbers resulting from taxonomic revision or increased sampling are likely to have a large effect on values of SIE S, as they tend to be smaller than total S for the same island. Using simple biogeography models, we analysed estimates of SIE S in plants, land snails, beetles, and fungi from comprehensive data sets for eight island groups, produced species accumulation curves and applied Bayesian regression over five time periods. Explanatory power differed across taxa, but area and island age were not always the best explanatory variables, and niche diversity appeared to be important. Changing levels of SIE S over time had different effects on models with different taxa and between island archipelagos. The results indicated that the taxonomic effort that determines SIE S is important. However, as this cannot often be quantified, we suggest Bayesian approaches should be more useful than frequentist methods in evaluating SIE S in island biogeography theory. Fundamentally, the article highlights the importance of taxonomy to theoretical biogeography.
Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung
This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/).
with more than one generator connected to the same system. An isochronous controller with feedback has been developed in this research study. It performs relatively well in both islanded and grid connected conditions. Hence, if there is more than one DG unit in the distribution system, employing isochronous...... of power supply provided that various issues with islanding are properly addressed. Some of the issues with islanding are state (islanded or grid connected) detection, control of voltage and frequency, load control and protection. In this dissertation, some of the major technical issues with islanding...... power shift). However, the active technique is used only when the passive technique cannot clearly discriminate between islanded and grid connected conditions. DG units perform the best if they are operated with droop control and power factor control when they are operating parallel to the grid...
This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work in the Aleutian Islands, Semidi Islands, and Bering Sea in support of work unit 953.10. Distribution and abundance of birds as seas (work...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs for the next 15 years....
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — President Transmittal on the proposal of wilderness additions that include Okefenokee, Pelican Islands, Island Bay, Cedar Keys, Passage Key, and Wichita Mountains.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mechanical means similar to those employed on Amata Island during the summer of 1983 were used to attempt eradication of fox on Rat Island. These labor intensive...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA. This netCDF includes multibeam bathymetry from...
Reunion Island is one of the islands in southeastern Africa. Like most other islands, it experienced colonisation and became part of the French colonial empire. What is interesting is that Reunion Island rather opted for continued dependency while other colonised territories opted for sovereignty; the island thus became
Full Text Available Megabenthic epifauna composition and distribution from the Scotia Arc islands based on data collected during the Antarctic summer of 1986-87 is presented. Samples were taken from bottom trawl catches at 345 stations (29 at Shag Rocks, 104 at South Georgia, 8 at the South Sandwich Islands, 93 at the South Orkney Islands, 46 at Elephant Island, and 65 at the South Shetland Islands, from 26 to 643 m depth. Among the most striking features of the faunistic composition of the area, pointed out by multivariate analysis, are the singularity of Shag Rocks, closer to the Magellan region, and of the volcanic South Sandwich Islands, as well as the similarity of South Georgia and the South Orkney Islands and that of the islands nearest to the Antarctic continent, especially Elephant Island and the South Shetlands Islands. This similarity is due to the higher frequency and abundance of the most characteristic taxa in the Antarctic epibenthos, such as sessile suspension feeders (sponges, calcareous bryozoans, pennatulids, crinoids, and motile fauna with a wide variety of trophic strategies (asteroids, holothurians, pycnogonids, large isopods and gammarids. These data confirm the fact that the long-lived suspension-feeder communities, demosponges and hexactinellids, characteristic of the Antarctic epibenthos stretch to the eastern shelf of South Georgia without reaching the north-west of this island, the South Sandwich Islands, and Shag Rocks. Some of the zones with rich communities of sessile filter-feeders, long-lived sponges or reef formations of calcareous bryozoans or serpulids should be proposed as Specially Protected Areas.
Teresa Tiago; Sandra Dias Faria; João Luís Cogumbreiro; João Pedro Couto; Flávio Tiago
Many small islands exist as tourism destinations worldwide. In the 1990s, the growth of environmental consciousness led some small islands to question their mass tourism offers and to refocus on more sustainable propositions. However, it remains unclear whether hospitality firms see these sustainability related efforts as drivers of success and whether tourists value this dimension when choosing or recommending a destination. This study chose a small island destination to address these questi...
shrimp require tidal circulation and gradient in salinity within estuaries as a part of their juvenile growth cycle, which is promoted by the presence of...dynamically stable in that the barrier island is designed to allow morphologic evolution through time via migration and overwash, as long as the storm...island dimen- sions (width and elevation) required to maintain morphologic form and increase the potential for island recovery after a storm. For
Morinay, Jennifer; Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Doutrelant, Claire; Covas, Rita
Islands are simplified, isolated ecosystems, providing an ideal set-up to study evolution. Among several traits that are expected to change on islands, an interesting but poorly understood example concerns signals used in animal communication. Islands are typified by reduced species diversity, increased population density, and reduced mate competition, all of which could affect communication signals. We used birdsong to investigate whether there are systematic changes in communication signals...
focal species for conservation by the U.S. Navy. The Island Fox Veterinary and Pathology Services project was designed to assist the Navy in island fox...the U.S. Navy. The Island Fox Veterinary and Pathology Services project was designed to assist the Navy in island fox conservation and management...microscopes, centrifuges, autoclave, blood analysis machines, a -80° F freezer and a computer (Figure 1). It also had storage for medical supplies
Mendoza Vizcaino, Javier; Sumper, Andreas; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni; Ramirez, J.M.
The electric generation systems on islands are based generally on fossil fuel. This fact and its supply make the electricity cost higher than in systems used in the continent. In this article, we present a review of the renewable energy generation systems on islands. To do it we analysed 77 islands from 45 different countries. This work will allow us to know how the implementation of renewable energy sources could help these islands in developing a renewable and sustainable energy sector, inc...
Morinay, Jennifer; Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Doutrelant, Claire; Covas, Rita
Islands are simplified, isolated ecosystems, providing an ideal set-up to study evolution. Among several traits that are expected to change on islands, an interesting but poorly understood example concerns signals used in animal communication. Islands are typified by reduced species diversity, increased population density, and reduced mate competition, all of which could affect communication signals. We used birdsong to investigate whether there are systematic changes in communication signals on islands, by undertaking a broad comparison based on pairs of closely related island-mainland species across the globe. We studied song traits related to complexity (number of different syllables, frequency bandwidth), to vocal performance (syllable delivery rate, song duration), and also three particular song elements (rattles, buzzes, and trills) generally implicated in aggressive communication. We also investigated whether song complexity was related to the number of similar sympatric species. We found that island species were less likely to produce broadband and likely aggressive song elements (rattles and buzzes). By contrast, various aspects of song complexity and performance did not differ between island and mainland species. Species with fewer same-family sympatric species used wider frequency bandwidths, as predicted by the character release hypothesis, both on continents and on islands. Our study supports the hypothesis of a reduction in aggressive behavior on islands and suggests that discrimination against closely related species is an important factor influencing birdsong evolution.
Chen, M.C.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Wesseler, J.H.H.
Municipalities of small islands have limited capacities for waste disposal. In the case of Green Island, Taiwan, continuing with business as usual would only allow the disposal of waste on the island for another 8 years. Three alternatives for solid waste management (SWM) are compared. The
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; McAloon Wedding Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking SUMMARY: The... is planned on Lake Erie in the vicinity of Catawba Island, OH. This fireworks display will be...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris Island...
... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island at...
... No. USCG-2011-0968] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display, Gulf of Mexico, Marco Island, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... the vicinity of Marco Island Marriott Beach Resort in Marco Island, Florida during the Marco Island...
Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.
Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.
Full Text Available The first part of the paper examines uses and meanings of the orientational metaphors ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘out’ and ‘off’. In the discussed languages in North Western Europe there are general principles of metaphoric entailment and underlying image schemas that guide the choice of positional metaphor: islands you are normally ‘on’, and mainlands ‘in’. The second part of the paper examines cases where this use is debated or contested. The author finds that these contestations seem to be fuelled by the different relations between subject and object that positional metaphors entail. Expressions with ‘in’ highlight belonging and collective identity, enlarge objects by conceptualizing them as encompassing containers, and reduce subjects to a part of the object. Expressions with ‘on’ highlight individuality and agency, reduce the object, and enlarge the subject by placing it above the object. Such differing entailments of positional metaphors may influence how islands are positioned and understood.
These MISR images from June 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 2569) demonstrate a turbulent atmospheric flow pattern known as the von Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is named after aerodynamicist Theodore von Karman, who theoretically derived the conditions under which it occurs. The alternating double row of vortices can form in the wake of an obstacle, in this instance the eastern Pacific island of Guadalupe. The rugged terrain of this volcanic Mexican island reaches a maximum elevation of 1.3 kilometers. The island is about 35 kilometers long and is located 260 kilometers west of Baja California.The vortex pattern is made visible by the marine stratocumulus clouds around Guadalupe Island. The upper image is a color view obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. North is toward the left. The orientation of the vortex street indicates that the wind direction is from lower left to upper right (northwest to southeast). The areas within the vortex centers tend to be clear because the rotating motions induce a vertical wind component that can break up the cloud deck.The lower view is a stereo picture generated from data acquired by MISR's fore- and aft-viewing 70-degree cameras. A 3-D effect is obtained by viewing the image with red/blue glasses and placing the red filter over your left eye. Note how the downwelling atmospheric motion (change in elevation from high to low) is accompanied by a clearing in the center of the first vortex. As the vortices propagate downstream, their rotational velocities weaken. As a consequence, the induced vertical motion and cloud-clearing effect weakens as well.Theodore von Karman was a Professor of Aeronautics at Caltech and Director of Caltech's Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory from 1930-1949. He was one of the principal founders of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The white tailed deer herd on St. Vincent Island represents an important part of the island's biotic community. To maintain the integrity of the island's deer...
This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.
Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.
The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (events. However, our current state of knowledge of palaeotsunamis in PICs as opposed to their circum-Pacific counterparts is minimal at best. We briefly outline the limited extent of our current knowledge and propose an innovative methodology for future research in the Pacific. Each PIC represents a point source of information in the Pacific Ocean and this would allow their palaeotsunami records to be treated akin to palaeo-DART?? (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. Contemporaneous palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources could be identified by using the spatial distribution of island records throughout the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with robust event chronologies. This would be highly innovative and, more importantly, would help provide the building blocks necessary to achieve more meaningful disaster risk reduction for PICs. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.
On November 29, an airplane pilot reported the start of an eruption on Mount Westdahl on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Islands (54.52°N, 164.65°W), according to the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Network. The pilot sighted an ash plume rising to more than 7 km altitude at 1705 local time ( = UT-11 hours). The main portion of the plume, at about 5 km altitude, extended 80-95 km east-northeast by 0930 the next morning.About noon, U.S. Coast Guard pilots observed a NE-SW fissure vent 5-8 km long, with at least one active lava flow traveling down the east flank. The area surrounding the vent was ash-covered, and increased runoff and possible mudflows were observed. Vigorous steam and ash emission was visible throughout the day from False Pass (90 km NE), which experienced a very fine dusting of ash. A strong sulfur odor at False Pass lasted into the night, and similar odors were reported by pilots up to several hundred kilometers inland. No ashfall has been reported in Cold Bay (145 km NE).
Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.; Cabrera, Maria del Carmen; Lambán, Luis Javier; Valverde, Margarida
Volcanic-rock aquifers are the most extensive and productive aquifers in the Hawaiian Islands. These aquifers contain different types of groundwater systems depending on the geologic setting in which they occur. The most common groundwater systems include coastal freshwater-lens systems in the dike-free flanks of the volcanoes and dike-impounded systems within the dike-intruded areas of the volcanoes. In some areas, a thick (hundreds of meters) freshwater lens may develop because of the presence of a coastal confining unit, or caprock, that impedes the discharge of groundwater from the volcanic-rock aquifer, or because the permeability of the volcanic rocks forming the aquifer is low. In other areas with low groundwater-recharge rates and that lack a caprock, the freshwater lens may be thin or brackish water may exist immediately below the water table. Dike-impounded groundwater systems commonly have high water levels (hundreds of meters above sea level) and contribute to the base flow of streams where the water table intersects the stream. Recent numerical modeling studies have enhanced the conceptual understanding of groundwater systems in the Hawaiian Islands.
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.
Stearns, Harold T.
A brief summary of the geography, climate, and geomorphology is given. Streams develop slowly after the extinction of a volcano because of the high permeability of the rock. Once established they cut rapidly because of the steep slopes and fractured condition of the rock. Stream erosion varies enormously on different slopes of the same mountain due to the great differences in rainfall and to other causes. Six reasons are given for the development of amphitheater-headed valleys. Marine erosion has formed cliffs as much as 1,000 feet high on the leeward side and 3,000 feet high on the windward side of some of the domes. The islands have undergone a complex series of emergences and submergences leaving marine fossiliferous limestone up to 1,070 feet above sea level and valleys drowned more than 1,200 feet. Twelve terrace levels are recognized. Some are definitely eustatic.A synopsis is given of the present knowledge of the geology of each volcanic mountain, as well as a table of the rock units, and geologic maps of all major islands. The volcanoes pass through four major phases between birth and extinction and are built around one minor and two major rift zones. The volcanoes began their history above sea level in the Tertiary. Most of them became dormant either before or during the early Quaternary. Activity was renewed in the late Quaternary. Mauna Kea was glaciated in the late Pleistocene. The character of each islet in the archipelago is tabulated.
Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.
Guadalcanal Island. Guadalcanal Island. 208 The Battle of Guadalcanal became one of the most important, and bloody campaigns, fought in the Pacific...sit in one chamber ) of 50 members, elected for four-year terms. However, Parliament may be dissolved by majority vote of its members before the
Lee, Gini; Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa
Island environments, particularly small archipelagos such as the Canary Islands, are more visible subject to the vagaries of change wrought by ecological and climate dynamics, shifting social conditions and economic impacts subject to global markets, than is witnessed on continental worlds....
Full Text Available This report gives the results of a workshop held on historical sites at the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward islands, southern Indian Ocean. All known visits and sojourns on the Prince Edward islands up to 1948 are tabulated. All known historical sites...
Person, Donald Ames
US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).
African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...
Donald Ames Person
Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.