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Sample records for suv small unilamellar

  1. Photoinduced bimolecular electron transfer kinetics in small unilamellar vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sharmistha Dutta; Kumbhakar, Manoj; Nath, Sukhendu; Pal, Haridas

    2007-11-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) from N,N-dimethylaniline to some coumarin derivatives has been studied in small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) of the phospholipid, DL-α-dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine, using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching, both below and above the phase transition temperature of the vesicles. The primary interest was to examine whether Marcus inversion [H. Sumi and R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] could be observed for the present ET systems in these organized assemblies. The influence of the topology of SUVs on the photophysical properties of the reactants and consequently on their ET kinetics has also been investigated. Absorption and fluorescence spectral data of the coumarins in SUVs and the variation of their fluorescence decays with temperature indicate that the dyes are localized in the bilayer of the SUVs. Time-resolved area normalized emission spectra analysis, however, reveals that the dyes are distributed in two different microenvironments in the SUVs, which we attribute to the two leaflets of the bilayer, one toward bulk water and the other toward the inner water pool. The microenvironments in the two leaflets are, however, not indicated to be that significantly different. Time-resolved anisotropy decays were biexponential for all the dyes in SUVs, and this has been interpreted in terms of the compound motion model according to which the dye molecules can experience a fast wobbling-in-cone type of motion as well as a slow overall rotating motion of the cone containing the molecule. The expected bimolecular diffusion-controlled rates in SUVs, as estimated by comparing the microviscosities in SUVs (determined from rotational correlation times) and that in acetonitrile solution, are much slower than the observed fluorescence quenching rates, suggesting that reactant diffusion (translational) does not play any role in the quenching kinetics in the present systems. Accordingly, clear inversions are

  2. Partitioning of organophosphorus pesticides into phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles studied by second-derivative spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Ohsugi, Mayuko; Ito, Aya; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2015-06-01

    In order to quantitatively examine the lipophilicity of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) chlorfenvinphos (CFVP), chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPFM), diazinon (DZN), fenitrothion (FNT), fenthion (FT), isofenphos (IFP), profenofos (PFF) and pyraclofos (PCF), their partition coefficient (Kp) values between phosphatidylcholine (PC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and water (liposome-water system) were determined by second-derivative spectrophotometry. The second-derivative spectra of these OPs in the presence of PC SUV showed a bathochromic shift according to the increase in PC concentration and distinct derivative isosbestic points, demonstrating the complete elimination of the residual background signal effects that were observed in the absorption spectra. The Kp values were calculated from the second-derivative intensity change induced by addition of PC SUV and obtained with a good precision of R.S.D. below 10%. The Kp values were in the order of CPFM > FT > PFF > PCF > IFP > CFVP > FNT ⩾ DZN and did not show a linear correlation relationship with the reported partition coefficients obtained using an n-octanol-water system (R2 = 0.530). Also, the results quantitatively clarified the effect of chemical-group substitution in OPs on their lipophilicity. Since the partition coefficient for the liposome-water system is more effective for modeling the quantitative structure-activity relationship than that for the n-octanol-water system, the obtained results are toxicologically important for estimating the accumulation of these OPs in human cell membranes.

  3. Partitioning of organophosphorus pesticides into phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles studied by second-derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Ohsugi, Mayuko; Ito, Aya; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2015-06-15

    In order to quantitatively examine the lipophilicity of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) chlorfenvinphos (CFVP), chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPFM), diazinon (DZN), fenitrothion (FNT), fenthion (FT), isofenphos (IFP), profenofos (PFF) and pyraclofos (PCF), their partition coefficient (Kp) values between phosphatidylcholine (PC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and water (liposome-water system) were determined by second-derivative spectrophotometry. The second-derivative spectra of these OPs in the presence of PC SUV showed a bathochromic shift according to the increase in PC concentration and distinct derivative isosbestic points, demonstrating the complete elimination of the residual background signal effects that were observed in the absorption spectra. The Kp values were calculated from the second-derivative intensity change induced by addition of PC SUV and obtained with a good precision of R.S.D. below 10%. The Kp values were in the order of CPFM>FT>PFF>PCF>IFP>CFVP>FNT⩾DZN and did not show a linear correlation relationship with the reported partition coefficients obtained using an n-octanol-water system (R(2)=0.530). Also, the results quantitatively clarified the effect of chemical-group substitution in OPs on their lipophilicity. Since the partition coefficient for the liposome-water system is more effective for modeling the quantitative structure-activity relationship than that for the n-octanol-water system, the obtained results are toxicologically important for estimating the accumulation of these OPs in human cell membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ratio of mediastinal lymph node SUV to primary tumor SUV in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for nodal staging in non-small-cell lung cancer

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    Cho, Jae Hyuk; Choe, Jae Gol; Pahk, Kisoo; Choi, Sun Ju; Kwon, Hye Ryeong; Kim, Sun Geun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Jae Seon; Seo, Hyo Jung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Han [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Following determination of the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the mediastinal lymph nodes (SUV-LN) and of the primary tumor (SUV-T) on 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the aim of the study was to determine the value of the SUV-LN/SUV-T ratio in lymph node staging in comparison with that of SUV-LN. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 289 mediastinal lymph node stations from 98 patients with NSCLC who were examined preoperatively for staging and subsequently underwent pathologic studies of the mediastinal lymph nodes. We determined SUV-LN and SUV-R for each lymph node station on 18F-FDG PET/CT and then classified each station into one of three groups based on SUV-T (low, medium and high SUV-T groups). Diagnostic performance was assessed based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and the optimal cut-off values that would best discriminate metastatic from benign lymph nodes were determined for each method. The average of SUV-R of malignant lymph nodes was significantly higher than that of benign lymph nodes (0.79 ± 0.45 vs. 0.36 ± 0.23, P < 0.0001). In the ROC curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) of SUV-R was significantly higher than that of SUV-LN in the low SUV-T group (0.885 vs. 0.810, P = 0.019). There were no significant differences between the AUCs of SUV-LN and of SUV-R in the medium and high SUV-T groups. The optimal cut-off value for SUV-R in the low SUV-T group was 0.71 (sensitivity 87.5 %, specificity 85.9 %). The SUV-R performed well in distinguishing between metastatic and benign lymph nodes. In particular, SUV-R was found to have a better diagnostic performance than SUV-LN in the low SUV-T group.

  5. Partitioning of anti-inflammatory steroid drugs into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol small unilamellar vesicles as studied by second-derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Funakoshi, Takako; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2008-05-01

    The partition coefficients (Kps) of six anti-inflammatory steroid drugs, dexamethasone (DMS), betamethasone (BMS), triamcinolone acetonide (TCLA), fluocinolone acetonide (FCLA), betamethasone 17,21-dipropionate (BMSDP), and clobetasole propionate (CBSP), for phosphatidylcholine (PC), and PC-cholesterol small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) were determined by a second-derivative spectrophotometric method. The Kp values were obtained with a relative standard deviation of below 10% and the following order was observed: BMS< or =DMSSUV bilayers reduced these Kp values to approximately 35-50% of those values for the PC SUVs, although the order of the Kp values remained unchanged. The order of the Kp values agreed with that of the reported dermatological therapeutic potency of these drugs, although the order of their log P values for n-octanol/water systems showed a discrepancy. Our results indicate that the potency of steroid drugs in dermatological treatments depends to some extent on the Kp values of the drug, that is, the affinity of steroid drugs for PC bilayers influences their clinical potency, since potency is related to transdermal absorption.

  6. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Spontaneous Formation of Unilamellar Vesicles: Potential Vehicles for Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaras, John

    2004-03-01

    Unilamellar vesicles (ULVs) are single-bilayer shells with radii commonly between 10 and 100 nm, and are widely used as model membranes, drug delivery systems, microreactors and substrates for a variety of enzymes and proteins. A common method of making ULVs is the extrusion of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) through synthetic membranes of known pore size. These extruded ULVs are invariably unstable and in due time, revert back to MLVs. Over the years there have been reports of the spontaneous formation of stable ULVs in surfactant, lipid, and lipid/detergent mixtures. These ULVs have sometimes been shown to be monodisperse and their radii were found, almost without exception, to vary with concentration. We have carried-out small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on a biomimetic system composed of the phospholipids dimyristoyl and dihexanoyl phosphorylcholine (DMPC and DHPC, respectively). Doping DMPC/DHPC multilamellar vesicles with either the negatively charged lipid dimyristoyl phosphorylglycerol (DMPG, net charge -1) or the divalent cation, calcium (Ca2+) leads to the spontaneous formation of monodisperse unilamellar vesicles whose radii are concentration independent, in contrast to previous experimental observations.

  7. Coarse-grained molecular simulations of the melting kinetics of small unilamellar vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Lara A; Kindt, James T

    2016-02-14

    Simulations of small unilamellar lipid bilayer vesicles have been performed to model their response to an instantaneous rise in temperature, starting from an initial low-temperature structure, to temperatures near or above the main chain transition temperature. The MARTINI coarse-grained force-field was used to construct slabs of gel-phase DPPC bilayers, which were assembled into truncated icosahedral structures containing 13,165 or 31,021 lipids. Equilibration at 280 K produced structures with several (5-8) domains, characterized by facets of lipids packed in the gel phase connected by disordered ridges. Instantaneous heating to final temperatures ranging from 290 K to 310 K led to partial or total melting over 500 ns trajectories, accompanied by changes in vesicle shape and the sizes and arrangements of remaining gel-phase domains. At temperatures that produced partial melting, the gel-phase lipid content of the vesicles followed an exponential decay, similar in form and timescale to the sub-microsecond phase of melting kinetics observed in recent ultrafast IR temperature-jump experiments. The changing rate of melting appears to be the outcome of a number of competing contributions, but changes in curvature stress arising from the expansion of the bilayer area upon melting are a major factor. The simulations give a more detailed picture of the changes that occur in frozen vesicles following a temperature jump, which will be of use for the interpretation of temperature-jump experiments on vesicles.

  8. Small unilamellar vesicles as reagents: a chemically defined, quantitative assay for lectins

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    Rando, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Samll unilamellar vesicles containing synthetic glycolipids can be prepared. These vesicles are aggregated by the appropriate lectin (Orr et al., 1979; Rando and Bangerter, 1979; Slama and Rando, 1980). It is shown here that extent of aggregation of these vesicles as measured by light scattering at 360 nm, is, under certain conditions, linear with amount of lectin added. This forms the basis of a rapid and simple quantitative assay for lectins using the modified vesicles as a defined chemical substrate. The assay is sensitive to lectin concentrations in the low ..mu..g range. The assay is applied here to studies on concanavalin A, Ricinus communis agglutinin and the ..cap alpha..-fucosyl binding lectin from Ulex europaeus (Type I).

  9. Growth Kinetics of Lipid-Based Nanodiscs to Unilamellar Vesicles: A Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) Study

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    Mahabir, Suanne [University of Western Ontario, The; Small, Darcy [University of Western Ontario, The; Li, Ming [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Wan, Wankei [University of Western Ontario, The; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Littrell, Ken [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Nieh, Mu-Ping [University of Connecticut, Storrs

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), dimyristoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) in aqueous solutions spontaneously form monodisperse, bilayered nanodiscs (also known as bicelles ) at or below the melting transition temperature of DMPC (TM ~23 C). In dilute systems above the main transition temperature TM of DMPC, bicelles coalesce (increasing their diameter) and eventually self-fold into unilamellar vesicles (ULVs). Time resolved small angle neutron scattering was used to study the growth kinetics of nanodiscs below and equal to TM over a period of hours as a function of temperature at two lipid concentrations in presence or absence of NaCl salt. Bicelles seem to undergo a sudden initial growth phase with increased temperature, which is then followed by a slower reaction-limited growth phase that depends on ionic strength, lipid concentration and temperature. The bicelle interaction energy was derived from the colloidal theory of Derjaguin and Landau, and Verwey and Overbeek (DLVO). While the calculated total energy between discs is attractive and proportional to their growth rate, a more detailed mechanism is proposed to describe the mechanism of disc coalescence. After annealing at low temperature (low-T), samples were heated to 50 C in order to promote the formation of ULVs. Although the low-T annealing of samples has only a marginal effect on the mean size of end-state ULVs, it does affect their polydispersity, which increases with increased T, presumably driven by the entropy of the system.

  10. Correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with the standardized uptake value (SUV) in hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lesions. Initial results

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    Heusch, P.; Buchbender, C. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Koehler, J. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Dept. of Medical Oncology; and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in non-small cell lung cancer lesions with standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from combined 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (FDG-PET/MRI) and those derived from FDG-PET/CT. Materials and Methods: In 18 consecutive patients with histologically proven NSCLC (17 men, 1 woman; mean age, 61 {+-} 12 years), whole-body FDG-PET/MRI was performed after whole-body FDG-PET/CT. Regions of interest (ROI) encompassing the entire primary tumor were drawn into FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MR images to determine the maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}) and into ADC parameter maps to assess mean ADC values. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare SUV and ADC values. Results: The SUV{sub max} of NSCLC was 12.3 {+-} 4.8 [mean {+-} SD], and the SUV{sub mean} was 7.2 {+-} 2.8 as assessed by FDG-PET/MRI. The SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} derived from FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MRI correlated well (R = 0.93; p < 0.001 and R = 0.92; p < 0.001, respectively). The ADC{sub mean} of the pulmonary tumors was 187.9 {+-} 88.8 x 10{sup -5} {sup mm{sup 2/s}} [mean {+-} SD]. The ADC{sub mean} exhibited a significant inverse correlation with the SUV{sub max} (R = -0.72; p < 0.001) as well as with the SUVmean assessed by FDG-PET/MRI (R = -0.71; p < 0.001). Conclusion: This simultaneous PET/MRI study corroborates the assumed significant inverse correlation between increased metabolic activity on FDG-PET and restricted diffusion on DWI in NSCLC. (orig.)

  11. Harmonizing SUVs in multicentre trials when using different generation PET systems: prospective validation in non-small cell lung cancer patients

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    Lasnon, Charline; Quak, Elske [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Desmonts, Cedric [Caen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Gervais, Radj; Do, Pascal; Dubos-Arvis, Catherine [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Thoracic Oncology, Caen (France); Aide, Nicolas [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Centre Francois Baclesse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Caen cedex 5 (France)

    2013-07-15

    We prospectively evaluated whether a strategy using point spread function (PSF) reconstruction for both diagnostic and quantitative analysis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients meets the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines for harmonization of quantitative values. The NEMA NU-2 phantom was used to determine the optimal filter to apply to PSF-reconstructed images in order to obtain recovery coefficients (RCs) fulfilling the EANM guidelines for tumour positron emission tomography (PET) imaging (PSF{sub EANM}). PET data of 52 consecutive NSCLC patients were reconstructed with unfiltered PSF reconstruction (PSF{sub allpass}), PSF{sub EANM} and with a conventional ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm known to meet EANM guidelines. To mimic a situation in which a patient would undergo pre- and post-therapy PET scans on different generation PET systems, standardized uptake values (SUVs) for OSEM reconstruction were compared to SUVs for PSF{sub EANM} and PSF{sub allpass} reconstruction. Overall, in 195 lesions, Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that the mean ratio between PSF{sub EANM} and OSEM data was 1.03 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.12] and 1.02 (95 % CI 0.90-1.14) for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}, respectively. No difference was noticed when analysing lesions based on their size and location or on patient body habitus and image noise. Ten patients (84 lesions) underwent two PET scans for response monitoring. Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria, there was an almost perfect agreement between OSEM{sub PET1}/OSEM{sub PET2} (current standard) and OSEM{sub PET1}/PSF{sub EANM-PET2} or PSF{sub EANM-PET1}/OSEM{sub PET2} with kappa values of 0.95 (95 % CI 0.91-1.00) and 0.99 (95 % CI 0.96-1.00), respectively. The use of PSF{sub allpass} either for pre- or post-treatment (i.e. OSEM{sub PET1}/PSF{sub allpass-PET2} or PSF{sub allpass-PET1}/OSEM{sub PET2}) showed

  12. Diffusion weighted MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Does the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlate with tracer uptake (SUV)?

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    Regier, M., E-mail: mregier@uke.uni-hamburg.de [Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Derlin, T. [Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Schwarz, D.; Laqmani, A.; Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Buhk, J.-H. [Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Kooijman, H. [Philips Healthcare, Clinical Application, Luebeckertordamm 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, G. [Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: To investigate the potential correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient assessed by diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and glucose metabolism determined by the standardized uptake value (SUV) at 18F-FDG PET/CT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods: 18F-FDG PET/CT and DWI (TR/TE, 2000/66 ms; b-values, 0 and 500 s/mm{sup 2}) were performed in 41 consecutive patients with histologically verified NSCLC. Analysing the PET-CT data calculation of the mean (SUV{sub mean}) and maximum (SUV{sub max}) SUV was performed. By placing a region-of-interest (ROI) encovering the entire tumor mean (ADC{sub mean}) and minimum ADC (ADC{sub min}) were determined by two independent radiologists. Results of 18F-FDG PET-CT and DWI were compared on a per-patient basis. For statistical analysis Pearson's correlation coefficient, Bland–Altman and regression analysis were assessed. Results: Data analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of the ADC{sub min} and SUV{sub max} (r = −0.46; p = 0.032). Testing the correlation of the ADC{sub min} and SUV{sub max} for each histological subtype separately revealed that the inverse correlation was good for both adenocarcinomas (r = −0.47; p = 0.03) and squamouscell carcinomas (r = −0.71; p = 0.002), respectively. No significant correlation was found for the comparison of ADC{sub min} and SUV{sub mean} (r = −0.29; p = 0.27), ADC{sub mean} vs. SUV{sub mean} (r = −0.28; p = 0.31) or ADC{sub mean} vs. SUV{sub max} (r = −0.33; p = 0.23). The κ-value of 0.88 indicated a good agreement between both observers. Conclusion: This preliminary study is the first to verify the relation between the SUV and the ADC in NSCLC. The significant inverse correlation of these two quantitative imaging approaches points out the association of metabolic activity and tumor cellularity. Therefore, DWI with ADC measurement might represent a new prognostic marker in NSCLC.

  13. Growth kinetics of lipid-based nanodiscs to unilamellar vesicles-a time-resolved small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabir, Suanne; Small, Darcy; Li, Ming; Wan, Wankei; Kučerka, Norbert; Littrell, Kenneth; Katsaras, John; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2013-03-01

    Mixtures of dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), dimyristoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) and dihexanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) in aqueous solutions spontaneously form monodisperse, bilayered nanodiscs (also known as "bicelles") at or below the melting transition temperature of DMPC (T(M) ~23°C). In dilute systems above the main transition temperature T(M) of DMPC, bicelles coalesce (increasing their diameter) and eventually self-fold into unilamellar vesicles (ULVs). Time-resolved small angle neutron scattering was used to study the growth kinetics of nanodiscs below and equal to T(M) over a period of hours as a function of temperature at two lipid concentrations in presence or absence of NaCl salt. Bicelles seem to undergo a sudden initial growth phase with increased temperature, which is then followed by a slower reaction-limited growth phase that depends on ionic strength, lipid concentration and temperature. The bicelle interaction energy was derived from the colloidal theory of Derjaguin and Landau, and Verwey and Overbeek (DLVO). While the calculated total energy between discs is attractive and proportional to their growth rate, a more detailed mechanism is proposed to describe the mechanism of disc coalescence. After annealing at low temperature (low-T), samples were heated to 50°C in order to promote the formation of ULVs. Although the low-T annealing of samples has only a marginal effect on the mean size of end-state ULVs, it does affect their polydispersity, which increases with increased T, presumably driven by the entropy of the system. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Study of an image-derived SUV and a modified SUV using mouse FDG-PET

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    Zheng Xiujuan, E-mail: zhengxj@eie.polyu.edu.h [Department of Electronic Information Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yu, Chin-Lung; Sha Wei; Radu, Caius; Huang, Sung-Cheng [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California Los Angeles, CA (United States); Feng Dagan [Department of Electronic Information Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); School of Information Technologies, the University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Introduction: Standard uptake value (SUV) is calculated without consideration of the differences in plasma 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) clearance. Its variability can be affected by changes of the amount of excreted FDG by renal function. Moreover, the estimation of SUV is quite sensitive to errors in the measurements of body weight and injected dose. This study aims to develop an image-based method to obtain an image-derived SUV (iSUV) and a modified SUV (mSUV) to overcome these problems. Methods: Thirty-one tumor-planted SCID mice were scanned in micro-positron emission tomography (PET) at {approx}60 min post FDG injection and then scanned in micro-computed tomographic (CT). Using image-based method, the body weight and injected dose were derived from the microPET/CT images to calculate iSUV. The volumes and the total activities of FDG within the bladder and the whole-body were also obtained to calculate mSUV. For the selected targets, the iSUVs and mSUVs were compared against their corresponding SUVs. Results: Compared with SUV factor (injected dose/body weight), iSUV factor had an average percentage error of -0.7%. The linear regressions between SUV and iSUV had a slope of 0.99 with correlation coefficient of 0.95. Compared with SUV and iSUV, coefficient of variation of mSUV decreased while the tumor-to-background separation of mSUV increased. Conclusions: Using this image-based method, the iSUV can replace SUV when the actual measurements were missing or unreliable. The mSUV can reduce the inter-subject variability and enhance the tumor-to-background separation in mouse FDG-PET studies.

  15. Hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity.

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    Maik Hadorn

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic life contains hierarchical vesicular architectures (i.e. organelles that are crucial for material production and trafficking, information storage and access, as well as energy production. In order to perform specific tasks, these compartments differ among each other in their membrane composition and their internal cargo and also differ from the cell membrane and the cytosol. Man-made structures that reproduce this nested architecture not only offer a deeper understanding of the functionalities and evolution of organelle-bearing eukaryotic life but also allow the engineering of novel biomimetic technologies. Here, we show the newly developed vesicle-in-water-in-oil emulsion transfer preparation technique to result in giant unilamellar vesicles internally compartmentalized by unilamellar vesicles of different membrane composition and internal cargo, i.e. hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity. The compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles were subsequently isolated by a separation step exploiting the heterogeneity of the membrane composition and the encapsulated cargo. Due to the controlled, efficient, and technically straightforward character of the new preparation technique, this study allows the hierarchical fabrication of compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity and will ease the development of eukaryotic cell mimics that resemble their natural templates as well as the fabrication of novel multi-agent drug delivery systems for combination therapies and complex artificial microreactors.

  16. Correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with the standardized uptake value (SUV) in lymph node metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients using hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI.

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    Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael; Buchbender, Christian; Nensa, Felix; Grueneisen, Johannes; Grueneien, Johannes; Gomez, Benedikt; Köhler, Jens; Reis, Henning; Ruhlmann, Verena; Umutlu, Lale; Heusch, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in lymph node metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from combined 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (18F-FDG PET/MRI). 38 patients with histopathologically proven NSCLC (mean age 60.1 ± 9.5 y) received whole-body PET/CT (Siemens mCT™) 60 min after injection of a mean dose of 280 ± 50 MBq 18F-FDG and subsequent PET/MRI (mean time after tracer injection: 139 ± 26 min, Siemens Biograph mMR). During PET acquisition, simultaneous diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, b values: 0, 500, 1000 s/mm²) was performed. A maximum of 10 lymph nodes per patient suspicious for malignancy were analyzed. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn covering the entire lymph node on the attenuation-corrected PET-image and the monoexponential ADC-map. According to histopathology or radiological follow-up, lymph nodes were classified as benign or malignant. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated for all lymph node metastases correlating SUVmax and SUVmean with ADCmean. A total of 146 suspicious lymph nodes were found in 25 patients. One hundred lymph nodes were eligible for final analysis. Ninety-one lymph nodes were classified as malignant and 9 as benign according to the reference standard. In malignant lesions, mean SUVmax was 9.1 ± 3.8 and mean SUVmean was 6.0 ± 2.5 while mean ADCmean was 877.0 ± 128.6 x10(-5) mm²/s in PET/MRI. For all malignant lymph nodes, a weak, inverse correlation between SUVmax and ADCmean as well as SUVmean and ADCmean (r = -0.30, pcorrelation between increased glucose-metabolism and cellularity in lymph node metastases of NSCLC patients. 18F-FDG-PET and DWI thus may offer complementary information for the evaluation of treatment response in lymph node metastases of NSCLC.

  17. Correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC with the standardized uptake value (SUV in lymph node metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients using hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Michael Schaarschmidt

    Full Text Available To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC in lymph node metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients with standardized uptake values (SUV derived from combined 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (18F-FDG PET/MRI.38 patients with histopathologically proven NSCLC (mean age 60.1 ± 9.5 y received whole-body PET/CT (Siemens mCT™ 60 min after injection of a mean dose of 280 ± 50 MBq 18F-FDG and subsequent PET/MRI (mean time after tracer injection: 139 ± 26 min, Siemens Biograph mMR. During PET acquisition, simultaneous diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, b values: 0, 500, 1000 s/mm² was performed. A maximum of 10 lymph nodes per patient suspicious for malignancy were analyzed. Regions of interest (ROI were drawn covering the entire lymph node on the attenuation-corrected PET-image and the monoexponential ADC-map. According to histopathology or radiological follow-up, lymph nodes were classified as benign or malignant. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated for all lymph node metastases correlating SUVmax and SUVmean with ADCmean.A total of 146 suspicious lymph nodes were found in 25 patients. One hundred lymph nodes were eligible for final analysis. Ninety-one lymph nodes were classified as malignant and 9 as benign according to the reference standard. In malignant lesions, mean SUVmax was 9.1 ± 3.8 and mean SUVmean was 6.0 ± 2.5 while mean ADCmean was 877.0 ± 128.6 x10(-5 mm²/s in PET/MRI. For all malignant lymph nodes, a weak, inverse correlation between SUVmax and ADCmean as well as SUVmean and ADCmean (r = -0.30, p<0.05 and r = -0.36, p<0.05 existed.The present data show a weak inverse correlation between increased glucose-metabolism and cellularity in lymph node metastases of NSCLC patients. 18F-FDG-PET and DWI thus may offer complementary information for the evaluation of treatment response in lymph node metastases of NSCLC.

  18. The MED-SUV Multidisciplinary Interoperability Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; D'Auria, Luca; Reitano, Danilo; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Roncella, Roberto; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In accordance with the international Supersite initiative concept, the MED-SUV (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes) European project (http://med-suv.eu/) aims to enable long-term monitoring experiment in two relevant geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: Mt. Vesuvio/Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna. This objective requires the integration of existing components, such as monitoring systems and data bases and novel sensors for the measurements of volcanic parameters. Moreover, MED-SUV is also a direct contribution to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) as one the volcano Supersites recognized by the Group on Earth Observation (GEO). To achieve its goal, MED-SUV set up an advanced e-infrastructure allowing the discovery of and access to heterogeneous data for multidisciplinary applications, and the integration with external systems like GEOSS. The MED-SUV overall infrastructure is conceived as a three layer architecture with the lower layer (Data level) including the identified relevant data sources, the mid-tier (Supersite level) including components for mediation and harmonization , and the upper tier (Global level) composed of the systems that MED-SUV must serve, such as GEOSS and possibly other global/community systems. The Data level is mostly composed of existing data sources, such as space agencies satellite data archives, the UNAVCO system, the INGV-Rome data service. They share data according to different specifications for metadata, data and service interfaces, and cannot be changed. Thus, the only relevant MED-SUV activity at this level was the creation of a MED-SUV local repository based on Web Accessible Folder (WAF) technology, deployed in the INGV site in Catania, and hosting in-situ data and products collected and generated during the project. The Supersite level is at the core of the MED-SUV architecture, since it must mediate between the disparate data sources in the layer below, and provide a harmonized view to

  19. Analysis list: Suv39h1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Suv39h1 Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv...39h1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv39h1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bi...osciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv39h1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Suv39h

  20. Analysis list: Suv39h2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Suv39h2 Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv...39h2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv39h2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bi...osciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv39h2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Suv39h

  1. Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Y.; Urakami, N.; Taniguchi, T.; Imai, M.

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively without steric modification of lipids as in fluorescence probe techniques. First the SANS profile of protonated SUVs at a film contrast condition showed that SUVs have a spherical shape with an inner radius of 190 Å and a bilayer thickness of 40 Å. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at a contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The characteristic profile was described well by a spherical bilayer model. The fitting revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet. Thus the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model.

  2. Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Y; Imai, M [Department of Physics, Ochanomizu University, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan); Urakami, N [Department of Physics and Information Sciences, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Taniguchi, T, E-mail: imai@phys.ocha.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8510 (Japan)

    2011-07-20

    We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively without steric modification of lipids as in fluorescence probe techniques. First the SANS profile of protonated SUVs at a film contrast condition showed that SUVs have a spherical shape with an inner radius of 190 A and a bilayer thickness of 40 A. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at a contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The characteristic profile was described well by a spherical bilayer model. The fitting revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet. Thus the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model.

  3. MED-SUV Data Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangianantoni, Agata; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia; Tulino, Sabrina

    2015-04-01

    The MED-SUV project aims to implement a digital e-infrastructure for data access in order to promote the monitoring and study of key volcanic regions prone to volcanic hazards, and thus improve hazard assessment, according to the rationale of Supersite GEO initiative to Vesuvius- Campi Flegrei and Mt Etna, currently identified as Permanent Supersites. The present study focuses on the life cycle of MED-SUV data generated in the first period of the project and highlights the managing approach, as well as the crucial steps to be implemented for ensuring that data will be properly and ethically managed and can be used and accessed from both MED-SUV and the external community. The process is conceived outlining how research data being handled as the project progresses, describing what data are collected, processed or generated and how these data are going to be shared and made available through Open Access. Data cycle begins with their generation and ends with the deposit in the digital infrastructure, its key series of stages through which MED-SUV data passes are Collection, Data citation, Categorization of data, Approval procedure, Registration of datasets, Application of licensing models, and PID assignment. This involves a combination of procedures and practices taking into account the scientific core mission and the priorities of the project as well as the potential legal issues related to the management and protection of the Intellectual Property. We believe that the implementation of this process constitutes a significant encouragement in MED-SUV data sharing and as a consequence a better understanding on the volcanic processes, hazard assessment and a better integration with other Supersites projects.

  4. Unilamellar liposomes with enhanced boron content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiejun; Hamdi, Julie; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2006-01-01

    A new type of boron-rich, DSPC-free, unilamellar liposomes was formed using the novel dual-chain, ionic, nido-carborane lipid, K[nido-7-(C16H33OCH2)2CHOCH2-7,8-C2B9H11] (DAC-16), and cholesterol for encapsulation of an aqueous buffer core. Since DSPC was not necessary for the formation of stable DAC-16 liposomes, the boron concentration of these vesicles was increased dramatically to approximately 8.8 wt % in the dry lipid; these liposomes had a high bilayer boron incorporation efficiency of 98%. DSPC-free liposomes exhibited a size distribution pattern of 40-60 nm, which was in the range normally associated with selective tumor uptake. This size distribution was maintained throughout storage at room temperature for several months. Additionally, optimized liposome formulations incorporating DAC-16, DSPC, and cholesterol were identified having stable size distribution patterns after storage for more than two months at a variety of temperatures. Although animal studies indicate that DAC-16 liposomes are toxic, this new ionic nido-carborane lipid allows the formation of liposomes of high boron content for in vitro applications that require the delivery of large amounts of boron.

  5. Strategy study of quantification harmonization of SUV in PET/CT images; Estudo da estrategia de harmonizacao da quantificacao do SUV em imagens de PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Andreia Caroline Fischer da Silveira

    2014-07-01

    and quantitative assessments in different scopes. We concluded that the harmonization strategy of the SUV quantification presented in this paper was effective in reducing the variability of small structures quantification. However, for the comparison of SUV quantification between different scanners and institutions, it is essential that, in addition to the harmonization of quantification, the standardization of the methodology of patient preparation is maintained, in order to minimize the SUV variability due to biological factors. (author)

  6. Acyl chain order and lateral domain formation in mixed phosphatidylcholine--sphingomyelin multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, B R; Hoechli, M; Barenholz, Y

    1981-11-24

    The phase behavior of mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) with N-palmitoylsphingosinephosphorylcholine (C16SHP) has been investigated in both small unilamellar and large multilamellar vesicles. The steady-state fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) has been used to detect temperature-induced structural changes in these membranes. In addition, electron microscopy has revealed vastly different fracture-face morphologies for large multilamellar vesicles "jet-frozen" from different temperatures. These data have been interpreted in terms of proposed phase diagrams for this lipid mixture. The shapes of the proposed phase diagrams have led us to conclude that phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin species of similar acyl chain length mix freely in both highly curved and uncurved bilayers, except at temperatures at which both lipids are in low-temperature, ordered phases. In addition, the similarity of these phase diagrams to phase diagrams for analogous mixtures of pure phosphatidylcholines suggested that sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine suggested that sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine species might substitute for each other in supporting the lamellar phase necessary for each other in supporting the lamellar phase necessary to cell membrane structure. Finally, the anisotropy of DPH fluorescence was found to be essentially invariant with sphingomyelin content at temperatures just above and below the solid--liquid phase separation in small unilamellar vesicles. This demonstrates that the sphingomyelin backbone, per se, does not order the membrane bilayer. These results are discussed in terms of the possible role of sphingomyelin in controlling acyl chain order within mammalian cell membranes.

  7. Downregulation of histone methyltransferase genes SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 increases telomere length in embryonic stem-like cells and embryonic fibroblasts in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Nguyen, Thanh Quang; Haraguchi, Seiki; Furusawa, Tadashi; Somfai, Tamas; Kaneda, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shinya; Akagi, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Tajima, Atsushi; Nagai, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Telomere is a nucleoprotein structure at the ends of chromosomes that helps to protect the ends of chromosomes from being fused with other chromosomes. Knockout of histone methyltransferases Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 increases the telomere length in murine cells, whereas downregulation of SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 genes decreases the telomere length in human cells, suggesting that telomere biology is different among mammalian species. However, epigenetic regulation of the telomere has not been studied in mammals other than the human and mouse. In the present study, the effect of knockdown of SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 genes on telomere length was examined in porcine embryonic stem-like cells (pESLCs) and porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEFs). The telomeres in SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 knockdown (SUV39KD) pESLCs (37.1 ± 0.9 kb) were longer (Ptelomeres (22.1 ± 0.4 kb; Ptelomere elongation in SUV39KD pESLCs and SUV39KD PEFs. Relative levels of trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 and expressions of DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B were decreased in SUV39KD cells, suggesting that telomere lengthening in SUV39KD pESLCs and SUV39KD PEFs might be not only related to the loss of histone modification marks but also linked to the decrease in DNA methyltransferase in pigs.

  8. Formation of Kinetically Trapped Nanoscopic Unilamellar Vesicles from Metastable Nanodiscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieh, Mu-Ping [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Inst. of Materials Science, Dept. of Chemical, Materials & Biomolecular Engineering; Dolinar, Paul [Univ. of Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kucerka, Norbert [National Research Council, Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Lab., Canadian Neutron Beam Centre; Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Physical Chemistry of Drugs; Kline, Steven R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Neutron Scattering Science Division; Littrell, Kenneth C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Neutron Scattering Science Division; Katsaras, John [National Research Council, Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Lab., Canadian Neutron Beam Centre; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Neutron Scattering Science Division; Brock Univ., St. Catharines, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Univ. of Guelph, ON (Canada). Guelph-Waterloo Physics Inst.

    2011-09-27

    Zwitterionic long-chain lipids (e.g., dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine, DMPC) spontaneously form onion-like, thermodynamically stable structures in aqueous solutions (commonly known as multilamellar vesicles, or MLVs). It has also been reported that the addition of zwitterionic short-chain (i.e., dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine, DHPC) and charged long-chain (i.e., dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol, DMPG) lipids to zwitterionic long-chain lipid solutions results in the formation of unilamellar vesicles (ULVs). Here, we report a kinetic study on lipid mixtures composed of DMPC, DHPC, and DMPG. Two membrane charge densities (i.e., [DMPG]/[DMPC] = 0.01 and 0.001) and two solution salinities (i.e., [NaCl] = 0 and 0.2 M) are investigated. Upon dilution of the high-concentration samples at 50 °C, thermodynamically stable MLVs are formed, in the case of both weakly charged and high salinity solution mixtures, implying that the electrostatic interactions between bilayers are insufficient to cause MLVs to unbind. Importantly, in the case of these samples small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data show that, initially, nanodiscs (also known as bicelles) or bilayered ribbons form at low temperatures (i.e., 10 °C), but transform into uniform size, nanoscopic ULVs after incubation at 10 °C for 20 h, indicating that the nanodisc is a metastable structure. The instability of nanodiscs may be attributed to low membrane rigidity due to a reduced charge density and high salinity. Moreover, the uniform-sized ULVs persist even after being heated to 50 °C, where thermodynamically stable MLVs are observed. This result clearly demonstrates that these ULVs are kinetically trapped, and that the mechanical properties (e.g., bending rigidity) of 10 C nanodiscs favor the formation of nanoscopic ULVs over that of MLVs. From a practical point of view, this method of forming uniform-sized ULVs may lend itself to their mass production, thus making them economically feasible for medical

  9. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    In response to the EC call ENV.2012.6.4-2 (Long-term monitoring experiments in geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: the Supersite concept - FP7-ENV-2012-two-stage) a wide community of volcanological institutions proposed the project Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV), which is in the negotiation phase at the time of writing. The Consortium is composed by 18 European University and research institutes, four Small or Medium Enterprises (SME) and two non-European University and research institutes. MED-SUV will improve the consortium capacity of assessment of volcanic hazards in Supersites of Southern Italy by optimising and integrating existing and new observation/monitoring systems, by a breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes and by increasing the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities. More than 3 million of people are exposed to potential volcanic hazards in a large region in the Mediterranean Sea, where two among the largest European volcanic areas are located: Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. This project will fully exploit the unique detailed long-term in-situ monitoring data sets available for these volcanoes and integrate with Earth Observation (EO) data, setting the basic tools for a significant step ahead in the discrimination of pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. The wide range of styles and intensities of volcanic phenomena observed on these volcanoes, which can be assumed as archetypes of 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcano, together with the long-term multidisciplinary data sets give an exceptional opportunity to improve the understanding of a very wide spectrum of geo-hazards, as well as implementing and testing a large variety of innovative models of ground deformation and motion. Important impacts on the European industrial sector are expected, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new

  10. Biodistribution of the {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} PET radiopharmaceutical in cancer patients: an atlas of SUV measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Jamali, Mehran; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam [Stanford University, Stanford, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford University, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Barkhodari, Amir; Mosci, Camila; Mittra, Erik; Iagaru, Andrei [Stanford University, Stanford, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Shen, Bin; Chin, Frederick [Stanford University, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of 2-fluoropropionyl-labeled PEGylated dimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) ({sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2}) in cancer patients and to compare its uptake in malignant lesions with {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. A total of 35 patients (11 men, 24 women, mean age 52.1 ± 10.8 years) were enrolled prospectively and had {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} PET/CT prior to treatment. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) and mean SUV (SUV{sub mean}) were measured in 23 normal tissues in each patient, as well as in known or suspected cancer lesions. Differences between {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} uptake and {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were also evaluated in 28 of the 35 patients. Areas of high {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} accumulation (SUV{sub max} range 8.9 - 94.4, SUV{sub mean} range 7.1 - 64.4) included the bladder and kidneys. Moderate uptake (SUV{sub max} range 2.1 - 6.3, SUV{sub mean} range 1.1 - 4.5) was found in the choroid plexus, salivary glands, thyroid, liver, spleen, pancreas, small bowel and skeleton. Compared with {sup 18}F-FDG, {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} showed higher tumor-to-background ratio in brain lesions (13.4 ± 8.5 vs. 1.1 ± 0.5, P < 0.001), but no significant difference in body lesions (3.2 ± 1.9 vs. 4.4 ± 4.2, P = 0.10). There was no significant correlation between the uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}) for {sup 18}F FPPRGD{sub 2} and those for {sup 18}F-FDG. The biodistribution of {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} in cancer patients is similar to that of other RGD dimer peptides and it is suitable for clinical use. The lack of significant correlation between {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} and {sup 18}F-FDG uptake confirms that the information provided by each PET tracer is different. (orig.)

  11. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV / Pick-up Truck Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C; Weber, P; Thornton,M

    2003-08-24

    The objective of this project is to determine the influence of diesel fuel composition on the ability of NOX adsorber catalyst (NAC) technology, in conjunction with diesel particle filters (DPFs), to achieve stringent emissions levels with a minimal fuel economy impact. The test bed for this project was intended to be a light-duty sport utility vehicle (SUV) with a goal of achieving light-duty Tier 2-Bin 5 tail pipe emission levels (0.07 g/mi. NOX and 0.01 g/mi. PM). However, with the current US market share of light-duty diesel applications being so low, no US 2002 model year (MY) light-duty truck (LDT) or SUV platforms equipped with a diesel engine and having a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) less than 8500 lb exist. While the current level of diesel engine use is relatively small in the light-duty class, there exists considerable potential for the diesel engine to gain a much larger market share in the future as manufacturers of heavy light-duty trucks (HLDTs) attempt to offset the negative impact on cooperate average fuel economy (CAFE) that the recent rise in market share of the SUVs and LDTs has caused. The US EPA Tier 2 emission standards also contain regulation to prevent the migration of heavy light-duty trucks and SUV's to the medium duty class. This preventive measure requires that all medium duty trucks, SUV's and vans in the 8,500 to 10,000 lb GVWR range being used as passenger vehicles, meet light-duty Tier 2 standards. In meeting the Tier 2 emission standards, the HLDTs and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) will face the greatest technological challenges. Because the MDPV is the closest weight class and application relative to the potential upcoming HLDTs and SUV's, a weight class compromise was made in this program to allow the examination of using a diesel engine with a NAC-DPF system on a 2002 production vehicle. The test bed for this project is a 2500 series Chevrolet Silverado equipped with a 6.6L Duramax diesel engine

  12. Variability of average SUV from several hottest voxels is lower than that of SUVmax and SUVpeak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffon, E. [CHU de Bordeaux, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Pessac (France); Universite de Bordeaux 2, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); INSERM U 1045, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); Lamare, F.; Clermont, H. de [CHU de Bordeaux, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Pessac (France); Burger, I.A. [University Hospital of Zurich, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Marthan, R. [Universite de Bordeaux 2, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); INSERM U 1045, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-08-15

    To assess variability of the average standard uptake value (SUV) computed by varying the number of hottest voxels within an {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG)-positive lesion. This SUV metric was compared with the maximal SUV (SUV{sub max}: the hottest voxel) and peak SUV (SUV{sub peak}: SUV{sub max} and its 26 neighbouring voxels). Twelve lung cancer patients (20 lesions) were analysed using PET dynamic acquisition involving ten successive 2.5-min frames. In each frame and lesion, average SUV obtained from the N = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 hottest voxels (SUV{sub max-N}){sub ,} SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak} were assessed. The relative standard deviations (SDrs) from ten frames were calculated for each SUV metric and lesion, yielding the mean relative SD from 20 lesions for each SUV metric (SDr{sub N}, SDr{sub max} and SDr{sub peak}), and hence relative measurement error and repeatability (MEr-R). For each N, SDr{sub N} was significantly lower than SDr{sub max} and SDr{sub peak}. SDr{sub N} correlated strongly with N: 6.471 x N{sup -0.103} (r = 0.994; P < 0.01). MEr-R of SUV{sub max-30} was 8.94-12.63 % (95 % CL), versus 13.86-19.59 % and 13.41-18.95 % for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak} respectively. Variability of SUV{sub max-N} is significantly lower than for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}. Further prospective studies should be performed to determine the optimal total hottest volume, as voxel volume may depend on the PET system. (orig.)

  13. Generating harmonized SUV within the EANM EARL accreditation program: software approach versus EARL-compliant reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasnon, Charline; Salomon, Thibault; Desmonts, Cédric; Dô, Pascal; Oulkhouir, Youssef; Madelaine, Jeannick; Aide, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Evolutions in hardware and software PET technology, such as point spread function (PSF) reconstruction, have been shown to improve diagnostic performance, but can also lead to important device-dependent and reconstruction-dependent variations in standardized uptake values (SUVs). This may preclude the multicentre use of SUVs as a prognostic or diagnostic tool or as a biomarker of the early response to antineoplastic treatments. This study compared two SUV harmonization strategies using a newer reconstruction algorithm that improves lesion detection while maintaining comparability with older systems: (1) the use of a second reconstruction compliant with harmonization standards and (2) the use of a proprietary software tool (EQ.PET). PET data from 50 consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients were reconstructed with PSF reconstruction for optimal tumor detection and an ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM3D) reconstruction to mimic a former generation PET. An additional PSF reconstruction was performed with a 7 mm Gaussian filter (PSF7, first method), and, post-reconstruction, the EQ filter (same Gaussian filter) was applied to the PSF data (PSFEQ, second method) for harmonization purposes. The 7 mm kernel filter was chosen to comply with the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) standards. SUVs for all reconstructions were compared with regression analyses and/or Bland-Altman plots. Overall, 171 lesions were analyzed: 55 lung lesions (32.2%), 87 lymph nodes (50.9%), and 29 metastases (16.9%). In these lesions, the mean PSF7/OSEM3D ratios for SUVmax and SUVpeak were 1.02 (95% CI: 0.93-1.11) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.95-1.14), respectively. The mean PSFEQ/OSEM3D ratios for SUVmax and SUVpeak were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.91-1.11) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.94-1.14), respectively. When comparing PSF7 and PSFEQ, Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean PSF7/PSFEQ ratios for SUVmax and SUVpeak were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.96-1.06) and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.97-1.04), respectively

  14. Siim Nestor soovitab : DJ Suv. Reaalsessioonid Tartus / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    DJ Suv esineb koos MC Guyvoriga üritusel Dzhungli kellad 21. detsembril Kunstiakadeemias, hiljaaegu valmis tema soolo debüüt-LP "Desert Rose". 21. detsembril Tartu klubis Illegaard toimuvast CD-kogumiku "Tallinn: psühhedeelne linn" esitlus-kontsert-peost

  15. Membrane Protrusion Coarsening and Nanotubulation within Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    KAUST Repository

    Węgrzyn, Ilona

    2011-11-16

    Hydrophobic side groups on a stimuli-responsive polymer, encapsulated within a single giant unilamellar vesicle, enable membrane attachment during compartment formation at elevated temperatures. We thermally modulated the vesicle through implementation of an IR laser via an optical fiber, enabling localized directed heating. Polymer-membrane interactions were monitored using confocal imaging techniques as subsequent membrane protrusions occurred and lipid nanotubes formed in response to the polymer hydrogel contraction. These nanotubes, bridging the vesicle membrane to the contracting hydrogel, were retained on the surface of the polymer compartment, where they were transformed into smaller vesicles in a process reminiscent of cellular endocytosis. This development of a synthetic vesicle system containing a stimuli-responsive polymer could lead to a new platform for studying inter/intramembrane transport through lipid nanotubes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Comparative evaluation of SUV, tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR), and dual time point measurements for assessment of the metabolic uptake rate in FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, Frank; Hoff, Jörg van den; Steffen, Ingo G; Lougovski, Alexandr; Ego, Kilian; Amthauer, Holger; Apostolova, Ivayla

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated recently that the tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) is superior to tumor standardized uptake value (SUV) as a surrogate of the metabolic uptake rate K m of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), overcoming several of the known shortcomings of the SUV approach: excellent linear correlation of SUR and K m from Patlak analysis was found using dynamic imaging of liver metastases. However, due to the perfectly standardized uptake period used for SUR determination and the comparatively short uptake period, these results are not automatically valid and applicable for clinical whole-body examinations in which the uptake periods (T) are distinctly longer and can vary considerably. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the correlation between SUR derived from clinical static whole-body scans and K m-surrogate derived from dual time point (DTP) measurements. DTP (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 90 consecutive patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the PET images, the primary tumor was delineated with an adaptive threshold method. For determination of the blood SUV, an aorta region of interest (ROI) was delineated manually in the attenuation CT and transferred to the PET image. Blood SUV was computed as the mean value of the aorta ROI. SUR values were computed as ratio of tumor SUV and blood SUV. SUR values from the early time point of each DTP measurement were scan time corrected to 75 min postinjection (SURtc). As surrogate of K m, we used the SUR(T) slope, K slope, derived from DTP measurements since it is proportional to the latter under the given circumstances. The correlation of SUV and SURtc with K slope was investigated. The prognostic value of SUV, SURtc, and K slope for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was investigated with univariate Cox regression in a homogeneous subgroup (N=31) treated with primary chemoradiation. Correlation analysis revealed for both, SUV and SURtc, a

  17. Downregulation of Histone Methyltransferase Genes SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 Increases Telomere Length in Embryonic Stem-like Cells and Embryonic Fibroblasts in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    DANG-NGUYEN, Thanh Quang; Haraguchi, Seiki; FURUSAWA, Tadashi; SOMFAI, Tamas; Kaneda, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shinya; AKAGI, Satoshi; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; Tajima, Atsushi; Nagai, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Telomere is a nucleoprotein structure at the ends of chromosomes that helps to protect the ends of chromosomes from being fused with other chromosomes. Knockout of histone methyltransferases Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 increases the telomere length in murine cells, whereas downregulation of SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 genes decreases the telomere length in human cells, suggesting that telomere biology is different among mammalian species. However, epigenetic regulation of the telomere has not been s...

  18. DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT OF E-TURBO FOR SUV AND LIGHT TRUCK APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balis, C; Middlemass, C; Shahed, SM

    2003-08-24

    The purpose of the project is to develop an electronically controlled, electrically assisted turbocharging system, e-Turbo, for application to SUV and light truck class of passenger vehicles. Earlier simulation work had shown the benefits of e-Turbo system on increasing low-end torque and improving fuel economy. This paper will present further data from the literature to show that advanced turbocharging can enable diesel engine downsizing of 10-30% with 6-17% improvement in fuel economy. This is in addition to the fuel economy benefit that a turbocharged diesel engine offers over conventional gasoline engines. E-Turbo is necessary to get acceptable driving characteristics with downsized diesel engines. As a first step towards the development of this technology for SUV/light truck sized diesel engines (4-6 litre displacement), design concepts and hardware were evaluated for a smaller engine (2 litre displacement). It was felt that design and developments issues could be minimized, the concept proven progressively on the bench, on a small engine and then applied to a large Vee engine (one on each bank). After successful demonstration of the concept, large turbomachinery could be designed and built specifically for larger SUV sized diesel engines. This paper presents the results of development of e-Turbo for a 2 litre diesel engine. A detailed comparison of several electric assist technologies including permanent magnet, six-phase induction and conventional induction motor/generator technology was done. A comparison of switched reluctance motor technology was also done although detailed design was not carried out.

  19. Obtention and application of recovery coefficients in SUV values to quality control in PET equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cássio Miri; Sá, Lídia V. de; Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Mamede, Marcelo; Silva, Teógenes A. da, E-mail: cassio.miri@unifesp.br, E-mail: lidia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: mamede.mm@gmail.com, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Departmento de Diagnose por Imagem; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The functional imaging technique Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using the radiopharmaceutical fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) has been demonstrated an important role in the diagnosis and staging of cancer tumors. However, the standard uptake values (SUV) quantification of a 'lesion' or a hot spot is influenced by partial volume effects (PVE). This is particularly important for evaluating solid tumour response to therapy, where SUV quantification could indicate treatment efficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake correction in two image quantification modes (SUVmaximum and SUVmedium) through recovery coefficients (RC) application. The NEMA/IEC Body Phantom simulator was used and tested for an activity ratio lesion to background of 4:1, and at different acquisition times. The images quantification was performed with OsiriX® software. The obtained RCs were applied to the phantom images. The obtained SUVmedium values corrected by RCs presented satisfactory results, demonstrating small differences (1.1% a 2.3%) in relation to previously known SUVreference values. This did not occur for corrected SUVmaximum values where differences of up to 27.0% were observed between these and SUVreference values. These results demonstrate that the PVE correction by SUVmedium can more adequate to evaluate tumor's uptake. Therefore, this parameter should be used for equipment quality control in order to evaluate the response and degree of agreement between equipment. (author)

  20. Amphiphilic polypeptoids connect lipid bilayers to rearrange unilamellar liposomes to closely spaced multilayered structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Vijay; Zhang, Yueheng; Xuan, Sunting; Zhang, Donghui; Omarova, Marzhana

    Hydrophobically modified polypeptoids (HMPs) are amphiphilic pseudo-peptidic macromolecules with hydrophobic groups attached randomly along the polypeptoid backbone. We show that these biocompatible polymers connect across lipid bilayers and thus form layered structures on liposomes. The transition from single bilayer to multiple bilayer structures is characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). We propose a mechanism whereby the HMPs insert their hydrophobic tails into adjacent bilayers and thereby serve as the connective glue between bilayers. At higher HMP concentrations, the liposomes are entirely disrupted into much smaller micelle-like structures through extensive hydrophobe insertion. Interestingly, these small structures can reattach to fresh unilamellar liposomes and self-assemble to form new two-bilayered liposomes reminiscent of two-bilayered organelles such as the nucleus in eukaryotic cells. The observations have significance to designing new nanoscale drug delivery carriers. Replace this text with your abstract body. U.S. Department of Energy under EPSCoR Grant No. DE-SC0012432.

  1. Unilamellar DMPC Vesicles in Aqueous Glycerol: Preferential Interactions and Thermochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westh, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Glycerol is accumulated in response to environmental stresses in a diverse range of organisms. Understanding of favorable in vivo effects of this solute requires insight into its interactions with biological macromolecules, and one access to this information is the quantification of so-called preferential interactions in glycerol-biopolymer solutions. For model membrane systems, preferential interactions have been discussed, but not directly measured. Hence, we have applied a new differential vapor pressure equipment to quantify the isoosmotic preferential binding parameter, Γμ1, for systems of unilamellar vesicles of DMPC in aqueous glycerol. It is found that Γμ1 decreases linearly with the glycerol concentration with a slope of −0.14 ± 0.014 per molal. This implies that glycerol is preferentially excluded from the membrane-solvent interface. Calorimetric investigations of the same systems showed that the glycerol-DMPC interactions are weakly endothermic, and the temperature of the main phase transition increases slightly (0.16°C per molal) with the glycerol concentration. The results are discussed with respect to a molecular picture which takes into account both the partitioning of glycerol into the membrane and the preferential exclusion from the hydration layer, and it is concluded that the latter effect contributes about four times stronger than the former to the net interaction. PMID:12524287

  2. Predictive significance of standardized uptake value parameters of FDG-PET in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, X-Y.; Wang, W.; Li, M.; Li, Y.; Guo, Y-M. [PET-CT Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an, Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-02-03

    {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is widely used to diagnose and stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the predictive ability of different FDG standardized uptake values (SUVs) in 74 patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed and different SUV parameters (SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub avg}, SUV{sub T/L}, and SUV{sub T/A}) obtained, and their relationship with clinical characteristics were investigated. Meanwhile, correlation and multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed to determine the primary predictor of SUVs for NSCLC. Age, gender, and tumor size significantly affected SUV parameters. The mean SUVs of squamous cell carcinoma were higher than those of adenocarcinoma. Poorly differentiated tumors exhibited higher SUVs than well-differentiated ones. Further analyses based on the pathologic type revealed that the SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub avg}, and SUV{sub T/L} of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma tumors were higher than those of moderately or well-differentiated tumors. Among these four SUV parameters, SUV{sub T/L} was the primary predictor for tumor differentiation. However, in adenocarcinoma, SUV{sub max} was the determining factor for tumor differentiation. Our results showed that these four SUV parameters had predictive significance related to NSCLC tumor differentiation; SUV{sub T/L} appeared to be most useful overall, but SUV{sub max} was the best index for adenocarcinoma tumor differentiation.

  3. Towards a multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, Stefano; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Cossu, Roberto; Santoto, Mattia; Martini, Marcello; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The MED-SUV European project (http://med-suv.eu/) aims to design and implement a multidisciplinary infrastructure for the volcanic risk management life-cycle in southern Italy. The MED-SUV infrastructure will rely upon the improvements of the understanding of geophysical processes underlying the volcanic systems of Vesuvius / Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna. It will also achieve the integration of existing components, such as monitoring systems and data bases, novel sensors for the measurements of volcanic parameters, and tools for data analysis and process modelling. This effort will contribute to GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems - http://www.earthobservations.org/geoss.shtml) as one the volcano Supersite recognized by GEO (Group on Earth Observation) -see http://supersites.earthobservations.org/. To achieve its goals, MED-SUV needs an advanced e-infrastructure allowing: (a) heterogeneous data and processing systems to provide and share their resources, and (b) supersite Users to run their workflows and generate significant products. This presentation discusses the general interoperability approach and architecture characterizing the MED-SUV e-infrastructure. The MED-SUV e-infrastructure considered the concepts and solutions adopted by the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). The architecture requirements and system technologies builds on the experience done by relevant European projects in the framework of GEOSS and ESFRI (e.g. EuroGEOSS, GENESI, GEOWOW). MED-SUV e-infrastructure adopts three-tiers approach distinguishing among: (a) local and distributed Data/Information Providers; (b) the MED-SUV Brokering framework for harmonization and interoperability; (c) the MED-SUV e-collaboration environment for the generation and publication of advanced products. MED-SUV e-infrastructure development considers interoperability with the other two FP7 supersite projects: MARSITE and FUTUREVOLC, as well as EPOS.

  4. Suv39h1 Protects from Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of ischemic events. Suv39h1 is a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes the methylation of histone 3 lysine 9, which is associated with the suppression of inflammatory genes in diabetes. However, the role of Suv39h1 in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury under diabetic condition has not been evaluated. Methods: To generate diabetic model, male SD rats were fed with 60% fat diet followed by intraperitoneal injection with 40mg/kg streptozotocin. Adenovirus encoding Suv39h1 gene was used for Suv39h1 overexpression. Each rat received injections of adenovirus at five myocardial sites. Three days after gene transfection, each rat was subjected to left main coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. After 30 min ischemia and reperfusion for 4 h, the rats were euthanized for real-time PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemical staining, and morphometric analysis. Results: Delivery of Ad-Suv39h1 into the hearts of diabetic rats could markedly increase Suv39h1 expression. Up-regulation of Suv39h1 significantly reduced infarct size and tissue damage after I/R injury, which was associated with protection from apoptosis of cardiac myocytes and reduction of inflammatory response. In addition, compared with injury group, Ad-Suv39h1 led to a decreased activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase family and its down-steam transcriptional factor NF-κB. Conclusion: Overexpression of Suv39h1 results in the de-activation of proinflammatory pathways and reduced apoptosis and myocardial injury. Therefore, Suv39h1 might represent a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce I/R injury under diabetic condition.

  5. Quantification of leakage from large unilamellar lipid vesicles by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2014-01-01

    that mastoparan X forms transient transmembrane pores in POPC/POPG (3:1) vesicles, resulting in size-dependent leakage of molecules from the vesicles. We conclude the paper by discussing some of the advantages and limitations of FCS as compared to other existing methods to measure leakage from large unilamellar...

  6. Riboflavin and chlorophyll as photosensitizers in electroformed giant unilamellar vesicles as food models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hui Jing; Liang, Ran; du, Hui Hui

    2017-01-01

    Electroformed giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) were found to have optimal sizes (~10 µm average diameter) for studying effects of photosensitizers and antioxidants in lipid bilayers as food models. By using optical microscopy and digital image processing techniques, no membrane damage was found ...

  7. File list: Oth.PSC.10.Suv39h1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Oth.PSC.20.Suv39h2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Oth.ALL.20.Suv39h2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Oth.PSC.05.Suv39h1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Oth.ALL.10.Suv39h1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Oth.ALL.05.Suv39h2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Oth.ALL.50.Suv39h1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Oth.ALL.05.Suv39h1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Oth.PSC.05.Suv39h2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Oth.PSC.50.Suv39h2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Oth.PSC.50.Suv39h1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.ALL.10.Suv39h2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. New roles of the human Suv3 helicase in genome maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venø, Susanne Trillingsgaard

    During her PhD studies, Susanne Trillingsgaard Venø carried out research into the role of the human Suv3 protein in stabilising the human genome – DNA. Suv3 is a helicase that separates the two strands of the DNA’s double helix. Throughout our lives, the DNA in our cells is constantly exposed to ...... maintenance. Based on these new research results, the Suv3 protein could be a valuable model for genome stability as an important factor in our understanding of why we get old....

  3. The impact of replacing heavy passenger vehicles (LTVs and SUVs) in the British Columbia fleet with lighter versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter J; Zheng, Yvonne; Andersen, Linda; Pellegrini, Nicole

    2009-10-01

    The study reported in this article addressed the potential safety impact of consumer movement toward smaller vehicle choices by examining the makeup of the full British Columbia (BC) vehicle fleet--from smaller cars to heavy commercial vehicles. The basic assumption made was that some operators of heavy light trucks/vans (LTVs) or sport utility vehicles (SUVs) would, in the short term, be induced to downsize to lighter vehicles of the same type. The 2000-2007 BC crash-claim data at the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) was used to create matrices of average information by culpable and nonculpable entities in two-vehicle collisions in 15 weight categories. Models for the effects of various driver/crash characteristics on injury potential were created and used to adjust the effect calculated solely on the basis of weight change. Levels of heavy LTV/SUV replacement from 0.05 to 0.95 of the current population were tested and the redistribution of vehicles was done in such a way that the relationship between small-large vehicle injury ratio and large-small vehicle mass ratio over the whole fleet remained constant as did the relative proportions of culpable and nonculpable involvements. The net effect of downsizing in the manner assumed for this study was mildly positive in terms of overall injury risk--that is, downsizing resulted in slightly fewer total injuries--but not in the case of fatalities, which tended to be increased by a more substantial margin. However, the results showed that even replacing substantial proportions of the heavy LTV/SUV population would not result in a large impact on safety. Replacing almost all the heavy LTV/SUVs with lighter versions should reduce injuries by less than 1 percent and increase fatalities by 3.5 percent percent. Nevertheless, in terms of persons impacted and the associated costs, the effects would be noticeable. The issue for policy-makers is to judge how the environmental benefits associated with encouraging

  4. Dual time point FDG PET/CT:Is it useful for lymph node staging in patients with non small cell lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Chang Guhn [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Dual time point (DTP)FDG PET/CT has been shown to be useful for lymph node (LN)staging in patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the LN staging ability of DTP FDG PET/CT in the predominant area of pulmonary tuberculosis. Sixty nine NSCLC patients underwent DTP PET/CT. Regions of interest were placed on each LN of each station, and the maximum SUVs were measured. Three variables were obtained: (1)the SUV on the early scan (SUV{sup early}), (2)the SUV on the delayed scan (SUV{sup delayed}), and (3)the retention index of the SUV (RI). Each patient had one final LN stage and three other LN stages according to the cutoff values of SUV{sup early}, SUV{sup delayed}, and RI. In the LN based analysis, the area under the ROC curve of SUV{sup delayed} (0.884)was significantly larger (p<0.01)than those of SUV{sup early} (0.868)and RI (0.717). Among the three variables, SUV{sup delayed} was more accurate (P<0.01)for detecting the mediastinal LN metastasis than SUV{sup early} and RI. In the patient based analysis, SUV{sup delayed} had correctly determined LN stages in 55 of 69 patients (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy=88.7%, 50.0%, and 79.7%), whereas SUV{sup early} and RI correctly determined LN stages in 53 and 52 patients, respectively. In this study, comparing the diagnostic efficacy of SUV{sup early}, SUV{sup delayed}, and RI for LN staging in patients with NSCLC, SUV{sup delayed} was the most accurate variable for LN staging. DTP PET/CT could provide improved diagnostic accuracy for the LN staging of NSCLC.

  5. Normal SUV values measured from NaF18- PET/CT bone scan studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Zaw; Aparici, Carina Mari

    2014-01-01

    Cancer and metabolic bone diseases can alter the SUV. SUV values have never been measured from healthy skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans. The primary aim of this study was to measure the SUV values from normal skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans. A retrospective study was carried out involving NaF18- PET/CT bone scans that were done at our institution between January 2010 to May 2012. Our excluding criteria was patients with abnormal real function and patients with past history of cancer and metabolic bone diseases including but not limited to osteoporosis, osteopenia and Paget's disease. Eleven studies met all the criteria. The average normal SUVmax values from 11 patients were: cervical vertebrae 6.84 (range 4.38-8.64), thoracic vertebrae 7.36 (range 6.99-7.66), lumbar vertebrae 7.27 (range 7.04-7.72), femoral head 2.22 (range 1.1-4.3), humeral head 1.82 (range 1.2-2.9), mid sternum 5.51 (range 2.6-8.1), parietal bone 1.71 (range 1.3-2.4). According to our study, various skeletal sites have different normal SUV values. SUV values can be different between the normal bones and bones with tumor or metabolic bone disease. SUV can be used to quantify NaF-18 PET/CT studies. If the SUV values of the normal skeleton are known, they can be used in the characterization of bone lesions and in the assessment of treatment response to bone diseases.

  6. Normal SUV values measured from NaF18- PET/CT bone scan studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Zaw Win

    Full Text Available Cancer and metabolic bone diseases can alter the SUV. SUV values have never been measured from healthy skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans. The primary aim of this study was to measure the SUV values from normal skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans.A retrospective study was carried out involving NaF18- PET/CT bone scans that were done at our institution between January 2010 to May 2012. Our excluding criteria was patients with abnormal real function and patients with past history of cancer and metabolic bone diseases including but not limited to osteoporosis, osteopenia and Paget's disease. Eleven studies met all the criteria.The average normal SUVmax values from 11 patients were: cervical vertebrae 6.84 (range 4.38-8.64, thoracic vertebrae 7.36 (range 6.99-7.66, lumbar vertebrae 7.27 (range 7.04-7.72, femoral head 2.22 (range 1.1-4.3, humeral head 1.82 (range 1.2-2.9, mid sternum 5.51 (range 2.6-8.1, parietal bone 1.71 (range 1.3-2.4.According to our study, various skeletal sites have different normal SUV values. SUV values can be different between the normal bones and bones with tumor or metabolic bone disease. SUV can be used to quantify NaF-18 PET/CT studies. If the SUV values of the normal skeleton are known, they can be used in the characterization of bone lesions and in the assessment of treatment response to bone diseases.

  7. Relation between nodule size and 18F-FDG-PET SUV for malignant and benign pulmonary nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yiping

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most common semiquantitative method of evaluation of pulmonary lesions using 18F-FDG PET is FDG standardized uptake value (SUV. An SUV cutoff of 2.5 or greater has been used to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules. The goal of our study was to investigate the correlation between the size of pulmonary nodules and the SUV for benign as well as for malignant nodules. Methods Retrospectively, 173 patients were selected from 420 referrals for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. All patients selected had a positive CT and PET scans and histopathology biopsy. A linear regression equation was fitted to a scatter plot of size and SUVmax for malignant and benign nodules together. A dot diagram was created to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. Results The linear regression equations and (R2s as well as the trendlines for malignant and benign nodules demonstrated that the slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Twenty-eight nodules of group one (≤ 1.0 cm are plotted in a dot diagram using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated to be 85%, 36% and 54% respectively. Similarly, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 and found to be 91%, 47%, and 79% respectively for group 2 (1.1–2.0 cm; 94%, 23%, and 76%, respectively for group 3 (2.1–3.0 cm; and 100%, 17%, and 82%,, respectively for group 4 (> 3.0 cm. The previous results of the dot diagram indicating that the sensitivity and the accuracy of the test using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 are increased with an increase in the diameter of pulmonary nodules. Conclusion The slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Although, the SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 is a useful tool in the evaluation of large pulmonary nodules (> 1.0 cm, it has no or minimal value in the evaluation of small

  8. SUV420H2 is an epigenetic regulator of epithelial/mesenchymal states in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Manuel; Wilson, Catherine; McCleland, Mark; Koeppen, Hartmut; Haley, Benjamin; Jhunjhunwala, Suchit; Klijn, Christiaan; Modrusan, Zora; Arnott, David; Classon, Marie; Stephan, Jean-Philippe; Mellman, Ira

    2017-12-11

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is implicated in metastasis, where carcinoma cells lose sessile epithelial traits and acquire mesenchymal migratory potential. The mesenchymal state is also associated with cancer stem cells and resistance to chemotherapy. It might therefore be therapeutically beneficial to promote epithelial identity in cancer. Because large-scale cell identity shifts are often orchestrated on an epigenetic level, we screened for candidate epigenetic factors and identified the histone methyltransferase SUV420H2 (KMT5C) as favoring the mesenchymal identity in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Through its repressive mark H4K20me3, SUV420H2 silences several key drivers of the epithelial state. Its knockdown elicited mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition on a molecular and functional level, and cells displayed decreased stemness and increased drug sensitivity. An analysis of human pancreatic cancer biopsies was concordant with these findings, because high levels of SUV420H2 correlated with a loss of epithelial characteristics in progressively invasive cancer. Together, these data indicate that SUV420H2 is an upstream epigenetic regulator of epithelial/mesenchymal state control. © 2018 Viotti et al.

  9. Comparing SUV values of images at PET-CT console and the RT planning console using identical dataset of a study phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusheel Munshi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study found out that the average difference in the two systems for maximum SUV values was < 0.2 absolute units.Our study suggests good reproducibility of SUV between the two systems. The relevance of these findings would be of seminal importance in current and future SUV-based PET-CT-based contouring in treatment planning systems.

  10. The SUV39H1 Protein Lysine Methyltransferase Methylates Chromatin Proteins Involved in Heterochromatin Formation and VDJ Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Schuhmacher, Maren Kirstin; Kebede, Adam Fiseha; Jeltsch, Albert

    2017-04-21

    SUV39H1 is an H3K9 methyltransferase involved in the formation of heterochromatin. We investigated its substrate specificity profile and show recognition of H3 residues between K4 and G12 with highly specific readout of R8. The specificity profile of SUV39H1 is distinct from its paralog SUV39H2, indicating that they can have different additional substrates. Using the specificity profile, several novel SUV39H1 candidate substrates were identified. We observed methylation of 19 novel substrates at the peptide level and for six of them at the protein level. Methylation of RAG2, SET8, and DOT1L was confirmed in cells, which all have important roles in chromatin regulation. Methylation of SET8 allosterically stimulates its H4K20 monomethylation activity connecting SUV39H1 to the generation of increased H4K20me3 levels, another heterochromatic modification. Methylation of RAG2 alters its subnuclear localization, indicating that SUV39H1 might regulate VDJ recombination. Taken together, our results indicate that beyond the generation of H3K9me3, SUV39H1 has additional roles in chromatin biology by direct stimulation of the establishment of H4K20me3 and the regulation of chromatin binding of RAG2.

  11. Lipid domains in giant unilamellar vesicles and their correspondence with equilibrium thermodynamic phases: A quantitative fluorescence microscopy imaging approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidorra, Matthias; Garcia, Alejandra; Ipsen, John Hjort

    2009-01-01

    We report a novel analytical procedure to measure the surface areas of coexisting lipid domains in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) based on image processing of 3D fluorescence microscopy data. The procedure involves the segmentation of lipid domains from fluorescent image stacks...

  12. Protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in domain-assembly : Lessons from giant unilamellar vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahya, Nicoletta

    Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) provide a key model membrane system to study lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions, which are relevant to vital cellular processes, by (single-molecule) optical microscopy. Here, we review the work on reconstitution techniques for membrane proteins and other

  13. iGUVs: Preparing Giant Unilamellar Vesicles with a Smartphone and Lipids Easily Extracted from Chicken Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendro Vedia, Víctor G.; Natale, Paolo; Chen, Su; Monroy, Francisco; Rosilio, Veronique; López-Montero, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Since the first report of electroformed micrometer-sized liposomes in the 1980s, giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) have generated a lot of interest in the biophysical and biochemical communities. However, their penetration rate in high school or at the undergraduate level is still limited because of the requirement of specialized materials for…

  14. Magnetically Triggered Release From Giant Unilamellar Vesicles: Visualization By Means Of Confocal Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Nappini, Silvia

    2011-04-07

    Magnetically triggered release from magnetic giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) loaded with Alexa fluorescent dye was studied by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) under a low-frequency alternating magnetic field (LF-AMF). Core/shell cobalt ferrite nanoparticles coated with rhodamine B isothiocyanate (MP@SiO 2(RITC)) were prepared and adsorbed on the GUV membrane. The MP@SiO 2(RITC) location and distribution on giant lipid vesicles were determined by 3D-CLSM projections, and their effect on the release properties and GUV permeability under a LF-AMF was investigated by CLSM time-resolved experiments. We show that the mechanism of release of the fluorescent dye during the LF-AMF exposure is induced by magnetic nanoparticle energy and mechanical vibration, which promote the perturbation of the GUV membrane without its collapse. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Giant Unilamellar Vesicle Electroformation: From Lipid Mixtures to Native Membranes Under Physiological Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meleard, Philippe; Bagatolli, Luis; Pott, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    . Finally, we provide firm evidence that electroformation is a method of choice to produce giant vesicles from native cell membranes. This is illustrated with the example of GUV electroformation from red blood cell ghosts in a physiologically pertinent buffer. GUVs obtained in this manner maintain......Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) are well-known model systems, especially because they are easily observable using optical microscopy. In this chapter, we revisit in detail the versatile GUV electroformation protocol. We demonstrate how GUV electroformation can be adapted to various membrane...... systems including synthetic lipid mixtures, natural lipid extracts, and bilayers containing membrane proteins. Further, we show how to adjust this protocol to a given aqueous environment and prove that GUVs can be obtained under physiologically relevant conditions, that is, in the presence of electrolytes...

  16. Size control of giant unilamellar vesicles prepared from inverted emulsion droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kazuya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Toyota, Taro; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2012-06-15

    The production of giant lipid vesicles with controlled size and structure will be an important technology in the design of quantitative biological assays in cell-mimetic microcompartments. For establishing size control of giant vesicles, we investigated the vesicle formation process, in which inverted emulsion droplets are transformed into giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) when they pass through an oil/water interface. The relationship between the size of the template emulsion and the converted GUVs was studied using inverted emulsion droplets with a narrow size distribution, which were prepared by microfluidics. We successfully found an appropriate centrifugal acceleration condition to obtain GUVs that had a desired size and narrow-enough size distribution with an improved yield so that emulsion droplets can become the template for GUVs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement of ash plume monitoring, modeling and hazard assessment in the MED-SUV project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltelli, Mauro; Andronico, Daniele; Boselli, Antonella; Corradini, Stefano; Costa, Antonio; Donnadieu, Franck; Leto, Giuseppe; Macedonio, Giovanni; Merucci, Luca; Neri, Augusto; Pecora, Emilio; Prestifilippo, Michele; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Scollo, Simona; Spinelli, Nicola; Spata, Gaetano; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Wang, Xuan; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic ash clouds produced by explosive eruptions represent a strong problem for civil aviation, road transportation and other human activities. Since Etna volcano produced in the last 35 years more the 200 explosive eruptions of small and medium size. The INGV, liable for its volcano monitoring, developed since 2006 a specific system for forecasting and monitoring Etna's volcanic ash plumes in collaboration with several national and international institutions. Between 12 January 2011 and 31 December 2013 Etna produced forty-six basaltic lava fountains. Every paroxysm produced an eruption column ranging from a few up to eleven kilometers of height above sea level. The ash cloud contaminated the controlled airspace (CTR) of Catania and Reggio Calabria airports and caused tephra fallout on eastern Sicily sometime disrupting the operations of these airports. In order to give prompt and detailed warnings to the Aviation and Civil Protection authorities, ash plumes monitoring at Osservatorio Etneo, the INGV department in Catania, is carried out using multispectral (from visible to infrared) satellite and ground-based video-surveillance images; seismic and infrasound signals processed in real-time, a Doppler RADAR (Voldorad IIB) able to detect the eruption column in all weather conditions and a LIDAR (AMPLE) for retrieving backscattering and depolarization values of the ash clouds. Forecasting is performed running tephra dispersal models using weather forecast data, and then plotting results on maps published on a dedicated website. 24/7 Control Room operators were able to timely inform Aviation and Civil Protection operators for an effective aviation safety management. A variety of multidisciplinary activities are planned in the MED-SUV project with reference to volcanic ash observations and studies. These include: 1) physical and analogue laboratory experiments on ash dispersal and aggregation; 2) integration of satellite data (e.g. METEOSAT, MODIS) and ground

  18. Comparison of different SUV-based methods for monitoring cytotoxic therapy with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, A.; Schwaiger, M.; Weber, W.A. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Ott, K. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Surgery, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) is a promising tool for monitoring cytotoxic therapy in tumours. Due to the limited data available, a standard imaging protocol for the prediction of tumour response has not yet been approved. The aim of this study was to compare commonly applied imaging protocols and calculations of the standardised uptake value (SUV) for the early prediction of histopathological response to chemotherapy. Serial FDG PET scans of 43 patients with gastric carcinomas were retrospectively analysed. All patients received two consecutive scans (one bed position at 40 min p.i. and four bed positions at 90 min p.i.) at baseline and during the first cycle of cisplatinum-based chemotherapy. Reconstruction of the images was performed by filtered back-projection (FBP) and using an iterative algorithm (OSEM). SUVs were calculated with and without correction for the blood glucose level using normalisation by body weight, body surface area and lean body mass. Relative percentage changes between SUVs at baseline and follow-up were calculated and analysed for their potential to predict histopathological response to chemotherapy (ROC analysis). Response was defined as less than 10% viable tumour cells in the tumour specimen obtained by surgery 3-4 weeks after the completion of chemotherapy. Eight of 43 patients were histopathological responders to chemotherapy. The percentage changes in SUV{sub body} {sub weight} for responders and non-responders were -52.2 ({+-}13.2) and -25.2 ({+-}15.2), -54.7 ({+-}18.2) and -24.5 ({+-}16.1), -53.9 ({+-}24.2) and -22.7 ({+-}21.3), and -56.7 ({+-}21.6) and -26.1 ({+-}18.9) for serial scans at 40-min FBP, 40-min OSEM, 90-min FBP and 90-min OSEM, respectively (responders versus non-responders: p <0.01 in each case). According to ROC analysis, neither the scan protocol nor correction for blood glucose significantly influenced the accuracy (approx. 80%) or the cut-off value (approx. -40% change in

  19. Salt tolerant SUV3 overexpressing transgenic rice plants conserve physicochemical properties and microbial communities of rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ranjan K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Key concerns in the ecological evaluation of GM crops are undesirably spread, gene flow, other environmental impacts, and consequences on soil microorganism's biodiversity. Numerous reports have highlighted the effects of transgenic plants on the physiology of non-targeted rhizospheric microbes and the food chain via causing adverse effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop transgenics with insignificant toxic on environmental health. In the present study, SUV3 overexpressing salt tolerant transgenic rice evaluated in New Delhi and Cuttack soil conditions for their effects on physicochemical and biological properties of rhizosphere. Its cultivation does not affect soil properties viz., pH, Eh, organic C, P, K, N, Ca, Mg, S, Na and Fe(2+). Additionally, SUV3 rice plants do not cause any change in the phenotype, species characteristics and antibiotic sensitivity of rhizospheric bacteria. The population and/or number of soil organisms such as bacteria, fungi and nematodes were unchanged in the soil. Also, the activity of bacterial enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidases, acid phosphatases, ureases and proteases was not significantly affected. Further, plant growth promotion (PGP) functions of bacteria such as siderophore, HCN, salicylic acid, IAA, GA, zeatin, ABA, NH3, phosphorus metabolism, ACC deaminase and iron tolerance were, considerably, not influenced. The present findings suggest ecologically pertinent of salt tolerant SUV3 rice to sustain the health and usual functions of the rhizospheric organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinan Nilai Pelanggan dan Implikasinya pada Dependensi Pelanggan Bengkel Suv Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available he implementation of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC for Indonesia making its big market more capitalized and and grow rapidly. The Indonesian automotive industrial market has become ASEAN’s biggest auto market. Automotive products in Indonesia is divided into two is a variant of commercial vehicles and passenger vehicle. Passenger vehicle is divided into three types namely: sedan, multi purpose vehicle (MPV, sport utility vehicle (SUV. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of customer value such as service quality and customer relationship management (CRM and its implications on customer dependence. This research using a method of survey with a number of population 63.015 customers and 400 respondents as customers at premium SUV authorized service station in urban areas in West Java with using slovin formula. Analysis of data using path analysis. The result of this research concluded that the service quality and customer relationship management influenced partially significant on the perceived value of customers of car workshop premium SUV.

  1. Characteristics of Metastatic Mediastinal Lymph Nodes of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer on Preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of PET and CT features of mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes on F-18 FDG PET/CT and to determine the diagnostic criteria in nodal staging of non-small cell lung cancer. One hundred four non-small cell lung cancer patients who had preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT were included. For quantitative analysis, the maximum SUV of the primary tumor, maximum SUV of the lymph nodes (SUVmax), size of the lymph nodes, and average Hounsfield units (aHUs) and maximum Hounsfield units (mHUs) of the lymph nodes were measured. The SUVmax, SUV ratio of the lymph node to blood pool (LN SUV/blood pool SUV), SUV ratio of the lymph node to primary tumor (LN SUV/primary tumor SUV), size, aHU, and mHU were compared between the benign and malignant lymph nodes. Among 372 dissected lymph node stations that were pathologically diagnosed after surgery, 49 node stations were malignant and 323 node stations benign. SUVmax, LN SUV/blood pool SUV, and size were significantly different between the malignant and benign lymph node stations (P <0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in LN SUV/primary tumor SUV (P =0.18), mHU (P =0.42), and aHU (P =0.98). Using receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses, there was no significant difference among these three variables (SUVmax, LN SUV/blood pool SUV, and size). The optimal cutoff values were 2.9 for SUVmax, 1.4 for LN SUV/blood pool SUV, and 5 mm for size. When the cutoff value of SUVmax≥2.9 and size≥5 mm were used in combination, the positive predictive value was 44.2%, and the negative predictive value was 90.9 %. When we evaluated the results based on the histology of the primary tumor, the negative predictive value was 92.3 % in adenocarcinoma (cutoff values of SUVmax≥2.3 and size≥5 mm) and 97.2 % in squamous cell carcinoma (cutoff values of SUVmax≥3.6 and size≥8 mm), separately. In the lymph node staging of non-small cell lung cancer, SUVmax, LN SUV/blood pool SUV

  2. PET SUV correlates with radionuclide uptake in peptide receptor therapy in meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenscheid, Heribert; Buck, Andreas K.; Samnick, Samuel; Kreissl, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Flentje, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Loehr, Mario [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Wuerzburg (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate whether the tumour uptake of radionuclide in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of meningioma can be predicted by a PET scan with {sup 68}Ga-labelled somatostatin analogue. In this pilot trial, 11 meningioma patients with a PET scan indicating somatostatin receptor expression received PRRT with 7.4 GBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC or {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE, followed by external beam radiotherapy. A second PET scan was scheduled for 3 months after therapy. During PRRT, multiple whole-body scans and a SPECT/CT scan of the head and neck region were acquired and used to determine the kinetics and dose in the voxel with the highest radionuclide uptake within the tumour. Maximum voxel dose and retention of activity 1 h after administration in PRRT were compared to the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) in the meningiomas from the PET scans before and after therapy. The median SUV{sub max} in the meningiomas was 13.7 (range 4.3 to 68.7), and the maximum fractional radionuclide uptake in voxels of size 0.11 cm{sup 3} was a median of 23.4 x 10{sup -6} (range 0.4 x 10{sup -6} to 68.3 x 10{sup -6}). A strong correlation was observed between SUV{sub max} and the PRRT radionuclide tumour retention in the voxels with the highest uptake (Spearman's rank test, P < 0.01). Excluding one patient who showed large differences in biokinetics between PET and PRRT and another patient with incomplete data, linear regression analysis indicated significant correlations between SUV{sub max} and the therapeutic uptake (r = 0.95) and between SUV{sub max} and the maximum voxel dose from PRRT (r = 0.76). Observed absolute deviations from the values expected from regression were a median of 5.6 x 10{sup -6} (maximum 9.3 x 10{sup -6}) for the voxel fractional radionuclide uptake and 0.40 Gy per GBq (maximum 0.85 Gy per GBq) {sup 177}Lu for the voxel dose from PRRT. PET with {sup 68}Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues allows the pretherapeutic assessment of tumour

  3. Synthesizing artificial cells from giant unilamellar vesicles: state-of-the art in the development of microfluidic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosevic, Sandro

    2012-11-01

    Microfluidic technology - the manipulation of fluids at micrometer scales - has revolutionized many areas of synthetic biology. The bottom-up synthesis of "minimal" cell models has traditionally suffered from poor control of assembly conditions. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) are good models of living cells on account of their size and unilamellar membrane structure. In recent years, a number of microfluidic approaches for constructing GUVs has emerged. These provide control over traditionally elusive parameters of vesicular structure, such as size, lamellarity, membrane composition, and internal contents. They also address sophisticated cellular functions such as division and protein synthesis. Microfluidic techniques for GUV synthesis can broadly be categorized as continuous-flow based approaches and droplet-based approaches. This review presents the state-of-the-art of microfluidic technology, a robust platform for recapitulating complex cellular structure and function in synthetic models of biological cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The differentiation of malignant and benign musculoskeletal tumors by F-18 FDG PET/CT studies-determination of maxSUV by analysis of ROC curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Eun Jung; Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung Ah; Won, Kyu Chang; Lee, Hyung Woo; Choi, Jun Heok; Shin, Duk Seop [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    We evaluated the standard uptake value (SUV) of F-18 FDG at PET/CT for differentiation of benign from malignant tumor in primary musculoskeletal tumors. Forty-six tumors (11 benign and 12 malignant soft tissue tumors, 9 benign and 14 malignant bone tumors) were examined with F-18 FDG PET/CT (Discovery ST, GE) prior to tissue diagnosis. The maxSUV(maximum value of SUV) were calculated and compared between benign and malignant lesions. The lesion analysis was based on the transverse whole body image. The maxSUV with cutoff of 4.1 was used in distinguishing benign from malignant soft tissue tumor and 3.05 was used in bone tumor by ROC curve. There was a statistically significant difference in maxSUV between benign (n = 11; maxSUV 3.4 {+-} 3.2) and malignant (n = 12; maxSUV 14.8 {+-} 12.2) lesion in soft tissue tumor ({rho} = 0.001). Between benign bone tumor (n = 9; maxSUV 5.4 {+-} 4.0) and malignant bone tumor (n = 14; maxSUV 7.3 {+-} 3.2), there was not a significant difference in maxSUV. The sensitivity and specificity for differentiating malignant from benign soft tissue tumor was 83% and 91%, respectively. There were four false positive malignant bone tumor cases to include fibrous dysplasia, Langerhans-cell histiocytosis (n = 2) and osteoid osteoma. Also, one false positive case of malignant soft tissue tumor was nodular fasciitis. The maxSUV was useful for differentiation of benign from malignant lesion in primary soft tissue tumors. In bone tumor, the low maxSUV correlated well with benign lesions but high maxSUV did not always mean malignancy.

  5. MEditerranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project: from objectives to results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia

    2017-04-01

    The MEditerranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) was a FP7 3-year lasting project aimed at improving the assessment of volcanic hazards at two of the most active European volcanic areas - Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius and Mt. Etna. More than 3 million people are exposed to potential hazards in the two areas, and the geographic location of the volcanoes increases the number of people extending the impact to a wider region. MED-SUV worked on the (1) optimisation and integration of the existing and new monitoring systems, (2) understanding of volcanic processes, and on the (3) relationship between the scientific and end-user communities. MED-SUV fully exploited the unique multidisciplinary long-term in-situ datasets available for these volcanoes and integrated them with Earth observations. Technological developments and implemented algorithms allowed better constraint of pre-, sin- and post-eruptive phases. The wide range of styles and intensities of the volcanic phenomena observed at the targeted volcanoes - archetypes of 'closed' and 'open' conduit systems - observed by using the long-term multidisciplinary datasets, exceptionally upgraded the understanding of a variety of geo-hazards. Proper experiments and studies were carried out to advance the understanding of the volcanoes' internal structure and processes, and to recognise signals related to impending unrest/eruptive phases. Indeed, the hazard quantitative assessment benefitted from the outcomes of these studies and from their integration with cutting edge monitoring approaches, thus leading to step-changes in hazard awareness and preparedness, and leveraging the close relationship between scientists, SMEs, and end-users. Among the MED-SUV achievements, we can list the (i) implementation of a data policy compliant with the GEO Open Data Principles for ruling the exploitation and shared use of the project outcomes; (ii) MED-SUV e-infrastructure creation as test bed for designing an interoperable infrastructure to

  6. Relationships of body habitus and SUV indices with signal-to-noise ratio of hepatic (18)F-FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramida, G; Dunford, A; Siddique, M; Cook, G J; Peters, A M

    2016-05-01

    Tissue accumulation of (18)F-FDG is quantified as standardised uptake value (SUV), which may be expressed as the voxel maximum (SUVmax) or mean (SUVmean). SUVmax/SUVmean may be a marker of hepatic steatosis, while the coefficient of variation (CV) of SUV may be a marker of hepatic fat distribution heterogeneity (HFDH). Alternatively, they may reflect low signal-to-noise ratio ('noise') in obese persons in whom hepatic steatosis is common. The study aim was to compare the impact of body size on noise versus SUV and CT density (CTD). Dynamic PET was performed (30×1min frames) following FDG injection in 60 patients undergoing routine PET/CT. Hepatic FDG clearance was measured using Patlak-Rutland graphical analysis with abdominal aorta as input. Noise was quantified as the standard deviation (SD) of the plot residuals (ignoring the first 2 frames), normalised to the intercept (NRMSD). SUVmax, SUVmean and CTD were measured from 60min whole body PET/CT. CV of SUV and SD of CTD were quantified in 28/60 patients using texture analysis. NRMSD correlated with weight (r=0.49; p<0.0001) and BMI (r=0.48; p=0.0001). SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVmax/SUVmean, CV of SUV, CTD, and SD of CTD all correlated strongly with weight and BMI (p<0.0001). However, they correlated weakly with NRMSD, the strongest being SUVmax (r=0.34; p=0.008) and SD of CTD (r=0.42; n=28; p=0.026). Noise is increased in overweight/obese persons but has little effect on SUV indices, CTD and their variabilities. SUVmax/SUVmean and CV of SUV are therefore, to some extent, markers of hepatic steatosis and HFDH, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. FDG dose extravasations in PET/CT: frequency and impact on SUV measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat M Osman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: PET/CT with 18F-FDG has proven to be effective in detecting and assessing various types of cancers. However, due to cancer and/or its therapy, intravenous (IV FDG injection may be problematic resulting in dose extravasations. In the most frequently used field of view (FOV, arms-up and base of skull to upper-thigh (limited Whole Body (LWB, the injection site may not be routinely imaged. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of dose extravasations in FDG PET and the potential impact on SUV measurements.Methods: True Whole Body (TWB FDG-PET/CT scans (including all extremities of 400 patients were retrospectively reviewed. A log recorded cases of IV dose extravasations. When possible, SUVs were measured in two frequently used reference locations: mediastinum and liver. The SUVs were obtained in the same patients who had studies with and without FDG extravasations within an average of 3 months without interval therapy.Results: Of the 400 scans, 42 (10.5% had extravasations on the maximum intensity projections (MIP images. In scans with or without dose infiltration, FDG injection site was at or distal to the antecubital fossa in 97% of studies. Of those 42 cases, dose infiltration was within the LWB FOV in 29/42 (69% and outside in the remaining 13/42 (31%. Of those 42 patients, 5 had repeat PET studies with no interval therapy. For those 5 patients, liver maximum SUV was 11.7% less in patients with infiltration than those without (2.22 ± 0.54 vs. 2.48 ± 0.6. Mediastinum SUVmax was 9.3% less in patients with infiltration than those without (1.72 ± 0.54 vs. 1.88 ± 0.49.Conclusion: We conclude dose extravasations were commonly encountered (10.5% in PET/CT. However, it is underreported by at least 31% due to omitting injection site from the FOV. When present, extravasations may lead to underestimation of SUVmax. Therefore, it should not only be avoided but also reported in order to avoid false interpretations of the exam.

  8. Raft partitioning and dynamic behavior of human placental alkaline phosphatase in giant unilamellar vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahya, Nicoletta; Brown, Deborah A; Schwille, Petra

    2005-05-24

    Much attention has recently been drawn to the hypothesis that cellular membranes organize in functionalized platforms called rafts, enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol. The notion that glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are strongly associated with rafts is based on their insolubility in nonionic detergents. However, detergent-based methodologies for identifying raft association are indirect and potentially prone to artifacts. On the other hand, rafts have proven to be difficult to visualize and investigate in living cells. A number of studies have demonstrated that model membranes provide a valuable tool for elucidating some of the raft properties. Here, we present a model membrane system based on domain-forming giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), in which the GPI-anchored protein, human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), has been functionally reconstituted. Raft morphology, protein raft partitioning, and dynamic behavior have been characterized by fluorescence confocal microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Approximately 20-30% of PLAP associate with sphingomyelin-enriched domains. The affinity of PLAP for the liquid-ordered (l(o)) phase is compared to that of a nonraft protein, bacteriorhodopsin. Next, detergent extraction was carried out on PLAP-containing GUVs as a function of temperature, to relate the lipid and protein organization in distinct phases of the GUVs to the composition of detergent resistant membranes (DRMs). Finally, antibody-mediated cross-linking of PLAP induces a shift of its partition coefficient in favor of the l(o) phase.

  9. Spermatozoa as a transport system of large unilamellar lipid vesicles into the oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, N; McGrath, J; Stronk, J N; Vanderlick, T K; Huszar, G

    2014-04-01

    In addition to their role as man-made membranes, vesicles continue to be investigated as carriers for drug delivery. While most research focuses on their injectable properties, here a new delivery strategy is proposed. It is shown that spermatozoa can transport vesicles of variable composition. For human spermatozoa, the vesicles started to show binding after 20 mol% of the nonbinding vesicle backbone lipids were substituted with positive, negative, cerebroside or ganglioside lipids. Vesicle binding is a dynamic process with constant 'on' and 'off' binding. The physiological and motility attributes of the spermatozoa are not affected by the attached vesicles. Sperm swimming characteristics changed only marginally. Also, the activation status of the acrosomal membrane, tested with the fluorescent probe Pisum sativum agglutinin, was not affected by vesicle binding. Moreover, the hyaluronic acid-binding test showed that viable, fully developed spermatozoa will attach and remain bound to hyaluronic acid-coated slides regardless of vesicle binding. Therefore a new 'hybrid' delivery system was created with human spermatozoa, and tested with a mouse IVF system. Large unilamellar vesicles physisorbed to mouse spermatozoa can not only penetrate the mouse oocytes in these proof-of-principle experiments, but also deliver the cargo placed within the vesicles. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterizing detergent mediated reconstitution of viral protein M2 in large unilamellar vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyre, Mariel; Grossman, Carl; Crouch, Catherine; Howard, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    Influenza M2 is a model membrane protein whose function is to induce curvature and vesicle formation in the process of viral infection. To study embedded M2 in synthetic phospholipid vesicles (large unilamellar vesicles or LUVs), a concentration of detergent and buffer is optimized to balance protein solubility, proteolipid concentration, and LUV stability. Adding detergent also causes the LUVs to partially disassemble and form micelles, which warrants detergent removal to restore LUV integrity. We explore methods of measuring the coexistence of detergent micelles and LUVs to track the different phases of the system as detergent is removed. A combination of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and chemical analysis are used to measure the properties of this system. With detergent/LUV number densities as high as 5 we find coexistence of micelles and LUVs at 50% to 60%. As the detergent is removed, the micelle concentration drops to lower than 30% while detergent levels drop to nearly zero. These results may indicate a polydispersed LUV size distribution after detergent mediated reconstitution. Supported by HHMI and Swarthmore College.

  11. Age-Associated Decrease of the Histone Methyltransferase SUV39H1 in HSC Perturbs Heterochromatin and B Lymphoid Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dounia Djeghloul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC to generate B lymphocytes declines with age, contributing to impaired immune function in the elderly. Here we show that the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 plays an important role in human B lymphoid differentiation and that expression of SUV39H1 decreases with age in both human and mouse HSC, leading to a global reduction in H3K9 trimethylation and perturbed heterochromatin function. Further, we demonstrate that SUV39H1 is a target of microRNA miR-125b, a known regulator of HSC function, and that expression of miR-125b increases with age in human HSC. Overexpression of miR-125b and inhibition of SUV39H1 in young HSC induced loss of B cell potential. Conversely, both inhibition of miR-125 and enforced expression of SUV39H1 improved the capacity of HSC from elderly individuals to generate B cells. Our findings highlight the importance of heterochromatin regulation in HSC aging and B lymphopoiesis.

  12. Performance Investigation of an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator for Military SUV Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Quan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the thermoelectric power generation for sports utility vehicle (SUV application, a novel thermoelectric generator (TEG based on low-temperature Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs and a chaos-shaped brass heat exchanger is constructed. The temperature distribution of the TEG is analyzed based on an experimental setup, and the temperature uniformity optimization method is performed by chipping peak off and filling valley is taken to validate the improved output power. An automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG using four TEGs connected thermally in parallel and electrically in series is assembled into a prototype military SUV, its temperature distribution, output voltage, output power, system efficiency, inner resistance, and backpressure is analyzed, and several important influencing factors such as vehicle speed, clamping pressure, engine coolant flow rate, and ambient temperature on its output performance are tested. Experimental results demonstrate that higher vehicle speed, larger clamping pressure, faster engine coolant flow rate and lower ambient temperature can enhance the overall output performance, but the ambient temperature and coolant flow rate are less significant. The maximum output power of AETEG is 646.26 W, the corresponding conversion efficiency is 1.03%, and the increased backpressure changes from 1681 Pa to 1807 Pa when the highest vehicle speed is 125 km/h.

  13. Oriented growth of luminescent strontium stannate films using a unilamellar nanosheet seed-layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetsuka, Hiroyuki, E-mail: tetsuka@kem.biglobe.ne.jp [Research Center for Compact Chemical System, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 4-2-1 Nigatake, Sendai, Miyagi 983-8551 (Japan); Takashima, Hiroshi [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, AIST, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ikegami, Keiichi [Nanosystem Research Institute, AIST, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Nanjo, Hiroshi; Ebina, Takeo [Research Center for Compact Chemical System, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 4-2-1 Nigatake, Sendai, Miyagi 983-8551 (Japan); Mizukami, Fujio [Nanosystem Research Institute, AIST, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    The fabrication of high quality luminescent strontium stannate (Sr{sub 0.98}Eu{sub 0.02}){sub 2}(Sn{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1})O{sub 4} films on a silica substrate was examined using a monolayer film of oxide nanosheets as a seed layer. Densely packed monolayer film of Ca{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10} nanosheets was prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The monolayer film of Ca{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10} nanosheets induced the (110)-oriented growth of luminescent (Sr{sub 0.98}Eu{sub 0.02}){sub 2}(Sn{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1})O{sub 4} films. The grown films showed intense red luminescence assigned to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub j} (j = 0, 1, 2) transitions in Eu ions. The film's optical transparency in the visible region was more than 80% with large optical bandgap of 4.72 eV. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine oriented growth of strontium stannate on a non-crystalline substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unilamellar Ca{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10} nanosheet film enables oriented growth of strontium stannate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oriented (Sr{sub 0.98}Eu{sub 0.02}){sub 2}(Sn{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1})O{sub 4} films exhibit intense red luminescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oriented (Sr{sub 0.98}Eu{sub 0.02}){sub 2}(Sn{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1})O{sub 4} films show very high visible transparency.

  14. Morphological changes of proteolipid giant unilamellar vesicles affected by Macrovipera lebetina obtusa venom visualized with fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaryan, N A; Ghulikyan, L A; Ayvazyan, N M

    2013-08-01

    As a rule, zootoxins are complex and biologically active, and therefore the greater part of zootoxins is subjected to biotransformation and interacts with biological membranes. In this case, the interaction of different venom components with the membranes is not always the same. The present study shows how the giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) from bovine brain proteolipids interact with Macrovipera lebetina obtusa venom. GUV (mean diameter 30 μm) were formed by the electroformation method. We used 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid and pyrene as fluorescence probes, which allowed us to quantify the fluidity changes in the membrane by measuring the fluorescence intensity.

  15. Comparison between CT Net enhancement and PET/CT SUV for N staging of gastric cancer: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amato Antonio Stabile Ianora

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: CT Net enhancement represents an accurate tool for N staging of gastric cancer and could be considered as the CT corresponding quantitative parameter of F-FDG PET/CT SUV. It could be applied in the clinical practice for differentiating reactive lymph nodes from metastatic ones improving accuracy and specificity of CT.

  16. Use of a digital phantom developed by QIBA for harmonizing SUVs obtained from the state-of-the-art SPECT/CT systems: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Tadaki; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Iimori, Takashi; Miyagawa, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Tomoya; Owaki, Yoshiki; Yada, Nobuhiro; Sawada, Koichi; Tokorodani, Ryotaro; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Although quantitative analysis using standardized uptake value (SUV) becomes realistic in clinical single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging, reconstruction parameter settings can deliver different quantitative results among different SPECT/CT systems. This study aims to propose a use of the digital reference object (DRO), which is a National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) phantom-like object developed by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (QIBA) fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography technical committee, for the purpose of harmonizing SUVs in Tc-99m SPECT/CT imaging. The NEMA body phantom with determined Tc-99m concentration was scanned with the four state-of-the-art SPECT/CT systems. SPECT data were reconstructed using different numbers of the product of subset and iteration numbers (SI) and the width of 3D Gaussian filter (3DGF). The mean (SUV mean ), maximal (SUV max ), and peak (SUV peak ) SUVs for six hot spheres (10, 13, 17, 22, 28, and 37 mm) were measured after converting SPECT count into SUV using Becquerel calibration factor. DRO smoothed by 3DGF with a FWHM of 17 mm (DRO 17 mm ) was generated, and the corresponding SUVs were measured. The reconstruction condition to yield the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) of SUV means for all the spheres between DRO 17 mm and actual phantom images was determined as the harmonized condition for each SPECT/CT scanner. Then, inter-scanner variability in all quantitative metrics was measured before (i.e., according to the manufacturers' recommendation or the policies of their own departments) and after harmonization. RMSE was lowest in the following reconstruction conditions: SI of 100 and 3DGF of 13 mm for Brightview XCT, SI of 160 and 3DGF of 3 pixels for Discovery NM/CT, SI of 60 and 3DGF of 2 pixels for Infinia, and SI of 140 and 3DGF of 15 mm for Symbia. In pre-harmonized conditions, coefficient of variations (COVs) among the SPECT

  17. Major satellite repeat RNA stabilize heterochromatin retention of Suv39h enzymes by RNA-nucleosome association and RNA:DNA hybrid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez Camacho, Oscar; Galan, Carmen; Swist-Rosowska, Kalina; Ching, Reagan; Gamalinda, Michael; Karabiber, Fethullah; De La Rosa-Velazquez, Inti; Engist, Bettina; Koschorz, Birgit; Shukeir, Nicholas; Onishi-Seebacher, Megumi; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Jenuwein, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 histone lysine methyltransferases are hallmark enzymes at mammalian heterochromatin. We show here that the mouse Suv39h2 enzyme differs from Suv39h1 by containing an N-terminal basic domain that facilitates retention at mitotic chromatin and provides an additional affinity for major satellite repeat RNA. To analyze an RNA-dependent interaction with chromatin, we purified native nucleosomes from mouse ES cells and detect that Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 exclusively associate with poly-nucleosomes. This association was attenuated upon RNaseH incubation and entirely lost upon RNaseA digestion of native chromatin. Major satellite repeat transcripts remain chromatin-associated and have a secondary structure that favors RNA:DNA hybrid formation. Together, these data reveal an RNA-mediated mechanism for the stable chromatin interaction of the Suv39h KMT and suggest a function for major satellite non-coding RNA in the organization of an RNA-nucleosome scaffold as the underlying structure of mouse heterochromatin.

  18. Electroformation of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles from Native Membranes and Organic Lipid Mixtures for the Study of Lipid Domains under Physiological Ionic-Strength Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes, Ruth; Ahyayauch, Hasna; Ibarguren, Maitane

    2010-01-01

    Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) constitute a cell-sized model membrane system that allows direct visualization of particular membrane-related phenomena, such as domain formation, at the level of single vesicles using fluorescence microscopy-related techniques. Currently available protocols for ...

  19. The PET-derived tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) is superior to tumor SUV as a surrogate parameter of the metabolic rate of FDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoff, Jörg; Oehme, Liane; Schramm, Georg; Maus, Jens; Lougovski, Alexandr; Petr, Jan; Beuthien-Baumann, Bettina; Hofheinz, Frank

    2013-11-23

    The standard uptake value (SUV) approach in oncological positron emission tomography has known shortcomings, all of which affect the reliability of the SUV as a surrogate of the targeted quantity, the metabolic rate of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), Km. Among the shortcomings are time dependence, susceptibility to errors in scanner and dose calibration, insufficient correlation between systemic distribution volume and body weight, and, consequentially, residual inter-study variability of the arterial input function (AIF) despite SUV normalization. Especially the latter turns out to be a crucial factor adversely affecting the correlation between SUV and Km and causing inter-study variations of tumor SUVs that do not reflect actual changes of the metabolic uptake rate. In this work, we propose to replace tumor SUV by the tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) in order to distinctly improve the linear correlation with Km. Assuming irreversible FDG kinetics, SUR can be expected to exhibit a much better linear correlation to Km than SUV. The theoretical derivation for this prediction is given and evaluated in a group of nine patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer for which 15 fully dynamic investigations were available and Km could thus be derived from conventional Patlak analysis. For any fixed time point T at sufficiently late times post injection, the Patlak equation predicts a linear correlation between SUR and Km under the following assumptions: (1) approximate shape invariance (but arbitrary scale) of the AIF across scans/patients and (2) low variability of the apparent distribution volume Vr (the intercept of the Patlak Plot). This prediction - and validity of the underlying assumptions - has been verified in the investigated patient group. Replacing tumor SUVs by SURs does improve the linear correlation of the respective parameter with Km from r = 0.61 to r = 0.98. SUR is an easily measurable parameter that is highly correlated to Km. In this

  20. OsSUV3 dual helicase functions in salinity stress tolerance by maintaining photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Garg, Bharti; Tuteja, Renu

    2013-10-01

    To overcome the salinity-induced loss of crop yield, a salinity-tolerant trait is required. The SUV3 helicase is involved in the regulation of RNA surveillance and turnover in mitochondria, but the helicase activity of plant SUV3 and its role in abiotic stress tolerance have not been reported so far. Here we report that the Oryza sativa (rice) SUV3 protein exhibits DNA and RNA helicase, and ATPase activities. Furthermore, we report that SUV3 is induced in rice seedlings in response to high levels of salt. Its expression, driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in IR64 transgenic rice plants, confers salinity tolerance. The T1 and T2 sense transgenic lines showed tolerance to high salinity and fully matured without any loss in yields. The T2 transgenic lines also showed tolerance to drought stress. These results suggest that the introduced trait is functional and stable in transgenic rice plants. The rice SUV3 sense transgenic lines showed lesser lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage and H2 O2 production, along with higher activities of antioxidant enzymes under salinity stress, as compared with wild type, vector control and antisense transgenic lines. These results suggest the existence of an efficient antioxidant defence system to cope with salinity-induced oxidative damage. Overall, this study reports that plant SUV3 exhibits DNA and RNA helicase and ATPase activities, and provides direct evidence of its function in imparting salinity stress tolerance without yield loss. The possible mechanism could be that OsSUV3 helicase functions in salinity stress tolerance by improving photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery in transgenic rice. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Suv4-20h histone methyltransferases promote neuroectodermal differentiation by silencing the pluripotency-associated Oct-25 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Nicetto

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications (PTMs of histones exert fundamental roles in regulating gene expression. During development, groups of PTMs are constrained by unknown mechanisms into combinatorial patterns, which facilitate transitions from uncommitted embryonic cells into differentiated somatic cell lineages. Repressive histone modifications such as H3K9me3 or H3K27me3 have been investigated in detail, but the role of H4K20me3 in development is currently unknown. Here we show that Xenopus laevis Suv4-20h1 and h2 histone methyltransferases (HMTases are essential for induction and differentiation of the neuroectoderm. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of the two HMTases leads to a selective and specific downregulation of genes controlling neural induction, thereby effectively blocking differentiation of the neuroectoderm. Global transcriptome analysis supports the notion that these effects arise from the transcriptional deregulation of specific genes rather than widespread, pleiotropic effects. Interestingly, morphant embryos fail to repress the Oct4-related Xenopus gene Oct-25. We validate Oct-25 as a direct target of xSu4-20h enzyme mediated gene repression, showing by chromatin immunoprecipitaton that it is decorated with the H4K20me3 mark downstream of the promoter in normal, but not in double-morphant, embryos. Since knockdown of Oct-25 protein significantly rescues the neural differentiation defect in xSuv4-20h double-morphant embryos, we conclude that the epistatic relationship between Suv4-20h enzymes and Oct-25 controls the transit from pluripotent to differentiation-competent neural cells. Consistent with these results in Xenopus, murine Suv4-20h1/h2 double-knockout embryonic stem (DKO ES cells exhibit increased Oct4 protein levels before and during EB formation, and reveal a compromised and biased capacity for in vitro differentiation, when compared to normal ES cells. Together, these results suggest a regulatory mechanism, conserved

  2. Membrane fusion of pH-sensitive liposomes – a quantitative study using giant unilamellar vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Sofie; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a methodology for developing small-signal behavioral electromagnetic (EM) models of p-i-n photodiodes (PDs) for high-speed applications. The EM model includes RC bandwidth limitation effect and transit-time effect. The model is capable of accurately modeling arbitrary complex...

  3. Prognostic value of tumor-to-blood standardized uptake ratio in patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Hyeon; Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan(Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong Jang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Previously published studies showed that the standard tumor-to-blood standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (SUR) was a more accurate prognostic method than tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). This study evaluated and compared prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters and normalized value of PET parameters by blood pool SUV in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received curative surgery.

  4. Study of lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid protective role in large unilamellar vesicles from a new electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, M Fátima; Luna, M Alejandra; Moyano, Fernando; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Correa, N Mariano; Molina, Patricia G

    2017-12-06

    In this contribution an electrochemical study is described for the first time of lipid peroxidation and the role of antioxidant on lipid protection using large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). In order to simulate the cell membrane, LUVs composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were used. A vesicle-modified electrode was constructed by immobilizing DOPC LUVs onto carbon paste electrodes (CPEs). Lipid peroxidation was studied electrochemically by incubating the vesicle-modified electrodes with hydroxyl (HO) radicals generated via the Fenton reaction. Oxidative damage induced by HO was verified by using square wave voltammetry (SWV) and was indirectly measured by the increase of electrochemical peak current to [Fe(CN)6]4- which was used as the electrochemical label. Ascorbic acid (AA) was used as the antioxidant model in order to study its efficacy on free radical scavenging. The decrease of the electrochemical signal confirms the protective key role promoted by AA in the prevention of lipid peroxidation in vesicles. Through microscopy, it was possible to observe morphologic modification on vesicle structures after lipid peroxidation in the presence or absence of AA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Introducing micrometer-sized artificial objects into live cells: a method for cell-giant unilamellar vesicle electrofusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akira C; Ogura, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Kei; Murata, Satoshi; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a method for introducing large objects of up to a micrometer in diameter into cultured mammalian cells by electrofusion of giant unilamellar vesicles. We prepared GUVs containing various artificial objects using a water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion centrifugation method. GUVs and dispersed HeLa cells were exposed to an alternating current (AC) field to induce a linear cell-GUV alignment, and then a direct current (DC) pulse was applied to facilitate transient electrofusion. With uniformly sized fluorescent beads as size indexes, we successfully and efficiently introduced beads of 1 µm in diameter into living cells along with a plasmid mammalian expression vector. Our electrofusion did not affect cell viability. After the electrofusion, cells proliferated normally until confluence was reached, and the introduced fluorescent beads were inherited during cell division. Analysis by both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry supported these findings. As an alternative approach, we also introduced a designed nanostructure (DNA origami) into live cells. The results we report here represent a milestone for designing artificial symbiosis of functionally active objects (such as micro-machines) in living cells. Moreover, our technique can be used for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and cell manipulation.

  6. Synthesis of BODIPY-Labeled Cholesterylated Glycopeptides by Tandem Click Chemistry for Glycocalyxification of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Vagianou, Charikleia-Despoina; Blixt, Ola

    2017-07-18

    The glycocalyx cover membrane surfaces of all living cells. These complex architectures render their interaction mechanisms on the membrane surface difficult to study. Artificial cell-sized membranes with selected and defined glycosylation patterns may serve as a minimalistic approach to systematically study cell surface glycan interactions. The development of a facile general synthetic procedure for the synthesis of BODIPY-labeled cholesterylated glycopeptides, which can coat cell-size giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), is described. These peptide constructs were synthesized by: 1) solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) using cholesterylated Fmoc-amino acids (Fmoc=9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl) followed by tandem click reactions, 2) attachment of a BODIPY-bicyclononyne (BCN) (prepared by Mitsunobu chemistry via novel aryl BCN-ethers) in the absence of a catalyst, and 3) glycosylation by means of copper(I)-catalyzed click reaction of an azidoglycan. Seven different GUV-glycoforms were prepared and four of these were evaluated with their corresponding four specific anti-glycan binding lectins. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Introducing micrometer-sized artificial objects into live cells: a method for cell-giant unilamellar vesicle electrofusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira C Saito

    Full Text Available Here, we report a method for introducing large objects of up to a micrometer in diameter into cultured mammalian cells by electrofusion of giant unilamellar vesicles. We prepared GUVs containing various artificial objects using a water-in-oil (w/o emulsion centrifugation method. GUVs and dispersed HeLa cells were exposed to an alternating current (AC field to induce a linear cell-GUV alignment, and then a direct current (DC pulse was applied to facilitate transient electrofusion. With uniformly sized fluorescent beads as size indexes, we successfully and efficiently introduced beads of 1 µm in diameter into living cells along with a plasmid mammalian expression vector. Our electrofusion did not affect cell viability. After the electrofusion, cells proliferated normally until confluence was reached, and the introduced fluorescent beads were inherited during cell division. Analysis by both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry supported these findings. As an alternative approach, we also introduced a designed nanostructure (DNA origami into live cells. The results we report here represent a milestone for designing artificial symbiosis of functionally active objects (such as micro-machines in living cells. Moreover, our technique can be used for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and cell manipulation.

  8. Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting Fluorescence Imaging of Lipid Domains In Raft-Mimicking Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, James; Cheng, Kwan; Shindell, Orrin; Wang, Exing

    We have designed and constructed a high-throughput electrofusion chamber and an incubator to fabricate Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) consisting of high-melting lipids, low-melting lipids, cholesterol and both ordered and disordered phase sensitive fluorescent probes (DiIC12, dehydroergosterol and BODIPY-Cholesterol). GUVs were formed in a 3 stage pulse sequence electrofusion process with voltages ranging from 50mVpp to 2.2Vpp and frequencies from 5Hz to 10Hz. Steady state and time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) fluorescence lifetime (FLIM) based confocal and/or multi-photon microscopic techniques were used to characterize phase separated lipid domains in GUVs. Confocal imaging measures the probe concentration and the chemical environment of the system. TCSPC techniques determine the chemical environment through the perturbation of fluorescent lifetimes of the probes in the system. The above techniques will be applied to investigate the protein-lipid interactions involving domain formation. Specifically, the mechanisms governing lipid domain formations in the above systems that mimic the lipid rafts in cells will be explored. Murchison Fellowship at Trinity University.

  9. Measurement of SUVs-Maximum for Normal Region Using VOI in PET/MRI and PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Kyu Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to establish an overall data set associated with the VOI (Volume of Interest, which is available for simultaneous assessment of PET/MRI and PET/CT regardless of the use of contrast media. The participants as objects of this investigation are 26 healthy examinees in Korea, SUV (standardized-uptake-values-maximum evaluation for whole-body F-18 FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose PET/MRI image using VOI of normal region has exhibited very significant difference to that for whole-body F-18 FDG PET/CT image (significant probability value (P0.8. It is shown that one needs to decide SUVs-maximum for PET/MRI with the reduction of 25.0~26.4% from their evaluated value and needs to decide with the reduction of 28.8~29.4% in the same situation but with the use of contrast media. The use of SUVLBM-maximum (SUVLean Body Mass-maximum is very advantageous in reading overall image of PET/CT and PET/MRI to medical doctors and researchers, if we consider its convenience and efficiency. We expect that this research enhances the level of the early stage accurate diagnosis with whole-body images of PET/MRI and PET/CT.

  10. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase targets SUV4-20-mediated histone H4K20 trimethylation to class-switch recombination sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cortez, Virginia C; Martínez-Redondo, Paloma; Català-Moll, Francesc; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Garcia-Gomez, Antonio; Poorani-Subramani, Ganesh; Ciudad, Laura; Hernando, Henar; Pérez-García, Arantxa; Company, Carlos; Urquiza, José M; Ramiro, Almudena R; Di Noia, Javier M; Vaquero, Alejandro; Ballestar, Esteban

    2017-08-08

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) triggers antibody diversification in B cells by catalysing deamination and subsequently mutating immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Association of AID with RNA Pol II and occurrence of epigenetic changes during Ig gene diversification suggest participation of AID in epigenetic regulation. AID is mutated in hyper-IgM type 2 (HIGM2) syndrome. Here, we investigated the potential role of AID in the acquisition of epigenetic changes. We discovered that AID binding to the IgH locus promotes an increase in H4K20me3. In 293F cells, we demonstrate interaction between co-transfected AID and the three SUV4-20 histone H4K20 methyltransferases, and that SUV4-20H1.2, bound to the IgH switch (S) mu site, is replaced by SUV4-20H2 upon AID binding. Analysis of HIGM2 mutants shows that the AID truncated form W68X is impaired to interact with SUV4-20H1.2 and SUV4-20H2 and is unable to bind and target H4K20me3 to the Smu site. We finally show in mouse primary B cells undergoing class-switch recombination (CSR) that AID deficiency associates with decreased H4K20me3 levels at the Smu site. Our results provide a novel link between SUV4-20 enzymes and CSR and offer a new aspect of the interplay between AID and histone modifications in setting the epigenetic status of CSR sites.

  11. Nonallergenic urushiol derivatives inhibit the oxidation of unilamellar vesicles and of rat plasma induced by various radical generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Ma, Young Kyu; Lee, Yu Geon; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2014-06-01

    Urushiols consist of an o-dihydroxybenzene (catechol) structure and an alkyl chain of 15 or 17 carbons in the 3-position of a benzene ring and are allergens found in the family Anacardiaceae. We synthesized various veratrole (1,2-dimethoxybenzene)-type and catechol-type urushiol derivatives that contained alkyl chains of various carbon atom lengths, including -H, -C1H3, -C5H11, -C10H21, -C15H31, and -C20H41, and investigated their contact hypersensitivities and antioxidative activities. 3-Decylcatechol and 3-pentadecylcatechol displayed contact hypersensitivity, but the other compounds did not induce an allergic reaction, when the ears of rats were sensitized by treatment with the compounds every day for 20 days. Catechol-type urushiol derivatives (CTUDs) exerted very high radical-scavenging activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and inhibited lipid peroxidation in a methyl linoleate solution induced by 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN). However, veratrole-type urushiol derivatives did not scavenge or inhibit lipid peroxidation. CTUDs also acted as effective inhibitors of lipid peroxidation of the egg yolk phosphatidylcholine large unilamellar vesicle (PC LUV) liposome system induced by various radical generators such as AMVN, 2,2'-azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride, and copper ions, although their efficiencies differed slightly. In addition, CTUDs suppressed formation of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides in rat blood plasma induced with copper ions. CTUDs containing more than five carbon atoms in the alkyl chain showed excellent lipophilicity in a n-octanol/water partition experiment. These compounds also exhibited high affinities to the liposome membrane using the ultrafiltration method of the PC LUV liposome system. Therefore, CTUDs seem to act as efficient antioxidative compounds against membranous lipid peroxidation owing to their localization in the phospholipid bilayer. These results suggest that nonallergenic CTUDs act as

  12. Correlation of PUV and SUV in the extremities while using PEM as a high-resolution positron emission scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, Sania [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mawlawi, Osama; Taylor, Shree; Millican, Richelle; Swanston, Nancy M.; Rohren, Eric M. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Fox, Patricia [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Biostatistics, Houston, TX (United States); Brown, J.E. [Yale University Hospital, Department of Radiology, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Owing to its unique configuration of two adjustable plate detectors positron emission mammography, or PEM, could theoretically also function as a high-resolution positron emission scanner for the extremities or neck. PEM quantitates its activity via a ''PEM uptake value,'' or PUV, and although its relationship to the standardized uptake value, or SUV, has been demonstrated in the breasts, to our knowledge there are no studies validating PUV in other sites such as the extremities. This was a retrospective chart review of two separate protocols of a total of 15 patients. The patients all had hypermetabolic lesions in the extremities or neck on imaging with PET/CT and were sent after their PET/CT to PEM for further imaging. Owing to the sequential nature of these examinations no additional radiotracer was administered. Spearman's rank order correlation was calculated between the PUVmax obtained from PEM images, and the SUVmax for all. Spearman's rank order correlation for all sites was 0.42, which is not significantly different from 0 (p = 0.13). When neck lesions were excluded from the group, there was a strong and statistically significant correlation between PUVmax and SUVmax, with Spearman's rank correlation of 0.73, and significantly different from 0 (p = 0.0068). The correlation of PUV and SUV in the extremities indicates the potential use of PEM as a semiquantitative, high-resolution positron emission scanner and warrants further investigation, especially in the realms of disease processes that often present in the extremities, such as melanoma, osteomyelitis, and arthritis, as well as playing a role in the imaging of patients with metallic hardware post-limb salvage surgery. (orig.)

  13. Visualization of lipid domains of lipid domains in giant unilamellar vesicles using an environment-sensitive membrane probe based on 3-hydroxyflavone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klymchenko, Andrey; Oncul, Sule; Didier, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    vesicles show that the probe dual emission drastically changes with the lipid bilayer phase, which can be correlated with the difference in their hydration. Using two-photon excitation microscopy on giant unilamellar vesicles, the F2N12S probe was found to bind both Ld and Lo phases, allowing visualization...... of the photoselection with the Ld phase indicated no predominant orientation of the probe in the Ld phase. Comparison of the present results with those reported previously for F2N12S in living cells suggests a high content of the Lo phase in the outer leaflet of the cell plasma membranes. Taking into account the high...

  14. Genetic examination of SETD7 and SUV39H1/H2 methyltransferases and the risk of diabetes complications in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syreeni, Anna; El-Osta, Assam; Forsblom, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of vascular complications, which are the major sources of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Furthermore, these vascular complications often persist and progress despite improved glucose control, possibly as a result of prior......, and SUV39H2 methyltransferases as predictors of risk for micro- and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes....

  15. The value of pre operative S-100B and SUV in clinically stage III melanoma patients undergoing therapeutic lymph node dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijff, S.; Bastiaannet, E.; Speijers, M. J.; Kobold, A. C. M.; Brouwers, A. H.; Hoekstra, H. J.

    Introduction: High preoperative serum S-100B values and Standardized Uptake Values (SUV) of Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in PET for clinically stage III melanoma patients could be indicators of recurrence after surgical treatment. Aim was to assess the correlation and the prognostic value of these

  16. Incidental colonic focal FDG uptake on PET/CT: can the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) guide us in the timing of colonoscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeij, F.B. van; Stadhouders, P.H.G.M.; Weusten, B.L.A.M. [St Antonius Ziekenhuis, Department of Gastroenterology, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Keijsers, R.G.M. [St Antonius Ziekenhuis, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Loffeld, B.C.A.J. [Zuwe Hofpoort Ziekenhuis, Department of Internal Medicine, Woerden (Netherlands); Dun, G. [Ziekenhuis Rivierenland, Department of Internal Medicine, Tiel (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    In patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, incidental colonic focal lesions can be indicative of inflammatory, premalignant or malignant lesions. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of these lesions, representing the FDG uptake intensity, might be helpful in differentiating malignant from benign lesions, and thereby be helpful in determining the urgency of colonoscopy. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence and underlying pathology of incidental PET-positive colonic lesions in a large cohort of patients, and to determine the usefulness of the SUV{sub max} in differentiating benign from malignant pathology. The electronic records of all patients who underwent FDG PET/CT from January 2010 to March 2013 in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The main indications for PET/CT were: characterization of an indeterminate mass on radiological imaging, suspicion or staging of malignancy, and suspicion of inflammation. In patients with incidental focal FDG uptake in the large bowel, data regarding subsequent colonoscopy were retrieved, if performed within 120 days. The final diagnosis was defined using colonoscopy findings, combined with additional histopathological assessment of the lesion, if applicable. Of 7,318 patients analysed, 359 (5 %) had 404 foci of unexpected colonic FDG uptake. In 242 of these 404 lesions (60 %), colonoscopy follow-up data were available. Final diagnoses were: adenocarcinoma in 25 (10 %), adenoma in 90 (37 %), and benign in 127 (53 %). The median [IQR] SUV{sub max} was significantly higher in adenocarcinoma (16.6 [12 - 20.8]) than in benign lesions (8.2 [5.9 - 10.1]; p < 0.0001), non-advanced adenoma (8.3 [6.1 - 10.5]; p < 0.0001) and advanced adenoma (9.7 [7.2 - 12.6]; p < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve of SUV{sub max} for malignant versus nonmalignant lesions had an area under the curve of 0.868 (SD ± 0.038), the optimal cut-off value being 11.4 (sensitivity 80 %, specificity 82

  17. Pretreatment tumor SUV{sub max} predicts disease-specific and overall survival in patients with head and neck soft tissue sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Seung Cheol; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jungsu S.; Moon, Hyojeong; Kim, Jae Seung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ja [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Head and neck soft tissue sarcoma (HNSTS) is a rare type of tumor with various histological presentations and clinical behaviors. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is being increasingly used for staging, grading, and predicting treatment outcomes in various types of human cancers, although this modality has been rarely studied in the survival prediction of HNSTS. Here we examined the prognostic value of tumor metabolic parameters measured using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with HNSTS. This study included 36 consecutive patients with HNSTS who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scanning prior to treatment at our institution. Tumor gross total volume (GTV) was measured from pretreatment contrast-enhanced CT scans, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured using pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to identify associations between imaging parameters and disease-specific survival (DSS) or overall survival (OS). Univariate analyses showed that SUV{sub max}, MTV, and TLG, but not GTV, were significantly associated with DSS and OS (all P < 0.05). After controlling for clinicopathological factors, SUV{sub max}, MTV, and TLG were significantly associated with DSS and OS (all P < 0.05). Patients with a tumor SUV{sub max} value of >7.0 experienced an approximately fivefold increase in mortality in terms of DSS and OS relative to those with a tumor SUV{sub max} <7.0. Quantitative metabolic measurements on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can yield values that are significantly predictive of survival after treatment for HNSTS. (orig.)

  18. 18F-FDG PET/CT assessment of histopathologically confirmed mediastinal lymph nodes in non-small cell lung cancer using a penalised likelihood reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teoh, Eugene J.; Gleeson, Fergus V. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); McGowan, Daniel R. [University of Oxford, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Radiation Physics and Protection, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Kevin M. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Belcher, Elizabeth; Black, Edward [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Thoracic Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Moore, Alastair; Sykes, Annemarie [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate whether using a Bayesian penalised likelihood reconstruction (BPL) improves signal-to-background (SBR), signal-to-noise (SNR) and SUV{sub max} when evaluating mediastinal nodal disease in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared to ordered subset expectation maximum (OSEM) reconstruction. 18F-FDG PET/CT scans for NSCLC staging in 47 patients (112 nodal stations with histopathological confirmation) were reconstructed using BPL and compared to OSEM. Node and multiple background SUV parameters were analysed semi-quantitatively and visually. Comparing BPL to OSEM, there were significant increases in SUV{sub max} (mean 3.2-4.0, p<0.0001), SBR (mean 2.2-2.6, p<0.0001) and SNR (mean 27.7-40.9, p<0.0001). Mean background SNR on OSEM was 10.4 (range 7.6-14.0), increasing to 12.4 (range 8.2-16.7, p<0.0001). Changes in background SUVs were minimal (largest mean difference 0.17 for liver SUV{sub mean}, p<0.001). There was no significant difference between either algorithm on receiver operating characteristic analysis (p=0.26), although on visual analysis, there was an increase in sensitivity and small decrease in specificity and accuracy on BPL. BPL increases SBR, SNR and SUV{sub max} of mediastinal nodes in NSCLC compared to OSEM, but did not improve the accuracy for determining nodal involvement. (orig.)

  19. Involvement of EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a and associated molecules in pathogenesis of urethane induced mouse lung tumors: Potential targets for cancer control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Manuraj; Sahay, Satya; Tiwari, Prakash [Carcinogenesis Laboratory, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow –226001 (India); Upadhyay, Daya S. [Laboratory Animals Services, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sitapur Road, Lucknow (India); Sultana, Sarwat [Dept. Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Krishna P., E-mail: krishnag522@yahoo.co.in [Carcinogenesis Laboratory, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow –226001 (India)

    2014-10-15

    In the present study, we showed the correlation of EZH2, SUV39H1 or G9a expression and histone modifications with the urethane induced mouse lung tumorigenesis in the presence or absence of antitumor agent, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6). Tumorigenesis and the molecular events involved therein were studied at 1, 4, 12 or 36 weeks after the exposure. There were no tumors at 1 or 4 weeks but tumors started appearing at 12 weeks and grew further till 36 weeks after urethane exposure. Among the molecular events, upregulation of EZH2 and SUV39H1 expressions appeared to be time dependent, but G9a expression was altered significantly only at later stages of 12 or 36 weeks. Alteration in miR-138 expression supports the upregulation of its target, EZH2. H3K9me2, H3K27me3 or H4K20me3 was found to be altered at 12 or 36 weeks. However, ChIP analysis of p16 and MLH1 promoters showed their binding with H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 which was maximum at 36 weeks. Thus, histone modification and their interactions with gene promoter resulted in the reduced expression of p16 and MLH1. IP6 prevented the incidence and the size of urethane induced lung tumors. IP6 also prevented the urethane induced alterations in EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a expressions and histone modifications. Our results suggest that the alterations in the histone modification pathways involving EZH2 and SUV39H1 expressions are among the early events in urethane induced mouse lung tumorigenesis and could be exploited for cancer control. - Highlights: • Urethane induces mouse lung tumor in a time dependent manner. • EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a induced by urethane and progress with time • Downregulation of miRNA-138 supports the EZH2 upregulation. • Methylation of histones showed a consequence of upregulated EZH2, SUV39H1 and G9a. • IP6 inhibits urethane induced changes and prevents tumor development.

  20. Analysis of the economic and ecological performances in the transient regimes of the European driving cycle for a midsize SUV equipped with a DHEP, using the simulation platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancă, Gheorghe; Ivan, Florian; Iozsa, Daniel; Nisulescu, Valentin

    2017-10-01

    Currently, the tendency of the car manufacturers is to continue the expansion of the global production of SUVs (Sport Utility Vehicle), while observing the requirements imposed by the new pollution standards by developing new technologies like DHEP (Diesel Hybrid Electric Powertrain). Experience has shown that the transient regimes are the most difficult to control from an economic and ecological perspective. As a result, this paper will highlight the behaviour of such engines that are provided in a middle class SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle), which operates in such states. We selected the transient regimes characteristic to the NMVEG (New Motor Vehicle Emissions Group) cycle. The investigations using the modelling platform AMESim allowed for rigorous interpretations for the 16 acceleration and 18 deceleration states. The results obtained from the simulation will be validated by experiments.

  1. Correlation of SUV-Derived Indices With Tumoral Aggressiveness of Gliomas in Static 18F-FDOPA PET: Use in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Lucile; Olivier, Pierre; Blonski, Marie; Morel, Olivier; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Karcher, Gilles; Taillandier, Luc; Verger, Antoine

    2015-09-01

    Glioma grading is necessary for prognostic evaluation and optimal treatment decisions. The aims of this study were to establish whether a correlation between F-FDOPA uptake with tumor grade was observed and to determine which of the SUV-derived indices was the best correlated. Thirty-one patients were retrospectively included (mean [SD] age, 36.8 [12.1] years) including 21 proven low-grade tumors due to histology, imaging, and clinical follow-up and 10 histologically proven high-grade tumors. Static PET acquisitions were postreconstructed between the 10th and 30th minute after injection of F-FDOPA. Regions of interest of 20 mm were applied to tumors, and isocontoured volumes were defined at levels of 50% and 80% of the peak intensity voxel. Background was quantified with 30-mm-diameter regions of interest on contralateral striatum and centrum semioval. Tumoral uptake was evaluated with the following SUV-derived indices: SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVmax, and SUVmean of isocontoured volume, tumor/striatum ratio (T/S), and tumor/normal brain ratio (T/N). All the SUV-derived indices tested were significantly correlated with tumor grade, considering low-grade and high-grade groups (P < 0.05), except for the SUVmean 50%. The 2 best-correlated indices were SUVmean T/N and SUVmean T/S, with correlation coefficients of 0.561 and 0.522, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic analysis defined optimal thresholds of 1.33 and 1 for sensitivity and specificity of 71% and 100% and 67% and 100%, respectively. F-FDOPA PET SUV-derived indices are routinely available information that enables accurate discrimination of low-grade and high-grade gliomas. The best-correlated indices were SUVmean T/N and SUVmean T/S with thresholds of 1.33 and 1.

  2. SUV2, which encodes an ATR-related cell cycle checkpoint and putative plant ATRIP, is required for aluminium-dependent root growth inhibition in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, Caroline A; Larsen, Paul B

    2017-09-01

    A suppressor mutagenesis screen was conducted in order to identify second site mutations that could reverse the extreme hypersensitivity to aluminium (Al) seen for the Arabidopsis mutant, als3-1. From this screen, it was found that a loss-of-function mutation in the previously described SUV2 (SENSITIVE TO UV 2), which encodes a putative plant ATRIP homologue that is a component of the ATR-dependent cell checkpoint response, reversed the als3-1 phenotype. This included prevention of hallmarks associated with als3-1 including Al-dependent terminal differentiation of the root tip and transition to endoreduplication. From this analysis, SUV2 was determined to be required for halting cell cycle progression and triggering loss of the quiescent centre (QC) following exposure to Al. In conjunction with this, SUV2 was found to have a similar role as ATR, ALT2 and SOG1 in Al-dependent stoppage of root growth, all of which are required for promotion of expression of a suite of genes that likely are part of an Al-dependent DNA damage transcriptional response. This work argues that these Al response factors work together to detect Al-dependent damage and subsequently activate a DNA damage response pathway that halts the cell cycle and subsequently promotes QC differentiation and entrance into endocycling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Incorporation of photosenzitizer hypericin into synthetic lipid-based nano-particles for drug delivery and large unilamellar vesicles with different content of cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joniova, Jaroslava; Blascakova, Ludmila; Jancura, Daniel; Nadova, Zuzana; Sureau, Franck; Miskovsky, Pavol

    2014-08-01

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are attractive natural occurring vehicles for drug delivery and targeting to cancer tissues. The capacity of both types of the lipoproteins to bind hydrophobic drugs and their functionality as drug carriers have been examined in several studies and it has been also shown that mixing of anticancer drugs with LDL or HDL before administration led to an increase of cytotoxic effects of the drugs in the comparison when the drugs were administered alone. However, a difficult isolation of the lipoproteins in large quantity from a biological organism as well as a variability of the composition and size of these molecules makes practical application of LDL and HDL as drug delivery systems quite complicated. Synthetic LDL and HDL and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) are potentially suitable candidates to substitute the native lipoproteins for targeted and effective drug delivery. In this work, we have studied process of an association of potent photosensitizer hypericin (Hyp) with synthetic lipid-based nano-particles (sLNP) and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) containing various amount of cholesterol. Cholesterol is one of the main components of both LDL and HDL particles and its presence in biological membranes is known to be a determining factor for membrane properties. It was found that the behavior of Hyp incorporation into sLNP particles with diameter ca ~ 90 nm is qualitatively very similar to that of Hyp incorporation into LDL (diameter ca. 22 nm) and these particles are able to enter U-87 MG cells by endocytosis. The presence of cholesterol in LUV influences the capacity of these vesicles to incorporate Hyp into their structure.

  4. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Standardized Uptake Value (SUV-shape Scheme for Thyroid Volume Determination in Graves’ Disease: A Comparison with Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yangchun chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of thyroid volume measurement using 99mTc pertechnetate single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images, acquired by the standardized uptake value (SUV-shape scheme designed by our expert team.Methods: A total of 18 consecutive patients with Graves’ disease (GD were subjected to both ultrasonographic and 99mTc pertechnetate SPECT examinations of thyroid within a five-day interval. The volume of thyroid lobes and isthmus was measured by ultrasonography (US according to the ellipsoid volume equation. The total thyroid volume, determined as the sum of the volume of both lobes and isthmus, was recorded as TV-US (i.e., thyroid volume measured by US and set as the reference. The thyroid volume was defined according to our SUV-shape scheme and was recorded as TV-SS (i.e., thyroid volume determined by the SUV-shape scheme. The data were analyzed using the Bland-Altman plot, linear regression analysis, Spearman’s rank correlation, and paired t-test, if necessary.Results: The values of TV-SS (40.2±29.4 mL and TV-US (43.0±34.7 mL were not significantly different (t=0.813; P=0.43. The linear regression equation of the two values was determined as TV-US= 1.072 × TV-SS − 0.29(r=0.906; P

  5. SUV-quantification of physiological lung tissue in an integrated PET/MR-system: Impact of lung density and bone tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seith, Ferdinand; Gatidis, Sergios; Bezrukov, Ilja; Schraml, Christina; Pfannenberg, Christina; la Fougère, Christian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schwenzer, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of lung density changes as well as bone proximity on the attenuation correction of lung standardized uptake values (SUVs). Methods and materials 15 patients with mostly oncologic diseases were examined in 18F-FDG-PET/CT and subsequently in a fully integrated PET/MR scanner. From each PET dataset acquired in PET/MR, four different PET reconstructions were computed using different attenuation maps (μ-maps): i) CT-based μ-map (gold standard); ii) CT-based μ-map in which the linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of the lung tissue was replaced by the lung LAC from the MR-based segmentation method; iii) based on reconstruction ii), the LAC of bone structures was additionally replaced with the LAC from the MR-based segmentation method; iv) the vendor-provided MR-based μ-map (segmentation-based method). Those steps were performed using MATLAB. CT Hounsfield units (HU) and SUVmean was acquired in different levels and regions of the lung. Relative differences between the differently corrected PETs were computed. Results Compared to the gold standard, reconstruction ii), iii) and iv) led to a relative underestimation of SUV in the posterior regions of -9.0%, -13.4% and -14.0%, respectively. Anterior and middle regions were less affected with an overestimation of about 6–8% in reconstructions ii)–iv). Conclusion It could be shown that both, differences in lung density and the vicinity of bone tissue in the μ-map may have an influence on SUV, mostly affecting the posterior lung regions. PMID:28562622

  6. Regional Lymph Node Uptake of [{sup 18}F]Fluorodeoxyglucose After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Predicts Local-Regional Failure of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results of ACRIN 6668/RTOG 0235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovina, Stephanie [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Duan, Fenghai [Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Snyder, Bradley S. [Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Siegel, Barry A. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Machtay, Mitchell [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jbradley@radonc.wustl.edu [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Purpose: The American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6668/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0235 study demonstrated that standardized uptake values (SUV) on post-treatment [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) correlated with survival in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This secondary analysis determined whether SUV of regional lymph nodes (RLNs) on post-treatment FDG-PET correlated with patient outcomes. Methods and Materials: Included for analysis were patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy, using radiation doses ≥60 Gy, with identifiable FDG-avid RLNs (distinct from primary tumor) on pretreatment FDG-PET, and post-treatment FDG-PET data. ACRIN core laboratory SUV measurements were used. Event time was calculated from the date of post-treatment FDG-PET. Local-regional failure was defined as failure within the treated RT volume and reported by the treating institution. Statistical analyses included Wilcoxon signed rank test, Kaplan-Meier curves (log rank test), and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Results: Of 234 trial-eligible patients, 139 (59%) had uptake in both primary tumor and RLNs on pretreatment FDG-PET and had SUV data from post-treatment FDG-PET. Maximum SUV was greater for primary tumor than for RLNs before treatment (P<.001) but not different post-treatment (P=.320). Post-treatment SUV of RLNs was not associated with overall survival. However, elevated post-treatment SUV of RLNs, both the absolute value and the percentage of residual activity compared to the pretreatment SUV were associated with inferior local-regional control (P<.001). Conclusions: High residual metabolic activity in RLNs on post-treatment FDG-PET is associated with worse local-regional control. Based on these data, future trials evaluating a radiation therapy boost should consider inclusion of both primary tumor and FDG-avid RLNs in the boost volume to maximize local

  7. Novel penalised likelihood reconstruction of PET in the assessment of histologically verified small pulmonary nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teoh, Eugene J.; Gleeson, Fergus V. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); McGowan, Daniel R. [University of Oxford, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiation Physics and Protection, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Kevin M. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Belcher, Elizabeth; Black, Edward [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Thoracic Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Investigate the effect of a novel Bayesian penalised likelihood (BPL) reconstruction algorithm on analysis of pulmonary nodules examined with 18F-FDG PET/CT, and to determine its effect on small, sub-10-mm nodules. 18F-FDG PET/CTs performed for nodule evaluation in 104 patients (121 nodules) were retrospectively reconstructed using the new algorithm, and compared to time-of-flight ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) reconstruction. Nodule and background parameters were analysed semi-quantitatively and visually. BPL compared to OSEM resulted in statistically significant increases in nodule SUV{sub max} (mean 5.3 to 8.1, p < 0.00001), signal-to-background (mean 3.6 to 5.3, p < 0.00001) and signal-to-noise (mean 24 to 41, p < 0.00001). Mean percentage increase in SUV{sub max} (%ΔSUV{sub max}) was significantly higher in nodules ≤10 mm (n = 31, mean 73 %) compared to >10 mm (n = 90, mean 42 %) (p = 0.025). Increase in signal-to-noise was higher in nodules ≤10 mm (224 %, mean 12 to 27) compared to >10 mm (165 %, mean 28 to 46). When applying optimum SUV{sub max} thresholds for detecting malignancy, the sensitivity and accuracy increased using BPL, with the greatest improvements in nodules ≤10 mm. BPL results in a significant increase in signal-to-background and signal-to-noise compared to OSEM. When semi-quantitative analyses to diagnose malignancy are applied, higher SUV{sub max} thresholds may be warranted owing to the SUV{sub max} increase compared to OSEM. (orig.)

  8. Effects of various spacers between biotin and the phospholipid headgroup on immobilization and sedimentation of biotinylated phospholipid-containing liposomes facilitated by avidin-biotin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Koji; Umeda, Kazuaki; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    Immobilization and sedimentation of liposomes (lipid vesicles) are used in liposome-protein binding assays, facilitated by avidin/streptavidin/NeutrAvidin and biotinylated phospholipid-containing liposomes. Here, we examined the effects of three spacers [six-carbon (X), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 180 (molecular weight 180) and PEG2000 (molecular weight 2,000)] between biotin and the phospholipid headgroup on the immobilization and sedimentation of small unilamellar liposomes/vesicles (SUVs). PEG180 and PEG2000 showed more efficient immobilization of biotinylated SUVs on NeutrAvidin-coated plates than X, but X and PEG180 showed more efficient sedimentation of biotinylated SUVs upon NeutrAvidin addition than PEG2000. Thus, the most appropriate spacers differed between immobilization and sedimentation. A spacer for biotinylated SUVs must be selected according to the particular liposome-protein binding assays examined. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Stabilization of soft lipid colloids: competing effects of nanoparticle decoration and supported lipid bilayer formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarala, Sushma; Ahmed, Selver; Ilies, Marc A; Wunder, Stephanie L

    2011-04-26

    Stabilization against fusion of zwitterionic lipid small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) by charged nanoparticles is essential to prevent premature inactivation and cargo unloading. In the present work, we examined the stabilization of DMPC and DPPC SUVs by monolithic silica (SiO(2)) nanoparticle envelopment, for SiO(2) with 4-6, 10-20, 20-30, and 40-50 nm nominal diameter. We found that for these soft colloids stabilization is critically dependent on whether fusion occurs between the charged nanoparticles and neutral SUVs to form supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), or whether the reverse occurs, namely, nanoparticle decoration of the SUVs. While SLB formation is accompanied by precipitation, nanoparticle decoration results in long-term stabilization of the SUVs. The fate of the nanosystem depends on the size of the nanoparticles and on the ionic strength of the medium. We found that, in the case of highly charged SiO(2) nanoparticles in water, there is no SUV fusion to SiO(2) for a specific range of nanoparticle sizes. Instead, the negatively charged SiO(2) nanoparticles surround the uncharged SUVs, resulting in electrostatic repulsion between the decorated SUVs, thus preventing their aggregation and precipitation. Addition of millimolar amounts of NaCl results in rapid SLB formation and precipitation. This study has great potential impact toward better understanding the interaction of nanoparticles with biological membranes and the factors affecting their use as drug carriers or sensors.

  10. A GALA lipopeptide mediates pH- and membrane charge dependent fusion with stable giant unilamellar vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etzerodt, Thomas P.; Trier, Sofie; Henriksen, Jonas R.

    2012-01-01

    Peptides capable of mediating fusion between lipid membranes are widely observed in nature, and have attracted considerable attention in the liposome drug delivery field. However, studies that are proving the benefit of small synthetic fusion peptides as components in drug delivery systems remain...

  11. KAT7/HBO1/MYST2 Regulates CENP-A Chromatin Assembly by Antagonizing Suv39h1-Mediated Centromere Inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohzeki, Jun-Ichirou; Shono, Nobuaki; Otake, Koichiro; Martins, Nuno M C; Kugou, Kazuto; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nagase, Takahiro; Larionov, Vladimir; Earnshaw, William C; Masumoto, Hiroshi

    2016-06-06

    Centromere chromatin containing histone H3 variant CENP-A is required for accurate chromosome segregation as a foundation for kinetochore assembly. Human centromere chromatin assembles on a part of the long α-satellite (alphoid) DNA array, where it is flanked by pericentric heterochromatin. Heterochromatin spreads into adjacent chromatin and represses gene expression, and it can antagonize centromere function or CENP-A assembly. Here, we demonstrate an interaction between CENP-A assembly factor M18BP1 and acetyltransferase KAT7/HBO1/MYST2. Knocking out KAT7 in HeLa cells reduced centromeric CENP-A assembly. Mitotic chromosome misalignment and micronuclei formation increased in the knockout cells and were enhanced when the histone H3-K9 trimethylase Suv39h1 was overproduced. Tethering KAT7 to an ectopic alphoid DNA integration site removed heterochromatic H3K9me3 modification and was sufficient to stimulate new CENP-A or histone H3.3 assembly. Thus, KAT7-containing acetyltransferases associating with the Mis18 complex provides competence for histone turnover/exchange activity on alphoid DNA and prevents Suv39h1-mediated heterochromatin invasion into centromeres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation between semi-quantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT parameters and Ki-67 expression in small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Yeon; Lee, Eun Sub; Eo, Jae Seon [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Seung Hong; Cho, Jae Hyuk; Choi, Sun Ju; Pahk, Kisso; Choe, Jae Gol; Kim, Sung Geun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Si Nae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, G Sam Hospital, Gunpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between semiquantitative parameters on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT including maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), mean standardized uptake value (SUV{sub mean}), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and the expression level of Ki-67 in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Ninety-four consecutive patients with SCLC were enrolled in this study. They underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for initial evaluation of SCLC, and we measured SUV{sub max}, {sub avg}SUV{sub mean}, MTV{sub sum}, and TLGtotal on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images. The protein expression of Ki-67 was examined by immunohistochemical staining. Significant correlations were found between the MTVsum and Ki-67 labeling index (r=0.254, p=0.014) and the TLGtotal and Ki-67 labeling index (r=0.239, p=0.020). No correlation was found between the SUVmax and Ki-67 labeling index (r=0.116, p=0.264) and the {sub avg}SUV{sub mean} and Ki-67 labeling index (r=0.031, p=0.770). Dividing the Ki-67 expression level into three categories, it was suggested that increasing Ki-67 expression level caused a stepwise increase in the MTV{sub sum} and TLGtotal. (p=0.028 and 0.039, respectively), but not the SUV{sub max} and {sub avg}SUV{sub mean} (p=0.526 and 0.729, respectively). In conclusion, the volume-based parameters of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT correlate with immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67 in SCLC. Measurement of the MTV{sub sum} and TLGtotal by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT might be a simple, noninvasive, and useful method to determine the proliferative potential of cancer cells.

  13. Correlation of FDG-PET findings with histopathology in the assessment of response to induction chemoradiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yuka; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro; Monden, Toshihide; Sasakawa, Yasuhiro; Ohkawa, Motoomi [Kagawa University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kagawa (Japan); Gotoh, Masashi; Kameyama, Kotaro [Kagawa University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Second Surgery, Kagawa (Japan); Haba, Reiji [Kagawa University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kagawa (Japan)

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of FDG-PET to predict the response of primary tumour and nodal disease to preoperative induction chemoradiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). FDG-PET studies were performed before and after completion of chemoradiotherapy prior to surgery in 26 patients with NSCLC. FDG-PET imaging was performed at 1 h (early) and 2 h (delayed) after injection. Semi-quantitative analysis was performed using the standardised uptake value (SUV) at the primary tumour. Percent change was calculated according to the following equation: (SUV{sub after} - SUV{sub before}) x 100/SUV{sub before}. Based on histopathological analysis of the specimens obtained at surgery, patients were classified as pathological responders or pathological non-responders. The clinical nodal stage on the post-chemoradiotherapy PET scan was visually determined and compared with the final pathological stage. Eighteen patients were found to be pathological responders and eight to be pathological non-responders. SUV{sub after} values from both early and delayed images in pathological responders were significantly lower than those in pathological non-responders. The percent change values from early and delayed images in the pathological responders were significantly higher than those in the pathological non-responders. The post-chemoradiotherapy PET scan accurately predicted nodal stage in 22 of 26 patients. FDG-PET may have the potential to predict response to induction chemoradiotherapy in patients with NSCLC. (orig.)

  14. Chaetocin induces endoplasmic reticulum stress response and leads to death receptor 5-dependent apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianfang; Guo, Sen; Liu, Xiangguo; Su, Ling

    2015-11-01

    Epigenetic abnormalities are associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) initiation and progression. Epigenetic drugs are being studied and in clinical trials. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the apoptosis by the epigenetic agents remains unclear. SUV39H1 is an important methyl-transferase for lysine 9 on histone H3 and usually related to gene transcriptional suppression, and chaetocin acts as the inhibitor of SUV39H1. We demonstrated here that chaetocin effectively suppressed the growth of multiple lung cancer cells through inducing apoptosis in a death receptor 5 (DR5)-dependent manner. Chaetocin treatment activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which gave rise to the up-regulation of ATF3 and CHOP. Furthermore, ATF3 and CHOP contributed to the induction of DR5 and subsequent apoptosis. When SUV39H1 was silenced with siRNA, the expression of ATF3, CHOP and DR5 was elevated. Thereafter, knockdown of SUV39H1 induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells. In summary, chaetocin pharmacologically inhibits the activity of SUV39H1 which provokes ER stress and results in up-regulation of ATF3 and CHOP, leading to DR5-dependent apoptosis eventually. These findings provide a novel interpretation on the anti-neoplastic activity of epigenetic drugs as a new therapeutic approach in NSCLC.

  15. Early reduction in tumour [{sup 18}F]fluorothymidine (FLT) uptake in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiotherapy alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigonis, Ioannis; Tamal, Mahbubunnabi; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Jackson, Alan; Asselin, Marie-Claude [The University of Manchester, Institute of Population Health, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Koh, Pek Keng [The University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Taylor, Ben; Ryder, David; Earl, Mark [The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Haslett, Kate; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Blackhall, Fiona [The University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Young, Helen [AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Macclesfield (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    Changes in tumour 3'-deoxy-3'-[{sup 18}F]fluorothymidine (FLT) uptake during concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been reported, at variable time points, in two pilot positron emission tomography (PET) studies. The aim of this study was to assess whether FLT changes occur early in response to radiotherapy (RT) without concurrent chemotherapy and whether such changes exceed test-retest variability. Sixteen patients with NSCLC, scheduled to have radical RT, underwent FLT PET once/twice at baseline to assess reproducibility and/or after 5-11 RT fractions to evaluate response. Primary and nodal malignant lesions were manually delineated on CT and volume, mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max}) estimated. Analysis included descriptive statistics and parameter fitting to a mixed-effects model accounting for patients having different numbers of evaluable lesions. In all, 35 FLT PET scans from 7 patients with a total of 18 lesions and 12 patients with a total of 30 lesions were evaluated for reproducibility and response, respectively. SUV{sub mean} reproducibility in primary tumours (SD 8.9 %) was better than SUV{sub max} reproducibility (SD 12.6 %). In nodes, SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} reproducibilities (SD 18.0 and 17.2 %) were comparable but worse than for primary tumours. After 5-11 RT fractions, primary tumour SUV{sub mean} decreased significantly by 25 % (p = 0.0001) in the absence of significant volumetric change, whereas metastatic nodes decreased in volume by 31 % (p = 0.020) with a larger SUV{sub mean} decrease of 40 % (p < 0.0001). Similar changes were found for SUV{sub max}. Across this group of NSCLC patients, RT induced an early, significant decrease in lesion FLT uptake exceeding test-retest variability. This effect is variable between patients, appears distinct between primary and metastatic nodal lesions, and in primary tumours is lower than previously

  16. A mutation in the SUV39H2 gene in Labrador Retrievers with hereditary nasal parakeratosis (HNPK provides insights into the epigenetics of keratinocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya Jagannathan

    Full Text Available Hereditary nasal parakeratosis (HNPK, an inherited monogenic autosomal recessive skin disorder, leads to crusts and fissures on the nasal planum of Labrador Retrievers. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS using 13 HNPK cases and 23 controls. We obtained a single strong association signal on chromosome 2 (p(raw = 4.4×10⁻¹⁴. The analysis of shared haplotypes among the 13 cases defined a critical interval of 1.6 Mb with 25 predicted genes. We re-sequenced the genome of one case at 38× coverage and detected 3 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval with respect to the reference genome assembly. We genotyped these variants in larger cohorts of dogs and only one was perfectly associated with the HNPK phenotype in a cohort of more than 500 dogs. This candidate causative variant is a missense variant in the SUV39H2 gene encoding a histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9 methyltransferase, which mediates chromatin silencing. The variant c.972T>G is predicted to change an evolutionary conserved asparagine into a lysine in the catalytically active domain of the enzyme (p.N324K. We further studied the histopathological alterations in the epidermis in vivo. Our data suggest that the HNPK phenotype is not caused by hyperproliferation, but rather delayed terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. Thus, our data provide evidence that SUV39H2 is involved in the epigenetic regulation of keratinocyte differentiation ensuring proper stratification and tight sealing of the mammalian epidermis.

  17. FDG-PET Response Prediction in Pediatric Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Impact of Metabolically Defined Tumor Volumes and Individualized SUV Measurements on the Positive Predictive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Elsayed M. Hussien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In pediatric Hodgkin’s lymphoma (pHL early response-to-therapy prediction is metabolically assessed by (18F-FDG PET carrying an excellent negative predictive value (NPV but an impaired positive predictive value (PPV. Aim of this study was to improve the PPV while keeping the optimal NPV. A comparison of different PET data analyses was performed applying individualized standardized uptake values (SUV, PET-derived metabolic tumor volume (MTV and the product of both parameters, termed total lesion glycolysis (TLG; Methods: One-hundred-eight PET datasets (PET1, n = 54; PET2, n = 54 of 54 children were analysed by visual and semi-quantitative means. SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV and TLG were obtained the results of both PETs and the relative change from PET1 to PET2 (Δ in % were compared for their capability of identifying responders and non-responders using receiver operating characteristics (ROC-curves. In consideration of individual variations in noise and contrasts levels all parameters were additionally obtained after threshold correction to lean body mass and background; Results: All semi-quantitative SUV estimates obtained at PET2 were significantly superior to the visual PET2 analysis. However, ΔSUVmax revealed the best results (area under the curve, 0.92; p < 0.001; sensitivity 100%; specificity 85.4%; PPV 46.2%; NPV 100%; accuracy, 87.0% but was not significantly superior to SUVmax-estimation at PET2 and ΔTLGmax. Likewise, the lean body mass and background individualization of the datasets did not impove the results of the ROC analyses; Conclusions: Sophisticated semi-quantitative PET measures in early response assessment of pHL patients do not perform significantly better than the previously proposed ΔSUVmax. All analytical strategies failed to improve the impaired PPV to a clinically acceptable level while preserving the excellent NPV.

  18. FDG-PET Response Prediction in Pediatric Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Impact of Metabolically Defined Tumor Volumes and Individualized SUV Measurements on the Positive Predictive Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussien, Amr Elsayed M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine (KME), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Jülich, 52426 (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, 40225 (Germany); Furth, Christian [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, 39120 (Germany); Schönberger, Stefan [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Clinical Immunology, University Children’s Hospital, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, 40225 (Germany); Hundsdoerfer, Patrick [Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Charité Campus Virchow, Humboldt-University Berlin, Berlin, 13353 (Germany); Steffen, Ingo G.; Amthauer, Holger [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, 39120 (Germany); Müller, Hans-Wilhelm; Hautzel, Hubertus, E-mail: h.hautzel@fz-juelich.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine (KME), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Jülich, 52426 (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, 40225 (Germany)

    2015-01-28

    Background: In pediatric Hodgkin’s lymphoma (pHL) early response-to-therapy prediction is metabolically assessed by (18)F-FDG PET carrying an excellent negative predictive value (NPV) but an impaired positive predictive value (PPV). Aim of this study was to improve the PPV while keeping the optimal NPV. A comparison of different PET data analyses was performed applying individualized standardized uptake values (SUV), PET-derived metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the product of both parameters, termed total lesion glycolysis (TLG); Methods: One-hundred-eight PET datasets (PET1, n = 54; PET2, n = 54) of 54 children were analysed by visual and semi-quantitative means. SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV and TLG were obtained the results of both PETs and the relative change from PET1 to PET2 (Δ in %) were compared for their capability of identifying responders and non-responders using receiver operating characteristics (ROC)-curves. In consideration of individual variations in noise and contrasts levels all parameters were additionally obtained after threshold correction to lean body mass and background; Results: All semi-quantitative SUV estimates obtained at PET2 were significantly superior to the visual PET2 analysis. However, ΔSUVmax revealed the best results (area under the curve, 0.92; p < 0.001; sensitivity 100%; specificity 85.4%; PPV 46.2%; NPV 100%; accuracy, 87.0%) but was not significantly superior to SUVmax-estimation at PET2 and ΔTLGmax. Likewise, the lean body mass and background individualization of the datasets did not impove the results of the ROC analyses; Conclusions: Sophisticated semi-quantitative PET measures in early response assessment of pHL patients do not perform significantly better than the previously proposed ΔSUVmax. All analytical strategies failed to improve the impaired PPV to a clinically acceptable level while preserving the excellent NPV.

  19. Correlation between tumour characteristics, SUV measurements, metabolic tumour volume, TLG and textural features assessed with {sup 18}F-FDG PET in a large cohort of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemarignier, Charles; Groheux, David [Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); University Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM/CNRS UMR944/7212, Paris (France); Martineau, Antoine; Vercellino, Laetitia; Merlet, Pascal [Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Teixeira, Luis; Espie, Marc [Saint-Louis Hospital, Breast Diseases Unit, Paris (France); University Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM/CNRS UMR944/7212, Paris (France)

    2017-07-15

    The study was designed to evaluate 1) the relationship between PET image textural features (TFs) and SUVs, metabolic tumour volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and tumour characteristics in a large prospective and homogenous cohort of oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer (BC) patients, and 2) the capability of those parameters to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). 171 consecutive patients with large or locally advanced ER+ BC without distant metastases underwent an {sup 18}F-FDG PET examination before NAC. The primary tumour was delineated with an adaptive threshold segmentation method. Parameters of volume, intensity and texture (entropy, homogeneity, contrast and energy) were measured and compared with tumour characteristics determined on pre-treatment breast biopsy (Wilcoxon rank-sum test). The correlation between PET-derived parameters was determined using Spearman's coefficient. The relationship between PET features and pathological findings was determined using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Spearman's coefficients between SUV{sub max} and TFs were 0.43, 0.24, -0.43 and -0.15 respectively for entropy, homogeneity, energy and contrast; they were higher between MTV and TFs: 0.99, 0.86, -0.99 and -0.87. All TFs showed a significant association with the histological type (IDC vs. ILC; 0.02 < P < 0.03) but didn't with immunohistochemical characteristics. SUV{sub max} and TLG predicted the pathological response (P = 0.0021 and P = 0.02 respectively); TFs didn't (P: 0.27, 0.19, 0.94, 0.19 respectively for entropy, homogeneity, energy and contrast). The correlation of TFs was poor with SUV parameters and high with MTV. TFs showed a significant association with the histological type. Finally, while SUV{sub max} and TLG were able to predict response to NAC, TFs failed. (orig.)

  20. Vesicle fission of giant unilamellar vesicles of liquid-ordered-phase membranes induced by amphiphiles with a single long hydrocarbon chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Yasuyuki; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2007-01-16

    Vesicle fissions are very important processes of biomembranes in cells, but their mechanisms are not clear and are controversial. Using the single giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) method, we recently found that low concentrations (less than the critical micelle concentration (CMC)) of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) induced the vesicle fission of GUVs of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol(6/4) (DPPC/chol(6/4)) membranes and sphingomyelin/cholesterol membranes (6/4) in the liquid-ordered (lo) phase. In this report, to elucidate its mechanism, we have investigated the effect of low concentrations (much less than their CMC) of other amphiphiles with a single long hydrocarbon chain (i.e., single long chain amphiphiles) on DPPC/chol(6/4) GUVs as well as the effect of the membrane composition on the lyso-PC-induced vesicle fission. We found that low concentrations of single long chain amphiphiles (lyosophosphatidic acid, octylglucoside, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) induced the shape change from a prolate to two spheres connected by a very narrow neck, indicating that the single long chain amphiphiles can be partitioned into the external monolayer in the lo phase of the GUV from the aqueous solution. As the single long chain amphiphile concentrations were increased, all of them induced vesicle fission of DPPC/chol(6/4) GUVs above their threshold concentrations. To elucidate the role of cholesterol in the single long chain amphiphile-induced vesicle fission, we investigated the effect of lyso-PC on GUVs of dioleoyl-PC (DOPC)/chol(6/4) membranes in the Lalpha phase; no vesicle fission occurred, indicating that cholesterol in itself did not play an important role in the vesicle fission. Finally, to elucidate the effect of the inclusion of DOPC in the lo-phase membrane of GUVs on the lyso-PC-induced vesicle fission of the DPPC/chol(6/4) GUV, we investigated the effect of low concentrations of lyso-PC on GUVs of DPPC/DOPC/chol membranes. With an increase in DOPC

  1. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for strain changes measurements at volcanic sites (MED-SUV project; WP 2; Sub-Task 2.2.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Fiodor; Beverini, Nicolò; Calamai, Massimo; Carbone, Daniele; Fotino, Nicoletta; Francesconi, Francesco; Gambino, Salvatore; Grassi, Renzo; Messin, Alfio Alex; Maccioni, Enrico; Morganti, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    Stress and strain changes at volcanic areas are recognized among the best indicators of changes in the activity of the system, and its possible evolution towards critical stages. Depending on their time evolution, stress and strain changes have been the focus of either geodetic (static changes) or seismological (dynamical changes) studies. In volcano geodesy, encouraging results have been obtained though borehole strain-meters. However, they are not easy to install and involve high costs. Therefore, the near future of strain observations at volcanoes depends on the development of broad-band sensors which are low-cost and easy to install, even in the form of dense arrays. Advancements in opto-electronics have allowed the development of low-cost sensors, reliable, rugged and compact, which are particularly suitable for on-field application. In the framework of WP 2 (New monitoring and Observing systems) of the MED-SUV project, the sub-task 2.2 involves the development of strain sensors based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology. In comparison with previous implementation of the FBG technology to study rock deformations, the system that is being developed within MED-SUV is expected to offer a significantly higher resolution and accuracy in static measurements. Moreover, a careful study is being carried out in order to obtain a smooth dynamic response up to 100 Hz, thus allowing the observation of seismic waves. Finally, the system under development will allow multi-axial strain sensing. The system performances are tailored to suit the requirements of volcano monitoring, with special attention to the trade-off between resolution and cost, and with special care to power consumption. Here we present the results of a field campaign with a preliminary, single-axis FBG strain sensor prototype on Etna, which was carried out in order to check the system performances in out-of-the-lab conditions and in the hostile volcanic environment (lack of mains electricity for

  2. Absolute number of new lesions on 18F-FDG PET/CT is more predictive of clinical response than SUV changes in metastatic melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Hoda; Sachpekidis, Christos; Winkler, Julia; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Haberkorn, Uwe; Hassel, Jessica C; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia

    2017-11-10

    Evaluation of response to immunotherapy is a matter of debate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of metastatic melanoma to treatment with ipilimumab by means of 18F-FDG PET/CT, using the patients' clinical response as reference. The final cohort included in the analyses consisted of 41 patients with metastatic melanoma who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT before and after administration of ipilimumab. After determination of the best clinical response, the PET/CT scans were reviewed and a separate independent analysis was performed, based on the number and functional size of newly emerged 18F-FDG-avid lesions, as well as on the SUV changes after therapy. The median observation time of the patients after therapy was 21.4 months (range 6.3-41.9 months). Based on their clinical response, patients were dichotomized into those with clinical benefit (CB) and those without CB (No-CB). The CB group (31 patients) included those with stable disease, partial remission and complete remission, and the No-CB group (10 patients) included those with progressive disease. The application of a threshold of four newly emerged 18F-FDG-avid lesions on the posttherapy PET/CT scan led to a sensitivity (correctly predicting CB) of 84% and a specificity (correctly predicting No-CB) of 100%. This cut-off was lower for lesions with larger functional diameters (three new lesions larger than 1.0 cm and two new lesions larger than 1.5 cm). SUV changes after therapy did not correlate with clinical response. Based on these findings, we developed criteria for predicting clinical response to immunotherapy by means of 18F-FDG PET/CT (PET Response Evaluation Criteria for Immunotherapy, PERCIMT). Our results show that a cut-off of four newly emerged 18F-FDG-avid lesions on posttherapy PET/CT gives a reliable indication of treatment failure in patients under ipilimumab treatment. Moreover, the functional size of the new lesions plays an important role in predicting the clinical

  3. Crash compatibility between cars and light trucks: benefits of lowering front-end energy-absorbing structure in SUVs and pickups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bryan C; Nolan, Joseph M; O'Neill, Brian; Genetos, Alexander P

    2008-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are designed to absorb crash energy in frontal crashes through deformation or crush of energy-absorbing structures forward of the occupant compartment. In collisions between cars and light trucks (i.e., pickups and SUVs), however, the capacity of energy-absorption structures may not be fully utilized because mismatches often exist between the heights of these structures in the colliding vehicles. In 2003 automakers voluntarily committed to new design standards aimed at reducing the height mismatches between cars and light trucks. By September 2009 all new light trucks will have either the primary front structure (typically the frame rails) or a secondary structure connected to the primary structure low enough to interact with the primary structures in cars, which for most cars is about the height of the front bumper. To estimate the overall benefit of the voluntary commitment, the real-world crash experience of light trucks already meeting the height-matching criteria was compared with that of light trucks not meeting the criteria for 2000-2003 model light trucks in collisions with passenger cars during calendar years 2001-2004. The estimated benefits of lower front energy-absorbing structure were a 19 percent reduction (pcar drivers in front-to-front crashes with light trucks and a 19 percent reduction (pcar drivers in front-to-driver-side crashes with light trucks.

  4. {sup 18}F-alfatide PET/CT may predict short-term outcome of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Xiaohui [Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jinan, Shandong (China); University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan (China); Huang, Yong; Sun, Xiaorong; Ma, Li; Teng, Xuepeng; Lu, Hong [Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Jinan, Shandong (China); Gao, Song [Jining Infectious Diseases Hospital, Department of Oncology, Jining, Shandong (China); Wang, Suzhen; Yu, Jinming; Yuan, Shuanghu [Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2016-12-15

    The study aims to investigate the role of {sup 18}F-alfatide positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in predicting the short-term outcome of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eighteen patients with advanced NSCLC had undergone {sup 18}F-alfatide PET/CT scans before CCRT and PET/CT parameters including maximum and mean standard uptake values (SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub mean}), peak standard uptake values (SUV{sub peak}) and tumor volume (TV{sub PET} and TV{sub CT}) were obtained. The SUV{sub max} of tumor and normal tissues (lung, blood pool and muscle) were measured, and their ratios were denoted as T/NT (T/NT{sub lung}, T/NT{sub blood} and T/NT{sub muscle}). Statistical methods included the Two-example t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and logistic regression analyses. We found that SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, T/NT{sub lung}, T/NT{sub blood} and T/NT{sub muscle} were higher in non-responders than in responders (P = 0.0024, P = 0.016, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.004). According to ROC curve analysis, the thresholds of SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, T/NT{sub lung}, T/NT{sub blood} and T/NT{sub muscle} were 5.65, 4.46, 7.11, 5.41, and 11.75, respectively. The five parameters had high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in distinguishing non-responders and responders. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that T/NT{sub lung} was an independent predictor of the short-term outcome of CCRT in patients with advanced NSCLC (P = 0.032). {sup 18}F-alfatide PET/CT may be useful in predicting the short-term outcome of CCRT in patients with advanced NSCLC. (orig.)

  5. A prospective analysis of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with uveal melanoma: comparison between metabolic rate of glucose (MRglu) and standardized uptake value (SUV) and correlations with histopathological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Mattoli, Maria Vittoria; Rufini, Vittoria; Giordano, Alessandro [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Roma (Italy); Blasi, Maria Antonietta; Sammarco, Maria Grazia [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Ophthalmology, Roma (Italy); Petrone, Gianluigi; Mule, Antonino [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Department of Pathology, Roma (Italy); Indovina, Luca [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Physics Unit, Roma (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    To evaluate whether standardized uptake value (SUV) and/or metabolic rate of glucose (MRglu) are different among epithelioid, mixed, and spindle cell uveal melanomas, as well as between low and high risk melanomas; to correlate ultrasonographic data and metabolic parameters with histopathological features; and to assess the role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for evaluating prognosis. Of 34 eligible patients prospectively enrolled with clinical suspicion of medium/large uveal melanoma, 26 (15 men, mean age 62.8 {+-} 11.8 years) were evaluated. All patients underwent metastatic work-up, 3-D dynamic brain and whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and surgery. Of the 26 ocular lesions, 23 showed {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, with a sensitivity of 88 %. MRglu was significantly higher in the epithelioid cell melanomas than in the spindle cell melanomas, as well as in high-risk lesions than in low-risk lesions (p = 0.01, p = 0.02, respectively). SUV and MRglu were correlated with histopathological features while ultrasonographic data were not. MRglu is useful for distinguishing the different cell types in uveal melanoma, as well as high-risk from low-risk lesions, while SUV is not. MRglu provides a more accurate evaluation of glucose consumption, whereas SUV provides only an estimation. In addition, the metabolic parameters correlate with histopathological features, well also reflecting cellular behaviour in ocular malignancy. A longer follow-up is needed to assess the role of {sup 18}F-FDG in evaluating prognosis. (orig.)

  6. MED SUV TASK 6.3 Capacity building and interaction with decision makers: Improving volcanic risk communication through volcanic hazard tools evaluation, Campi Flegrei Caldera case study (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Rosella; Isaia, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Cristiani, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    In the communication chain between scientists and decision makers (end users), scientific outputs, as maps, are a fundamental source of information on hazards zoning and the related at risk areas definition. Anyway the relationship between volcanic phenomena, their probability and potential impact can be complex and the geospatial information not easily decoded or understood by not experts even if decision makers. Focusing on volcanic hazard the goal of MED SUV WP6 Task 3 is to improve the communication efficacy of scientific outputs, to contribute in filling the gap between scientists and decision-makers. Campi Flegrei caldera, in Neapolitan area has been chosen as the pilot research area where to apply an evaluation/validation procedure to provide a robust evaluation of the volcanic maps and its validation resulting from end users response. The selected sample involved are decision makers and officials from Campanian Region Civil Protection and municipalities included in Campi Flegrei RED ZONE, the area exposed to risk from to pyroclastic currents hazard. Semi-structured interviews, with a sample of decision makers and civil protection officials have been conducted to acquire both quantitative and qualitative data. The tested maps have been: the official Campi Flegrei Caldera RED ZONE map, three maps produced by overlapping the Red Zone limit on Orthophoto, DTM and Contour map, as well as other maps included a probabilistic one, showing volcanological data used to border the Red Zone. The outcomes' analysis have assessed level of respondents' understanding of content as displayed, and their needs in representing the complex information embedded in volcanic hazard. The final output has been the development of a leaflet as "guidelines" that can support decision makers and officials in understanding volcanic hazard and risk maps, and also in using them as a communication tool in information program for the population at risk. The same evaluation /validation process

  7. Tens of micron-sized unilamellar nanosheets of Y/Eu layered rare-earth hydroxide: efficient exfoliation via fast anion exchange and their self-assembly into oriented oxide film with enhanced photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Li, Ji-Guang; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Xudong; Qi, Yang; Zhu, Miaoyong; Sakka, Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    Layered rare-earth hydroxide (LRH) crystals of (Y0.95Eu0.05)2(OH)5NO3·nH2O with a lateral size of ˜ 300 μm and a thickness of ˜ 9 μm have been synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction of mixed nitrate solutions in the presence of mineralizer NH4NO3 at 200 °C for 24 h. LRH exhibits the ability to undergo intercalation and anion exchange with DS- (C12H25OSO3-) via hydrothermal treatment. Compared with traditional anion exchange at room temperature, hydrothermal processing not only shortens the anion exchange time from 720 to 24 h but also increases the basal spacing. The arrangements of DS- in the interlayer of LRH are significantly affected by the DS- concentration and reaction temperature, and the basal spacing of the LRH-DS sample in the crystal edge is assumed to be larger than that in the crystal center. A higher DS- concentration and reaction temperature both induce more intercalation of DS- anions into the interlayer gallery, thus yielding a larger basal spacing. Unilamellar nanosheets with a lateral size of ⩾60 μm and a thickness of ˜ 1.6 nm can be obtained by delaminating LRH-DS in formamide. The resultant unilamellar nanosheets are single crystalline. Transparent (Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3 phosphor films with a uniform [111] orientation and a layer thickness of ˜ 90 nm were constructed with the nanosheets as building blocks via spin-coating, followed by proper annealing. The oriented oxide film exhibits a strong red emission at 614 nm (the 5D0-7F2 transition of Eu3+), whose intensity is ˜ 2 times that of the powder form owing to the significant exposure of the (222) facets.

  8. Tens of micron-sized unilamellar nanosheets of Y/Eu layered rare-earth hydroxide: efficient exfoliation via fast anion exchange and their self-assembly into oriented oxide film with enhanced photoluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Layered rare-earth hydroxide (LRH crystals of (Y0.95Eu0.052(OH5NO3centerdotnH2O with a lateral size of ~ 300 μm and a thickness of ~ 9 μm have been synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction of mixed nitrate solutions in the presence of mineralizer NH4NO3 at 200 °C for 24 h. LRH exhibits the ability to undergo intercalation and anion exchange with DS− (C12H25OSO3− via hydrothermal treatment. Compared with traditional anion exchange at room temperature, hydrothermal processing not only shortens the anion exchange time from 720 to 24 h but also increases the basal spacing. The arrangements of DS− in the interlayer of LRH are significantly affected by the DS− concentration and reaction temperature, and the basal spacing of the LRH-DS sample in the crystal edge is assumed to be larger than that in the crystal center. A higher DS− concentration and reaction temperature both induce more intercalation of DS− anions into the interlayer gallery, thus yielding a larger basal spacing. Unilamellar nanosheets with a lateral size of ≥60 μm and a thickness of ~ 1.6 nm can be obtained by delaminating LRH-DS in formamide. The resultant unilamellar nanosheets are single crystalline. Transparent (Y0.95Eu0.052O3 phosphor films with a uniform [111] orientation and a layer thickness of ~ 90 nm were constructed with the nanosheets as building blocks via spin-coating, followed by proper annealing. The oriented oxide film exhibits a strong red emission at 614 nm (the 5D0–7F2 transition of Eu3+, whose intensity is ~ 2 times that of the powder form owing to the significant exposure of the (222 facets.

  9. Test-retest repeatability of quantitative cardiac 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine measurements in rats by small animal positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, James T; Renaud, Jennifer M; Kordos, Myra; Klein, Ran; Dekemp, Robert A; Beanlands, Rob S B; DaSilva, Jean N

    2013-07-01

    The norepinephrine analogue (11)C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) has been used to interrogate sympathetic neuronal reuptake in cardiovascular disease. Application for longitudinal studies in small animal models of disease necessitates an understanding of test-retest variability. This study evaluated the repeatability of multiple quantitative cardiac measurements of HED retention and washout and the pharmacological response to reuptake blockade and enhanced norepinephrine levels. Small animal PET images were acquired over 60 min following HED administration to healthy male Sprague Dawley rats. Paired test and retest scans were undertaken in individual animals over . Additional HED scans were conducted following administration of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine or continuous infusion of exogenous norepinephrine. HED retention was quantified by retention index, standardized uptake value (SUV), monoexponential and one-compartment washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Test retest variability was lower for retention index (15% ± 12%) and SUV (19% ± 15%) as compared to monoexponential washout rates (21% ± 13%). Desipramine pretreatment reduced myocardial HED retention index by 69% and SUV by 85%. Chase treatment with desipramine increased monoexponential HED washout by 197% compared to untreated controls. Norepinephrine infusion dose-dependently reduced HED accumulation, reflected by both retention index and SUV, with a corresponding increase in monoexponential washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine levels correlated with HED quantitative measurements. The repeatability of HED retention index, SUV, and monoexponential washout supports its suitability for longitudinal PET studies in rats. Uptake and washout of HED are sensitive to acute increases in norepinephrine concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of preparation technique on the properties and in vivo efficacy of benzocaine-loaded ethosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Gaetano; González-Rodríguez, Maria L; Rabasco, Antonio M; Ghelardini, Carla; Mura, Paola

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of the preparation conditions on the performance of an ethosomal formulation for topical delivery of the local anesthetic agent, benzocaine (BZC). Ethosomes were prepared with different techniques, such as thin-layer evaporation, freezing and thawing, reverse-phase evaporation, extrusion and sonication, obtaining, respectively, multilayer vesicles (MLVs), frozen and thawed MLV (FATMLV), large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), and small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs). The obtained vesicles were characterized for morphology, size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency (EE%), and their stability was monitored during storage at 4 degrees C. In vitro permeation properties from gels incorporating drug ethosomal dispersions were evaluated in vitro by using artificial lipophilic membranes, while their anesthetic effect was determined in vivo on rabbits. The results suggested that the vesicle preparation method plays an important role in affecting the properties and effectiveness of ethosomal formulations. MLVs and LUVs exhibited higher drug EE% and better stability than FATMLV and SUV vesicles. The In vitro drug permeation rate was directly related to the vesicle EE% and varied in the order MLV>LUV approximately FATMLV>SUV. The therapeutic efficacy of BZC ethosomal formulations was significantly improved with respect to the corresponding BZC solution. The best results, in terms of enhanced intensity of anesthetic effect, were given by formulations containing MLVs and LUVs, and the order of effectiveness was MLV approximately LUV>FATMLV approximately SUV, rather similar to that found in permeation studies. On the contrary, unexpectedly, the effectiveness order in increasing the duration of drug action was SUV> or =MLV>LUV approximately FATMLV. The highest efficacy of SUVs was probably due to the more intimate contact with the epithelium due to their greatest surface area, which allowed the longest extension of drug therapeutic

  11. TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES an active seismic and passive seismic experiment at Mt. Etna volcano. An integrated marine and onland geophysical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Jesus. M.; Patane, Domenico; Puglisi, Guisseppe; Zuccarello, Lucciano; Bianco, Francesca; Luehr, Birger; Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Prudencio, Janire; Koulakov, Ivan; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Cocina, Ornella; Coltelli, Mauro; Scarfi, Lucciano; De Gori, Pascuale; Carrion, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    An active seismic experiment to study the internal structure of Etna Volcano is going to carried out on Sicily and Aeolian islands. The main objective of the TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES experiment, beginning in summer 2014, is to perform a high resolution seismic tomography, in velocity and attenuation, in Southern Italy, by using active and passive seismic data, in an area encompassing outstanding volcanoes as Mt. Etna, and Aeolian volcanoes. The achievement of this objective is based on the integration and sharing of the in-situ marine and land experiments and observations and on the implementation of new instruments and monitoring systems. For the purpose, onshore and offshore seismic stations and passive and active seismic data generated both in marine and terrestrial environment will be used. Additionally, other geophysical data, mainly magnetic and gravimetric data will be considered to obtain a joint Upper Mantle-Crust structure that could permit to make progress in the understanding of the dynamic of the region. This multinational experiment which involves institutions from Spain, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Portugal, Russia, USA and Mexico. During the experiment more than 6.600 air gun shots performed by the Spanish Oceanographic vessel "Sarmiento de Gamboa" will be recorder on a dense local seismic network consisting of 100 on land non-permanent stations, 70 on land permanent stations and 20-25 OBSs. Contemporaneously other marine geophysical measures will be performed using a marine Gravimeter LaCoste&Romberg Air-Sea Gravity System II and a Marine Magnetometer SeaSPY. The experiments will provide a unique data set in terms of data quantity and quality, and it will provide a detailed velocity and attenuation structural image of volcano edifice. The results will be essential in the development and interpretation of future volcanic models. It is noteworthy that this project is fully transversal, multidisciplinary and crosses several

  12. The role of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake of bone marrow on PET/CT in predicting clinical outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won [Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, International St. Mary' s Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, International St. Mary' s Hospital, Institute for Integrative Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ki Hyun [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Seog [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Mi [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cheonan, Chungcheongnam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between bone marrow (BM) FDG uptake on PET/CT and serum inflammatory markers and to evaluate the prognostic value of BM FDG uptake for predicting clinical outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. One hundred and six NSCLC patients who underwent FDG PET/CT for staging work-up and received chemoradiotherapy were enrolled. Mean BM FDG uptake (BM SUV) and BM-to-liver uptake ratio (BLR) were measured, along with volumetric parameters of PET/CT. The relationship of BM SUV and BLR with hematologic parameters and serum inflammatory markers was evaluated. Prognostic values of BM SUV and BLR for predicting progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed. BM SUV and BLR were significantly correlated with white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level. On univariate analysis, BLR was a significant prognostic factor for both PFS and OS. On multivariate analysis, TNM stage and BLR were independent prognostic factors for PFS, and only TNM stage was an independent prognostic factor for OS. In NSCLC patients, FDG uptake of BM reflects the systemic inflammatory response and can be used as a biomarker to identify patients with poor prognosis. (orig.)

  13. In vitro and ex vivo delivery of tailored siRNA-nanoliposomes for E2F1 silencing as a potential therapy for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Sabrina; Dapas, Barbara; Russo, Ilaria; Ciacci, Carolina; Piazza, Ornella; De Smedt, Stefaan; Pottie, Eline; Barba, Anna Angela; Grassi, Gabriele

    2017-06-20

    Tailored developed nanoliposomes loaded with a siRNA against the transcription factor E2F1 (siE2F1), were produced and delivered to human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines and to intestinal human biopsies. siE2F1 loaded nanoliposomes were produced through a dedicated ultrasound assisted technique producing particles with about 40nm size (Small Unilamellar Vesicles, SUVs) and 100% siRNA encapsulation efficiency. Compared to other production methods, the one proposed here can easily produce particles in the nanometric scale by suitable ultrasonic duty cycle treatments. Furthermore, SUVs have a high degree of size homogeneity, a relevant feature for uniform delivery behaviour. siE2F1-loaded SUVs demonstrated a very low cytotoxicity in cells when compared to a commercial transfection agent. Moreover, SUVs loaded with siE2F1 were effective in the down regulation of the target in cultured colon carcinoma cells and in the consequent reduction of cell growth. Finally, a remarkable uptake and target silencing efficiencies were observed in cultured human biopsy of colonic mucosa. In conclusion, whereas further studies in more complex models are required, the siE2F1-SUVs generated have the potential to contribute to the development of novel effective inflammatory bowel diseases-associated colorectal cancer therapies for a future personalized medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 18F-FMT uptake seen within primary cancer on PET helps predict outcome of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaira, Kyoichi; Oriuchi, Noboru; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Tominaga, Hideyuki; Yanagitani, Noriko; Sunaga, Noriaki; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Mori, Masatomo; Endo, Keigo

    2009-11-01

    L-[3-(18)F]-alpha-methyl tyrosine ((18)F-FMT) is an amino-acid tracer for PET imaging. We evaluated the prognostic significance of (18)F-FMT PET in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Ninety-eight patients (80 men and 18 women; age range, 42-82 y; median age, 69 y) with stage I-IV non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled in this study. They included 57 with adenocarcinoma, 31 with squamous cell carcinoma, 5 with large cell carcinoma, and 5 with other conditions. The median follow-up duration was 17.0 mo. A pair of PET studies with (18)F-FMT and (18)F-FDG was performed, and tracer uptake by the primary tumor was evaluated using the maximal standardized uptake value (SUV(max)). Overall survival and disease-free survival were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic significance was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The best discriminative SUV(max) cutoffs for (18)F-FMT and (18)F-FDG in the primary tumors were 1.6 and 11, respectively. In the univariate analysis, a high SUV(max) was significant in predicting poor overall survival for (18)F-FMT (P = 0.0129) and (18)F-FDG PET (P = 0.0481). According to histologic types, (18)F-FMT and (18)F-FDG uptake were a stronger prognostic predictor in adenocarcinoma than in nonadenocarcinomatous disease. Patients with a high SUV(max) for (18)F-FMT showed significantly worse disease-free survival rates than those with a low SUV(max), and multivariate analysis confirmed that a high SUV(max) for (18)F-FMT was an independent and significant factor in predicting a poor prognosis in patients with adenocarcinoma (P = 0.0191). Uptake of (18)F-FMT in primary tumors was an independent prognostic factor in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  15. Enhancing Anticancer Effect of Gefitinib across the Blood–Brain Barrier Model Using Liposomes Modified with One α-Helical Cell-Penetrating Peptide or Glutathione and Tween 80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Hung Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI, such as gefitinib, have been demonstrated to effectively treat the patients of extracranial non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, these patients often develop brain metastasis (BM during their disease course. The major obstacle to treat BM is the limited penetration of anticancer drugs across the blood–brain barrier (BBB. In the present study, we utilized gefitinib-loaded liposomes with different modifications to improve gefitinib delivery across the in vitro BBB model of bEnd.3 cells. Gefitinib was encapsulated in small unilamellar liposomes modified with glutathione (GSH and Tween 80 (SUV-G+T; one ligand plus one surfactant or RF (SUV-RF; one α-helical cell-penetrating peptide. GSH, Tween 80, and RF were tested by the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay to find their non-cytotoxic concentrations on bEnd.3 cells. The enhancement on gefitinib across the BBB was evaluated by cytotoxicity assay on human lung adenocarcinoma PC9 cells under the bEnd.3 cells grown on the transwell inserts. Our findings showed that gefitinib incorporated in SUV-G+T or SUV-RF across the bEnd.3 cells significantly reduced the viability of PC9 cells more than that of free gefitinib. Furthermore, SUV-RF showed no cytotoxicity on bEnd.3 cells and did not affect the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER and transendothelial permeability of sodium fluorescein across the BBB model. Moreover, flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy were employed to evaluate the endocytosis pathways of SUV-RF. The results indicated that the uptake into bEnd.3 cells was mainly through adsorptive-mediated mechanism via electrostatic interaction and partially through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In conclusion, cell penetrating peptide-conjugated SUV-RF shed light on improving drug transport across the BBB via modulating the transcytosis pathway(s.

  16. Enhancing Anticancer Effect of Gefitinib across the Blood–Brain Barrier Model Using Liposomes Modified with One α-Helical Cell-Penetrating Peptide or Glutathione and Tween 80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Hong, Shu-Ting; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Lo, Yu-Li; Lin, Anya Maan-Yuh; Yang, James Chih-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as gefitinib, have been demonstrated to effectively treat the patients of extracranial non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, these patients often develop brain metastasis (BM) during their disease course. The major obstacle to treat BM is the limited penetration of anticancer drugs across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, we utilized gefitinib-loaded liposomes with different modifications to improve gefitinib delivery across the in vitro BBB model of bEnd.3 cells. Gefitinib was encapsulated in small unilamellar liposomes modified with glutathione (GSH) and Tween 80 (SUV-G+T; one ligand plus one surfactant) or RF (SUV-RF; one α-helical cell-penetrating peptide). GSH, Tween 80, and RF were tested by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay to find their non-cytotoxic concentrations on bEnd.3 cells. The enhancement on gefitinib across the BBB was evaluated by cytotoxicity assay on human lung adenocarcinoma PC9 cells under the bEnd.3 cells grown on the transwell inserts. Our findings showed that gefitinib incorporated in SUV-G+T or SUV-RF across the bEnd.3 cells significantly reduced the viability of PC9 cells more than that of free gefitinib. Furthermore, SUV-RF showed no cytotoxicity on bEnd.3 cells and did not affect the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and transendothelial permeability of sodium fluorescein across the BBB model. Moreover, flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy were employed to evaluate the endocytosis pathways of SUV-RF. The results indicated that the uptake into bEnd.3 cells was mainly through adsorptive-mediated mechanism via electrostatic interaction and partially through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In conclusion, cell penetrating peptide-conjugated SUV-RF shed light on improving drug transport across the BBB via modulating the transcytosis pathway(s). PMID:27916828

  17. Current knowledge on the sensitivity of the {sup 68}Ga-somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography and the SUV{sub max} reference range for management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgolini, Irene; Gabriel, Michael; Kroiss, Alexander; Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Prommegger, Rupert; Warwitz, Boris; Nilica, Bernhard; Roig, Ilanos Geraldo; Rodrigues, Margarida; Uprimny, Christian [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-10-15

    Physiologically increased pancreatic uptake at the head/uncinate process is observed in more than one-third of patients after injection of one of the three {sup 68}Ga-labelled octreotide-based peptides used for somatostatin (sst) receptor (r) imaging. There are minor differences between these {sup 68}Ga-sstr-binding peptides in the imaging setting. On {sup 68}Ga-sstr-imaging the physiological uptake can be diffuse or focal and usually remains stable over time. Differences in the maximal standardised uptake values (SUV{sub max}) reported for the normal pancreas as well as for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (PNET) lesions may be related to several factors, including (a) differences in the peptide binding affinities as well as differences in sstr subtype expression of pancreatic α- and β-cells, and heterogeneity / density of tumour cells, (b) differences in scanner resolution, image reconstruction techniques and acquisition protocols, (c) mostly retrospective study designs, (d) mixed patient populations, or (e) interference with medications such as treatment with long-acting sst analogues. The major limitation in most of the studies lies in the lack of histopathological confirmation of abnormal findings. There is a significant overlap between the calculated SUV{sub max}-values for physiological pancreas and PNET-lesions of the head/uncinate process that do not favour the use of quantitative parameters in the clinical setting. Anecdotal long-term follow-up studies have even indicated that increased uptake in the head/uncinate process still can turn out to be malignant over years of follow up. SUV{sub max}-data for the pancreatic body and tail are limited. Therefore, any visible focal tracer uptake in the pancreas must be considered as suspicious for malignancy irrespective of quantitative parameters. In general, sstr-PET/CT has significant implications for the management of NET patients leading to a change in treatment decision in about one-third of patients

  18. Small membranes under negative surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, Yotam Y; Farago, Oded

    2015-03-28

    We use computer simulations and a simple free energy model to study the response of a bilayer membrane to the application of a negative (compressive) mechanical tension. Such a tension destabilizes the long wavelength undulation modes of giant vesicles, but it can be sustained when small membranes and vesicles are considered. Our negative tension simulation results reveal two regimes-(i) a weak negative tension regime characterized by stretching-dominated elasticity and (ii) a strong negative tension regime featuring bending-dominated elastic behavior. This resembles the findings of the classic Evans and Rawicz micropipette aspiration experiment in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) [E. Evans and W. Rawicz, Phys, Rev. Lett. 64, 2094 (1990)]. However, in GUVs the crossover between the two elasticity regimes occurs at a small positive surface tension, while in smaller membranes it takes place at a moderate negative tension. Another interesting observation concerning the response of a small membrane to negative surface tension is related to the relationship between the mechanical and fluctuation tensions, which are equal to each other for non-negative values. When the tension decreases to negative values, the fluctuation tension γ drops somewhat faster than the mechanical tension τ in the small negative tension regime, before it saturates (and becomes larger than τ) for large negative tensions. The bending modulus exhibits an "opposite" trend. It remains almost unchanged in the stretching-dominated elastic regime, and decreases in the bending-dominated regime. Both the amplitudes of the thermal height undulations and the projected area variations diverge at the onset of mechanical instability.

  19. Análisis competitivo por parte de los fabricantes de automóviles y camionetas SUV mediante el Uso del Valor Percibido por el cliente como una herramienta para ese propósito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Baby Moreno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata del uso del Valor Percibido por el Cliente como herramienta para el análisis competitivo por parte de ensambladoras y concesionarios de Sports Utility Vehicles (SUV. Se muestra cómo se determinan la importancia relativa de los atributos que los compradores tienen en cuenta para evaluar el desempeño de un concesionario y la evaluación de desempeño de los principales proveedores de este tipo de vehículo. Posteriormente, se ilustra la manera como una marca visualiza su posición competitiva. También muestra la brecha entre los valores ideales esperados por el mercado y el valor percibido por el mercado, lo cual se constituye en un mapa de oportunidades para las firmas actualmente presentes en el mercado y para nuevos participantes.

  20. Dynamic {sup 11}C-methionine PET analysis has an additional value for differentiating malignant tumors from granulomas: an experimental study using small animal PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Songji; Zhao, Yan [Hokkaido University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Hokkaido University, Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji; Hatano, Toshiyuki [Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan); Yi, Min; Kohanawa, Masashi [Hokkaido University, Department of Advanced Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Magota, Keiichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Nishijima, Ken-ichi [Hokkaido University, Department of Molecular Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    We evaluated whether the dynamic profile of L-{sup 11}C-methionine ({sup 11}C-MET) may have an additional value in differentiating malignant tumors from granulomas in experimental rat models by small animal positron emission tomography (PET). Rhodococcus aurantiacus and allogenic rat C6 glioma cells were inoculated, respectively, into the right and left calf muscles to generate a rat model bearing both granulomas and tumors (n = 6). Ten days after the inoculations, dynamic {sup 11}C-MET PET was performed by small animal PET up to 120 min after injection of {sup 11}C-MET. The next day, after overnight fasting, the rats were injected with {sup 18}F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG), and dynamic {sup 18}F-FDG PET was performed up to 180 min. The time-activity curves, static images, and mean standardized uptake value (SUV) in the lesions were calculated. {sup 11}C-MET uptake in the granuloma showed a slow exponential clearance after an initial distribution, while the uptake in the tumor gradually increased with time. The dynamic pattern of {sup 11}C-MET uptake in the granuloma was significantly different from that in the tumor (p < 0.001). In the static analysis of {sup 11}C-MET, visual assessment and SUV analysis could not differentiate the tumor from the granuloma in all cases, although the mean SUV in the granuloma (1.48 {+-} 0.09) was significantly lower than that in the tumor (1.72 {+-} 0.18, p < 0.01). The dynamic patterns, static images, and mean SUVs of {sup 18}F-FDG in the granuloma were similar to those in the tumor (p = NS). Dynamic {sup 11}C-MET PET has an additional value for differentiating malignant tumors from granulomatous lesions, which deserves further elucidation in clinical settings. (orig.)

  1. Internalization of silica nanoparticles into fluid liposomes: formation of interesting hybrid colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Raphael; Kesselman, Ellina; Plostica, Tobias; Danino, Dganit; Gradzielski, Michael

    2014-11-10

    The formation of hybrid materials consisting of membrane-coated silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) concentrated within small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) is described. They are formed by a simple self-assembly process resulting from invagination of the SiNPs into the SUVs and subsequent vesicle fusion, thereby retaining an almost constant size. This process was followed under conditions where it proceeds slowly and could be analyzed in structural detail. The finally formed well-defined SiNP-filled vesicles are long-time stable hybrid colloids and their structure is conveniently controlled by the initial mixing ratio of SiNPs and vesicles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Tumor uptake of /sup 67/Ga-carrying liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogihara, Izumi; Kojima, Shuji; Kubodera, Akiko; Jay, M.

    1986-02-01

    The in vivo distribution, excretion, and tumor localization of liposome-encapsulated /sup 67/Ga in normal and Ehrlich tumor (solid form)-bearing mice were studied. In normal mice, multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) were taken up mainly be the liver and spleen, whereas small, unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) exhibited a broader tissue distribution. When /sup 67/Ga was encapsulated in MLVs or SUVs, the excretion of the radiotracer in the urine and feces was less than that observed for free tracer at 72 h after i.v. administration. In tumor-bearing mice, SUVs were formed to accumulate preferentially in tumors. The tumor uptake of neutral, positive, and negative SUVs was 10%-13% of the administered dose per gram of tumor tissue at 24 h after their injection. These values were about three times higher than those found for free /sup 67/Ga-nitrilotriacetic acid trisodium salt (NTA) or /sup 67/Ga-citrate. Significant differences in tumor uptake due to different surface charges of liposomes were not observed. Enhanced tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios were also observed at 24 h after injection. These results suggest that /sup 67/Ga-carrying liposomes may be a useful for tumor imaging.

  3. Small Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or

  4. FDG PET/CT as theranostic imaging in diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirienko, Margarita; Gallivanone, Francesca; Sollini, Martina; Veronesi, Giulia; Voulaz, Emanuele; Antunovic, Lidjia; Leonardi, Lorenzo; Testanera, Giorgio; Castiglioni, Isabella; Chiti, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    Objective of this work was to evaluate the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography features as theranostic imaging biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer. In a retrospective protocol, 31 stage I-III NSCLC patients were enrolled. Patients underwent FDG PET/CT for staging purposes before surgery and were followed for two years after surgery. PET images were quantitatively analyzed. For the primary lesion, metabolic tumour volume, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV), SUV corrected for partial volume effect, total lesion glycolysis, 14 histogram and four shape-and-size features were extracted as PET imaging features. PET features were correlated with histology and 2-year disease-free survival (DFS). Significant correlations were found between grading, T parameter, N status, pathological stage and different FDG PET features. Histogram-based features "energy" and "kurtosis" resulted to be predictive for DFS. The cut-off value identified for "kurtosis" was able to separate the adenocarcinoma patients with different outcomes. FDG PET features are able to characterize lung cancer lesions, suggesting the possibility of reliable "imaging biopsy", and have a predictive role in adenocarcinoma patients undergoing surgery.

  5. Intratumoral Metabolic Heterogeneity for Prediction of Disease Progression After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Inoperable Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Saeryung; Song, Hochun; Byun, Byung Hyun and others

    2014-03-15

    We evaluated the value of variable {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT parameters for the prediction of disease progression after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with inoperable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One hundred sixteen pretreatment FDG PET/CT scans of inoperable stage III NSCLC were retrospectively reviewed (stage IIIA: 51; stage IIIB: 65). The volume of interest was automatically drawn for each primary lung tumor, and PET parameters were assessed as follows: maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using the boundaries presenting SUV intensity exceeding 3.0, and the area under the curve of the cumulative SUV-volume histograms (AUC-CSH), which is known to reflect the tumor heterogeneity. Progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were compared with each PET and clinical parameters by univariate and multivariate survival analysis.In the ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff values of SUV{sub max}, MTV (cm{sup 3}), and AUC-CSH for prediction of PFS were determined as 21.5, 27.7, and 4,800, respectively. In univariate analysis, PFS was statistically significantly reduced in those with AUC-CSH<4,800 (p =0.004). In multivariate analysis, AUC-CSH and SUV{sub max} were statistically significant independent prognostic factors (HR 3.35, 95 % CI 1.79.6.28, p <0.001; HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09.0.70, p =0.008, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that AUC-CSH was the most significant independent prognostic factor for LRFS and DMFS (HR 3.27, 95 % CI 1.54.6.94, p =0.002; HR 2.79, 95 % CI 1.42.5.50, p =0.003). Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity of primary lung tumor in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can predict disease progression after CCRT in inoperable stage III NSCLC.

  6. Integration of {beta}-carotene molecules in small liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, Atanaska; Popova, Antoaneta, E-mail: andreeva@phys.uni-sofia.b

    2010-11-01

    The most typical feature of carotenoids is the long polyene chain with conjugated double bonds suggesting that they can serve as conductors of electrons, acting as 'molecular wires', important elements in the molecular electronic devices. Carotenoids are essential components of photosynthetic systems, performing different functions as light harvesting, photoprotection and electron transfer. They act also as natural antioxidants. In addition they perform structural role stabilizing the three-dimensional organization of photosynthetic membranes. Carotenoids contribute to the stability of the lipid phase, preserving the membrane integrity under potentially harmful environmental conditions. Carotenoids can be easily integrated into model membranes, facilitating the investigation of their functional roles. In carotenoid-egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) liposomes ss-carotene is randomly distributed in the hydrocarbon interior of the bilayer, without any preferred, well defined orientation and retains a substantial degree of mobility. Here we investigate the degree of integration of ss-carotene in small unilamellar EPC liposomes and the changes in ss-carotene absorption and Raman spectra due to the lipid-pigment interaction. All observed changes in ss-carotene absorption and Raman spectra may be regarded as a result of the lipid-pigment interactions leading to the polyene geometry distortion and increasing of the environment heterogenety in the liposomes as compared to the solutions.

  7. Small Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Walter

    Recommendations from the first annual Utah Small Schools Conference resulted in several specific actions. After studying certification requirements to determine if greater flexibility could be attained to remedy some of the restrictive rules that burdened small schools, the Utah State Board made it possible to move administrators and supervisors…

  8. Small game

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    Although small game currently is not harvested on the Savannah river Site(SRS) soutside of the Crackerneck Wildlife Management area and logical Reserve (CWMA), several species of small game occur on SRS. these include snipe (Gallinago gallinago), American woodcock (Scolopax minor), morning dove (Zenaida macroura...

  9. Adam Small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    oudste dogter (MOOC 29304). Jan Small (vroeër: Jan Dampies) het ek as Oupa Jan geken en Fatimah was vir my Ouma Tiema. Uncle erken ruiterlik sy ma se sterk invloed op sy verbeelding en lewensbenadering, soos hy dit ietwat enigmaties gestel het: 'My skryfwerk lê iewers.' In sy huldeblyk,. “Onaf gedig”, wat hy tydens ...

  10. Antimicrobial activity and interactions of cationic peptides derived from Galleria mellonella cecropin D-like peptide with model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate-Garzón, José; Manrique-Moreno, Marcela; Trier, Steven; Leidy, Chad; Torres, Rodrigo; Patiño, Edwin

    2017-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are effector molecules of the innate immune system against invading pathogens. The cationic charge in their structures has a strong correlation with antimicrobial activity, being responsible for the initial electrostatic interaction between peptides and the anionic microbial surface. This paper contains evidence that charge modification in the neutral peptide Gm cecropin D-like (WT) improved the antimicrobial activity of the modified peptides. Two cationic peptides derived from WT sequence named as ΔM1 and ΔM2, with net charge of +5 and +9, respectively, showed at least an eightfold increase in their antimicrobial activity in comparison to WT. The mechanism of action of these peptides was investigated using small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) as model membranes. To study permeabilization effects of the peptides on cell membranes, entrapped calcein liposomes were used and the results showed that all peptides induced calcein release from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) SUVs, whereas in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), POPC/POPG and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE)/POPG SUVs, only ΔM1 and ΔM2 induced a notable permeabilization. In addition, interactions of these peptides with phospholipids at the level of the glycerol backbone and hydrophobic domain were studied through observed changes in generalized polarization and fluorescence anisotropy using probes such as Laurdan and DPH, respectively. The results suggest that peptides slightly ordered the bilayer structure at the level of glycerol backbone and on the hydrophobic core in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) SUVs, whereas in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/DMPG SUVs, only ΔM1 and ΔM2 peptides increased the order of bilayers. Thus, peptides would be inducing clustering of phospholipids creating phospholipid domains with a higher phase transition temperature.

  11. SNARE-mediated Fusion of Single Proteoliposomes with Tethered Supported Bilayers in a Microfluidic Flow Cell Monitored by Polarized TIRF Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus, Joerg; Karatekin, Erdem

    2016-08-24

    In the ubiquitous process of membrane fusion the opening of a fusion pore establishes the first connection between two formerly separate compartments. During neurotransmitter or hormone release via exocytosis, the fusion pore can transiently open and close repeatedly, regulating cargo release kinetics. Pore dynamics also determine the mode of vesicle recycling; irreversible resealing results in transient, "kiss-and-run" fusion, whereas dilation leads to full fusion. To better understand what factors govern pore dynamics, we developed an assay to monitor membrane fusion using polarized total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy with single molecule sensitivity and ~15 msec time resolution in a biochemically well-defined in vitro system. Fusion of fluorescently labeled small unilamellar vesicles containing v-SNARE proteins (v-SUVs) with a planar bilayer bearing t-SNAREs, supported on a soft polymer cushion (t-SBL, t-supported bilayer), is monitored. The assay uses microfluidic flow channels that ensure minimal sample consumption while supplying a constant density of SUVs. Exploiting the rapid signal enhancement upon transfer of lipid labels from the SUV to the SBL during fusion, kinetics of lipid dye transfer is monitored. The sensitivity of TIRF microscopy allows tracking single fluorescent lipid labels, from which lipid diffusivity and SUV size can be deduced for every fusion event. Lipid dye release times can be much longer than expected for unimpeded passage through permanently open pores. Using a model that assumes retardation of lipid release is due to pore flickering, a pore "openness", the fraction of time the pore remains open during fusion, can be estimated. A soluble marker can be encapsulated in the SUVs for simultaneous monitoring of lipid and soluble cargo release. Such measurements indicate some pores may reseal after losing a fraction of the soluble cargo.

  12. Global small-angle X-ray scattering data analysis for multilamellar vesicles: the evolution of the scattering density profile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heftberger, Peter; Kollmitzer, Benjamin; Heberle, Frederick A; Pan, Jianjun; Rappolt, Michael; Amenitsch, Heinz; Kučerka, Norbert; Katsaras, John; Pabst, Georg

    2014-02-01

    The highly successful scattering density profile (SDP) model, used to jointly analyze small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data from unilamellar vesicles, has been adapted for use with data from fully hydrated, liquid crystalline multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). Using a genetic algorithm, this new method is capable of providing high-resolution structural information, as well as determining bilayer elastic bending fluctuations from standalone X-ray data. Structural parameters such as bilayer thickness and area per lipid were determined for a series of saturated and unsaturated lipids, as well as binary mixtures with cholesterol. The results are in good agreement with previously reported SDP data, which used both neutron and X-ray data. The inclusion of deuterated and non-deuterated MLV neutron data in the analysis improved the lipid backbone information but did not improve, within experimental error, the structural data regarding bilayer thickness and area per lipid.

  13. Anesthesia condition for {sup 18}F-FDG imaging of lung metastasis tumors using small animal PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sang-Keun; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, June-Youp; Jung, Jae Ho; Kang, Joo Hyun [Division of Nuclear Medicine and RI Application, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Gi Jeong [Division of Nuclear Medicine and RI Application, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: larry@kcch.re.kr; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Division of Nuclear Medicine and RI Application, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 18}F-FDG has been increasingly used for tumor imaging in the murine model. The aim of this study was to establish the anesthesia condition for imaging of lung metastasis tumor using small animal {sup 18}F-FDG PET. Methods: To determine the impact of anesthesia on {sup 18}F-FDG distribution in normal mice, five groups were studied under the following conditions: no anesthesia, ketamine and xylazine (Ke/Xy), 0.5% isoflurane (Iso 0.5), 1% isoflurane (Iso 1) and 2% isoflurane (Iso 2). The ex vivo counting, standard uptake value (SUV) image and glucose SUV of {sup 18}F-FDG in various tissues were evaluated. The {sup 18}F-FDG images in the lung metastasis tumor model were obtained under no anesthesia, Ke/Xy and Iso 0.5, and registered with CT image to clarify the tumor region. Results: Blood glucose concentration and muscle uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in the Ke/Xy group markedly increased more than in the other groups. The Iso 2 group increased {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in heart compared with the other groups. The Iso 0.5 anesthesized group showed the lowest {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in heart and chest wall. The small size of lung metastasis tumor (2 mm) was clearly visualized by {sup 18}F-FDG image with the Iso 0.5 anesthesia. Conclusion: Small animal {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging with Iso 0.5 anesthesia was appropriate for the detection of lung metastasis tumor. To acquire {sup 18}F-FDG PET images with small animal PET, the type and level of anesthetic should be carefully considered to be suitable for the visualization of target tissue in the experimental model.

  14. Spectrin-like Repeats 11–15 of Human Dystrophin Show Adaptations to a Lipidic Environment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Joe; Hubert, Jean-François; Legrand, Baptiste; Robert, Estelle; Chéron, Angélique; Jardin, Julien; Hitti, Eric; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Vié, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Dystrophin is essential to skeletal muscle function and confers resistance to the sarcolemma by interacting with cytoskeleton and membrane. In the present work, we characterized the behavior of dystrophin 11–15 (DYS R11–15), five spectrin-like repeats from the central domain of human dystrophin, with lipids. DYS R11–15 displays an amphiphilic character at the liquid/air interface while maintaining its secondary α-helical structure. The interaction of DYS R11–15 with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) depends on the lipid nature, which is not the case with large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). In addition, switching from anionic SUVs to anionic LUVs suggests the lipid packing as a crucial factor for the interaction of protein and lipid. The monolayer model and the modulation of surface pressure aim to mimic the muscle at work (i.e. dynamic changes of muscle membrane during contraction and relaxation) (high and low surface pressure). Strikingly, the lateral pressure modifies the protein organization. Increasing the lateral pressure leads the proteins to be organized in a regular network. Nevertheless, a different protein conformation after its binding to monolayer is revealed by trypsin proteolysis. Label-free quantification by nano-LC/MS/MS allowed identification of the helices in repeats 12 and 13 involved in the interaction with anionic SUVs. These results, combined with our previous studies, indicate that DYS R11–15 constitutes the only part of dystrophin that interacts with anionic as well as zwitterionic lipids and adapts its interaction and organization depending on lipid packing and lipid nature. We provide strong experimental evidence for a physiological role of the central domain of dystrophin in sarcolemma scaffolding through modulation of lipid-protein interactions. PMID:21712383

  15. Prediction of radiotherapy effect in patients with non-small cell lung cancer by Tc-99m hypoxic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Chun; Ahn, S. J.; Bom, H. S.; Heo, Y. J. [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S. M. [Chugnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C. K. [Wongkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Hypoxia predicts poor response to radiation therapy. This study aimed to compare Tc-99m-EC-metronidazole (Tc-MN) uptake with F-18 FDG uptake in tumors and predict the therapeutic response to radiation therapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Eight patients with non-small cell lung cancer underwent Tc-MN SPECT (20 mCi) and F-18 FDG PET (15.4 {+-}2.6 mCi) before the initiation of radiation therapy. Tumor-to-contralateral normal lung uptake ratios of MN and FDG and standardized uptake value (SUV) were on Tc-MN SPECT and F-18 FDG images. Response to therapy was assessed on follow-up chest CT and F-18 FDG PET after completion of radiation therapy. FDG and MN uptakes were found in all lung cancer. FDG SUV widely ranged from 9.9 to 53.5 (mean {+-} S.D: 23.3 {+-} 15.4), and tumor-to-contralateral normal lung uptake ratios of FDG were ranged from to 7.68 to 1.04 (mean {+-} S.D:14.59 {+-} 4.75). Tumor-to-contralateral normal lung uptake ratios of MN were ranged from to 2.28 to 4.41 (mean {+-} S.D: 3.45 {+-} 0.87). There was no significant correlation of NM with SUV and tumor-to-normal uptake ratios of FDG (r = -0.257, p =0.623; r = -0.143, p =0.787, respectively). One patent died during radiation therapy, and other 7 patients completed radiation therapy. Four patients showed partial response to radiation therapy, 3 patients complete remission. Tc-MN uptakes were variable and not significantly correlated with therapy response. However, its uptakes were lower in non-small cell lung cancer patients with good response to radiation therapy. Tc-MN could be available in the detection of intratumoral hypoxic tissues before radiation therapy and SPECT with Tc-MN may become useful in prediction of the prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

  16. Quercetin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate effect on the anisotropy of model membranes with cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Diana; Margină, Denisa; Ilie, Mihaela; Iftime, Adrian; Ganea, Constanţa

    2013-11-01

    Cell membrane fluidity, which can be altered by oxidative stress, plays an important role in the cell physiology. Flavonoids are among the most studied food substances that prevent and/or reduce oxidative stress, but their action mechanisms are far from being understood. We performed a study on the effect of quercetin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate on 2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) with different amounts of cholesterol, using Laurdan as a fluorescent probe, to put into evidence the perturbations of the phospholipid membrane fluidity and local lipid order in an attempt to decipher the action mechanism of the flavonoids at the cell membrane level. Results indicate that polyphenols modulate the transition from the gel phase to the liquid crystalline phase of SUVs in all studied membranes. SUVs with cholesterol have by themselves higher phase transition temperature and the presence of polyphenols stabilizes further the membrane. Quercetin has a dose-dependent effect on the fluidity and local order of the lipid membranes, whilst epigallocatechin-3-gallate action is not dose-dependent, the differences being attributable to the hydrophobic/hydrophilic character of the substances. The findings are discussed within the frame of earlier reports on the effect of polyphenols on artificial membranes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vivo Stability of Ester- and Ether-Linked Phospholipid-Containing Liposomes as Measured by Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, Johannes T.; Baldeschwieler, John D.; Scherphof, Gerrit L.

    1988-12-01

    To evaluate liposome formulations for use as intracellular sustained-release drug depots, we have compared the uptake and degradation in rat liver and spleen of liposomes of various compositions, containing as their bulk phospholipid an ether-linked phospholipid or one of several ester-linked phospholipids, by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy. Multilamellar and small unilamellar vesicles (MLVs and SUVs), composed of egg phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or its analog dihexadecylglycerophosphorylcholine (DHPC), and cholesterol plus phosphatidylserine, and containing 111In complexed to nitrilotriacetic acid, were injected intravenously in rats. Recovery of 111In-labeled liposomes in blood, liver, and spleen was assessed at specific time points after injection and the percentage of liposomes still intact in liver and spleen was determined by measurement of the time-integrated angular perturbation factor 111In of the [G22(∞ )] label. We found that MLVs but not SUVs, having DHPC as their bulk phospholipid, showed an increased resistance against lysosomal degradation as compared to other phospholipid-containing liposomes. The use of diacyl phospholipids with a high gel/liquid-crystalline phase-transition temperature, such as DPPC and DSPC, also retarded degradation of MLV, but not of SUV in the dose range tested, while the rate of uptake of these liposomes by the liver was lower.

  18. Serial assessment of FDG-PET FDG uptake and functional volume during radiotherapy (RT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edet-Sanson, Agathe; Dubray, Bernard; Doyeux, Kaya; Back, Adeline; Hapdey, Sebastien; Modzelewski, Romain; Bohn, Pierre; Gardin, Isabelle; Vera, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    The objectives were (i) to confirm that diagnostic FDG-PET images could be obtained during thoracic radiotherapy, (ii) to verify that significant changes in FDG uptake or volume could be measured early enough to adapt the radiotherapy plan and (iii) to determine an optimal time window during the radiotherapy course to acquire a single FDG-PET examination that would be representative of tumour response. Ten non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients with significant PET/CT-FDG tumour radioactivity uptake (versus the background level), candidates for curative radiotherapy (RT, n=4; 60-70 Gy, 2 Gray per fraction, 5 fractions per week) or RT plus chemotherapy (CT-RT, n=6), were prospectively evaluated. Using a Siemens Biograph, 5 or 6 PET/CT scans (PET(n), n=0-5) were performed for each patient. Each acquisition included a 15-min thoracic PET with respiratory gating (RG) 60±5 min post-injection of the FDG (3.5 MBq/kg), followed by a standard, 5-min non-gated (STD) thoracic PET. PET(0) was performed before the first RT fraction. During RT, PET(1-5) were performed every 7 fractions, i.e., at 14 Gy total dose increment. FDG uptake was measured as the variation of SUV(max,PETn) versus SUV(max,PET0). Each lesions' volume was measured by (i) visual delineation by an experienced nuclear physician, (ii) 40% SUV(max) fixed threshold and (iii) a semi-automatic adaptive threshold method. A total of 53 FDG-PET scans were acquired. Seventeen lesions (6 tumours and 11 nodes) were visible on PET(0) in the 10 patients. The lesions were located either in or near the mediastinum or in the apex, without significant respiratory displacements at visual inspection of the gated images. Healthy lung did not cause motion artefacts in the PET images. As measured on 89 lesions, both the absolute and relative SUV(max) values decreased as the RT dose increased. A 50% SUV(max) decrease was obtained around a total dose of 45 Gy. Out of the 89 lesions, 75 remained visually identifiable during

  19. Small Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette

    2018-01-01

    The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guid...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...... the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles...

  20. Small talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Przybylski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The poem Small talk conjures up a communicative situation in which the main character, a newcomer from Poland, answers conventional questions related to their country. Bearing in mind the fact that this poem is set during a military dictatorship, superficial interest in his homeland may trigger a feeling of impatience. This is at least the impression formed if we adopt the perspective defined within the romantic tradition, and when taking into account the conventional poetry of martial law in Poland. Nevertheless, Barańczak retains an ironic distance towards such communicative situations and, as a consequence, does not create poetry that meets most readersʼ expectations. His poetic imperative for verbal art to be the expression of mistrust remains valid.

  1. Hybrid [¹⁸F]-FDG PET/MRI including non-Gaussian diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI): preliminary results in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusch, Philipp; Köhler, Jens; Wittsack, Hans-Joerg; Heusner, Till A; Buchbender, Christian; Poeppel, Thorsten D; Nensa, Felix; Wetter, Axel; Gauler, Thomas; Hartung, Verena; Lanzman, Rotem S

    2013-11-01

    To assess the feasibility of non-Gaussian DWI as part of a FDG-PET/MRI protocol in patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer. 15 consecutive patients with histologically proven NSCLC (mean age 61 ± 11 years) were included in this study and underwent whole-body FDG-PET/MRI following whole-body FDG-PET/CT. As part of the whole-body FDG-PET/MRI protocol, an EPI-sequence with 5 b-values (0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 s/mm(2)) was acquired for DWI of the thorax during free-breathing. Volume of interest (VOI) measurements were performed to determine the maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUV(max); SUV(mean)). A region of interest (ROI) was manually drawn around the tumor on b=0 images and then transferred to the corresponding parameter maps to assess ADC(mono), D(app) and K(app). To assess the goodness of the mathematical fit R(2) was calculated for monoexponential and non-Gaussian analysis. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare SUV values and diffusion coefficients. A Student's t-test was performed to compare the monoexponential and non-Gaussian diffusion fitting (R(2)). T staging was equal between FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MRI in 12 of 15 patients. For NSCLC, mean ADC(mono) was 2.11 ± 1.24 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, Dapp was 2.46 ± 1.29 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s and mean Kapp was 0.70 ± 0.21. The non-Gaussian diffusion analysis (R(2)=0.98) provided a significantly better mathematical fitting to the DWI signal decay than the monoexponetial analysis (R(2)=0.96) (pGaussian diffusion acquisitions are feasible. Non-Gaussian diffusion parameters show a good correlation with SUV and might provide additional information beyond monoexponential ADC, especially as non-Gaussian diffusion exhibits better mathematical fitting to the decay of the diffusion signal than monoexponential DWI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SU-C-202-04: Adapting Biologically Optimized Dose Escalation Based On Mid-Treatment PET/CT for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P; Kuo, L; Yorke, E; Hu, Y; Lockney, N; Mageras, G; Deasy, J; Rimner, A [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a biological modeling strategy which incorporates the response observed on the mid-treatment PET/CT into a dose escalation design for adaptive radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer. Method: FDG-PET/CT was acquired midway through standard fractionated treatment and registered to pre-treatment planning PET/CT to evaluate radiation response of lung cancer. Each mid-treatment PET voxel was assigned the median SUV inside a concentric 1cm-diameter sphere to account for registration and imaging uncertainties. For each voxel, the planned radiation dose, pre- and mid-treatment SUVs were used to parameterize the linear-quadratic model, which was then utilized to predict the SUV distribution after the full prescribed dose. Voxels with predicted post-treatment SUV≥2 were identified as the resistant target (response arm). An adaptive simultaneous integrated boost was designed to escalate dose to the resistant target as high as possible, while keeping prescription dose to the original target and lung toxicity intact. In contrast, an adaptive target volume was delineated based only on the intensity of mid-treatment PET/CT (intensity arm), and a similar adaptive boost plan was optimized. The dose escalation capability of the two approaches was compared. Result: Images of three patients were used in this planning study. For one patient, SUV prediction indicated complete response and no necessary dose escalation. For the other two, resistant targets defined in the response arm were multifocal, and on average accounted for 25% of the pre-treatment target, compared to 67% in the intensity arm. The smaller response arm targets led to a 6Gy higher mean target dose in the adaptive escalation design. Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that adaptive dose escalation to a biologically resistant target predicted from a pre- and mid-treatment PET/CT may be more effective than escalation based on the mid-treatment PET/CT alone. More plans and ultimately clinical

  3. {sup 18}F-FDG PET for the lymph node staging of non-small cell lung cancer in a tuberculosis-endemic country: Is dual time point imaging worth the effort?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Cheng, Mei-Fang; Wu, Yen-Wen [National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Chen, Ke-Cheng; Lee, Jang-Ming; Lee, Yung-Chie [National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Thoracic Section, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Chang, Yeun-Chung; Wang, Jane [National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China)

    2008-07-15

    This study was to compare {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) with thoracic contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) in the ability of lymph node (LN) staging non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a tuberculosis-prevalent country. The usefulness of dual time point PET imaging (DTPI) in NSCLC nodal staging was also evaluated. We reviewed 96 NSCLC patients (mean age, 65.3 {+-} 11.7 years) who had received PET studies before their surgery. DTPI were performed on 37 patients (mean age, 64.8 {+-} 12.2 years) who received an additional scan of thorax 3 h after tracer injection. The accuracies of nodal staging by CECT and PET were evaluated according to final histopathology of hilar and mediastinal LN resected by surgery. The accuracy for nodal staging by CECT was 65.6% and that by PET was 82.3% (p < 0.05). Six patients were over-staged and 11 were under-staged by PET. Tuberculosis (n = 3, 50%) were mostly responsible for false-positive, while small tumor foci (n = 7, 63.6%) were mostly accountable for false-negative. For the 37 patients with DTPI, 45 min standardized uptake value (SUV) and 3 h SUV for negative LNs are significantly lower than those for positive LNs (p < 0.0001). Nevertheless, the retention index (RI) showed no significant difference between these two groups. Our study demonstrates that PET is more accurate than CECT in LN staging NSCLC patients in Taiwan where TB is still prevalent. Semi-quantitative SUV method or DTPI with RI does not result in better diagnostic accuracy than visual analysis of PET images. (orig.)

  4. Comparative functional evaluation of immunocompetent mouse breast cancer models established from PyMT-tumors using small animal PET with [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilva, Alan; Wuest, Melinda; Wang, Monica; Hummel, Jeff; Mossman, Karen; Wuest, Frank; Hitt, Mary M

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows detection of functional changes in malignant tissue. Establishment of an immortalized immunocompetent breast cancer mouse model would provide a useful platform for the analysis of novel cancer treatment strategies. This study describes a comparative functional evaluation of murine breast cancer models established from polyoma virus middle T antigen (PyMT)-derived tumors using small animal PET imaging with [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT. Primary PyMT tumor-derived cells and a cell line derived from these tumors (MTHJ) were injected subcutaneously into immunocompetent FVB mice to generate breast cancer xenografts. Tumor growth rates were comparable in both models and tumors were analyzed after 4-5 weeks post-injection. [(18)F]FDG uptake in vitro followed a comparable trend in both models but reached higher uptake levels in primary PyMT cells vs. MTHJ cells after 120 min. At all time points, [(18)F]FLT uptake was significantly higher in MTHJ compared to primary PyMT cells. Dynamic small animal PET imaging with [(18)F]FDG revealed standardized uptake values (SUVs) of 2.5±0.1 (n=8) in tumors from primary cells and 2.8±0.4 (n=6) in MTHJ tumors after 60 min p.i.. The corresponding tumor-muscle-ratios were 9.3±1.5 and 10.4±0.9, respectively. Uptake of [(18)F]FLT resulted in slightly higher SUV(60min) in MTHJ tumors (1.1±0.1, n=6) compared to tumors from primary cells (SUV(60min)=0.9±0.05, n=8, p=0.07). The tumor-muscle-ratio was comparable in both tumors (2.1±0.2 and 1.8±0.1, respectively). The PET imaging data demonstrates that the functional profile of immunocompetent murine breast tumor model MTHJ remains the same as in primary-derived PyMT tumors in vivo. Metabolic and proliferative rates as assessed with [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT are comparable in both tumor models. The observed high SUV(60min) of 2.8±0.4 with [(18)F]FDG in MTHJ tumors allows one to monitor efficacy of therapeutic interventions connected with changes in

  5. FDG uptake at the bronchial stump after curative lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzer, Caroline; Corbusier, Florence; Kyratzi, Eirini; Sokolow, Youri; Gevenois, Pierre Alain; Goldman, Serge

    2016-05-01

    Focal areas of FDG uptake may occur at the bronchial stump following curative lobectomy for non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), even in the absence of suspicious CT changes. The purpose of our study was to investigate the significance of such PET/CT findings. FDG-PET/CT scans performed in 54 patients after lobectomy for NSCLC were reviewed. The presence of focal areas of FDG uptake at the bronchial stump, associated CT abnormalities, SUVmax, and normalized SUV (SUVnorm = SUVmax/mean liver SUV) were recorded. Final diagnosis was based on biopsy or imaging follow-up. Focal areas of FDG uptake at the bronchial stump were detected in 30 patients (56 %). Mean SUVmax was 4.0 ± 1.9 (range; 2.2-12.1) and mean SUVnorm was 1.8 ± 0.8 (range; 0.9-4.5). Biopsy showed recurrence in two patients. In these patients, SUVnorm was respectively 4.4 and 4.5 (with SUVmax of 8.8 and 12.1), whereas SUVnorm was lower than 4.0 in those without recurrence, with mean SUVnorm of 1.6 ± 0.5 (range; 0.9-3.4) and mean SUVmax of 3.6 ± 0.9 (range; 2.2-5.8). The CT component of the PET/CT revealed ill-defined peribronchial soft tissue opacity only in both patients with recurrence. FDG uptake at the bronchial stump is a frequent finding after pulmonary lobectomy. Moderate levels of FDG uptake (i.e., SUVnorm < 4.0) without corresponding abnormal CT findings might be a dual criterion for diagnosing benign post-surgical changes.

  6. FDG uptake at the bronchial stump after curative lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyzer, Caroline; Corbusier, Florence; Kyratzi, Eirini; Gevenois, Pierre Alain [Universite libre de Bruxelles, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium); Sokolow, Youri [Universite libre de Bruxelles, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium); Goldman, Serge [Universite libre de Bruxelles, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-05-15

    Focal areas of FDG uptake may occur at the bronchial stump following curative lobectomy for non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), even in the absence of suspicious CT changes. The purpose of our study was to investigate the significance of such PET/CT findings. FDG-PET/CT scans performed in 54 patients after lobectomy for NSCLC were reviewed. The presence of focal areas of FDG uptake at the bronchial stump, associated CT abnormalities, SUVmax, and normalized SUV (SUVnorm = SUVmax/mean liver SUV) were recorded. Final diagnosis was based on biopsy or imaging follow-up. Focal areas of FDG uptake at the bronchial stump were detected in 30 patients (56 %). Mean SUVmax was 4.0 ± 1.9 (range; 2.2-12.1) and mean SUVnorm was 1.8 ± 0.8 (range; 0.9-4.5). Biopsy showed recurrence in two patients. In these patients, SUVnorm was respectively 4.4 and 4.5 (with SUVmax of 8.8 and 12.1), whereas SUVnorm was lower than 4.0 in those without recurrence, with mean SUVnorm of 1.6 ± 0.5 (range; 0.9-3.4) and mean SUVmax of 3.6 ± 0.9 (range; 2.2-5.8). The CT component of the PET/CT revealed ill-defined peribronchial soft tissue opacity only in both patients with recurrence. FDG uptake at the bronchial stump is a frequent finding after pulmonary lobectomy. Moderate levels of FDG uptake (i.e., SUVnorm < 4.0) without corresponding abnormal CT findings might be a dual criterion for diagnosing benign post-surgical changes. (orig.)

  7. Using small-angle neutron scattering to detect nanoscopic lipid domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianjun; Heberle, Frederick A; Petruzielo, Robin S; Katsaras, John

    2013-01-01

    The cell plasma membrane is a complex system, which is thought to be capable of exhibiting non-random lateral organization. Studies of live cells and model membranes have yielded mechanisms responsible for the formation, growth, and maintenance of nanoscopic heterogeneities, although the existence and mechanisms that give rise to these heterogeneities remain controversial. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a tool ideally suited to interrogate lateral heterogeneity in model membranes, primarily due to its unique spatial resolution (i.e., ~5-100nm) and its ability to resolve structure with minimal perturbation to the membrane. In this review we examine several methods used to analyze the SANS signal arising from freely suspended unilamellar vesicles containing lateral heterogeneity. Specifically, we discuss an analytical model for a single, round domain on a spherical vesicle. We then discuss a numerical method that uses Monte Carlo simulation to describe systems with multiple domains and/or more complicated morphologies. Also discussed are several model-independent approaches that are sensitive to membrane heterogeneity. The review concludes with several recent applications of SANS to the study of membrane raft mixtures. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering to Detect Nanoscopic Lipid Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Petruzielo, Robin S [Cornell University; Katsaras, John [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The cell plasma membrane is a complex system, which is thought to be capable of exhibiting non-random lateral organization. Studies of live cells and model membranes have yielded mechanisms responsible for the formation, growth, and maintenance of nanoscopic heterogeneities, although the existence and mechanisms that give rise to these heterogeneities remain controversial. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a tool ideally suited to interrogate lateral heterogeneity in model membranes, primarily due to its unique spatial resolution (i.e., "5 100 nm) and its ability to resolve structure with minimal perturbation to the membrane. In this review we examine several methods used to analyze the SANS signal arising from freely suspended unilamellar vesicles containing lateral heterogeneity. Specifically, we discuss an analytical model for a single, round domain on a spherical vesicle. We then discuss a numerical method that uses Monte Carlo simulation to describe systems with multiple domains and/or more complicated morphologies. Also discussed are several model-independent approaches that are sensitive to membrane heterogeneity. The review concludes with several recent applications of SANS to the study of membrane raft mixtures.

  9. Small Business Development Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  10. A New Isolated Mediastinal Lymph Node or Small Pulmonary Nodule Arising during Breast Cancer Surveillance Following Curative Surgery: Clinical Factors That Differentiate Malignant from Benign Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Yong; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Han, Wonshik; Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Young Tae; Noh, Dong-Young; Ha, Sung Whan; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2014-07-01

    A newly isolated mediastinal lymph node (LN) or a small pulmonary nodule, which appears during breast cancer surveillance, may pose a diagnostic dilemma with regard to malignancy. We conducted this study to determine which clinical factors were useful for the differentiation of malignant lesions from benign lesions under these circumstances. We enrolled breast cancer patients who were presented with a new isolated mediastinal LN or small pulmonary nodule that arose during surveillance, and whose lesions were pathologically confirmed. Tissue diagnosis was made by mediastinoscopy, video-assisted thoracic surgery or thoracotomy. A total of 43 patients were enrolled (mediastinal LN, 13 patients; pulmonary nodule, 30 patients). Eighteen patients (41.9%) were pathologically confirmed to have a benign lesion (benign group), and 25 patients (58.1%) were confirmed to have malignant lesion (malignant group). Between the two groups, the initial tumor size (p=0.096) and N stage (p=0.749) were similar. Hormone receptor negativity was more prevalent in the malignant group (59.1% vs. 40.9%, p=0.048). The mean lesion size was larger in the malignant group than in the benign group (20.8 mm vs. 14.4 mm, p=0.024). Metastatic lesions had a significantly higher value of maximal standardized uptake (mSUV) than that of benign lesions (6.4 vs. 3.4, p=0.021). Hormone receptor status, lesion size, and mSUV on positron emission tomography are helpful in the differentiation of malignant lesions from benign lesions in breast cancer patients who were presented with a new isolated mediastinal LN or small pulmonary nodule during surveillance.

  11. Lipid exchange and transfer on nanoparticle supported lipid bilayers: effect of defects, ionic strength, and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazenovic, Jelena; Ahmed, Selver; Tuzinkiewicz, Nicole-Marie; Wunder, Stephanie L

    2015-01-20

    Lipid exchange/transfer has been compared for zwitterionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-d54-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and for the same lipids on silica (SiO2) nanoparticle supported lipid bilayers (NP-SLBs) as a function of ionic strength, temperature, temperature cycling, and NP size, above the main gel-to-liquid crystal phase transition temperature, Tm, using d- and h-DMPC and DPPC. Increasing ionic strength decreases the exchange kinetics for the SUVs, but more so for the NP-SLBs, due to better packing of the lipids and increased attraction between the lipid and support. When the NP-SLBs (or SUVs) are cycled above and below Tm, the exchange rate increases compared with exchange at the same temperature without cycling, for similar total times, suggesting that defects provide sites for more facile removal and thus exchange of lipids. Defects can occur: (i) at the phase boundaries between coexisting gel and fluid phases at Tm; (ii) in bare regions of exposed SiO2 that form during NP-SLB formation due to mismatched surface areas of lipid and NPs; and (iii) during cycling as the result of changes in area of the lipids at Tm and mismatched thermal expansion coefficient between the lipids and SiO2 support. Exchange rates are faster for NP-SLBs prepared with the nominal amount of lipid required to form a NP-SLB compared with NP-SLBs that have been prepared with excess lipids to minimize SiO2 patches. Nanosystems prepared with equimolar mixtures of NP-SLBs composed of d-DMPC (d(DMPC)-NP-SLB) and SUVs composed of h-DMPC (h(DMPC)-SUV) show that the calorimetric transition of the "donor" h(DMPC)-SUV decreases in intensity without an initial shift in Tm, indicating that the "acceptor" d(DMPC)-NP-SLB can accommodate more lipids, through either further fusion or insertion of lipids into the distal monolayer. Exchange for d/h(DMPC)-NP-SLB is in the order 100 nm SiO2 > 45 nm SiO2 > 5 nm SiO2.

  12. Mesoporous silica for drug delivery: Interactions with model fluorescent lipid vesicles and live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Munmun; Majumdar, Anupa; Jana, Sayantan; Ghosh, Tapas; Pal, Uttam; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Senapati, Dulal

    2018-01-01

    Formulated mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) systems offer the best possible drug delivery system through the release of drug molecules from the accessible pores. In the present investigation, steady state and time resolved fluorescence techniques along with the fluorescence imaging were applied to investigate the interactions of dye loaded MSN with fluorescent unilamellar vesicles and live cells. Here 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospocholine (DMPC) was used to prepare Small Unilamellar Vesicles (SUVs) as the model membrane with fluorescent 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) molecule incorporated inside the lipid bilayer. The interaction of DPH incorporated DMPC membrane with Fluorescein loaded MSN lead to the release of Fluorescein (Fl) dye from the interior pores of MSN systems. The extent of release of Fl and spatial distribution of the DPH molecule has been explored by monitoring steady-state fluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime at physiological condition. To investigate the fate of drug molecule released from MSN, fluorescence anisotropy has been used. The drug delivery efficiency of the MSN as a carrier for doxorubicin (DOX), a fluorescent chemotherapeutic drug, has also been investigated at physiological conditions. The study gives a definite confirmation for high uptake and steady release of DOX in primary oral mucosal non-keratinized squamous cells in comparison to naked DOX treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Small Business Size Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...

  14. Lipid lateral organization on giant unilamellar vesicles containing lipopolysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubiak, Jakub; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Hansen, Søren

    2011-01-01

    -Ra > LPS-Rc > LPS-Rd) were selected to generate GUVs composed of different LPS/E. coli polar lipid mixtures. Our procedure consists of two main steps: 1), generation and purification of oligolamellar liposomes containing LPSs; and 2), electroformation of GUVs using the LPS-containing oligolamellar vesicles...... the presence of elongated micrometer-sized lipid domains for GUVs containing either LPS-Rc or LPS-Rd above 10 mol %. Laurdan GP images confirm this finding and show that this particular lateral scenario corresponds to the coexistence of fluid disordered and gel (LPS-enriched)-like micron-sized domains......, in similarity to what is observed when LPS is replaced with lipid A. For LPSs containing the more bulky polar headgroup (i.e., LPS-smooth and LPS-Ra), an absence of micrometer-sized domains is observed for all LPS concentrations explored in the GUVs (up to ∼15 mol %). However, fluorescence correlation...

  15. Unilamellar Vesicle Formation and Encapsulation by Microfluidic Jetting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeanne C. Stachowiak; David L. Richmond; Thomas H. Li; Allen P. Liu; Sapun H. Parekh; Daniel A. Fletcher

    2008-01-01

    ...) using a pulsed microfluidic jet. Akin to blowing a bubble, the microfluidic jet deforms a planar lipid bilayer into a vesicle that is filled with solution from the jet and separates from the planar bilayer...

  16. FDG PET during radiochemotherapy is predictive of outcome at 1 year in non-small-cell lung cancer patients: a prospective multicentre study (RTEP2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, Pierre; Edet-Sanson, Agathe; Modzelewski, Romain [Henri Becquerel Center and QuantIF - Litis EA-Equipe d' Accueil-4108 and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Becquerel Cancer Center, Rouen (France); Mezzani-Saillard, Sandrine; Thureau, Sebastien; Dubray, Bernard [Henri Becquerel Center and QuantIF - Litis ' ' EA (Equipe d' Accueil) 4108' ' and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Henri Becquerel Cancer Center, Rouen (France); Menard, Jean-Francois [Rouen University Hospital and University of Rouen, Department of Biostatistics, Rouen (France); Meyer, Marc-Etienne [Amiens University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amiens (France); Jalali, Khadija [Amiens University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amiens (France); Bardet, Stephane [Francois Baclesse Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Lerouge, Delphine [Francois Baclesse Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Caen (France); Houzard, Claire [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lyon (France); Mornex, Francoise [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lyon (France); Olivier, Pierre [Brabois University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Faure, Guillaume [Centre prive de Radiotherapie de Metz, Department of Radiation Oncology, Metz (France); Rousseau, Caroline [Renee Gauducheau Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nantes (France); Mahe, Marc-Andre [Institut de Cancerologie-Rene Gauducheau, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nantes (France); Gomez, Philippe [Centre Frederic Joliot, Radiation Oncology, Rouen (France); Clinique Saint-Hilaire, Rouen (France); Brenot-Rossi, Isabelle [Institut Paoli Calmette, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marseille (France); Salem, Naji [Institut Paoli Calmette, Department of Radiation Oncology, Marseille (France)

    2014-06-15

    To assess prospectively the prognostic value of FDG PET/CT during curative-intent radiotherapy (RT) with or without concomitant chemotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with histological proof of invasive localized NSCLC and evaluable tumour, and who were candidates for curative-intent radiochemotherapy (RCT) or RT were preincluded after providing written informed consent. Definitive inclusion was conditional upon significant FDG uptake before RT (PET{sub 1}). All included patients had a FDG PET/CT scan during RT (PET{sub 2}, mean dose 43 Gy) and were evaluated by FDG PET/CT at 3 months and 1 year after RT. The main endpoint was death (from whatever cause) or tumour progression at 1 year. Of 77 patients preincluded, 52 were evaluable. Among the evaluable patients, 77 % received RT with induction chemotherapy and 73 % RT with concomitant chemotherapy. At 1 year, 40 patients (77 %) had died or had tumour progression. No statistically significant association was found between stage (IIIB vs. other), histology (squamous cell carcinoma vs. other), induction or concomitant chemotherapy, and death/tumour progression at 1 year. The SUV{sub max} in the PET{sub 2} scan was the single variable predictive of death or tumour progression at 1 year (odds ratio 1.97, 95 % CI 1.25 - 3.09, p = 0.003) in multivariate analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85 (95 % CI 0.73 - 0.94, p < 10{sup -4}). A SUV{sub max} value of 5.3 in the PET{sub 2} scan yielded a sensitivity of 70 % and a specificity of 92 % for predicting tumour progression or death at 1 year. This prospective multicentre study demonstrated the prognostic value in terms of disease-free survival of SUV{sub max} assessed during the 5th week of curative-intent RT or RCT in NSCLC patients (NCT01261598; RTEP2 study). (orig.)

  17. MO-DE-207B-01: JACK FOWLER JUNIOR INVESTIGATOR COMPETITION WINNER: Between Somatic Mutations and PET-Based Radiomic Features in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, S; Coroller, T; Rios Velazquez, E; Parmar, C; Mak, R; Aerts, H [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Kim, J [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Although PET-based radiomic features have been proposed to quantify tumor heterogeneity and shown promise in outcome prediction, little is known about their relationship with tumor genetics. This study assessed the association of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET-based radiomic features with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) mutations. Methods: 348 NSCLC patients underwent FDG-PET/CT scans before treatment and were tested for genetic mutations. 13% (44/348) and 28% (96/348) patients were found to harbor EGFR (EGFR+) and KRAS (KRAS+) mutations, respectively. We evaluated nineteen PET-based radiomic features quantifying phenotypic traits, and compared them with conventional PET features (metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and maximum-SUV). The association between the feature values and mutation status was evaluated using the Wilcoxcon-rank-sum-test. The ability of each measure to predict mutations was assessed by the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Noether’s test was used to determine if the AUCs were significantly from random (AUC=0.50). All p-values were corrected for multiple testing by controlling the false discovery rate (FDR{sub Wilcoxon} and FDR{sub Noether}) of 10%. Results: Eight radiomic features, MTV, and maximum-SUV, were significantly associated with the EGFR mutation (FDR{sub Wilcoxon}=0.01–0.10). However, KRAS+ demonstrated no significantly distinctive imaging features compared to KRAS− (FDR{sub Wilcoxon}≥0.92). EGFR+ and EGFR− were significantly discriminated by conventional PET features (AUC=0.61, FDR{sub Noether}=0.04 for MTV and AUC=0.64, FDR{sub Noether}=0.01 for maximum-SUV). Eight radiomic features were significantly predictive for EGFR+ compared to EGFR− (AUC=0.59–0.67, FDR{sub Noether}=0.0032–0.09). Normalized-inverse-difference-moment outperformed all features in predicting EGFR mutation (AUC=0.67, FDR{sub Noether}=0.0032). Moreover, only the radiomic feature normalized-inverse-difference-moment could

  18. A model derived from hydrodynamic simulations for extracting the size of spherical particles from the quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillissen, Jurriaan J J; Tabaei, Seyed R; Jackman, Joshua A; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2017-09-08

    One challenging aspect of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements is the characterization of adsorbed particles as the change in resonance frequency (Δf) is proportional not only to the inertia of the adsorbed layer but also to that of the hydrodynamically coupled fluid. Herein, by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equations, we scrutinize Δf for sparsely deposited, rigid spherical particles that are firmly attached to an oscillating surface. The analysis is shown to be applicable to adsorbed, small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) of controlled size under experimental conditions in which adhesion-induced vesicle deformation is negligible. The model supports a hydrodynamic explanation for the overtone dependence of Δf, and was fitted to experimental data concerning three monodisperse populations of SUVs with different average sizes ranging between 56 and 114 nm diameter. Using this procedure, we determined the average size of adsorbed vesicles to be within 16% of the size that was measured by dynamic light scattering experiments in bulk solution. In conclusion, this model offers a means to extract the particle size from QCM-D measurement data, with applications to biological and synthetic nanoparticles.

  19. Small-scale Biorefining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Ree, van R.

    2016-01-01

    One promising way to accelerate the market implementation of integrated biorefineries is to promote small (regional) biorefinery initiatives. Small-scale biorefineries require relatively low initial investments, and therefore are often lacking the financing problems that larger facilities face. They

  20. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  1. Small Wastewater Systems Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small communities face barriers to building and maintaining effective wastewater treatment services, challenges include financial/economic limitations, lack of managerial training and geographic isolation/remoteness.

  2. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carcinoma Small cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Secondhand smoke and lung cancer Normal lungs and alveoli Respiratory system Smoking hazards Bronchoscope References Horn L, Eisenberg R, ...

  3. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  4. Small Wind Information (Postcard)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative maintains a website section devoted to information about small wind turbines for homeowners, ranchers, and small businesses. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to this online resource.

  5. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  6. Small Business Tax Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Fatih; Coolidge, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Simplified tax regimes for micro and small enterprises in developing countries are intended to facilitate voluntary tax compliance. However, survey evidence suggests that small business taxation based on simplified bookkeeping or turnover is sometimes perceived as too complex for microenterprises in countries with high illiteracy levels. Very simple fixed tax regimes not requiring any book...

  7. Small Schools, Big Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Historically, small schools have played a very important role in the provision of schooling in Australia. Numerically, using an enrollment of 200 or less, small schools represent approximately 45% of the schools in Australia. Population growth and the consequences of this, in particular for food production, water and energy, mean that the…

  8. SmallSat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  9. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  10. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  11. Freezing small pelagic fish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, I

    1978-01-01

    This note gives advice on the handling and freezing of small pelagic fish, notably herring and mackerel, in quantity soon after capture, either on the fishing vessel or at the port processing plant...

  12. Small Satellite Transporter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  13. Small public private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    by the authorities, which recommend sizes over 13,5 million € (100 million DKr). PPP is here understood as Design, Build, Finance and Operate projects. The paper shows, when looking at Germany, Italy and United Kingdom, that small PPP (below 13,5 million €) are widespread in two investigated countries; United...... businesses and represent operable units for the clients and citizens. Cases are focused within education and healthcare. The analysis suggests that another type of economy apparently is in play. It is thus characteristic within education projects in UK that the largest portion of small PPPs are of a size...... Kingdom and Italy, whereas German projects are still emerging. Quantitative material on small PPP in Italy and UK shows no lower limit in size for these established PPPs. This apparent paradox is then qualitatively investigated. Only small projects are investigated, and these seem largely to be sound...

  14. The Power of Small

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 12. The Power of Small: Championing the Underdogs of Modern Medicine. Suvasini Ramaswamy Anirban Mitra. General Article Volume 20 Issue 12 December 2015 pp 1136-1153 ...

  15. Small Mammal Trapping 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Small mammal traps were placed in the Baring division and in the Edmunds division of Moosehom National Wildlife Refuge. There were a total of 98 traps set for up to...

  16. Small islands adrift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  17. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  18. Adam Small, Kanna en

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    This essay revisits Adam Small's best known play Kanna hy kô hystoe (“Kanna he comes home”, 1965) in order to evaluate its relevance for ... In hierdie artikel word Adam Small se drama Kanna hy kô hystoe (1965) vanuit 'n .... 90, 97, 102, 108) en Julian Smith in sy Toneel en politiek (79–80, 87–96). In 1976 is hy na.

  19. Small-x physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    After a brief review of the kinematics of deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering, the parton model is described. Small-x behavior coming from DGLAP evolution and from BFKL evolution is discussed, and the two types of evolution are contrasted and compared. Then a more detailed discussion of BFKL dynamics is given. The phenomenology of small-x physics is discussed with an emphasis on ways in which BFKL dynamics may be discussed and measured. 45 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Small wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez Castellano, Didier

    2010-01-01

    The main objective is to develop a project on installing a small wind turbine at the University of Glyndwr in Wrexham Wales. Today are immersed in a world seeking clean energy for reduce greenhouse gases because this problem is becoming a global reality. So installing a small wind turbine at the university would provide large quantity of clean energy to supply a workshop and also reduce the expulsion of CO2 into the atmosphere. The main characteristic of the turbine under...

  1. Small-Animal PET Imaging of Tau Pathology with 18F-THK5117 in 2 Transgenic Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Matthias; Jaworska, Anna; Probst, Federico; Overhoff, Felix; Korzhova, Viktoria; Lindner, Simon; Carlsen, Janette; Bartenstein, Peter; Harada, Ryuichi; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Haass, Christian; Van Leuven, Fred; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Herms, Jochen; Rominger, Axel

    2016-05-01

    Abnormal accumulation of tau aggregates in the brain is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We visualized tau deposition in vivo with the previously developed 2-arylquinoline derivative (18)F-THK5117 using small-animal PET in conjunction with autoradiography and immunohistochemistry gold standard assessment in 2 transgenic mouse models expressing hyperphosphorylated tau. Small-animal PET recordings were obtained in groups of P301S (n = 11) and biGT mice (n = 16) of different ages, with age-matched wild-type (WT) serving as controls. After intravenous administration of 16 ± 2 MBq of (18)F-THK5117, a dynamic 90-min emission recording was initiated for P301S mice and during 20-50 min after injection for biGT mice, followed by a 15-min transmission scan. After coregistration to the MRI atlas and scaling to the cerebellum, we performed volume-of-interest-based analysis (SUV ratio [SUVR]) and statistical parametric mapping. Small-animal PET results were compared with autoradiography ex vivo and in vitro and further validated with AT8 staining for neurofibrillary tangles. SUVRs calculated from static recordings during the interval of 20-50 min after tracer injection correlated highly with estimates of binding potential based on the entire dynamic emission recordings (R = 0.85). SUVR increases were detected in the brain stem of aged P301S mice (+11%; P transgenic tauopathy mouse models using the tau tracer (18)F-THK5117, the temporal and spatial progression could be visualized in good correlation with gold standard assessments of tau accumulation. The serial small-animal PET method could afford the means for preclinical testing of novel therapeutic approaches by accommodating interanimal variability at baseline, while detection thresholds in young animals have to be considered. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  2. Implications of surface charge and curvature for the binding orientation of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase on negatively charged or zwitterionic phospholipid vesicles as studied by ESR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, E.M.K.; Høyrup, Lise Pernille Kristine; Patkar, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    ) spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin-labeling [Hedin, E. M. K., et al. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 1418514196]. In our investigation, we have studied the interfacial orientation of TLL when bound to large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) consisting of POPG, and bound to SUV consisting of 1-palmitoyl-2...... fluorescence quenching efficiency between each spin-label positioned on TLL, and the lipid membrane. ESR exposure and fluorescence quenching data show that TILL associates closer to the negatively charged PG surface than the zwitterionic PC surface, and binds to both POPG LUV and POPC SUV predominantly through...... (curvature) of the vesicle surface determine the TLL orientation at the phospholipid interface....

  3. Phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity towards vesicles of DPPC and DMPC-DSPC containing small amounts of SMPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Lise Pernille Kristine; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Jørgensen, Kent

    2001-01-01

    Phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) is an interfacially active enzyme whose hydrolytic activity is known to be enhanced in one-component phospholipid bilayer substrates exhibiting dynamic micro-heterogeneity. In this study the activity of PLA/sub 2/ towards large unilamellar vesicles composed...

  4. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  5. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  6. Small hydroelectric engineering practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leyland, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen.As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it i

  7. Small is Beatiful

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik Aldershaab Boje; Pleman, Allan; Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The life and death of a small Danish software house developing ERP-software in collaboration with costumers is analysed.User producer relationships are central drivers in the company's history. This reactive development strategy creates a niche at the marketplace but produces internal organisatio......The life and death of a small Danish software house developing ERP-software in collaboration with costumers is analysed.User producer relationships are central drivers in the company's history. This reactive development strategy creates a niche at the marketplace but produces internal...

  8. Small mammal critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinoff, N

    1998-09-01

    In emergency situations, veterinarians often are presented with critical patients of any species. The principles for critical care in traditional species such as the dog or cat can be applied to other small mammals. Although there are many unique aspects of the anatomy and physiology of different species, emergency care of small mammals can be instituted with the adaptation of products found in many general practices. Careful assessment of the patient, prioritization of the injuries, and rapid intervention can be life saving in any species.

  9. How Small are Small Stars Really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    VLT Interferometer Measures the Size of Proxima Centauri and Other Nearby Stars [1] Summary At a distance of only 4.2 light-years, Proxima Centauri is the nearest star to the Sun currently known [2]. It is visible as an 11-magnitude object in the southern constellation of Centaurus and is the faintest member of a triple system, together with Alpha Centauri , the brightest (double) star in this constellation. Proxima Centauri is a very-low-mass star, in fact barely massive enough to burn hydrogen to helium in its interior. It is about seven times smaller than the Sun, and the surface temperature is "only" about 3000 degrees, about half of that of our own star. Consequently, it is also much fainter - the intrinsic brightness is only 1/150th of that of our Sun. Low-mass stars are very interesting objects , also because the physical conditions in their interiors have much in common with those of giant planets, like Jupiter in our solar system. A determination of the sizes of the smallest stars has been impossible until now because of their general faintness and lack of adequate instrumentation. However, astronomers have long been keen to move forward in this direction, since such measurements would provide indirect, crucial information about the behaviour of matter under extreme conditions. When the first observations with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI), combining the light from two of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes (ANTU and MELIPAL), were made one year ago ( ESO PR 23/01 ), interferometric measurements were also obtained of Proxima Centauri . They formed part of the VLTI commissioning and the data were soon released to the ESO community, cf. the special website. Now, an international team of astronomers from Switzerland, France and ESO/Chile has successfully analysed these observations by means of newly developed, advanced software. For the first time ever, they obtained a highly accurate measurement of the size of such a small star . Three other small stars were also

  10. Small rover exploration capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salotti, J.; Laithier, C.; Machut, B.; van Marie, A.; Bruneau, A.; Groemer, G.; Foing, B.H.

    2015-01-01

    For a human mission to the Moon or Mars, an important question is to determine the best strategy for the choice of surface vehicles. Recent studies suggest that the first missions to Mars will be strongly constrained and that only small unpressurized vehicles will be available. We analyze the

  11. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...

  12. Imaging the small bowel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-03-01

    Radiologic investigations continue to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the small intestine despite enhancement of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy. Imaging techniques continue to evolve and new techniques in MRI in particular, are being developed.

  13. On a small Monacanthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popta, C.M.L.

    1900-01-01

    Among fishes sent to the Leyden Museum by the late Dr. Bleeker, I found a Monacanthus which I cannot bring to one of the described species. It is a small specimen and it may be young, it is however interesting on account of its beautiful markings. When later on more or larger specimens will be found

  14. Small College AI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Harold H.

    The feasibility of conducting computer science courses in artificial intelligence at a small liberal arts college is examined. The following problems are examined in detail: isolation; student abililty, motivation and expectation; equipment; and faculty readiness. Providing a focus to the discussion, three issues are addressed in terms of…

  15. Small Windmills in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.

    1980-01-01

    The report describes a project for small windmills funded by the Ministry of Energy. The test plant is described and a survey of Danish windmills is presented. Some requirements for windmills are mentioned and regulations governing the interface between grid-connected windmills and the electric...

  16. Small can be beautiful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrand, Solveig; Ravel, Jean-Claude

    1994-12-01

    Small laboratories with limited financial means can use low-cost personal computers for many control applications. Examples of control systems developed at SARA are discussed, illustrating the evolution of the system in step with that of the PC, but each time with a considerable re-use of software.

  17. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Small Public Library Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, Jane; Nelson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Anyone at the helm of a small public library knows that every little detail counts. But juggling the responsibilities that are part and parcel of the job is far from easy. Finally, here's a handbook that includes everything administrators need to keep a handle on library operations, freeing them up to streamline and improve how the organization…

  19. Small Open Reading Frames

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    enormous growth in whole genome sequencing. Hence today, genome sequence. Recently, ORFs with less than 100 codons, called small ORFs have been .... organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), Caenorhab- ditis elegans (roundworm), Danio rerio (zebrafish), Mus muscu- lus (mouse) and Homo sapiens ...

  20. Small Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  1. Impact on Small Mammals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    The relative abundance, diversity and biomass of the small mammals populations were also negatively affected. It is, therefore .... (abdominal or scrotaltestes inmales; enlarged 1963) using the computer programme, nipples, perforate vaginas and pregnancy in Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS) females), and ...

  2. Small hydro in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available hydro, the author has started an online database of small hydropower projects in eastern and southern Africa. The main aim of the database is to catalogue the current situation and to make that accessible to policymakers, project developers, as well...

  3. Direct interaction between EgFABP1, a fatty acid binding protein from Echinococcus granulosus, and phospholipid membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Porfido

    Full Text Available Growth and maintenance of hydatid cysts produced by Echinococcus granulosus have a high requirement for host lipids for biosynthetic processes, membrane building and possibly cellular and developmental signalling. This requires a high degree of lipid trafficking facilitated by lipid transporter proteins. Members of the fatty acid binding protein (FABP family have been identified in Echinococcus granulosus, one of which, EgFABP1 is expressed at the tegumental level in the protoscoleces, but it has also been described in both hydatid cyst fluid and secretions of protoscoleces. In spite of a considerable amount of structural and biophysical information on the FABPs in general, their specific functions remain mysterious.We have investigated the way in which EgFABP1 may interact with membranes using a variety of fluorescence-based techniques and artificial small unilamellar vesicles. We first found that bacterial recombinant EgFABP1 is loaded with fatty acids from the synthesising bacteria, and that fatty acid binding increases its resistance to proteinases, possibly due to subtle conformational changes induced on EgFABP1. By manipulating the composition of lipid vesicles and the ionic environment, we found that EgFABP1 interacts with membranes in a direct contact, collisional, manner to exchange ligand, involving both ionic and hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, we observed that the protein can compete with cytochrome c for association with the surface of small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs.This work constitutes a first approach to the understanding of protein-membrane interactions of EgFABP1. The results suggest that this protein may be actively involved in the exchange and transport of fatty acids between different membranes and cellular compartments within the parasite.

  4. 78 FR 11745 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... / Wednesday, February 20, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...

  5. Small Multiples with Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, Wouter; Dykes, Jason; Slingsby, Aidan; Turkay, Cagatay; Wood, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Small multiples enable comparison by providing different views of a single data set in a dense and aligned manner. A common frame defines each view, which varies based upon values of a conditioning variable. An increasingly popular use of this technique is to project two-dimensional locations into a gridded space (e.g. grid maps), using the underlying distribution both as the conditioning variable and to determine the grid layout. Using whitespace in this layout has the potential to carry information, especially in a geographic context. Yet, the effects of doing so on the spatial properties of the original units are not understood. We explore the design space offered by such small multiples with gaps. We do so by constructing a comprehensive suite of metrics that capture properties of the layout used to arrange the small multiples for comparison (e.g. compactness and alignment) and the preservation of the original data (e.g. distance, topology and shape). We study these metrics in geographic data sets with varying properties and numbers of gaps. We use simulated annealing to optimize for each metric and measure the effects on the others. To explore these effects systematically, we take a new approach, developing a system to visualize this design space using a set of interactive matrices. We find that adding small amounts of whitespace to small multiple arrays improves some of the characteristics of 2D layouts, such as shape, distance and direction. This comes at the cost of other metrics, such as the retention of topology. Effects vary according to the input maps, with degree of variation in size of input regions found to be a factor. Optima exist for particular metrics in many cases, but at different amounts of whitespace for different maps. We suggest multiple metrics be used in optimized layouts, finding topology to be a primary factor in existing manually-crafted solutions, followed by a trade-off between shape and displacement. But the rich range of possible

  6. VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Culverts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Culverts. This data contains small culverts locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...

  7. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  8. Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas J.

    In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.

  9. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...... to the public distibutor, it can serve as a backup system, as a non-interruptible power supply (with storage aggregation), provide low-voltage support, or give a clean surplus of energy transferred to the public network under economical and technological basis. In this chapter, several factors are also...

  10. Small Business Innovations (MISER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Lightwave Electronics Corporation, Mountain View, CA, developed the Series 120 and 122 non-planner diode pumped ring lasers based on a low noise ring laser with voltage tuning that they delivered to Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The voltage tuning feature allows "phase-locking" the lasers, making them "electronic," similar to radio and microwave electronic oscillators. The Series 120 and 122 can be applied to fiber sensing, coherent communications and laser radar.

  11. Small Business Innovations (Photodetector)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Epitaxx, Inc. of Princeton, NJ, developed the Epitaxx Near Infrared Room Temperature Indium-Gallium-Arsenide (InGaAs) Photodetector based on their Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract work to develop a linear detector array for satellite imaging applications using InGaAs alloys that didn't need to be cooled to (difficult and expensive) cryogenic temperatures. The photodetectors can be used for remote sensing, fiber optic and laser position-sensing applications.

  12. Leadership in Small Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Younger

    2010-01-01

    Multi-agent simulation was used to study several styles of leadership in small societies. Populations of 50 and100 agents inhabited a bounded landscape containing a fixed number of food sources. Agents moved about the landscape in search of food, mated, produced offspring, and died either of hunger or at a predetermined maximum age. Leadership models focused on the collection and redistribution of food. The simulations suggest that individual households were more effective at meeting their ne...

  13. When small is beautiful. Boom time for small hydro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, John

    2002-08-01

    Although small hydropower projects generally contribute a small proportion of most nations' electricity needs their importance often exceeds their size. The author, a freelance industrial journalist considers prospects for small hydro, how such schemes are benefiting communities throughout the world and why some countries are more successfully using small hydro than others. (Author)

  14. Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Volker S [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.

  15. Ecology in Small Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel René

    Small ecosystems are many-fold more abundant than their larger counterparts. Both on regional and global scale small lakes outnumber medium and large lakes and account for a much larger surface area. Small streams are also far more common than rivers. Despite their abundance small ecosystems are ...

  16. The small library manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The Small Library Manager's Handbook is for librarians working in all types of small libraries. It covers the everyday nuts-and-bolts operations that all librarians must perform. This handbook, written by experts who are small librarians themselves, will help all small librarians to do multiple jobs at the same time.

  17. The Small Mars System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Grassi, M.; Pasolini, P.; Causa, F.; Molfese, C.; Aurigemma, R.; Cimminiello, N.; de la Torre, D.; Dell'Aversana, P.; Esposito, F.; Gramiccia, L.; Paudice, F.; Punzo, F.; Roma, I.; Savino, R.; Zuppardi, G.

    2017-08-01

    The Small Mars System is a proposed mission to Mars. Funded by the European Space Agency, the project has successfully completed Phase 0. The contractor is ALI S.c.a.r.l., and the study team includes the University of Naples ;Federico II;, the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte and the Space Studies Institute of Catalonia. The objectives of the mission are both technological and scientific, and will be achieved by delivering a small Mars lander carrying a dust particle analyser and an aerial drone. The former shall perform in situ measurements of the size distribution and abundance of dust particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere, whereas the latter shall demonstrate low-altitude flight in the rarefied planetary environment. The mission-enabling technology is an innovative umbrella-like heat shield, known as IRENE, developed and patented by ALI. The mission is also a technological demonstration of the shield in the upper atmosphere of Mars. The core characteristics of SMS are the low cost (120 M€) and the small size (320 kg of wet mass at launch, 110 kg at landing), features which stand out with respect to previous Mars landers. To comply with them is extremely challenging at all levels, and sets strict requirements on the choice of the materials, the sizing of payloads and subsystems, their arrangement inside the spacecraft and the launcher's selection. In this contribution, the mission and system concept and design are illustrated and discussed. Special emphasis is given to the innovative features and to the challenges faced in the development of the work.

  18. Small Business Innovations (Cryostat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    General Pneumatics Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ, developed an anti- clogging cryostat that liquifies gases by expansion for high pressure through a nozzle to produce cryorefrigeration based on their Kennedy Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) work to develop a Joule-Thomson (JT) expansion valve that is less susceptible to clogging by particles or condensed contaminants in the flow than a non-contaminating compressor in a closed cycle Linde-Hampson cryocooler used to generate cryogenic cooling for infrared sensors, super conductors, supercooled electronics and cryosurgery.

  19. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  20. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  1. SI - Small Scale Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Marie; Kallin Westin, Lena

    2006-01-01

    Not being part of a larger SI-organisation has both advantages and disadvantages. In this paper we try to illustrate the advantages of doing SI small scale. In a large scale SI-organisation the supervisors are often not teachers themselves and/or not familiar with the practices of a specific course. To have teaching staff supervising a SIproject completely focused on one course is favourable in many ways. The decision to introduce SI was taken by the department of Computing Science to support...

  2. [Small fiber neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, V; Bedat Millet, A-L; Lebesnerais, M; Miranda, S; Marguet, F; Benhamou, Y; Marcorelles, P; Lévesque, H

    2017-04-11

    Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is still unknown. Characterised by neuropathic pain, it typically begins by burning feet, but could take many other expression. SFN affects the thinly myelinated Aδ and unmyelinated C-fibers, by an inherited or acquired mechanism, which could lead to paresthesia, thermoalgic disorder or autonomic dysfunction. Recent studies suggest the preponderant role of ion channels such as Nav1.7. Furthermore, erythromelalgia or burning mouth syndrome are now recognized as real SFN. Various aetiologies of SFN are described. It could be isolated or associated with diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, vitamin deficiency, alcohol, auto-immune disease, sarcoidosis etc. Several mutations have recently been identified, like Nav1.7 channel leading to channelopathies. Diagnostic management is based primarily on clinical examination and demonstration of small fiber dysfunction. Laser evoked potentials, Sudoscan®, cutaneous biopsy are the main test, but had a difficult access. Treatment is based on multidisciplinary management, combining symptomatic treatment, psychological management and treatment of an associated etiology. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Options for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L; Miller, J

    1993-01-01

    Although offering health benefits is very expensive, many employers (small, medium, and large) make health care purchasing decisions based on very little information. This is largely because employers have not taken the time to learn how to be knowledgeable health care purchasers. Higher health care costs result when employers: purchase programs and services that employees and their dependents do not need and seldom use; pay (unknowingly) for services not offered in their benefit plan; accept and pay for ineffective cost containment programs that increase (not decrease) health care costs (remember that cost containment is a business in itself); make standard recommended changes (e.g., increased copays or deductibles) to their benefit plans, hoping to reduce costs (the result has been higher costs for too many employees); fail to assess whether health plans and insurance companies have effective internal quality and cost management programs; use financial incentives to encourage employees and dependents to enroll in managed care plans without examining whether the health plan or insurer used quality criteria, high standards, and capable processes in developing provider networks. (Capable processes consistently deliver quality products or services.) Most health plans and insurance companies have chosen providers based on their willingness to discount their charges, which places all parties (health plans or insurance companies, employers, and patients) at risk. Most of the problems listed above could be avoided if small employers based their health care purchasing decisions on information obtained from a careful analysis of needs and expectations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: Small Business... Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs. This proposed rule would implement provisions of the... Standards, or Edsel Brown, Assistant Director, Office of Technology, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  5. Inter-heterogeneity and intra-heterogeneity of α{sub v}β{sub 3} in non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer patients as revealed by {sup 68}Ga-RGD{sub 2} PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Fei; Li, Guoquan; Wang, Shengjun; Liu, Daliang; Zhang, Mingru; Zhao, Mingxuan; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Jing [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an (China); Wang, Zhe [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an (China); Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Pathology, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an (China)

    2017-08-15

    Integrin α{sub v}β{sub 3} is the therapeutic target of the anti-angiogenic drug cilengitide. The objective of this study was to compare α{sub v}β{sub 3} levels in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, by using the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer {sup 68}Ga-labeled dimerized-RGD ({sup 68}Ga-RGD{sub 2}). Thirty-one patients with pathologically confirmed lung cancer were enrolled (21 were NSCLC and 10 were SCLC). PET/CT images were acquired using {sup 68}Ga-RGD{sub 2}.{sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images were also acquired on the consecutive day as reference. The standard uptake values (SUV) and the tumor/nontarget (T/NT) values were quantitatively compared. Expression of the angiogenesis marker α{sub v}β{sub 3} in NSCLC and SCLC lesions was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The {sup 18}F-FDG SUVmax and the SUVmean were not significantly different between NSCLC and SCLC patients. The {sup 68}Ga-RGD{sub 2} uptake of SCLC patients was at background levels in both SUV and T/NT measurements and was significantly lower than that of NSCLC patients. The range value of {sup 68}Ga-RGD{sub 2} SUVmean was 4.5 in the NSCLC group and 2.2 in the SCLC group, while the variation coefficient was 36.2% and 39.3% in NSCLC and SCLC primary lesions, respectively. Heterogeneity between primary lesions and putative distant metastases was also observed in some NSCLC cases. Immunostaining showed that α{sub v}β{sub 3} integrin was expressed in the cells and neovasculature of NSCLC lesions, while SCLC samples had negative expression. The uptake of {sup 68}Ga-RGD{sub 2} in SCLC patients is significantly lower than that in NSCLC patients, indicating a lower α{sub v}β{sub 3} target level for cilengitide in SCLC. Apparent intra-tumor heterogeneities of α{sub v}β{sub 3} also exist in both NSCLC and SCLC. Such inter- and intra-heterogeneity of α{sub v}β{sub 3} may potentially improve current applications of α{sub v}β{sub 3}-targeted therapy

  6. Problems of Small Debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zelentsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the exploration of outer space (as of 1/1 2011 6853 was launched spacecraft (SC are successful 6264, representing 95% of the total number of starts. The most intensively exploited space Russia (USSR (3701 starts, 94% successful, USA (2774 starts, 90% successful, China (234 starts, 96% successful and India (89 starts, 90% successful. A small part of running the spacecraft returned to Earth (manned spacecraft and transport, and the rest remained in orbit. Some of them are descended from orbit and burned up in the atmosphere, the rest remained in the OCP and turned into space debris (SD.The composition of the Cabinet is diverse: finish the job spacecraft; boosters and the last stage of launch vehicles left in orbit after SC injection; technological waste arising during the opening drop-down structures and fragments of the destroyed spacecraft. The resulting explosion orbital SD forms ellipsoidal region which orbits blasted object. Then, as a result of precession, is the distribution of objects in orbit explosion exploding spacecraft.The whole Cabinet is divided into two factions: the observed (larger than 100 mm and not observed (less than 100 mm. Observed debris katalogalizirovan and 0.2% of the total number of SD, there was no SD is the bulk - 99.8%.SC meeting working with a fragment observed SD predictable and due to changes in altitude spacecraft avoids a possible meeting. Contact spacecraft with large fragment lead to disaster (which took place at a meeting of the Russian communications satellite "Cosmos-2251" and the American machine "Iridium". Meeting with small SD is not predictable, especially if it was formed by an explosion or collision fragments together. Orbit that KM is not predictable, and the speed can be up to 10 km / s. Meeting with small particle SD no less dangerous for the spacecraft. The impact speed of spacecraft with space debris particles can reach up to 10 ... 15 km / s at such speeds the breakdown probability thin

  7. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  8. Small Business Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Kennedy Space Center, EIC Laboratories invented a Raman Spectrograph with fiber optic sampling for space applications such as sensing hazardous fuel vapors and making on-board rapid analyses of chemicals and minerals. Raman spectroscopy is a laser-based measurement technique that provides through a unique vibrational spectrum a molecular 'fingerprint,' and can function in aqueous environments. EIC combined optical fiber technology with Raman methods to develop sensors that can be operated at a distance from the spectrographic analysis instruments and the laser excitation source. EIC refined and commercialized the technology to create the Fiber Optic Raman Spectrograph and the RamanProbe. Commercial applications range from process control to monitoring hazardous materials.

  9. [Is allastrim small pox?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiexeira, L A

    2000-01-01

    Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of Sao Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de Sao Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emilio Ribas, director of the Servico Sanitario, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  10. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well......-established that gradient effects play a role at the micron scale, and the objective of this study is to demonstrate how strain gradient hardening affects the rolling process. Specifically, the paper addresses how the applied roll torque, roll forces, and the contact conditions are modified by strain gradient plasticity...... the power input to the process. The contact traction is also affected, particularly for sheet thicknesses on the order of 10 μm and below. The influences of the length parameter and the friction coefficient are emphasized, and the results are presented for multiple sheet reductions and roll sizes....

  11. Small caliber guided projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James F [Albuquerque, NM; Kast, Brian A [Albuquerque, NM; Kniskern, Marc W [Albuquerque, NM; Rose, Scott E [Albuquerque, NM; Rohrer, Brandon R [Albuquerque, NM; Woods, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Greene, Ronald W [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-24

    A non-spinning projectile that is self-guided to a laser designated target and is configured to be fired from a small caliber smooth bore gun barrel has an optical sensor mounted in the nose of the projectile, a counterbalancing mass portion near the fore end of the projectile and a hollow tapered body mounted aft of the counterbalancing mass. Stabilizing strakes are mounted to and extend outward from the tapered body with control fins located at the aft end of the strakes. Guidance and control electronics and electromagnetic actuators for operating the control fins are located within the tapered body section. Output from the optical sensor is processed by the guidance and control electronics to produce command signals for the electromagnetic actuators. A guidance control algorithm incorporating non-proportional, "bang-bang" control is used to steer the projectile to the target.

  12. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  13. Very Small Interstellar Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Mason A.

    2007-02-01

    This paper considers lower limits of length scale in spacecraft: interstellar vehicles consisting of little more material than found in a typical integrated-circuit chip. Some fundamental scaling principles are introduced to show how the dynamics of the very small can be used to realize interstellar travel with minimal advancements in technology. Our recent study for the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts provides an example: the use of the Lorentz force that acts on electrically charged spacecraft traveling through planetary and stellar magnetospheres. Schaffer and Burns, among others, have used Cassini and Voyager imagery to show that this interaction is responsible for some of the resonances in the orbital dynamics of dust in Jupiter's and Saturn's rings. The Lorentz force turns out to vary in inverse proportion to the square of this characteristic length scale, making it a more effective means of propelling tiny spacecraft than solar sailing. Performance estimates, some insight into plasma interactions, and some hardware concepts are offered. The mission architectures considered here involve the use of these propellantless propulsion techniques for acceleration within our solar system and deceleration near the destination. Performance estimates, some insight into plasma interactions, and some hardware concepts are offered. The mission architectures considered here involve the use of these propellantless propulsion techniques for acceleration within our solar system and deceleration near the destination. We might envision a large number of such satellites with intermittent, bursty communications set up as a one-dimensional network to relay signals across great distances using only the power likely from such small spacecraft. Conveying imagery in this fashion may require a long time because of limited power, but the prospect of imaging another star system close-up ought to be worth the wait.

  14. Entrepreneurship and small business sustainability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    characteristic of entrepreneurial conduct that ultimately dictates survival in increasingly competitive economic environments. 16Key words: entrepreneurship, small business development, business sustainability, competition. Introduction. 1Small (often informal) businesses dominate the economic life of most developing.

  15. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  16. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  17. Small Drinking Water System Variances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small system variances allow a small system to install and maintain technology that can remove a contaminant to the maximum extent that is affordable and protective of public health in lieu of technology that can achieve compliance with the regulation.

  18. The Tectonics of Small Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, D. L.; Wyrick, D. Y.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding small world tectonics may help us predict small rocky exoplanet geodynamics. Vesta has an intermediate style of tectonic deformation, with impact-formed fractures (asteroidal), but also large graben and magmatic structures (planetary).

  19. Financial Innovation Drives Small Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Spagnoletto, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    International Finance Corporation (IFC) makes selective investments in small businesses that are in frontier countries and have a strong developmental role. Since 2002, the corporation has made 25 or so small direct investments (SDI), most of which turned out to be success stories. Over the years, SDI developed a specific methodology that works well with small companies. But the most succe...

  20. Educational Planning in Small Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark

    For years, international literature has neglected the special features of educational planning in small countries. The recognition of small countries has increased over the last two decades, as they have begun to play a more important role in world politics. This three-part book evaluates the nature of the ecology of small countries and its…

  1. [Migration processes in small towns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, K

    1988-10-01

    Changing migration patterns in Poland and their impact on small towns are analysed with a focus on the period since the 1950s. The analysis shows that although migration previously benefited major urban areas at the expense of small towns, the migration situation of small towns has recently improved.

  2. Small scale sanitation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable.

  3. Diagnostic implications of a small-voxel reconstruction for loco-regional lymph node characterization in breast cancer patients using FDG-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Daniëlle; van Dalen, Jorn A; Arkies, Hester; Oostdijk, Ad H J; Francken, Anne Brecht; Bart, Jos; Slump, Cornelis H; Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L

    2018-01-16

    We evaluated the diagnostic implications of a small-voxel reconstruction for lymph node characterization in breast cancer patients, using state-of-the-art FDG-PET/CT. We included 69 FDG-PET/CT scans from breast cancer patients. PET data were reconstructed using standard 4 × 4 × 4 mm3 and small 2 × 2 × 2 mm3 voxels. Two hundred thirty loco-regional lymph nodes were included, of which 209 nodes were visualised on PET/CT. All nodes were visually scored as benign or malignant, and SUVmax and TBratio(=SUVmax/SUVbackground) were measured. Final diagnosis was based on histological or imaging information. We determined the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for both reconstruction methods and calculated optimal cut-off values to distinguish benign from malignant nodes. Sixty-one benign and 169 malignant lymph nodes were included. Visual evaluation accuracy was 73% (sensitivity 67%, specificity 89%) on standard-voxel images and 77% (sensitivity 78%, specificity 74%) on small-voxel images (p = 0.13). Across malignant nodes visualised on PET/CT, the small-voxel score was more often correct compared with the standard-voxel score (89 vs. 76%, p <  0.001). In benign nodes, the standard-voxel score was more often correct (89 vs. 74%, p = 0.04). Quantitative data were based on the 61 benign and 148 malignant lymph nodes visualised on PET/CT. SUVs and TBratio were on average 3.0 and 1.6 times higher in malignant nodes compared to those in benign nodes (p <  0.001), on standard- and small-voxel PET images respectively. Small-voxel PET showed average increases in SUVmax and TBratio of typically 40% over standard-voxel PET. The optimal SUVmax cut-off using standard-voxels was 1.8 (sensitivity 81%, specificity 95%, accuracy 85%) while for small-voxels, the optimal SUVmax cut-off was 2.6 (sensitivity 78%, specificity 98%, accuracy 84%). Differences in accuracy were non-significant. Small-voxel PET/CT improves the sensitivity of visual lymph node

  4. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  5. Small 'l' leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jenni

    2009-05-01

    Recently I attended the RACGP Leadership Masterclass in Sydney. When I enrolled, I thought, 'Yes... sounds interesting...good speakers... I need to learn something about leadership...'As the time drew closer I started to get a bit anxious about the whole thing. I realised that the title, 'Masterclass', probably implied that the attendees were expected to already know something about leadership and its theories, if not have considerable expertise and experience in leadership. I also wondered how the workshop sessions were going to go and I started to feel a bit sorry for the facilitators. Imagine trying to facilitate a group of 10 aspiring leaders... a bit like trying to herd cats. A few days later I received a call from the organisers,saying they were a bit short of facilitators and could I help out if necessary. Great... better do a crash course in cat herding! Then there was the first 'predisposing activity'. Step 1: think of leaders you admire. Easy enough. Leaders of social justice and social change on a world stage, people who have shown great courage of their convictions and great orators popped into my head... Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Mandela, JFK. Step 2:describe the ways in which you are like these leaders. Whoa!Never going to measure up here. I wondered if there was going to be sessions on 'leadership for introverts', or 'leadership of small things', or 'leaders without grand vision or fabulous oratory skills', or perhaps 'leadership for people who are deeply suspicious of the corrupting influence of power'.

  6. Study of supported phospholipid bilayers by THz-TDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Alina; Mernea, Maria; Vasile, Ionut; Brandus, Catalina Alice; Barbinta-Patrascu, Marcela Elisabeta; Tugulea, Laura; Mihailescu, Dan; Dascalu, Traian

    2012-10-01

    Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a new technique in studying the conformational state of molecules. Cell membranes are important structures in the interaction with extra cellular entities. Their principal building blocks are lipids, amphiphilic molecules that spontaneously self-assemble when in contact with water. In this work we report the use of THz-TDS in transmission mode to examine the behavior of supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) within the frequency range of 0.2 THz to 3 THz. SPBs were obtained by vesicle adsorption method involving the spread of a suspension (50-100 μl) of small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) or multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) dissolved in PBS (phosphate buffer solution) on a support of silicon wafers. Both SUVs and MLVs were obtained from dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and lecithin by using the thin-film hydration method. Broadband THz pulses are generated and detected using photoconductive antennas optically excited by a femtosecond laser pulse emitted from a self-mode locked fiber laser at a wavelength of 780 nm with a pulse widths of 150 fs. THz-TDS was proven to be a useful method in studying SPBs and their hydration states. The absorption coefficient and refractive index of the samples were calculated from THz measurements data. The THz absorption spectra for different lipids in SPBs indicate specific absorption frequency lines. A difference in the magnitude of the refractive index was also observed due to the different structure of supported lipid bilayers. The THz spectrum of DPPC was obtained by using theoretical simulations and then the experimental and theoretical THz spectra were compared.

  7. Role of bovine serum albumin and humic acid in the interaction between SiO2 nanoparticles and model cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoran; Qu, Xiaolei; Ding, Lei; Hu, Jingtian; Jiang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) can cause health hazard after their release into the environment. Adsorption of natural organic matter and biomolecules on SiO2 NPs alters their surface properties and cytotoxicity. In this study, SiO2 NPs were treated by bovine serum albumin (BSA) and humic acid (HA) to study their effects on the integrity and fluidity of model cell membranes. Giant and small unilamellar vesicles (GUVs and SUVs) were prepared as model cell membranes in order to avoid the interference of cellular activities. The microscopic observation revealed that the BSA/HA treated (BSA-/HA-) SiO2 NPs took more time to disrupt membrane than untreated-SiO2 NPs, because BSA/HA adsorption covered the surface SiOH/SiO- groups and weakened the interaction between NPs and phospholipids. The deposition of SiO2 NPs on membrane was monitored by a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Untreated- and HA-SiO2 NPs quickly disrupted the SUV layer on QCM-D sensor; BSA-SiO2 NPs attached on the membranes but only caused slow vesicle disruption. Untreated-, BSA- and HA-SiO2 NPs all caused the gelation of the positively-charged membrane, which was evaluated by the generalized polarity values. HA-SiO2 NPs caused most serious gelation, and BSA-SiO2 NPs caused the least. Our results demonstrate that the protein adsorption on SiO2 NPs decreases the NP-induced membrane damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Lynn; Jasper, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA's needs as described in the annual Solicitations and have significant potential for successful commercialization. The only eligible participants are small business concern (SBC) with 500 or fewer employees or a nonprofit research institute such as a university or a research laboratory with ties to an SBC. These programs are potential sources of seed funding for the development of small business innovations.

  9. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  10. Advances in small bowel transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Gürkan, Alp

    2017-01-01

    Small bowel transplantation is a life-saving surgery for patients with intestinal failure. The biggest problem in intestinal transplantation is graft rejection. Graft rejection is the main reason for morbidity and mortality. Rejection has a negative effect on the survival of the graft. While 50%–75% of small bowel transplantation patients experience acute rejection, chronic rejection occurs in approximately 15% of patients. Immune monitoring is crucial after small bowel transplantation. Unlik...

  11. Patient Safety Outcomes in Small Urban and Small Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M.; Vaughn, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess patient safety outcomes in small urban and small rural hospitals and to examine the relationship of hospital and patient factors to patient safety outcomes. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample and American Hospital Association annual survey data were used for analyses. To increase comparability, the study sample was…

  12. Small Business at EPA Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    A list of monthly bulletins that highlight information on Agency activities, rulemakings, and to share information about ongoing initiatives from the State Small Business Environmental Assistance Programs.

  13. Fluorodeoxyglucose position-emission tomography ratio in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Cheol; Wu, Hong Gyun; Yu, Tosol; Kim, Hak Jae; Paeng, Jin Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    To determine whether the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose uptake by positron emission tomography (FDG PET) ratio of lymph node to primary tumor (mSUVR) could be a prognostic factor for node positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). A total of 68 NSCLC T1-4, N1-3, M0 patients underwent FDG PET before RT. Optimal cutoff values of mSUVR were chosen based on overall survival (OS). Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. The most significant cutoff value for mSUVR was 0.9 with respect to OS. Two-year OS was 17% for patients with mSUVR > 0.9 and 49% for those with mSUVR ≤ 0.9 (p = 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, including age, performance status, stage, use of chemotherapy, and mSUVR, only performance status (p = 0.05) and mSUVR > 0.9 (p = 0.05) were significant predictors of OS. Two-year OS for patients with both good performance (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] ≤ 1) and mSUVR ≤ 0.9 was significantly better than that for patients with either poor performance (ECOG > 1) or mSUVR > 0.9, 23% (71% vs. 23%, p = 0.04). Our results suggested that the mSUVR was a strong prognostic factor among patients with lymph node positive NSCLC following RT. Addition of mSUVR to performance status identifies a subgroup at highest risk for death after RT.

  14. Financial management for small companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Hansen; Jeff Palmer; Jeff Palmer

    2000-01-01

    The wood-products industry is characterized by many small manufacturers that lack the staff to compile and analyze information on their operations and investments. Two computer programs, FRAN and JEFFI, have been developed by the USDA Forest Service at Princeton, West Virginia,to help small companies better analyze and monitor current performance, and better evaluate...

  15. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodrigues, Tonny Kerley de Alencar; Lira, Átila De Melo; Naas, Irenilza De Alencar

    2015-01-01

    .... And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. Keywords: innovation, small enterprises, patents. 1. INTRODUCTION Companies worldwide are looking to technological innovation as feasible for your market expansion (BURNS; STALKER, 1961; NELSON, 1993) alternative. In Brazil, the change an...

  16. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  17. Small millets Policy Briefing ggg

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Small millets include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), little millet. (Panicum sumatrense), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), and barnyard millet (Echinochloa colona). Each has specific nutritional benefits. • All small millets are rich in dietary fiber and have ...

  18. Introduction: innovation and small business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces the special issue of Small Business Economics on Innovation. What binds the papers together is either their focus on the effect of firm size on the causes and consequences of innovation or their focus on the role small firms play in reshaping the industrial

  19. Small pixel infrared sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, John; Curzan, Jon

    2017-02-01

    We report on product maturation of small pixel high definition high charge capacity 2.4 Mpixel MWIR Infrared Focal Plane Arrays. This high definition (HD) FPA utilizes a small 5 um pitch pixel size which enables near Nyquist limited sampling with by the optical system of many IR lenses. These smaller sub diffraction pitch pixels enable improved sensitivity and resolution resulting in clear, crisp high contrast imaging with excellent IFOVs even with small focal length lenses. The small pixel IR sensor allows the designer to trade off field of view, MTF, optics F/# to obtain a more compact and high performance IR sensor. This enables lower size, power and weight reductions of the entire IR Sensor System. The highly sensitive MWIR small pixel HD FPA has the capability to detect dimmer signals at longer ranges than previously demonstrated.

  20. Formulation optimization of itraconazole loaded PEGylated liposomes for parenteral administration by using design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curić, Anamarija; Reul, Regina; Möschwitzer, Jan; Fricker, Gert

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically characterize and optimize the encapsulation process of itraconazole (ITZ) into the PEGylated liposomes. ITZ was used as a model compound for poorly soluble drugs. PEGylated liposomes were prepared using the film hydration method combined with sonication in order to produce small unilamellar vesicles (SUV). The concentration of encapsulated ITZ was measured by a reversed phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. Systematic characterization of encapsulation process was performed using the design of experiments (DoE) approach. The systematic screening of process parameters and well designed settings of parameter levels in optimization phase improved the ITZ encapsulation process. Optimization demonstrated that only minimal range of design space could be used to achieve the highest encapsulation efficiency (EE (%)), more precisely the EE of 90% was gained using 25mg/ml of lipid and drug loading of 0.3% (w/w). However, the desirable drug loading could be predicted and adjusted by using mathematical modeling behind the DoE approach. The entire encapsulation process was shown to be repeatable with high significance (pDoE plays an important role in optimization experiments leading to robust results supporting high quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Malignant small round cell tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwanshi, Arvind; Srinivas, Radhika; Upasana, Gautam

    2009-01-01

    Malignant small round cell tumors are characterised by small, round, relatively undifferentiated cells. They generally include Ewing's sarcoma, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, and nephroblastoma or Wilms’ tumor. Other differential diagnoses of small round cell tumors include small cell osteogenic sarcoma, undifferentiated hepatoblastoma, granulocytic sarcoma, and intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Differential diagnosis of small round cell tumors is particularly difficult due to their undifferentiated or primitive character. Tumors that show good differentiation are generally easy to diagnose, but when a tumor is poorly differentiated, identification of the diagnostic, morphological features is difficult and therefore, no definitive diagnosis may be possible. As seen in several study reports, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has become an important modality of diagnosis for these tumors. The technique yields adequate numbers of dissociated, viable cells, making it ideally suitable for ancillary techniques. Typically, a multimodal approach is employed and the principal ancillary techniques that have been found to be useful in classification are immunohistochemistry and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and electron microscopy. However, the recent characterization of chromosomal breakpoints and the corresponding genes involved in malignant small round cell tumors means that it is possible to use molecular genetic approaches for detection. PMID:21938141

  2. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section 970.1907....1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

  3. The valence of small fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, C.; Giambelli, C.; Roman, H. E.; Alasia, F.; Benedek, G.; Broglia, R. A.; Sanguinetti, S.; Yabana, K.

    1996-08-01

    The production and isolation of small fullerenes and of their stable compounds and the knowledge of their chemistry should pave the way to the syntesis of novel carbon-based cluster-assembled materials like carbon clathrates, hollow diamonds and diamond-like thin films. In this quest, the knowledge of the valence of the small fullerenes is essential. We report here that the small fullerenes C n (20 ≤ n ≤ 32), aside from the well known values associated with the local one electron picture of dangling bonds, display hidden valences connected with the free electron picture of the shell structure of π-electrons.

  4. Small Sat Analysis Laboratory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop Small Satellite Analysis Laboratory (SatLab): A simulation-of-simulations framework to integrate component and engineering simulations into a single larger...

  5. JPL Small Body Database Browser

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The JPL Small-Body Database Browser provides data for all known asteroids and many comets. Newly discovered objects and their orbits are added on a daily basis....

  6. Environmental Justice Small Grants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Justice Small Grants Program provides financial assistance to eligible organizations to build collaborative partnerships, to identify the local environmental and/or public health issues, and to envision solutions and empower the community

  7. Small Sat Analysis Laboratory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Low-Cost Small Spacecraft Program is focused on the technologies, subsystems, methodologies, and mission concepts for space missions which lower the...

  8. Cryoablation for Small Renal Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Dominguez-Escrig

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in imaging techniques (CT and MRI and widespread use of imaging especially ultrasound scanning have resulted in a dramatic increase in the detection of small renal masses. While open partial nephrectomy is still the reference standard for the management of these small renal masses, its associated morbidity has encouraged clinicians to exploit the advancements in minimally invasive ablative techniques. The last decade has seen the rapid development of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and novel ablative techniques such as, radiofrequency ablation (RFA, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, and cryoablation (CA. In particular, CA for small renal masses has gained popularity as it combines nephron-sparing surgery with a minimally invasive approach. Studies with up to 5-year followup have shown an overall and cancer-specific 5-year survival of 82% and 100%, respectively. This manuscript will focus on the principles and clinical applications of cryoablation of small renal masses, with detailed review of relevant literature.

  9. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  10. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  11. Small group discussion: Students perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran

    2015-08-01

    Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1(st) year medical students of 2014-2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods.

  12. Small

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Joseph

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion (CNEEC), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of CNEEC is to understand how nanostructuring can enhance efficiency for energy conversion and solve fundamental cross-cutting problems in advanced energy conversion and storage systems.

  13. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology...

  14. 78 FR 59410 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... period for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

  15. Tumours in the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kurniawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel tumours are rare and originate from a wide variety of benign and malignant entities. Adenocarcinomas are the most frequent primary malignant small bowel tumours. Submucosal tumours like gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST or neuroendocrine tumours (NET may show a central umbilication, pathologic vessels, bridging folds or an ulceration of the overlying mucosa. These signs help to differentiate them from harmless bulges caused by impression from outside, e.g. from other intestinal loops. Sarcomas of the small bowel are rare neoplasias with mesenchymal origin, sometimes presenting as protruding masses. Benign tumours like lipoma, fibrolipoma, fibroma, myoma, and heterotopias typically present as submucosal masses. They cannot be differentiated endoscopically from those with malignant potential as GIST or NET. Neuroendocrine carcinomas may present with diffuse infiltration, which may resemble other malignant tumours. The endoscopic appearance of small bowel lymphomas has a great variation from mass lesions to diffuse infiltrative changes. Melanoma metastases are the most frequent metastases to the small bowel. They may be hard to distinguish from other tumours when originating from an amelanotic melanoma.

  16. Industry Research and Recommendations for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, Bob [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Huppert, Mark [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States); Cochrane, Ric [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have been left behind in the energy efficiency marketplace because financial and technical resources have flowed to larger commercial buildings. DOE's Building Technologies Office works with the commercial building industry to accelerate the uptake of energy efficiency technologies and techniques in existing and new commercial buildings (DOE 2013). BTO recognizes the SBSP sector'spotential for significant energy savings and the need for investments in resources that are tailored to this sector's unique needs. The industry research and recommendations described in this report identify potential approaches and strategic priorities that BTO could explore over the next 3-5 years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for thisimportant sector. DOE is uniquely positioned to provide national leadership, objective information, and innovative tools, technologies, and services to support cost-effective energy savings in the fragmented and complex SBSP sector. Properly deployed, the DOE effort could enhance and complement current energy efficiency approaches. Small portfolios are loosely and qualitatively defined asportfolios of buildings that include only a small number of small buildings. This distinction is important because the report targets portfolio owners and managers who generally do not have staff and other resources to track energy use and pursue energy efficiency solutions.

  17. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  18. Measurement of small intestinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koji; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    Many animal models have been devised for investigating the pathogenesis of intestinal lesions and for screening drugs for the treatment of intestinal ulcers in humans. Recently, particular attention has been focused on NSAID-induced intestinal lesions as a result of the development of the capsule endoscope and double-balloon endoscope. Ischemic enteritis, one of the most dramatic abdominal emergencies, is known to cause severe damage to the small intestine by a significant decrease of arterial blood flow in the small intestine. In this unit, two animal models for small intestinal damage induced by NSAIDs or intestinal ischemia are described. Also included are methods for lesion induction and evaluation of the damage as well as the measurement of pathogenic functional and biochemical changes.

  19. Small group discussion: Students perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    Context: Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. Aims: The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Subjects and Methods: Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1st year medical students of 2014–2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Results: Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. Conclusions: The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods. PMID:26380202

  20. Trust Propagation in Small Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Seigneur, Jean-Marc; Chen, Yong

    2003-01-01

    do not scale well. We aim to develop trust-based security mechanisms using small world concepts to optimise formation and propagation of trust amongst entities in these vast networks. In this regard, we surmise that in a very large mobile ad hoc network, trust, risk, and recommendations can...... be propagated through relatively short paths connecting entities. Our work describes the design of trust-formation and risk-assessment systems, as well as that of an entity recognition scheme, within the context of the small world network topology....

  1. Influence Small State Force Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    A test of two models,” World politics , 25 ,no. 4 (1973): 556-576. 10 Mathias Mass, “The elusive definition of the small state,” International...15 Ibid. 16 Maurice East, “Size and Foreign Policy Behaviour: A test of two models,” World politics , 25 (4) (1973): 556-576. 17 Joseph S. Nye, Soft...power: The means to success in world politics , (New York: Public Affairs, 2004). 18 Mathias Mass, “The elusive definition of the small state

  2. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  3. Big Deployables in Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Bruce; Francis, William; Goff, Jonathan; Cross, Michael; Copel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The concept of utilizing small satellites to perform big mission objectives has grown from a distant idea to a demonstrated reality. One of the challenges in using small-satellite platforms for high-value missions is the packaging of long and large surface-area devices such as antennae, solar arrays and sensor positioning booms. One possible enabling technology is the slit-tube, or a deployable “tape-measure” boom which can be flattened and rolled into a coil achieving a high volumetric packa...

  4. Capsule endoscopy: Beyond small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Adler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the brief and dramatic history of capsule endoscopy of the digestive tract is reviewed. Capsule endoscopy offers a non invasive method to diagnose diseases that affect the esophagus, small bowel and colon. Technological improvements relating to optics, software, data recorders with two way communication have revolutionized this field. These advancements have produced better diagnostic performance.

  5. Small Enterprise Dynamics in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, A.; Rodriquez, E.; Sandee, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia before and during the crisis. It argues that SME productivity has risen substantially, at rates not far from those of larger firms. Case studies indicate that various mechanisms are at work, such as technology

  6. Managing Small-scale Fisheries

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, a glance through current fisheries literature reveals a perplexing array of perspectives and prescriptions to achieve this goal. There are few simple solutions for the problems that fisheries science and management address anywhere in the world. This is particularly so for small-scale fisheries, which this book is ...

  7. Small Private Colleges Can Survive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michele

    2017-01-01

    With high school populations declining throughout New England and in several other regions of the country, it's only natural to be concerned about the fiscal challenges confronting the nation's private colleges and universities. Forecasts by prominent higher education experts increasingly suggest that many, if not most, small private institutions…

  8. Small Bowel Review: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. In preparation for this review, over 500 papers were assessed; some have been selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist.

  9. Small Worlds and Cultural Polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Building on Granovetter's theory of the "strength of weak ties,'' research on "small-world'' networks suggests that bridges between clusters in a social network (long-range ties) promote cultural diffusion, homogeneity, and integration. We show that this macro-level implication of network structure

  10. Small, Lightweight, Collapsible Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A small, lightweight, collapsible glove box enables its user to perform small experiments and other tasks. Originally intended for use aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), this glove box could also be attractive for use on Earth in settings in which work space or storage space is severely limited and, possibly, in which it is desirable to minimize weight. The development of this glove box was prompted by the findings that in the original space-shuttle or ISS setting, (1) it was necessary to perform small experiments in a large general-purpose work station, so that, in effect, they occupied excessive space; and it took excessive amounts of time to set up small experiments. The design of the glove box reflects the need to minimize the space occupied by experiments and the time needed to set up experiments, plus the requirement to limit the launch weight of the box and the space needed to store the box during transport into orbit. To prepare the glove box for use, the astronaut or other user has merely to insert hands through the two fabric glove ports in the side walls of the box and move two hinges to a locking vertical position (see figure). The user could do this while seated with the glove box on the user fs lap. When stowed, the glove box is flat and has approximately the thickness of two pieces of 8-in. (.20 cm) polycarbonate.

  11. Entrepreneurship and small business sustainability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    16Key words: entrepreneurship, small business development, business sustainability, competition ..... inclusive of other actions, for example, the compilation and updating of a business plan might include a marketing ... businesses are more accessible (0.734), and 'mall offers leisure shopping environment'. (0.756) – did not ...

  12. Small Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This chapter focuses on small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians that inhabit the grasslands within the Southwestern Region of the USDA Forest Service. The chapter is not intended to be an all inclusive list of species, but rather to address the species that play important roles in grassland ecosystems and that often are associated with the management of grasslands....

  13. Small Business Innovations (Crystal Components)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Scientific Materials Corporation, Bozeman, MT developed the SciMax line of improved Nd:Yag crystals under an Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. They reduced the amount of water trapped in the crystals during growth to improve the optical quality and efficiency. Applications of the crystals include fiber optics, telecommunications, welding, drilling, eye surgery and medical instrumentation.

  14. Angiosarcoma of the small intestine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shobha

    You need a software (e.g. RSSReader, Feed Demon, FeedReader, My Yahoo!, NewsGator and. NewzCrawler) to get advantage of this tool. RSS feeds can also be read through FireFox or Microsoft Outlook 2007. Once any of these small (and mostly free) software is installed, add www.annalsafrmed.org/rssfeed.asp as one.

  15. Small Big Data Congress 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.

    2017-01-01

    TNO, in collaboration with the Big Data Value Center, presents the fourth Small Big Data Congress! Our congress aims at providing an overview of practical and innovative applications based on big data. Do you want to know what is happening in applied research with big data? And what can already be

  16. Small Turing universal signal machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Durand-Lose

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at providing signal machines as small as possible able to perform any computation (in the classical understanding. After presenting signal machines, it is shown how to get universal ones from Turing machines, cellular-automata and cyclic tag systems. Finally a halting universal signal machine with 13 meta-signals and 21 collision rules is presented.

  17. SMALL CRAFT OPERATION AND NAVIGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    THIS REFERENCE TEXTBOOK WAS PREPARED FOR USE IN THE FIRST PART OF A TWO-PART COURSE IN MARINE NAVIGATION AND SMALL CRAFT OPERATION ON INLAND AND INTERNATIONAL WATERS. THE MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INDIVIDUAL AUTHOR FOR USE IN TRADE SCHOOL PREPARATORY AND EXTENSION CLASSES FOR MALE ADULTS WHO PLAN TO OPERATE BOATS. IT IS MAINLY CONCERNED WITH…

  18. New Russian Combat Small Boats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr F. Mitrofanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of small combat boats. The author provides a description and gives an analysis of the characteristics of the boat "Raptor", boat "BK-16", boat "Strizh-4-1 DSh", and assault boat "BK-10".

  19. Groundwater vulnerability on small islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.

  20. Reimagining Education in Small Towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Patrick J.; Kefalas, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Things are not going so well in small-town America. While the so-called "Great Recession" of the moment has focused considerable attention on the travails of Main Street and Middle America, the truth is that the troubles that plague such places have been a long time in the making. For the past 30 years, nonmetropolitan counties and the…

  1. Small firm transformation through IS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, Margi; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Globally, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are encouraged, particularly by governments, to embrace c-business. Fully adopting e-business involves substantial change in firms, both internally and externally. However, there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which such business

  2. Connections for small vertex models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 110; Issue 1. Connections for Small Vertex Models. R Srinivasan. Volume 110 Issue 1 February 2000 pp 35-53 ... Author Affiliations. R Srinivasan1. Mehta Research Institute of Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, Allahabad 211 019, India ...

  3. Role of lipid phase separations and membrane hydration in phospholipid vesicle fusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between lipid phase separation and fusion of small unilamellar phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles was investigated. The kinetics of phase separation were monitored by following the increase of self-quenching of the fluorescent phospholipid analogue

  4. Small is beautiful: models of small neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Damon G; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2012-08-01

    Modeling has contributed a great deal to our understanding of how individual neurons and neuronal networks function. In this review, we focus on models of the small neuronal networks of invertebrates, especially rhythmically active CPG networks. Models have elucidated many aspects of these networks, from identifying key interacting membrane properties to pointing out gaps in our understanding, for example missing neurons. Even the complex CPGs of vertebrates, such as those that underlie respiration, have been reduced to small network models to great effect. Modeling of these networks spans from simplified models, which are amenable to mathematical analyses, to very complicated biophysical models. Some researchers have now adopted a population approach, where they generate and analyze many related models that differ in a few to several judiciously chosen free parameters; often these parameters show variability across animals and thus justify the approach. Models of small neuronal networks will continue to expand and refine our understanding of how neuronal networks in all animals program motor output, process sensory information and learn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 77 FR 76215 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... that the proposed rule would create a security risk and permit mission critical and sensitive... affiliation with companies with different goals and risk but merely with shared investors. The respondent... subcontracting all of its work to another company that is other than small or otherwise does not meet the...

  6. Small-Engine Research Laboratory (SERL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Small-Engine Research Laboratory (SERL) is a facility designed to conduct experimental small-scale propulsion and power generation systems research....

  7. α-Synuclein binds large unilamellar vesicles as an extended helix†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Adam J.; Rhoades, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between the synaptic protein α-Synuclein and cellular membranes may be relevant both to its native function as well as its role in Parkinson’s disease. We use single molecule Förster resonance energy transfer to probe the structure of α-Synuclein bound to detergent micelles and lipid vesicles. We find evidence that it forms a bent-helix when bound to highly curved detergent micelles, whereas it binds more physiological 100 nm diameter lipid vesicles as an elongated helix. Our results highlight the influence of membrane curvature in determining α-Synuclein conformation, which may be important for both its normal and disease-associated functions. PMID:19220042

  8. Low PIP2 molar fractions induce nanometer size clustering in giant unilamellar vesicles containing POPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvemini, Iyrri; Gaua, D.; Reid, J.

    2014-01-01

    PIP2, these results demonstrate the presence of PIP2 enriched clusters that are smaller than the resolution limit of the fluorescent microscope. In addition, we report the presence of a hypsochromic shift of the fluorescence for the BODIPY labeled lipids that we attributed to clustering...

  9. Formation of supported phospholipid bilayers from unilamellar vesicles investigated by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reviakine, [No Value; Brisson, A

    2000-01-01

    Since their introduction through the work of McConnell et al. in the early 80s, supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) have proven to be a versatile model system for investigating a wide variety of phenomena. Despite their continuous application in fundamental as well as applied research fields, the

  10. Capturing suboptical dynamic structures in lipid bilayer patches formed from free-standing giant unilamellar vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatia, Tripta; Cornelius, Flemming; Ipsen, John H.

    2017-01-01

    treatment with magnesium chloride, they collapse to form planar lipid bilayer (PLB) patches. Rapid GUV collapse onto the mica preserves the lateral organization of freestanding membranes and thus makes it possible to image 'snapshots' of GUVs up to nanometer resolution by high-resolution microscopy...

  11. Quantitative Studies of Antimicrobial Peptide Pore Formation in Large Unilamellar Vesicles by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intensive research efforts over the past decades, the mechanisms by which membrane-active antimicrobial peptides interact with phospholipid membranes are not yet fully elucidated. New tools that can be used to characterize antimicrobial peptide-lipid membrane interactions are therefore...... leakage of fluorescent probes of different sizes through transmembrane pores formed by each of the three representative antimicrobial peptides: melittin, magainin 2, and mastoparan X. The experimental results demonstrate that leakage assays based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy offer new...... and detailed insight into the size and cooperative nature of transmembrane pores formed by antimicrobial peptides that is not available from the conventional quenching-based leakage assays....

  12. Fundamental Studies of Assembly and Mechanical Properties of Lipid Bilayer Membranes and Unilamellar Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi

    This dissertation work focuses on: (i) obtaining a phospholipid bilayer membrane (LBM)/conducting electrode system with low defect density and optimized rigidity; (ii) investigating vesicle stability and mechanical properties. LBM is a simplified yet representative cell membrane model. LBMs assembled on conductive surfaces can probe protein-LBM interactions activities electrochemically. Sterically stabilized vesicles could be used as cell models or for drug delivery. The main challenges for LBM assembly on gold are vesicles do not spontaneously rupture to form LBMs on gold and the roughness of the gold substrate has considerable influence on molecular film defect density. In this study, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) vesicles were functionalized with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine- N-poly(ethylene glycol)-2000-N-[3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate] (DSPE-PEG-PDP) to yield stable LBMs on gold without surface modification. A template-stripping method was used to obtain atomically flat and pristine gold surfaces. The critical force to initiate vesicle rupture decreases with increasing DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration, indicating that gold-thiolate bonding between DSPE-PEG-PDP and gold substrates promotes LBM formation. Mechanical properties of LBMs and vesicles were investigated as a function of DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration via Atomic Force Microscopy. The elastic moduli of LBMs were determined with DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration ranging from 0mol% to 24mol% and were found to depend on PEG chain conformation. Incorporating DSPE-PEG-PDP molecules with PEG in mushroom conformation results in a decrease of LBM rigidity, while incorporating PEG in brush conformation leads to LBM stiffening. Contrarily, mechanical properties of functionalized vesicles did not vary significantly by varying DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration. LBM with tunable rigidity by adjusting DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration provides a versatile cell membrane model for studying protein or peptide activities. The study of vesicle rupture mechanics and mechanical properties provide a means of understanding triggered release of internal payload from vesicular structures. POPC vesicles were also deposited on graphene; a transparent and highly conductive electrode. A combination method of diffusion bonding and template-stripping was used to prepare metal surfaces for graphene growth without concerns of outgassing, thermal and chemical compatibility. Continuous LBM formed on graphene-single crystal Cu, while tubular features with 120°C patterns formed on graphene-Cu foil, indicating the step edge of Cu below graphene may also guide the assembly of tubular LBM features on graphene.

  13. Caspase-8 Binding to Cardiolipin in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles Provides a Functional Docking Platform for Bid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalmar, Olivier; Franc¸ois-Moutal, Liberty; García-Sáez, Ana-Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-8 is involved in death receptor-mediated apoptosis in type II cells, the proapoptotic programme of which is triggered by truncated Bid. Indeed, caspase-8 and Bid are the known intermediates of this signalling pathway. Cardiolipin has been shown to provide an anchor and an essential activa...

  14. Quantitative optical microscopy and micromanipulation studies on the lipid bilayer membranes of giant unilamellar vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis; Needham, David

    2014-01-01

    experimentation. For instance, using different fluorescent reporters, fluorescence microscopy allows strategies to study membrane lateral structure/dynamics at the level of single vesicles of diverse compositions. The micropipette manipulation technique on the other hand, uses Hoffman modulation contrast...... of well-defined stresses to a single membrane or observe the effects of adhesive spreading. Knowledge gained by these studies has informed several applications of lipid membranes including their use as lung surfactants and drug delivery systems for cancer....

  15. A Quantitative Analytical Method to Test for Salt Effects on Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadorn, Maik; Bönzli, Eva; Eggenberger Hotz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    preparation method with automatic haemocytometry. We found that this new quantitative screening method is highly reliable and consistent with previously reported results. Thus, this method may provide a significant methodological advance in analysis of effects on free-standing model membranes....

  16. Defined DNA-mediated assemblies of gene-expressing giant unilamellar vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadorn, M.; Boenzli, E.; Sørensen, Kristian T.

    2013-01-01

    matter assemblies and that the highly sensitive gene-expression machinery remains intact and active during multiple experimental steps. An in silico model recapitulates the experiments performed in vitro and covers additional experimental setups highlighting the parameters that control the DNA...

  17. Structural modification of unilamellar and multilamellar vesicles in the presence of vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, A.; Raouf, Y. A.; Rashid, S.; Law, R. L.; Stojanoff, V.; Isakovic, A. F.; Gater, D. L.

    Chronic vitamin D deficiency is increasingly associated with a range of health conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain cancers. Our report contributes to a mechanistic understanding of these associations. Vitamin D is a lipophilic compound that is synthesized in the skin by the action of UV light on 7-dehydrocholesterol and obtained from dietary sources. We look at how vitamin D could be extracted from either skin membranes or therapeutic liposomes and transported through the body by its associated proteins. A variety of physical techniques (FTIR, DLS, UV-Vis spectroscopy, NMR, XRD) are brought to investigate: (a) the behavior of vitamin D in model membranes, and (b) the effect of vitamin D-associated proteins on membrane structure. Our results include: (1) vitamin D can be incorporated into DOPC membranes up to 40mol% with only minor changes in the dynamics of the lipid acyl chains; (2) liposomes containing larger quantities of vitamin D may have reduced stability over time; (3) the vitamin D binding protein and the vitamin D receptor do associate with and alter the behavior of model membranes, including systems that do not contain vitamin D. We acknowledge the support from KU-KAIST collaborative Grant program, and support from BNL staff.

  18. Knowledge Management in Small Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyasorn, Jessada; Panteli, Niki; Powell, Philip

    This paper explores knowledge management in small and medium-sized firms (SMEs). It investigates the use of Lotus Notes in SMEs of a developing country as a counterpoint to the large firm, developed country emphasis of existing research. It develops taxonomy of Lotus Notes use within the context of different knowledge management processes; notably communicating, co-ordinating and collaborating. The study employs an interpretive approach using three case studies. The key findings suggest that publishing, searching, sharing and retrieving are the user modes for enabling sharing and storing information. Evidence of knowledge creation is found at the departmental level but not at the organizational level. Further, small firms may explore more groupware potential than large organizations and this reflects their different context. Finally, implications for further research are identified.

  19. Small Business Social Responsibility Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Spence, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Corporate social responsibility communication by small and medium sized enterprises is theorized to form the concept of Small Business Social Responsibility (SBSR) Communication. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper that draws on Foucault’s theory of governmentality...... to develop a theoretical explanation for SBSR communication. Findings: Our analysis conceptualizes the ‘governmentality dilemma’ as SBSR managers face two simultaneous and potentially counterproductive expectations: responding to externally prescribed expectations, norms and standards such as branding, codes...... of conduct and CSR reporting (i.e. CSR as a “regime of truth”, Foucault) and an internally prescribed ethos of a personal philosophy of ethics and norms such as family identity and employee values, concern for local community and legacy of the company (i.e. CSR as personally held values). We contribute...

  20. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations.

  1. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements classificat....... This difference between the written requirements specification and the oral discussions at the meetings may help explain software engineers’ general preference for people, rather than documents, as their information sources.......Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements....... While coordination mechanisms focus on how classification schemes enable cooperation among people pursuing a common goal, boundary objects embrace the implicit consequences of classification schemes in situations involving conflicting goals. Moreover, the requirements specification focused on functional...

  2. Multiparametric imaging of patient and tumour heterogeneity in non-small-cell lung cancer: quantification of tumour hypoxia, metabolism and perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmpt, Wouter van; Zegers, Catharina M.L.; Reymen, Bart; Even, Aniek J.G.; Oellers, Michel; Troost, Esther G.C.; Lambin, Philippe [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Dingemans, Anne-Marie C. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Multiple imaging techniques are nowadays available for clinical in-vivo visualization of tumour biology. FDG PET/CT identifies increased tumour metabolism, hypoxia PET visualizes tumour oxygenation and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) CT characterizes vasculature and morphology. We explored the relationships among these biological features in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at both the patient level and the tumour subvolume level. A group of 14 NSCLC patients from two ongoing clinical trials (NCT01024829 and NCT01210378) were scanned using FDG PET/CT, HX4 PET/CT and DCE CT prior to chemoradiotherapy. Standardized uptake values (SUV) in the primary tumour were calculated for the FDG and hypoxia HX4 PET/CT scans. For hypoxia imaging, the hypoxic volume, fraction and tumour-to-blood ratio (TBR) were also defined. Blood flow and blood volume were obtained from DCE CT imaging. A tumour subvolume analysis was used to quantify the spatial overlap between subvolumes. At the patient level, negative correlations were observed between blood flow and the hypoxia parameters (TBR >1.2): hypoxic volume (-0.65, p = 0.014), hypoxic fraction (-0.60, p = 0.025) and TBR (-0.56, p = 0.042). At the tumour subvolume level, hypoxic and metabolically active subvolumes showed an overlap of 53 ± 36 %. Overlap between hypoxic sub-volumes and those with high blood flow and blood volume was smaller: 15 ± 17 % and 28 ± 28 %, respectively. Half of the patients showed a spatial mismatch (overlap <5 %) between increased blood flow and hypoxia. The biological imaging features defined in NSCLC tumours showed large interpatient and intratumour variability. There was overlap between hypoxic and metabolically active subvolumes in the majority of tumours, there was spatial mismatch between regions with high blood flow and those with increased hypoxia. (orig.)

  3. Improvement of internal tumor volumes of non-small cell lung cancer patients for radiation treatment planning using interpolated average CT in PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ching Wang

    Full Text Available Respiratory motion causes uncertainties in tumor edges on either computed tomography (CT or positron emission tomography (PET images and causes misalignment when registering PET and CT images. This phenomenon may cause radiation oncologists to delineate tumor volume inaccurately in radiotherapy treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to analyze radiology applications using interpolated average CT (IACT as attenuation correction (AC to diminish the occurrence of this scenario. Thirteen non-small cell lung cancer patients were recruited for the present comparison study. Each patient had full-inspiration, full-expiration CT images and free breathing PET images by an integrated PET/CT scan. IACT for AC in PET(IACT was used to reduce the PET/CT misalignment. The standardized uptake value (SUV correction with a low radiation dose was applied, and its tumor volume delineation was compared to those from HCT/PET(HCT. The misalignment between the PET(IACT and IACT was reduced when compared to the difference between PET(HCT and HCT. The range of tumor motion was from 4 to 17 mm in the patient cohort. For HCT and PET(HCT, correction was from 72% to 91%, while for IACT and PET(IACT, correction was from 73% to 93% (*p<0.0001. The maximum and minimum differences in SUVmax were 0.18% and 27.27% for PET(HCT and PET(IACT, respectively. The largest percentage differences in the tumor volumes between HCT/PET and IACT/PET were observed in tumors located in the lowest lobe of the lung. Internal tumor volume defined by functional information using IACT/PET(IACT fusion images for lung cancer would reduce the inaccuracy of tumor delineation in radiation therapy planning.

  4. Computed Tomography-Guided Methylene Blue Labeling Prior to Thoracoscopic Resection of Small Deeply Placed Pulmonary Nodules. Do We Really Need Palpation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findik, Gokturk; Demiröz, S Mustafa; Apaydın, Selma Mine Kara; Ertürk, Hakan; Biri, Suzan; Incekara, Funda; Aydogdu, Koray; Kaya, Sadi

    2017-08-01

    Background  Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is widely used for thoracic surgery operations, and day by day it becomes routine for the excision of undetermined pulmonary nodules. However, it is sometimes hard to reach millimetric nodules through a VATS incision. Therefore, some additional techniques were developed to reach such nodules little in size and which are settled on a challenging localization. In the literature, coils, hook wires, methylene blue, lipidol, and barium staining, and also ultrasound guidance were described for this aim. Herein we discuss our experience with CT-guided methylene blue labeling of small, deeply located pulmonary nodules just before VATS excision. Method  From April 2013 to October 2016, 11 patients with millimetric pulmonary nodules (average 8, 7 mm) were evaluated in our clinic. For all these patients who had strong predisposing factors for malignancy, an 18F-FDG PET-CT scan was also performed. The patients whose nodules were decided to be excised were consulted the radiology clinic. The favorable patients were taken to CT room 2 hours prior to the operation, and CT-guided methylene blue staining were performed under sterile conditions. Results  Mean nodule size of 11 patients was 8.7 mm (6, 2-12). Mean distance from the visceral pleural surface was 12.7 mm (4-29.3). Four of the nodules were located on the left (2 upper lobes, 2 lower lobes), and seven of them were on the right (four lower lobes, two upper lobes, one middle lobe). The maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max) on 18F-FDG PET/CT scan ranged between 0 and 2, 79. Conclusion  CT-guided methylene blue staining of millimetric deeply located pulmonary nodules is a safe and feasible technique that helps surgeon find these undetermined nodules by VATS technique without any need of digital palpation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Small group discussion: Students perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    Context: Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. Aims: The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through s...

  6. Small Business Innovations (Robotic Wrist)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. Minneapolis, MN, developed the Omni-Wrist actuator, which has a 25-pound capacity, 180 degrees of pitch/yaw, and 360 degrees of roll. Company literature calls it "the first successful singularity-free high-precision (robotic) wrist." Applications include spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, welding and a variety of nuclear industry, aerospace and military uses.

  7. Small Business Innovations (Integrated Database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Because of the diversity of NASA's information systems, it was necessary to develop DAVID as a central database management system. Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Ken Wanderman and Associates, Inc. designed software tools enabling scientists to interface with DAVID and commercial database management systems, as well as artificial intelligence programs. The software has been installed at a number of data centers and is commercially available.

  8. Small Business Innovations (Fiber Optics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Foster-Miller, Inc. Waltham, MA developed the In-Situ Fiber Optic Polymer Reaction Monitor which could lead to higher yields and lower costs in complex composite manufacturing. The monitor, developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center, uses an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. It is the first analytical system capable of directly measuring the chemistry of advanced composite materials.

  9. Tropical birds take small risks

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Pape Møller; Wei Liang

    2013-01-01

    The life history of tropical birds differs from that of their temperate counterparts by late start of reproduction, small clutch sizes, and high rates of adult survival. Thus, tropical species should have greater residual reproductive value than temperate species. Therefore, tropical birds can be predicted to take smaller risks than closely related temperate birds in order not to jeopardize their prospects of survival, which is the single most important component of fitness, and which is grea...

  10. Small Business and International Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Radchenko, Anastasiia

    2017-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises together with start-ups are highly important in the nowadays economic environment. Such companies contribute raise of employment, stimulate the economic growth and innovation development. However, not all start-ups can survive more than five-year period. Support from government and private investors can help to overcome such problems. Moreover, SMEs internationalization and global functioning can support businesses during the tough times. The goal of the Mas...

  11. Small Body Hopper Mobility Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lee, Dave E.; Crues, E. Zack; Dexter, Dan E.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Chappell, Steve P.; Nguyen, Hung T.

    2015-01-01

    A propellant-saving hopper mobility system was studied that could help facilitate the exploration of small bodies such as Phobos for long-duration human missions. The NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) has proposed a mission to the moons of Mars as a transitional step for eventual Mars surface exploration. While a Mars transit habitat would be parked in High-Mars Orbit (HMO), crew members would visit the surface of Phobos multiple times for up to 14 days duration (up to 50 days at a time with logistics support). This paper describes a small body surface mobility concept that is capable of transporting a small, two-person Pressurized Exploration Vehicle (PEV) cabin to various sites of interest in the low-gravity environment. Using stored kinetic energy between bounces, a propellant-saving hopper mobility system can release the energy to vector the vehicle away from the surface in a specified direction. Alternatively, the stored energy can be retained for later use while the vehicle is stationary in respect to the surface. The hopper actuation was modeled using a variety of launch velocities, and the hopper mobility was evaluated using NASA Exploration Systems Simulations (NExSyS) for transit between surface sites of interest. A hopper system with linear electromagnetic motors and mechanical spring actuators coupled with Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) for attitude control will use renewable electrical power, resulting in a significant propellant savings.

  12. Small grains and IRAS colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, F.; Beichman, C.; Helou, G.; Desert, F. X.; Perault, M.

    1988-01-01

    The paper studies how infrared colors of dust emission from the interstellar medium vary with the energy density of the radiation field on the basis of IRAS observation of the California Nebula. The data suggest that color variations result from a combinatin of equilibrium emission from large grains, and nonequilibrium emission from small grains, with destruction of the small grains emitting at 12 microns at high energy density; it is estimated that 80 percent of these small particles are destroyed for an energy density in ultraviolet photons larger than 50 times that of the average interstellar radiation field in the solar neighborhood. In a color-color diagram, I(v)(60 microns)/I(v)(100 microns) versus I(v)(12 microns)/I(v)(25 microns), the California Nebula measurements at various distances to the ionizing star Zeta Per follow a sequence similar to that of galaxies. This result shows that the position of a galaxy along this sequence is a measure of the intensity of the radiation field in the regions responsible for the infrared emission.

  13. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  14. Evolution of small prokaryotic genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David José Martínez-Cano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As revealed by genome sequencing, the biology of prokaryotes with reduced genomes is strikingly diverse. These include free-living prokaryotes with ~800 genes as well as endosymbiotic bacteria with as few as ~140 genes. Comparative genomics is revealing the evolutionary mechanisms that led to these small genomes. In the case of free-living prokaryotes, natural selection directly favored genome reduction, while in the case of endosymbiotic prokaryotes neutral processes played a more prominent role. However, new experimental data suggest that selective processes may be at operation as well for endosymbiotic prokaryotes at least during the first stages of genome reduction. Endosymbiotic prokaryotes have evolved diverse strategies for living with reduced gene sets inside a host-defined medium. These include utilization of host-encoded functions (some of them coded by genes acquired by gene transfer from the endosymbiont and/or other bacteria; metabolic complementation between co-symbionts; and forming consortiums with other bacteria within the host. Recent genome sequencing projects of intracellular mutualistic bacteria showed that previously believed universal evolutionary trends like reduced G+C content and conservation of genome synteny are not always present in highly reduced genomes. Finally, the simplified molecular machinery of some of these organisms with small genomes may be used to aid in the design of artificial minimal cells. Here we review recent genomic discoveries of the biology of prokaryotes endowed with small gene sets and discuss the evolutionary mechanisms that have been proposed to explain their peculiar nature.

  15. A computational pipeline for quantification of pulmonary infections in small animal models using serial PET-CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Ulas; Foster, Brent; Miller-Jaster, Kirsten; Luna, Brian; Dey, Bappaditya; Bishai, William R; Jonsson, Colleen B; Jain, Sanjay; Mollura, Daniel J

    2013-07-23

    within the resolution limits), respectively. Quantitative results obtained from the proposed methodology were visually related to the progress and severity of the pulmonary infections as verified by the participating radiologists. Moreover, we demonstrated that lesions due to the infections were metabolically active and appeared multi-focal in nature, and we observed similar patterns in the CT images as well. Consolidation and ground glass opacity were the main abnormal imaging patterns and consistently appeared in all CT images. We also found that the gross and metabolic lesion volume percentage follow the same trend as the SUV-based evaluation in the longitudinal analysis. We explored the feasibility of using PET and CT imaging modalities in three distinct small animal models for two diverse pulmonary infections. We concluded from the clinical findings, derived from the proposed computational pipeline, that PET-CT imaging is an invaluable hybrid modality for tracking pulmonary infections longitudinally in small animals and has great potential to become routinely used in clinics. Our proposed methodology showed that automated computed-aided lesion detection and quantification of pulmonary infections in small animal models are efficient and accurate as compared to the clinical standard of manual and semi-automated approaches. Automated analysis of images in pre-clinical applications can increase the efficiency and quality of pre-clinical findings that ultimately inform downstream experimental design in human clinical studies; this innovation will allow researchers and clinicians to more effectively allocate study resources with respect to research demands without compromising accuracy.

  16. Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Sundrum, Raman

    2017-05-01

    The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.

  17. 78 FR 59798 - Small Business Subcontracting: Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting: Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small..., 2013 (78 FR 42391). The document amended SBA's regulations governing small business subcontracting to...-16967.pdf ). SBA published a final rule on subcontracting to implement provisions of the Small Business...

  18. Turbulent diffusion of small particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolin, L.G.

    1977-11-01

    The diffusion of small, spherical, rigid particles suspended in an incompressible turbulent fluid, but not interacting with each other, was studied. As a stochastic process, the turbulent fluid velocity field is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and stationary. Assuming the Stokes regime, a particle of equation of motion is used which includes only the effects of Stokes drag and a virtual mass force and an exact solution is found for the particle velocity correlation function, for all times and initial conditions, in terms of a fluid velocity correlation function measured along the motion of the particle. This shows that for times larger than a certain time scale, the particle velocity correlation becomes stationary. The effect of small shears in the fluid velocity was considered, under the additional restrictions of a certain high frequency regime for the turbulence. The shears convected past the particle much faster than the growth of the boundary layer. New force terms due to the presence of such shears are calculated and incorporated into the equation of motion. A perturbation solution to this equation is constructed, and the resultant particle velocity correlation function and diffusion coefficient are calculated. To lowest order, the particle diffusivity is found to be unaltered by the presence of small mean flow shears. The last model treated is one in which particles traverse a turbulent fluid with a large mean velocity. Among other restrictions, linearized form drag is assumed. The diffusion coefficient for such particles was calculated, and found to be much smaller than the passive scalar diffusion coefficient. This agrees within 5 percent with the experimental results of Snyder and Lumley.

  19. Helicity Evolution at Small x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Michael; Kovchegov, Yuri; Pitonyak, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We construct small- x evolution equations which can be used to calculate quark and anti-quark helicity TMDs and PDFs, along with the g1 structure function. These evolution equations resum powers of ln2(1 / x) in the polarization-dependent evolution along with the powers of ln(1 / x) in the unpolarized evolution which includes saturation effects. The equations are written in an operator form in terms of polarization-dependent Wilson line-like operators. While the equations do not close in general, they become closed and self-contained systems of non-linear equations in the large-Nc and large-Nc &Nf limits. After solving the large-Nc equations numerically we obtain the following small- x asymptotics for the flavor-singlet g1 structure function along with quarks hPDFs and helicity TMDs (in absence of saturation effects): g1S(x ,Q2) ΔqS(x ,Q2) g1L S(x ,kT2) (1/x) > αh (1/x) 2.31√{αsNc/2 π. We also give an estimate of how much of the proton's spin may be at small x and what impact this has on the so-called ``spin crisis.'' Work supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award Number DE-SC0004286 (YK), the RIKEN BNL Research Center, and TMD Collaboration (DP), and DOE Contract No. DE-SC0012704 (MS).

  20. Small animal models of xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation has become a successful and acceptable treatment for end-stage organ failure. Such success has allowed transplant patients to resume a normal lifestyle. The demands for transplantation have been steadily increasing, as more patients and new diseases are being deemed eligible for treatment via transplantation. However, it is clear that human organs will never meet the increasing demand of transplantation. Therefore, scientists must continue to pursue alternative therapies and explore new treatments to meet the growing demand for the limited number of organs available. Transplanting organs from animals into humans (xenotransplantation) is one such therapy. The observed enthusiasm for xenotransplantation, irrespective of the severe shortage of human organs and tissues available for transplantation, can be said to stem from at least two factors. First, there is the possibility that animal organs and tissues might be less susceptible than those of humans to the recurrence of disease processes. Second, a xenograft might be used as a vehicle for introducing novel genes or biochemical processes which could be of therapeutic value for the transplant recipient.To date, millions of lives have been saved by organ transplantation. These remarkable achievements would have been impossible without experimental transplantation research in animal models. Presently, more than 95% of organ transplantation research projects are carried out using rodents, such as rats and mice. The key factor to ensure the success of these experiments lies in state-of-the art experimental surgery. Small animal models offer unique advantages for the mechanistic study of xenotransplantation rejection. Currently, multiple models have been developed for investigating the different stages of immunological barriers in xenotransplantation. In this chapter, we describe six valuable small animal models that have been used in xenotransplantation research. The methodology for the small animal

  1. SMALL VESICLES, BIG VEHICLES: EXOSOMES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiz-Lopez P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small membranous vesicles released by different cell types. Since their discovery, they have evolved from being considered simple vehicles for the liberation of cellular wastes, to become one of the most promising fields in the area of biomedical research, and more specifically in oncology, since the different malignant tumors release exosomes to all biological fluids, being involved in various functions of the neoplastic process. At present, it is possible to study these vesicles by minimally invasive techniques in patients, which approach us to obtain a more detailed diagnosis and prognosis, as well as to the discovery of new antitumoral therapies

  2. A small scale honey dehydrator

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, R.S.; Hans, V. S.; Singh, Sukhmeet; Pal Singh, Parm; Dhaliwal, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    A small scale honey dehydrator has been designed, developed, and tested to reduce moisture content of honey below 17 %. Experiments have been conducted for honey dehydration by using drying air at ambient temperature, 30 and 40 °C and water at 35, 40 and 45 °C. In this dehydrator, hot water has been circulated in a water jacket around the honey container to heat honey. The heated honey has been pumped through a sieve to form honey streams through which drying air passes for moisture removal. ...

  3. GEF small grants programme - overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the GEF small grants program which seeks to enhance the role of households and communities in conserving global biodiversity, mitigating global climate change, and protecting international waters. Grants up to $50k have been granted for projects in 33 countries, with plans for 12 other countries. The author describes the framework that the program works under, and the methodology followed in developing and planning projects. The approach to climate change concerns is to emphasize the development of non-carbon energy development activities to provide energy sources and economic development.

  4. Small angle scattering and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, J.P. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs.

  5. Small hydro plant development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using pump turbine - induction motor (generators) packages in lieu of standardized turbogenerator units in small hydro development projects was reported. The following topics are considered: (1) listing of Hydroelectric Power Resources by State; (2) Manufacturers' Data on Standardized Hydroturbines; (3) Inventory of Available Pumping Equipment; (4) Characteristics of Representative Pumps; (5) Survey of Pump Manufacturers and Engineering Firms; (6) Model Pump Mode and Turbine Mode Characteristics; (7) Prototype Turbine Mode Characteristics; (8) Pump (Turbine) Motor (Generator) Equipment Packages; (9) Manufacturers' Data on Components of Equipment Packages; (10) Overspeed Calculations; and (11) Economic Evaluation.

  6. Small Bowel Review: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past year, there have been many advances in the area of small bowel physiology and pathology. More than 1500 papers were assessed in preparation for this review. Some were selected and reviewed, with a particular focus on presenting clinically useful information for the practising gastroenterologist. Relevant review articles have been highlighted, and important clinical learning points have been stressed. The topics are varied in scope, and wherever possible show a logical progression from basic physiology to pathophysiology to clinical disorders and management.

  7. New developments in small cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottereau, Alain; Ben David, Marc

    1996-06-01

    An overview of the new developments in small cryocoolers at L'Air Liquide-DTA is presented. The results of a pulse tube refrigerator developed in collaboration with l'Ecole Normale Superieure, the first French laboratory which worked on this subject, are discussed. An original two flowrate flat Joule- Thomson cooler is extensively described. This last development shows the historic willingness of L'Air Liquide- DTA to be present in demand flow cryostat and fast cool-down systems for defense programs.

  8. Small signal microwave amplifier design

    CERN Document Server

    Grosch, Theodore

    2000-01-01

    This book explains techniques and examples for designing stable amplifiers for high-frequency applications in which the signal is small and the amplifier circuit is linear. An in-depth discussion of linear network theory provides the foundation needed to develop actual designs. Examples throughout the book will show you how to apply the knowledge gained in each chapter leading to the complex design of low noise amplifiers. Many exercises at the end of each chapter will help students to practice their skills. The solutions to these design problems are available in an accompanying solutions book

  9. Financial sector support for small business development

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the relationships between the financial sector and small businesses, and the small business policy framework in South Africa. The study also measures the perception of the Business Chambers and Commercial Banks on the effectiveness of financial sector support to small businesses in the Gauteng area through a questionnaire. The Small Business Development Policy of 1996 outlines the functions of various small business support institutions such as Ntsika Enterprise Promotion A...

  10. Barium peritonitis in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae Jin; Mann, F A Tony

    2014-05-01

    Barium peritonitis is extremely rare, but is difficult to treat and may be life-threatening. Barium suspension leakage from the gastrointestinal tract into the abdominal cavity has a time-dependent and synergistically deleterious effect in patients who have generalized bacterial peritonitis. The severity of barium peritonitis is dependent on the quantity of barium in the abdominal cavity. Barium sulfate leakage results in hypovolemia and hypoproteinemia by worsening the exudation of extracellular fluid and albumin. Abdominal fluid analysis is a useful and efficient method to diagnose barium peritonitis. Serial radiographs may not be a reliable or timely diagnostic technique. Initial aggressive fluid resuscitation and empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment should be instituted promptly, followed quickly by celiotomy. During exploratory surgical intervention, copious irrigation and direct wiping with gauze are employed to remove as much barium as possible. Omentectomy should be considered when needed to expedite barium removal. Despite aggressive medical and surgical treatments, postoperative prognosis is guarded to poor due to complications, such as acute vascular shock, sepsis, diffuse peritonitis, hypoproteninemia, electrolyte imbalance, cardiac arrest, small bowel obstruction related to progression of granulomas and adhesions in the abdominal cavity. Therefore, intensive postoperative monitoring and prompt intervention are necessary to maximize chances for a positive outcome. For those that do survive, small bowel obstruction is a potential consequence due to progression of abdominal adhesions.

  11. Small fields: nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indra J; Ding, George X; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Advances in radiation treatment with beamlet-based intensity modulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery (including specialized equipments like CyberKnife, Gamma Knife, tomotherapy, and high-resolution multileaf collimating systems) have resulted in the use of reduced treatment fields to a subcentimeter scale. Compared to the traditional radiotherapy with fields > or =4 x 4 cm2, this can result in significant uncertainty in the accuracy of clinical dosimetry. The dosimetry of small fields is challenging due to nonequilibrium conditions created as a consequence of the secondary electron track lengths and the source size projected through the collimating system that are comparable to the treatment field size. It is further complicated by the prolonged electron tracks in the presence of low-density inhomogeneities. Also, radiation detectors introduced into such fields usually perturb the level of disequilibrium. Hence, the dosimetric accuracy previously achieved for standard radiotherapy applications is at risk for both absolute and relative dose determination. This article summarizes the present knowledge and gives an insight into the future procedures to handle the nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry problems. It is anticipated that new miniature detectors with controlled perturbations and corrections will be available to meet the demand for accurate measurements. It is also expected that the Monte Carlo techniques will increasingly be used in assessing the accuracy, verification, and calculation of dose, and will aid perturbation calculations of detectors used in small and highly conformal radiation beams. rican Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. Small Bowel Dissemination of Coccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal coccidioidomycosis is extremely rare, with less than 10 cases reported in the literature. We report a case of small bowel dissemination of coccidioidomycosis in a 21-year-old African American male with a history of living in San Joaquin Valley. The patient presented with one week of abdominal pain, nausea, shortness of breath, intermittent fever, and sweat, and one month of abdominal distention. A chest radiograph revealed complete effusion of left lung. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed diffuse small bowel thickening and enhancement, as well as omental and peritoneal nodules, and ascites. The coccidioidal complement fixation titer was 1 : 256. The duodenal biopsy revealed many spherules filled with round fungal endospores. Later, blood fungal culture showed positivity for Coccidioides immitis. The final diagnosis is disseminated coccidioidomycosis involving lungs, blood, and duodenum. Despite aggressive antifungal therapy, the patient’s clinical situation deteriorated and he succumbed to multisystem organ failure one and half months later. A high index of suspicion for gastrointestinal coccidioidomycosis should be maintained in patients from an endemic area presenting as abdominal distention and pain.

  13. Thrust sensing for small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Christopher Scott

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become prevalent in both military and civilian applications. UAVs have many size categories from large-scale aircraft to micro air vehicles. The performance, health, and efficiency for UAVs of smaller sizes can be difficult to assess and few associated instrumentation systems have been developed. Thrust measurements on the ground can characterize systems especially when combined with simultaneous motor power measurements. This thesis demonstrates the use of strain measurements to measure the thrust produced by motor/propeller combinations for such small UAVs. A full-bridge Wheatstone circuit and electrical resistance strain gauges were used in conjunction with constant-stress cantilever beams for static tests and dynamic wind tunnel tests. An associated instrumentation module monitored power from the electric motor. Monitoring the thrust data over time can provide insights into optimal propeller and motor selection and early detection of problems such as component failure. The approach provides a system for laboratory or field measurements that can be scaled for a wide range of small UAVs.

  14. 18F-FDG PET/CT for Very Early Response Evaluation Predicts CT Response in Erlotinib-Treated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: A Comparison of Assessment Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledelius, Joan; Winther-Larsen, Anne; Khalil, Azza A; Bylov, Catharina M; Hjorthaug, Karin; Bertelsen, Aksel; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Meldgaard, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which method for early response evaluation with 18F-FDG PET/CT performed most optimally for the prediction of response on a later CT scan in erlotinib-treated non-small cell lung cancer patients. Methods:18F-FDG PET/CT scans were obtained before and after 7-10 d of erlotinib treatment in 50 non-small cell lung cancer patients. The scans were evaluated using a qualitative approach and various semiquantitative methods including percentage change in SUVs, lean body mass-corrected (SUL) SULpeak, SULmax, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). The PET parameters and their corresponding response categories were compared with the percentage change in the sum of the longest diameter in target lesions and the resulting response categories from a CT scan obtained after 9-11 wk of erlotinib treatment using receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, linear regression, and quadratic-weighted κ. Results: TLG delineation according to the PERCIST showed the strongest correlation to sum of the longest diameter (R = 0.564, P evaluation correctly categorized 50%, with a κ-value of 0.47 (95% CI, 0.24-0.70). Conclusion: TLG (PERCIST) was the optimal predictor of response on later CT scans, outperforming both SULpeak and SULmax The use of TLG (PERCIST) with a 25% cutoff after 1-2 wk of treatment allows us to safely identify 41% of the patients who will not benefit from erlotinib and stop the treatment at this time. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  15. Small Business Innovations (Mass Microbalance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Femtometrics of Costa Mesa, CA, developed the Model 200-1 SAW Mass Microbalance under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. The product is described as "the next generation of aerosol mass microbalance technology," because a new type of sensor, the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) piezoelectric crystal, offers mass resolution two orders of magnitude greater than the Quartz Crystal Microbalance cascade impactor (QCM) (used at Langley since 1979 for collection and measurement of aerosol particles in the upper atmosphere). The Model 200-1 SAW Mass Microbalance, which provides a 400-fold increase in mass sensitivity per unit area over the QCM, can be used for real-time particle monitoring in clean rooms, measuring chemical vapors in very low concentrations, measuring target chemicals in the stratosphere and in industry as a toxic vapor monitor.

  16. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  17. Small-molecule arginase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenkov, Yan A; Chufarova, Nina V

    2014-01-01

    Arginase is an enzyme that metabolizes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. In addition to its fundamental role in the hepatic ornithine cycle, it also influences the immune systems in humans and mice. Arginase participates in many inflammatory disorders by decreasing the synthesis of nitric oxide and inducing fibrosis and tissue regeneration. L-arginine deficiency, which is modulated by myeloid cell arginase, suppresses T-cell immune response. This mechanism plays a fundamental role in inflammation-associated immunosuppression. Pathogens can synthesize their own arginase to elude immune reaction. Small-molecule arginase inhibitors are currently described as promising therapeutics for the treatment of several diseases, including allergic asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis and hypertension), diseases associated with pathogens (e.g., Helicobacter pylori, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Salmonella), cancer and induced or spontaneous immune disorders. This article summarizes recent patents in the area of arginase inhibitors and discusses their properties.

  18. Improvement in Small Progress Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Gazda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small Progress Measures is one of the classical parity game solving algorithms. For games with n vertices, m edges and d different priorities, the original algorithm computes the winning regions and a winning strategy for one of the players in O(dm.(n/floor(d/2^floor(d/2 time. Computing a winning strategy for the other player requires a re-run of the algorithm on that player's winning region, thus increasing the runtime complexity to O(dm.(n/ceil(d/2^ceil(d/2 for computing the winning regions and winning strategies for both players. We modify the algorithm so that it derives the winning strategy for both players in one pass. This reduces the upper bound on strategy derivation for SPM to O(dm.(n/floor(d/2^floor(d/2. At the basis of our modification is a novel operational interpretation of the least progress measure that we provide.

  19. Small-pads resistive micromegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alviggi, M.; Biglietti, M.; Canale, V.; Della Pietra, M.; Di Donato, C.; Franchino, S.; Iengo, P.; Iodice, M.; Petrucci, F.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sidiropoulou, O.

    2017-03-01

    Resistive micromegas is now a mature technology for High Energy Physics experiments. In the ATLAS experiment at CERN 128 multilayers large size (~2 m2) micromegas chambers will be employed in the upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer (2019/2020), and will operate at moderate hit rate up to about 15 kHz/cm2 during the phase of High-Luminosity-LHC . Future upgrades and detectors at future accelerators will require operation at rates up to three orders of magnitude higher. In this paper we present the development of micromegas with a small-pads readout (few mm2 in size) aiming at precision tracking in high rate environment without efficiency loss up to a few MHz/cm2. The detector layout and the construction technique will be reviewed, along with the first results obtained with radioactive sources. Outlooks on future developments will also be illustrated.

  20. Disturbances in small bowel motility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the small intestine has become the focus of investigation as a potential site of dysmotility in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number of motor abnormalities have been defined in some studies, and include \\'clustered\\' contractions, exaggerated post-prandial motor response and disturbances in intestinal transit. The significance of these findings remains unclear. The interpretation of available studies is complicated by differences in subject selection, the direct influence of certain symptoms, such as diarrhoea and constipation, and the interference of compounding factors, such as stress and psychopathology. Dysmotility could also reflect autonomic dysfunction, disturbed CNS control and the response to heightened visceral sensation or central perception. While motor abnormalities may not explain all symptoms in IBS, sensorimotor interactions may be important in symptom pathogenesis and deserve further study.

  1. Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for the stored energies obtained through the vector spherical wave theory, it is shown that a magnetic-coated metal core reduces the internal stored energy of both TM1m and TE1m modes simultaneously, so that a self-resonant antenna with the Q approaching the fundamental minimum is created. Numerical results...... for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q....

  2. Injection system for small betatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuorygin, V.P.; Chakhlov, V.L.; Pushin, U.S.

    1985-07-01

    In order to reduce the head loads on the injector electrodes and to raise the efficiency of electron capture during acceleration, small betatrons are provided with an injection system with a controlled three-electrode injector in which injection current pulse with steep leading and trailing edges is formed by the application of a voltage pulse to the control electrode from a separate circuit through a pulse transformer. In a betatron injection system described, elements of the controlled injector of the accelerating chamber are used to correct the shape of the current pulse. The circuit for correcting the current-pulse shape can increase the accelerated charge by the average of 75% per betatron cycle and decrease the heat loads on the electrodes of the injector without the use of a generator of controlling voltage pulses.

  3. Tissue engineering the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Ryan G; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2013-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) results from the loss of a highly specialized organ, the small intestine. SBS and its current treatments are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Production of tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from the patient's own cells could restore normal intestinal function via autologous transplantation. Improved understanding of intestinal stem cells and their niche have been coupled with advances in tissue engineering techniques. Originally described by Vacanti et al of Massachusetts General Hospital, TESI has been produced by in vivo implantation of organoid units. Organoid units are multicellular clusters of epithelium and mesenchyme that may be harvested from native intestine. These clusters are loaded onto a scaffold and implanted into the host omentum. The scaffold provides physical support that permits angiogenesis and vasculogenesis of the developing tissue. After a period of 4 weeks, histologic analyses confirm the similarity of TESI to native intestine. TESI contains a differentiated epithelium, mesenchyme, blood vessels, muscle, and nerve components. To date, similar experiments have proved successful in rat, mouse, and pig models. Additional experiments have shown clinical improvement and rescue of SBS rats after implantation of TESI. In comparison with the group that underwent massive enterectomy alone, rats that had surgical anastomosis of TESI to their shortened intestine showed improvement in postoperative weight gain and serum B12 values. Recently, organoid units have been harvested from human intestinal samples and successfully grown into TESI by using an immunodeficient mouse host. Current TESI production yields approximately 3 times the number of cells initially implanted, but improvements in the scaffold and blood supply are being developed in efforts to increase TESI size. Exciting new techniques in stem cell biology and directed cellular differentiation may generate additional sources of autologous intestinal

  4. Geophysics of Small Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik I.

    1998-01-01

    As a SETI Institute PI from 1996-1998, Erik Asphaug studied impact and tidal physics and other geophysical processes associated with small (low-gravity) planetary bodies. This work included: a numerical impact simulation linking basaltic achondrite meteorites to asteroid 4 Vesta (Asphaug 1997), which laid the groundwork for an ongoing study of Martian meteorite ejection; cratering and catastrophic evolution of small bodies (with implications for their internal structure; Asphaug et al. 1996); genesis of grooved and degraded terrains in response to impact; maturation of regolith (Asphaug et al. 1997a); and the variation of crater outcome with impact angle, speed, and target structure. Research of impacts into porous, layered and prefractured targets (Asphaug et al. 1997b, 1998a) showed how shape, rheology and structure dramatically affects sizes and velocities of ejecta, and the survivability and impact-modification of comets and asteroids (Asphaug et al. 1998a). As an affiliate of the Galileo SSI Team, the PI studied problems related to cratering, tectonics, and regolith evolution, including an estimate of the impactor flux around Jupiter and the effect of impact on local and regional tectonics (Asphaug et al. 1998b). Other research included tidal breakup modeling (Asphaug and Benz 1996; Schenk et al. 1996), which is leading to a general understanding of the role of tides in planetesimal evolution. As a Guest Computational Investigator for NASA's BPCC/ESS supercomputer testbed, helped graft SPH3D onto an existing tree code tuned for the massively parallel Cray T3E (Olson and Asphaug, in preparation), obtaining a factor xIO00 speedup in code execution time (on 512 cpus). Runs which once took months are now completed in hours.

  5. Characterization of Small (Energy CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavik N; Bibbey, Alex; Choudhury, Kingshuk R; Leder, Richard A; Nelson, Rendon C; Marin, Daniele

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether single-phase contrast-enhanced dual-energy quantitative spectral analysis improves the accuracy of diagnosis of small (energy attenuation measurements. In this retrospective study, 136 consecutive patients (95 men and 41 women; mean age, 54 years) with 144 renal lesions (111 benign and 33 malignant) underwent single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen. For each renal lesion, attenuation measurements were obtained, and an attenuation change of 15 HU or greater was considered evidence of enhancement. Dual-energy spectral attenuation curves were generated for each lesion. The slope of each curve was measured between 40 and 50 keV (λHU40-50), 40 and 70 keV (λHU40-70), and 40 and 140 keV (λHU40-140). Mean lesion attenuation values and spectral attenuation curve parameters were compared between benign and malignant renal lesions by use of the two-sample t test. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed and validated using cross-validation analysis. With the use of cross-validated optimal thresholds at 100% sensitivity, specificity for differentiating between benign and malignant renal lesions improved significantly when both λHU40-70 and λHU40-140 were used, compared with conventional enhancement measurements (93% [103/111; 95% CI, 86-97%] vs 81% [90/111; 95% CI, 73-88%]) (p = 0.02). The sensitivity of λHU40-70 and λHU40-140 was also higher than that of conventional enhancement measurements, although it was not statistically significant. Single-phase contrast-enhanced dual-energy quantitative spectral analysis significantly improves the specificity for characterization of small (energy attenuation measurements.

  6. Small Cold Temperature Instrument Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Feng, S.; Brigham, D.; Beaman, B.

    We are developing a small cold temperature instrument package concept that integrates a cold temperature power system with ultra low temperature ultra low power electronics components and power supplies now under development into a 'cold temperature surface operational' version of a planetary surface instrument package. We are already in the process of developing a lower power lower temperature version for an instrument of mutual interest to SMD and ESMD to support the search for volatiles (the mass spectrometer VAPoR, Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) both as a stand alone instrument and as part of an environmental monitoring package. We build on our previous work to develop strategies for incorporating Ultra Low Temperature/Ultra Low Power (ULT/ULP) electronics, lower voltage power supplies, as well as innovative thermal design concepts for instrument packages. Cryotesting has indicated that our small Si RHBD CMOS chips can deliver >80% of room temperature performance at 40K (nominal minimum lunar surface temperature). We leverage collaborations, past and current, with the JPL battery development program to increase power system efficiency in extreme environments. We harness advances in MOSFET technology that provide lower voltage thresholds for power switching circuits incorporated into our low voltage power supply concept. Conventional power conversion has a lower efficiency. Our low power circuit concept based on 'synchronous rectification' could produce stable voltages as low as 0.6 V with 85% efficiency. Our distributed micro-battery-based power supply concept incorporates cold temperature power supplies operating with a 4 V or 8 V battery. This work will allow us to provide guidelines for applying the low temperature, low power system approaches generically to the widest range of surface instruments.

  7. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate loans, small business... OF THE TREASURY LENDING LIMITS § 32.7 Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans. (a) Residential real estate, small business, and small farm loans. (1) In addition to the...

  8. 75 FR 66411 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Women-Owned Small Business Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Entity Compliance Guide: Women-Owned Small Business Program AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice: Availability of Compliance Guide. SUMMARY: The Small Business Administration (SBA) is announcing the availability of a compliance guide for the Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB...

  9. Chemisorption and Reactions of Small Molecules on Small Gold Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Bond

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity of supported gold particles for a number of oxidations and hydrogenations starts to increase dramatically as the size falls below ~3 nm. This is accompanied by an increased propensity to chemisorption, especially of oxygen and hydrogen. The explanation for these phenomena has to be sought in kinetic analysis that connects catalytic activity with the strength and extent of chemisorption of the reactants, the latter depending on the electronic structure of the gold atoms constituting the active centre. Examination of the changes to the utilisation of electrons as particle size is decreased points to loss of metallic character at about 3 nm, as energy bands are replaced by levels, and a band gap appears. Detailed consideration of the Arrhenius parameters (E and ln A for CO oxidation points clearly to a step-change in activity at the point where metallic character is lost, as opposed to there being a monotonic dependence of rate on a physical property such as the fraction of atoms at corners or edges of particles. The deplorable scarcity of kinetic information on other reactions makes extension of this analysis difficult, but non-metallic behaviour is an unavoidable property of very small gold particles, and therefore cannot be ignored when seeking to explain their exceptional activity.

  10. Enabling Technology for Small Satellite Launch Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses of small...

  11. Small Proteins Can No Longer Be Ignored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Gisela; Wolf, Yuri I.; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S.

    2014-01-01

    Small proteins, here defined as proteins of 50 amino acids or less in the absence of processing, have traditionally been overlooked due to challenges in their annotation and biochemical detection. In the past several years however, increasing numbers of small proteins have been identified either through the realization that mutations in “intergenic” regions actually are within unannotated small protein genes, or through the discovery that some small, regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) encode small proteins. These insights together with comparative sequence analysis indicate that tens if not hundreds of small proteins are synthesized in a given organism. This review will summarize what has been learned about the functions of several of these bacterial small proteins, most of which act at the membrane, illustrating the astonishing range of processes in which the small proteins act and pointing to several general conclusions. Important questions for future studies of these overlooked proteins also will be discussed. PMID:24606146

  12. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Horn L, Eisenberg R, Gius D, et al. Cancer of the lung. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan ...

  13. 78 FR 77352 - Small Business Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... required by Federal law, NASA's general policy for small business programs is described in 48 CFR part 1819... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1204 RIN 2700-AD97 Small Business Policy AGENCY: National Aeronautics... establishes NASA's small business policy and outlines the delegation of authority to implement this policy, as...

  14. 27 CFR 19.912 - Small plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Small plants. 19.912... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.912 Small plants. Persons wishing to establish a small plant shall apply for a permit as provided in this...

  15. Mutual Guarantee Institutions and Small Business Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Columba, F.; Gambacorta, L.; Mistrulli, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    A large literature showed that small firms experience difficulties in accessing the credit market due to informational asymmetries; these may be mitigated by collateral or relationship lending, possibilities often precluded to small business. We investigate the effect on small business finance of an

  16. 7 CFR 201.42 - Small containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small containers. 201.42 Section 201.42 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.42 Small containers. In sampling seed in small containers that it is not practical to sample as required in § 201.41, a portion of one unopened container or...

  17. Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Size Standards: Transportation and Warehousing Industries 3245-AG08 476 Small Business Jobs Act: Small... collection and use of individual SBDC client data. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 08/00/11 [email protected] RIN: 3245-AG07 475. SMALL BUSINESS SIZE STANDARDS: TRANSPORTATION AND WAREHOUSING...

  18. The Ecological Psychology of the Small Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Duane I.

    1989-01-01

    Uses principles of ecological theory to predict architectural needs of a small town. Examines Barker's concept of undermanning which led to six hypotheses regarding small-town behavior and corresponding design recommendations. Concludes that psychology of small-town resident is unique because of special ecological demands placed on the people.…

  19. Finding the "Right Staff" in Small Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Rowena; Neeson, Robyn; Billington, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore what owners of small firms are looking for from new employees. The aim is to pursue this in light of the debate around formality and informality of small firm HRM, exploring the extent to which the small firms studied had formalized HRM practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data reported here…

  20. THE SEWAGE PROBLEM IN SMALL TOWNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, P

    1916-04-01

    The small town, large enough to need a system of sewerage but small enough so that the expense per individual installation is greater than in large cities, presents one of the acute problems of sanitary engineering. Mr. Hansen discusses some of the means employed to dispose of the wastes of small communities.

  1. Small is beautiful, and dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Quanshui; Lv, Cunjing; Hao, Pengfei; Sheridan, John

    2010-12-01

    Thousands of plant and animal species have been observed to have superhydrophobic surfaces that lead to various novel behaviors. These observations have inspired attempts to create artificial superhydrophobic surfaces, given that such surfaces have multitudinous applications. Superhydrophobicity is an enhanced effect of surface roughness and there are known relationships that correlate surface roughness and superhydrophobicity, based on the underlying physics. However, while these examples demonstrate the level of roughness they tell us little about the independence of this effect in terms of its scale. Thus, they are not capable of explaining why such naturally occurring surfaces commonly have micron-submicron sizes. Here we report on the discovery of a new relation, its physical basis and its experimental verification. The results reveal that scaling-down roughness into the micro-submicron range is a unique and elegant strategy to not only achieve superhydrophobicity but also to increase its stability against environmental disturbances. This new relation takes into account the previously overlooked but key fact that the accumulated line energy arising from the numerous solid-water-air intersections that can be distributed over the apparent contact area, when air packets are trapped at small scales on the surface, can dramatically increase as the roughness scale shrinks. This term can in fact become the dominant contributor to the surface energy and so becomes crucial for accomplishing superhydrophobicity. These findings guide fabrication of stable super water-repellant surfaces.

  2. A small scale honey dehydrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R S; Hans, V S; Singh, Sukhmeet; Pal Singh, Parm; Dhaliwal, S S

    2015-10-01

    A small scale honey dehydrator has been designed, developed, and tested to reduce moisture content of honey below 17 %. Experiments have been conducted for honey dehydration by using drying air at ambient temperature, 30 and 40 °C and water at 35, 40 and 45 °C. In this dehydrator, hot water has been circulated in a water jacket around the honey container to heat honey. The heated honey has been pumped through a sieve to form honey streams through which drying air passes for moisture removal. The honey streams help in increasing the exposed surface area of honey in contact with drying air, thus resulting in faster dehydration of honey. The maximum drying rate per square meter area of honey exposed to drying air was found to be 197.0 g/h-m(2) corresponding to the drying air and water temperature of 40 and 45 °C respectively whereas it was found to be minimum (74.8 g/h-m(2)) corresponding to the drying air at ambient temperature (8-17 °C) and water at 35 °C. The energy cost of honey moisture content reduction from 25.2 to 16.4 % was Rs. 6.20 to Rs. 17.36 (US $ 0.10 to US $ 0.28 (One US $ = 62.00 Indian Rupee on February, 2014) per kilogram of honey.

  3. Aeration equipment for small depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluše Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficit of air in water causes complications with cyanobacteria mainly in the summer months. Cyanobacteria is a bacteria that produces poison called cyanotoxin. When the concentration of cyanobacteria increases, the phenomena „algal bloom“ appears, which is very toxic and may kill all the organisms. This article describes new equipment for aeration of water in dams, ponds and reservoirs with small depth. This equipment is mobile and it is able to work without any human factor because its control is provided by a GPS module. The main part of this equipment consists of a floating pump which pumps water from the surface. Another important part of this equipment is an aerator where water and air are blended. Final aeration process runs in the nozzles which provide movement of all this equipment and aeration of the water. Simulations of the flow are solved by multiphase flow with diffusion in open source program called OpenFOAM. Results will be verified by an experiment.

  4. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  5. Laser diagnostics for small rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Frank J.; Degroot, Wilhelmus A.

    1993-11-01

    Two nonintrusive flowfield diagnostics based on spectrally-resolved elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Raman) laser light scattering were developed for obtaining local flowfield measurements in low-thrust gaseous H2/O2 rocket engines. The objective is to provide an improved understanding of phenomena occurring in small chemical rockets in order to facilitate the development and validation of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for analyzing engine performance. The laser Raman scattering diagnostic was developed to measure major polyatomic species number densities and rotational temperatures in the high-density flowfield region extending from the injector through the chamber throat. Initial application of the Raman scattering diagnostic provided O2 number density and rotational temperature measurements in the exit plane of a low area-ratio nozzle and in the combustion chamber of a two-dimensional, optically-accessible rocket engine. In the low-density nozzle exit plane region where the Raman signal is too weak, a Doppler-resolved laser Rayleigh scattering diagnostic was developed to obtain axial and radial mean gas velocities, and in certain cases, H2O translational temperature and number density. The results from these measurements were compared with theoretical predictions from the RPLUS CFD code for analyzing rocket engine performance. Initial conclusions indicate that a detailed and rigorous modeling of the injector is required in order to make direct comparisons between laser diagnostic measurements and CFD predictions at the local level.

  6. Electric propulsion for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael; Zhuang, Taisen; Shashurin, Alexey; Teel, George; Chiu, Dereck; Lukas, Joseph; Haque, Samudra; Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Propulsion is required for satellite motion in outer space. The displacement of a satellite in space, orbit transfer and its attitude control are the task of space propulsion, which is carried out by rocket engines. Electric propulsion uses electric energy to energize or accelerate the propellant. The electric propulsion, which uses electrical energy to accelerate propellant in the form of plasma, is known as plasma propulsion. Plasma propulsion utilizes the electric energy to first, ionize the propellant and then, deliver energy to the resulting plasma leading to plasma acceleration. Many types of plasma thrusters have been developed over last 50 years. The variety of these devices can be divided into three main categories dependent on the mechanism of acceleration: (i) electrothermal, (ii) electrostatic and (iii) electromagnetic. Recent trends in space exploration associate with the paradigm shift towards small and efficient satellites, or micro- and nano-satellites. A particular example of microthruster considered in this paper is the micro-cathode arc thruster (µCAT). The µCAT is based on vacuum arc discharge. Thrust is produced when the arc discharge erodes some of the cathode at high velocity and is accelerated out the nozzle by a Lorentz force. The thrust amount is controlled by varying the frequency of pulses with demonstrated range to date of 1-50 Hz producing thrust ranging from 1 µN to 0.05 mN.

  7. The Detroit Diesel DELTA Engine for Light Trucks and SUVs - Year 2000 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabil S. Hakim; Charles E. Freese; Stanley P. Miller

    2000-06-19

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) is developing the DELTA 4.0L V6 engine, specifically for the North American light truck market. This market poses unique requirements for a diesel engine, necessitating a clean sheet engine design. DELTA was developed from a clean sheet of paper, with the first engine firing just 228 days later. The process began with a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis, which prioritized the development criteria. The development process integrated a co-located, fully cross-functional team. Suppliers were fully integrated and maintained on-site representation. The first demonstration vehicle moved under its own power 12 weeks after the first engine fired. It was demonstrated to the automotive press 18 days later. DELTA has repeatedly demonstrated its ability to disprove historical North American diesel perceptions and compete directly with gasoline engines. This paper outlines the Generation 0.0 development process and briefly defines the engine. A brief indication of the Generation 0.5 development status is given.

  8. Experimental investigations of an automotive heat pump prototype for military, SUV and compact cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannavola, M.S.; Murphy, R; Yin, J.M.; Kim, M.H.; Bullard, C.W.; Hrnjak, P.S. [Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center ACRC, University of Illinios, Urbana (United States)

    2000-11-01

    This article presents the results of the experiments conducted on a prototype R744 (CO2) system operating in a heat pump mode, with the heat rejection path lying entirely within the supercritical region. The prototype system was sized for a compact car, but these experiments were conducted to provide baseline for scale-up to sport utility vehicle size. Data presented here are for a limited range of operation. Further optimization and extension of operating range is underway. To our knowledge this is the first experiment with transcritical CO2 heat pump reported in the open literature. Test facilities for such experiments and systems are described. The prospect of extending the operating range of a mobile a/c system to a mobile heat pump operation appears promising, especially for vehicles with efficient engines, having insufficient waste heat for quick and reliable cabin heating. 8 figs., 16 refs.

  9. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies......, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal permeability....

  10. Bulk density of small meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikwaya, J.-B.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Brown, P. G.

    2011-06-01

    Aims: Here we report on precise metric and photometric observations of 107 optical meteors, which were simultaneously recorded at multiple stations using three different intensified video camera systems. The purpose is to estimate bulk meteoroid density, link small meteoroids to their parent bodies based on dynamical and physical density values expected for different small body populations, to better understand and explain the dynamical evolution of meteoroids after release from their parent bodies. Methods: The video systems used had image sizes ranging from 640 × 480 to 1360 × 1036 pixels, with pixel scales from 0.01° per pixel to 0.05° per pixel, and limiting meteor magnitudes ranging from Mv = +2.5 to +6.0. We find that 78% of our sample show noticeable deceleration, allowing more robust constraints to be placed on density estimates. The density of each meteoroid is estimated by simultaneously fitting the observed deceleration and lightcurve using a model based on thermal fragmentation, conservation of energy and momentum. The entire phase space of the model free parameters is explored for each event to find ranges of parameters which fit the observations within the measurement uncertainty. Results: (a) We have analysed our data by first associating each of our events with one of the five meteoroid classes. The average density of meteoroids whose orbits are asteroidal and chondritic (AC) is 4200 kg m-3 suggesting an asteroidal parentage, possibly related to the high-iron content population. Meteoroids with orbits belonging to Jupiter family comets (JFCs) have an average density of 3100 ± 300 kg m-3. This high density is found for all meteoroids with JFC-like orbits and supports the notion that the refractory material reported from the Stardust measurements of 81P/Wild 2 dust is common among the broader JFC population. This high density is also the average bulk density for the 4 meteoroids with orbits belonging to the Ecliptic shower-type class (ES) also

  11. EFFECT OF MARKET ORIENTATION ON SMALL BUSINESS PERORMANCE IN SMALL TOWN IN MALAYSIA: AN EMPRICAL STUDY ON MALAYSIAN SMALL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Masroor ALAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on market orientation, and performance was related to big firms. In this study, based on the theoretical framework, a model was developed to investigate the effect of market orientation on business performance in small firms. To test the relationships among the variables, data from 53 small firms in the small town of Chunglun at Sintok, Kedah was used. The findings show that the three components of market orientation are related positive to business performance of small firms. The further analysis also confirmed that customer orientation and competitor orientation are strong predictors of small firm performance. The findings of this study confirm that market orientation behavior also applies to small firms.

  12. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  13. Comparison of machine learning methods for classifying mediastinal lymph node metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer from18F-FDG PET/CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongkai; Zhou, Zongwei; Li, Yingci; Chen, Zhonghua; Lu, Peiou; Wang, Wenzhi; Liu, Wanyu; Yu, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to compare one state-of-the-art deep learning method and four classical machine learning methods for classifying mediastinal lymph node metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from 18 F-FDG PET/CT images. Another objective was to compare the discriminative power of the recently popular PET/CT texture features with the widely used diagnostic features such as tumor size, CT value, SUV, image contrast, and intensity standard deviation. The four classical machine learning methods included random forests, support vector machines, adaptive boosting, and artificial neural network. The deep learning method was the convolutional neural networks (CNN). The five methods were evaluated using 1397 lymph nodes collected from PET/CT images of 168 patients, with corresponding pathology analysis results as gold standard. The comparison was conducted using 10 times 10-fold cross-validation based on the criterion of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy (ACC), and area under the ROC curve (AUC). For each classical method, different input features were compared to select the optimal feature set. Based on the optimal feature set, the classical methods were compared with CNN, as well as with human doctors from our institute. For the classical methods, the diagnostic features resulted in 81~85% ACC and 0.87~0.92 AUC, which were significantly higher than the results of texture features. CNN's sensitivity, specificity, ACC, and AUC were 84, 88, 86, and 0.91, respectively. There was no significant difference between the results of CNN and the best classical method. The sensitivity, specificity, and ACC of human doctors were 73, 90, and 82, respectively. All the five machine learning methods had higher sensitivities but lower specificities than human doctors. The present study shows that the performance of CNN is not significantly different from the best classical methods and human doctors for classifying mediastinal lymph node metastasis of NSCLC from PET/CT images

  14. 75 FR 1296 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of...

  15. 77 FR 28237 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... / Monday, May 14, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 124 RIN 3245-AF53 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Correcting...

  16. 76 FR 8221 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... February 11, 2011 Part VII Small Business Administration 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations; Final Rule #0;#0... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 RIN 3245-AF53 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a...

  17. SMALL ENTERPRENEURSHIP IN HOSPITALITY: CROATIAN EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Ivanovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After introductory explanations regarding the selection problems of small enterprises in the Croatian hotel industry, the author provides a number of key indicators of their role in improving the competitiveness of the Croatian hotel industry in the global tourism market. In developed tourism countries, small enterprises have a dominant share in the structure of the hotel industry, and their importance is growing even in the former socialist countries of Europe. Small hotels in Italy accounted for more than 50%, and in Austria with more than 70% of lodging facilities and represent a generator of hotel business in a large number of European tourism countries, and great attention is given to the small enterpreneurs stimulating their growth with different measures of tourist and general economy politics. The author reflects on the Croatian experience of the small businesses in the hospitality through research of development of small family hotels and their importance for the improvement of the supply of the Croatian hotel industry which future is built on personal approach to guests and present trends in the tourism market. States that the role of the National Association of family and small hotels, which represents the specific interests of small hoteliers and enables the continuous improvement of the quality of their offerings, as well as measures to encourage small business development at the macro level. Based on the made analysis the measures of increasing the efficiency of small businesses in the Croatian hospitality are given.

  18. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small...... permeability. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with CC and chronic diarrhoea participated in the study. Coeliac disease was excluded by small-bowel biopsy and/or serology. Intestinal permeability was assessed as urinary excretion (ratios) 2, 4 and 6 h after ingestion of 14C-labelled mannitol (14C......-intestinal biopsies, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal...

  19. Fracture mechanics parameters for small fatigue cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a review of some common small-crack test specimens, the underlying causes of the small-crack effect, and the fracture-mechanics parameters that have been used to correlate or predict their growth behavior. This review concentrates on continuum mechanics concepts and on the nonlinear behavior of small cracks. The paper reviews some stress-intensity factor solutions for small-crack test specimens and develops some simple elastic-plastic J integral and cyclic J integral expressions that include the influence of crack-closure. These parameters were applied to small-crack growth data on two aluminum alloys, and a fatigue life prediction methodology is demonstrated. For these materials, the crack-closure transient from the plastic wake was found to be the major factor in causing the small-crack effect.

  20. Calibrated Weighting for Small Area Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    Calibrated weighting methods for estimation of survey population characteristics are widely used. At the same time, model-based prediction methods for estimation of small area or domain characteristics are becoming increasingly popular. This paper explores weighting methods based on the mixed models that underpin small area estimates to see whether they can deliver equivalent small area estimation performance when compared with standard prediction methods and superior population level estimat...

  1. Different shades of green on small islands

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Tiago; Sandra Dias Faria; João Luís Cogumbreiro; João Pedro Couto; Flávio Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Many small islands exist as tourism destinations worldwide. In the 1990s, the growth of environmental consciousness led some small islands to question their mass tourism offers and to refocus on more sustainable propositions. However, it remains unclear whether hospitality firms see these sustainability related efforts as drivers of success and whether tourists value this dimension when choosing or recommending a destination. This study chose a small island destination to address these questi...

  2. Social media and small non profit organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyás, A.

    2016-01-01

    This project sought to explore patterns of and views about social media adoption among small non-profit organisations and to identify mechanisms that could effectively support these organisations with their social media use. \\ud The following findings emerged from the study: \\ud • Social media are now part of the organisational infrastructure of small non-profits and the main ways in which they communicate with the public\\ud • Key variables that influence social media adoption among small non...

  3. IPC Guide for Small Business Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank; Internationale Projekt Consult GmbH (IPC)

    2011-01-01

    Specialized financial institutions (SFIs) have a clear interest in tapping the small business lending market, but frequently lack the know-how for doing so in a sustainable manner. This guide outlines the key conditions and steps SFIs need to take in order to set up and develop sustainable small business lending. These recommendations are based on IPC's substantial experience in assisting FIs in various regions around the world in implementing small business lending operations.

  4. FACTORS CRISIS OF SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khorev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today it became clear that Russia needs not only economic growth, but also economic growth of a certain quality. Re¬gions are not an exception, since they are the most vulnerable to changes in market conditions resource exports. The main economic indicators for larger regions of the country should become entrepreneurs. The main economic indicators for larger regions of the country should become entrepreneurs. Not accidentally retrospective analysis of the evolutionary development of small business shows that the most important role in the economic development of Europe and America have played and continue to play a small business. Results of activity of small businesses are generally positive; the country saw an increase in the main indicators: the number of small enterprises, the average number of employees in small enterprises, turnover of small businesses and investments in fixed assets. The statistics of recent years show a decline of interest in the business population. Number of small businesses created in the last few years there has been a downward trend, while the proportion of surviving for three years after their registration is low. The greatest negative impact on the business affairs of the factors of regulatory and administrative regulation of small business, corruption and bribery of officials and the activities of control and inspection bodies. Addressing these challenges will require proper coordination of regional and local resources in building infrastructure, forming investment mechanisms to support small enterprises, the development of the entrepreneurial potential of the population.

  5. VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Access Holes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Access Holes. This data contains access hole locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...

  6. ATLAS- lowering the muon small wheel

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS - the two muon small wheels lowered into the cavern Like briefly separated twin sisters, ATLAS’s small wheels were once again united at the experiment’s surface building at Point 1 on St Valentine’s Day. The lowering of the small wheels into the tunnel will mark the end of the installation of detector components for the experiment. At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern.

  7. VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Drop Inlets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Drop Inlets. This data contains drop inlets locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...

  8. Site participation in the small community experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbeck, H. J.; Fellows, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Small Community Solar Thermal Experiment, planned to test a small, developmental solar thermal power plant in a small community application, is assessed. The baseline plan is to install a field of parabolic dishes with distributed generation to provide 1 MWe of experimental power. Participation by the site proposer is an integral element of the experiment; the proposer will provide a ten-acre site, a connection to the electrical distributional system serving the small community, and various services. In addition to the primary participant, site study efforts may be pursued at as many as five alternative sites.

  9. Hidden layers of human small RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Nakamura, Mari; Takahashi, Yukari

    2008-01-01

    small RNA have focused on miRNA and/or siRNA rather than on the exploration of additional classes of RNAs. RESULTS: Here, we explored human small RNAs by unbiased sequencing of RNAs with sizes of 19-40 nt. We provide substantial evidences for the existence of independent classes of small RNAs. Our data...... directions by bidirectional promoters, indicating that the small RNAs are a product of dsRNA formation and their subsequent cleavage. Their partial similarity with ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) suggests unrevealed functions of ribosomal DNA or interstitial rRNA. Further examination revealed six novel mi...

  10. Small wind planning and building successful installations

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Nolan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a cohesive guide to achieving successful small wind installations. It is a comprehensive information resource from one of the world's most experienced small wind professionals, covering all the key issues for small wind system development, from site and machine selection to international standards compliance. Engineers who are tasked with planning and developing these small wind systems, from choosing the best site and accurately estimating likely power output to obtaining proper permitting and troubleshooting operational inefficiencies, will find this book an ess

  11. Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography for evaluation of mediastinal lymph node staging of non-small-cell lung cancer in a tuberculosis-endemic area: A 5-year prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jane A; Irusen, Elvis M; von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Warwick, James M; Jeremic, Branislav; du Toit, Rudolf; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F N

    2015-01-09

    Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) is a well-validated modality for assessing mediastinal lymph node metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which determines management and predicts survival. Tuberculosis (TB) is known to lead to false-positive PET-CT findings. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of PET-CT in identifying mediastinal lymph node involvement of NSCLC in a high TB-endemic area. Patients who underwent both PET-CT and lymph node tissue sampling for the investigation of suspected NSCLC were prospectively included in this observational study. Results were analysed per patient and per lymph node stage. A post-hoc analysis was performed to test the validity of a maximum standardised uptake value (SUV-max) cut-off for lymph node positivity. PET-CT had a sensitivity of 92.6%, specificity of 48.6%, positive predictive value of 56.8% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 90.0% in the per-patient analysis. Diagnostic accuracy was 67.2%. Similar values were obtained in the per-lymph node stage analysis. TB was responsible for 21.1% of false-positive results. A SUVmax cut-off of 4.5 yielded an improvement in diagnostic accuracy from 64.0% to 84.7% compared with a cut-off of 2.5, but at the cost of decreasing the NPV from 90.6% to 83.5%. In a high TB-endemic area, PET-CT remains a valuable method for excluding mediastinal lymph node involvement in NSCLC. Patients with a negative PET-CT may proceed to definitive management without further invasive procedures. However, PET-CT-positive lymph nodes require pathological confirmation, and the possibility of TB must be considered.

  12. The Predictive Value of Early In-Treatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT Response to Chemotherapy in Combination with Bevacizumab in Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanij, Edwin A; Natroshvili, Tinatin; Timmer-Bonte, Johanna N H; Oyen, Wim J G; van der Drift, Miep A; Bussink, Johan; Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de

    2017-08-01

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT is potentially applicable to predict response to chemotherapy in combination with bevacizumab in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: In 25 patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC, (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed before treatment and after 2 wk, at the end of the second week of first cycle carboplatin-paclitaxel and bevacizumab (CPB) treatment. Patients received up to a total of 4 cycles of CPB treatment. Maintenance treatment with bevacizumab monotherapy was continued until progressive disease without significant treatment-related toxicities of first-line treatment. In the case of progressive disease, bevacizumab was combined with erlotinib. SUV corrected for lean body mass (SUL and SULpeak) were obtained. PERCIST were used for response evaluation. These semiquantitative parameters were correlated with progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). Results: Metabolic response, defined by a significant reduction in SULpeak of 30% or more after 2 wk of CPB, was predictive of progression-free survival and OS. For partial metabolic responders (n = 19), the median OS was 22.8 mo. One-year and 2-y OS were 79% and 47%, respectively. Nonmetabolic responders (n = 6) (stable metabolic disease or progressive disease) showed a median OS of 4.4 mo (1-y and 2-y OS was 33% and 0%, respectively) (P predictive of outcome to first-line chemotherapy with bevacizumab in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. This enables identification of patients at risk of treatment failure, permitting treatment alternatives such as early switch to a different therapy. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  13. Confusion about entrepreneurship? Formal versus informal small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small business support strategies should focus on businesses with embedded entrepreneurial acumen and hence the inherent dynamics to create and exploit new innovative economic opportunities resulting in the creation of employment opportunities and higher economic growth. Key words: small business development, ...

  14. Agility in a small software firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Mathiassen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Small software firms are vulnerable to environmental uncertainty. While agile methods and other technologies offer suggestions to this challenge, we know little about how these firms combine project and firm level capabilities to effectively respond to changes. On this backdrop, we examine a small...

  15. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on aircraft...

  16. Subjective Expected Utility Theory with "Small Worlds"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Jacob; Hansen, Frank

    We model the notion of a "small world" as a context dependent state space embedded into the "grand world". For each situation the decision maker creates a "small world" reflecting the events perceived to be relevant for the act under consideration. The "grand world" is represented by an event space...

  17. Allosteric small-molecule kinase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Peng; Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Nielsen, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    current barriers of kinase inhibitors, including poor selectivity and emergence of drug resistance. In spite of the small number of identified allosteric inhibitors in comparison with that of inhibitors targeting the ATP pocket, encouraging results, such as the FDA-approval of the first small...

  18. Small business credit scoring and credit availability

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Allen N.; Frame, W. Scott; Berger, Allen N.; Frame, W. Scott

    2005-01-01

    U.S. commercial banks are increasingly using credit scoring models to underwrite small business credits. This paper discusses this technology, evaluates the research findings on the effects of this technology on small business credit availability, and links these findings to a number of research and public policy issues.

  19. Multi-User MIMO Across Small Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finn, Danny; Ahmadi, Hamed; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The main contribution of this work is the proposal and assessment of the MU-MIMO across Small Cells concept. MU-MIMO is the spatial multiplexing of multiple users on a single time-frequency resource. In small cell networks, where the number of users per cell is low, finding suitable sets of users...

  20. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) for Small Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Varied mission life and complexity is growing for small spacecraft. Small missions benefit from detailed hazard definition and evaluation as done in the past. Requirements need to flow from the system down to the parts level and aid system level radiation tolerance. RHA is highlighted with increasing COTS usage.

  2. "small ACCELERATORS" 24 May - 2 June 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN Accelerator School and Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) Groningen, the Netherlands announce a course on "Small Accelerators", Hotel Golden Tulip Drenthe, Zeegse, the Netherlands, 24 May - 2 June 2005. This specialised course is dedicated to the physics and the main applications of small accelerators. The course will review the different accelerator types as well as their specificities in terms of accelerator physics.

  3. Energy efficient design of cognitive small cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildemeersch, Matthias; Wildemeersch, Matthias; Quek, Tony Q.S.; Rabbachin, Alberto; Slump, Cornelis H.; Huang, Aiping; Kim, Dong-In; Mueller, P.

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous networks consisting of a macrocell tier and a small cell tier are considered an attractive solution to cope with the fierce increase of mobile traffic demand. Nevertheless, a massive deployment of small cell access points (SAPs) leads also to a considerable increase in energy

  4. Astrophysics with small satellites in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. E-Learning in Small Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, Sally

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the existing and potential role of electronic learning in small and medium-sized organisations (SMEs). Innovations in information and communication technologies (ICTs) could create new forms of learning, particularly appealing to small organisations, to overcome traditional barriers such as lack of financial resources, time,…

  6. Blending at Small Colleges: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Hsiu; Tourtellott, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Implementing blended accelerated learning programs or courses requires a systematic approach, not just the addition of new technologies. Small colleges face challenges when they move toward blended learning because of already-constrained resources. In this article, we will survey issues faced by small colleges in moving to blended learning,…

  7. Working with Cooperative Small Groups. Classroom Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diversified small groups in the classroom provide a good opportunity for students to share information and ideas with each other. The research on cooperative small groups points out the benefits of these interactions and describes the process as a powerful forum for developing students' critical thinking and higher-order skills: (1) Cooperative…

  8. Exploring Small Animal Care. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Dennis W.

    This course guide in small animal care is designed to give students seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, or pet shops an opportunity to (1) develop basic skills in small animal handling, sanitation of housing, and nutrition, (2) acquire skills in dog and cat grooming, including shop operation, (3) develop attitudes which contribute…

  9. SMALL CRAFT OPERATION AND NAVIGATION, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    THE MATERIAL IN THIS COURSE IN MARINE NAVIGATION AND SMALL CRAFT OPERATION ON INLAND AND INTERNATIONAL WATERS WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INDIVIDUAL AUTHOR FOR USE IN TRADE SCHOOL PREPARATORY AND EXTENSION CLASSES FOR MALE ADULTS WHO PLAN TO OPERATE BOATS. THE OBJECTIVE IS TO PREPARE THE SMALL BOAT OPERATOR FOR HIS OWN CONTINUATION IN THE STUDY OF…

  10. Hereditary cerebral small vessel disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Christian Baastrup; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Hansen, Christine Krarup

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this system...

  11. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively…

  12. Small Hydropower in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy, Telluride, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Small hydropower, defined in this report as hydropower with a generating capacity of up to 10 MW typically built using existing dams, pipelines, and canals has substantial opportunity for growth. Existing small hydropower comprises about 75% of the current US hydropower fleet in terms of number of plants. The economic feasibility of developing new small hydropower projects has substantially improved recently, making small hydropower the type of new hydropower development most likely to occur. In 2013, Congress unanimously approved changes to simplify federal permitting requirements for small hydropower, lowering costs and reducing the amount of time required to receive federal approvals. In 2014, Congress funded a new federal incentive payment program for hydropower, currently worth approximately 1.5 cents/kWh. Federal and state grant and loan programs for small hydropower are becoming available. Pending changes in federal climate policy could benefit all renewable energy sources, including small hydropower. Notwithstanding remaining barriers, development of new small hydropower is expected to accelerate in response to recent policy changes.

  13. Governance of ecosystem services on small islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Nico; Reinhard, Stijn; Bets, van L.K.J.; Kuhlman, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Natural ecosystems provide an attractive focus for tourism on small islands. However, at the same time tourism and other human actions can be detrimental to these ecosystems especially because governance of the ecosystem may be difficult due to the limited resilience of small island ecosystems.

  14. 75 FR 29393 - Small Business Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... heart of the American dream. They are the backbone of our Nation's economy, they employ tens of millions... Reinvestment Act has supported billions of dollars in loans and Federal contracts for small businesses across the country. The Affordable Care Act makes it easier for small business owners to provide health...

  15. Do Small Firms compete with Large Firms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Audretsch (David); Y.M. Prince (Yvonne); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite the pervasive phenomenon of scale economies the majority of firms has always been small firms. The emergence of small firms as a means of economic development on both sides of the Atlantic has been one of the major new topics of economic policy since the 1980s. This has drawn

  16. Small Drinking Water Systems Communication and Outreach ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of our small drinking water systems efforts, this poster highlights several communications and outreach highlights that EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water have been undertaking in collaboration with states and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators. To share information at EPA's annual small drinking water systems workshop

  17. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.; Ross, Don

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in statements of this calibration puzzle is that small-stakes risk aversion is observed over all levels of weal...

  18. Insights from Small-"N" Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvea, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Small-"N" studies have been relatively uncommon in biology education research and are likely less familiar to instructors and administrators than large-"N" studies. Nevertheless, many scholars in the social sciences have argued for the value of small-"N" studies in informing research and practice (e.g., Flyvbjerg…

  19. XP in a Small Software Development Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babb, Jeffry; Hoda, Rashina; Nørbjerg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    While small software development shops have trended towards the adoption of Agile methods, local conditions and high iteration pressure typically cause adaptations and appropriations of Agile methods. This paper shares evidence from a study concerning how a small software development company adopts...

  20. Small cell networks deployment, management, and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Claussen, Holger; Ho, Lester; Razavi, Rouzbeh; Kucera, Stepan

    2018-01-01

    Small Cell Networks: Deployment, Management, and Optimization addresses key problems of the cellular network evolution towards HetNets. It focuses on the latest developments in heterogeneous and small cell networks, as well as their deployment, operation, and maintenance. It also covers the full spectrum of the topic, from academic, research, and business to the practice of HetNets in a coherent manner. Additionally, it provides complete and practical guidelines to vendors and operators interested in deploying small cells. The first comprehensive book written by well-known researchers and engineers from Nokia Bell Labs, Small Cell Networks begins with an introduction to the subject--offering chapters on capacity scaling and key requirements of future networks. It then moves on to sections on coverage and capacity optimization, and interference management. From there, the book covers mobility management, energy efficiency, and small cell deployment, ending with a section devoted to future trends and applicat...

  1. Use of small RNA as antiaging cosmeceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingjing; Chen, Jianxin; Li, Tiejun; Zhu, York Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, RNA interference (RNAi) has achieved great improvements in medicine, which has benefited the development of innovative cosmeceutical products, particular, to antiaging cosmeceuticals. A variety of ongoing research has tried to employ small RNAs-small interference RNA and microRNA as new cosmeceutical ingredients. Furthermore, several skin care companies have released new small RNA products in cosmetic market. In this review, we will describe the latest and most advanced approaches and strategies of using small RNA as antiaging cosmetics, including investigations on aging-related genes that small RNA target, method of delivering them, and challenges in the development of RNAi-based therapeutics for skin care cosmeceuticals. It is certain that advancement in this direction will evolve a new landscape for innovative antiaging cosmeceuticals.

  2. Small innovative business in Russia: regional aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yu. Arkhipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of innovative activity of small business in Russia by enterprises clusters depending on the number of employees. Considerable attention is paid to the study of the dynamics and structure of the main indicators, characterizing the available resources and the results of innovative activities, that allows making a number of important conclusions from practical point of view. The analysis has shown that small enterprises, in spite of small scale of innovative activity, operate mostly on new sales channels that help them to ensure product competitiveness on local market. At the same time, competitiveness of small enterprises on global market is significantly higher than the average level for Russia. In their innovative strategies, small businesses mostly focus on the development and modification of products or services over its imitation or total borrowing. The analysis has shown that enterprises with the number of employees from 51 to 70 are leaders to deliver new products on market among small innovative companies. About 10% of the products of this group is new to the world market. Groups of small enterprises with 71-80 employees and up to 20 people are coming next. The share of new products for the global market, made by these enterprises is 5%, which is significantly higher than the national average. These groups of small innovative enterprises are “points of growth” on the innovation effectiveness and competitiveness of products in Russia.The second part presents the study of regional differentiation of small business development in Russia. Multi-dimensional classification helped to divide Russian regions to homogenous groups depending on the development level of small innovative entrepreneurship. The significance of the indicators is proved by using of variance analysis (ANOVA and calculating of F-statistics values.About 16% of small innovative enterprises are leaders on the resources invested in

  3. Small x phenomenology. Summary of the 3rd Lund small x workshop in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J.R. [Cavendish Lab., Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom); Baranov, S. [Lebedev Inst. of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bartels, J. [Hamburg Univ. (DE). FRG] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    A third workshop on small-x physics, within the Small-x Collaboration, was held in Hamburg in May 2004 with the aim of overviewing recent theoretical progress in this area and summarizing the experimental status. (Orig.)

  4. On-Demand Formation of Supported Lipid Membrane Arrays by Trehalose-Assisted Vesicle Delivery for SPR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Samuel S; Ruiz, Charles J; Drakakaki, Georgia; Wilkop, Thomas E; Cheng, Quan

    2015-08-12

    The fabrication of large-scale, solid-supported lipid bilayer (SLB) arrays has traditionally been an arduous and complex task, primarily due to the need to maintain SLBs within an aqueous environment. In this work, we demonstrate the use of trehalose vitrified phospholipid vesicles that facilitate on-demand generation of microarrays, allowing each element a unique composition, for the label-free and high-throughput analysis of biomolecular interactions by SPR imaging (SPRi). Small, unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) are suspended in trehalose, deposited in a spatially defined manner, with the trehalose vitrifying on either hydrophilic or hydrophobic SPR substrates. SLBs are subsequently spontaneously formed on-demand simply by in situ hydration of the array in the SPR instrument flow cell. The resulting SLBs exhibit high lateral mobility, characteristic of fluidic cellular lipid membranes, and preserve the biological function of embedded cell membrane receptors, as indicated by SPR affinity measurements. Independent fluorescence and SPR imaging studies show that the individual SLBs stay localized at the area of deposition, without any encapsulating matrix, confining coral, or boundaries. The introduced methodology allows individually addressable SLB arrays to be analyzed with excellent label-free sensitivity in a real-time, high-throughput manner. Various protein-ganglioside interactions have been selected as a model system to illustrate discrimination of strong and weak binding responses in SPRi sensorgrams. This methodology has been applied toward generating hybrid bilayer membranes on hydrophobic SPR substrates, demonstrating its versatility toward a range of surfaces and membrane geometries. The stability of the fabricated arrays, over medium to long storage periods, was evaluated and found to be good. The highly efficient and easily scalable nature of the method has the potential to be applied to a variety of label-free sensing platforms requiring lipid membranes for

  5. Formulation and characterization of alprazolam-loaded nanoliposomes: screening of process variables and optimizing characteristics using RSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesamoddin; Montazer, Majid; Naghdi, Nasser; Toliyat, Tayebeh

    2018-02-01

    This research study aimed to develop a novel sustained release formulation of alprazolam that can also be used for transdermal delivery. This was carried out, for the first time, through encapsulation of alprazolam in nanoliposomes using ethanol injection. In order to obtain the best formulation, four process variables, including the solvent/nonsolvent volume ratio, phospholipid concentration, alprazolam concentration, and cholesterol content were considered as key factors. Response surface methodology (RSM) and a central composite design (CCD) model were used to investigate the effect of these factors on vesicle size (VS) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) as the major properties of nanoliposomes. Experimental data were statistically analyzed, and two significant quadratic models were developed to test the VS and EE responses. The findings indicate that alprazolam and phospholipid concentrations have a significant effect on the mean VS. However, EE was significantly affected by both the alprazolam and phospholipid concentrations and the cholesterol content. The optimized formulation for preparation of alprazolam-loaded nanoliposomes with appropriate VS and EE was suggested. Small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs), ranging in size from 50 to 100 nm were clearly observed in the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, which is appropriate for transdermal delivery of alprazolam. The study of the prepared nanoliposomes over 28 days at 4 °C confirmed the stability of the formulations containing cholesterol. The results of an in vitro release study of alprazolam-loaded nanoliposomes in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4 for 24 h at 37 °C using dialysis, indicated the sustained release of alprazolam due to encapsulation.

  6. Towards interpretation of intermolecular paramagnetic relaxation enhancement outside the fast exchange limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccon, Alberto; Marius Clore, G., E-mail: mariusc@mail.nih.gov; Tugarinov, Vitali, E-mail: vitali.tugarinov@nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)

    2016-09-15

    In an exchanging system between major and minor species, the transverse paramagnetic relaxation enhancement rate observed on the resonances of the major species (Γ{sub 2}{sup app}) is dependent upon the exchange regime between the species. Quantitative analysis of PRE data in such systems typically assumes that the overall exchange rate k{sub ex} between the species is fast on the PRE time scale (k{sub ex} ≫ Γ{sub 2}). Recently, we have characterized the kinetics of binding of the model protein ubiquitin to large (LUV) and small (SUV) unilamellar lipid-based nanoparticles or liposomes (Ceccon A, Tugarinov V, Bax A, Clore GM (2016). J Am Chem Soc 138:5789–5792). Building upon these results and taking advantage of a strong paramagnetic agent with an isotropic g-tensor, Gd{sup 3+}, we were able to measure intermolecular methyl carbon and proton PREs between paramagnetically-tagged liposomes and ubiquitin. In the limit of fast exchange (k{sub ex} ≫ Γ{sub 2}) the ratio of the apparent proton to carbon methyl PREs, ({sup 1}H{sub m}–Γ{sub 2}{sup app})/({sup 13}C{sub m}–Γ{sub 2}{sup app}), is equal to the square of the ratio of the gyromagnetic ratios of the two nuclei, (γ{sub Η}/γ{sub C}){sup 2}. However, outside the fast exchange regime, under intermediate exchange conditions (e.g. when Γ{sub 2} is comparable in magnitude to k{sub ex}) the ({sup 1}H{sub m}–Γ{sub 2}{sup app})/({sup 13}C{sub m}–Γ{sub 2}{sup app}) ratio provides a reliable measure of the ‘true’ methyl PREs.

  7. Financial services used by small businesses: evidence from the 1998 survey of small business finances

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Bitler; Robb, Alicia M.; John D. Wolken

    2001-01-01

    Using newly available data from the 1998 Survey of Small Business Finances, this article offers preliminary findings regarding the characteristics of small businesses in the United States and their use of credit and other financial services. The main goals of the survey are to provide information on credit accessibility for small businesses, their use of financial services, and the sources of those services. The survey also provides a general-purpose database that can be used to study small b...

  8. Collaborative Manufacturing for Small-Medium Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, D.

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing systems involve decisions concerning production processes, capacity, planning, and control. In a MTO manufacturing systems, strategic decisions concerning fulfilment of customer requirement, manufacturing cost, and due date of delivery are the most important. In order to accelerate the decision making process, research on decision making structure when receiving order and sequencing activities under limited capacity is required. An effective decision making process is typically required by small-medium components and tools maker as supporting industries to large industries. On one side, metal small-medium enterprises are expected to produce parts, components or tools (i.e. jigs, fixture, mold, and dies) with high precision, low cost, and exact delivery time. On the other side, a metal small- medium enterprise may have weak bargaining position due to aspects such as low production capacity, limited budget for material procurement, and limited high precision machine and equipment. Instead of receiving order exclusively, a small-medium enterprise can collaborate with other small-medium enterprise in order to fulfill requirements high quality, low manufacturing cost, and just in time delivery. Small-medium enterprises can share their best capabilities to form effective supporting industries. Independent body such as community service at university can take a role as a collaboration manager. The Laboratory of Production Systems at Bandung Institute of Technology has implemented shared manufacturing systems for small-medium enterprise collaboration.

  9. Optimisation of Investment Resources at Small Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvets Iryna B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of the process of optimisation of the structure of investment resources, development of criteria and stages of optimisation of volumes of investment resources for small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article characterises the process of transformation of investment resources into assets and liabilities of the balances of small enterprises and conducts calculation of the structure of sources of formation of investment resources in Ukraine at small enterprises by types of economic activity in 2011. On the basis of the conducted analysis of the structure of investment resources of small enterprises the article forms main groups of criteria of optimisation in the context of individual small enterprises by types of economic activity. The article offers an algorithm and step-by-step scheme of optimisation of investment resources at small enterprises in the form of a multi-stage process of management of investment resources in the context of increase of their mobility and rate of transformation of existing resources into investments. The prospect of further studies in this direction is development of a structural and logic scheme of optimisation of volumes of investment resources at small enterprises.

  10. The ubiquity of small-world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesford, Qawi K; Joyce, Karen E; Hayasaka, Satoru; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Small-world networks, according to Watts and Strogatz, are a class of networks that are "highly clustered, like regular lattices, yet have small characteristic path lengths, like random graphs." These characteristics result in networks with unique properties of regional specialization with efficient information transfer. Social networks are intuitive examples of this organization, in which cliques or clusters of friends being interconnected but each person is really only five or six people away from anyone else. Although this qualitative definition has prevailed in network science theory, in application, the standard quantitative application is to compare path length (a surrogate measure of distributed processing) and clustering (a surrogate measure of regional specialization) to an equivalent random network. It is demonstrated here that comparing network clustering to that of a random network can result in aberrant findings and that networks once thought to exhibit small-world properties may not. We propose a new small-world metric, ω (omega), which compares network clustering to an equivalent lattice network and path length to a random network, as Watts and Strogatz originally described. Example networks are presented that would be interpreted as small-world when clustering is compared to a random network but are not small-world according to ω. These findings have important implications in network science because small-world networks have unique topological properties, and it is critical to accurately distinguish them from networks without simultaneous high clustering and short path length.

  11. 47 CFR 101.1107 - Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., small businesses and entrepreneurs. 101.1107 Section 101.1107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Procedures for LMDS § 101.1107 Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.... (c) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in § 101.1112, or a consortium of...

  12. Making Small Practical: The Organisation and Mangement of Ministries of Education in Small States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark

    Most models for public administration have been developed in the context of medium-sized or large states and are not necessarily appropriate for small states (states with less than 1.5 million people). This book focuses on small states and identifies common features in small-state economies, societies, and politics. Several differences exist in…

  13. Non-small-bowel abnormalities identified during small bowel capsule endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemakers, Reinier; Westerhof, Jessie; Weersma, Rinse K.; Koornstra, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence of non-small-bowel abnormalities in patients referred for small bowel capsule endoscopy, this single center study was performed. METHODS: Small bowel capsule endoscopy is an accepted technique to investigate obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. This is defined as

  14. Initiation and propagation of small corner cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellyin, Ferdnand; Kujawski, Daniel; Craig, David F.

    1994-01-01

    The behaviour of small corner cracks, inclined or perpendicular to loading direction, is presented. There are two aspects to this investigation: initiation of small cracks and monitoring their subsequent growth. An initial pre-cracking procedure under cyclic compression is adopted to minimize the residual damage at the tip of the growing and self-arresting crack under cyclic compression. A final fatigue specimen, cut from the larger pre-cracked specimen, has two corner flaws. The opening load of corner flaw is monitored using a novel strain gauge approach. The behaviour of small corner cracks is described in terms of growth rate relative to the size of the crack and its shape.

  15. Zero curvature-surface driven small objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shanpeng; Liu, Jianlin

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we investigate the spontaneous migration of small objects driven by surface tension on a catenoid, formed by a layer of soap constrained by two rings. Although the average curvature of the catenoid is zero at each point, the small objects always migrate to the position near the ring. The force and energy analyses have been performed to uncover the mechanism, and it is found that the small objects distort the local shape of the liquid film, thus making the whole system energetically favorable. These findings provide some inspiration to design microfluidics, aquatic robotics, and miniature boats.

  16. Method and system for small scale pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Insepov, Zeke [Darien, IL; Hassanein, Ahmed [Bolingbrook, IL

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  17. FINANCIAL MECHANISM OF SMALL ENTERPRISES STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Zaloznaya

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Rates of growth of parameters of development and role of small enterprises in economy of Russia and its regions today it is much less, than in the developed countries of the world. The significant role in the decision of this problem belongs to the financial mechanism. The complex changes of financial attitudes directed on increase of efficiency of functioning of the enterprises of small business are necessary. In this connection experience of the Orenburg area on formation of system of support of small business is reasonably interesting, and also its involving in development of real sector of economy and the decision of social questions of region.

  18. 76 FR 12395 - Small Business Jobs Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... their thoughts on improving the environment for small business contracting. Expanding Resources for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Jobs Act Implementation AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...

  19. Small Business and the Risk Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet helps small businesses comply with the regulation requiring companies that use regulated substances, hazardous chemical such as ammonia and chlorine, to develop a risk management plan, to help prevent accidental toxic or flammable releases.

  20. An evaluation of small businesses in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad karimi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important and fundamental issues, employment is an indicator of development and welfare in any country. Due to the rapid growth of population over the past decades in Iran, investigating unemployment and the obstacles hindering employment is of paramount importance. In this study, a questionnaire was used and a group of experts were interviewed in order to identify four groups of legal, economic, social as well as individual factors, which could improve or hinder the growth of small businesses and self-employment. In this paper, having determined the factors influencing the expansion or downsizing the small businesses, the entrepreneurs, agents supporting small businesses, and the members of employment groups in Mazandaran Province, Iran rated the four categories. Finally, the most important growth factors or challenges faced by small businesses from the three aforementioned perspectives were compared.