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Sample records for sutured tear rate

  1. [Clinical research of arthroscopic separate double-layer suture bridge technique for delaminated rotator cuff tear].

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    Ren, Jiangtao; Xu, Cong; Liu, Xianglin; Wang, Jiansong; Li, Zhihuai; Lü, Yongming

    2017-10-01

    To explore the effectiveness of the arthroscopic separate double-layer suture bridge technique in treatment of the delaminated rotator cuff tear. Between May 2013 and May 2015, 54 patients with the delaminated rotator cuff tears were recruited in the study. They were randomly allocated into 2 groups to receive repair either using arthroscopic separate double-layer suture bridge technique (trial group, n =28) or using arthroscopic whole-layer suture bridge technique (control group, n =26). There was no significant difference in gender, age, injured side, tear type, and preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Constants score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) score, and the range of motion of shoulder joint between 2 groups ( P >0.05). Postoperative functional scores, range of motion, and recurrence rate of tear in 2 groups were observed and compared. The operation time was significant longer in trial group than in control group ( t =8.383, P =0.000). All incisions healed at stage Ⅰ without postoperative complication. All the patients were followed up 12 months. At 12 months postoperatively, the UCLA score, ASES score, VAS score, Constant score, and the range of motion were significantly improved when compared with the preoperative values in 2 groups ( P 0.05). Four cases (14.3%) of rotator cuff tear recurred in trial group while 5 cases (19.2%) in control group, showing no significant difference ( χ 2 =0.237, P =0.626). Compared with the arthroscopic whole-layer suture bridge technique, arthroscopic separate double-layer suture bridge technique presents no significant difference in the shoulder function score, the range of motion, and recurrence of rotator cuff tear, while having a longer operation time.

  2. Is the arthroscopic suture bridge technique suitable for full-thickness rotator cuff tears of any size?

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    Lee, Sung Hyun; Kim, Jeong Woo; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kweon, Seok Hyun; Kang, Hong Je; Kim, Se Jin; Park, Jin Sung

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare functional outcomes and tendon integrity between the suture bridge and modified tension band techniques for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. A consecutive series of 128 patients who underwent the modified tension band (MTB group; 69 patients) and suture bridge (SB group; 59 patients) techniques were enrolled. The pain visual analogue scale (VAS), Constant, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores were determined preoperatively and at the final follow-up. Rotator cuff hypotrophy was quantified by calculating the occupation ratio (OR). Rotator cuff integrity and the global fatty degeneration index were determined by using magnetic resonance imaging at 6 months postoperatively. The average VAS, Constant, and ASES scores improved significantly at the final follow-up in both groups (p bridge groups (7.0 vs. 6.8%, respectively; p = n.s.). The retear rate of large-to-massive tears was significantly lower in the suture bridge group than in the modified tension band group (33.3 vs. 70%; p = 0.035). Fatty infiltration (postoperative global fatty degeneration index, p = 0.022) and muscle hypotrophy (postoperative OR, p = 0.038) outcomes were significantly better with the suture bridge technique. The retear rate was lower with the suture bridge technique in the case of large-to-massive rotator cuff tears. Additionally, significant improvements in hypotrophy and fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff were obtained with the suture bridge technique, possibly resulting in better anatomical outcomes. The suture bridge technique was a more effective method for the repair of rotator cuff tears of all sizes as compared to the modified tension band technique. Retrospective Cohort Design, Treatment Study, level III.

  3. A Novel Repair Method for Radial Tears of the Medial Meniscus: Biomechanical Comparison of Transtibial 2-Tunnel and Double Horizontal Mattress Suture Techniques Under Cyclic Loading.

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    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Civitarese, David M; Turnbull, Travis Lee; LaPrade, Christopher M; Nitri, Marco; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Complete radial tears of the medial meniscus have been reported to be functionally similar to a total meniscectomy. At present, there is no consensus on an ideal technique for repair of radial midbody tears of the medial meniscus. Prior attempts at repair with double horizontal mattress suture techniques have led to a reportedly high rate of incomplete healing or healing in a nonanatomic (gapped) position, which compromises the ability of the meniscus to withstand hoop stresses. A newly proposed 2-tunnel radial meniscal repair method will result in decreased gapping and increased ultimate failure loads compared with the double horizontal mattress suture repair technique under cyclic loading. Controlled laboratory study. Ten matched pairs of male human cadaveric knees (average age, 58.6 years; range, 48-66 years) were used. A complete radial medial meniscal tear was made at the junction of the posterior one-third and middle third of the meniscus. One knee underwent a horizontal mattress inside-out repair, while the contralateral knee underwent a radial meniscal repair entailing the same technique with a concurrent novel 2-tunnel repair. Specimens were potted and mounted on a universal testing machine. Each specimen was cyclically loaded 1000 times with loads between 5 and 20 N before experiencing a load to failure. Gap distances at the tear site and failure load were measured. The 2-tunnel repairs exhibited a significantly stronger ultimate failure load (median, 196 N; range, 163-212 N) than did the double horizontal mattress suture repairs (median, 106 N; range, 63-229 N) (P = .004). In addition, the 2-tunnel repairs demonstrated decreased gapping at all testing states (P meniscus significantly decrease the ability of the meniscus to dissipate tibiofemoral loads, predisposing patients to early osteoarthritis. Improving the ability to repair medial meniscal radial tears in a way that withstands cyclic loads and heals in an anatomic position could significantly

  4. Functional and structural comparisons of the arthroscopic knotless double-row suture bridge and single-row repair for anterosuperior rotator cuff tears.

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    Ide, Junji; Karasugi, Tatsuki; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Taniwaki, Takuya; Oka, Kiyoshi; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    We compared the outcomes of knotless double-row suture bridge and single-row repairs in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair for anterosuperior rotator cuff tears. We included 61 full-thickness anterosuperior rotator cuff tears treated by arthroscopic repair, namely, single-row repair (group 1: 25 shoulders; mean patient age, 64 years) and the knotless double-row suture bridge repair (group 2: 36 shoulders; mean patient age, 62 years). Preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging was performed for all shoulders. Clinical outcomes were evaluated for mean follow-up periods of 81 months (range, 72-96 months) in group 1 and 34 months (range, 24-42 months) in group 2, using the University of California, Los Angeles and Japanese Orthopaedic Association assessments. At the final follow-up, both groups showed improvement in the average University of California, Los Angeles and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores and range of motion, although no intergroup differences were observed. Both groups showed improved abduction strength, and the average score was higher in group 2 (P = .0112). The lift-off and belly-press test results were improved in both groups. Postoperatively, the incidence of positive lift-off tests tended to be lower (P = .075) and that of positive belly-press tests was lower in group 2, P = .049). The repair failure rate tended to be lower in group 2 (14% [5 of 36]) than in group 1 (32% [8 of 25]; P = .0839). Arthroscopic knotless double-row suture bridge repair of anterosuperior rotator cuff tears yielded functional outcomes equivalent to those of single-row repair and may be useful for improving subscapularis function, abduction strength, and tendon healing. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated with clinical and structural outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with a suture bridge technique in medium, large, and massive tears.

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    Choi, Sungwook; Kim, Myung Ku; Kim, Gyeong Min; Roh, Young-Ho; Hwang, Im Kyung; Kang, Hyunseong

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate clinical outcomes, maintenance of repair integrity, and retear rate after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair by a suture bridge technique among patients with medium, large, and massive rotator cuff tears. We evaluated 147 patients who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Clinical and functional evaluations were performed with the Constant and University of California-Los Angeles scores. All patients were confirmed to have magnetic resonance imaging evidence of tendon healing at least 12 months postoperatively. The average postoperative time to follow-up magnetic resonance imaging was 23.4 months (range, 12-48 months). A total of 25 (17.0%) retears were observed. All clinical outcome scores were improved significantly at follow-up. Larger intraoperative tear sizes were correlated with higher retear rates. The incidence of retear was also higher in cases in which the preoperative fatty degeneration grade was higher. The incidence of retear increased with age and in the heavy worker group (e.g., farmers, carriers, car mechanics) but was not statistically significant. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair by a suture bridge technique yields improvements in clinical outcome measures and a relatively high degree of patient satisfaction despite the fact that repair integrity is not maintained in many cases. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional and structural outcomes of single-row versus double-row versus combined double-row and suture-bridge repair for rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihata, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Chisato; Fukunishi, Kunimoto; Ohue, Mutsumi; Tsujimura, Tomoyuki; Fujiwara, Kenta; Kinoshita, Mitsuo

    2011-10-01

    Although previous biomechanical research has demonstrated the superiority of the suture-bridge rotator cuff repair over double-row repair from a mechanical point of view, no articles have described the structural and functional outcomes of this type of procedure. The structural and functional outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair may be different between the single-row, double-row, and combined double-row and suture-bridge (compression double-row) techniques. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. There were 206 shoulders in 201 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Eleven patients were lost to follow-up. Sixty-five shoulders were repaired using the single-row, 23 shoulders using the double-row, and 107 shoulders using the compression double-row techniques. Clinical outcomes were evaluated at an average of 38.5 months (range, 24-74 months) after rotator cuff repair. Postoperative cuff integrity was determined using Sugaya's classification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The retear rates after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were 10.8%, 26.1%, and 4.7%, respectively, for the single-row, double-row, and compression double-row techniques. In the subcategory of large and massive rotator cuff tears, the retear rate in the compression double-row group (3 of 40 shoulders, 7.5%) was significantly less than those in the single-row group (5 of 8 shoulders, 62.5%, P row group (5 of 12 shoulders, 41.7%, P row and suture-bridge techniques, which had the lowest rate of postoperative retear, is an effective option for arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff tendons because the postoperative functional outcome in patients with a retear is inferior to that without retear.

  7. Tear-Film Evaporation Rate from Simultaneous Ocular-Surface Temperature and Tear-Breakup Area.

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    Dursch, Thomas J; Li, Wing; Taraz, Baseem; Lin, Meng C; Radke, Clayton J

    2018-01-01

    A corneal heat-transfer model is presented to quantify simultaneous measurements of fluorescein tear-breakup area (TBA) and ocular-surface temperature (OST). By accounting for disruption of the tear-film lipid layer (TFLL), we report evaporation rates through lipid-covered tear. The modified heat-transfer model provides new insights into evaporative dry eye. A quantitative analysis is presented to assess human aqueous tear evaporation rate (TER) through intact TFLLs from simultaneous in vivo measurement of time-dependent infrared OST and fluorescein TBA. We interpret simultaneous OST and TBA measurements using an extended heat-transfer model. We hypothesize that TBAs are ineffectively insulated by the TFLL and therefore exhibit higher TER than does that for a well-insulting TFLL-covered tear. As time proceeds, TBAs increase in number and size, thereby increasing the cornea area-averaged TER and decreasing OST. Tear-breakup areas were assessed from image analysis of fluorescein tear-film-breakup video recordings and are included in the heat-transfer description of OST. Model-predicted OSTs agree well with clinical experiments. Percent reductions in TER of lipid-covered tear range from 50 to 95% of that for pure water, in good agreement with literature. The physical picture of noninsulating or ruptured TFLL spots followed by enhanced evaporation from underlying cooler tear-film ruptures is consistent with the evaporative-driven mechanism for local tear rupture. A quantitative analysis is presented of in vivo TER from simultaneous clinical measurement of transient OST and TBA. The new heat-transfer model accounts for increased TER through expanding TBAs. Tear evaporation rate varies strongly across the cornea because lipid is effectively missing over tear-rupture troughs. The result is local faster evaporation compared with nonruptured, thick lipid-covered tear. Evaporative-driven tear-film ruptures deepen to a thickness where fluorescein quenching commences and local

  8. Evaluating tear clearance rate with optical coherence tomography.

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    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Mousavi, Maryam; Cervino Exposito, Alejandro; Bartuzel, Maciej M; Montes-Micó, Robert; Iskander, D Robert

    2018-02-01

    To assess the early-phase of tear clearance rate (TCR) with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to determine the association between TCR and other clinical measures of the tear film in a group of young subjects with different levels of tear film quality. TCR was classified as the percentage decrease of subject's inferior tear meniscus height 30s after instillation of 5μl 0.9% saline solution. Fifty subjects (32F and 18M) aged (mean±standard deviation) 25.5±4.3 years volunteered for the study. It consisted of a review of medical history, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, tear film osmolarity measurements, slit lamp examination and TCR estimation based on dynamic measurements of the lower tear meniscus with OCT. Estimates of TCR were contrasted against subject age and tear film measures commonly used for dry eye diagnosis, which includes OSDI score, fluorescein tear film break-up time (FBUT), tear meniscus height (TMH), blinking frequency, tear film osmolarity and corneal staining. The group mean TCR was 29±13% and 36±19% respectively after 30 and 60s margin after saline solution instillation. Statistically significant correlations were found between TCR and FBUT (r 2 =0.319, placrimal functional unit. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Current Biomechanical Concepts of Suture Bridge Repair Technique for Rotator Cuff Tear

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Long Yeh; Chih-Kai Hong; Wei-Ren Su; I-Ming Jou; Cheng-Li Lin; Chii-Jen Lin

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common disorders of the shoulder and can have significant effects on daily activities as a result of pain, loss of motion and strength. The goal of rotator cuff repair is aimed at anatomic restoration of the rotator cuff tendon to reduce pain and improve the joint function. Recently, arthroscopic repair has been widely accepted for treatment of rotator cuff tears due to its equal or better results than those from open repair. In 2006, a...

  10. Arthroscopic suture bridge technique for intratendinous tear of rotator cuff in chronically painful calcific tendinitis of the shoulder.

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    Ji, Jong-Hun; Shafi, Mohamed; Moon, Chang-Yun; Park, Sang-Eun; Kim, Yeon-Jun; Kim, Sung-Eun

    2013-11-01

    Arthroscopic removal, now the main treatment option, has almost replaced open surgery for treatment of resistant calcific tendinitis. In some cases of chronic calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, the calcific materials are hard and adherent to the tendon. Removal of these materials can cause significant intratendinous tears between the superficial and deep layers of the degenerated rotator cuff. Thus far, there are no established surgical techniques for removing the calcific materials while ensuring cuff integrity. Good clinical results for rotator cuff repair were achieved by using an arthroscopic suture bridge technique in patients with long-standing calcific tendinitis. Intact rotator cuff integrity and recovery of signal change on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans were confirmed. This is a technical note about a surgical technique and its clinical results with a review of relevant published reports. © 2013 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Interrupted versus continuous sutures for repair of episiotomy of 2nd degree perineal tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, R.; Khan, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Performing an episiotomy is generally reserved for complicated childbirths, in cases of foetal distress, or when tearing of tissues with serious consequences are foreseen. In addition to the extent of the trauma, the surgical skill, repair after childbirth can have an important effect on the magnitude and degree of morbidity experienced by women after repair. The best technique for this repair would be that which produces less pain in the short and long term. The study was done with an objective to compare the frequency and severity of pain (slight/severe) by using interrupted and continuous methods for repair of episiotomy or second degree perineal tears.It is a randomized control trial. This study was carried out in a Gynaecology and Obstetrics department of Benazir Bhutto Hospital Rawalpindi which is a tertiary care hospital. The duration of study was six months. One hundred and thirty-eight primigravidas (69 in each group) were included in the study. Majority of the patients in both groups belonged to 20-25 years age group, i.e. 48.53 percentage (n=33) in group-A and 50 percentage (n=34) in group-B, mean and SD, was 27.69±3.21 in group-A and 28.16 ± 3.89 in group-B, gestation age of the patients in group-A 77.94 percentage (n=53) and 83.82 percentage (n=57) in group-B between 37-40 weeks of gestation. Complication of pain and its severity in both groups at 24 hours and 10th day were compared which showed no significant difference at any severity (i.e. no pain, mild moderate/severe). There is no significant difference in frequency and severity of pain (slight/severe) in using interrupted and continuous methods for repair of second degree perineal tears or episiotomy. (author)

  12. Automatically rating trainee skill at a pediatric laparoscopic suturing task.

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    Oquendo, Yousi A; Riddle, Elijah W; Hiller, Dennis; Blinman, Thane A; Kuchenbecker, Katherine J

    2018-04-01

    Minimally invasive surgeons must acquire complex technical skills while minimizing patient risk, a challenge that is magnified in pediatric surgery. Trainees need realistic practice with frequent detailed feedback, but human grading is tedious and subjective. We aim to validate a novel motion-tracking system and algorithms that automatically evaluate trainee performance of a pediatric laparoscopic suturing task. Subjects (n = 32) ranging from medical students to fellows performed two trials of intracorporeal suturing in a custom pediatric laparoscopic box trainer after watching a video of ideal performance. The motions of the tools and endoscope were recorded over time using a magnetic sensing system, and both tool grip angles were recorded using handle-mounted flex sensors. An expert rated the 63 trial videos on five domains from the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS), yielding summed scores from 5 to 20. Motion data from each trial were processed to calculate 280 features. We used regularized least squares regression to identify the most predictive features from different subsets of the motion data and then built six regression tree models that predict summed OSATS score. Model accuracy was evaluated via leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. The model that used all sensor data streams performed best, achieving 71% accuracy at predicting summed scores within 2 points, 89% accuracy within 4, and a correlation of 0.85 with human ratings. 59% of the rounded average OSATS score predictions were perfect, and 100% were within 1 point. This model employed 87 features, including none based on completion time, 77 from tool tip motion, 3 from tool tip visibility, and 7 from grip angle. Our novel hardware and software automatically rated previously unseen trials with summed OSATS scores that closely match human expert ratings. Such a system facilitates more feedback-intensive surgical training and may yield insights into the fundamental

  13. Healing disturbance with suture bridge configuration repair in rabbit rotator cuff tear.

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    Kim, Sae Hoon; Kim, Jangwoo; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Hwa-Ryeong

    2016-03-01

    Medial row failure has been reported in the suture bridge technique of rotator cuff repair. This study compared the healing response of suture bridge configuration repair (SBCR) and parallel type transosseous repair (PTR). Acute rotator cuff repair was performed in 32 rabbits. Both shoulders were repaired using PTR or SBCR. In PTR, simple PTR was performed through 2 parallel transosseous tunnels created using a microdrill. In SBCR, 2 additional crisscross transosseous tunnels were added to mimic arthroscopic SBCR. At 1, 2, and 5 weeks postoperatively, comparative biomechanical testing was performed in 8 rabbits, and histologic analysis, including immunohistochemical staining for CD31, was performed in 4 rabbits. Failure loads at 1 week (38.12 ± 20.43 N vs 52.00 ± 27.23 N; P = .284) and 5 weeks (97.93 ± 48.35 N vs 119.60 ± 60.81 N; P = .218) were not statistically different between the SBCR and PTR groups, respectively, but were significantly lower in the SBCR group than in the PTR group (23.56 ± 13.56 N vs. 44.25 ± 12.53 N; P = .009), respectively, at 2 weeks. Markedly greater fibrinoid deposition was observed in the SBCR group than in the PTR group at 2 weeks. For vascularization, there was a tendency that more vessels could be observed in PTR than in SBCR at 2 weeks (15.9 vs 5.6, P = .068). In a rabbit acute rotator cuff repair model, SBCR exhibited inferior mechanical strength, and fewer blood vessels were observed at the healing site at 2 weeks postoperatively. Medial row tendon failure was more common in SBCR. Surgeons should consider the clinical effect of SBCR when performing rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical Results of Arthroscopic Repair of Isolated Longitudinal Tear of Medial Meniscus by Vertical Cruciate Double Mattress Sutures with Outside-in Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyied Hamid Barzgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Meniscal tears are one of the most common injuries treated by arthroscopic techniques. Arthroscopic meniscal repair is an accepted way of treatment for meniscal tears. Different arthroscopic techniques for meniscal repair are: inside-out, outside-in and all inside. In the first 2 techniques, meniscus is repaired by sutures and in the later by suture or by commercial ready implants . The goal of current study is assessing clinical results of arthroscopic repair of longitudinal meniscal tears with vertical cruciate double mattress sutures by outside-in technique after 9 months.   Methods: In this case series study, in 13 patients having criteria for engaging the study with longitudinal isolated meniscus tear, arthroscopic meniscal repair was done with vertical cruciate double mattress sutures by outside-in technique and patients were followed for 9 months.   Results: Of 13 patients, there were 12 males (92.3% and one female (7.7% aged 15-38 (average 28.3 years. In follow up period, there was one case (7.7% of irritation by subcutaneous knot. There was not any failure of repair. Average Lysholm score increased from 55.23 to 91.23 after 9 months of follow up, which was statistically significant (p<0.001. At the end of follow up period, there was not any medial joint line tenderness of knee, giving way or significant effusion or pain.   Conclusion: This study shows that this technique has a good short term outcome with no failure and low complications but it is necessary to do more long term studies to prove it.

  15. Biomechanical comparison of double-row versus transtendon single-row suture anchor technique for repair of the grade III partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears.

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    Zhang, Chun-Gang; Zhao, De-Wei; Wang, Wei-Ming; Ren, Ming-Fa; Li, Rui-Xin; Yang, Sheng; Liu, Yu-Peng

    2010-11-01

    For partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff, double-row fixation and transtendon single-row fixation restore insertion site anatomy, with excellent results. We compared the biomechanical properties of double-row and transtendon single-row suture anchor techniques for repair of grade III partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears. In 10 matched pairs of fresh-frozen sheep shoulders, the infraspinatus tendon from 1 shoulder was repaired with a double-row suture anchor technique. This comprised placement of 2 medial anchors with horizontal mattress sutures at an angle of ≤ 45° into the medial margin of the infraspinatus footprint, just lateral to the articular surface, and 2 lateral anchors with horizontal mattress sutures. Standardized, 50% partial, articular-sided infraspinatus lesions were created in the contralateral shoulder. The infraspinatus tendon from the contralateral shoulder was repaired using two anchors with transtendon single-row mattress sutures. Each specimen underwent cyclic loading from 10 to 100 N for 50 cycles, followed by tensile testing to failure. Gap formation and strain over the footprint area were measured using a motion capture system; stiffness and failure load were determined from testing data. Gap formation for the transtendon single-row repair was significantly smaller (P row repair for the first cycle ((1.74 ± 0.38) mm vs. (2.86 ± 0.46) mm, respectively) and the last cycle ((3.77 ± 0.45) mm vs. (5.89 ± 0.61) mm, respectively). The strain over the footprint area for the transtendon single-row repair was significantly smaller (P row repair. Also, it had a higher mean ultimate tensile load and stiffness. For grade III partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears, transtendon single-row fixation exhibited superior biomechanical properties when compared with double-row fixation.

  16. Time course of changes in tear meniscus radius and blink rate after instillation of artificial tears.

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    Bandlitz, Stefan; Purslow, Christine; Murphy, Paul J; Pult, Heiko

    2014-08-26

    Using a novel digital meniscometer (PDM), alterations in tear meniscus radius (TMR) were measured simultaneously with blink rate (BR) following the instillation of artificial tears. Central TMR and BR of 22 subjects (11 male and 11 female; mean age, 24.3 ± 2.6 SD years) were measured at baseline, and 0, 1, 5, 10, and 30 minutes after instillation of an artificial tear containing hydroxypropyl-guar and glycol (SYS) or saline (SAL). A dose of 35 μL was applied in one eye in a randomized order with a washout period between each drop. For SAL, compared to baseline TMR (0.33 ± 0.08 mm), TMR significantly increased with drop instillation (1.55 ± 0.69 mm) and at 1 minute (0.66 ± 0.36 mm; P tears. Difference in residence time reflects the different viscosity of each drop. An overload with a large drop may result in an initially increased BR. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  17. The primary factor for suture configuration at rotator cuff repair: Width of mattress or distance from tear edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Hapa

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Bite size from the edge of the tendon seems to be more important than the width of the mattress. The curve of the suture passing device may also have an effect on the strength of the suture tendon interface.

  18. Validating a new device for measuring tear evaporation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit, Athira; Ehrmann, Klaus; Naduvilath, Thomas; Willcox, Mark; Stapleton, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    To calibrate and validate a commercially available dermatology instrument to measure tear evaporation rate of contact lens wearers. A dermatology instrument was modified by attaching a swim goggle cup such that the cup sealed around the eye socket. Results for the unmodified instrument are dependent on probe area and enclosed volume. Calibration curves were established using a model eye, to account for individual variations in chamber volume and exposed area. Fifteen participants were recruited and the study included a contact lens wear and a no contact lens wear stage. Day and diurnal variation of the measurements were assessed by taking the measurement three times a day over 2 days. The coefficient of repeatability of the measurement was calculated and a linear mixed model assessed the influence of humidity, temperature, contact lens wear, day and diurnal variations on tear evaporation rate. The associations between variables were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Absolute evaporation rates with and without contact lens wear were calculated based on the new calibration. The measurements were most repeatable during the evening with no lens wear (COR = 49 g m⁻² h) and least repeatable during the evening with contact lens wear (COR = 93 g m⁻² h). Humidity (p = 0.007), and contact lens wear (p evaporation rate. However, temperature (p = 0.54) diurnal variation (p = 0.85) and different days (p = 0.65) had no significant effect after controlling for humidity. Tear evaporation rates can be measured using a modified dermatology instrument. Measurements were higher and more variable with lens wear consistent with previous literature. Control of environmental conditions is important as a higher humidity results in a reduced evaporation rate. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  19. Increasing age and tear size reduce rotator cuff repair healing rate at 1 year.

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    Rashid, Mustafa S; Cooper, Cushla; Cook, Jonathan; Cooper, David; Dakin, Stephanie G; Snelling, Sarah; Carr, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - There is a need to understand the reasons why a high proportion of rotator cuff repairs fail to heal. Using data from a large randomized clinical trial, we evaluated age and tear size as risk factors for failure of rotator cuff repair. Patients and methods - Between 2007 and 2014, 65 surgeons from 47 hospitals in the National Health Service (NHS) recruited 447 patients with atraumatic rotator cuff tendon tears to the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Trial (UKUFF) and 256 underwent rotator cuff repair. Cuff integrity was assessed by imaging in 217 patients, at 12 months post-operation. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age and intra-operative tear size on healing. Hand dominance, sex, and previous steroid injections were controlled for. Results - The overall healing rate was 122/217 (56%) at 12 months. Healing rate decreased with increasing tear size (small tears 66%, medium tears 68%, large tears 47%, and massive tears 27% healed). The mean age of patients with a healed repair was 61 years compared with 64 years for those with a non-healed repair. Mean age increased with larger tear sizes (small tears 59 years, medium tears 62 years, large tears 64 years, and massive tears 66 years). Increasing age was an independent factor that negatively influenced healing, even after controlling for tear size. Only massive tears were an independent predictor of non-healing, after controlling for age. Interpretation - Although increasing age and larger tear size are both risks for failure of rotator cuff repair healing, age is the dominant risk factor.

  20. Biomechanical study comparing 3 fixation methods for rotator cuff massive tear: Transosseous No. 2 suture, transosseous braided tape, and double-row.

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    Hinse, Stéphanie; Ménard, Jérémie; Rouleau, Dominique M; Canet, Fanny; Beauchamp, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Important rotator cuff repair failure rates have prompted this study of the techniques and materials used in order to optimize clinical results. Is the reconstruction of the rotator cuff biomechanically stronger when using: 1) transosseous with 2 mm braided tape suture (TOT), 2) transosseous with multi-strand No. 2 sutures (TOS), or 3) double row suture bridge with suture anchors loaded with No. 2 braided sutures (DRSB)? Twenty-four cadaveric pig shoulders were randomized in the three repair constructs. The infraspinatus muscle was detached to mimic a complete laceration, repaired with one of the three repair groups and tested with a traction machine. Cameras recorded tendon displacement during trials. The ultimate strength (US), failure mode, and tendon displacement, qualified by the bare footprint area (BFA), during cycling phases were compared. The US for DRSB was 175 ± 82 Newton (N), 91 ± 51 N for TOS, and 147 ± 63 N for TOT. The BFA after 200 cycles was 81 ± 34% for TOS, 57 ± 41% for TOT, and 26 ± 27% for DRSB repairs. No significant difference was observed between the DRSB and TOT results for US or BFA percentage of loss during all the cycling phases. TOS proved to be weaker than TOT and DRSB. All the ruptures occurred in the tendon, which seems to be the weakness of rotator cuff repairs. The use of braided tape suture with a transosseous technique seems to be a cost effective, equivalent alternative implant compared to anchor fixation. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of surgical time and complication rate of subcutaneous and skin closure using barbed suture or traditional knotted suture in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Laura K; Wilson, Megan L; Sakals, Sherisse

    2017-12-01

    This prospective study evaluated the handling, intraoperative and postoperative complication rates of a barbed knotless suture for closure of subcutaneous tissue and skin in 17 client-owned dogs (group A) following a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy procedure. Clinical characteristics, surgical time, and complication rates were compared to a control group of 17 client-owned dogs (group B) with subcutaneous tissue and skin closure using traditional suture material. Signalment was not significantly different between groups and did not have an effect on complication rates. Surgical times were not significantly different for subcutaneous tissue or skin closure between the 2 groups. There were significantly more intraoperative complications in the barbed suture group (A: 4/17; B: 0/17; P = 0.033) but no difference in minor or major postoperative complication rates (minor A: 2/16; B: 1/14; P = 0.626, major A: 2/16; B: 0/14; P = 0.171).

  2. Variations in rates of severe perineal tears and episiotomies in 20 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blondel, Béatrice; Alexander, Sophie; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður I

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rates of severe perineal tears and episiotomies are indicators of obstetrical quality of care, but their use for international comparisons is complicated by difficulties with accurate ascertainment of tears and uncertainties regarding the optimal rate of episiotomies. We compared...... rates of severe perineal tears and episiotomies in European countries and analysed the association between these two indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used aggregate data from national routine statistics available in the Euro-Peristat project. We compared rates of severe (third- and fourth......-degree) tears and episiotomies in 2010 by mode of vaginal delivery (n = 20 countries), and investigated time trends between 2004 and 2010 (n = 9 countries). Statistical associations were assessed with Spearman's ranked correlations (rho). RESULTS: In 2010 in all vaginal deliveries, rates of severe tears ranged...

  3. Biomechanical Analysis of All-Inside, Arthroscopic Suture Repair Versus Extensor Retinaculum Capsulorrhaphy for Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears With Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amar A; Alhandi, Ali A; Milne, Edward; Dy, Christopher J; Latta, Loren L; Ouellette, E Anne

    2016-03-01

    To assess ulnocarpal joint stability after treatment of a peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury with all-inside arthroscopic suture repair (SR), extensor retinaculum capsulorrhaphy with the Herbert sling (HS), and a combination of both (SR+HS). Twelve fresh-frozen, age-matched, upper-extremity specimens intact from the distal humerus were prepared. Nondestructive mechanical testing was performed to assess native ulnocarpal joint stability and load-displacement curves were recorded. A peripheral, ulnar-sided TFCC injury was created with arthroscopic assistance, and mechanical testing was performed. Each specimen was treated with SR or HS and testing was repeated. The 6 specimens treated with SR were then treated with HS (SR+HS), and testing was repeated. We used paired Student t tests for statistical analysis within cohorts. For all cohorts, there was an average increase in ulnar translation after the creation of a peripheral TFCC injury and an average decrease after repair. Herbert sling decreased translation by 21%, SR decreased translation by 12%, and SR+HS decreased translation by 26%. Suture repair plus HS and HS reduce ulnar translation the most after a peripheral TFCC injury, followed by SR alone. Ulnocarpal joint stability should be assessed clinically in patients with peripheral TFCC injury, and consideration should be made for using extensor capsulorrhaphy in isolation or as an adjunct to SR as a treatment option. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Linear growth rates of resistive tearing modes with sub-Alfvénic streaming flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L. N.; Ma, Z. W.

    2014-01-01

    The tearing instability with sub-Alfvénic streaming flow along the external magnetic field is investigated using resistive MHD simulation. It is found that the growth rate of the tearing mode instability is larger than that without the streaming flow. With the streaming flow, there exist two Alfvén resonance layers near the central current sheet. The larger perturbation of the magnetic field in two closer Alfvén resonance layers could lead to formation of the observed cone structure and can largely enhance the development of the tearing mode for a narrower streaming flow. For a broader streaming flow, a larger separation of Alfvén resonance layers reduces the magnetic reconnection. The linear growth rate decreases with increase of the streaming flow thickness. The growth rate of the tearing instability also depends on the plasma beta (β). When the streaming flow is embedded in the current sheet, the growth rate increases with β if β  s , but decreases if β > β s . The existence of the specific value β s can be attributed to competition between the suppressing effect of β and the enhancing effect of the streaming flow on the magnetic reconnection. The critical value β s increases with increase of the streaming flow strength

  5. Longitudinal Changes in Tear Evaporation Rates After Eyelid Warming Therapies in Meibomian Gland Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sharon; Tan, Jen Hong; Acharya, U Rajendra; Sudarshan, Vidya K; Tong, Louis

    2016-04-01

    Lid warming is the major treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The purpose of the study was to determine the longitudinal changes of tear evaporation after lid warming in patients with MGD. Ninety patients with MGD were enrolled from a dry eye clinic at Singapore National Eye Center in an interventional trial. Participants were treated with hot towel (n = 22), EyeGiene (n = 22), or Blephasteam (n = 22) twice daily or a single 12-minute session of Lipiflow (n = 24). Ocular surface infrared thermography was performed at baseline and 4 and 12 weeks after the treatment, and image features were extracted from the captured images. The baseline of conjunctival tear evaporation (TE) rate (n = 90) was 66.1 ± 21.1 W/min. The rates were not significantly different between sexes, ages, symptom severities, tear breakup times, Schirmer test, corneal fluorescein staining, or treatment groups. Using a general linear model (repeat measures), the conjunctival TE rate was reduced with time after treatment. A higher baseline evaporation rate (≥ 66 W/min) was associated with greater reduction of evaporation rate after treatment. Seven of 10 thermography features at baseline were predictive of reduction in irritative symptoms after treatment. Conjunctival TE rates can be effectively reduced by lid warming treatment in some MGD patients. Individual baseline thermography image features can be predictive of the response to lid warming therapy. For patients that do not have excessive TE, additional therapy, for example, anti-inflammatory therapy, may be required.

  6. Bronchus anastomosis after sleeve resection for lung cancer: does the suture technique have an impact on postoperative complication rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palade, Emanuel; Holdt, Holger; Passlick, Bernward

    2015-06-01

    Bronchoplastic resections emerged as an alternative to pneumonectomy for patients with impaired pulmonary function and have gained popularity due to a marked decrease in morbidity and at least similar oncological outcome. Actual guidelines recommend sleeve resections whenever technically feasible, even in cases with adequate pulmonary reserve for pneumonectomy, in order to maximally preserve functional lung parenchyma. Various suture techniques were described; the existing evidence, however, is insufficient to recommend one of them as standard. The aim of this study was to compare two suture techniques for bronchus repair after sleeve resection. Two groups of patients from two separate institutions were retrospectively analysed. In Group A (n = 20), the anastomosis was performed with a running suture at the membranous part and an interrupted suture for the rest of the circumference. In Group B (n = 40), a telescoping continuous suture was used. Intra- and postoperative findings directly related to the anastomosis were compared. The parameters were assessed as absolute numbers and percentages; the statistical significance was determined using Pearson's χ(2) test for categorical variables and Student's t-test for continuous data (P resection type (predominance of the right upper lobe for Group B), the groups were comparable regarding patient characteristics. The intraoperative anastomotic assessment revealed: patency 100% in both groups, initial air tightness (100 vs 82.5%; P = 0.047) and buttressing 85 vs 5%. No suture revision was necessary in both groups. The analysis of anastomosis-related morbidity revealed no significant difference: atelectasis (1 in Group A and 2 in Group B; P = 1), reversible anastomotic changes (0 vs 2; P = 0.309), early stenosis (0 vs 0), bronchopleural fistula (1 vs 0; P = 0.154), bronchovascular fistula (0 vs 0), late stenosis (1 vs 0; P = 0.119) and reoperations (15 vs 5%; P = 0.186). The operative mortality rate was similar (2 vs 3; P

  7. Induction of bone ingrowth with a micropore bioabsorbable suture anchor in rotator cuff tear: an experimental study in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Gyeong; Kim, Jung-Han; Shin, Jung-Woog; Baik, Jong-Min; Choo, Hye-Jung

    2013-11-01

    The bioabsorbable suture anchor is probably one of the most commonly used tools in arthroscopic shoulder operations. However, there is controversy about whether the bioabsorbable anchor is replaced by bone. The object of this study is to evaluate bone ingrowth into the micropore bioabsorbable suture anchor and the differences in the biomechanical properties of a micropore anchor and a nonpore anchor. A total of 16 microsized holes (diameter, 250 ± 50 μm; depth, 0.2 mm) were made on the bioabsorbable anchors with a microdrill. Twelve adult New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n = 6), the nonpore bioabsorbable suture anchor group, and group pA (n = 6), the micropore bioabsorbable suture anchor group. Microcomputed tomography was used at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively to evaluate ingrowth by bone volume fraction (BVF), which was measured by calculating the ratio of the total volume of bone ingrowth to that of the region of interest. For pullout strength testing, 3 additional rabbits (6 limbs) were used for mechanical testing. The mean BVF was higher in group pA (0.288 ± 0.054) than in group A (0.097 ± 0.006). The micropore anchor had a higher pullout strength (0.520 ± 0.294 N) than the nonpore anchor (0.275 ± 0.064 N). Micropore bioabsorbable suture anchors induced bone ingrowth and showed higher pullout strength, despite processing. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Healing rates for challenging rotator cuff tears utilizing an acellular human dermal reinforcement graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents a retrospective case series of the clinical and structural outcomes (1.5 T MRI) of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with acellular human dermal graft reinforcement performed by a single surgeon in patients with large, massive, and previously repaired rotator cuff tears. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients with mean anterior to posterior tear size 3.87 ± 0.99 cm (median 4 cm, range 2.5–6 cm) were enrolled in the study and were evaluated for structural integrity using a high-field (1.5 T) MRI at an average of 16.8 months after surgery. The Constant-Murley scores, the Flexilevel Scale of Shoulder Function (Flex SF), scapular plane abduction, and strength were analyzed. Results: MRI results showed that the rotator cuff repair was intact in 85.7% (12/14) of the patients studied. Two patients had a Sugaya Type IV recurrent tear (2 of 14; 14.3%), which were both less than 1 cm. The Constant score increased from a preoperative mean of 49.72 (range 13–74) to a postoperative mean of 81.07 (range 45–92) (P value = 0.009). Flexilevel Scale of Shoulder Function (Flex SF) Score normalized to a 100-point scale improved from a preoperative mean of 53.69 to a postoperative mean of 79.71 (P value = 0.003). The Pain Score improved from a preoperative mean of 7.73 to a postoperative mean of 13.57 (P value = 0.008). Scapular plane abduction improved from a preoperative mean of 113.64° to a postoperative mean of 166.43° (P value = 0.010). The strength subset score improved from a preoperative mean of 1.73 kg to a postoperative mean of 7.52 kg (P value = 0.006). Conclusions: This study presents a safe and effective technique that may help improve the healing rates of large, massive, and revision rotator cuff tears with the use of an acellular human dermal allograft. This technique demonstrated favorable structural healing rates and statistically improved functional outcomes in the near term. Level of Evidence: 4. Retrospective case series. PMID

  9. Interaction of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya, Y.; Schmidt, G.

    1979-01-01

    A fully developed tearing mode modifies the magnetic field profile. The effect of this profile modification on the linear growth rate of a different tearing mode in a slab and cylindrical geometry is investigated

  10. Global existence of solutions to a tear film model with locally elevated evaporation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Ji, Hangjie; Liu, Jian-Guo; Witelski, Thomas P.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by a model proposed by Peng et al. (2014) for break-up of tear films on human eyes, we study the dynamics of a generalized thin film model. The governing equations form a fourth-order coupled system of nonlinear parabolic PDEs for the film thickness and salt concentration subject to non-conservative effects representing evaporation. We analytically prove the global existence of solutions to this model with mobility exponents in several different ranges and present numerical simulations that are in agreement with the analytic results. We also numerically capture other interesting dynamics of the model, including finite-time rupture-shock phenomenon due to the instabilities caused by locally elevated evaporation rates, convergence to equilibrium and infinite-time thinning.

  11. Arthroscopic repair of large U-shaped rotator cuff tears without margin convergence versus repair of crescent- or L-shaped tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Jung, Seok Won; Jeon, Seung-Hyub; Cho, Hyoung-Weon; Choi, Jin-Ho; Oh, Kyung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    For large-sized tears of the rotator cuff, data according to the tear shape have not yet been reported for repair methodology, configuration, and subsequent integrity. The retear rate after the repair of large mobile tears, such as crescent- or L-shaped tears, is believed to be lower compared with retear rates after the repair of large U-shaped tears that are accompanied by anterior or posterior leaves of the rotator cuff. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were collected and analyzed from 95 consecutive patients with a large-sized rotator cuff tear who underwent arthroscopic suture-bridge repair. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those having crescent- or L-shaped tears (mobile tear group, 53 patients) and those having U-shaped tears (U-shaped tear group, 42 patients). The integrity of the repaired constructs was determined by ultrasonography at 4.5, 12, and 24 months. Moreover, clinical evaluations were performed by using the Constant score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and muscle strength at intervals of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. On ultrasonography at 4.5, 12, and 24 months, a retear was detected in 6, 2, and 1 patients in the mobile tear group and in 5, 2, and 1 patients in the U-shaped tear group, respectively. Significant differences in retear rates were not detected between the groups overall or at each time point. Moreover, clinical scores were similar between groups, except for the presence of a temporarily higher Constant score at 12 months in the mobile tear group. With regard to shoulder strength, between-group comparisons indicated no statistically significant difference, either in abduction or external rotation, except for the presence of temporarily higher external rotation strength at 3 months in the mobile tear group. Arthroscopic repair of large-sized rotator cuff tears yielded substantial improvements in shoulder function, regardless of tear retraction, during midterm follow-up. Moreover, the

  12. A biomechanical and histological comparison of the suture bridge and conventional double-row techniques of the repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Wenyong; Guo, Weichun

    2015-06-16

    The suture bridge (SB) technique and conventional double-row (DR) are both effective in repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears . However, increasing numbers of scholars believe that the SB technique produces better results than conventional DR because of the higher bone-tendon contact area and pressure. However, The clinical outcomes have been mixed and little direct evidence has been supplied in vivo. This study was designed using the SB and DR techniques to determine which is the better technique. Sixty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups, the SB group and DR group. SB and DR were then used to repair their rotator cuff tears. Rabbits were then sacrificed at the 2(nd), 4(th), or 8(th) week after surgery and a histological comparison was made. The biomechanical comparison was made at the 8(th) week. The load to failure of the SB group was 134.59 ± 17.69 N at the 8(th) postoperative week, and that was significantly higher than in the DR group (103.83 ± 6.62, P = 0.001), but both repair groups remained lower than in the control group (199.25 ± 14.81). Histological evaluation showed that both the SB and DR groups healed at the bone-tendon interface. But there were subtle differences between the two groups in the structure and morphology of collagen fibers and cartilage cells at bone-tendon interface. In general, the collagen fibers of the SB group were more compact than those of the DR group at all times tested. At the 4(th) and 8(th) weeks, the collagen fibers and cartilage cells in the SB group were arranged in a column modality, but those in the DR group were distributed horizontally. The SB technique facilitated healing more effectively than the conventional DR technique. The difference in morphology of collagen fibers and cartilage cells may be related to the difference in bone-tendon contact pressure.

  13. Long-term efficacy of anchored barbed sutures in the face and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Michael S; Bogart, Megan; Choi, Christine; Wee, Sue Ann

    2008-08-01

    The thread lift is a minimally invasive procedure that uses barbed sutures, inserted subcutaneously, to produce lifting of ptotic tissue of the face and neck. There are currently very limited data on longevity and patient satisfaction following barbed suture lifting procedures. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term efficacy following the use of barbed sutures. A satisfaction survey was mailed to 20 patients who were a minimum of 6 months (range, 6 to 16 months) postprocedure. Physician assessment of pre- and postprocedure photographs was also performed. At an average of 11.5 months postprocedure, patients felt that the barbed suture lift met their expectations, rating their satisfaction a 6.9 on a scale of 1 to 10. Independent physicians rated the overall improvement an average of 4.6 of 10. Higher scores were noted in Zone 1 (tear trough/malar fat pad and nasolabial folds) compared to Zone 2 (marionette lines, jowls, and jawline definition) and Zone 3 (platysmal bands and neck contour). The barbed suture lift procedure provides moderate long-term and sustained improvement for facial laxity, with most improvement seen in the tear trough/malar fat pads and nasolabial folds. In this study, clinical efficacy was seen up to 16 months postprocedure.

  14. Lower complication rate and faster return to sports in patients with acute syndesmotic rupture treated with a new knotless suture button device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colcuc, Christian; Blank, Marc; Stein, Thomas; Raimann, Florian; Weber-Spickschen, Sanjay; Fischer, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Reinhard

    2017-12-09

    Suture button devices for tibiofibular syndesmosis injuries provide semirigid dynamic stabilization, but complications including knot irritation have been reported. No randomized trials of the new knotless suture button devices have been performed. We hypothesized that knotless suture button devices eliminate knot irritation and facilitate quicker return to sports. This study was performed to compare the clinical outcomes, complication rates, and time to return to sports between a new knotless suture button device and syndesmotic screw fixation. This study included 54 patients treated for ankle syndesmotic injury from 2012 to 2014 with a knotless suture button device or syndesmotic screw fixation. Clinical outcomes were measured using the American Orthopaedics Foot and Ankle Society score, Foot and Ankle Disability Index, Olerud and Molander score, and visual analog scale for pain and function. Secondary outcome measures were the complication rate and time required to return to sports. Patients underwent clinical and radiological evaluations preoperatively and three times during the 1-year postoperative follow-up. 54 of 62 eligible patients were analyzed, median age 37 (18-60) and underwent the 1-year follow-up. The screw fixation and knotless suture button groups comprised 26 and 28 patients, respectively. The complication rate was significantly lower (p = 0.03) and time to return to sports was significantly shorter in the knotless suture button than screw fixation group (average, 14 versus 19 weeks, respectively; p = 0.006). No significant differences were identified in clinical outcomes or visual analog scale scores for pain and function between the groups. Age, injury mechanism, and body mass index did not significantly affect the time required to return to sports activities. The type of fixation was the only independent variable that reached statistical significance (p = 0.006). Syndesmotic screw fixation and the new knotless suture button device

  15. Ultrasound evaluation of arthroscopic full-thickness supraspinatus rotator cuff repair: single-row versus double-row suture bridge (transosseous equivalent) fixation. Results of a prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartsman, Gary M; Drake, Gregory; Edwards, T Bradley; Elkousy, Hussein A; Hammerman, Steven M; O'Connor, Daniel P; Press, Cyrus M

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the structural outcomes of a single-row rotator cuff repair and double-row suture bridge fixation after arthroscopic repair of a full-thickness supraspinatus rotator cuff tear. We evaluated with diagnostic ultrasound a consecutive series of ninety shoulders in ninety patients with full-thickness supraspinatus tears at an average of 10 months (range, 6-12) after operation. A single surgeon at a single hospital performed the repairs. Inclusion criteria were full-thickness supraspinatus tears less than 25 mm in their anterior to posterior dimension. Exclusion criteria were prior operations on the shoulder, partial thickness tears, subscapularis tears, infraspinatus tears, combined supraspinatus and infraspinatus repairs and irreparable supraspinatus tears. Forty-three shoulders were repaired with single-row technique and 47 shoulders with double-row suture bridge technique. Postoperative rehabilitation was identical for both groups. Ultrasound criteria for healed repair included visualization of a tendon with normal thickness and length, and a negative compression test. Eighty-three patients were available for ultrasound examination (40 single-row and 43 suture-bridge). Thirty of 40 patients (75%) with single-row repair demonstrated a healed rotator cuff repair compared to 40/43 (93%) patients with suture-bridge repair (P = .024). Arthroscopic double-row suture bridge repair (transosseous equivalent) of an isolated supraspinatus rotator cuff tear resulted in a significantly higher tendon healing rate (as determined by ultrasound examination) when compared to arthroscopic single-row repair. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of Meibomian lipids and tear proteins on evaporation rate under controlled in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herok, George Henryk; Mudgil, Poonam; Millar, Thomas James

    2009-07-01

    The lipid layer of the tear film is associated with preventing evaporative loss. The ability of human Meibomian lipids to reduce evaporation in vitro was tested. Films of human or animal Meibomian lipids or mixtures of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine were spread on the surface of either artificial buffer or on whole tears and placed on a mass balance that was enclosed in a sealed chamber. The temperature was adjusted to 37 degrees C and gas flow was controlled. Increasing the amounts of Meibomian lipids gave a very small reduction in evaporation. It was concluded from these in vitro experiments that prevention of evaporation from the tear film is not due to the Meibomian lipids alone, but is more likely to be due to a complex interaction between components of the aqueous and the Meibomian lipids.

  17. Arthroscopic double row cuff repair with suture-bridging and autologous conditioned plasma injection: Functional and structural results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthel, Jean-David; Pelissier, Alexandre; Massin, Philippe; Boyer, Patrick; Valenti, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    The double row cuff repair with suture bridging is commonly used for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (RCR). Despite its biomechanical qualities, the rate of iterative tears with this technique is important. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) on functional results and on the rate of iterative tears after RCR by suture bridging. A consecutive series of 65 patients who underwent arthroscopic double-row suture bridge (Speed-Bridge, Arthrex) primary cuff repair of symptomatic full-thickness supraspinatus tear (retraction 4 were considered as iterative tears. Mean follow-up was 19 months (+/-42) in the 2 groups. The mean quantity of ACP injected was 6ml. (+/-1.5) and no specific complication of the injection was found. Mean preoperative Constant-Murley scores were 41,2 (±7,7) and 38 (±11)in group B. Mean normalized Constant-Murley score increased from 41 points (±7) pre-operatively to 70 points (±8) post-operatively in group A and from 38 points (±11) to 73 points (±11) in group B. There were no significative differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). In group A, 31 repairs were Sugaya 1-3 (94%), vs. 30 in group B (93%), and 1 was type 4 in group A (5%) vs. 2 in group B (8%). In both groups, RCR with suture bridging gave successful functional outcomes, with a low rate of iterative tear. In this preliminary study, the adjuvant effect of ACP injections could not be showed on both functional and structural results. Longer follow-up is needed to evaluate potential differences.

  18. The tear turnover and tear clearance tests - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Montes Mico, Robert; Iskander, D Robert; Expósito, Alejandro Cerviño

    2018-03-01

    The aim is to provide a summary of methods available for the assessment of tear turnover and tear clearance rates. The review defines tear clearance and tear turnover and describes their implication for ocular surface health. Additionally, it describes main types of techniques for measuring tear turnover, including fluorescein tear clearance tests, techniques utilizing electromagnetic spectrum and tracer molecule and novel experimental techniques utilizing optical coherence tomography and fluorescein profilometry. Areas covered: Internet databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar) and most frequently cited references were used as a principal resource of information on tear turnover rate and tear clearance rate, presenting methodologies and equipment, as well as their definition and implications for the anterior eye surface health and function. Keywords used for data-search were as follows: tear turnover, tear clearance, fluorescein clearance, scintigraphy, fluorophotometry, tear flow, drainage, tear meniscus dynamics, Krehbiel flow and lacrimal functional unit. Expert commentary: After decades, the topic of tear turnover assessment has been reintroduced. Recently, new techniques have been developed to propose less invasive, less time consuming and simpler methodologies for the assessment of tear dynamics that have the potential to be utilized in clinical practice.

  19. Impact of Flow Rate, Collection Devices, and Extraction Methods on Tear Concentrations Following Oral Administration of Doxycycline in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbag, Lionel; Showman, Lucas; McDowell, Emily M; Perera, Ann; Mochel, Jonathan P

    2018-04-30

    Compare the precision of doxycycline quantification in tear fluid collected with either Schirmer strips or polyvinyl acetal (PVA) sponges following oral drug administration. Three dogs and 3 cats were administered doxycycline orally at a dose of 4.2-5 mg/kg every 12 h for 6 consecutive days. At day 5 and 6, blood and tear fluid were sampled to capture doxycycline trough and maximal concentrations. Tear fluid was collected 3 times (spaced 10 min apart) at each session with the absorbent material placed in the lower conjunctival fornix until the 20-mm mark was reached (Schirmer strip, one eye) or for 1 min (PVA sponge, other eye). Tear extraction was performed with either centrifugation or elution in methanol. Doxycycline concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Low (100 ng/mL) and high (1,000 ng/mL) tear concentrations measured in vivo were spiked into each absorbent material in vitro to evaluate percentage drug recovery. After oral administration of doxycycline, the drug reached the tear compartment at concentrations of 45.1-900.7 ng/mL in cats and 45.4-632.0 ng/mL in dogs, representing a tear-to-serum ratio of 12% and 16%, respectively. Doxycycline tear concentrations were significantly more precise when tear collection was performed with Schirmer strips rather than PVA sponges (P = 0.007), but were not correlated with tear flow rate. In vitro doxycycline recovery was poor to moderate (<75%). Schirmer strips represent a good option for lacrimal doxycycline quantification, although the collection and subsequent extraction have to be optimized to improve drug recovery.

  20. Human tears contain a chemosignal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelstein, Shani; Yeshurun, Yaara; Rozenkrantz, Liron; Shushan, Sagit; Frumin, Idan; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2011-01-14

    Emotional tearing is a poorly understood behavior that is considered uniquely human. In mice, tears serve as a chemosignal. We therefore hypothesized that human tears may similarly serve a chemosignaling function. We found that merely sniffing negative-emotion-related odorless tears obtained from women donors induced reductions in sexual appeal attributed by men to pictures of women's faces. Moreover, after sniffing such tears, men experienced reduced self-rated sexual arousal, reduced physiological measures of arousal, and reduced levels of testosterone. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that sniffing women's tears selectively reduced activity in brain substrates of sexual arousal in men.

  1. T-Fix endoscopic meniscal repair: technique and approach to different types of tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, G R; Richardson, K; Koenig, V

    1995-04-01

    Endoscopic meniscus repair using the T-Fix suture device (Acufex Microsurgical, Inc, Mansfield, MA) allows ease of suture placement for meniscus stability without the problems associated with ancillary incisions such as neurovascular compromise. It is ideal for the central posterior horn tears that are difficult using conventional techniques. Vertical tears, bucket handle tears, flap tears, and horizontal tears can be approached using a temporary "anchor stitch" to stabilize the meniscus before T-Fix repair. The basic method of repair and our approach to these different types of tears is presented.

  2. Problems of rotator cuff re-tear cases. Examination of operative findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitani, Eiichi; Matsuura, Komei; Shin, Kunichika; Kawamoto, Taisaku; Hosokawa, Akira

    2007-01-01

    High re-tear rate is reported after rotator cuff repair in large and massive tear cases. Previously, we reported that 15% of patients after rotator cuff repair showed re-tear in MRI findings. In this study, 116 consecutive rotator cuff repaired patients who had been operated arthroscopically since 2003 were evaluated for size, torn site, fixation methods, mobility, and tendon quality. In addition, rehabilitation methods and occupation after revision were also evaluated. There were four patients who underwent re-operation. Rotator cuff repairs by revision surgery failed mechanically due to two reasons: the main factor of failure was suture material breakage in three cases and the second was tendon pulling through sutures in one case. The lack of thread strength was suggested. In addition, it is important to pull cuff stump to greater tubercle without excessive tension. Of re-operated cases, three engaging in manual labor suffered large and massive tear. In two cases, premature return to manual labor suggested cause of re-tear. (author)

  3. Tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretani, Colin F; Radke, C J

    2014-06-01

    Dry-eye disease, an increasingly prevalent ocular-surface disorder, significantly alters tear physiology. Understanding the basic physics of tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes benefits both diagnosis and treatment of dry eye. We present a physiological-based model to describe tear dynamics during blinking. Tears are compartmentalized over the ocular surface; the blink cycle is divided into three repeating phases. Conservation laws quantify the tear volume and tear osmolarity of each compartment during each blink phase. Lacrimal-supply and tear-evaporation rates are varied to reveal the dependence of tear dynamics on dry-eye conditions, specifically tear osmolarity, tear volume, tear-turnover rate (TTR), and osmotic water flow. Predicted periodic-steady tear-meniscus osmolarity is 309 and 321 mOsM in normal and dry eyes, respectively. Tear osmolarity, volume, and TTR all match available clinical measurements. Osmotic water flow through the cornea and conjunctiva contribute 10 and 50% to the total tear supply in healthy and dry-eye conditions, respectively. TTR in aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) is only half that in evaporative dry eye (EDE). The compartmental periodic-steady tear-dynamics model accurately predicts tear behavior in normal and dry eyes. Inclusion of osmotic water flow is crucial to match measured tear osmolarity. Tear-dynamics predictions corroborate the use of TTR as a clinical discriminator between ADDE and EDE. The proposed model is readily extended to predict the dynamics of aqueous solutes such as drugs or fluorescent tags.

  4. Biomechanical Performance of Medial Row Suture Placement Relative to the Musculotendinous Junction in Transosseous Equivalent Suture Bridge Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mandeep S; Bruce, Benjamin; Hussey, Kristen E; Thomas, Jacqueline M; Luthringer, Tyler A; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Wang, Vincent M; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J

    2017-02-01

    To compare the biomechanical performance of medial row suture placement relative to the musculotendinous junction (MTJ) in a cadaveric transosseous equivalent suture bridge (TOE-SB) double-row (DR) rotator cuff repair (RCR) model. A TOE-SB DR technique was used to reattach experimentally created supraspinatus tendon tears in 9 pairs of human cadaveric shoulders. The medial row sutures were passed either near the MTJ (MTJ group) or 10 mm lateral to the MTJ (rotator cuff tendon [RCT] group). After the supraspinatus repair, the specimens underwent cyclic loading and load to failure tests. The localized displacement of the markers affixed to the tendon surface was measured with an optical tracking system. The MTJ group showed a significantly higher (P = .03) medial row failure (5/9; 3 during cyclic testing and 2 during load to failure testing) compared with the RCT group (0/9). The mean number of cycles completed during cyclic testing was lower in the MTJ group (77) compared with the RCT group (100; P = .07) because 3 specimens failed in the MTJ group during cyclic loading. There were no significant differences between the 2 study groups with respect to biomechanical properties during the load to failure testing. In a cadaveric TOE-SB DR RCR model, medial row sutures through the MTJ results in a significantly higher rate of medial row failure. In rotator cuff tears with tendon tissue loss, passage of medial row sutures through the MTJ should be avoided in a TOE-SB RCR technique because of the risk of medial row failure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Software Simulation of Hot Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.; Hansen, P.N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1999-01-01

    The brittleness of a solidifying alloy in a temperature range near the solidus temperature has been recognised since the fifties as the mechanism responsible for hot tearing. Due to this brittlenes, the metal will crack under even small amounts of strain in that temperature range. We see these hot...... tears in castings close to hot centres, where the level of strain is often too high.Although the hot tearing mechanism is well understood, until now it has been difficult to do much to reduce the hot tearing tendency in a casting. In the seventies, good hot tearing criteria were developed by considering...... the solidification rate and the strain rate of the hot tear prone areas. But, until recently it was only possible to simulate the solidification rate, so that the criteria could not be used effectively.Today, with new software developments, it is possible to also simulate the strain rate in the hot tear prone areas...

  6. Ultrasound determination of rotator cuff tear repairability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Andrew K; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Hackett, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff repair aims to reattach the torn tendon to the greater tuberosity footprint with suture anchors. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability and to assess which sonographic and pre-operative features are strongest in predicting repairability. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of measurements made prospectively in a cohort of 373 patients who had ultrasounds of their shoulder and underwent rotator cuff repair. Measurements of rotator cuff tear size and muscle atrophy were made pre-operatively by ultrasound to enable prediction of rotator cuff repairability. Tears were classified following ultrasound as repairable or irreparable, and were correlated with intra-operative repairability. Results Ultrasound assessment of rotator cuff tear repairability has a sensitivity of 86% (p tear size (p tear size ≥4 cm2 or anteroposterior tear length ≥25 mm indicated an irreparable rotator cuff tear. Conclusions Ultrasound assessment is accurate in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability. Tear size or anteroposterior tear length and age were the best predictors of repairability. PMID:27582996

  7. Similar failure rate in immediate post-operative weight bearing versus protected weight bearing following meniscal repair on peripheral, vertical meniscal tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Bryan; Gronbeck, Kyle R; Yue, Ruixian Alexander; Tompkins, Marc A

    2017-08-16

    Post-operative weight bearing after meniscal repair is a point of debate among physicians. This study sought to evaluate whether patients adhering to an immediate WBAT rehabilitation programme have a higher failure rate compared to those adhering to a more traditional, protected, NWB status following meniscal repair. The null hypothesis was that there would be no difference in failure between the two groups. A retrospective review of meniscal repair patients greater than 5 years from surgery was performed for patients receiving meniscal repair treatment. Patients were categorized by post-surgical weight-bearing status, either NWB or WBAT, and then analysed for failure of repair. Failure was defined as re-operation on the torn meniscus. The study controlled for variables including age at surgery, sex, height, weight, and BMI, classification of tear type, acuity of the tear, repair location (medial or lateral), repair location within the meniscus, repair technique, and concomitant procedures. Re-operations were performed in 61 of 157 patients [38.9%]. There was no difference between weight-bearing groups for failure of meniscus repair (n.s.). The tears were acute vertical tears located in the posterior horn and body. For the 61 patients with re-operation, the average time to re-operation was 2.2 years with 10 [16%] > 5 years from surgery, 17 [28%] 2-5 years from surgery, and 34 [56%] bearing groups for rate of re-operation (n.s.). Weight bearing as tolerated after meniscal repair for peripheral, vertical tears does not result in a higher failure rate than traditional, non-weight bearing over a five-year follow-up period. The clinical relevance is that, based on these data, it may be appropriate to allow weight bearing as tolerated following meniscal repair of peripheral, vertical tears. Retrospective cohort study, Level III.

  8. Examination of rotator cuff re-tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Yoshihiro; Norimatsu, Takahiro; Adachi, Shinji; Sera, Keisuke

    2010-01-01

    The six-month post-operative re-tear rate in 72 arthroscopic rotator cuff repair cases was 16.3% by MRI. The re-tear rate of massive tears was 50%. We investigated the details of the re-tears by MRI and arthroscopic findings. High re-tear rates were connected with cuff tear size and fatty degeneration of muscle belly. Cases with poor cuff quality in arthroscopically showed high re-tear rate. These results suggest that surgery operation should be performed as soon as possible after diagnosis of cuff tear to obtain good results. Cases with damage of long head of the biceps (LHB) are likely to develop impingement causes of re-tears. Some type of rehabilitation is required to avoid impingement in such cases. (author)

  9. A comparison of basal and eye-flush tears for the analysis of cat tear proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petznick, Andrea; Evans, Margaret D M; Madigan, Michele C; Markoulli, Maria; Garrett, Qian; Sweeney, Deborah F

    2011-02-01

    To identify a rapid and effective tear collection method providing sufficient tear volume and total protein content (TPC) for analysis of individual proteins in cats. Domestic adult short-haired cats (12-37 months; 2.7-6.6 kg) were used in the study. Basal tears without stimulation and eye-flush tears after instillation of saline (10 μl) were collected using microcapillary tubes from animal eyes either unwounded control or wounded with 9-mm central epithelial debridement giving four groups with n = 3. Tear comparisons were based on total time and rate for tear collection, TPC using micro bicinchoninic acid (BCA), tear immunoglobulin A (IgA), total matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 concentration using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and MMP-9 activity. Eye-flush tears were collected significantly faster than basal tears in wounded eyes with higher rates for tear collection in unwounded control and wounded eyes. TPC was significantly lower in eye-flush tears compared to basal tears. The relative proportion of tear IgA normalized to TPC (% IgA of TPC) was not significantly different between basal and eye-flush tears. In unwounded control eyes, MMP-9 was slightly higher in eye-flush than in basal tears; activity of MMP-9 in both tear types was similar. In wounded eyes, eye-flush tears showed highest MMP-9 levels and activity on Day 1, which subsequently decreased to Day 7. MMP-9 activity in basal tears from wounded eyes did not display changes in expression. Eye-flush tears can be collected rapidly providing sufficient tear volume and TPC. This study also indicates that eye-flush tears may be more suitable than basal tears for the analysis of MMPs following corneal wounding. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  10. The effects of radiant cooling versus convective cooling on human eye tear film stability and blinking rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2014-01-01

    The effect of indoor temperature, radiant and convective cooling on tear film stability and eye blink frequency was examined. 24 human subjects were exposed to the non-uniform environment generated by localised chilled beam and a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation. The subj......The effect of indoor temperature, radiant and convective cooling on tear film stability and eye blink frequency was examined. 24 human subjects were exposed to the non-uniform environment generated by localised chilled beam and a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation....... The subjects participated in four two-hour experiments. The room air temperature was kept at 26 °C or 28 °C. Tear film samples were collected after 30 min of acclimatisation and at the end of the exposures. Eye blinking frequency was analysed for the first and last 15 min of each exposure. The tear film...... stability decreased as the temperature increased. The highest number of subjects with unchanged or improved tear film quality was observed with the localised chilled beam at 26 °C. A trend was found between subjects who reported eye irritation and had a bad tear film quality....

  11. Mechanics of Suture Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaning; Song, Juha; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary; Ortiz Group/DMSE/MIT Team; Boyce Group/ME/MIT Team

    2011-03-01

    Biological sutures are joints which connect two stiff skeletal or skeletal-like components. These joints possess a wavy geometry with a thin organic layer providing adhesion. Examples of biological sutures include mammalian skulls, the pelvic assembly of the armored fish Gasterosteus aculeatus (the three-spined stickleback), and the suture joints in the shell of the red-eared slider turtle. Biological sutures allow for movement and compliance, control stress concentrations, transmit loads, reduce fatigue stress and absorb energy. In this investigation, the mechanics of the role of suture geometry in providing a naturally optimized joint is explored. In particular, analytical and numerical micromechanical models of the suture joint are constructed. The anisotropic mechanical stiffness and strength are studied as a function of suture wavelength, amplitude and the material properties of the skeletal and organic components, revealing key insights into the optimized nature of these ubiquitous natural joints.

  12. Classification of ulnar triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. A treatment algorithm for Palmer type IB tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzei, A; Luchetti, R; Garagnani, L

    2017-05-01

    The classical definition of 'Palmer Type IB' triangular fibrocartilage complex tear, includes a spectrum of clinical conditions. This review highlights the clinical and arthroscopic criteria that enable us to categorize five classes on a treatment-oriented classification system of triangular fibrocartilage complex peripheral tears. Class 1 lesions represent isolated tears of the distal triangular fibrocartilage complex without distal radio-ulnar joint instability and are amenable to arthroscopic suture. Class 2 tears include rupture of both the distal triangular fibrocartilage complex and proximal attachments of the triangular fibrocartilage complex to the fovea. Class 3 tears constitute isolated ruptures of the proximal attachment of the triangular fibrocartilage complex to the fovea; they are not visible at radio-carpal arthroscopy. Both Class 2 and Class 3 tears are diagnosed with a positive hook test and are typically associated with distal radio-ulnar joint instability. If required, treatment is through reattachment of the distal radio-ulnar ligament insertions to the fovea. Class 4 lesions are irreparable tears due to the size of the defect or to poor tissue quality and, if required, treatment is through distal radio-ulnar ligament reconstruction with tendon graft. Class 5 tears are associated with distal radio-ulnar joint arthritis and can only be treated with salvage procedures. This subdivision of type IB triangular fibrocartilage complex tear provides more insights in the pathomechanics and treatment strategies. II.

  13. Changes in rates of arthroscopy due to degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Ville M; Sihvonen, Raine; Paloneva, Juha; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-02-01

    Knee arthroscopy is commonly performed to treat degenerative knee disease symptoms and traumatic meniscal tears. We evaluated whether the recent high-quality randomized control trials not favoring arthroscopic surgery for degenerative knee disease affected the procedure incidence and trends in Finland and Sweden. We conducted a bi-national registry-based study including all adult (aged ≥18 years) inpatient and outpatient arthroscopic surgeries performed for degenerative knee disease (osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative meniscal tears) and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland between 1997 and 2012, and in Sweden between 2001 and 2012. In Finland, the annual number of operations was 16,389 in 1997, reached 20,432 in 2007, and declined to 15,018 in 2012. In Sweden, the number of operations was 9,944 in 2001, reached 11,711 in 2008, and declined to 8,114 in 2012. The knee arthroscopy incidence for OA was 124 per 10(5) person-years in 2012 in Finland and it was 51 in Sweden. The incidence of knee arthroscopies for meniscal tears coded as traumatic steadily increased in Finland from 64 per 10(5) person-years in 1997 to 97 per 10(5) person-years in 2012, but not in Sweden. The incidence of arthroscopies for degenerative knee disease declined after 2008 in both countries. Remarkably, the incidence of arthroscopy for degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears is 2 to 4 times higher in Finland than in Sweden. Efficient implementation of new high-quality evidence in clinical practice could reduce the number of ineffective surgeries.

  14. Changes in rates of arthroscopy due to degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Ville M; Sihvonen, Raine; Paloneva, Juha; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Knee arthroscopy is commonly performed to treat degenerative knee disease symptoms and traumatic meniscal tears. We evaluated whether the recent high-quality randomized control trials not favoring arthroscopic surgery for degenerative knee disease affected the procedure incidence and trends in Finland and Sweden. Patients and methods We conducted a bi-national registry-based study including all adult (aged ≥18 years) inpatient and outpatient arthroscopic surgeries performed for degenerative knee disease (osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative meniscal tears) and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland between 1997 and 2012, and in Sweden between 2001 and 2012. Results In Finland, the annual number of operations was 16,389 in 1997, reached 20,432 in 2007, and declined to 15,018 in 2012. In Sweden, the number of operations was 9,944 in 2001, reached 11,711 in 2008, and declined to 8,114 in 2012. The knee arthroscopy incidence for OA was 124 per 105 person-years in 2012 in Finland and it was 51 in Sweden. The incidence of knee arthroscopies for meniscal tears coded as traumatic steadily increased in Finland from 64 per 105 person-years in 1997 to 97 per 105 person-years in 2012, but not in Sweden. Interpretation The incidence of arthroscopies for degenerative knee disease declined after 2008 in both countries. Remarkably, the incidence of arthroscopy for degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears is 2 to 4 times higher in Finland than in Sweden. Efficient implementation of new high-quality evidence in clinical practice could reduce the number of ineffective surgeries. PMID:26122621

  15. Modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity improves structural integrity after rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Keun Jung; Kim, Bang Hyun; Lee, Yohan; Lee, Yoon Seok; Kim, Jae Hwa

    2015-03-01

    The arthroscopic suture-bridge technique has proved to provide biomechanically firm fixation of the torn rotator cuff to the tuberosity by increasing the footprint contact area and pressure. However, a marginal dog-ear deformity is encountered not infrequently when this technique is used, impeding full restoration of the torn cuff. To evaluate the structural and functional outcomes of the use of a modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity compared with a conventional suture-bridge method in rotator cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence 2. A consecutive series of 71 patients aged 50 to 65 years who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for full-thickness medium-sized to massive tears was evaluated. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to repair technique: a conventional suture-bridge technique (34 patients; group A) versus a modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity (37 patients; group B). Radiographic evaluations included postoperative cuff integrity using MRI. Functional evaluations included pre- and postoperative range of motion (ROM), pain visual analog scale (VAS), the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale, the Constant score, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. All patients were followed up clinically at a minimum of 1 year. When the 2 surgical techniques were compared, postoperative structural integrity by Sugaya classification showed the distribution of types I:II:III:IV:V to be 4:20:2:4:4 in group A and 20:12:4:0:1 in group B. More subjects in group B had a favorable Sugaya type compared with group A (P bridge technique repairs were found in the retear group (P = .03). There were significant differences between healed and retear groups in functional outcome scores, with worse results in the retear group. A modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity provided better structural outcomes than a

  16. Excellent healing rates and patient satisfaction after arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears with a single-row technique augmented with bone marrow vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckman, Brian D; Ni, Jake J; Karzel, Ronald P; Getelman, Mark H

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the repair integrity and patient clinical outcomes following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears using a single-row technique consisting of medially based, triple-loaded anchors augmented with bone marrow vents in the rotator cuff footprint lateral to the repair. This is a retrospective study of 52 patients (53 shoulders) comprising 36 males and 16 females with a median age of 62 (range 44-82) with more than 24-month follow-up, tears between 2 and 4 cm in the anterior-posterior dimension and utilizing triple-loaded anchors. Mann-Whitney test compared Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) outcome scores between patients with healed and re-torn cuff repairs. Multivariate logistic regression analysed association of variables with healing status and WORC score. Cuff integrity was assessed on MRI, read by a musculoskeletal fellowship-trained radiologist. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an intact repair in 48 of 53 shoulders (91%). The overall median WORC score was 95.7 (range 27.6-100.0). A significant difference in WORC scores were seen between patients with healed repairs 96.7 (range 56.7-100.0) compared with a re-tear 64.6 (27.6-73.8), p rotator cuff tears using a triple-loaded single-row repair augmented with bone marrow vents resulted in a 91% healing rate by MRI and excellent patient reported clinical outcomes comparable to similar reported results in the literature. IV.

  17. Changes in the evaporation rate of tear film after digital expression of meibomian glands in patients with and without dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, Juan Carlos; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga Cristina; Mohamed, Engy Mostafa; McCulley, James Parker

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of excess meibum on tear evaporation rate in patients with and without dry eye. Eleven healthy subjects and 16 patients with dry eye were tested. The dry eye group was divided into 2 subgroups: classic keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) with clear and easily expressed meibum and KCS with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) with turbid secretions and difficult-to-express meibum. Evaporative measurements were performed at baseline and after digital expression of meibomian glands at 12, 24, 36, and 48 minutes. Two ranges of relative humidity were used, 25% to 35% and 35% to 45%. The data were expressed as microliters per square centimeter per minute. An increase in the evaporation rate of the tear film was noted for all measurements at both relative humidities in the classic KCS and KCS with MGD groups compared with healthy subjects (P evaporation rates at relative humidities of 25% to 35% and 35% to 45% were 0.056 ± 0.016 and 0.040 ± 0.008 for the classic KCS group; 0.055 ± 0.026 and 0.037 ± 0.019 for the KCS with MGD group and 0.033 ± 0.012 and 0.023 ± 0.008 for the healthy group. Also, a decrease in the evaporation rate was observed in the healthy and KCS with MGD groups between baseline and the first measurement after digital expression for both relative humidities (P evaporation rates compared with the healthy group. Aqueous tear evaporation diminished in the healthy and KCS with MGD groups after expression of meibomian glands. However, this effect was transient and negligible after the second measurement.

  18. Clinical outcomes and repair integrity after arthroscopic full-thickness rotator cuff repair: suture-bridge versus double-row modified Mason-Allen technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Won; Yang, Dae Suk; Lee, Gyu Sang; Ma, Chang Hyun; Choy, Won Sik

    2018-05-23

    This retrospective study compared the clinical and radiologic outcomes of patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs by the suture-bridge and double-row modified Mason-Allen techniques. From January 2012 to May 2013, 76 consecutive cases of full-thickness rotator cuff tear, 1 to 4 cm in the sagittal plane, for which arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed, were included. The suture-bridge technique was used in 37 consecutive shoulders; and the double-row modified Mason-Allen technique, in 39 consecutive shoulders. Clinical outcomes at a minimum of 2 years (mean, 35.7 months) were evaluated postoperatively using the visual analog scale; University of California, Los Angeles Shoulder Scale; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Subjective Shoulder Scale; and Constant score. Postoperative cuff integrity was evaluated at a mean of 17.7 months by magnetic resonance imaging. At the final follow-up, the clinical outcomes improved in both groups (all P  .05). The retear rate was 18.9% in the shoulders subjected to suture-bridge repair and 12.8% in the double-row modified Mason-Allen group; the difference was not significant (P = .361). Despite the presence of fewer suture anchors, the patients who underwent double-row modified Mason-Allen repair had comparable shoulder functional outcomes and a comparable retear rate with those who underwent suture-bridge repair. Therefore, the double-row modified Mason-Allen repair technique can be considered an effective treatment for patients with medium- to large-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR OF LARGE AND MASSIVE ROTATOR CUFF TEARS: CLINICAL OUTCOMES AND POSTOPERATIVE MRI FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Dokolin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study – to identify incidence rate of recurrent rotator cuff (RC tears, to evaluate outcomes of arthroscopic bone-tendon anchor suture, to determine the factors influencing arthroscopic treatment outcomes.Materials and methods. Medical history data, pre-operative x-rays and MRI of shoulder joints of 305 patients (main group who underwent arthroscopic bone-tendon anchor suture repair of large or massive RC tears during 2010-2016 were included in the study. Follow up period ranged from 1 to 6 years postoperatively with mean value of 25,6±4,5 months. Telephone survey of patients was conducted after the surgery as well as a single examination of patients with evaluation by functional scales – UCLA, ASES, CS, VAS, DN4. Preoperative standard x-rays in AP and axial views were done in all patients. Arthropathy severity was evaluated by K.Hamada classification. Comparison of patient specific data, features of RC lesions and surgical treatment was made by Kruskal-Wallis test.Results. Good outcomes by ASES, CS and UCLA functional scales were obtained in 15 (5% of patients, satisfactory – in 213 (69.8%, poor – in 77 (25.2%. Postoperative MRI data provided the following sub-distribution of patients: 49 (41.1% patients with complete repair of RC tendons lesions, 38 (31.9% patients with partial repair and 33 (27.0% patients with recurrent tear of reconstructed tendon. Correlation analysis allowed to establish the limits for achieving good outcomes of arthroscopic bone-tendon anchor suturing for significant association with infraspinatus muscle atrophy (not exceeding 40% and fatty infiltration of supraspinatus muscle (not exceeding 23.5%. 

  20. [Laparoscopic suture or open suture in perforated duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, A E; Ionescu, G; Iordache, F; Mehic, R; Spătaru, A

    2002-01-01

    Between Nov. 1994-Jan. 2001 we performed laparoscopic suture with omentoplasty of perforated duodenal ulcer (PDU) in 51 patients out of 56 it was intended (this constituted the laparoscopic group--LG). The selection criteria were young patients, age < 40 years, no associated diseases, onset of the operation under 12 hours from the occurrence of the perforation, absence of clear ulcer history. In the same period, we performed an open suture based on the same criteria in 105 patients (open group--OP). The results showed a difference between needed analgesia (2.8 days for LG vs. 5.2 days for OG) and a hospital stay of 6.1 days in LG vs. 7.7 days in OG. The incidence of postoperative complications was 5.88% in the LG and 7.61% in the OG with 1.96% and respective 1.90% reoperation rate. In conclusion laparoscopic suture of PDU with associated postoperative modern therapy of ulcer disease could be the treatment of choice in young patients.

  1. Meniscus Tears (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Meniscus Tears KidsHealth / For Teens / Meniscus Tears What's in this ... surgery to fix it. What Is a Meniscus Tear? Your knee is made up of three bones: ...

  2. Hot tearing studies in AA5182

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, W. M.; Kool, W. H.; Katgerman, L.

    2002-10-01

    One of the major problems during direct chill (DC) casting is hot tearing. These tears initiate during solidification of the alloy and may run through the entire ingot. To study the hot tearing mechanism, tensile tests were carried out in semisolid state and at low strain rates, and crack propagation was studied in situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These experimentally induced cracks were compared with hot tears developed in an AA5182 ingot during a casting trial in an industrial research facility. Similarities in the microstructure of the tensile test specimens and the hot tears indicate that hot tearing can be simulated by performing tensile tests at semisolid temperatures. The experimental data were compared with existing hot tearing models and it was concluded that the latter are restricted to relatively high liquid fractions because they do not take into account the existence of solid bridges in the crack.

  3. Rotator cuff tear: A detailed update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotator cuff tear has been a known entity for orthopaedic surgeons for more than two hundred years. Although the exact pathogenesis is controversial, a combination of intrinsic factors proposed by Codman and extrinsic factors theorized by Neer is likely responsible for most rotator cuff tears. Magnetic resonance imaging remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears, but the emergence of ultrasound has revolutionized the diagnostic capability. Even though mini-open rotator cuff repair is still commonly performed, and results are comparable to arthroscopic repair, all-arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tear is now fast becoming a standard care for rotator cuff repair. Appropriate knowledge of pathology and healing pattern of cuff, strong and biological repair techniques, better suture anchors, and gradual rehabilitation of postcuff repair have led to good to excellent outcome after repair. As the healing of degenerative cuff tear remains unpredictable, the role of biological agents such as platelet-rich plasma and stem cells for postcuff repair augmentation is still under evaluation. The role of scaffolds in massive cuff tear is also being probed.

  4. A novel technique of rotator cuff repair using spinal needle and suture loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Nasir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a simple technique of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using a spinal needle and suture loop. Methods With the arthroscope laterally, a spinal needle looped with PDS is inserted percutaneously into the shoulder posteriorly and penetrated through the healthy posterior cuff tear margin. Anteriorly, another spinal needle loaded with PDS is inserted percutaneously to engage the healthy tissue at the anterior tear margin. The suture in the anterior needle is then delivered into the suture loop of the posterior needle using a suture retriever. The posterior needle and loop are then pulled out carrying the anterior suture with it. The two limbs of this suture are then retrieved through a cannula for knotting. The same procedure is then repeated for additional suturing. Suture anchors placed over the greater tuberosity are used to complete the repair. Conclusion This is an easy method of rotator cuff repair using simple instruments and lesser time, hence can be employed at centers with less equipment and at reduced cost to the patient.

  5. Evaluation of footprint contact area and pressure using a triple-row modification of the suture-bridge technique for rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Roger V; McKinney, Bart I

    2012-10-01

    Studies suggest that arthroscopic repair techniques may have high recurrence rates for larger rotator cuff tears. A more anatomic repair may improve the success rate when performing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. We hypothesized that a triple-row modification of the suture-bridge technique for rotator cuff repair would result in significantly more footprint contact area and pressure between the rotator cuff and the humeral tuberosity. Eighteen ovine infraspinatus tendons were repaired using 1 of 3 simulated arthroscopic techniques: a double-row repair, the suture-bridge technique, and a triple-row repair. The triple-row repair technique is a modification of the suture-bridge technique that uses an additional reducing anchor between the medial and lateral rows. Six samples were tested per group. Pressure-indicating film was used to measure the footprint contact area and pressure after each repair. The triple-row repair resulted in significantly more rotator cuff footprint contact area and contact pressure compared with the double-row technique and the standard suture-bridge technique. No statistical difference in contact area or contact pressure was found between the double-row technique and the suture-bridge technique. The triple-row technique for rotator cuff repair results in significantly more footprint contact area and contact pressure compared with the double-row and standard suture-bridge techniques. This more anatomic repair may improve the healing rate when performing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Single-suture scleral fixation of subluxated foldable intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarangumeli, Alper; Alp, Mehmet Numan; Kural, Gulcan

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the results of single-suture scleral fixation of subluxated foldable intraocular lenses (IOL) in eyes with sufficient residual capsular support. The results of IOL repositioning by single-suture scleral fixation in 6 eyes of 6 patients with IOL subluxation were included. All subluxated IOLs were single-piece hydrophilic acrylic. Subluxation resulted from posterior capsule tears in 3 eyes, zonular dialyses in 2 eyes, and zonular dialysis with a capsulorhexis tear in 1 eye. A similar technique was used in all eyes in which one haptic was externalized through a superior clear corneal incision and tied with a Pair-PAK 10-0 polypropylene suture, and was finally retracted and fixated behind the iris close to the ciliary sulcus at the 12:00 meridian. All patients were followed up for at least 6 months. Best-corrected visual acuities ranged between finger counting and 20/70 (mean logMAR 1.02±0.64) preoperatively, and between 20/100 and 20/20 (mean logMAR 0.22±0.26) at the final postoperative visit. All IOLs remained centered and no significant postoperative complications were encountered except for an IOL tilt which resulted in a considerable oblique astigmatism in one eye. Subluxated foldable IOLs may safely be repositioned and secured with a single scleral fixation suture in selected cases with adequate amount of capsular remnants.

  7. Suture Coding: A Novel Educational Guide for Suture Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Mohamed; Abdel-Wahed, Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to provide a helpful guide to perform tissue suturing successfully using suture coding-a method for identification of suture patterns and techniques by giving full information about the method of application of each pattern using numbers and symbols. Suture coding helps construct an infrastructure for surgical suture science. It facilitates the easy understanding and learning of suturing techniques and patterns as well as detects the relationship between the different patterns. Guide points are fixed on both edges of the wound to act as a guideline to help practice suture pattern techniques. The arrangement is fixed as 1-3-5-7 and a-c-e-g on one side (whether right or left) and as 2-4-6-8 and b-d-f-h on the other side. Needle placement must start from number 1 or letter "a" and continue to follow the code till the end of the stitching. Some rules are created to be adopted for the application of suture coding. A suture trainer containing guide points that simulate the coding process is used to facilitate the learning of the coding method. (120) Is the code of simple interrupted suture pattern; (ab210) is the code of vertical mattress suture pattern, and (013465)²/3 is the code of Cushing suture pattern. (0A1) Is suggested as a surgical suture language that gives the name and type of the suture pattern used to facilitate its identification. All suture patterns known in the world should start with (0), (A), or (1). There is a relationship between 2 or more surgical patterns according to their codes. It can be concluded that every suture pattern has its own code that helps in the identification of its type, structure, and method of application. Combination between numbers and symbols helps in the understanding of suture techniques easily without complication. There are specific relationships that can be identified between different suture patterns. Coding methods facilitate suture patterns learning process. The use of suture coding can be a good

  8. Pele's tears and spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, L. A.; Quane, S.; Russell, K.

    2011-12-01

    Pele's tears are a well known curiosity commonly associated with low viscosity basaltic explosive eruptions. However, these pyroclasts are rarely studied in detail and there is no full explanation for their formation. These intriguing pyroclasts have smooth glassy surfaces, vesiculated interiors, and fluidal morphologies tending towards droplets and then spheres as they decrease in size to Pele's tears from the 1959 fire-fountaining eruption of Kilauea Iki involving size and density measurements. Using thin section and SEM analysis we also consider their internal and external morphologies, porosity and bubble size distributions, and surface textures. Finally we consider the mechanisms of magma fragmentation, timescales of relaxation, and cooling rates that are responsible for their formation.

  9. Arthroscopic suture bridge rotator cuff repair: functional outcome, repair integrity, and preoperative factors related to postoperative outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmke, Nathan; Maerz, Tristan; Cooper, Ross; Yadavalli, Sailaja; Anderson, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    To assess the retear rate, retear size and location, the clinical impact of a retear, and preoperative patient factors related to postoperative outcome after arthroscopic suture bridge rotator cuff repair. Fifty six patients with an isolated, full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tear who underwent arthroscopic suture bridge rotator cuff repair were retrospectively identified. Patients were evaluated and rotator cuff integrity was assessed using ultrasonography. Visual analog score (VAS), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon (ASES) score, shoulder range of motion and strength were used for clinical evaluation. Retears were assessed for size and location on ultrasonography. Forty two patients (75%) aged a mean 59.7 ± 8.6 years (range 41-79 years) were available for follow-up at a mean 13.5 months. Postoperative evaluation indicated significant improvements in ASES score (49.76 ± 18.2 to 86.57 ± 13.4, P rotation ROM (44.13° ± 12.0 to 52.09° ± 12.0, P = 0.003). The retear rate was 14.28% (6/42). Patients with retears were not older (P = 0.526) but had a larger preoperative tear size (3.25 cm ± 0.5 vs. 2.05 cm ± 0.48, P rotation ROM (P = 0.002), and internal rotation strength (P = 0.004). Arthroscopic suture bridge repair provides good clinical results with a low retear rate. The duration of preoperative symptoms was associated with postoperative outcome, indicating that delaying surgery may result in inferior outcomes. IV, Case Series.

  10. Introduction to the linear theory of tearing instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1978-02-01

    The reasons why tearing instabilities might bear importantly on tokamak performance are considered. The mechanism of tearing is described and the method by which this mechanism is analyzed is outlined. A survey is given of typical growth rate predictions

  11. Tearing mode saturation with finite pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    With finite pressure, the saturation of the current-driven tearing mode is obtained in three-dimensional nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations for Tokamak plasmas. To effectively focus on the tearing modes, the perturbed pressure effects are excluded while the finite equilibrium pressure effects are retained. With this model, the linear growth rates of the tearing modes are found to be very insensitive to the equilibrium pressure increase. The nonlinear aspects of the tearing modes, however, are found to be very sensitive to the pressure increase in that the saturation level of the nonlinear harmonics of the tearing modes increases monotonically with the pressure rise. The increased level is associated with enhanced tearing island sizes or increased stochastic magnetic field region. (author)

  12. Tensile strength and failure load of sutures for robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Ahmad; Paydar, Omeed; Tao, Anna; LaRocca, Megan; Liu, Kang; Genovese, Bradley; Candler, Robert; Grundfest, Warren S; Dutson, Erik P

    2017-08-01

    Robotic surgical platforms have seen increased use among minimally invasive gastrointestinal surgeons (von Fraunhofer et al. in J Biomed Mater Res 19(5):595-600, 1985. doi: 10.1002/jbm.820190511 ). However, these systems still suffer from lack of haptic feedback, which results in exertion of excessive force, often leading to suture failures (Barbash et al. in Ann Surg 259(1):1-6, 2014. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182a5c8b8 ). This work catalogs tensile strength and failure load among commonly used sutures in an effort to prevent robotic surgical consoles from exceeding identified thresholds. Trials were thus conducted on common sutures varying in material type, gauge size, rate of pulling force, and method of applied force. Polydioxanone, Silk, Vicryl, and Prolene, gauges 5-0 to 1-0, were pulled till failure using a commercial mechanical testing system. 2-0 and 3-0 sutures were further tested for the effect of pull rate on failure load at rates of 50, 200, and 400 mm/min. 3-0 sutures were also pulled till failure using a da Vinci robotic surgical system in unlooped, looped, and at the needle body arrangements. Generally, Vicryl and PDS sutures had the highest mechanical strength (47-179 kN/cm 2 ), while Silk had the lowest (40-106 kN/cm 2 ). Larger diameter sutures withstand higher total force, but finer gauges consistently show higher force per unit area. The difference between material types becomes increasingly significant as the diameters decrease. Comparisons of identical suture materials and gauges show 27-50% improvement in the tensile strength over data obtained in 1985 (Ballantyne in Surg Endosc Other Interv Tech 16(10):1389-1402, 2002. doi: 10.1007/s00464-001-8283-7 ). No significant differences were observed when sutures were pulled at different rates. Reduction in suture strength appeared to be strongly affected by the technique used to manipulate the suture. Availability of suture tensile strength and failure load data will help define software safety

  13. Surface tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Tomonori; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1985-10-01

    Surface tearing modes in tokamaks are studied numerically and analytically. The eigenvalue problem is solved to obtain the growth rate and the mode structure. We investigate in detail dependences of the growth rate of the m/n = 2/1 resistive MHD modes on the safety factor at the plasma surface, current profile, wall position, and resistivity. The surface tearing mode moves the plasma surface even when the wall is close to the surface. The stability diagram for these modes is presented. (author)

  14. Growing skull fracture - rupture of coronal suture caused by vacuum extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.N.; Pedersen, H.; Petersen, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    Growing skull fracture is a well known complication to calvarian fracture with underlying dural tear and brain injury in infancy and early childhood. This has been reported in three cases after forceps delivery. To our best knowledge it has never been described after disruption of a calvarian suture caused by vacuum extraction delivery. (orig.)

  15. Meniscus suture repair: minimum 10-year outcomes in patients younger than 40 years compared with patients 40 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, J Richard; Matheny, Lauren M; Singleton, Steven B; Johnson, Nicholas S; Rodkey, William G; Crespo, Bernardo; Briggs, Karen K

    2015-09-01

    side, presence of an ACL tear, or concomitant microfracture procedure. Meniscus repair failure rate was not different in patients who were younger than 40 years versus those who were 40 years or older at time of meniscus index surgery. Patients who underwent meniscus suture repair had high function and high patient satisfaction at an average of 16 years after meniscus suture repair, and no differences were seen based on age. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Blocked Tear Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the nose (lacrimal sac). From there tears travel down a duct (the nasolacrimal duct) draining into your nose. Once in the nose, tears are reabsorbed. A blockage can occur at any point in the tear drainage system, from the puncta ...

  17. Tearing modes in toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Cowley, S.C.; Hastie, R.J.; Hender, T.C.; Hood, A.; Martin, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The separation of the cylindrical tearing mode stability problem into a resistive resonant layer calculation and an external marginal ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculation (Δ' calculation) is generalized to axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The general structure of this separation is analyzed and the marginal ideal MHD information (the toroidal generalization of Δ') required to discuss stability is isolated. This can then, in principle, be combined with relevant resonant layer calculations to determine tearing mode growth rates in realistic situations. Two examples are given: the first is an analytic treatment of toroidally coupled (m = 1, n = 1) and (m = 2, n = 1) tearing modes in a large aspect ratio torus; the second, a numerical treatment of the toroidal coupling of three tearing modes through finite pressure effects in a large aspect ratio torus. In addition, the use of a coupling integral approach for determining the stability of coupled tearing modes is discussed. Finally, the possibility of using initial value resistive MHD codes in realistic toroidal geometry to determine the necessary information from the ideal MHD marginal solution is discussed

  18. The Incidence and Topographic Distribution of Sutures Including Wormian Bones in Human Skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirpan, Sibel; Aksu, Funda; Mas, Nuket

    2015-07-01

    The Wormian Bones are accessory bones located within the cranial sutures and fontanelles. The present article examines the incidence of Wormian Bones and compares the number and topographic distribution between the sutures including Wormian Bones in skulls of West Anatolian Population. One hundred fifty crania were examined. The parameters evaluated in the present study were as follows: the rate of skulls including Wormian Bones; the topographic distribution and frequencies of the sutures including Wormian Bones; the number of these sutures for each skull; the name and number of sutures that were bilaterally and symmetrically located on the right and left side of skull (paired sutures) and which coincidentally had Wormian Bones for each skull; the differences of frequencies between the paired sutures including Wormian Bones. The rate of skulls including Wormian Bones was determined as 59.3%. The maximum and minimum numbers of sutures, including Wormian Bones, were 6 in 1 skull and 1 in each of 30 skulls, respectively. The maximum and minimum rates of sutures that had Wormian Bones were found in left lambdoid 40.7% and right occipitomastoid 1.3% sutures, respectively. There was only a significant difference between the rate of right and left squamous sutures (P = 0.04). Forty-five skulls were including 55 pairs of bilaterally and symmetrically located sutures that coincidentally had Wormian Bones in each pair. Each of 35 skulls had 1 pair of sutures including Wormian Bones and each of 10 skulls had 2 pairs. In the present study, the rate of Wormian Bones was determined as 59.3% in West Anatolian Population. This incidence rate is considerably lower than the other reports, and it may be as a result of racial variations. These divergent bones were more frequently found in left lambdoid sutures (40.7%) and less frequently in right occipitomastoid sutures (1.3%). This study may guide the investigators dealing with the neurosurgery, orthopedy, radiology, anatomy, and

  19. Genipin crosslinker releasing sutures for improving the mechanical/repair strength of damaged connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaj, Sharath; Slusarewicz, Paul; Brown, Matt; Hedman, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The most common mode of surgical repair of ruptured tendons and ligaments involves the use of sutures for reattachment. However, there is a high incidence of rerupture and repair failure due to pulling out of the suture material from the damaged connective tissue. The main goal of this research was to achieve a localized delivery of crosslinking agent genipin (GP) from rapid-release biodegradable coatings on sutures, for strengthening the repair of ruptured connective tissue. Our hypothesis is that GP released from the suture coating will lead to exogenous crosslinking of native connective tissue resulting in beneficial effects on clinically relevant mechanical parameters such as tear resistance, tissue strength, and energy required to rupture the tissue (toughness). Sutures were successfully coated with a biodegradable polymer layer loaded with the crosslinking agent genipin, without compromising the mechanical properties of the suture. The rapid-release of genipin was achieved under both in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Exogenous crosslinking using these genipin releasing sutures was demonstrated using equine tendons. The tendons treated with genipin releasing sutures showed significant improvement in failure load, energy required for pull-out failure, and stiffness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2199-2205, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Controlled Study on the Correlation between Tear Film Volume and Tear Film Stability in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Iman M; Khalil, Noha M; El-Gendy, Heba A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients. Correlations between these tear film parameters were studied and then compared to 16 age matched controls. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in blinking rate between the diabetic and the control group (P = 0.002), with higher blinking rate among diabetics. All tear film parameters were negatively correlated with duration of diabetes. A positive correlation was found between tear film volume and stability. Conclusion. Diabetes affects the tear film in various ways. Diabetics should be examined for dry eye signs even in absence of symptoms which may be masked by associated neuropathy. Duration of diabetes has an impact on tear film status.

  1. A Controlled Study on the Correlation between Tear Film Volume and Tear Film Stability in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman M. Eissa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients. Correlations between these tear film parameters were studied and then compared to 16 age matched controls. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in blinking rate between the diabetic and the control group (P=0.002, with higher blinking rate among diabetics. All tear film parameters were negatively correlated with duration of diabetes. A positive correlation was found between tear film volume and stability. Conclusion. Diabetes affects the tear film in various ways. Diabetics should be examined for dry eye signs even in absence of symptoms which may be masked by associated neuropathy. Duration of diabetes has an impact on tear film status.

  2. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  3. Tearing mode instability due to anomalous resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Atsushi; Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi

    2000-01-01

    Tearing mode instability in the presence of microscopic truculence is investigates. The effects of microscopic turbulence on tearing mode are taken as drags which are calculated by one-point renormalization method and mean-field approximation. These effects are reduced to effective diffusivities in reduced MHD equations. Using these equations, the stability analyses of the tearing mode are performed. It is shown that a finite amplitude of fluctuation enhances the growth rate of tearing mode. For very high values of turbulent diffusivities, marginally stable state exists. The effects of each turbulent diffusivity on mode stability are examined near marginal stability boundary. Parameter dependence of the resistive ballooning mode turbulence on tearing mode is analyzed as an example. (author)

  4. Comparable biomechanical results for a modified single-row rotator cuff reconstruction using triple-loaded suture anchors versus a suture-bridging double-row repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbach, Olaf; Kieb, Matthias; Raber, Florian; Busch, Lüder C; Kohn, Dieter; Pape, Dietrich

    2012-02-01

    To compare the biomechanical properties and footprint coverage of a single-row (SR) repair using a modified suture configuration versus a double-row (DR) suture-bridge repair in small to medium and medium to large rotator cuff tears. We created 25- and 35-mm artificial defects in the rotator cuff of 24 human cadaveric shoulders. The reconstructions were performed as either an SR repair with triple-loaded suture anchors (2 to 3 anchors) and a modified suture configuration or a modified suture-bridge DR repair (4 to 6 anchors). Reconstructions were cyclically loaded from 10 to 60 N. The load was increased stepwise up to 100, 180, and 250 N. Cyclic displacement and load to failure were determined. Furthermore, footprint widths were quantified. In the 25-mm rupture, ultimate load to failure was 533 ± 107 N for the SR repair and 681 ± 250 N for the DR technique (P ≥ .21). In the 35-mm tear, ultimate load to failure was 792 ± 122 N for the SR reconstruction and 891 ± 174 N for the DR reconstruction (P ≥ .28). There were no statistically significant differences for both tested rupture sizes. Cyclic displacement showed no significant differences between the tested configurations at 60 N (P = .563), 100 N (P = .171), 180 N (P = .211), and 250 N (P = .478) for the 25-mm tear. For the 35-mm tear, cyclic displacement showed significantly lower gap formation for the SR reconstruction at 180 N (P = .037) and 250 N (P = .020). No significant differences were found at 60 N (P = .296) and 100 N (P = .077). A significantly greater footprint width (P = .028) was seen for the DR repair (16.2 mm) compared with the SR repair (13.8 mm). However, both reconstructions were able to achieve complete footprint coverage compared with the initial footprint. The tested SR repair using a modified suture configuration was similar in load to failure and cyclic displacement to the DR suture-bridge technique independent of the tested initial sizes of the rupture. The tested DR repair

  5. Tear progression of symptomatic full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears as measured by repeated MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Soo; Kim, Sung-Eun; Bae, Sung-Ho; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Jee, Won-Hee; Park, Chang Kyun

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the natural course of symptomatic full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears treated non-operatively and to identify risk factors affecting tear enlargement. One hundred and twenty-two patients who received non-surgical treatment for a partial- or full-thickness supraspinatus tear were included in this study. All rotator cuff tears were diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the same modality was used for follow-up studies. Follow-up MRI was performed after at least a 6-month interval. We evaluated the correlation between tear enlargement and follow-up duration. Eleven risk factors were analysed by both univariate and multivariate analyses to identify factors that affect enlargement of rotator cuff tears. The mean follow-up period was 24.4 ± 19.5 months. Out of 122 patients, 34 (27.9%) patients had an initial full-thickness tear and 88 (72.1%) patients had a partial-thickness tear. Considering all patients together, tear size increased in 51/122 (41.8%) patients, was unchanged in 65/122 (53.3%) patients, and decreased in 6/122 (4.9%) patients. Tear size increased for 28/34 (82.4%) patients with full-thickness tears and 23/88 (26.1%) patients with partial-thickness tears. From the two groups which were followed over 12 months, a higher rate of enlargement was observed in full-thickness tears than in partial-thickness tears (6-12 months, n.s.; 12-24 months, P = 0.002; over 24 months, P rotator cuff tears and 23/88 (26.1%) of symptomatic partial-thickness tears increased in size over a follow-up period of 6-100 months. Full-thickness tears showed a higher rate of enlargement than partial-thickness tears regardless of the follow-up duration. Univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that full-thickness tear was the most reliable risk factor for tear enlargement. The clinical relevance of these observations is that full-thickness rotator cuff tears treated conservatively should be

  6. Evaporation-driven instability of the precorneal tear film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Chun; Cerretani, Colin; Braun, Richard J; Radke, C J

    2014-04-01

    Tear-film instability is widely believed to be a signature of eye health. When an interblink is prolonged, randomly distributed ruptures occur in the tear film. "Black spots" and/or "black streaks" appear in 15 to 40 s for normal individuals. For people who suffer from dry eye, tear-film breakup time (BUT) is typically less than a few seconds. To date, however, there is no satisfactory quantitative explanation for the origin of tear rupture. Recently, it was proposed that tear-film breakup is related to locally high evaporative thinning. A spatial variation in the thickness of the tear-film lipid layer (TFLL) may lead to locally elevated evaporation and subsequent tear-film breakup. We examine the local-evaporation-driven tear-film-rupture hypothesis in a one-dimensional (1-D) model for the evolution of a thin aqueous tear film overriding the cornea subject to locally elevated evaporation at its anterior surface and osmotic water influx at its posterior surface. Evaporation rate depends on mass transfer both through the coating lipid layer and through ambient air. We establish that evaporation-driven tear-film breakup can occur under normal conditions but only for higher aqueous evaporation rates. Predicted roles of environmental conditions, such as wind speed and relative humidity, on tear-film stability agree with clinical observations. More importantly, locally elevated evaporation leads to hyperosmolar spots in the tear film and, hence, vulnerability to epithelial irritation. In addition to evaporation rate, tear-film instability depends on the strength of healing flow from the neighboring region outside the breakup region, which is determined by the surface tension at the tear-film surface and by the repulsive thin-film disjoining pressure. This study provides a physically consistent and quantitative explanation for the formation of black streaks and spots in the human tear film during an interblink. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Subcuticular Suture Technique: Alternative to Frost Suture to Prevent Ectropion After Transcutaneous Incision of Lower Eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudva, Adarsh; Kamath, Abhay; Cariappa, K M; Gadicherla, Srikanth; Dhara, B Vasantha

    2017-12-01

    An ectropion is a complication that can arise from reconstruction in the infraorbital region. Often, this complication occurs despite proper positioning of the lower lid at the time of closure. Various transcutaneous approaches to orbit skeleton have investigated in view of complication arising from them. A subtarsal approach with a postoperative Frost suture gives an advantage to reduce the occurrence of ectropion especially after treatment of orbital floor fractures. This case describes a method of subcuticular suturing technique for subtarsal incision of lower lid which can be used to support the lid during healing period, thus decreasing the rate of ectropion. The technique described here is an alterative method for frost suturing with certain advantages.

  8. Electrostatic effect for the collisionless tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.

    1987-01-01

    Electron dynamics has not been self-consistently considered in collisionless tearing mode theories to date because of the mathematical complexity of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. We have found using computer simulations that electrostatic fields play an important role in the tearing mode. Vlasov theory, including the electrostatic field, is investigated for topologies with both antiparallel and nonantiparallel magnetic field lines. The electrostatic field influences the resonant current in the neutral sheet which is a non-MHD effect, and modifies the linear growth rate. At the magnetopause, where the field lines are not antiparallel, the electrostatic effect acts to raise the linear growth rate of the tearing mode. On the other hand, in the magnetotail, where magnetic field lines are antiparallel, the electrostatic effect reduces the tearing mode growth rate. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  9. Antioxidant content and ultraviolet absorption characteristics of human tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Camus Kar Man; Cho, Pauline; Benzie, Iris F F

    2011-04-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common age-related disorder, and decreased antioxidant/ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection in tears may be part of the cause. This study aimed to compare the tear antioxidant content and flow rate in young and older adults. The total antioxidant content and UV absorbing properties of various commercially available ophthalmic solutions used to alleviate dry eye symptoms were also examined. Minimally stimulated tears were collected from 120 healthy Chinese adults with no ocular pathology. Two age groups were studied: 19 to 29 years (n = 58) and 50 to 75 years (n = 62). Tear samples from each subject and 13 ophthalmic solutions were analyzed for total antioxidant content (as the Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power value). Tear flow rates were estimated from time taken to collect a fixed volume of tear fluid. UV absorbance spectra of pooled fresh reflex tear fluid and the ophthalmic solutions were determined. Results showed that the antioxidant content of minimally stimulated tears from older subjects (398 ± 160 μmol/l) was not significantly lower than that of younger subjects (348 ± 159 μmol/l; p = 0.0915). However, there was a significant difference in the tear flow rates between the two groups (p tears. The effect of low flow rate on the dynamic antioxidant supply to the corneal surface indicates that older subjects have poorer overall defense against photooxidative and other oxidative processes. This could predispose older persons to corneal stress and development of dry eye syndrome. The commercially available artificial tears tested lack both the antioxidant content and UV absorbing characteristics of natural tears. Artificial tears formulations that help restore natural antioxidant and UV absorbing properties to the tear film of the aging eye may help prevent or improve dry eye symptoms and promote ocular health.

  10. Pullout strength of cement-augmented and wide-suture transosseous fixation in the greater tuberosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Brendan Y; Diaz, Miguel; Belkoff, Stephen M; Srikumaran, Uma

    2017-12-01

    Obtaining strong fixation in low-density bone is increasingly critical in surgical repair of rotator cuff tears because of the aging population. To evaluate two new methods of improving pullout strength of transosseous rotator cuff repair in low-density bone, we analyzed the effects of 1) using 2-mm suture tape instead of no. 2 suture and 2) augmenting the lateral tunnel with cement. Eleven pairs of osteopenic or osteoporotic cadaveric humeri were identified by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. One bone tunnel and one suture were placed in the heads of 22 specimens. Five randomly selected pairs were repaired with no. 2 suture; the other six pairs were repaired with 2-mm suture tape. One side of each pair received lateral tunnel cement augmentation. Specimens were tested to suture pullout. Data were fitted to multivariate models that accounted for bone mineral density and other specimen characteristics. Two specimens were excluded because of knot-slipping during testing. Use of suture tape versus no. 2 suture conferred a 75-N increase (95% CI: 37, 113) in pullout strength (PCement augmentation conferred a 42-N improvement (95% CI: 10, 75; P=0.011). Other significant predictors of pullout strength were age, sex, and bone mineral density. We show two methods of improving the fixation strength of transosseous rotator cuff repairs in low-density bone: using 2-mm suture tape instead of no. 2 suture and augmenting the lateral tunnel with cement. These methods may improve the feasibility of transosseous repairs in an aging patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Meniscus tear surgery and meniscus replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Javier; Forriol, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective the menisci are easily injured and difficult to repair. The aim of this study was to analyze the current state of meniscal surgery aimed at preserving morphology and conserving the biomechanics of the knee to prevent joint degeneration. Methodology a search of the electronic medical literature database Medline was conducted, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. The search was not limited by language. Candidate articles were identified by searching for those that included the keywords meniscus, surgery, suture, implant, allograft. The limits were included for clinical research and clinical trials. Basic research was not included. The studies selected were evaluated and classified in three different categories: basic science, reconstruction (suture and meniscectomy) and implants (scaffolds and allograft). Results the consequences of meniscectomy performed at a young age can lead to a joint cartilage degeneration twenty years later. There are few surgical options for the repair of meniscal injuries in order both to preserve the meniscus and to ensure the long term survival of the knee joint, meniscectomy, repair, suturing the tear, or reconstruction, when a meniscal allograft or synthetic substitute is used to replace the meniscus, but the biomechanical properties of the native meniscus are not reproduced entirely by the scaffolds that exist today. Conclusion therapies that successfully repair or replace the meniscus are therefore likely to prevent or delay osteoarthritis progression. PMID:27331034

  12. Quantitative analysis of tear film fluorescence and discomfort during tear film instability and thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Carolyn; Simpson, Trefford; Liu, Haixia; Salvo, Eliza; Wu, Ziwei; Bradley, Arthur; Situ, Ping

    2013-04-12

    The purpose of this study was to test the association between tear film fluorescence changes during tear break-up (TBU) or thinning and the concurrent ocular sensory response. Sixteen subjects kept one eye open as long as possible (MBI), indicated their discomfort level continuously, and rated ocular sensations of irritation, stinging, burning, pricking, and cooling using visual analog scales (VAS). Fluorescence of the tear film was quantified by a pixel-based analysis of the median pixel intensity (PI), TBU, and percentage of dark pixels (DarkPix) over time. A cutoff of 5% TBU was used to divide subjects into either break-up (BU) or minimal break-up (BUmin) groups. Tear film fluorescence decreased (median PI) and the percentage of TBU and DarkPix increased in all trials, with the rate significantly greater in the BU than the BUmin group (Mann-Whitney U test, P film thinning best explains decreasing tear film fluorescence during trials. This was highly correlated with increasing ocular discomfort, suggesting that both tear film thinning and TBU stimulate underlying corneal nerves, although TBU produced more rapid stimulation. Slow increases in tear film hyperosmolarity may cause the gradual increase in discomfort during slow tear film thinning, whereas the sharp increases in discomfort during TBU suggest a more complex stimulus.

  13. Neoclassical tearing modes in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.

    1988-08-01

    Linear tearing instability is studied in the banana collisionality regime in tokamak geometry. Neoclassical effects produce significant modifications of Ohm's law and the vorticity equation so that the growth rate of tearing modes driven by Δ' is dramatically reduced compared to the usual resistive MHD value. Consequences of this result, regarding the presence of pressure-gradient-driven neoclassical resistive interchange instabilities and the evolution of magnetic islands in the Rutherford regime, are discussed. 10 refs

  14. Assessment of lamellar tearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnerney, J.W.

    1978-03-01

    Information on lamellar tearing is summarized and related to proposed ASME Code requirements. Lamellar tearing is characterized as a complex phenomenon related to poor short transverse ductility and through-thickness strain. The material, welding, and design variables that affect lamellar tearing are shown to be complex and interrelated. The commonly reported tests for assessing material susceptibility are described, with the controversy over their validity being carefully detailed. Although the use of a nondestructive test such as ultrasonic examination is most desirable, a widely applicable test method does not appear to be available. Of the destructive tests, the short transverse tensile reduction-of-area currently offers the most applicable means of assessing material susceptibility. However, because of the importance of matrix toughness, the short transverse Charpy V-notch test should be considered for use as an additional test if acceptance limits are developed. The ultrasonic detection of lamellar tears is susceptible to interpretation errors, which can make it overly conservative and lead to unnecessary repairs. The repair of tears is described as costly, difficult, and sometimes ineffective. Current design requirements appear to preclude any failures during static and fatigue service loads. However, without improvement of short transverse ductility, certain dynamic service loads could cause lamellar tearing failures. Two alternate design paths are recommended to prevent tearing during fabrication or service loading. The current and proposed ASME requirements dealing with lamellar tearing are reviewed and recommendations are made

  15. Iatrogenic tracheal tear.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dias, A

    2010-10-01

    Large post intubation tracheal tears are usually detected intra-operatively due to unstable signs namely impaired ventilation and mediastinal emphysema and often require surgical management. Smaller tracheal tears are often missed during anaesthesia and recognized during the postoperative period. Conservative management should be considered in these latter cases.

  16. The history of barbed sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Gregory L

    2013-09-01

    Ligatures have been used for millennia to close wounds. Sterilization and synthetic polymers that degrade in a commensurate fashion with wound healing have been the most significant improvements in these age-old devices. However, the constricting loop of a traditional suture and subsequent ischemia ("approximate, don't strangulate") still account for the most common cause of wound dehiscence-necrosis. Inspired by the quill of the North American porcupine, I envisioned a bidirectional array of barbs that could secure tissue without relying on constricting loops. One set of barbs could anchor the other. In this article, I document the development process of these barbed sutures from concept to patent to manufacture and US Food and Drug Administration approval. Knotless, strong, and easy to place, barbed sutures could foreseeably supplant conventional sutures, particularly as endoscopic procedures become more common. They also offer the intriguing potential to suspend ptotic tissues without surgical intervention.

  17. Tearing instabilities in turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Effects of micro-turbulence on tearing instabilities are investigated by numerically solving a reduced set of two-fluid equations. Micro-turbulence excites both large-scale and small-scale Fourier modes through energy transfer due to nonlinear mode coupling. The energy transfer to large scale mode does not directly excite tearing instability but it gives an initiation of tearing instability. When tearing instability starts to grow, the excited small scale mode plays an important role. The mixing of magnetic flux by micro-turbulence is the dominant factor of non-ideal MHD effect at the resonant surface and it gives rise to magnetic reconnection which causes tearing instability. Tearing instabilities were investigated against static equilibrium or flowing equilibrium so far. On the other hand, the recent progress of computer power allows us to investigate interactions between turbulence and coherent modes such as tearing instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas by means of direct numerical simulations. In order to investigate effects of turbulence on tearing instabilities we consider a situation that tearing mode is destabilized in a quasi-equilibrium including micro-turbulence. We choose an initial equilibrium that is unstable against kinetic ballooning modes and tearing instabilities. Tearing instabilities are current driven modes and thus they are unstable for large scale Fourier modes. On the other hand kinetic ballooning modes are unstable for poloidal Fourier modes that are characterized by ion Larmor radius. The energy of kinetic ballooning modes spreads over wave number space through nonlinear Fourier mode coupling. We present that micro-turbulence affects tearing instabilities in two different ways by three-dimensional numerical simulation of a reduced set of two-fluid equations. One is caused by energy transfer to large scale modes, the other is caused by energy transfer to small scale modes. The former is the excitation of initial

  18. Idiopathic Bilateral Bloody Tearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloody tear is a rare and distinct clinic phenomenon. We report a case presenting with the complaint of recurrent episodes of bilateral bloody tearing. A 16-year-old girl presented to our clinic with complaint of bloody tearing in both eyes for 3 months. Bloody tearing was not associated with her menses. A blood-stained discharge from the punctum was not observed during the compression of both nasolacrimal ducts. Nasolacrimal passage was not obstructed. Imaging studies such as dacryocystography and gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of nasolacrimal canal were normal. Intranasal endoscopic evaluation was normal. We collected samples from bloody tears two times and pathological examination was performed. Pathological analysis showed lots of squamous cells and no endometrial cells; dysplastic cells were found. Further evaluations for underlying causes were unremarkable. No abnormalities were found in ophthalmologic, radiologic, and pathologic investigations. This condition is likely a rare abnormality and the least recognized aetiology for the idiopathic phenomenon.

  19. Tearing modes with pressure gradient effect in pair plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Huishan; Li Ding; Zheng Jian

    2009-01-01

    The general dispersion relation of tearing mode with pressure gradient effect in pair plasmas is derived analytically. If the pressure gradients of positron and electron are not identical in pair plasmas, the pressure gradient has significant influence at tearing mode in both collisionless and collisional regimes. In collisionless regime, the effects of pressure gradient depend on its magnitude. For small pressure gradient, the growth rate of tearing mode is enhanced by pressure gradient. For large pressure gradient, the growth rate is reduced by pressure gradient. The tearing mode can even be stabilized if pressure gradient is large enough. In collisional regime, the growth rate of tearing mode is reduced by the pressure gradient. While the positron and electron have equal pressure gradient, tearing mode is not affected by pressure gradient in pair plasmas.

  20. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Knotless single-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative biomechanical study of 2 knotless suture anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Chad; Traub, Shaun; Baldini, Todd; Rioux-Forker, Dana; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Davisson, Twana; Hawkins, Monica; McCarty, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gap formation during cyclic loading, maximum repair strength, and failure mode of single-row full-thickness supraspinatus repairs performed using 2 knotless suture anchors with differing internal suture-retention mechanisms in a human cadaver model. Nine matched pairs of cadaver shoulders were used. Full-thickness tears were induced by detaching the supraspinatus tendon from the greater tuberosity. Single-row repairs were performed with either type I (Opus Magnum PI; ArthroCare, Austin, Texas) or type II (ReelX STT; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) knotless suture anchors. The repaired tendon was cycled from 10 to 90 N for 500 cycles, followed by load to failure. Gap formation was measured at 5, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cycles with a video digitizing system. Anchor type or location (anterior or posterior) had no effect on gap formation during cyclic loading regardless of position (anterior, P=.385; posterior, P=.389). Maximum load to failure was significantly greater (P=.018) for repairs performed with type II anchors (288±62 N) compared with type I anchors (179±39 N). Primary failure modes were anchor pullout and tendon tearing for type II anchors and suture slippage through the anchor for type I anchors. The internal ratcheting suture-retention mechanism of type II anchors may have helped this anchor outperform the suture-cinching mechanism of type I anchors by supporting significantly higher loads before failure and minimizing suture slippage, potentially leading to stronger repairs clinically. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Advantages of Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair With a Transosseous Suture Technique: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, Pietro; Stoppani, Carlo Alberto; Zaolino, Carlo; Menon, Alessandra; Randelli, Filippo; Cabitza, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    Rotator cuff tear is a common finding in patients with painful, poorly functioning shoulders. The surgical management of this disorder has improved greatly and can now be fully arthroscopic. To evaluate clinical and radiological results of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using 2 different techniques: single-row anchor fixation versus transosseous hardware-free suture repair. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Sixty-nine patients with rotator cuff tears were enrolled: 35 patients were operated with metal anchors and 34 with standardized transosseous repair. The patients were clinically evaluated before surgery, during the 28 days after surgery, and at least 1 year after the operation by the use of validated rating scores (Constant score, QuickDASH, and numerical rating scale [NRS]). Final follow-up was obtained at more than 3 years by a QuickDASH evaluation to detect any difference from the previous follow-up. During the follow-up, rotator cuff integrity was determined through magnetic resonance imaging and was classified according to the 5 Sugaya categories. Patients operated with the transosseous technique had significantly less pain, especially from the 15th postoperative day: In the third week, the mean NRS value for the anchor group was 3.00 while that for transosseous group was 2.46 ( P = .02); in the fourth week, the values were 2.44 and 1.76, respectively ( P rotator cuff repair integrity, based on Sugaya magnetic resonance imaging classification, no significant difference was found between the 2 techniques in terms of retear rate ( P = .81). No significant differences were found between the 2 arthroscopic repair techniques in terms of functional and radiological results. However, postoperative pain decreased more quickly after the transosseous procedure, which therefore emerges as a possible improvement in the surgical repair of the rotator cuff. Registration: NCT01815177 ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).

  3. Influence of toroidal rotation on tearing modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huishan; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding

    2017-10-01

    Tearing modes stability analysis including toroidal rotation is studied. It is found that rotation affects the stability of tearing modes mainly through the interaction with resistive inner region of tearing mode. The coupling of magnetic curvature with centrifugal force and Coriolis force provides a perturbed perpendicular current, and a return parallel current is induced to affect the stability of tearing modes. Toroidal rotation plays a stable role, which depends on the magnitude of Mach number and adiabatic index Γ, and is independent on the direction of toroidal rotation. For Γ >1, the scaling of growth rate is changed for typical Mach number in present tokamaks. For Γ = 1 , the scaling keeps unchanged, and the effect of toroidal rotation is much less significant, compared with that for Γ >1. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program and National Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 2014GB106004, No. 2013GB111000, No. 11375189, No. 11075161 and No. 11275260, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS.

  4. Biomechanical validation of load-sharing rip-stop fixation for the repair of tissue-deficient rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Stephen S; Denard, Patrick J; Konicek, John; Hanypsiak, Bryan T

    2014-02-01

    Poor-quality tendon is one of the most difficult problems the surgeon must overcome in achieving secure fixation during rotator cuff repair. A load-sharing rip-stop construct (LSRS) has recently been proposed as a method for improving fixation strength, but the biomechanical properties of this construct have not yet been examined. To compare the strength of the LSRS construct to that of single-row fixation for rotator cuff repair. Controlled laboratory study. Rotator cuff tears were created in 6 cadaveric matched-pair specimens and repaired with a single row or an LSRS. In the LSRS repair, a 2-mm suture tape was placed as an inverted mattress stitch in the rotator cuff, and sutures from 2 anchors were placed as simple stitches that passed medial to the suture tape. The suture tape limbs were secured with knotless anchors laterally before sutures were tied from the medial anchors. Displacement was observed with video tracking after cyclic loading, and specimens were loaded to failure. The mean load to failure was 371 ± 102 N in single-row repairs compared with 616 ± 185 N in LSRS repairs (P = .031). There was no difference in displacement with cyclic loading between the groups (3.3 ± 0.8 mm vs. 3.5 ± 1.1 mm; P = .561). In the single-row group, 4 of 6 failures occurred at the suture-tendon interface. In the LSRS group, only 1 failure occurred at the suture-tendon interface. The ultimate failure load of the LSRS construct for rotator cuff repair was 1.7 times that of a single-row construct in a cadaveric model. The LSRS rotator cuff repair construct may be useful in the repair of difficult tears such as massive tears, medial tears, and tears with tendon loss.

  5. As tears go by : Baby tears trigger more brain activity than adult tears in nulliparous women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricx-Riem, M.M.E.; De Carli, P.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study examines brain activity during the perception of infant and adult tears. Infant tears evoke stronger responses in the visual cortex than adult tears, indicating that infant tears are highly salient. In addition, our study shows that infant

  6. Hip Labral Tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that joint in the future. Prevention Hip labral tears are often associated with sports participation. If your sport puts a lot of strain on your hips, condition the surrounding muscles with strength and flexibility exercises. Try to avoid ...

  7. Haemolacria (bloody tears)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... menstruation, drugs, hyperthyroidism, nasolacrimal tu- berculosis ... no bleeding from any other body orifice. However ... All age groups can be affected from infancy to ... the system and thus lead to bloody tears emerging from.

  8. Tear film measurement by optical reflectometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Evaluation of tear film is performed by an optical reflectometer system with alignment guided by a galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer system utilizes optical fibers to deliver illumination light to the tear film and collect the film reflectance as a function of wavelength. Film thickness is determined by best fitting the reflectance-wavelength curve. The spectral reflectance acquisition time is 15 ms, fast enough for detecting film thickness changes. Fast beam alignment of 1 s is achieved by the galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer was first used to evaluate artificial tear film on a model eye with and without a contact lens. The film thickness and thinning rate have been successfully quantified with the minimum measured thickness of about 0.3 μm. Tear films in human eyes, with and without a contact lens, have also been evaluated. A high-contrast spectral reflectance signal from the precontact lens tear film is clearly observed, and the thinning dynamics have been easily recorded from 3.69 to 1.31 μm with lipid layer thickness variation in the range of 41 to 67 nm. The accuracy of the measurement is better than ±0.58% of the film thickness at an estimated tear film refractive index error of ±0.001. The fiber-based reflectometer system is compact and easy to handle. PMID:24500519

  9. Epidemiology, natural history, and indications for treatment of rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Robert Z

    2012-10-01

    The etiology of rotator cuff disease is likely multifactorial, including age-related degeneration and microtrauma and macrotrauma. The incidence of rotator cuff tears increases with aging with more than half of individuals in their 80s having a rotator cuff tear. Smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and genetics have all been shown to influence the development of rotator cuff tearing. Substantial full-thickness rotator cuff tears, in general, progress and enlarge with time. Pain, or worsening pain, usually signals tear progression in both asymptomatic and symptomatic tears and should warrant further investigation if the tear is treated conservatively. Larger (>1-1.5 cm) symptomatic full-thickness cuff tears have a high rate of tear progression and, therefore, should be considered for earlier surgical repair in younger patients if the tear is reparable and there is limited muscle degeneration to avoid irreversible changes to the cuff, including tear enlargement and degenerative muscle changes. Smaller symptomatic full-thickness tears have been shown to have a slower rate of progression, similar to partial-thickness tears, and can be considered for initial nonoperative treatment due to the limited risk for rapid tear progression. In both small full-thickness tears and partial-thickness tears, increasing pain should alert physicians to obtain further imaging as it can signal tear progression. Natural history data, along with information on factors affecting healing after rotator cuff repair, can help guide surgeons in making appropriate decisions regarding the treatment of rotator cuff tears. The management of rotator cuff tears should be considered in the context of the risks and benefits of operative versus nonoperative treatment. Tear size and acuity, the presence of irreparable changes to the rotator cuff or glenohumeral joint, and patient age should all be considered in making this decision. Initial nonoperative care can be safely undertaken in older patients (>70

  10. Meniscotibial (coronary) ligament tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khoury, G.Y.; Usta, H.Y.; Berger, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Preservation of the meniscus whenever possible is essential in maintaining knee stability and preventing premature osteoarthritis. Peripheral meniscal tears are the most amenable to surgical repair. This study evaluates the peripheral attachments of the medial meniscus and focuses on a specific tear limited to the meniscotibial ligament (coronary ligament). The diagnosis is made arthrographically when the medial meniscus floats above the tibial plateau without separating completely from the capsule. The lateral meniscus is rarely involved in this type of injury. (orig.)

  11. Age-related changes in the signal value of tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeifman, Debra M; Brown, Sarah A

    2011-08-12

    Emotional tears may be uniquely human and are an effective signal of distress in adults. The present study explored whether tears signal distress in younger criers and whether the effect of tears on observers is similar in magnitude across the life span. Participants rated photographs of crying infants, young children, and adults, with tears digitally removed or added. The effectiveness of tears in conveying sadness and eliciting sympathy was greatest for images of adults, intermediate for images of children, and least potent for images of infants. These findings suggest that the signal value of tears varies with the age of the crier. The results may shed light on the functional significance of crying at different stages of human development.

  12. Biomechanical characteristics of single-row repair in comparison to double-row repair with consideration of the suture configuration and suture material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, M H; Buchhorn, G H; Spahn, G; Poppendieck, B; Schultz, W; Klinger, H-M

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the time zero mechanical properties of single- versus double-row configuration for rotator cuff repair in an animal model with consideration of the stitch technique and suture material. Thirty-two fresh-frozen sheep shoulders were randomly assigned to four repair groups: suture anchor single-row repair coupled with (1) braided, nonabsorbable polyester suture sized USP No. 2 (SRAE) or (2) braided polyblend polyethylene suture sized No. 2 (SRAH). The double-row repair was coupled with (3) USP No. 2 (DRAE) or (4) braided polyblend polyethylene suture No. 2 (DRAH). Arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitches were used (single-row) and combined with medial horizontal mattress stitches (double-row). Shoulders were cyclically loaded from 10 to 180 N. Displacement to gap formation of 5- and 10-mm at the repair site, cycles to failure, and the mode of failure were determined. The ultimate tensile strength was verified in specimens that resisted to 3,000 cycles. DRAE and DRAH had a lower frequency of 5- (P = 0.135) and 10-mm gap formation (P = 0.135). All DRAE and DRAH resisted 3,000 cycles while only three SRAE and one SRAH resisted 3,000 cycles (P row specimens was significantly higher than in others (P 0.05). Double-row suture anchor repair with arthroscopic Mason-Allen/medial mattress stitches provides initial strength superior to single-row repair with arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitches under isometric cyclic loading as well as under ultimate loading conditions. Our results support the concept of double-row fixation with arthroscopic Mason-Allen/medial mattress stitches in rotator cuff tears with improvement of initial fixation strength and ultimate tensile load. Use of new polyblend polyethylene suture material seems not to increase the initial biomechanical aspects of the repair construct.

  13. Peroneus longus tears associated with pathology of the os peroneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Kristopher G; Brodsky, James W

    2014-04-01

    There is a range of different types of tears and pathology of the peroneal tendons. One of the least common types is the tear of the peroneus longus associated with fracture, enlargement, or entrapment at the cuboid tunnel of the os peroneum. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pathologic patterns of these uncommon peroneal tendon tears, to review the treatment, and to report the patient outcomes following treatment with excision of the os peroneum, debridement, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. A 5-year retrospective review of all patients with peroneal tendon tears identified 12 patients operatively treated for peroneus longus tendon tears with associated pathology of the os peroneum, and in whom there was a viable peroneus brevis. All patients were treated with an operative procedure consisting of excision of the os peroneum, debridement, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. Mean age was 51.5 (range, 33 to 73) years, including 7 males and 5 females. Operative and radiographic records were reviewed to characterize the nature of the peroneus longus tears and associated pathology. Preoperative and postoperative AOFAS hindfoot, SF-36 questionnaires, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores were compiled and patient records were reviewed for complications. Mean follow-up after surgery was 63.3 (range, 12 to 114) months. All of the patients had an os peroneum associated with a complex, irreparable tear of the peroneus longus tendon. The peroneus longus was typically enlarged, fibrotic, and adhered to the surrounding tissues. In 8 patients, the peroneus longus tendon tear was associated with a fracture of the os peroneum, and in 4 patients with an enlarged and entrapped os peroneum which prevented movement at the cuboid tunnel. Of the 12 patients, 9 had partial tears of the peroneus brevis, which were treated with debridement and suture repair. AOFAS hindfoot scores increased from a preoperative mean of 61

  14. Torsion of monofilament and polyfilament sutures under tension decreases suture strength and increases risk of suture fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessey, D B

    2012-08-01

    A continuous running suture is the preferential method for abdominal closure. In this technique the suture is secured with an initial knot and successive tissue bites are taken. At each tissue bite, the needle is rotated through the tissue; in doing so, the suture can twist around the knot which acts as an anchor.

  15. Will Preoperative Atrophy and Fatty Degeneration of the Shoulder Muscles Improve after Rotator Cuff Repair in Patients with Massive Rotator Cuff Tears?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yamaguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, retear rate after repair for massive cuff tear have been improved through devised suture techniques. However, reported retear rate is relevant to preoperative atrophy and fatty degeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preoperative atrophy and fatty degeneration of rotator cuff muscles improve by successful repair. Twenty-four patients with massive rotator cuff tear were evaluated on the recovery of atrophy and fatty degeneration of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle after surgery. Atrophy was classified by the occupation ratio and fatty degeneration by modified Goutallier's classification. Both were assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI before and after the operation. When the cuff was well repaired, improvement of the atrophy and fatty degeneration were observed in a half and a one-fourth of the cases, respectively. In retear cases, however, atrophy and fatty degeneration became worse. Improvement of atrophy and fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles may be expected in the cases with successful achievement of rotator cuff repair for large and massive tear.

  16. Verification of gyrokinetic particle simulation of current-driven instability in fusion plasmas. II. Resistive tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dongjian; Zhang, Wenlu; McClenaghan, Joseph; Wang, Jiaqi; Lin, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Global gyrokinetic particle simulation of resistive tearing modes has been developed and verified in the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC). GTC linear simulations in the fluid limit of the kink-tearing and resistive tearing modes in the cylindrical geometry agree well with the resistive magnetohydrodynamic eigenvalue and initial value codes. Ion kinetic effects are found to reduce the radial width of the tearing modes. GTC simulations of the resistive tearing modes in the toroidal geometry find that the toroidicity reduces the growth rates

  17. Tear secretion and tear stability of women on hormonal contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustina Kemdinum Idu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Injectable hormonal contraceptives had no significant effects on tear secretion and tear stability of healthy women of childbearing age. Further studies may be required to determine the effects of hormonal contraceptives on tear volume and stability of women with dry eyes.

  18. Absorbable Polydioxanone (PDS) suture provides fewer wound complications than polyester (ethibond) suture in acute Tendo-Achilles rupture repair

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, M N

    2017-05-01

    We prospectively studied acute Achilles tendon rupture in patients over a two 2-year period and reviewed the causes, outcome and complications. There were 53 patients included with acute Achilles rupture with minimum follow up period of 6 months. We compared the outcomes including infection rate and Boyden score between the two groups repaired by Polydioxanone and Polyester respectively. All infected cases had a suture repair using the polyester suture. The difference in the infection rate was highly significant between the 2 groups (p=0.001). All 34 patients (100%) in the PDS group had good \\/ excellent results based on the Boyden clinical assessment. Conversely, only 16 patients 9(68.4%) had good or excellent results IN Polyester repair group. Patients treated with a non- absorbable suture (ethibond) material for repair had a higher incidence infection and worse Boyden scores than the absorbable PDS group.

  19. Elasticity and breaking strength of synthetic suture materials incubated in various equine physiological and pathological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, C M; Buckley, C T; Jenner, F; Moissonnier, P; Brama, P A J

    2014-07-01

    Selection of suture material in equine surgery is often based on costs or subjective factors, such as the surgeon's personal experience, rather than objective facts. The amount of objective data available on durability of suture materials with regard to specific equine physiological conditions is limited. To evaluate the effect of various equine physiological and pathological fluids on the rate of degradation of a number of commonly used suture materials. In vitro material testing. Suture materials were exposed in vitro to physiological fluid, followed by biomechanical analysis. Three absorbable suture materials, glycolide/lactide copolymer, polyglactin 910 and polydioxanone were incubated at 37°C for 7, 14 or 28 days in phosphate-buffered saline, equine serum, equine urine and equine peritoneal fluid from an animal with peritonitis. Five strands of each suture material type were tested to failure in a materials testing machine for each time point and each incubation medium. Yield strength, strain and Young's modulus were calculated, analysed and reported. For all suture types, the incubation time had a significant effect on yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (Ptype was also shown significantly to influence changes in each of yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (Ptype of fluid have significant effects on the biomechanical properties of various suture materials. These findings are important for evidence-based selection of suture material in clinical cases. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  1. Sutural simplification in Physodoceratinae (Aspidoceratidae, Ammonitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Checa, A.

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available The estructural analysis of the shell septum interrelationship in sorne Jurassic ammonites allows us to conclude that sutural simplifications occurred throughout the phylogeny, were originated by alterations in the external morphology of the shell. In the case of Physodoceratinae the simplification observed in the morphology of the septal suture may have a double origin. First, an increase in the size of periumbilical tubercles may determine a shallowing of sutural elements and a shortening of saddle and lobe frilling. In other cases, shallowing is determined by a decrease in the whorl expansion rate, an apparent shortening of secondary branching not being observed.El análisis estructural de la interrelación concha-septo en algunos ammonites del Jurásico superior lleva a concluir que las simplificaciones suturales aparecidas a lo largo de la filogenia fueron originadas por alteraciones ocurridas en la morfología externa de la concha. En el caso concreto de la subfamilia Physodoceratinae, la simplificación observada en la morfología de la sutura puede tener un doble origen. En primer lugar, un incremento en el tamaño de los tubérculos periumbilicales puede determinar una pérdida de profundidad de los elementos de la sutura. siempre acompañada de una disminución en las indentaciones (frilling de sillas y lóbulos. En otros casos el acortamiento en profundidad está determinado por una disminución de la tasa de expansión de la espira, sin que se observe un acortamiento aparente de las ramificaciones secundarias.

  2. Does autologous leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma improve tendon healing in arthroscopic repair of large or massive rotator cuff tears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charousset, Christophe; Zaoui, Amine; Bellaïche, Laurence; Piterman, Michel

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with the use of leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) in patients with large or massive rotator cuff tears. A comparative cohort of patients with large or massive rotator cuff tears undergoing arthroscopic repair was studied. Two consecutive groups of patients were included: rotator cuff repairs with L-PRP injection (group 1, n = 35) and rotator cuff repairs without L-PRP injection (group 2, n = 35). A double-row cross-suture cuff repair was performed by a single surgeon with the same rehabilitation protocol. Patients were clinically evaluated with the Constant score; Simple Shoulder Test score; University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score; and strength measurements by use of a handheld dynamometer. Rotator cuff healing was evaluated by postoperative MRI using the Sugaya classification (type 1 to type 5). We prospectively evaluated the 2 groups at a minimum 2-year follow-up. The results did not show differences in cuff healing between the 2 groups (P = .16). The size of recurrent tears (type 4 v type 5), however, was significantly smaller in group 1 (P = .008). There was no statistically significant difference in the recurrent tear rate (types 4 and 5) between the 2 groups (P = .65). There was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2 in terms of University of California, Los Angeles score (29.1 and 30.3, respectively; P = .90); Simple Shoulder Test score (9.9 and 10.2, respectively; P = .94); Constant score (77.3 and 78.1, respectively; P = .82); and strength (7.5 and 7.0, respectively; P = .51). In our study the use of autologous L-PRP did not improve the quality of tendon healing in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of large or massive rotator cuff tears based on postoperative MRI evaluation. The only significant advantage was that the L-PRP patients had smaller iterative tears. However, the functional outcome was similar in

  3. Warm and touching tears: tearful individuals are perceived as warmer because we assume they feel moved and touched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickfeld, Janis H; Schubert, Thomas W

    2018-01-31

    Recent work investigated the inter-individual functions of emotional tears in depth. In one study (Van de Ven, N., Meijs, M. H. J., & Vingerhoets, A. (2017). What emotional tears convey: Tearful individuals are seen as warmer, but also as less competent. British Journal of Social Psychology, 56(1), 146-160. Https://doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12162) tearful individuals were rated as warmer, and participants expressed more intentions to approach and help such individuals. Simultaneously, tearful individuals were rated as less competent, and participants expressed less intention to work with the depicted targets. While tearful individuals were perceived as sadder, perceived sadness mediated only the effect on competence, but not on warmth. We argue that tearful individuals might be perceived as warm because they are perceived as feeling moved and touched. We ran a pre-registered extended replication of Van de Ven et al. Results replicate the warmth and helping findings, but not the competence and work effects. The increase in warmth ratings was completely mediated by perceiving feeling moved and touched. Possible functions of feeling moved and touched with regard to emotional tears are discussed.

  4. Posterior meniscus root tears: associated pathologies to assist as diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Lauren M; Ockuly, Andrew C; Steadman, J Richard; LaPrade, Robert F

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associated pathologies identified at arthroscopy in patients with meniscus root tears. This study was Institutional Review Board approved. All patients who underwent arthroscopic knee surgery where a complete meniscus root tear was identified were included in this study. Concurrent ligament tears and articular cartilage changes ≥Outerbridge grade 2 were recorded and stored in a data registry. Fifty patients (28 males, 22 females) [mean age = 36.5 years (range 17.1-68.1 years)] who were diagnosed with a medial or lateral meniscus root tear at arthroscopy were included in this study out of 673 arthroscopic surgeries (prevalence 7.4 %). Twenty-three (46 %) patients had a medial meniscus root tear, 26 (52 %) patients had a lateral meniscus root tear and one (2 %) patient had both. Thirty-four per cent of patients (n = 17) underwent partial meniscectomy, while 60 % (n = 31) underwent suture repair. During arthroscopy, 60 % (n = 30) of patients were diagnosed with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. Patients with lateral meniscus root tears were 10.3 times (95 % CI 2.6-42.5) more likely to have ACL tears than patients with medial meniscus root tears (p = 0.012). Patients who had medial meniscus root tears were 5.8 times (95 % CI 1.6-20.5) more likely to have chondral defects than patients who had lateral meniscus root tears (p = 0.044). In this study, patients' preoperative functional scores and activity levels were low. Patients with lateral meniscal root tears were more likely to have an ACL tear. Patients with medial meniscal root tears were more likely to have an knee articular cartilage defect with an Outerbridge grade 2 or higher chondral defect. This study confirms the importance of comprehensive assessment of concurrent injuries to properly diagnose meniscus root tears. IV.

  5. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, Hallie E.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Pulliam, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  6. A study of re-tear cases after ARCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yasuyuki; Chosa, Etsuo; Yano, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Recently, good clinical outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) are reported, but the re-tear rate of massive and large rotator cuff tears is still high. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical outcome and postoperative cuff integrity of ARCR in our hospital. We evaluated 80 shoulders (61 males, 19 females), whose age rauged from 30 to 78 (average: 61.8 years old). The size of tears were 8 small, 22 medium, 36 large, and 14 massive. We evaluated the pre-and postoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scored, and MRI findings 12 months postoperatively. We evaluated the cuff integrity and fatty degeneration of the ruptured cuff by Goutallier's classification. Postoperative MRI findings showed complete repair in 56 shoulders (70%) and re-tear in 24 shoulders (30%). Postoperative JOA score was poor in cases with large re-tears. Retear rates were high in large and massive tears, tears with advanced fatty degeneration, and subscapularis tears. As this operation is not a replacement procedure, the quality of the ruptured rotator cuff is important. Further discussion on the operative indication and method is necessary. (author)

  7. MRI evaluation of the posterior meniscus root tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianjun; Zheng Zhuozhao; Li Xuan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of MRI for diagnosing the posterior meniscus root tear. Methods: MR examinations of 30 patients with tear of the posterior meniscus root confirmed by knee arthroscopies were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 30 patients, 17 with posterior medial meniscus root tear (MMRT) and 13 with posterior lateral meniscus root tear (LMRT). The diagnostic sensitivity of' MRI for the posterior meniscus root tear was analyzed. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the detection rate of MRI for MMRT with that for LMRT. Results: All 17 cases with MMRT and 9 cases out of 13 with LMRT were correctly diagnosed by MRI and the diagnostic sensitivity of MRI for the posterior meniscus root tear was 86.7% (26/30). The main MR appearance of the posterior meniscus root tear was distortion of the meniscal root, with its low signal replaced by abnormal high signal. The detection rate of MRI for MMRT (17/17) was significantly greater than that for LMRT (9/13) (P=0.026). The prevalence of MMRT associated with meniscus extrusion (15/17) was significantly greater than that of LMRT (6/13) (P=0.020), but the prevalence of MMRT associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury (5/17) was significantly lower than that of LMRT (11/13) (P=0.004). Conclusion: MRI is a relatively good method for detection of posterior meniscus root tears and associated injuries. (authors)

  8. Tears of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliotti, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    The unique occurrence of the upward motion of a thin film of wine, and its formation into drops inside the wall of a wine glass is explained. Evaporation of alcohol generates a surface tension gradient, moving the film of wine upwards on the internal sides of a wine glass, where it collects and forms into drops or tears.

  9. [Bases and methods of suturing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, P M; Altintas, M A; Radtke, C; Meyer-Marcotty, M

    2009-05-01

    If pharmaceutic modulation of scar formation does not improve the quality of the healing process over conventional healing, the surgeon must rely on personal skill and experience. Therefore a profound knowledge of wound healing based on experimental and clinical studies supplemented by postsurgical means of scar management and basic techniques of planning incisions, careful tissue handling, and thorough knowledge of suturing remain the most important ways to avoid abnormal scarring. This review summarizes the current experimental and clinical bases of surgical scar management.

  10. Muscle architectural changes after massive human rotator cuff tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Michael C; Sato, Eugene J; Bachasson, Damien; Cheng, Timothy; Azimi, Hassan; Schenk, Simon; Engler, Adam J; Singh, Anshuman; Ward, Samuel R

    2016-12-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) tendon tears lead to negative structural and functional changes in the associated musculature. The structural features of muscle that predict function are termed "muscle architecture." Although the architectural features of "normal" rotator cuff muscles are known, they are poorly understood in the context of cuff pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tear and repair on RC muscle architecture. To this end thirty cadaveric shoulders were grouped into one of four categories based on tear magnitude: Intact, Full-thickness tear (FTT), Massive tear (MT), or Intervention if sutures or hardware were present, and key parameters of muscle architecture were measured. We found that muscle mass and fiber length decreased proportionally with tear size, with significant differences between all groups. Conversely, sarcomere number was reduced in both FTT and MT with no significant difference between these two groups, in large part because sarcomere length was significantly reduced in MT but not FTT. The loss of muscle mass in FTT is due, in part, to subtraction of serial sarcomeres, which may help preserve sarcomere length. This indicates that function in FTT may be impaired, but there is some remaining mechanical loading to maintain "normal" sarcomere length-tension relationships. However, the changes resulting from MT suggest more severe limitations in force-generating capacity because sarcomere length-tension relationships are no longer normal. The architectural deficits observed in MT muscles may indicate deeper deficiencies in muscle adaptability to length change, which could negatively impact RC function despite successful anatomical repair. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2089-2095, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Suture simulator - Cleft palate surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, F; Riot, S; Qassemyar, A; Belkhou, A; Wolber, A; Martinot Duquennoy, V; Guerreschi, P

    2017-04-01

    Cleft palate requires surgery in the first years of life, furthermore repairing anatomically the soft and hard palate is complex on a surgical level because of the fine tissues and the local intraoral configuration. It is valuable to train first on simulators before going to the operating room. However, there is no material dedicated to learning how to perform intraoral sutures in cleft palate surgery. We made one, in an artisanal manner, in order to practice before the real surgical gesture. The simulator was designed based on precise anatomical data. A steel pipe, fixed on a rigid base represented the oral cavity. An adapted split spoon represented the palate. All pieces could be removed in order to apply a hydrocellular dressing before training for sutures. Our simulator was tested by 3 senior surgeons in our department in close to real-life conditions in order to evaluate its anatomical accuracy. It is valuable to have a simulator to train on cleft palate sutures within teaching university hospitals that manage this pathology. Our simulator has a very low cost, it is easy to make and is anatomically accurate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Subcuticular Suture Materials in Cesarean Skin Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Solmaz Hasdemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Comparison of the rate of wound complications, pain, and patient satisfaction based on used subcuticular suture material. Methods. A total of 250 consecutive women undergoing primary and repeat cesarean section with low transverse incision were prospectively included. The primary outcome was wound complication rate including infection, dehiscence, hematoma, and hypertrophic scar formation within a 6-week period after operation. Secondary outcomes were skin closure time, the need for use of additional analgesic agent, pain score on numeric rating scale, cosmetic score, and patient scar satisfaction scale. Results. Absorbable polyglactin was used in 108 patients and nonabsorbable polypropylene was used in 142 patients. Wound complication rates were similar in primary and repeat cesarean groups based on the type of suture material. Skin closure time is longer in nonabsorbable suture material group in both primary and repeat cesarean groups. There was no difference between groups in terms of postoperative pain, need for additional analgesic use, late phase pain, and itching at the scar. Although the cosmetic results tended to be better in the nonabsorbable group in primary surgery patients, there was no significant difference in the visual satisfaction of the patients. Conclusions. Absorbable and nonabsorbable suture materials are comparable in cesarean section operation skin closure.

  13. Role of MRI in predicting meniscal tear reparability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felisaz, Paolo Florent [Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Istituto di Radiologia, Pavia (Italy); Alessandrino, Francesco; Perelli, Simone [Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Zanon, Giacomo; Benazzo, Francesco [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Clinica Ortopedica e Traumatologica, Pavia (Italy); Calliada, Fabrizio; Sammarchi, Luigi [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Radiologia, Diagnostica per Immagini-Istituto di Radiologia, Pavia (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    To elucidate the role of MRI in predicting meniscal tear reparability according to tear type and location in relation to vascular zones. In this retrospective study, two readers evaluated 79 pre-surgical MRIs of meniscal tears arthroscopically treated with meniscectomy or meniscal repair. Tears were classified according to type into vertical, horizontal, radial, complex, flaps and bucket handle and were considered reparable if the distance measured from the tear to the menisco-capsular junction was less than or equal to 5 mm. Predictions were compared with the surgical procedure performed in arthroscopy. We assessed the diagnostic performance of MRI, agreement between MRI and arthroscopy, and interrater agreement. Then, we conducted an ROC analysis on the distances measured by the first reader and built a multivariate logistic regression model. MRI had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy, respectively, of 85%, 79%, 86%, 76% and 83% in predicting meniscal tear reparability. Correct predictions for the specific tear pattern were 76% for vertical, 84% for horizontal, 88% for radial, 86% for complex, 84% for flaps and 86% for bucket handle. Agreement between the two readers' predictions and arthroscopy was good (k = 0.65 and 0.61, respectively). Inter-rater agreement was almost excellent (k = 0.79). The ROC analysis revealed sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 83% with a cutoff value of <4 mm (p < 0.001). Anterior cruciate ligament injury and medial meniscal tear increased the likelihood of meniscal tear reparability. MRI can be a reliable and accurate tool to predict the reparability of meniscal tears, with higher prediction rates for bucket-handle tears. (orig.)

  14. Triple-Loaded Suture Anchors Versus a Knotless Rip Stop Construct in a Single-Row Rotator Cuff Repair Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Matthew P; Lederman, Evan; Adams, Christopher R; Denard, Patrick J

    2018-05-01

    To compare the biomechanical properties of single-row repair with triple-loaded (TL) anchor repair versus a knotless rip stop (KRS) repair in a rotator cuff repair model. Rotator cuff tears were created in 8 cadaveric matched-pair specimens and repaired with a TL anchor or KRS construct. In the TL construct, anchors were placed in the greater tuberosity and then all suture limbs were passed through the rotator cuff as simple sutures and tied. In the KRS construct, a 2-mm suture tape was passed through the tendon in an inverted mattress fashion, and a free suture was passed medial to the suture tape to create a rip-stop. Then, the suture tape and free suture were secured with knotless anchors. Displacement was observed with video tracking after cyclic loading, and specimens were loaded to failure. The mean load to failure was 438 ± 59 N in TL anchor repairs compared with 457 ± 110 N in KRS repairs (P = .582). The mean displacement with cyclic loading was 3.8 ± 1.6 mm in TL anchor repairs versus 4.3 ± 1.8 mm in the KRS group (P = .297). Mode of failure was consistent in both groups, with 6 of 8 failures in the TL anchor group and 7 of 8 failures in KRS group occurring from anchor pullout. There is no statistical difference in load to failure and cyclic loading between TL anchor and KRS single-row repair techniques. KRS repair technique may be an alternative method of repairing full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears with a single-row construct. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing suturing techniques using a virtual reality surgical simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Hamed; Rappel, James K; Poston, Timothy; Hai Lim, Beng; Burdet, Etienne; Leong Teo, Chee

    2010-09-01

    Advantages of virtual-reality simulators surgical skill assessment and training include more training time, no risk to patient, repeatable difficulty level, reliable feedback, without the resource demands, and ethical issues of animal-based training. We tested this for a key subtask and showed a strong link between skill in the simulator and in reality. Suturing performance was assessed for four groups of participants, including experienced surgeons and naive subjects, on a custom-made virtual-reality simulator. Each subject tried the experiment 30 times using five different types of needles to perform a standardized suture placement task. Traditional metrics of performance as well as new metrics enabled by our system were proposed, and the data indicate difference between trained and untrained performance. In all traditional parameters such as time, number of attempts, and motion quantity, the medical surgeons outperformed the other three groups, though differences were not significant. However, motion smoothness, penetration and exit angles, tear size areas, and orientation change were statistically significant in the trained group when compared with untrained group. This suggests that these parameters can be used in virtual microsurgery training.

  16. Effectiveness and biocompatibility of a novel biological adhesive application for repair of meniscal tear on the avascular zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takahito; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Imade, Shinji; Kumahashi, Nobuyuki; Uchio, Yuji

    2012-12-01

    We have investigated the effectiveness and safety of a newly developed biological adhesive for repair of meniscal tear. The adhesive was composed of disuccinimidyl tartrate (DST) as a crosslinker and human serum albumin (HSA) as a hardener. To determine adequate concentration, bonding strength was measured using a tensiometer 5 min after applying the adhesive on the avascular zone tear of porcine meniscus; it was compared with the strengths of commercially available cyanoacrylate-based and fibrin-based adhesives. In vivo examination was performed using Japanese white rabbits, creating longitudinal tears on the avascular zone of meniscus and applying DST-HSA adhesive. Three months after operation the rabbits were sacrificed and tension test and histological evaluation were performed. Bonding strength was measured in three porcine meniscus groups: (i) only suturing, (ii) suturing after applying the adhesive on surface and (iii) suturing using an adhesive-soaked suture. The optimum concentrations were 0.1 mmol of DST and 42 w/v% of HAS. Bonding strength was greatest with cyanoacrylate-based adhesive, followed by DST-HSA adhesive, and fibrin-based adhesive. No inflammation was observed in the synovium or surrounding tissues 3 months after using the DST-HSA adhesive. Bonding strength was greatest with DST-HSA adhesive-soaked suturing group (77 ± 6 N), followed by suturing only group (61 ± 5 N) and surface adhesive application group (60 ± 8 N). The newly developed DST-HSA adhesive is considered safe and may be effective in enforcement of bonding of avascular zone tear of the meniscus.

  17. The suspension (Frost) suture: experience and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Karen L; Albertini, John G; Miller, Christopher J; Ozog, David M

    2015-03-01

    The Frost suture is a well-known surgical technique for providing upward tension on the lower lid to prevent or correct ectropion after surgical interventions in the periorbital area. Despite its relatively common use, comprehensive information on executing this technique is not readily available. To review eyelid anatomy, indications, and proper technique for performing the Frost suture, as well as potential complications. A review of the literature on Frost sutures was performed. Cadaveric dissection was performed to demonstrate placement of the Frost suture. The Frost suture is a useful method to reduce the risk of ectropion after surgery near the lower eyelid. Downward pull on the lid can occur with normal wound contracture even if ectropion is not present with the initial repair, reinforcing the need for preventive measures. Potential complications of this technique include superficial skin erosion of the upper lid, corneal abrasion, and blockage of the field of vision while the suture is in place.

  18. Nonabsorbable-Suture-Induced Osteomyelitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hong Yeo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of nonabsorbable suture-induced osteomyelitis in patient who had an open rotator cuff repair with nonabsorbable Ethibond anchor suture. Patient in this case presented with very subtle clinical features of osteomyelitis of the left proximal humerus 15 years after initial rotator cuff repair surgery. Literature had shown that deep infection following rotator cuff repairs, although rare, can be easily missed and can cause severe complications. Absorbable suture had been demonstrated to be more superior, in terms of rate of deep infection, as compared to nonabsorbable suture when used in rotator cuff repair surgery. Both absorbable and nonabsorbable suture had been demonstrated to have similar mechanical properties by several different studies. The case demonstrated that initial presentation of deep infection can be subtle and easily missed by clinicians and leads to further complications.

  19. [Rotator cuff tear athropathy prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Soriano, F; Encalada-Díaz, M I; Ruiz-Suárez, M; Valero-González, F S

    2017-01-01

    Glenohumeral arthritis secondary to massive rotator cuff tear presents with a superior displacement and femoralization of the humeral head with coracoacromial arch acetabularization. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of rotator cuff tear artropathy (CTA) at our institution. Four hundred electronic records were reviewed from which we identified 136 patients with rotator cuff tears. A second group was composed with patients with massive cuff tears that were analized and staged by the Seebauer cuff tear arthropathy classification. Thirty four patients with massive rotator cuff tears were identified, 8 male and 26 female (age 60.1 ± 10.26 years). Massive rotator cuff tear prevalence was 25%. CTA prevalence found in the rotator cuff group was 19 and 76% in the massive cuff tears group. Patients were staged according to the classification with 32% in stage 1a, 11% 1b, 32% 2a and 0% 2b. CTA prevalence in patients with rotator cuff tears and massive cuff tears is higher than the one reported in American population. We consider that a revision of the Seebauer classification to be appropriate to determine its reliability.

  20. Antibacterial-Coated Suture in Reducing Surgical Site Infection in Breast Surgery: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enora Laas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To reduce the incidence of microbial colonization of suture material, Triclosan- (TC-coated suture materials have been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of suture-related complications (SRC in breast surgery with and without the use of TC-coated sutures. Methods. We performed a study on two consecutive periods: 92 patients underwent breast surgery with conventional sutures (Group 1 and 98 with TC-coated sutures (Group 2. We performed subgroups analyses and developed a model to predict SRC in Group 1 and tested its clinical efficacy in Group 2 using a nomogram-based approach. Results. The SRC rates were 13% in Group 1 and 8% in Group 2. We found that some subgroups may benefit from TC-coated sutures. The discrimination obtained from a logistic regression model developed in Group 1 and based on multifocality, age and axillary lymphadenectomy was 0.88 (95% CI 0.77–0.95 (. There was a significant difference in Group 2 between predicted probabilities and observed percentages (. The predicted and observed proportions of complications in the high-risk group were 38% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion. This study used individual predictions of SRC and showed that using TC-coated suture may prevent SRC. This was particularly significant in high-risk patients.

  1. Tearing relaxation and the globalization of transport in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, Loren; Barnes, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    Tearing instability of field-reversed configurations (FRC) is investigated using the method of neighboring equilibria. It is shown that the conducting wall position in experiment lies very close to the location needed for tearing stability. This strongly suggests that vigorous but benign tearing modes, acting globally, are the engine of continual self-organization in FRCs, i.e., tearing relaxation. It also explains the ''profile consistency'' and anomalous loss rate of magnetic flux. In effect, tearing globalizes the effect of edge-driven transport.

  2. Caudal Septal Stabilization Suturing Technique to Treat Crooked Noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Bahadir; Erdim, Ibrahim; Guvey, Ali; Oghan, Fatih; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin

    2016-10-01

    To rotate the nasal axis and septum to the midline using an L-strut graft and a novel caudal septal stabilization suturing technique to treat crooked noses. Thirty-six patients were included in the study. First, an L-strut graft was prepared by excising the deviated cartilage site in all patients. Second, multiple stabilization suturing, which we describe as a caudal septal stabilization suturing technique with a "fishing net"-like appearance, was applied between the anterior nasal spine and caudal septum in all patients. This new surgical technique, used to rotate the caudal septum, was applied to 22 I-type and 14 C-type crooked noses. Correction rates for the crooked noses were compared between the 2 inclination types with angular estimations. Deviation angles were measured using the AutoCAD 2012 software package and frontal (anterior) views, with the Frankfurt horizontal line parallel to the ground. Nasal axis angles showing angle improvement graded 4 categories as excellent, good, acceptable, and unsuccessful for evaluations at 6 months after surgery in the study. The success rate in the C-type nasal inclination was 86.7% (±21.9) and 88% (±16.7) in the I-type. The overall success rate of L-strut grafting and caudal septal stabilization suturing in crooked nose surgeries was 87.5% (±18.6). "Unsuccessful" results were not reported in any of the patients. L-strut grafting and caudal septal stabilization suturing techniques are efficacious in crooked noses according to objective measurement analysis results. However, a longer follow-up duration in a larger patient population is needed.

  3. Comparison between suture anchor and transosseous suture for the modified-Broström procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byung-Ki; Kim, Yong-Min; Kim, Dong-Soo; Choi, Eui-Sung; Shon, Hyun-Chul; Park, Kyoung-Jin

    2012-06-01

    This prospective, randomized study was conducted to compare clinical outcomes of the modified Broström procedure using suture anchor or transosseous suture technique for chronic ankle instability. Forty patients were followed for more than 2 years after modified Broström procedure. Twenty procedures using a suture anchor and 20 procedures using a transosseous suture were performed by one surgeon. The clinical evaluation consisted of the Karlsson scale and the Sefton grading system. Talar tilt and anterior talar translation were measured on anterior and varus stress radiographs. The Karlsson scale had improved significantly to 90.8 points in the suture anchor group, and to 89.2 points in the transosseous suture group. According to Sefton grading system, 18 patients (90%) in suture anchor group and 17 patients (85%) in transosseous suture group achieved satisfactory results. The talar tilt angle and anterior talar translation improved significantly to 5.9 degrees and 4.2 mm in suture anchor group, and to 5.4 degrees and 4.1 mm in transosseous suture group, respectively. No significant differences existed in clinical and functional outcomes between the two techniques for ligament reattachment. Both modified Broström procedures using the suture anchor and transosseous suture seem to be effective treatment methods for chronic lateral ankle instability.

  4. Tearing modes in tokamaks with lower hybrid current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.

    1990-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of current drive on the tearing modes in the semi-collisional regime is analyzed using the drift-kinetic equation. A collisional operator is developed to model electron parallel conductivity. For the pure tearing modes the linear and quasilinear growth rates in the Rutherford regimes have been found to have roughly the same forms with a modified resistivity as without current drive. One interesting result is the prediction of a new instability. This instability, driven by the current gradient inside the tearing mode layer, is possibly related to MHD behavior observed in these experiments. 9 refs

  5. Novel technique for repairing posterior medial meniscus root tears using porcine knees and biomechanical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Lin Wu

    Full Text Available Transtibial pullout suture (TPS repair of posterior medial meniscus root (PMMR tears was shown to achieve good clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare biomechanically, a novel technique designed to repair PMMR tears using tendon graft (TG and conventional TPS repair. Twelve porcine tibiae (n = 6 each TG group: flexor digitorum profundus tendon was passed through an incision in the root area, created 5 mm postero-medially along the edge of the attachment area. TPS group: a modified Mason-Allen suture was created using no. 2 FiberWire. The tendon grafts and sutures were threaded through the bone tunnel and then fixed to the anterolateral cortex of the tibia. The two groups underwent cyclic loading followed by a load-to-failure test. Displacements of the constructs after 100, 500, and 1000 loading cycles, and the maximum load, stiffness, and elongation at failure were recorded. The TG technique had significantly lower elongation and higher stiffness compared with the TPS. The maximum load of the TG group was significantly lower than that of the TPS group. Failure modes for all specimens were caused by the suture or graft cutting through the meniscus. Lesser elongation and higher stiffness of the constructs in TG technique over those in the standard TPS technique might be beneficial for postoperative biological healing between the meniscus and tibial plateau. However, a slower rehabilitation program might be necessary due to its relatively lower maximum failure load.

  6. TEAR AND SERUM EOSINOPHIL CATIONIC PROTEIN AS A MARKER OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN ALLERGIC OCULAR DISEASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOLIMAN, S.ET.; KHALIFA, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Eosinophil is a major cellular component in the late allergic response. In its activated state, the Eosinophil liberates performed basic proteins; the most sensitively quantifiable of them is the Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP).In the present study ECP was measured in tear and serum in different forms of ocular allergy to assess its value as a marker of disease severity and usefulness to evaluate topical therapy.Tears and serum were collected from 65 patients with allergic Keratoconjunctivitis, 20 healthy volunteers (6 of them children) with no history or evidence of allergic diseases, as well as, 5 patients with non allergic and untreated blepharo-conjunctivitis. Patients were classified according to their clinical signs and symptoms into four groups:Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), 15 patients, Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 15 Palpebral and 6 Limbal, Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), 17 patients and, Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC), 8 contact lens-induced and 4 suture-induced.Tears were collected by capillary tubes for cytological examination and measurement of ECP using radioimmunoassay methods. Serum was collected for measurement of ECP and atopy screening.Tear-ECP evaluation showed statistically significant elevation in all allergic subjects (p<0.001). Patients with VKC and AKC had significantly higher tear ECP values than patients with GPC and SAC. There was significant correlation between tear ECP values and disease severity.On the contrary, serum ECP values were only elevated significantly in atopic patients, and did not correlate to tear ECP values. Tear cytology was not sensitive to evaluate disease severity. These data demonstrated that tear ECP in contrast to serum ECP is a useful marker for disease severity in allergic ocular diseases and as such could become a valuable objective variable in treatment studies and as an adjunctive diagnostic tool in chronic conditions

  7. Post thyroidectomy suture granuloma: a cytological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javalgi, Anita P; Arakeri, Surekha U

    2013-04-01

    There are known post thyroidectomized complications, a suture granuloma being less frequent, with its late complication mimicking recurrent thyroid cancer. A suture granuloma is a benign, granulomatous inflammatory reaction that occurs due to the use of non absorbable suture. It constitutes one of the late complications which altogether make up less than 2% of its incidence. A suture granuloma is similar to a foreign body reaction and it usually develops slowly as a painless, palpable asymptomatic mass over the years. It mimics a cancer recurrence or a lymph node metastasis. Here, we are reporting a case of a post thyroidectomy suture granuloma in a 46 years old lady who presented with a painless swelling in the lateral neck, with a past history of thyroidectomy 5 years back.

  8. Cytokine changes in tears and relationship to contact lens discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P; Zhao, Zhenjun; Naduvilath, Thomas; Lazon de la Jara, Percy

    2015-01-01

    To determine the reproducibility of a multiplex bead assay for measuring cytokines in tears and correlations between ocular discomfort with or without contact lens wear and the concentration of cytokines in tears. Ninety participants (divided into two groups) were enrolled in this prospective study. They were asked to rate their ocular comfort and collect their tears in the morning and just before sleep for 10 days with or without contact lenses. The participants collected their tears using a glass microcapillary tube for both stages. Galyfilcon A lenses were worn on a daily disposable basis during the contact lens stage, and comfort scores and tears were collected before lens insertion and prior to lens removal at the end of the day. Tears were analyzed for cytokine concentrations using a 27-plex multibead assay. Correlations were sought between cytokine concentrations and comfort. There was a significant (p-0.5 Log pg/ml, p-0.2 Log pg/ml, ptears was correlated to ocular comfort, but this was not changed by contact lens wear. Ocular comfort during the day is magnified by contact lens wear. However, the increase in the change in comfort during lens wear was not associated with changes in 15 cytokines in the tear film.

  9. Arthroscopic repair of lateral ankle ligament complex by suture anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingwei; Hua, Yinghui; Chen, Shiyi; Li, Hongyun; Zhang, Jian; Li, Yunxia

    2014-06-01

    Arthroscopic repair of the lateral ligament complex with suture anchors is increasingly used to treat chronic ankle instability (CAI). Our aims are (1) to analyze and evaluate the literature on arthroscopic suture anchor repair of the anterior talofibular ligament and (2) to conduct a systematic review of the clinical evidence on the reported outcomes and complications of treating CAI with this technique. We performed a systematic review of the literature using PubMed, Ovid, Elsevier ScienceDirect, Web of Science-Conference Proceedings Citation Index, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1987 to September 2013. Clinical studies using the arthroscopic suture anchor technique to treat CAI were included. Outcome measures consisted of clinical assessment of postoperative ligament stability and complications. In addition, the methodologic quality of the included studies was assessed by use of the modified Coleman Methodology Score. After reviewing 371 studies, we identified 6 studies (5 retrospective case series and 1 prospective case series, all Level IV) that met the inclusion criteria, with a mean Coleman Methodology Score of 71.8 ± 7.52 (range, 63 to 82). In these studies 178 patients (179 ankles) underwent arthroscopic suture anchor repair of the anterior talofibular ligament with a mean follow-up period of 38.9 months (range, 6 to 117.6 months). All patients were reported to have subjective improvement of their ankle instability, with complications in 31 cases. Studies of arthroscopic suture anchor technique to treat CAI are sparse, with moderate mean methodologic quality. The included studies suggest that the arthroscopic technique is a feasible procedure to restore ankle stability; however, on the basis of our review, this technique seems to be associated with a relatively high complication rate. Extensive cadaveric studies, clinical trials, and comparative studies comparing arthroscopic and open repair should be performed in the future. Level

  10. [Treatment of triangular fibrocartilage complex tear under wrist arthroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Kun; Liu, Wu; Liu, Pengfei; Feng, Zhibin; Li, Yuwen; Hui, Guisheng

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment and effects of wrist arthroscopy in tear of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). Between January 2006 and December 2008, 16 patients with tear of TFCC were treated. Of 16 patients, 11 were male and 5 were female with an average age of 32.5 years (range, 25-51 years). Injury was caused by sprain in 12 cases, and by falling in 4 cases. The locations were the left side in 10 cases and the right side in 6 cases. The mean injury duration was 3 months to 6 years and 2 months. The main clinical symptoms included wrist powerlessness and ulnar-sided wrist pain which was aggravated with clench fist and lifting heavy things. The results of the ulnar-sided wrist stress test were positive in 14 cases and negative in 2 cases. The preoperative values of wrist range of motion (ROM) were (45.58 +/- 5.18) degrees at volar flexion, (41.22 +/- 3.83) degrees at dorsal extension, (17.82 +/- 2.48) degrees at radial deviation, (21.35 +/- 4.61) degrees at ulnar deviation, (69.85 +/- 8.36) degrees at pronation, and (70.13 +/- 6.34) degrees at supination. According to Palmer standard, 10 cases of IA were treated with debridement; 3 cases of IB with suture and 1 of them failed and was partially excised; 2 cases of IC with debridement on triangular fibrocartilage disc, ulnolunate ligament, and ulnotriguetrum ligament; and 1 case of ID with trimming plastic operation. All incisions healed by first intention, and no complications of joint infection or neurovascular injury was found. All patients were followed up 14-38 months (mean, 18.5 months). Fifteen patients were restored to normal life and work without ulnar-sided wrist pain. One patient had no pain, but he had wrist powerless. The values of ROM at last follow-up were (50.16 +/- 6.21) degrees at volar flexion, (45.37 +/- 4.65) degrees at dorsal extension, (18.95 +/- 3.56) degrees at radial deviation, (26.28 +/- 5.09) degrees at ulnar deviation, (78.87 +/- 7.69) degrees at pronation, and (76.46 +/- 8

  11. Isolated Subscapularis Tendon Tear in a Skeletally Immature Soccer Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzi, Paolo; Dei Giudici, Luca; Giovarruscio, Roberto; Gigante, Antonio; Zorzi, Claudio

    2018-03-01

    Subscapularis injury in adolescents, usually associated to an avulsion fracture of the lesser humeral tuberosity, accounts for less than 2% of all fractures of the proximal humerus. Isolated tears of the subscapularis tendon without a history of dislocation and associated avulsion fractures are an even rarer occurrence, and treatment is controversial. This article describes a rare case of a 12-year-old suffering from an isolated subscapularis tear and discusses its management. The patient was evaluated at presentation, and at 1 to 2.5 months after he underwent a cuff tear arthroscopic repair with a single "all suture" anchor loaded with two wires, active/passive range of motion (A/PROM), Constant-Murley score, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score were noted. Patient reported an excellent outcome, recovered the whole ROM, was pain free, and returned to the previous level of activity. Isolated avulsion of the subscapularis tendon requires a high index of suspicion for a proper diagnosis as early treatment is required for a good recovery. Arthroscopy reserves more advantages in proper hands, restoring the previous levels of function and activity. An increase in attention for this condition is mandatory in a society where many adolescents are getting more and more active in high levels of sport activities.

  12. Linear stability of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Hahm, T.S.

    1986-05-01

    This paper examines the stability of tearing modes in a sheared slab when the width of the tearing layer is much smaller than the ion Larmor radius. The ion response is nonlocal, and the quasineutrality retains its full integal form. An expansion procedure is introduced to solve the quasineutrality equation in powers of the width of the tearing layer over the ion Larmor radius. The expansion procedure is applied to the collisionless and semi-collisional tearing modes. The first order terms in the expansion we find to be strongly stabilizing. The physics of the mode and of the stabilization is discussed. Tearing modes are observed in experiments even though the slab theory predicts stability. It is proposed that these modes grow from an equilibrium with islands at the rational surfaces. If the equilibrium islands are wider than the ion Larmor radius, the mode is unstable when Δ' is positive

  13. Bridging suture makes consistent and secure fixation in double-row rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Tetsutaro; Mihata, Teruhisa; Jun, Bong Jae; Neo, Masashi

    2017-09-01

    Inconsistent tension distribution may decrease the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff tendon after double-row repair, resulting in repair failure. The purpose of this study was to compare the tension distribution along the repaired rotator cuff tendon among three double-row repair techniques. In each of 42 fresh-frozen porcine shoulders, a simulated infraspinatus tendon tear was repaired by using 1 of 3 double-row techniques: (1) conventional double-row repair (no bridging suture); (2) transosseous-equivalent repair (bridging suture alone); and (3) compression double-row repair (which combined conventional double-row and bridging sutures). Each specimen underwent cyclic testing at a simulated shoulder abduction angle of 0° or 40° on a material-testing machine. Gap formation and tendon strain were measured during the 1st and 30th cycles. To evaluate tension distribution after cuff repair, difference in gap and tendon strain between the superior and inferior fixations was compared among three double-row techniques. At an abduction angle of 0°, gap formation after either transosseous-equivalent or compression double-row repair was significantly less than that after conventional double-row repair (p row repair (p = 0.01) at 0° abduction had significantly less difference in gap formation between the superior and inferior fixations than did conventional double-row repair. After the 30th cycle, the difference in longitudinal strain between the superior and inferior fixations at 0° abduction was significantly less with compression double-row repair (2.7% ± 2.4%) than with conventional double-row repair (8.6% ± 5.5%, p = 0.03). Bridging sutures facilitate consistent and secure fixation in double-row rotator cuff repairs, suggesting that bridging sutures may be beneficial for distributing tension equally among all sutures during double-row repair of rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B

  14. Albert-Lembert versus hybrid-layered suture in hand sewn end-to-end cervical esophagogastric anastomosis after esophageal squamous cell carcinoma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fan; Sun, Li; Xu, Guanghui; Hong, Liu; Yang, Jianjun; Cai, Lei; Li, Guocai; Guo, Man; Lian, Xiao; Zhang, Hongwei

    2015-11-01

    Hand sewn cervical esophagogastric anastomosis (CEGA) is regarded as preferred technique by surgeons after esophagectomy. However, considering the anastomotic leakage and stricture, the optimal technique for performing this anastomosis is still under debate. Between November 2010 and September 2012, 230 patients who underwent esophagectomy with hand sewn end-to-end (ETE) CEGA for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were analyzed retrospectively, including 111 patients underwent Albert-Lembert suture anastomosis and 119 patients underwent hybrid-layered suture anastomosis. Anastomosis construction time was recorded during operation. Anastomotic leakage was recorded through upper gastrointestinal water-soluble contrast examination. Anastomotic stricture was recorded during follow up. The hybrid-layered suture was faster than Albert-Lembert suture (29.40±1.24 min vs. 33.83±1.41 min, P=0.02). The overall anastomotic leak rate was 7.82%, the leak rate in hybrid-layered suture group was significantly lower than that in Albert-Lembert suture group (3.36% vs. 12.61%, P=0.01). The overall anastomotic stricture rate was 9.13%, the stricture rate in hybrid-layered suture group was significantly lower than that in Albert-Lembert suture group (5.04% vs. 13.51%, P=0.04). Hand sewn ETE CEGA with hybrid-layered suture is associated with lower anastomotic leakage and stricture rate compared to hand sewn ETE CEGA with Albert-Lembert suture.

  15. The efficacy of laparoscopic intracorporeal linear suture technique as a strategy for reducing recurrences in pediatric inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S R; Choi, S B

    2017-06-01

    Pediatric laparoscopic herniorrhaphy has rare complications, but recurrence might occur. The purpose of this manuscript is to evaluate the efficacy of linear suture technique of laparoscopic pediatric herniorrhaphy in reducing recurrences. Laparoscopic surgery was performed on 2223 pediatric patients (under 10 years old) from September 2012 to December 2014 in Damsoyu Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. The causes of recurrence were investigated case by case. The patients were categorized into two groups according to the suture method used in closing the hernia orifice: Group 1 (purse-string suture, 1009 patients) and Group 2 (linear suture, 1214 patients). There were 1413 (63.6%) male and 810 (36.4%) female patients. Mean age was 30.5 ± 29.2 months. A significantly higher proportion of male patients, contralateral patent processus vaginalis, and less proportion of recurrence were observed in Group 2. There were ten cases of recurrence in Group 1 because the internal ring suture could not endure the tension. One recurrence occurred in Group 2. The suture technique and age were found to be a significant risk factor for recurrence. Linear suture technique had a lower recurrence rate (odds ratio = 0.07, with 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.53, and p = 0.004). Purse-string suture technique causes significantly higher occurrence of hernia recurrences than linear suture technique. Linear suture technique can reduce recurrence by increasing the endurance to tension around the internal ring by distributing pressure to a wider area along the linear suture line. Linear suture technique can effectively reduce recurrence in pediatric inguinal herniorrhaphy.

  16. The Relationship Between Intraoperative Tear Dimensions and Postoperative Pain in 1624 Consecutive Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Daniel Y T; Walton, Judie R; Lam, Patrick; Murrell, George A C

    2017-03-01

    Rotator cuff repair often results in significant pain postoperatively, the cause of which is undetermined. Purpose/Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between rotator cuff tear area and postoperative pain in patients who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. We hypothesized that larger tears would be more painful because of elevated repair tension at 1 week postoperatively but that smaller tears would be more painful because of a greater healing response, especially from 6 weeks postoperatively. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 1624 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were included in this study. Exclusion criteria were moderate to severe osteoarthritis, isolated subscapularis repair, calcific tendinitis, synthetic patch repair, revision surgery, and retears on ultrasound at 6 months after surgery. Rotator cuff tears were subdivided into groups based on the tear size and retear rate found for each group. A modified L'Insalata questionnaire was given before surgery and at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient tests were performed between rotator cuff tear areas and pain scores. Intraoperative rotator cuff tear areas did not correlate with pain scores preoperatively or at 1 week after surgery. A smaller tear area was associated with more frequent and severe pain with overhead activities, at rest, and during sleep as well as a poorer perceived overall shoulder condition at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after repair ( r = 0.11-0.23, P 8 cm 2 . There were fewer retears with smaller tears, but they were more painful than large tears postoperatively from 6 weeks to 6 months after surgery. Smaller tears may heal more vigorously, causing more pain. Patients with smaller tears experienced more pain after rotator cuff repair compared with patients with larger tears. These findings are contrary to previous ideas about tear size and

  17. Tearing mode dynamics and sawtooth oscillation in Hall-MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Sheng

    2017-10-01

    Tearing mode instability is one of the most important dynamic processes in space and laboratory plasmas. Hall effects, resulted from the decoupling of electron and ion motions, could cause the fast development and perturbation structure rotation of the tearing mode and become non-negligible. We independently developed high accuracy nonlinear MHD code (CLT) to study Hall effects on the dynamic evolution of tearing modes with Tokamak geometries. It is found that the rotation frequency of the mode in the electron diamagnetic direction is in a good agreement with analytical prediction. The linear growth rate increases with increase of the ion inertial length, which is contradictory to analytical solution in the slab geometry. We further find that the self-consistently generated rotation largely alters the dynamic behavior of the double tearing mode and the sawtooth oscillation. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China under Grant No. 2013GB104004 and 2013GB111004.

  18. 网状减张缝合提高张力皮瓣存活率的实验研究%Experiment research on promoting survival rate of tension skin flap after meshed relaxing short incision suture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe effects of meshed relaxing short incisions on the level of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde in rat tension skin flap, and to investigate the mechanism of meshed relaxing short incisions (MRSI) on wound healing process of tension skin flap. Method An experimental model was designed to investingate the changes of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat skin flap tissue each period of wound healing (12h, 24h, 48h, 72h after suture). In the meantime, the biochemical reaction were employed. Results Our results showed that SOD content in rat skin flap tissue from MRSI group were significant higher than that of hypertension group (P≤ 0.05), while MDA content was significantly lower (P≤ 0.05). Conclusion The decrease of MDA contents may be one of the causes that MRSI improves microcirculation of skin flap, and reduces edema and facilitates healing of skin flap.

  19. Changes in Contact Area in Meniscus Horizontal Cleavage Tears Subjected to Repair and Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Brandon S; Walley, Kempland C; Okajima, Stephen; Manoukian, Ohan S; Perez-Viloria, Miguel; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J; Nazarian, Ara

    2017-03-01

    To assess the changes in tibiofemoral contact pressure and contact area in human knees with a horizontal cleavage tear before and after treatment. Ten human cadaveric knees were tested. Pressure sensors were placed under the medial meniscus and the knees were loaded at twice the body weight for 20 cycles at 0°, 10°, and 20° of flexion. Contact area and pressure were recorded for the intact meniscus, the meniscus with a horizontal cleavage tear, after meniscal repair, after partial meniscectomy (single leaflet), and after subtotal meniscectomy (double leaflet). The presence of a horizontal cleavage tear significantly increased average peak contact pressure and reduced effective average tibiofemoral contact area at all flexion angles tested compared with the intact state (P contact pressure after creation of the horizontal cleavage tear. Repairing the horizontal cleavage tear restored peak contact pressures and areas to within 15% of baseline, statistically similar to the intact state at all angles tested (P contact pressure and reduced average contact area at all degrees of flexion compared with the intact state (P contact area and a significant elevation in contact pressure. These changes may accelerate joint degeneration. A suture-based repair of these horizontal cleavage tears returns the contact area and contact pressure to nearly normal, whereas both partial and subtotal meniscectomy lead to significant reductions in contact area and significant elevations in contact pressure within the knee. Repairing horizontal cleavage tears may lead to improved clinical outcomes by preserving meniscal tissue and the meniscal function. Understanding contact area and peak contact pressure resulting from differing strategies for treating horizontal cleavage tears will allow the surgeon to evaluate the best strategy for treating his or her patients who present with this meniscal pathology. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier

  20. A multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing absorbable barbed sutures versus conventional absorbable sutures for dermal closure in open surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, J Peter; Hunstad, Joseph P; Polynice, Alain; Gusenoff, Jeffrey A; Schoeller, Thomas; Dunn, Raymond; Walgenbach, Klaus J; Hansen, Juliana E

    2014-02-01

    Barbed sutures were developed to reduce operative time and improve security of wound closure. The authors compare absorbable barbed sutures (V-Loc, Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts) with conventional (smooth) absorbable sutures for soft tissue approximation. A prospective multicenter randomized study comparing barbed sutures with smooth sutures was undertaken between August 13, 2009, and January 31, 2010, in 241 patients undergoing abdominoplasty, mastopexy, and reduction mammaplasty. Each patient received barbed sutures on 1 side of the body, with deep dermal sutures eliminated or reduced. Smooth sutures with deep dermal and subcuticular closure were used on the other side as a control. The primary endpoint was dermal closure time. Safety was assessed through adverse event reporting through a 12-week follow-up. A total of 229 patients were ultimately treated (115 with slow-absorbing polymer and 114 with rapid-absorbing polymer). Mean dermal closure time was significantly quicker with the barbed suture compared with the smooth suture (12.0 vs 19.2 minutes; P<.001), primarily due to the need for fewer deep dermal sutures. The rapid-absorbing barbed suture showed a complication profile equivalent to the smooth suture, while the slow-absorbing barbed suture had a higher incidence of minor suture extrusion. Barbed sutures enabled faster dermal closure quicker than smooth sutures, with a comparable complication profile. 1.

  1. Suture slippage in knotless suture anchors resulting in subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayeri, Mohammad Reza; Keefe, Daniel T; Chang, Eric Y

    2016-05-01

    Rotator cuff repair using a suture bridge and knotless suture anchors is a relatively new, but increasingly used technique. The suture bridge technique creates an anatomically similar and more secure rotator cuff repair compared with conventional arthroscopic techniques and the use of knotless anchors eliminates the challenges associated with knot tying during arthroscopic surgery. However, previous in vitro biomechanical tests have shown that the hold of the suture in a knotless suture anchor is far lower than the pullout strength of the anchor from bone. Up until now slippage has been a theoretical concern. We present a prospectively diagnosed case of in vivo suture loosening after rotator cuff repair using a knotless bridge technique resulting in subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis.

  2. The Impact of Ceramic Shell Strength on Hot Tearing during Investment Casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norouzi, Saeid; Farhangi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    The effect of ceramic shell strength on hot tearing susceptibility during solidification was inspected practicing investment casting of the cobalt-base superalloy samples with the same casting conditions, but different ceramic shell systems. Results showed that the lower the ceramic shell strength upon using polymer additives, the lower the hindered contraction rate, and the lower the hindered contraction rate, the smaller the hot tearing tendency. Optical microscopy and electron microscopy scanning revealed that the hot tear propagated along the last solidified interdendritic phase, and that the hot tear surface had two major modes: 1) the ductile region in the outer layer; and 2) the inner region of liquid embrittlement.

  3. On the roentgenomorphological correlations of cranial sutures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoglyadova, T.P.; Koval', G.Yu.; Shuaa, T.I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors explain the essence of the zone of excessive transparence along the cranial sutures visualized on the X-ray pictures during the first year of life by presence of large number of rough-fiber bone in the marginal regions. The zone of ''physiological sclerosis'' is postulated as a result of summation of the bone margin shadows consisting of compact substance (osteones). Microscopic examination of skull in brain tumors revealed a delay in the formation of bone margins in the suture region with an excessive amount of connective and osteoid tissue while in craniostenosis closure of cranial sutures being with intensive bone formation as well as by closure of the bone margins by newly formed bone tissue around the vessels of the connective layer of the suture

  4. On tear film breakup (TBU): dynamics and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Richard J; Driscoll, Tobin A; Begley, Carolyn G; King-Smith, P Ewen; Siddique, Javed I

    2018-06-13

    We report the results of some recent experiments to visualize tear film dynamics. We then study a mathematical model for tear film thinning and tear film breakup (TBU), a term from the ocular surface literature. The thinning is driven by an imposed tear film thinning rate which is input from in vivo measurements. Solutes representing osmolarity and fluorescein are included in the model. Osmolarity causes osmosis from the model ocular surface, and the fluorescein is used to compute the intensity corresponding closely to in vivo observations. The imposed thinning can be either one-dimensional or axisymmetric, leading to streaks or spots of TBU, respectively. For a spatially-uniform (flat) film, osmosis would cease thinning and balance mass lost due to evaporation; for these space-dependent evaporation profiles TBU does occur because osmolarity diffuses out of the TBU into the surrounding tear film, in agreement with previous results. The intensity pattern predicted based on the fluorescein concentration is compared with the computed thickness profiles; this comparison is important for interpreting in vivo observations. The non-dimensionalization introduced leads to insight about the relative importance of the competing processes; it leads to a classification of large vs small TBU regions in which different physical effects are dominant. Many regions of TBU may be considered small, revealing that the flow inside the film has an appreciable influence on fluorescence imaging of the tear film.

  5. MRI diagnosis of meniscal tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuga, Naoyuki; Oh, Toshihiro

    1996-01-01

    We studied the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee in fifty-six patients who were also examined arthroscopically. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 96%, 100%, and 95% for medial meniscal tears, and 91%, 67%, and 100% for lateral meniscal tears respectively. Two MRIs of the medial meniscus were false-positives. These MRI findings were both meniscocapsular separation of the medial meniscus, but the arthroscopic findings were normal. One case was an ACL injury and the other PCL and MCL injury. Hemorrhage and edema of the medial capsule caused by valgus stress at injury may look like a meniscal pseudo-tear on MRI. Five MRIs of the lateral meniscus were false-negatives. All menisci showed normal signal and shape on MRI but traumatic and stable tears of the lateral meniscus were identified arthroscopically. All were associated with ACL tears and lateral condylar bone bruise. The traumatic and stable tear of the meniscus tended to be overlooked on MRI because a meniscus without degeneration shows a normal signal. (author)

  6. Viable adhered Staphylococcus aureus highly reduced on novel antimicrobial sutures using chlorhexidine and octenidine to avoid surgical site infection (SSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jochen; Harrasser, Norbert; Tübel, Jutta; Mühlhofer, Heinrich; Pförringer, Dominik; von Deimling, Constantin; Foehr, Peter; Kiefel, Barbara; Krämer, Christina; Stemberger, Axel; Schieker, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    coated sutures with higher roughness for palmitate coatings and sustaining integrity of coated sutures. Adherent S. aureus were found via SEM on all types of investigated sutures. The novel antimicrobial sutures showed significantly less viable adhered S. aureus bacteria (up to 6.1 log) compared to Vicryl® Plus (0.5 log). Within 11 μg/cm drug-containing sutures, octenidine-palmitate (OL11) showed the highest number of viable adhered S. aureus (0.5 log), similar to Vicryl® Plus. Chlorhexidine-laurate (CL11) showed the lowest number of S. aureus on sutures (1.7 log), a 1.2 log greater reduction. In addition, planktonic S. aureus in suspensions were highly inhibited by CL11 (0.9 log) represents a 0.6 log greater reduction compared to Vicryl® Plus (0.3 log). Conclusions Novel antimicrobial sutures can potentially limit surgical site infections caused by multiple pathogenic bacterial species. Therefore, a potential inhibition of multispecies biofilm formation is assumed. In detail tested with S. aureus, the chlorhexidine-laurate coating (CL11) best meets the medical requirements for a fast bacterial eradication. This suture coating shows the lowest survival rate of adhering as well as planktonic bacteria, a high drug release during the first–clinically most relevant– 48 hours, as well as biocompatibility. Thus, CL11 coatings should be recommended for prophylactic antimicrobial sutures as an optimal surgical supplement to reduce wound infections. However, animal and clinical investigations are important to prove safety and efficacy for future applications. PMID:29315313

  7. Traction suture modification to tongue-in-groove caudal septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indeyeva, Y A; Lee, T S; Gordin, E; Chan, D; Ducic, Y

    2018-02-01

    Caudal septal deviation leads to unfavorable esthetic as well as functional effects on the nasal airway. A modification to the tongue-in-groove (TIG) technique to correct these caudal septal deformities is described. With placement of a temporary suspension suture to the caudal septum, manual traction is applied, assuring that the caudal septum remains in the midline position while it is being secured with multiple through-and-through, trans-columellar and trans-septal sutures. From 2003 to 2016, 148 patients underwent endonasal septoplasty using this modified technique, with excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes and a revision rate of 1.4%. This modified TIG technique replaces the periosteal suture that secures the caudal septum to the midline nasal crest in the original TIG technique. This simplifies the procedure and minimizes the risk of securing the caudal septum off-midline when used in endonasal septoplasty. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Suture, synthetic, or biologic in contaminated ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondre, Ioana L; Holihan, Julie L; Askenasy, Erik P; Greenberg, Jacob A; Keith, Jerrod N; Martindale, Robert G; Roth, J Scott; Liang, Mike K

    2016-02-01

    Data are lacking to support the choice between suture, synthetic mesh, or biologic matrix in contaminated ventral hernia repair (VHR). We hypothesize that in contaminated VHR, suture repair is associated with the lowest rate of surgical site infection (SSI). A multicenter database of all open VHR performed at from 2010-2011 was reviewed. All patients with follow-up of 1 mo and longer were included. The primary outcome was SSI as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The secondary outcome was hernia recurrence (assessed clinically or radiographically). Multivariate analysis (stepwise regression for SSI and Cox proportional hazard model for recurrence) was performed. A total of 761 VHR were reviewed for a median (range) follow-up of 15 (1-50) mo: there were 291(38%) suture, 303 (40%) low-density and/or mid-density synthetic mesh, and 167(22%) biologic matrix repair. On univariate analysis, there were differences in the three groups including ethnicity, ASA, body mass index, institution, diabetes, primary versus incisional hernia, wound class, hernia size, prior VHR, fascial release, skin flaps, and acute repair. The unadjusted outcomes for SSI (15.1%; 17.8%; 21.0%; P = 0.280) and recurrence (17.8%; 13.5%; 21.5%; P = 0.074) were not statistically different between groups. On multivariate analysis, biologic matrix was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in both SSI and recurrences, whereas synthetic mesh associated with fewer recurrences compared to suture (hazard ratio = 0.60; P = 0.015) and nonsignificant increase in SSI. Interval estimates favored biologic matrix repair in contaminated VHR; however, these results were not statistically significant. In the absence of higher level evidence, surgeons should carefully balance risk, cost, and benefits in managing contaminated ventral hernia repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modified method for bronchial suture by Ramirez Gama compared to separate stitches suture: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Mayer de Moura

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To experimentally compare two classic techniques described for manual suture of the bronchial stump. METHODS: We used organs of pigs, with isolated trachea and lungs, preserved by refrigeration. We dissected 30 bronchi, which were divided into three groups of ten bronchi each, of 3mm, 5mm, and 7mm, respectively. In each, we performed the suture with simple, separated, extramucosal stitches in five other bronchi, and the technique proposed by Ramirez and modified by Santos et al in the other five. Once the sutures were finished, the anastomoses were tested using compressed air ventilation, applying an endotracheal pressure of 20mmHg. RESULTS: the Ramirez Gama suture was more effective in the bronchi of 3, 5 and 7 mm, and there was no air leak even after subjecting them to a tracheal pressure of 20mmHg. The simple interrupted sutures were less effective, with extravasation in six of the 15 tested bronchi, especially in the angles of the sutures. These figures were not significant (p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: manual sutures of the bronchial stumps were more effective when the modified Ramirez Gama suture was used in the caliber bronchi arms when tested with increased endotracheal pressure.

  10. Magnetic tearing in plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkawy, W.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma focus device used is Mather type filled with hydrogen gas at pressure between 0.1 and 1 torr. When connected to a large capacitor ≤10 KV a discharge is started with peak current 100 KA. Under the influence of the radial electric field E r , due to the potential between electrodes, and B φ the plasma will drift in the axial direction with velocity cE r /B φ . An induced axial magnetic field B z has been detected which due to sheath velocity. A propagation of magnetosonic wave has been observed with velocity ≅10 3 m sec -1 . Such a wave might be excited when the magnetic pressure is much greater than the plasma kinetic pressure B 2 /8π>nKT. Assuming (MHD) to be stable, Tearing model was driven which generally has smaller growth rates than (MHD) modes. Using the designed theoretical model and the plasma parameters the electron energy dΦ/dt=Ba 2 /τ R was calculated to be 2.22 KeV, which is comparable with that detected from X-ray measurements. (author)

  11. [Arthroscopic double-row reconstruction of high-grade subscapularis tendon tears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachel, F; Pauly, S; Moroder, P; Scheibel, M

    2018-04-01

    Reconstruction of tendon integrity to maintain glenohumeral joint centration and hence to restore shoulder functional range of motion and to reduce pain. Isolated or combined full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears (≥upper two-thirds of the tendon) without both substantial soft tissue degeneration and cranialization of the humeral head. Chronic tears of the subscapularis tendon with higher grade muscle atrophy, fatty infiltration, and static decentration of the humeral head. After arthroscopic three-sided subscapularis tendon release, two double-loaded suture anchors are placed medially to the humeral footprint. Next to the suture passage, the suture limbs are tied and secured laterally with up to two knotless anchors creating a transosseous-equivalent repair. The affected arm is placed in a shoulder brace with 20° of abduction and slight internal rotation for 6 weeks postoperatively. Rehabilitation protocol including progressive physical therapy from a maximum protection phase to a minimum protection phase is required. Overhead activities are permitted after 6 months. While previous studies have demonstrated superior biomechanical properties and clinical results after double-row compared to single-row and transosseous fixation techniques, further mid- to long-term clinical investigations are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Contact Lens-Induced Discomfort and Protein Changes in Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Simin; Stapleton, Fiona Jane; Willcox, Mark Duncan Perry

    2016-08-01

    Ocular discomfort is among the main causes of contact lens wear discontinuation. This study investigated the association between subjective ocular comfort ratings and diurnal changes in tear protein concentrations with and without contact lens wear. The study was a prospective, open-label, single-group two-staged investigation. Basal tears were collected from 30 experienced contact lens wearers twice a day (morning and evening) using a noninvasive method without lens wear (stage 1) and during wear of Etafilcon A contact lenses (stage 2) for 7 to 10 days. Subjects rated their ocular comfort on a scale of 1 to 100 (with 100 as extremely comfortable) at each time of tear collection. Tears were analyzed using liquid quadrupole mass spectrometry in conjunction with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method. End-of-day comfort was reduced when wearing lenses (87.8 ± 14.3 AM vs. 79.2 ± 16.6 PM) compared to no lens wear (88.3 ± 12.6 AM vs. 84.7 ± 13.3 PM) (AM vs. PM, p tears (p < 0.05, r = -0.29). Only the absolute concentration of prolactin-induced protein correlated with subjective comfort ratings. Taking into consideration that prolactin-induced protein can be associated with disruption in water transport in lacrimal glands, our findings may indicate that changes to aqueous secretion are associated with contact lens discomfort.

  13. A randomized clinical trial of knotless barbed suture vs conventional suture for closure of the uterine incision at cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, David; Ahmad, Ronan Said; Warsof, Steven L; Marcus-Braun, Naama; Sciaky-Tamir, Yael; Ben Shachar, Inbar

    2018-03-01

    Knotless barbed sutures are monofilament sutures with barbs cut into them. These sutures self-anchor, maintaining tissue approximation without the need for surgical knots. The hypothesis of this study was that knotless barbed suture could be used on the myometrium to close the hysterotomy at cesarean delivery. The objective was to compare uterine closure time, need for additional sutures, and blood loss between this and a conventional suture. This was a prospective, unblinded, randomized controlled trial conducted at the Ziv Medical Center, Zefat, Israel. The primary outcome was the length of time needed to close the uterine incision, which was measured from the start of the first suture on the uterus until obtaining uterine hemostasis. To minimize provider bias, women were randomized by sealed envelopes that were opened in the operating room just prior to uterine closure with either a bidirectional knotless barbed suture or conventional suture. Secondary outcomes included the number of additional hemostatic sutures needed and blood loss during incision closure. Patients were enrolled from August 2016 until March 2017. One hundred two women were randomized. Fifty-one had uterine closure with knotless barbed suture and 51 with conventional suture. The groups were similar for demographics as well as number of previous cesarean deliveries. Uterine closure time using the knotless barbed suture was significantly shorter than the conventional suture by a mean of 1 minute 43 seconds (P barbed sutures were associated with a lower need for hemostatic sutures (median 0 vs 1, P barbed suture is a reasonable alternative to conventional sutures because it reduced the closure time of the uterine incision. There was also less need for additional hemostatic sutures and slightly reduced estimated blood loss. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cauterization technique for suture erosion in transscleralfixation of intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Ting Hu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transscleral suturing is a commonly applied technique to fix intraocular implants in the sulcus. A major problem after transscleral implantation is suture erosion that normally happens in the late post-surgery period and may result in an increased incidence of endophthalmitis. Here we describe an original cauterization method by using a glass rod to melt the exposed suture end without damaging the suture knot in the sclera to avoid suture exposure in sclera-fixed IOL implantation. This is a simple, quick and effective technique that can be performed without conjunctiva incisions and will help to reduce suture erosion related complications.

  15. Anterior cruciate ligament tear: comparison of MR features between complete and partial tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Young; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yu Jin; Rho, Eun Jin; Kim, Young Hoon; Yi, Jeong Geun; Ahn, Joong Mo

    1997-01-01

    To determine the MRI features which distinguish complete and partial tear of the anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and to thus improve MRI interpretation. In 80 patients, we analyzed MR findings of direct and indirect signs of ACL tear (complete tear, 61 cases, partial tear, 19 cases) confirmed by arthroscopy or surgery, and compared the relative incidence of each sign in cases of complete and partial tear. Direct and indirect signs were found in 61 (100%) and 60 cases (98.4%), respectively, in complete tears, but in 16 (84.2%) and 15 cases (78.9%), respectively, in partial tears. Poor visualization, discontinuity and hyperintensity were seen in all complete tears but in only nine cases (47.4%) of partial tear. A wavy or abnormal contour was seen in 53 cases (86.9%) of complete tear and 14 (73.7%) of partial tear. A wavy contour without other direct signs was seen in only five cases (26.3%) of partial tear. Three cases (15.8%) of partial tear showed normal MR finding. Indirect signs, i.e. abnormal ACL angle, abnormal ACL-Blumensaat line angle, abnormal posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) line, abnormal PCL angle, PCL buckling, anterior displacement of tibia, posterior displacement of lateral meniscus, bone bruise, Segond fracture, tear of collateral ligaments, PCL, and tear of meniscus were commoner in complete than in partial tears. Two cases of O'Donoghue's triad and two of popliteus injury were seen only in complete tears. Direct and indirect signs of ACL tear were more commonly noted in complete than in partial tears. The latter showed MR features varying from normal to almost complete tear. We suggest that a wavy contour without other direct signs is indicative of a partial tear, and that O'Donoghue's triad and popliteus muscle injury are indirect signs of a complete tear

  16. A biomechanical evaluation of all-inside 2-stitch meniscal repair devices with matched inside-out suture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramappa, Arun J; Chen, Alvin; Hertz, Benjamin; Wexler, Michael; Grimaldi Bournissaint, Leandro; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Nazarian, Ara

    2014-01-01

    Many all-inside suture-based devices are currently available, including the Meniscal Cinch, FasT-Fix, Ultra FasT-Fix, RapidLoc, MaxFire, and CrossFix System. These different devices have been compared in various configurations, but to our knowledge, the Sequent meniscal repair device, which applies running sutures, has not been compared with the Ultra FasT-Fix, nor has it been compared with its suture, No. 0 Hi-Fi, using an inside-out repair technique. To assess the quality of the meniscal repair, all new devices should be compared with the gold standard: the inside-out repair. To that end, this study aims to compare the biomechanical characteristics of running sutures delivered by the Sequent meniscal repair device with 2 vertical mattress sutures applied using the Ultra FasT-Fix device and with 2 vertical mattress sutures using an inside-out repair technique with No. 0 Hi-Fi suture. Controlled laboratory study. Paired (medial and lateral), fresh-frozen porcine menisci were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: Sequent (n = 17), Ultra FasT-Fix (n = 19), and No. 0 Hi-Fi inside-out repair (n = 20). Bucket-handle tears were created in all menisci and were subjected to repair according to their grouping. Once repaired, the specimens were subjected to cyclic loading (100, 300, and 500 cycles), followed by loading to failure. The Sequent and Ultra FasT-Fix device repairs and the suture repair exhibited low initial displacements. The Sequent meniscal repair device demonstrated the lowest displacement in response to cyclic loading. No. 0 Hi-Fi suture yielded the highest load to failure. With the development of the next generation of all-inside meniscal repair devices, surgeons may use these findings to select the method best suited for their patients. The Sequent meniscal repair device displays the least amount of displacement during cyclic loading but has a similar failure load to other devices.

  17. Tension-releasing suture appendage on single-incision sling device: A novel approach to postoperative voiding dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsia-Shu Lo

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Tension-releasing suture is effective in the management of immediate postoperative voiding dysfunction in an SIS procedure. SIS operation has good short-term objective and subjective cure rates for female urodynamic stress incontinence.

  18. Tendoscopic Double-Row Suture Bridge Peroneal Retinaculum Repair for Recurrent Dislocation of Peroneal Tendons in the Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Ito, Naoya; Fukuda, Aki; Kato, Ko; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic dislocation of peroneal tendons in the ankle is an uncommon lesion that mainly affects young adults. Unfortunately, most cases lead to recurrent dislocation of the peroneal tendons of the ankle (RPTD). Therefore, most cases need operative treatment. One of the most common operative procedures is superior peroneal retinaculum (SPR) repair. Recently, surgery for RPTD has been achieved with less invasive arthroscopic procedures. In this article, tendoscopic surgery for RPTD using a double-row suture bridge technique is introduced. This technique consists of debridement of the lateral aspect of the fibula under an intrasheath pseudo-cavity, suture anchor insertion into the fibular ridge, and reattachment of the SPR to the fibula using a knotless anchor screwed into the lateral aspect of the fibula. This technique mimics the double-row suture bridge technique for rotator cuff tear repair. The double-row suture bridge technique requires more surgical steps than the single-row technique, but it provides a wider bone-SPR contact surface and tighter fixation than the single-row technique. This procedure is an attractive option because it is less invasive and has achieved results similar to open procedures.

  19. Characterization of the bending strength of craniofacial sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloul, Asmaa; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Whyne, Cari M

    2013-03-15

    The complex, thin and irregular bones of the human craniofacial skeleton (CFS) are connected together through bony articulations and connective tissues. These articulations are known as sutures and are commonly divided into two groups, facial and cranial sutures, based on their location in the CFS. CFS sutures can exhibit highly variable degrees of interdigitation and complexity and are believed to play a role in accommodating the mechanical demands of the skull. This study aimed to evaluate the mechanical behavior of CFS bone samples with and without sutures and to determine the effect of sutural interdigitations on mechanical strength. Sagittal, coronal, frontozygomatic and zygomaticotemporal sutures along with adjacent bone samples not containing sutures were excised from six fresh-frozen cadaveric heads. The interdigitation of the sutures was quantified through μCT based analysis. Three-point bending to failure was performed on a total of 29 samples. The bending strength of bone samples without sutures demonstrated a non-significant increase of 14% as compared to samples containing sutures (P=0.2). The bending strength of bones containing sutures was positively correlated to the sutural interdigitation index (R=0.701, P=0.002). The higher interdigitation indices found in human cranial vs. facial sutures may be present to resist bending loads as a functional requirement in protecting the brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Duplex Tear Film Evaporation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapf, M R; Braun, R J; King-Smith, P E

    2017-12-01

    Tear film thinning, hyperosmolarity, and breakup can cause irritation and damage to the human eye, and these form an area of active investigation for dry eye syndrome research. Recent research demonstrates that deficiencies in the lipid layer may cause locally increased evaporation, inducing conditions for breakup. In this paper, we explore the conditions for tear film breakup by considering a model for tear film dynamics with two mobile fluid layers, the aqueous and lipid layers. In addition, we include the effects of osmosis, evaporation as modified by the lipid, and the polar portion of the lipid layer. We solve the system numerically for reasonable parameter values and initial conditions and analyze how shifts in these cause changes to the system's dynamics.

  1. Influence of suturing material on wound healing: Experimental study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazivoda Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most common materials implanted in the human organism are suture materials that are classified on the basis of several criteria, usually the origin, structure, and properties. The properties of suture materials are related to its absorbability and non-absorbability. When using resorbable materials it is of great importance to determine whether its absorbability and tensile strength help wound healing in function of time. Sutures themselves can become a source of inflammation, that may reduce or compromise the potential of reparation and regeneration. The aim of this experimental study on dogs was to ascertain whether the absorption rate and the degree of local tissue reactions differ from information provided by the manufacturers, whether there are differences between the applied suture materials and which of the used suture materials have better effect on wound healing. Methods. Experimental testing of the selected suture materials basic characteristics was performed on 6 German Shepherd dogs, which, after induction of general anesthesia, were made 3 identical incisions each in all 4 quadrants (left and right side of the upper and lower jaws, so that 12 horizontal incisions were formed, 10 mm long, 20-25 mm distant from one another, on each animal. Randomly, incisions were stitched up in the following order, starting from back to front: catgut, Dexon®, Vicryl-Rapid®. The experiment was terminated by histopathological examination of tissue samples, taken on postoperative day 3, 7, 14 and 21 in order to identify the effect of healing and the degree of local reaction. Results. The obtained results suggest that catgut has the highest absorption rate, while Dexon® the lowest. Vicryl-Rapid® causes the lowest level of local reactions, while Dexon® the highest. Conclusion. There is no ideal suture material because various patient factors also influence the wound healing process.

  2. What emotional tears convey : Tearful individuals are seen as warmer, but also as less competent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, Niels; Meijs, Maartje; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    Earlier research found that the mere sight of tears promotes the willingness to provide support to the person shedding the tears. Other research, however, found that deliberate responses towards tearful persons could be more negative as well. We think this is because tears have ambivalent effects on

  3. Acute Medial Plantar Fascia Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Stephanie C; Mazzola, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    A 32-year-old man who participated in competitive soccer came to physical therapy via direct access for a chief complaint of plantar foot pain. The clinical examination findings and mechanism of injury raised a concern for a plantar fascia tear, so the patient was referred to the physician and magnetic resonance imaging was obtained. The magnetic resonance image confirmed a high-grade, partial-thickness, proximal plantar fascia tear with localized edema at the location of the medial band. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):495. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0409.

  4. Acetabular labral tears in patients with sports injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chan; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Cha, Soo-Min

    2009-12-01

    We wanted to investigate acetabular labral tears and their correlation with femoroacetabular impingement in patients with sports injury. Among 111 patients who were diagnosed with the acetabular labral tears after arthroscopic treatment from January 2004 to December 2007, we selected 41 patients with sports injury. There were 12 cases of Taekwondo injury, 5 of golf injury, 4 of soccer injury, 3 of gymnastics injury, 2 of Hapkido injury, 2 of aerobics injury, 2 of rock-climbing injury, 2 of fitness training injury and 9 of other sports injuries. We checked the subtypes of acetabular labral tears and the accompanying femoroacetabular impingement. For the cases with accompanying femoroacetabular impingement, we investigated the subtypes according to the types of sports, gender and age. At last follow-up, we checked the Harris Hip Score (HHS), the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) sports scale and the percentage of patients who returned to their sports activity. The average age of symptomatic onset was 26 years (range, 12 to 65 years). The ratio of males to females was 29 : 12. An average duration of the hip pain was 17 months (range, 1 to 60 months). The degenerative type of acetabular labral tears was the most prevalent with 32 cases (78%), and there were 9 cases (22%) of the partial tear type. Thirty cases (73%) were accompanied by femoroacetabular impingement. The average age of the 23 cases (56%) of the cam-type was 23 years (range, 12 to 48 years), and it was more likely to occur in men (87%) and for people practicing martial arts such as Taekwondo or Hapkido. An average age of the 5 cases (12%) of the pincer-type was 26 (range, 16 to 43 years), it usually occurred in women (60%) and for non-martial arts such as golf and gymnastics. There were 2 cases of the mixed type (cam + pincer-type). At 27 months follow-up, the HHS was 61 to 92 points, the HOS sports scale increased 43 to 75%, and the rate of returning to sports was 71%. In spite of the early expression of symptoms

  5. Glue versus suture for mesh fixation in inguinal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Shruthi; Jeyakumar, S; Ganapathy, Tharun

    2018-03-22

    glue were used to fix the mesh instead of sutures. The tissue glue used in this study was N Butyl- 2 - Cyanoacrylate. All patients in the study underwent surgery only by one group of surgeons to maintain homogeneity and were observed in the hospital for 72 h. A note of the pain on VAS scale was made at 12, 24, 48, 72 h, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. Operative time and any complications were also recorded. Results developed using SPSS software show that there is a significant difference in the time taken by both the methods, with glue taking a significantly lower time than sutures. Significance is also seen in the difference in the immediate and chronic post-operative pain between both the groups. However the complication rates in both the groups were found to be the same. It can thus be concluded from this study that tissue glue mesh fixation is superior to suture mesh fixation in open inguinal repair in terms of operative time, immediate and chronic post-operative time. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Local effect of equilibrium current on tearing mode stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzani, F.

    1985-12-01

    The local effect of the equilibrium current on the linear stability of low poloidal number tearing modes in tokamaks is investigated analytically. The plasma response inside the tearing layer is derived from fluid theory and the local equilibrium current is shown to couple to the mode dynamics through its gradient, which is proportional to the local electron temperature gradient under the approximations used in the analysis. The relevant eigenmode equations, expressing Ampere's law and the plasma quasineutrality condition, respectively, are suitably combined in a single integral equation, from which a variational principle is formulated to derive the mode dispersion relations for several cases of interest. The local equilibrium current is treated as a small perturbation of the known results for the m greater than or equal to 2 and the m = 1 tearing modes in the collisional regime, and the m greater than or equal to 2 tearing mode in the semicollisional regime; its effect is found to enhance stabilization for the m greater than or equal to 2 drift-tearing mode in the collisional regime, whereas the m = 1 growth rate is very slightly increased and the stabilizing effect of the parallel thermal conduction on the m greater than or equal to 2 mode in the semicollisional regime is slightly reduced

  7. Comparison of suture types in the closure of scalp wounds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bonham, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Innovation in practice can benefit patients and healthcare providers but must be evidence based. This article describes a quantitative study of whether absorbable sutures are as beneficial as non-absorbable sutures in the management of simple scalp lacerations in adults. The results suggest that absorbable sutures can provide the same cosmetic and functional results as non-absorbable sutures. Their use can also reduce patient returns and save money and resources.

  8. Hyper-resistivity produced by tearing mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Tearing mode turbulence produces a hyper-resistivity or effective anomalous electron viscosity. The hyper-resistivity is calculated for the mean magnetic field quasilinearly, and for long-wavelength modes using the direct interaction approximation. The hyper-resistivity accounts for current relaxation in reversed-field pinch experiments, and gives a magnetic fluctuation sealing of S -1 /sup // 3 . It causes enhanced tearing mode growth rates in the turbulent phase of tokamak disruptions. In astrophysics, it limits magnetic energy growth due to the dynamo effect, and may explain rapid reconnection phenomena such as solar flares

  9. High-Tensile Strength Tape Versus High-Tensile Strength Suture: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnandt, Ryan J; Smith, Jennifer L; Nguyen-Ta, Kim; McDonald, Lucas; LeClere, Lance E

    2016-02-01

    To determine which suture design, high-tensile strength tape or high-tensile strength suture, performed better at securing human tissue across 4 selected suture techniques commonly used in tendinous repair, by comparing the total load at failure measured during a fixed-rate longitudinal single load to failure using a biomechanical testing machine. Matched sets of tendon specimens with bony attachments were dissected from 15 human cadaveric lower extremities in a manner allowing for direct comparison testing. With the use of selected techniques (simple Mason-Allen in the patellar tendon specimens, whip stitch in the quadriceps tendon specimens, and Krackow stitch in the Achilles tendon specimens), 1 sample of each set was sutured with a 2-mm braided, nonabsorbable, high-tensile strength tape and the other with a No. 2 braided, nonabsorbable, high-tensile strength suture. A total of 120 specimens were tested. Each model was loaded to failure at a fixed longitudinal traction rate of 100 mm/min. The maximum load and failure method were recorded. In the whip stitch and the Krackow-stitch models, the high-tensile strength tape had a significantly greater mean load at failure with a difference of 181 N (P = .001) and 94 N (P = .015) respectively. No significant difference was found in the Mason-Allen and simple stitch models. Pull-through remained the most common method of failure at an overall rate of 56.7% (suture = 55%; tape = 58.3%). In biomechanical testing during a single load to failure, high-tensile strength tape performs more favorably than high-tensile strength suture, with a greater mean load to failure, in both the whip- and Krackow-stitch models. Although suture pull-through remains the most common method of failure, high-tensile strength tape requires a significantly greater load to pull-through in a whip-stitch and Krakow-stitch model. The biomechanical data obtained in the current study indicates that high-tensile strength tape may provide better repair

  10. Pele's tears and spheres: Examples from Kilauea Iki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, J. K.; Quane, S. L.

    2012-06-01

    Pele's tears are a well known curiosity commonly associated with low viscosity basaltic explosive eruptions. However, detailed studies of these pyroclasts are rare and, thus, there is no full explanation for their formation. These intriguing pyroclasts have smooth glassy surfaces, vesiculated interiors (∼30%), and fluidal morphologies trending towards teardrops and then spheres as they decrease in size to Pele's tears from the 1959 fire-fountaining eruption of Kilauea Iki has led to a reassessment of the mechanisms of magma disruption and fragmentation, timescales of relaxation, and cooling rates that are responsible for their formation. We conclude that the particle size distributions and vesicularities of Pele's tears are representative of the magma properties at the moment of explosive disruption. However, the morphology of these unique pyroclasts results from reshaping through viscous relaxation, driven by surface tension forces, on a time scale fast enough to compete with cooling times.

  11. 21 CFR 878.4830 - Absorbable surgical gut suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absorbable surgical gut suture. 878.4830 Section 878.4830 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... surgical gut suture. (a) Identification. An absorbable surgical gut suture, both plain and chromic, is an...

  12. Comparison of efficacy of polypropylene with chromic catgut suture in stitching paediatric facial lacerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ahmed, R.; Aziz, O.B.A.; Aamir, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare 5/0 polypropylene suture with 5/0 chromic catgut in small clean pediatric facial laceration repair in terms of cosmetic outcome. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial.Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from 26th May 2012 to 25th Nov 2012.Patients and Methods: A total of 300 patients of both gender under 12 years of age, with small clean facial lacerations were selected and divided in two equal groups using random number tables. All the patients underwent suturing in minor operating theater of trauma centre CMH Rawalpindi as day care cases, under local anesthesia and aseptic measures. In group 1, polypropylene 5/0 suture was used where as in group 2 chromic catgut 5/0 was used for suturing. Aseptic dressing was applied. All patients were reviewed on 5th day (for stitch removal in polypropylene group) and 3 months post-operatively to establish cosmetic outcome which was determined by scar visual analog score both by parents of the child and consultant surgeon. Results: The mean VAS (visual analog score) as observed by Consultant surgeon was 79.14 and 78.63 for polypropylene and chromic catgut groups respectively. The mean VAS observed by the parents of the child for respective groups was 76.67 and 76.03. The significance value was 0.961 for parental VAS and 0.988 for surgeons VAS depicting insignificant difference in both suture groups.Conclusion: There is no long-term difference in cosmetic outcomes of both the sutures in the repair of facial lacerations in the pediatric population. No difference in complication rate of wound was observed. In addition, the parents of the children in absorbable suture group expressed satisfaction over prevention of psychological trauma of stitch removal. (author)

  13. Tutoring Trainees to Suture: An Alternative Method for Learning How to Suture and a Way to Compensate for a Lack of Suturing Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkietkachorn, Apinut; Rhunsiri, Peera; Boonyawong, Pangpoom; Lawanprasert, Attaporn; Tantiphlachiva, Kasaya

    2016-01-01

    Tutoring in suturing was developed to compensate for a shortage of suturing cases. The objective of this study was to compare ideal suturing score (ISS; 9 points), suturing time (min:sec), and suture placement error (mm) between medical students completing the suturing tutoring program and medical students attending ordinary medical school training program. Participants consisted of 2 groups of medical students who had never performed suturing. The study group had the role of suturing tutor to teach interested high school students. The control group consisted of volunteers from the ordinary medical school program. Skills measurement was performed by having students from both the groups perform 3 vertical mattress sutures on a model. The study group was tested at weeks 1, 9, and 10 to assess improvement. Both the groups were tested at week 10 to compare final learning outcome. There were 41 and 40 participants in the study group and the control group, respectively. ISS was significantly improved in the study group from week 1-week 10 (7.0 ± 1.3 vs. 8.2 ± 0.9, p = 0.01). At week 10, the study group had a higher mean ISS than the control group (8.2 ± 0.9 vs. 7.8 ± 1.1, p = 0.68). Mean suturing time and mean placement error were also lower in the study group at the end of suturing training (5:1 ± 1:0 vs. 5:2 ± 1:2, p = 0.13; 7.4 ± 7.4 vs. 8.0 ± 10.8, p = 0.44). Tutoring trainees to suture can improve a student's ability to learn how to suture. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Special Tear Pattern of Anterior Horn of the Lateral Meniscus: Macerated Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiapeng; Zhai, Wenliang; Li, Qiang; Jia, Qianxin; Lin, Dasheng

    2017-01-01

    We describe a special, interesting phenomenon found in the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus (AHLM): most tear patterns in the AHLM are distinctive, with loose fibers in injured region and circumferential fiber bundles were separated. We name it as macerated tear. The goal of this study was to bring forward a new type of meniscal tear in the AHLM and investigate its clinical value. AHLM tears underwent arthroscopic surgery from January 2012 to December 2014 were included. Data regarding the integrity of AHLM were prospectively recorded in a data registry. Tear morphology and treatment received were subsequently extracted by 2 independent reviewers from operative notes and arthroscopic surgical photos. A total of 60 AHLM tears in 60 patients (mean age 27.1 years) were grouped into horizontal tears (n = 15, 25%), vertical tears (n = 14, 23%), complex tears (n = 6, 10%), and macerated tears (n = 25, 42%). There were 6 patients with AHLM cysts in macerated tear group and one patient in vertical tear group. 60 patients were performed arthroscopic meniscus repairs and were followed-up with averaged 18.7 months. Each group had significant postoperative improvement in Lysholm and IKDC scores (p 0.05). This study demonstrated that the macerated tear is common in the tear pattern of AHLM. However, feasibility of the treatment of this type of meniscal tear, especially the meniscus repairs still requires further study.

  15. Kinetic theory of tearing instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    The transition of the tearing instability from the collisional to the collisionless regime is investigated kinetically using a Fokker--Planck collision operator to represent electron-ion collisions. As a function of the collisionality of the plasma, the tearing instability falls into three regions, which are referred to as collisionless, semi-collisional, and collisional. The width Δ of the singular layer around kxB 0 =0 is limited by electron thermal motion along B 0 in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes and is typically smaller than rho/sub i/, the ion Larmor radius. Previously accepted theories, which are based on the assumption Δvery-much-greater-thanrho/sub i/, are found to be valid only in the collisional regime. The effects of density and temperature gradients on the instabilities are also studied. The tearing instability is only driven by the temperature gradient in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes. Numerical calculations indicate that the semi-collisional tearing instability is particularly relevant to present day high temperature tokamak discharges

  16. Bifurcation of steady tearing states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saramito, B.; Maschke, E.K.

    1985-10-01

    We apply the bifurcation theory for compact operators to the problem of the nonlinear solutions of the 3-dimensional incompressible visco-resistive MHD equations. For the plane plasma slab model we compute branches of nonlinear tearing modes, which are stationary for the range of parameters investigated up to now

  17. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force....

  18. Energy balance in tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The energy balance in tearing modes is described in terms of exact separate energy balance equations. Each of these equations describes identified physical processes, and their sum gives the conservation of total energy. One of the energy balance equations corresponds to Furth's description. (Author)

  19. Classification and localization of acetabular labral tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenbaker, D.G.; De Smet, A.A.; Keene, J.S.; Fine, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the findings on hip MR arthrography (MRA) with the published MRA and arthroscopic classifications of hip labral tears and to evaluate a clock-face method for localizing hip labral tears. We retrospectively reviewed 65 hip MRA studies with correlative hip arthroscopies. Each labrum was evaluated on MRA using the classification system of Czerny and an MRA modification of the Lage arthroscopic classification. In addition, each tear was localized on MRA by using a clock-face description where 6 o'clock was the transverse ligament and 3 o'clock was anterior. These MRA findings were then correlated with the arthroscopic findings using the clock-face method of localization and the Lage arthroscopic classification of labral tears. At MRA, there were 42 Czerny grade 2 and 23 grade 3 labral tears and 22 MRA Lage type 1, 11 type 2, 22 type 3 and 10 type 4 tears. At arthroscopy, there were 10 Lage type 1 flap tears, 20 Lage type 2 fibrillated tears, 18 Lage type 3 longitudinal peripheral tears and 17 Lage type 4 unstable tears. The Czerny MRA classification and the modified MRA Lage classification had borderline correlation with the arthroscopic Lage classification. Localization of the tears using a clock-face description was within 1 o'clock of the arthroscopic localization of the tears in 85% of the patients. The Lage classification, which is the only published arthroscopic classification system for hip labral tears, does not correlate well with the Czerny MRA or an MRA modification of the Lage classification. Using a clock-face description to localize tears provides a way to accurately localize a labral tear and define its extent. (orig.)

  20. Tendon patch grafting using the long head of the biceps for irreparable massive rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hirotaka; Itoi, Eiji; Mineta, Mitsuyoshi; Kita, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Surgical treatment of massive rotator cuff tears is challenging for shoulder surgeons. The purpose of this study was to investigate both clinical outcomes and cuff integrity after tendon patch grafting using the long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon for irreparable massive rotator cuff tears. A short deltoid splitting approach was used to expose the torn cuff tendon stump. After tenodesis of the LHB tendon, its intraarticular portion was resected. If the size of the harvested tendon was smaller than that of the cuff defect, it was split into two layers. Then, the LHB tendon was sutured to the remnant cuff tendons and fixed to the footprint using the transosseous suture technique. A total of 14 patients (12 men, 2 women; average age 64 years) underwent this procedure. The average postoperative follow-up period was 28 months (range 12-51 months). Active elevation angle of the shoulder as well as the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score were assessed before surgery and at the time of follow-up. Postoperative cuff integrity was assessed using T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All cuff defects were successfully closed with this technique. Average active elevation angle improved from 69deg to 149deg. Total JOA score also improved from 54.7 points to 83.1 points. Thirteen shoulders showed no re-tearing on T2-weighted MRI; a minor discontinuity of the repaired cuff tendon was observed in the other shoulder. The LHB tendon is available in case tenodesis or tenotomy is needed. The resected tendon may be used as a graft for rotator cuff repair without any additional skin incision, which could reduce both the surgical invasion and the risk of infection. The LHB tendon patch grafting may be one of the useful options for surgical treatment of irreparable massive rotator cuff tears. (author)

  1. Is nonoperative management of partial distal biceps tears really successful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Tyler M; Wong, Justin C; Lazarus, Mark D

    2018-04-01

    The current treatment of partial distal biceps tears is a period of nonoperative management, followed by surgery, if symptoms persist. Little is known about the success rate and outcomes of nonoperative management of this illness. We identified 132 patients with partial distal biceps tears through an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code query of our institution's database. Patient records were reviewed to abstract demographic information and confirm partial tears of the distal biceps tendon based on clinical examination findings and confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seventy-four patients completed an outcome survey. In our study, 55.7% of the contacted patients who tried a nonoperative course (34 of 61 patients) ultimately underwent surgery, and 13 patients underwent immediate surgery. High-need patients, as defined by occupation, were more likely to report that they recovered ideally if they underwent surgery, as compared with those who did not undergo surgery (odds ratio, 11.58; P = .0138). For low-need patients, the same analysis was not statistically significant (P = .139). There was no difference in satisfaction scores between patients who tried a nonoperative course before surgery and those who underwent immediate surgery (P = .854). An MRI-diagnosed tear of greater than 50% was a predictor of needing surgery (odds ratio, 3.0; P = .006). This study has identified clinically relevant information for the treatment of partial distal biceps tears, including the following: the failure rate of nonoperative treatment, the establishment of MRI percent tear as a predictor of failing nonoperative management, the benefit of surgery for the high-need occupational group, and the finding that nonoperative management does not negatively affect outcome if subsequent surgery is necessary. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tensile strength of the pullout repair technique for the medial meniscus posterior root tear: a porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masataka; Furumatsu, Takayuki; Xue, Haowei; Miyazawa, Shinichi; Kodama, Yuya; Hino, Tomohito; Kamatsuki, Yusuke; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the load-to-failure of different common suturing techniques with a new technique for the medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT). Thirty porcine medial menisci were randomly assigned to three suturing techniques used for transtibial pullout repair of the MMPRT (n = 10 per group). Three different meniscal suture configurations were studied: the two simple suture (TSS) technique, the conventional modified Mason-Allen suture (MMA) technique, and the new MMA technique using the FasT-Fix combined with the Ultrabraid (F-MMA). The ultimate failure load was tested using a tensile testing machine. The MMA and F-MMA groups demonstrated significantly higher failure loads than the TSS group (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.0005, respectively). No significant differences were observed between the MMA and F-MMA groups (P = 0.734). The ultimate failure load was significantly greater in the F-MMA than the TSS group and similar to the conventional MMA technique.

  3. Comparison of barbed unidirectional suture with figure-of-eight standard sutures in vaginal cuff closure in total laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Tolga; Ozyurek, Eser; Usta, Taner; Odacilar, Eylem; Hanli, Ulviye; Kovalak, Ebru; Dayan, Huseyin

    2018-03-24

    The aim of the study was to compare postoperative vaginal cuff complications due to the use of barbed sutures (V-Loc™ 180 unidirectional suture; Covidien, Mansfield, MA) and standard braided sutures (Vicryl ® ; Ethicon Inc., Somerville, MA) during vaginal cuff closure of patients undergoing a total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) due to benign diseases. Eighty-nine patients were in the standard suture group and 208 patients were included in the barbed suture group. Vaginal cuff dehiscence was identified in only three (3.3%) patients within the standard suture group and none in the barbed suture group. Five (5.6%) patients in the standard suture group and two (0.9%) patients in the barbed suture group developed postoperative cuff infection/cellulitis. Duration of the surgery was significantly shorter in the barbed suture group than in the standard suture group (p barbed suture, which is used during TLH for vaginal cuff closure, is an applicable, safe and tolerable alternative to a standard suture. IMPACT STATEMENT What is already known on this subject: Barbed sutures are a relatively new type of suture that include sharp barbs inserted on monofilament material in various configurations, and are used for approximating tissues without any need for surgical knotting. They have increasingly been used in obstetrics and gynaecology in recent years, particularly in total laparoscopic hysterectomy and laparoscopic myomectomy. At present, there are a limited number of studies of V-Loc™ suture in the literature. What the results of this study add: We demonstrated that barbed sutures used for enabling vaginal cuff integrity did not cause major morbidity and mortality for the patient. We suggest that V-Loc™ 180 barbed sutures offer a practical, safe and tolerable alternative for surgeons because they are easy to use, do not cause a significant increase in vaginal cuff complications, and shorten the operating time. Our study with V-Loc™ 180 unidirectional barbed

  4. Automatic Detection of Wild-type Mouse Cranial Sutures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.

    , automatic detection of the cranial sutures becomes important. We have previously built a craniofacial, wild-type mouse atlas from a set of 10 Micro CT scans using a B-spline-based nonrigid registration method by Rueckert et al. Subsequently, all volumes were registered nonrigidly to the atlas. Using......, the observer traced the sutures on each of the mouse volumes as well. The observer outperforms the automatic approach by approximately 0.1 mm. All mice have similar errors while the suture error plots reveal that suture 1 and 2 are cumbersome, both for the observer and the automatic approach. These sutures can...

  5. The Fate of Meniscus Tears Left in situ at the time of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A 6-year Follow-up Study from the MOON Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchman, Kyle R.; Westermann, Robert W.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Reinke, Emily K.; Huston, Laura J.; Amendola, Annunziato; Wolf, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of meniscus tears identified at the time of primary ACL reconstruction is highly variable and includes repair, meniscectomy, and non-treatment. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the reoperation rate for meniscus tears left untreated at the time of ACL reconstruction with minimum follow-up of 6 years. We hypothesize that small, peripheral tears identified at the time of ACL reconstruction managed with “no treatment” will have successful clinical outcomes. Study Design Retrospective study of a prospective cohort; Level of Evidence, 3 Methods Patients with meniscus tears left untreated at the time of primary ACL reconstruction were identified from a multicenter study group with minimum 6-year follow-up. Patient, tear, and reoperation data were obtained for analysis. Need for reoperation was used as the primary endpoint, with analysis performed to determine patient and tear characteristics associated with reoperation. Results There were 194 patients with 208 meniscus tears (71 medial; 137 lateral) left in situ without treatment with complete follow-up for analysis. Of these, 97.8% of lateral and 94.4% of medial untreated tears required no reoperation. Sixteen tears (7.7%) left in situ without treatment underwent subsequent reoperation: 9 tears (4.3%) underwent reoperation in the setting of revision ACL reconstruction and 7 tears (3.4%) underwent reoperation for isolated meniscus pathology. Patient age was significantly lower in patients requiring reoperation, while tears measuring ≥ 10 mm more frequently required reoperation. Conclusions Lateral and medial meniscus tears left in situ at the time of ACL reconstruction did not require reoperation at minimum 6-year follow-up for 97.8% and 94.4% of tears, respectively. These findings reemphasize the low reoperation rate following non-treatment of small, peripheral lateral meniscus tears while noting less predictable results for medial meniscus tears left without

  6. Effect of viscosity on tear drainage and ocular residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heng; Chauhan, Anuj

    2008-08-01

    An increase in residence time of dry eye medications including artificial tears will likely enhance therapeutic benefits. The drainage rates and the residence time of eye drops depend on the viscosity of the instilled fluids. However, a quantitative understanding of the dependence of drainage rates and the residence time on viscosity is lacking. The current study aims to develop a mathematical model for the drainage of Newtonian fluids and also for power-law non-Newtonian fluids of different viscosities. This study is an extension of our previous study on the mathematical model of tear drainage. The tear drainage model is modified to describe the drainage of Newtonian fluids with viscosities higher than the tear viscosity and power-law non-Newtonian fluids with rheological parameters obtained from fitting experimental data in literature. The drainage rate through canaliculi was derived from the modified drainage model and was incorporated into a tear mass balance to calculate the transients of total solute quantity in ocular fluids and the bioavailability of instilled drugs. For Newtonian fluids, increasing the viscosity does not affect the drainage rate unless the viscosity exceeds a critical value of about 4.4 cp. The viscosity has a maximum impact on drainage rate around a value of about 100 cp. The trends are similar for shear thinning power law fluids. The transients of total solute quantity, and the residence time agrees at least qualitatively with experimental studies. A mathematical model has been developed for the drainage of Newtonian fluids and power-law fluids through canaliculi. The model can quantitatively explain different experimental observations on the effect of viscosity on the residence of instilled fluids on the ocular surface. The current study is helpful for understanding the mechanism of fluid drainage from the ocular surface and for improving the design of dry eye treatments.

  7. Current manufacturing processes of drug-eluting sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeau, Mathilde; Thomassin, Jean-Michel; Tassaing, Thierry; Jérôme, Christine

    2017-11-01

    Drug-eluting sutures represent the next generation of surgical sutures since they fulfill their mechanical functions but also deliver the drug in their vicinity after implantation. These implants are produced by a variety of manufacturing processes. Drug-eluting sutures represent the next generation of surgical sutures since they fulfill their mechanical functions but also deliver the drug in their vicinity after implantation. These implants are produced by a variety of manufacturing processes. Two general approaches can be followed: (i) the ones that add the API into the material during the manufacturing process of the suture and (ii) the ones that load the API to an already manufactured suture. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the current manufacturing processes for drug-eluting suture production and discusses their benefits and drawbacks depending on the type of drugs. The mechanical properties and the drug delivery profile of drug-eluting sutures are highlighted since these implants must fulfill both criteria. Expert opinion: For limited drug contents, melt extrusion and electrospinning are the emerging processes since the drug is added during the suture manufacture process. Advantageously, the drug release profile can be tuned by controlling the processing parameters specific to each process and the composition of the drug-containing polymer. If high drug content is targeted, the coating or grafting of a drug layer on a pre-manufactured suture allows for preservation of the tensile strength requirements of the suture.

  8. Open repair for massive rotator cuff tear with a modified transosseous-equivalent procedure. Preliminary results at short-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kanaya, Fuminori; Suenaga, Naoki; Oizumi, Naomi; Hosokawa, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Many surgical procedures have been reported for rotator cuff tears. We adopted the modified transosseous-equivalent procedure, also termed ''surface-holding repair with transosseous sutures,'' and demonstrated that this procedure has a biomechanical advantage regarding the concentration of stress on the tendon stump. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and structural outcomes of this technique, which has been demonstrated by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to produce high intact rates. Twenty-nine massive rotator cuff tears involving at least two tendons were treated by open repair using this procedure. Twenty-four patients were evaluated at an average of 43.2 months (range 24-71) postoperatively (the follow-up rate was 83.8%). The pre- and postoperative clinical outcomes were examined using the scoring system of the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA score). In an A-P radiograph, the presence of osteoarthritis (OA) of the glenohumeral joint and upward migration of the humeral head were compared pre- and postoperatively. The repair integrity of the cuff tendon was evaluated by applying Sugaya's classification to the postoperative MRIs. The JOA score improved from 42.8 points preoperatively to 89.3 points at final follow-up. Radiographic examination showed that OA progressed in 16.7% and upward migration of the humeral head progressed in 20.8%. Postoperative MRI scans revealed 14 shoulders with type 1 repair based on Sugaya's classification, 4 shoulders with type 2, 4 shoulders with type 3, 2 shoulders with type 4, and no shoulders with a type 5 repair. Although osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint and upward migration of the humeral head had both progressed postoperatively in some cases, postoperative MRI scans revealed that 91.7% of the repairs resulted in a continuous rotator cuff. Therefore, this technique produces a high healing rate. (author)

  9. Outcomes following arthroscopic transosseous equivalent suture bridge double row rotator cuff repair: a prospective study and short-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Mohamed Abdelnabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transosseous-equivalent cross bridge double row (TESBDR rotator cuff (RC repair technique has been developed to optimize healing biology at a repaired RC tendon insertion. It has been shown in the laboratory to improve pressurized contact area and mean foot print pressure when compared with a double row anchor technique. Pressure has been shown to influence healing between tendon and bone, and the tendon compression vector provided by the transosseous-equivalent suture bridges may enhance healing. The purpose was to prospectively evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair. Methods: Single center prospective case series study. Sixty-nine patients were selected to undergo arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair and were included in the current study. Primary outcome measures included the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS, the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA score, the Constant-Murley (CM Score and Range of motion (ROM. Secondary outcome measures included a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for pain, another VAS for patient satisfaction from the operative procedure, EuroQoL 5-Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D for quality of life assessment. Results: At 24 months post-operative, average OSS score was 44, average UCLA score was 31, average CM score was 88, average forward flexion was 145°, average internal rotation was 35°, average external rotation was 79°, average abduction was 150°, average EQ-5D score was 0.73, average VAS for pain was 2.3, and average VAS for patient satisfaction was 9.2. Conclusion: Arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair is a procedure with good post-operative functional outcome and low re-tear rate based on a short term follow-up.

  10. Effect of lipid-based dry eye supplements on the tear film in wearers of eye cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael T M; Cho, Irene Sung Hee; Jung, Soo Hee; Craig, Jennifer P

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effects on tear film parameters and contamination in cosmetic eyeliner wearers, after single application of two lipid-based dry eye treatments: a lipid-containing lubricant eye drop and a phospholipid liposomal spray. Fifty participants were enrolled in a prospective, randomised, paired-eye, investigator-masked trial. Pencil eyeliner (Body Shop ® Crayon Eye Definer) was applied to the upper eyelid periocular skin of both eyes, anterior to the lash line. Baseline tear film quality was assessed fifteen minutes after eyeliner application. A lubricant drop (Systane ® Balance) was then applied to one eye (randomised), and liposomal spray (Tears Again ® ) to the contralateral eye. Tear film contamination, lipid layer grade, non-invasive tear film break-up time and tear evaporation rate were evaluated fifteen minutes post-treatment and compared to pre-treatment values. Pre-treatment measurements did not differ between eyes assigned to lubricant drop and liposomal spray. Tear film contamination was observed in a greater proportion of eyes following both treatments (both p0.05). Changes in tear film parameters did not differ between treatments (all p>0.05). Both the lipid-containing lubricant eye drop and phospholipid liposomal spray result in clinically apparent tear film contamination in eyeliner cosmetic wearers. Although both treatments effected an increase in lipid layer thickness, neither displayed clinical efficacy in improving tear film stability. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility of pure EFTR using an innovative new endoscopic suturing device: the Double-arm-bar Suturing System (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Rafiq, Kazi; Oryu, Makoto; Fujiwara, Masao; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-02-01

    Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) requires a reliable full-thickness suturing device and an endoscopic counter-traction device to prevent the collapse of the digestive tract. The present study aimed to assess the reliability of newly developed flexible endoscopy suturing devices and the feasibility of pure EFTR. A total of 30 EFTRs were performed and allocated to three groups (N = 10 for each group). The full-thickness sutures were placed using over-the-scope clips (OTSCs), hand-sewn sutures, or the Double-arm-bar Suturing System (DBSS). Air leak tests were conducted in the three groups. The times required for the placement of one OTSC suture and single-stitch simple interrupted sutures (hand-sewn and DBSS sutures, respectively) were also compared. All 30 full-thickness sutures were completely and successfully placed. Regarding the air leak tests, the Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences between OTSC and hand-sewn sutures (p = 0.003). There was also a significant difference between OTSC and DBSS sutures (p = 0.023). There was no significant difference between hand-sewn and DBSS sutures (p = 0.542). A significant difference was found in the suture time for single-stitch simple interrupted sutures among the OTSC, hand-sewn, and DBSS sutures. The Mann-Whitney U test revealed a significant difference between OTSC and hand-sewn sutures (p = 0.0001). There was no significant difference between OTSC and DBSS sutures (p = 0.533), while a significant difference was found between hand-sewn and DBSS sutures (p = 0.0001). Pure EFTR is feasible if the mechanical counter traction system is used to expand a small operative field and DBSS is used to make full-thickness sutures. The high safety of full-thickness resection and full-thickness suturing allows for clinical applications of this method.

  12. Fiber from ramie plant (Boehmeria nivea): A novel suture biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati [Drug discovery laboratory, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India); Devi, Dipali [Seri biotech laboratory, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India); Kalita, Dhaneswar [Government Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Jalukbari, Guwahati, Assam 781014 (India); Kalita, Kasturi [Department of Pathology, Hayat Hospital, Guwahati, Assam 781034 (India); Dash, Suvakanta [Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of pharmaceutical science, Azara, Guwahati, Assam 781017 (India); Kotoky, Jibon, E-mail: jkotoky@gmail.com [Drug discovery laboratory, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India)

    2016-05-01

    The quest for developing an ideal suture material prompted our interest to develop a novel suture with advantageous characters to market available ones. From natural origin only silk, cotton and linen fibers are presently available in market as non-absorbable suture biomaterials. In this study, we have developed a novel, cost-effective, and biocompatible suture biomaterial from ramie plant, Boehmeria nivea fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) results revealed the physicochemical properties of raw and degummed ramie fiber, where the former one showed desirable characteristics for suture preparation. The braided multifilament ramie suture prepared from degummed fiber exhibited excellent tensile strength. The suture found to be biocompatible towards human erythrocytes and nontoxic to mammalian cells. The fabricated ramie suture exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus; which can be attributed to the inherent bacteriostatic ability of ramie plant fiber. In vivo wound closure efficacy was evaluated in adult male wister rats by suturing the superficial wound incisions. Within seven days of surgery the wound got completely healed leaving no rash and scar. The role of the ramie suture in complete wound healing was supported by the reduced levels of serum inflammatory mediators. Histopathology studies confirmed the wound healing ability of ramie suture, as rapid synthesis of collagen, connective tissue and other skin adnexal structures were observed within seven days of surgery. Tensile properties, biocompatibility and wound closure efficacy of the ramie suture were comparable with market available BMSF suture. The outcome of this study can drive tremendous possibility for the utilization of ramie plant fiber for

  13. Fiber from ramie plant (Boehmeria nivea): A novel suture biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Devi, Dipali; Kalita, Dhaneswar; Kalita, Kasturi; Dash, Suvakanta; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    The quest for developing an ideal suture material prompted our interest to develop a novel suture with advantageous characters to market available ones. From natural origin only silk, cotton and linen fibers are presently available in market as non-absorbable suture biomaterials. In this study, we have developed a novel, cost-effective, and biocompatible suture biomaterial from ramie plant, Boehmeria nivea fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) results revealed the physicochemical properties of raw and degummed ramie fiber, where the former one showed desirable characteristics for suture preparation. The braided multifilament ramie suture prepared from degummed fiber exhibited excellent tensile strength. The suture found to be biocompatible towards human erythrocytes and nontoxic to mammalian cells. The fabricated ramie suture exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus; which can be attributed to the inherent bacteriostatic ability of ramie plant fiber. In vivo wound closure efficacy was evaluated in adult male wister rats by suturing the superficial wound incisions. Within seven days of surgery the wound got completely healed leaving no rash and scar. The role of the ramie suture in complete wound healing was supported by the reduced levels of serum inflammatory mediators. Histopathology studies confirmed the wound healing ability of ramie suture, as rapid synthesis of collagen, connective tissue and other skin adnexal structures were observed within seven days of surgery. Tensile properties, biocompatibility and wound closure efficacy of the ramie suture were comparable with market available BMSF suture. The outcome of this study can drive tremendous possibility for the utilization of ramie plant fiber for

  14. Achondroplasia and multiple-suture craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, Frank P; Wood, Benjamin C; Oluigbo, Chima O; Lee, Angela C; Oh, Albert K; Rogers, Gary F

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene may lead to achondroplasia or syndromic forms of craniosynostosis. Despite sharing a common genetic basis, craniosynostosis has rarely been described in cases of confirmed achondroplasia. We report an infant with achondroplasia who developed progressive multiple-suture craniosynostosis to discuss the genetic link between these clinical entities and to describe the technical challenges associated with the operative management.

  15. TFOS DEWS II Tear Film Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P; Argüeso, Pablo; Georgiev, Georgi A; Holopainen, Juha M; Laurie, Gordon W; Millar, Tom J; Papas, Eric B; Rolland, Jannick P; Schmidt, Tannin A; Stahl, Ulrike; Suarez, Tatiana; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Uçakhan, Omür Ö; Jones, Lyndon

    2017-07-01

    The members of the Tear Film Subcommittee reviewed the role of the tear film in dry eye disease (DED). The Subcommittee reviewed biophysical and biochemical aspects of tears and how these change in DED. Clinically, DED is characterized by loss of tear volume, more rapid breakup of the tear film and increased evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. The tear film is composed of many substances including lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. All of these contribute to the integrity of the tear film but exactly how they interact is still an area of active research. Tear film osmolarity increases in DED. Changes to other components such as proteins and mucins can be used as biomarkers for DED. The Subcommittee recommended areas for future research to advance our understanding of the tear film and how this changes with DED. The final report was written after review by all Subcommittee members and the entire TFOS DEWS II membership. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar,1 Kasey Pierson,2,* Kamalani Hanamaikai,3,* Luis Santiago-Caban,1 Valliammai Muthappan,1 Samuel F Passi11Department of Ophthalmology, John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 3A T Still University, School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona, Mesa, AZ, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the market for the treatment of dysfunctional tear syndrome. Past literature has focused on comparing the components of these products on patient’s clinical improvement. The wide array of products on the market presents challenges to both clinicians and patients when trying to choose between available tear replacement therapies. Different formulations affect patients based on etiology and severity of disease. In order to provide an unbiased comparison between available tear replacement therapies, we conducted a literature review of existing studies and National Institutes of Health clinical trials on commercially available, brand name artificial tears. Outcomes evaluated in each study, as well as the percent of patients showing clinical and symptomatic improvement, were analyzed. Fifty-one studies evaluating different brands of artificial tears, and their efficacy were identified. Out of the 51 studies, 18 were comparison studies testing brand name artificial tears directly against each other. Nearly all formulations of artificial tears provided significant benefit to patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome, but some proved superior to others. From the study data, a recommended treatment flowchart was derived. Keywords: dry eye, tear film, dysfunctional tear syndrome, ophthalmic lubricant, artificial tears, lipid layer, tear osmolarity, TBUT, Systane®, Refresh®, Blink®, GenTeal®, Soothe®, Lacrisert®, ocular surface inflammatory disease, Sjogren

  17. Performance of fast-absorbable suture and histo-glue in closing incisions in Brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Larsen, Martin Hage; Aarestrup, Kim

    2017-01-01

    , growth, tag expulsion rate and incision healing was compared among three groups of dummy transmitter-tagged wild brown trout Salmo trutta where incisions were closed with two types of suture material (absorbable vs. fast absorbable) and Histo-glue. The tagged fish were kept in semi-natural ponds for 20...

  18. Conization of the cervix uteri. Complications in connection with plain catgut or silk suturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmskov, A; Qvist, N; Møller, A

    1984-01-01

    During a retrospective study on postoperative complications in 213 patients who had undergone conization, a (non-significant) reduction in the bleeding rate from 27.9% to 18.6% was found when using silk sutures (102 patients) instead of plain catgut (111 patients) for adaption of the edges of the...

  19. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Influence of Rotator Cuff Tear Size and Repair Technique on the Creation and Management of Dog Ear Deformities in a Transosseous-Equivalent Rotator Cuff Repair Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redler, Lauren H.; Byram, Ian R.; Luchetti, Timothy J.; Tsui, Ying Lai; Moen, Todd C.; Gardner, Thomas R.; Ahmad, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Redundancies in the rotator cuff tissue, commonly referred to as “dog ear” deformities, are frequently encountered during rotator cuff repair. Knowledge of how these deformities are created and their impact on rotator cuff footprint restoration is limited. Purpose: The goals of this study were to assess the impact of tear size and repair method on the creation and management of dog ear deformities in a human cadaveric model. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Crescent-shaped tears were systematically created in the supraspinatus tendon of 7 cadaveric shoulders with increasing medial to lateral widths (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm). Repair of the 1.5-cm tear was performed on each shoulder with 3 methods in a randomized order: suture bridge, double-row repair with 2-mm fiber tape, and fiber tape with peripheral No. 2 nonabsorbable looped sutures. Resulting dog ear deformities were injected with an acrylic resin mixture, digitized 3-dimensionally (3D), and photographed perpendicular to the footprint with calibration. The volume, height, and width of the rotator cuff tissue not in contact with the greater tuberosity footprint were calculated using the volume injected, 3D reconstructions, and calibrated photographs. Comparisons were made between tear size, dog ear measurement technique, and repair method utilizing 2-way analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple-comparison tests. Results: Utilizing 3D digitized and injection-derived volumes and dimensions, anterior dog ear volume, height, and width were significantly smaller for rotator cuff repair with peripheral looped sutures compared with a suture bridge (P repair with 2-mm fiber tape alone (P repair with looped peripheral sutures compared with a suture bridge (P repair technique, peripheral No. 2 nonabsorbable looped sutures significantly decreased the volume, height, and width of dog ear deformities, better restoring the anatomic footprint of the rotator cuff. Clinical

  1. Patellar Tendon Repair Augmentation With a Knotless Suture Anchor Internal Brace: A Biomechanical Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfeld, Alex; Pawlak, Amanda; Liebler, Stephenie A H; Morris, Michael; Paci, James M

    2018-04-01

    Patellar tendon repair with braided polyethylene suture alone is subject to knot slippage and failure. Several techniques to augment the primary repair have been described. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to evaluate a novel patellar tendon repair technique augmented with a knotless suture anchor internal brace with suture tape (SAIB). The hypothesis was that this technique would be biomechanically superior to a nonaugmented repair and equivalent to a standard augmentation with an 18-gauge steel wire. Controlled laboratory study. Midsubstance patellar tendon tears were created in 32 human cadaveric knees. Two comparison groups were created. Group 1 compared #2 supersuture repair without augmentation to #2 supersuture repair with SAIB augmentation. Group 2 compared #2 supersuture repair with an 18-gauge stainless steel cerclage wire augmentation to #2 supersuture repair with SAIB augmentation. The specimens were potted and biomechanically loaded on a materials testing machine. Yield load, maximum load, mode of failure, plastic displacement, elastic displacement, and total displacement were calculated for each sample. Standard statistical analysis was performed. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean ± SD yield load and maximum load in the SAIB augmentation group compared with supersuture alone (mean yield load: 646 ± 202 N vs 229 ± 60 N; mean maximum load: 868 ± 162 N vs 365 ± 54 N; P augmented repairs (mean yield load: 495 ± 213 N vs 566 ± 172 N; P = .476; mean maximum load: 737 ± 210 N vs 697 ± 130 N; P = .721). Patellar tendon repair augmented with SAIB is biomechanically superior to repair without augmentation and is equivalent to repair with augmentation with an 18-gauge stainless steel cerclage wire. This novel patellar tendon repair augmentation is equivalent to standard 18-gauge wire augmentation at time zero. It does not require a second surgery for removal, and it is biomechanically superior to primary repair alone.

  2. Incomplete response to artificial tears is associated with features of neuropathic ocular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Batawi, Hatim; Felix, Elizabeth R; Margolis, Todd P; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Martin, Eden R; Levitt, Roy C

    2016-06-01

    Artificial tears are first-line therapy for patients with dry eye symptoms. It is not known, however, which patient factors associate with a positive response to therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether certain ocular and systemic findings are associated with a differential subjective response to artificial tears. Cross-sectional study of 118 individuals reporting artificial tears use (hypromellose 0.4%) to treat dry eye-associated ocular pain. An evaluation was performed to assess dry eye symptoms (via the dry eye questionnaire 5 and ocular surface disease index), ocular and systemic (non-ocular) pain complaints and ocular signs (tear osmolarity, tear breakup time, corneal staining, Schirmer testing with anaesthesia, and eyelid and meibomian gland assessment). The main outcome measures were factors associated with differential subjective response to artificial tears. By self-report, 23 patients reported no improvement, 73 partial improvement and 22 complete improvement in ocular pain with artificial tears. Patients who reported no or partial improvement in pain with artificial tears reported higher levels of hot-burning ocular pain and sensitivity to wind compared with those with complete improvement. Patients were also asked to rate the intensity of systemic pain elsewhere in the body (other than the eye). Patients who reported no or incomplete improvement with artificial tears had higher systemic pain scores compared with those with complete improvement. Both ocular and systemic (non-ocular) pain complaints are associated with a differential subjective response to artificial tears. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin protects against skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness after anterior cruciate ligament tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Caroline Nw; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Grekin, Jeremy A; Khouri, Roger K; Russell, Alan J; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2017-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are among the most frequent knee injuries in sports medicine, with tear rates in the US up to 250,000 per year. Many patients who suffer from ACL tears have persistent atrophy and weakness even after considerable rehabilitation. Myostatin is a cytokine that directly induces muscle atrophy, and previous studies rodent models and patients have demonstrated an upregulation of myostatin after ACL tear. Using a preclinical rat model, our objective was to determine if the use of a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin could prevent muscle atrophy and weakness after ACL tear. Rats underwent a surgically induced ACL tear and were treated with either a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin (10B3, GlaxoSmithKline) or a sham antibody (E1-82.15, GlaxoSmithKline). Muscles were harvested at either 7 or 21 days after induction of a tear to measure changes in contractile function, fiber size, and genes involved in muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. These time points were selected to evaluate early and later changes in muscle structure and function. Compared to the sham antibody group, 7 days after ACL tear, myostatin inhibition reduced the expression of proteolytic genes and induced the expression of hypertrophy genes. These early changes in gene expression lead to a 22% increase in muscle fiber cross-sectional area and a 10% improvement in maximum isometric force production that were observed 21 days after ACL tear. Overall, myostatin inhibition lead to several favorable, although modest, changes in molecular biomarkers of muscle regeneration and reduced muscle atrophy and weakness following ACL tear. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2499-2505, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cranial suture biology of the Aleutian Island inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, James; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-04-01

    Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape. Ales Hrdlicka identified two phenotypes in remains excavated from the Aleutian Island. The Paleo-Aleutians, exhibiting a dolichocranic phenotype with little prognathism linked to artifacts distinguished from later inhabitants, Aleutians, who exhibited a brachycranic phenotype with a greater amount of prognathism. A total of 212 crania representing Paleo-Aleuts and Aleutian as defined by Hrdlicka were investigated for suture synostosis pattern following standard methodologies. Comparisons were performed using Guttmann analyses. Results revealed similar suture fusion patterns for the Paleo-Aleut and Aleutian, a strong anterior to posterior pattern of suture fusion for the lateral-anterior suture sites, and a pattern of early termination at the sagittal suture sites for the vault. These patterns were found to differ from that reported in the literature. Because these two populations with distinct cranial shapes exhibit similar patterns of suture synostosis it appears pattern is independent of cranial shape in these populations of Homo sapiens. These findings suggest that suture fusion patterns may be population dependent and that a standardized methodology, using suture fusion to determine age-at-death, may not be applicable to all populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Endoscopic suture fixation is associated with reduced migration of esophageal fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew; Chang, Andrew; Bedi, Aarti Oza; Wamsteker, Erik-Jan; Elta, Grace; Kwon, Richard S; Carrott, Phillip; Elmunzer, B Joseph; Law, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    Esophageal fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMS) are indicated for the management of benign and malignant conditions of the esophagus including perforations, leaks, and strictures. FCSEMS are resistant to tissue ingrowth and are removable; however, stent migration occurs in 30-55% of cases. Endoscopic suture fixation of FCSEMS has been utilized to decrease the risk of stent migration though data supporting this practice remain limited. The primary aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes and migration rate of patients who underwent placement of esophageal FCSEMS with and without endoscopic suture fixation. Our single-center, retrospective, cohort study includes patients who underwent esophageal FCSEMS placement with and without endoscopic suture fixation between January 1, 2012, and November 11, 2015. Baseline patient characteristics, procedural details, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. Logistic regression was performed to identify clinical and technical factors associated with outcomes and stent migration. A total of 51 patients underwent 62 FCSEMS placements, including 21 procedures with endoscopic suture fixation and 41 without. Suture fixation was associated with reduced risk of stent migration (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.47). Prior stent migration was associated with significantly higher risk of subsequent migration (OR 6.4, 95% CI 1.6-26.0). Stent migration was associated with lower likelihood of clinical success (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.69). There was a trend toward higher clinical success among patients undergoing suture fixation (85.7 vs. 60.9%, p = 0.07). Endoscopic suture fixation of FCSEMS was associated with a reduced stent migration rate. Appropriate patient selection for suture fixation of FCSEMS may lead to reduced migration in high-risk patients.

  6. Tear and decohesion of bovine pericardial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Elices, Manuel; Bourges, Jean Yves; Rojo, Francisco Javier; Atienza, José Miguel; Guinea, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the fracture-by tear and delamination-of bovine pericardium tissues which are usually employed for the manufacture of bioprosthetic valves. A large number of samples (77) were tested in root-to-apex and circumferential directions, according to a standardised tear test (ASTM D 1938). Before performing the tear test, some samples were subjected to 1000 cycles of fatigue to a maximum stress of 3MPa. Fracture toughness of tearing and delamination were computed by following a simple fracture model. The study showed significantly lower values of delamination toughness compared with tear delamination. Moreover, tear forces were different in each test direction, revealing a clear orthotropic behaviour. All these results, as well as the testing procedure, could be of value for future research in the physiological function of pericardium tissues and clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MRI of meniscal bucket-handle tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, T.H.; Hinson, G.W. [Menorah Medical Center, Overland Park, KS (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-09-01

    A meniscal bucket-handle tear is a tear with an attached fragment displaced from the meniscus of the knee joint. Low sensitivity of MRI for detection of bucket-handle tears (64% as compared with arthroscopy) has been reported previously. We report increased sensitivity for detecting bucket-handle tears with the use of coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images. Results. By using four criteria for diagnosis of meniscal bucket-handle tears, our overall sensitivity compared with arthroscopy was 93% (28 of 30 meniscal bucket-handle tears seen at arthroscopy were detected by MRI). The meniscal fragment was well visualized in all 28 cases on coronal STIR images. The double posterior cruciate ligament sign was seen in 8 of 30 cases, the flipped meniscus was seen in 10 of 30 cases and a fragment in the intercondylar notch was seen in 18 of 30 cases. (orig.)

  8. Percentage Level of Tannin fur Rabbit for Leather Concerning Stitch Tearing Strength, Tearing Strength and Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Mustakim Mustakim; Aris Sri Widati; Lisa Purnaningtyas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the appropriate of tannin level for rabbit fur leather concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength, and flexibility. The result were expected to contribute good information for the society, leather craftsman, and further researchers about fur leather tanning especially rabbit fur leather with tannin concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength and flexibility. The material that used were 12 pieces of four months of rabbit skin. The re...

  9. Linear neoclassical tearing mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaing, K. C.

    2007-01-01

    The growth rate of linear tearing modes in tokamaks is calculated including the neoclassical dissipation mechanism. It is found that when the growth rate is much smaller than the ion-ion collision frequency, the growth rate is reduced approximately by a factor of (B p /B) 2/5 from its standard value, and when the growth rate is much larger than the ion-ion collision frequency, the growth rate is reduced by a factor [√(ε)/(1.6q 2 )] 1/5 . Here, B p is the poloidal magnetic field strength, B is the magnetic field strength, ε is the inverse aspect ratio, and q is the safety factor. The width of the resistive layer is broadened when compared to that of the standard theory. In both limits, the growth rate and the resistive layer width only depend on B p and are independent of B. The growth rates in the plateau regime and for the inertia dominant modes are also presented

  10. Incidence and treatment of intra-articular lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Adrian; Nistor, Dan; Buescu, Cristian; Pojar, Adina; Lucaciu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to retrospectively review the patients admitted and treated in the "Alexandru Rădulescu" Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic, Cluj-Napoca for an anterior cruciate ligament tear over a 2-year period and document the intra-articular lesions found at arthroscopy as well as the treatment used for these associated lesions. The case records of 88 patients operated for anterior cruciate ligament tear over a period of 2 years were reviewed. There were 67 males and 21 females with a mean age of 28.9 years, ranging from 14 to 49 years. After recording the patient demographics, we documented all the intra-articular lesions found during knee arthroscopy, as well as all procedures undertaken concomitant with the ACL reconstruction. 50 of the 88 patients (56.8%) had associated intra-articular lesions at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The most common injury found was a meniscus tear, 48 patients (54.5%) had a meniscal pathology at the time of ligament reconstruction, medial meniscus being the most frequent injured one, found in 37 patients. Meniscectomy and meniscus suture were the procedures performed for these lesions, meniscectomy being more frequent. Chondral defects were the next associated injuries found with an incidence of 15.9% of the cases. The medial side of the knee was the most common site of chondral pathology. ACL tears are frequently associated with other intra-articular lesions, especially medial meniscus tears and chondral defects affecting the medial compartment. Such pathology most often needs surgical attention during the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  11. Stent migration following endoscopic suture fixation of esophageal self-expandable metal stents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ryan; Prabhu, Anoop; Fujii-Lau, Larissa; Shannon, Carol; Singh, Siddharth

    2018-02-01

    Covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are utilized for the management of benign and malignant esophageal conditions; however, covered SEMS are prone to migration. Endoscopic suture fixation may mitigate the migration risk of covered esophageal SEMS. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic suture fixation for covered esophageal SEMS. Following PRISMA guidelines, we performed a systematic review from 2011 to 2016 to identify studies (case control/case series) reporting the technical success and migration rate of covered esophageal SEMS following endoscopic suture fixation. We searched multiple electronic databases and conference proceedings. We calculated pooled rates (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of technical success and stent migration using a random effects model. We identified 14 studies (212 patients) describing covered esophageal SEMS placement with endoscopic suture fixation. When reported, SEMS indications included leak/fistula (n = 75), stricture (n = 65), perforation (n = 10), and achalasia (n = 4). The pooled technical success rate was 96.7% (95% CI 92.3-98.6), without heterogeneity (I 2  = 0%). We identified 29 SEMS migrations at rate of 15.9% (95% CI 11.4-21.6), without heterogeneity (I 2  = 0%). Publication bias was observed, and using the trim-and-fill method, a more conservative estimate for stent migration was 17.0%. Suture-related adverse events were estimated to occur in 3.7% (95% CI 1.6-8.2) of cases. Endoscopic suture fixation of covered esophageal SEMS appears to reduce stent migration when compared to published rates of non-anchored SEMS. However, SEMS migration still occurs in approximately 1 out of 6 cases despite excellent immediate technical success and low risk of suture-related adverse events.

  12. Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia Sade; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-03-01

    Tear clearance/turnover provides a global assessment of the function of the lacrimal functional unit and of tear exchange on the ocular surface. It is an indirect measure of dry eye induced inflammation on the ocular surface. It shows better correlation with the severity of ocular irritation symptoms and corneal epithelial disease in dry eye than the Schirmer 1 test. Delayed tear clearance may prove to be the best measure for identifying patients with tear film disorders who may respond to anti-inflammatory therapy.

  13. Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshirfar, Majid; Pierson, Kasey; Hanamaikai, Kamalani; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Muthappan, Valliammai; Passi, Samuel F

    2014-01-01

    Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the market for the treatment of dysfunctional tear syndrome. Past literature has focused on comparing the components of these products on patient’s clinical improvement. The wide array of products on the market presents challenges to both clinicians and patients when trying to choose between available tear replacement therapies. Different formulations affect patients based on etiology and severity of disease. In order to provide an unbiased comparison between available tear replacement therapies, we conducted a literature review of existing studies and National Institutes of Health clinical trials on commercially available, brand name artificial tears. Outcomes evaluated in each study, as well as the percent of patients showing clinical and symptomatic improvement, were analyzed. Fifty-one studies evaluating different brands of artificial tears, and their efficacy were identified. Out of the 51 studies, 18 were comparison studies testing brand name artificial tears directly against each other. Nearly all formulations of artificial tears provided significant benefit to patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome, but some proved superior to others. From the study data, a recommended treatment flowchart was derived. PMID:25114502

  14. Comparison of TEAR and TFRC throughput for Drop tail and RED Queue Management Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parminderjeet Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of throughput for TEAR (TCP emulation at receivers and TFRC TCP friendly rate control in MANETs is done with varying Active queue Management Techniques. The analysis reveals that for bandwidth constraint links, TEAR and TFRC perform far better than normal traffic propagation through TCP. In case of TEAR, the processing and route congestion algorithm load is shared by the receiver resulting in lesser load at the transmitters. In TFRC the TCP traffic is propagated via an algorithm to curb acknowledgement congestions. The effect of these two techniques is monitored on Droptail and RED, two of the most common Active Queue Management Techniques.

  15. Linear theory of drift-tearing and interchange modes in a screw pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, C.

    1978-04-01

    A drift dispersion relation, as applied to a resistive incompressible plasma in a screw pinch, is derived. This dispersion relation incorporates both drift-tearing and drift-interchange modes and is valid throughout the collisional regime by including kinetic theory factors. The dispersion relation reduces to the drift-tearing dispersion relation in the zero pressure gradient limit, and to the classical resistive dispersion relation in the zero drift limit. The electron temperature gradient instability is still present. Now, however, the introduction of the interchange-drift instability increases the growth rate further above the tearing-drift case. (orig.) [de

  16. Bidirectional Barbed Sutures for Wound Closure: Evolution and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Malcolm D.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, wound closure sutures have in common the need to tie knots with the inherent risk of extrusion, palpability, microinfarcts, breakage, and slippage. Bidirectional barbed sutures have barbs arrayed in a helical fashion in opposing directions on either side of an unbarbed midsegment. This suture is inserted at the midpoint of a wound and pulled through till resistance is encountered from the opposing barbs; each half of the suture is then advanced to the lateral ends of the wound. This design provides a method of evenly distributing tension along the incision line, a faster suture placement and closure time with no need to tie knots, and the possibility of improved cosmesis. Bidirectional barbed sutures, which are available in both absorbable and nonabsorbable forms, can be used for simple closures, multilayered closures, and closure of high-tension wounds in a variety of surgical settings. PMID:24527114

  17. The frontosphenoidal suture: fetal development and phenotype of its synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathijssen, Irene M.J.; Meulen, Jacques J.N.M. van der; Adrichem, Leon N.A. van; Vaandrager, J.M.; Vermeij-Keers, Christl [Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hulst, Rene R.W.J. van der [University Hospital Maastricht, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten H. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    Isolated synostosis of the frontosphenoidal suture is very rare and difficult to diagnose. Little has been reported on the clinical presentation and fetal development of this suture. To understand the development of the frontosphenoidal suture and the outcome of its synostosis. We studied the normal fetal development of the frontosphenoidal suture in dry human skulls and the clinical features of four patients with isolated synostosis of the frontosphenoidal suture. The frontosphenoidal suture develops relatively late during the second trimester of pregnancy, which explains the mild phenotype when there is synostosis. This rare craniosynostosis results in a deformity that causes recession of the lateral part of the frontal bone and supraorbital rim, with minimal facial asymmetry. Three-dimensional CT is the best examination to confirm the diagnosis. Isolated frontosphenoidal synostosis should be considered in patients with unilateral flattening of the forehead at birth that does not improve within the first few months of life. (orig.)

  18. A technique for introducing looped sutures in flexor tendon repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stronger flexor tendon repairs facilitate early active motion therapy protocols. Core sutures using looped suture material provide 1 ½ to twice the strength of Kessler′s technique (with four strand and six strand Tsuge technique respectively. The technique is well-described and uses preformed looped sutures (supramid. This is not available in many countries and we describe a technique whereby looped sutures can be introduced in flexor tendon repair by the use of 23 G hypodermic needle and conventional 4.0 or 5.0 sutures. This is an alternative when the custom made preformed sutures are not available. This can be practiced in zone 3 to zone 5 repairs. Technical difficulties limit its use in zone 2 repairs.

  19. Adjustable suture strabismus surgery in infants and children: a 19-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ahmed; Xue, Gilbert; Gandhi, Niral B; Tian, Jing; Guyton, David L

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the success rate of adjustable suture techniques in horizontal eye muscle surgery in children ≤15 years of age over a 19-year period by a single surgeon. The medical records of all consecutive patients in this age group who underwent horizontal eye muscle surgery from 1989 through 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups: those in whom a nonadjustable suture technique was used and those in whom adjustable sutures were used. The following data were collected: type of strabismus, preoperative measurements, postoperative results, and reoperation rates. A total of 116 cases in the nonadjustable group and 521 cases in the adjustable group were included. In the adjustable group, adjustment was performed in 63% of the cases, because of either an under- (41%) or overcorrection (22%). The adjustment procedure was performed under topical proparacaine in 15% of cases and under intravenous propofol in 85%. For the adjustable group, 3-5 minutes more per muscle intraoperatively and 15-20 minutes for adjustment were required. No complications were encountered during the adjustment procedures. Early success rate, defined as alignment within 8 Δ of straight at 3 to 6 months' postoperative follow-up, was significantly greater in the adjustable group than in the nonadjustable group (77.7% vs 64.6% [P ≤ 0.03]). Of the adjustable patients, 15% required reoperation compared with 21% of the nonadjustable patients. Use of adjustable sutures in horizontal eye muscle surgery in children ≤15 years of age provided an improved success rate and fewer reoperations compared with nonadjustable sutures. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tear film stability analysis system: introducing a new application for videokeratography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomoko; Zheng, Xiaodong; Okamoto, Shigeki; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2004-11-01

    To review our previous studies regarding the development of a tear stability analysis system (TSAS) using videokeratography and the clinical application of TSAS for evaluation of tear film stability in patients subject to laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). New software, namely TSAS, was developed for the videokeratography system TMS-2N (topographic modeling system). TSAS automatically captures consecutive corneal surface images every second for 10 seconds. Corneal topographs were analyzed for tear breakup time (TMS-BUT) and tear breakup area (TMS-BUA, the ratio of breakup area to entire color-code area). First, we recruited volunteers to test the sensitivity and specificity of this new system in comparison with the routine method for tear stability analysis, tear film breakup time evaluation by slit-lamp microscope (SLE-BUT), with fluorescence staining. Second, we investigated the practicability of TSAS in dynamic evaluation of tear film stability before and after LASIK. TMS-BUT had a positive correlation with SLE-BUT, whereas TMS-BUA showed a negative correlation. Although they showed similar rates of specificity as SLE-BUT, the sensitivity rates of TMS-BUT and TMS-BUA were 97.5% and 95%, respectively, significantly higher than that of SLE-BUT (75%). The study on patients subject to LASIK showed that tear film stability significantly decreased during the early time period following LASIK and resolved at 6 months after surgery. Eyes that had abnormal TSAS evaluation tended to have higher risk of developing superficial punctuate keratitis and dry eye symptoms after LASIK, and their responses to treatment were slow. TSAS is a noninvasive and objective method with higher sensitivity for tear film stability analysis than SLE-BUT.

  1. Operative treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation: a new technique with suture anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jingwei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate clinical outcome of suture anchors in strengthening both acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments in the surgical treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with acute traumatic Rockwood III, IV and V dislocations of the acromioclavicular joint surgically treated at our institute between October 2010 and January 2012 were recruited. All patients underwent open reduction combined with suture anchors. Function was evaluated using the ConstantMurley shoulder score. Clinical and radiographic shoulder ratings were evaluated using Taft criteria at 3, 6 and 12 months. Results:Two cases with fixation loosening were not included in final statistical analysis. Other patients obtained full joint reposition on immediate postoperative radiographs. Follow-up was performed with an average of 15.6 months (range, 12-19. After early range of motion exercises, 96.2% of the patients (25/26 could abduct and elevate their shoulders more than 90 degrees within postoperative 3 months. There was no infection. Average Constant-Murley score was 96.3 points (range, 94-100 and mean Taft shoulder rating was 10.7 points (range, 8-12 at 12 months. Conclusion: The suture anchor is a relatively simple technique and can avoid screw removal which is helpful in reconstructing both acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments in acute traumatic acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Key words: Acromioclavicular joint; Dislocations; Surgery; Suture anchors

  2. Midwives conducting perineal repair: The Danish Suture Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindberg, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Midwives conducting perineal repair: The Danish Suture Trial.     Background Suture techniques and materials for repair of 2nd degree perineal lacerations and episiotomies have been tested in several clinical trials. Danish midwives and obstetricians have developed a new, simple and time-efficien......Midwives conducting perineal repair: The Danish Suture Trial.     Background Suture techniques and materials for repair of 2nd degree perineal lacerations and episiotomies have been tested in several clinical trials. Danish midwives and obstetricians have developed a new, simple and time...

  3. Visual Measurement of Suture Strain for Robotic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Martell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive surgical procedures offer advantages of smaller incisions, decreased hospital length of stay, and rapid postoperative recovery to the patient. Surgical robots improve access and visualization intraoperatively and have expanded the indications for minimally invasive procedures. A limitation of the DaVinci surgical robot is a lack of sensory feedback to the operative surgeon. Experienced robotic surgeons use visual interpretation of tissue and suture deformation as a surrogate for tactile feedback. A difficulty encountered during robotic surgery is maintaining adequate suture tension while tying knots or following a running anastomotic suture. Displaying suture strain in real time has potential to decrease the learning curve and improve the performance and safety of robotic surgical procedures. Conventional strain measurement methods involve installation of complex sensors on the robotic instruments. This paper presents a noninvasive video processing-based method to determine strain in surgical sutures. The method accurately calculates strain in suture by processing video from the existing surgical camera, making implementation uncomplicated. The video analysis method was developed and validated using video of suture strain standards on a servohydraulic testing system. The video-based suture strain algorithm is shown capable of measuring suture strains of 0.2% with subpixel resolution and proven reliability under various conditions.

  4. Divalent cations in tears, and their influence on tear film stability in humans and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojia Eric; Markoulli, Maria; Millar, Thomas J; Willcox, Mark D P; Zhao, Zhenjun

    2012-06-05

    Reduced tear film stability is reported to contribute to dry eye. Rabbits are known to have a more stable tear film than humans. Thus, we sought to examine the tears of rabbits and humans for metal cations, and to test how they influence tear film stability. Tears were collected from 10 healthy humans and 6 rabbits. Tear osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometer, and metals analyzed using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry or ICP atomic emission spectroscopy. The influence of divalent cations on tears was analyzed by measuring surface tension using the Langmuir trough in vitro, using different concentrations of cations in the subphase, and grading the tear break-up in rabbits in vivo after instillation of chelating agents. Rabbit tears had a higher osmolality compared to humans. Major metals did not differ between species; however, rabbits had higher levels of Mg(2+) (1.13 vs. 0.39 mM) and Ca(2+) (0.75 vs. 0.36 mM). In rabbit tears in vitro, diminishing divalent cations resulted in a decrease in the maximum surface pressure from 37 to 30 mN/m. In vivo, an increase in the amount of tear film that was broken-up was found. In contrast, when changing divalent cation concentrations in human tears, the maximum surface pressure remained at 26 mN/m. The normal osmolality of rabbit tears is significantly higher than that in humans. While divalent cations had little influence on human tears, they appear to have an important role in maintaining tear film stability in rabbits.

  5. Comparison of Arterial Repair through the Suture, Suture with Fibrin or Cyanoacrylate Adhesive in Ex-Vivo Porcine Aortic Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius H. de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Tissue adhesives can be used as adjacent to sutures to drop or avoid bleeding in cardiovascular operations. Objective: To verify the efficiency of fibrin and cyanoacrylate adhesive to seal arterial sutures and if the adhesives penetrate through suture line to the inner of arteries. Methods: 20 abdominal aorta segments of pigs were divided into two groups according to the adhesive which would be used as adjacent to the suture. In every arterial segment an arteriotomy was done, followed by a conventional artery closure. Afterwards a colloidal fluid was injected inside the arterial segment with a simultaneous intravascular pressure monitoring up to a fluid leakage through the suture. This procedure was repeated after application of one of the adhesives on the suture in order to check if the bursting pressure increases. The inner aorta segments also were analyzed in order to check if there was intraluminal adhesive penetration. Results: In Suture 1 group, the mean arterial pressure sustained by the arterial suture reached 86±5.35 mmHg and after the fibrin adhesive application reached 104±11.96 (P<0.002. In the Suture 2 group, the mean arterial pressure sustained by the suture reached 83±2.67 mmHg and after the cyanoacrylate adhesive application reached 152±14.58 mmHg (P<0.002. Intraluminal adhesive penetration has not been noticed. Conclusion: There was a significant rise in the bursting pressure when tissue adhesives were used as adjacent to arterial suture, and this rise was higher if the cyanoacrylate adhesive was used. In addition, the adhesives do not penetrate through the suture line into the arteries.

  6. A new method for tear film stability analysis using videokeratography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomoko; Zheng, Xiaodong; Klyce, Stephen D; Kataoka, Hisashi; Uno, Toshihiko; Karon, Mike; Tatematsu, Yoshiyuki; Bessyo, Takeo; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2003-05-01

    To report a new tear film stability analysis system using videokeratography. Observational case series. New videokeratography software for TMS-2N (topographic modeling system; TOMEY Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) was developed that can automatically capture consecutive corneal surface images every second for 10 seconds. Forty-eight adult volunteers (80 eyes) were recruited for this study, and all subjects were examined with the new system. Corneal topographs were analyzed for tear breakup time (TMS-BUT) and the ratio of breakup area to entire color-code area (TMS-BUA) was calculated. Routine methods for tear film breakup time evaluation using slit-lamp microscope and fluorescence staining (SLE-BUT) were performed for comparison purposes. Regressive correlations of TMS-BUT or TMS-BUA with SLE-BUT were analyzed. Based on SLE results, subjects were separated into two groups with normal and short BUT, respectively. TMS-BUT and TMS-BUA were compared with SLE-BUT data with regard to the sensitivity and specificity of evaluation of dry eye symptoms. Topographic modeling system-tear breakup time (TMS-BUT) had a positive correlation with SLE-BUT (R = 0.7219, P TMS-BUA showed a negative correlation (R = 0.6317, P TMS-BUT, 9 (81.82%) of which were associated with dry eye symptoms. The sensitivities of TMS-BUT and TMS-BUA were 97.5% and 95%, respectively, significantly higher than that of SLE-BUT (75%), with P =.008 and 0.01, respectively. Topographic modeling system-BUT and TMS-BUA displayed a similar rate of specificity in comparison with SLE-BUT. This new videokeratography system is a noninvasive and objective method with increased sensitivity for tear film stability analysis.

  7. A review on hot tearing of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot tearing is often a major casting defect in magnesium alloys and has a significant impact on the quality of their casting products. Hot tearing of magnesium alloys is a complex solidification phenomenon which is still not fully understood, it is of great importance to investigate the hot tearing behaviour of magnesium alloys. This review attempts to summarize the investigations on hot tearing of magnesium alloys over the past decades. The hot tearing criteria including recently developed Kou's criterion are summarized and compared. The numeric simulation and assessing methods of hot tearing, factors influencing hot tearing, and hot tearing susceptibility (HTS of magnesium alloys are discussed.

  8. COMPARISON OF ABSORBABLE EXTRA LONG TERM POLY HYDROXY BUTYRATE SUTURE VS NON ABSORBABLE (POLYPROPYLENE SUTURE FOR ABDOMINAL WALL CLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of study is to compare Continuous technique with non - absorbable sutures, Interrupted technique with non - absorbable sutures and Continuous technique with slowly absorbable sutures Focusing mainly on incidence of incisional hernias, burst abdomen, wound infections, chronic wound pain, suture sinus, stitch granuloma, time for rectus closure. METHODOLOGY : Study was conducted for a period of one year on 271 randomized patients with primary elective midline laparotomy in our hospital . patients are divided into group I includes 102 patients with continuous technique using non absorbable polypropylene, group II includes 91 patients with interrupted technique using non absorbable polypropylene and group III includes 78 patients with continuous slowly absorbable polyhydroxybutyrate. RESULTS: No significant difference observed in incidence of wound infections and burst abdomen in all the 3 groups but relatively higher incidence of wound infections in noted our hospital. Incidence of stich granuloma suture sinus and chronic wound pain is more with interrupted technique than continuous technique and are more with non - absor bable suture material. CONCLUSION: Incidence of incisional hernias, suture complications like suture sinus, stitch granuloma can be more effectively reduced with slowly absorbable continuous sutures.

  9. Influence of Ophthalmic Solutions on Tear Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeyasu, Chika; Yamada, Masakazu; Akune, Yoko

    2016-11-01

    Tear fluids are a mixture of secretions derived from lacrimal glands, accessory lacrimal glands, conjunctiva, and meibomian glands. Compositional changes to tears occur in the normal state and during ocular surface disease, such as dry eye conditions. We have investigated compositional changes to tears after topical application of ophthalmic solutions, with regard to tear-specific proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lipocalin-1, and lysozyme) and ocular surface mucin in normal and dry eye conditions using high-performance liquid chromatography. After application of saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride) in normal subjects, transient but significant decreases in all tear components were observed. The recovery of protein concentrations took up to 30 minutes and lasted longer when the saline solution was applied more frequently. When applying ophthalmic solutions, a balance between washout and dilutional effects should be considered in addition to the therapeutic effect. Investigation of the effect of diquafosol solution (3%) in normal subjects revealed a significant increase in sialic acid concentration, a marker of ocular mucin, at 5 minutes after application, whereas a significant decrease was observed with saline. This result indicates the accelerated secretion of mucin from ocular tissues induced by diquafosol. A clinical study to determine the efficacy of diquafosol in patients with dry eye revealed improvements in tear breakup time, keratoconjunctival staining scores, and Schirmer test score, accompanied by an increase in sialic acid concentration in tears. Investigating normal and dry eye conditions through tear analysis may clarify the pathophysiology of dry eye conditions and support the efficacy of treatments.

  10. The social impact of emotional tears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van de Ven, N.; van der Velden, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The question what specific functions the production of emotional tears fulfills has received only limited attention of behavioral scientists. We report the results of two studies on the social impact of emotional tears. In Study 1 (96 Dutch females), perceived helplessness and felt connectedness

  11. Detecting meniscal tears in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeker, B.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Although meniscal tears are a very common phenomenon uncertainty exists about the diagnosis and treatment of meniscal tears in primary care. This thesis aims to provide evidence for general practitioners and physical therapists regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with a suspected

  12. Interferometric characterization of tear film dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeau, Brian Christopher

    The anterior refracting surface of the eye is the thin tear film that forms on the surface of the cornea. When a contact lens is on worn, the tear film covers the contact lens as it would a bare cornea, and is affected by the contact lens material properties. Tear film irregularity can cause both discomfort and vision quality degradation. Under normal conditions, the tear film is less than 10 microns thick and the thickness and topography change in the time between blinks. In order to both better understand the tear film, and to characterize how contact lenses affect tear film behavior, two interferometers were designed and built to separately measure tear film behavior in vitro and in vivo. An in vitro method of characterizing dynamic fluid layers applied to contact lenses mounted on mechanical substrates has been developed using a phase-shifting Twyman-Green interferometer. This interferometer continuously measures light reflected from the surface of the fluid layer, allowing precision analysis of the dynamic fluid layer. Movies showing this fluid layer behavior can be generated. The fluid behavior on the contact lens surface is measured, allowing quantitative analysis beyond what typical contact angle or visual inspection methods provide. The in vivo interferometer is a similar system, with additional modules included to provide capability for human testing. This tear film measurement allows analysis beyond capabilities of typical fluorescein visual inspection or videokeratometry and provides better sensitivity and resolution than shearing interferometry methods.

  13. Tear exchange and contact lenses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. The growth of the tearing mode - Boundary and scaling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinolfson, R. S.; Van Hoven, G.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical model of resistive magnetic tearing is developed in order to verify and relate the results of the principal approximations used in analytic analyses and to investigate the solutions and their growth-rate scalings over a large range of primary parameters which include parametric values applicable to the solar atmosphere. The computations cover the linear behavior for a variety of boundary conditions, emphasizing effects which differentiate magnetic tearing in astrophysical situations from that in laboratory devices. Eigenfunction profiles for long and short wavelengths are computed and the applicability of the 'constant psi' approximation is investigated. The growth rate is computed for values of the magnetic Reynolds number up to a trillion and of the dimensionless wavelength parameter down to 0.001. The analysis predicts significant effects due to differing values of the magnetic Reynolds number.

  15. Comparison of Clinical and Structural Outcomes by Subscapularis Tendon Status in Massive Rotator Cuff Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Nam, Dae Jin; Kim, Se Jin; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2017-09-01

    The subscapularis tendon is essential in maintaining normal glenohumeral biomechanics. However, few studies have addressed the outcomes of tears extending to the subscapularis tendon in massive rotator cuff tears. To assess the clinical and structural outcomes of arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears involving the subscapularis. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Between January 2010 and January 2014, 122 consecutive patients with massive rotator cuff tear underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Overall, 122 patients were enrolled (mean age, 66 years; mean follow-up period, 39.5 months). Patients were categorized into 3 groups based on subscapularis tendon status: intact subscapularis tendon (I group; n = 45), tear involving less than the superior one-third (P group; n = 35), and tear involving more than one-third of the subscapularis tendon (C group; n = 42). All rotator cuff tears were repaired; however, subscapularis tendon tears involving less than the superior one-third in P group were only debrided. Pain visual analog scale, Constant, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores and passive range of motion were measured preoperatively and at the final follow-up. Rotator cuff integrity, global fatty degeneration index, and occupation ratio were determined via magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. We identified 37 retears (31.1%) based on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging evaluation. Retear rate in patients in the C group (47.6%) was higher than that in the I group (22.9%) or P group (20.0%) ( P = .011). Retear subclassification based on the involved tendons showed that subsequent subscapularis tendon retears were noted in only the C group. The improvement in clinical scores after repair was statistically significant in all groups but not different among the groups. Between-group comparison showed significant differences in preoperative external rotation ( P = .021). However, no statistically

  16. Geophysical exploration of the Kalahari Suture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, J. S.; Mason, R.; Smith, P. H.

    2000-04-01

    Fancamp Resources Limited of Montreal, Canada, commenced exploration of the Kalahari Suture Zone in southwest Botswana in 1996, following the interpretation of airborne magnetic surveys covering 400 km of strike along the Kalahari Suture Zone. Initial focus was on mafic/ultramafic intrusions associated with the Tshane Complex as potential targets for CuNiPGM mineralization, but these targets are now considered to be too deeply buried (> 700 m) to be of economic significance at this time. The exploration focus has been redirected to several prospective large coincident magnetic/gravity anomalies. These are considered prospective targets for Olympic Dam-type CuCo mineralisation associated with alkaline intrusive complexes, and/or NiCuCoPGM mineralisation associated with basic intrusive complexes. The two most important and prospective targets are the so-called 'Great Red Spot' and Tsetseng Complex. Additional ground geophysical surveys and deep drilling are planned for the next phase of exploration. These large targets are of high priority and represent tremendous potential for mineral development in the sparsely populated area of western Botswana.

  17. Characterization of craniofacial sutures using the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloul, Asmaa; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Wagner, Diane; Whyne, Cari M

    2014-01-03

    Characterizing the biomechanical behavior of sutures in the human craniofacial skeleton (CFS) is essential to understand the global impact of these articulations on load transmission, but is challenging due to the complexity of their interdigitated morphology, the multidirectional loading they are exposed to and the lack of well-defined suture material properties. This study aimed to quantify the impact of morphological features, direction of loading and suture material properties on the mechanical behavior of sutures and surrounding bone in the CFS. Thirty-six idealized finite element (FE) models were developed. One additional specimen-specific FE model was developed based on the morphology obtained from a µCT scan to represent the morphological complexity inherent in CFS sutures. Outcome variables of strain energy (SE) and von Mises stress (σvm) were evaluated to characterize the sutures' biomechanical behavior. Loading direction was found to impact the relationship between SE and interdigitation index and yielded varied patterns of σvm in both the suture and surrounding bone. Adding bone connectivity reduced suture strain energy and altered the σvm distribution. Incorporating transversely isotropic material properties was found to reduce SE, but had little impact on stress patterns. High-resolution µCT scanning of the suture revealed a complex morphology with areas of high and low interdigitations. The specimen specific suture model results were reflective of SE absorption and σvm distribution patterns consistent with the simplified FE results. Suture mechanical behavior is impacted by morphologic factors (interdigitation and connectivity), which may be optimized for regional loading within the CFS. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deltoid muscle and tendon tears in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Recht, Michael P.; Iannotti, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of tears of the deltoid muscle and tendon in patients with rotator cuff tears and without a prior history of shoulder surgery. Deltoid tears diagnosed on MR examinations were prospectively recorded between February 2003 through June 2004. The images of these patients were then retrospectively reviewed to determine the location of the deltoid tear, the presence of rotator cuff tears, tendon retraction, muscle atrophy, degree of humeral head subluxation, bony erosive changes involving the undersurface of the acromion, and the presence of edema or fluid-like signal intensity in the deltoid muscle and overlying subcutaneous tissues. There were 24 (0.3%) patients with deltoid tears; nine men and 15 women. The age range was 54 to 87 (average 73) years. The right side was involved in 20 cases, and the left in four cases. Fifteen patients had full thickness and nine had partial thickness tears of the deltoid. Shoulder pain was the most common presenting symptom. The physical examination revealed a defect in the region of the deltoid in two patients. Nineteen patients had tears in the muscle belly near the musculotendinous junction, and five had avulsion of the tendon from the acromial origin. Full thickness rotator cuff tears were present in all of the patients, and 22 patients had associated muscle atrophy. Subcutaneous edema and fluid-like signal was present in 15 patients. Tears of the deltoid muscle or tendon is an unusual finding, but they can be seen in patients with chronic massive rotator cuff tears. Partial thickness tears tend to involve the undersurface of the deltoid muscle and tendon. Associated findings such as intramuscular cyst or ganglion in the deltoid muscle belly and subcutaneous edema or fluid-like signal overlying the deltoid in a patient with a rotator cuff tear should raise the suspicion of a deltoid tear. (orig.)

  19. Deltoid muscle and tendon tears in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Recht, Michael P. [Cleveland Clinic, Musculoskeletal Radiology/A21, Division of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Iannotti, Joseph P. [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-06-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of tears of the deltoid muscle and tendon in patients with rotator cuff tears and without a prior history of shoulder surgery. Deltoid tears diagnosed on MR examinations were prospectively recorded between February 2003 through June 2004. The images of these patients were then retrospectively reviewed to determine the location of the deltoid tear, the presence of rotator cuff tears, tendon retraction, muscle atrophy, degree of humeral head subluxation, bony erosive changes involving the undersurface of the acromion, and the presence of edema or fluid-like signal intensity in the deltoid muscle and overlying subcutaneous tissues. There were 24 (0.3%) patients with deltoid tears; nine men and 15 women. The age range was 54 to 87 (average 73) years. The right side was involved in 20 cases, and the left in four cases. Fifteen patients had full thickness and nine had partial thickness tears of the deltoid. Shoulder pain was the most common presenting symptom. The physical examination revealed a defect in the region of the deltoid in two patients. Nineteen patients had tears in the muscle belly near the musculotendinous junction, and five had avulsion of the tendon from the acromial origin. Full thickness rotator cuff tears were present in all of the patients, and 22 patients had associated muscle atrophy. Subcutaneous edema and fluid-like signal was present in 15 patients. Tears of the deltoid muscle or tendon is an unusual finding, but they can be seen in patients with chronic massive rotator cuff tears. Partial thickness tears tend to involve the undersurface of the deltoid muscle and tendon. Associated findings such as intramuscular cyst or ganglion in the deltoid muscle belly and subcutaneous edema or fluid-like signal overlying the deltoid in a patient with a rotator cuff tear should raise the suspicion of a deltoid tear. (orig.)

  20. Toroidal coupling and frequency spectrum of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edery, D.; Samain, A.

    1989-05-01

    The frequency spectrum of tearing modes is analyzed with the help of a mode coupling model including toroidal effects in the MHD regions and various non linear effects in the resonant layers. In particular it is shown that the sudden damping of the mode rotation and the simultaneous enhancement of the growth rate observed in tokamak, could be explained as a bifurcating solution of the dispersion equation

  1. A novel turbulence trigger for neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2003-07-01

    Stochastic trigger by microturbulence for neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) is studied. NTM induces topological change of magnetic structure and has subcritical nature. Transition rate of probability density function for and statistically-averaged amplitude of NTM are obtained. Boundary in the phase diagram is determined as the statistical long time average of the transition conditions. NTM can be excited by crossing this boundary even in the absence of other global instabilities. (author)

  2. 'The Closer'-percutaneous vascular suture device: evaluation of safety and performance in neuroangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henk, Christine B.; Grampp, Stephan; Heimberger, Karl; Czerny, Christian; Schindler, Erwin; Mostbeck, Gerhard H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of the suture mediated vascular closure device concerning practicability and safety in clinical angiography practice. Material and methods: One hundred and seventeen patients (59 female, 58 male, mean age 40.9±13.4) underwent percutaneous closure of common femoral arterial puncture sites following diagnostic neuroangiography using the suture device 'the Closer' (Perclose Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA). Primary success, early problems (within 24 h) and late complications were evaluated. Complications were graded as minor and severe with or without need of surgical intervention and categorized by type. Parameters such as age, gender, sheath size and number of previous arterial punctures were evaluated with respect to complications. Results: Percutaneous closure was primary successful in 85% (100/117). The overall complication rate was 32% (28% mild n=35, 4% severe n=6, which needed surgical intervention). All but one problem occurred within the first 24 h after the suture. Additional manual compression was necessary in 32 cases (25%). There was no significant difference in age and gender between the groups with and without complications. Sheath size was significantly larger (P<0.01) and numbers of preceding angiograms were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the complications group compared with uncomplicated cases. Conclusion: The evaluated percutaneous vascular suture device is useful in clinical practice but limitations concerning patient selection seem to emerge in order to avoid complications

  3. A novel technique for distal fingertip replantation: Polypropylene suture guided interpositional vein graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaci, Mehmet; Ince, Bilsev; Altuntas, Zeynep; Bitik, Ozan; Uzun, Hakan; Bilgen, Fatma

    2015-05-04

    Despite current advances in microsurgery, fingertip replantation is still controversial, mainly due to its difficulty and cost. The purpose of this study is to describe a new technique of interposition vein graft guided by polypropylene suture in distal fingertip replantation. A total of eight consecutive Tamai zone 1 fingertip replantations performed by the same author were included. All replantations were performed using interposition vein graft guided by polypropylene suture. This technique involved a vein graft of ∼ 2 cm, with appropriate calibration, obtained from the volar part of the forearm and a 2-0 polyprolene suture passed through the interposition vein graft. Then, a polypropylene suture guide carrying the vein graft was inserted into the artery. The anastomosis was easily performed with the aid of 10-0 or 11-0 nylon in a bloodless medium and without encountering the posterior wall problem. Average surgery time was 2.5 hours (range = 2-3 hours). Among eight Tamai zone 1 replantations, six were successful (75%). There were two replantations lost because of arterial failure. This technique may ease fingertip replantations and increase the success rate for Tamai zone 1 injuries.

  4. Virtual suturing simulation based on commodity physics engine for medical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kup-Sze; Chan, Sze-Ho; Pang, Wai-Man

    2012-06-01

    Development of virtual-reality medical applications is usually a complicated and labour intensive task. This paper explores the feasibility of using commodity physics engine to develop a suturing simulator prototype for manual skills training in the fields of nursing and medicine, so as to enjoy the benefits of rapid development and hardware-accelerated computation. In the prototype, spring-connected boxes of finite dimension are used to simulate soft tissues, whereas needle and thread are modelled with chained segments. Spherical joints are used to simulate suture's flexibility and to facilitate thread cutting. An algorithm is developed to simulate needle insertion and thread advancement through the tissue. Two-handed manipulations and force feedback are enabled with two haptic devices. Experiments on the closure of a wound show that the prototype is able to simulate suturing procedures at interactive rates. The simulator is also used to study a curvature-adaptive suture modelling technique. Issues and limitations of the proposed approach and future development are discussed.

  5. PCL tibial avulsion with an associated medial meniscal tear in a child: a case report on diagnosis and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries from tibial avulsions are rare in the paediatric setting. One would need a high index of suspicion as clinical examination may be difficult, especially in the early period. Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent diagnostic modality for this condition and other associated injuries within the knee. We report a rare case in which the patient had a PCL avulsion off the tibial insertion site with an associated posterior horn medial meniscal tear off the posterior capsule. He was treated through open reduction and internal fixation of the avulsed fragment with suture repair of the meniscal tear. We emphasize the importance of diagnosing and managing associated intra-articular injuries when dealing with the rare condition of PCL tibial avulsion in the paediatric setting.

  6. Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair With Graft Augmentation of 3-Dimensional Biological Collagen for Moderate to Large Tears: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, You-Zhi; Zhang, Chi; Jin, Ri-Long; Shen, Tong; Gu, Peng-Cheng; Lin, Xiang-Jin; Chen, Jian-De

    2018-05-01

    Due to the highly organized tissue and avascular nature of the rotator cuff, rotator cuff tears have limited ability to heal after the tendon is reinserted directly on the greater tubercle of the humerus. Consequently, retears are among the most common complications after rotator cuff repair. Augmentation of rotator cuff repairs with patches has been an active area of research in recent years to reduce retear rate. Graft augmentation with 3D collagen could prevent retears of the repaired tendon and improve tendon-bone healing in moderate to large rotator cuff tears. Randomized controlled study; Level of evidence, 2. A prospective, randomized controlled study was performed in a consecutive series of 112 patients age 50 to 85 years who underwent rotator cuff repair with the suture-bridge technique (58 patients, control group) or the suture-bridge technique augmented with 3-dimensional (3D) collagen (54 patients, study group). All patients were followed for 28.2 months (range, 24-36 months). Visual analog scale score for pain, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder score, and Constant score were determined. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed pre- and postoperatively (at a minimum of 24 months) to evaluate the integrity of the rotator cuff and the retear rate of the repaired tendon. Three patients in each group had biopsies at nearly 24 months after surgery with histological assessment and transmission electron microscopy. A total of 104 patients completed the final follow-up. At the 12-month follow-up, the UCLA shoulder score was 28.1 ± 1.9 in the study group, which was significantly better than that in the control group (26.9 ± 2.1, P = .002). The Constant score was also significantly better in the study group (87.1 ± 3.2) than in the control group (84.9 ± 4.2, P = .003). However, at the final follow-up, no significant differences were found in the UCLA shoulder scores (29.4 ± 1.9 in the control group and 30.0 ± 1.6 in the study group, P

  7. Bridge Suture for Successful McDonald Emergency Cerclage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Hori, Yoshiaki; Shirafuji, Aya; Kato, Mitsunori; Kato, Jyun; Kobayashi, Hiroto; Tsuchida, Toru; Fukae, Tsukasa

    2017-01-01

    To create awareness about a surgical technique termed bridge suture, which is performed as a pretreatment before a McDonald cerclage is performed on an emergency to treat severe cervical insufficiency. Procedures for bridge suture were reviewed in detail and outcomes of 16 patients treated with bridge suture followed by McDonald cerclage were evaluated retrospectively. Using the bridge suture, the edges of uterine cervix were temporarily sutured and the external uterine os was closed, while the hourglass-shaped fetal membranes were concomitantly confined within the cervix; subsequently, a McDonald cerclage was performed. Over a 22-year period, 16 patients with a dilated cervix and bulging fetal membranes were treated using the technique of bridge suture followed by an emergency cerclage. The mean gestational age at cerclage was 22.5 weeks; the mean gestational age at delivery was 30.7 weeks; and the mean interval between cerclage and delivery was 8.2 weeks. In 15 out of 16 cases, cerclage was performed without encountering any complications. No maternal complications, including cervical laceration, were observed. The mean body weight of 17 neonates, including that of a twin, was 1,516 g and of them, 15 neonates survived. The important outcome of bridge suture is the replacement of fetal membranes back into the uterine cavity before McDonald's cerclage is performed. Pretreatment with bridge suture may facilitate the performance of a successful emergency cerclage and contribute to good maternal and neonatal outcomes. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair: The Iberian Suture Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Allston J.; Andersen, Jason S.; Mannava, Sandeep; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Howse, Elizabeth A.; Winter, S. Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic hip labral repair has beneficial short-term outcomes; however, debate exists regarding ideal surgical labral repair technique. This technical note presents an arthroscopic repair technique that uses intrasubstance labral suture passage to restore the chondrolabral interface. This “Iberian suture technique” allows for an anatomic repair while posing minimal risk of damage to the labral and chondral tissues.

  9. Robot-assisted bronchoplasty using continuous barbed sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsam, Omar Matthieu; Dunning, Joel; Pochulu, Bruno; Baste, Jean-Marc

    2018-01-01

    We describe in this article our bronchoplastic robot-assisted techniques. This consists of using continuous barbed sutures. Our aim is to show the feasibility and the interest of using robotics and this kind of suture material for complex bronchial procedures. We report four cases in France and the UK, two wedge bronchoplasties and two sleeve bronchoplasties for central pulmonary tumors.

  10. Mechanical model of suture joints with fibrous connective layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Kateryna; Liu, Lei; Tsukrov, Igor; Li, Yaning

    2018-02-01

    A composite model for suture joints with a connective layer of aligned fibers embedded in soft matrix is proposed. Based on the principle of complementary virtual work, composite cylinder assemblage (CCA) approach and generalized self-consistent micro-mechanical models, a hierarchical homogenization methodology is developed to systematically quantify the synergistic effects of suture morphology and fiber orientation on the overall mechanical properties of sutures. Suture joints with regular triangular wave-form serve as an example material system to apply this methodology. Both theoretical and finite element mechanical models are developed and compared to evaluate the overall normal stiffness of sutures as a function of wavy morphology of sutures, fiber orientation, fiber volume fraction, and the mechanical properties of fibers and matrix in the interfacial layer. It is found that generally due to the anisotropy-induced coupling effects between tensile and shear deformation, the effective normal stiffness of sutures is highly dependent on the fiber orientation in the connective layer. Also, the effective shear modulus of the connective layer and the stiffness ratio between the fiber and matrix significantly influence the effects of fiber orientation. In addition, optimal fiber orientations are found to maximize the stiffness of suture joints.

  11. Suture associated corneal abscess three years after cataract surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abscess was carefully removed on slit lamp using blunt tipped forceps without breaking the thin membrane covering it. There was a deep corneal depression at the bottom of which was found a loose 10/0 nylon corneoscleral suture. Another loose suture was present at the 12 o'clock position surrounded by stromal ...

  12. Clinical results of a surgical technique using endobuttons for complete tendon tear of pectoralis major muscle: report of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchiyama Yoshiyasu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We herein describe a surgical technique for the repair of complete tear of the pectoralis major (PM tendon using endobuttons to strengthen initial fixation. Methods Five male patients (3 judo players, 1 martial arts player, and 1 body builder were treated within 2 weeks of sustaining complete tear of the PM tendon. Average age at surgery and follow-up period were 28.4 years (range, 23-33 and 28.8 months (range, 24-36. A rectangular bone trough (about 1 × 4 cm was created on the humerus at the insertion of the distal PM tendon. The tendon stump was introduced into this trough, and fixed to the reverse side of the humeral cortex using endobuttons and non-absorbable suture. Clinical assessment of re-tear was examined by MRI. Shoulder range of motion (ROM, outcome of treatment, and isometric power were measured at final follow-up. Results There were no clinical re-tears, and MRI findings also showed continuity of the PM tendon in all cases at final follow-up. Average ROM did not differ significantly between the affected and unaffected shoulders. The clinical outcomes at final follow-up were excellent (4/5 cases or good (1/5. In addition, postoperative isometric power in horizontal flexion of the affected shoulder showed complete recovery when compared with the unaffected side. Conclusions Satisfactory outcomes could be obtained when surgery using the endobutton technique was performed within 2 weeks after complete tear of the PM tendon. Therefore, our new technique appears promising as a useful method to treat complete tear of the PM tendon.

  13. Percentage Level of Tannin fur Rabbit for Leather Concerning Stitch Tearing Strength, Tearing Strength and Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the appropriate of tannin level for rabbit fur leather concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength, and flexibility. The result were expected to contribute good information for the society, leather craftsman, and further researchers about fur leather tanning especially rabbit fur leather with tannin concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength and flexibility. The material that used were 12 pieces of four months of rabbit skin. The research method was Completely Randomized Design, consist of three treatments of tannin, they were: M1 (mimosa 15%, M2 (mimosa 20%, and M3 (mimosa 25%. Each of treatment hold on four repetition, the variables which measured were stitch tearing strength, tearing strength, and flexibility of fur leather. Data were  analysed by analysis variance followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result of this research indicate that the use level of tannin give significant influence (P<0.05 among stitch tearing strength, tearing strength. It gave a very significant influence (P<0.01 for flexibility of rabbit fur leather. Based on the result, can be concluded that 25 % of tannin (mimosa, produce the best  result on stitch tearing strength and tearing strength. The increase of tannin offer will decrease the flexibility of fur leather but the lowest tannin produced the best flexibility of fur leather (15 percent. The best quality of rabbit fur leather produced by 25 % of tannin.   Keywords : leather, tannin, quality

  14. Mass spectrometric identification of phospholipids in human tears and tear lipocalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Austin W; Glasgow, Ben J

    2012-04-02

    The purpose of this article was to identify by mass spectrometry phosphocholine lipids in stimulated human tears and determine the molecules bound to tear lipocalin or other proteins. Tear proteins were separated isocratically from pooled stimulated human tears by gel filtration fast performance liquid chromatography. Separation of tear lipocalin was confirmed by SDS tricine gradient PAGE. Protein fractions were extracted with chloroform/methanol and analyzed with electrospray ionization MS/MS triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in precursor ion scan mode for select leaving groups. For quantification, integrated ion counts were derived from standard curves of authentic compounds of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine. Linear approximation was possible from integration of the mass spectrometrically obtained ion peaks at 760 Da for the PC standard. Tears contained 194 ng/mL of the major intact PC (34:2), m/z 758.6. Ten other monoisotopic phosphocholines were found in tears. A peak at 703.3 Da was assigned as a sphingomyelin. Four lysophosphatidylcholines (m/z 490-540) accounted for about 80% of the total integrated ion count. The [M+H](+) compound, m/z 496.3, accounted for 60% of the signal intensity. Only the tear lipocalin-bearing fractions showed phosphocholines (104 ng/mL). Although the intact phospholipids bound to tear lipocalin corresponded precisely in mass and relative signal intensity to that found in tears, we did not identify phosphocholines between m/z 490 and 540 in any of the gel-filtration fractions. Phospholipids, predominantly lysophospholipids, are present in tears. The higher mass intact PCs in tears are native ligands of tear lipocalin.

  15. Long Term Effects of Tear Gases on Respiratory System: Analysis of 93 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peri Arbak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to assess the long-term respiratory effects of tear gases among the subjects with history of frequent exposure. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire by NIOSH and pulmonary function tests was performed in 93 males exposed to the tear gases frequently and 55 nonexposed subjects. Results. The mean numbers of total exposure and last 2 years exposure were 8.4±6.4 times, 5.6±5.8 times, respectively. Tear gas exposed subjects were presented with a higher rate for cough and phlegm more than 3 months (24.7% versus 11.3%, P>0.05. Mean FEV1/FVC and % predicted MMFR in smoker exposed subjects are significantly lower than those in smoker controls (81.7% versus 84.1%, P=0.046 and 89.9% versus 109.6%, P=0.0004, resp.. % predicted MMFR in nonsmoker exposed subjects is significantly lower than that in nonsmoker controls (99.4% versus 113.1%, P=0.05. Odds ratios for chest tightness, exercise dyspnea, dyspnea on level ground, winter morning cough, phlegm, and daily phlegm were increased almost 2 to 2.5 folds among tear gas exposed subjects. Conclusion. The rates for respiratory complaints were high in the case of the exposure to the tear gases previously. Tears gas exposed subjects were found to be under the risk for chronic bronchitis.

  16. Kinetic theory of tearing instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Dobrott, D.; Wang, T.S.

    1975-01-01

    The guiding-center kinetic equation with Fokker-Planck collision term is used to study, in cylindrical geometry, a class of dissipative instabilities of which the classical tearing mode is an archetype. Variational solution of the kinetic equation obviates the use of an approximate Ohm's law or adiabatic assumption, as used in previous studies, and it provides a dispersive relation which is uniformly valid for any ratio of wave frequency to collision frequency. One result of using the rigorous collision operator is the prediction of a new instability. This instability, driven by the electron temperature gradient, is predicted to occur under the long mean-free path conditions of present tokamak experiments, and has significant features in common with the kink-like oscillations observed in such experiments

  17. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  18. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, E A; Tiffany, J M; Yokoi, N; Bron, A J

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  19. Flexor tendon repair with a knotless, bidirectional barbed suture: an in vivo biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Grady E; Ludwig, Jonathan; Craig, Eric R; Woods, David; Joiner, Aaron; Chaudhari, Nilesh; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Siegal, Gene P; Eberhardt, Alan; Ponce, Brent

    2015-05-01

    To compare and analyze biomechanical properties and histological characteristics of flexor tendons either repaired by a 4-strand modified Kessler technique or using barbed suture with a knotless repair technique in an in vivo model. A total of 25 chickens underwent surgical transection of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon followed by either a 4-strand Kessler repair or a knotless repair with barbed suture. Chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups with various postoperative times to death. Harvested tendons were subjected to biomechanical testing or histologic analysis. Harvested tendons revealed failures in 25% of knotless repairs (8 of 32) and 8% of 4-strand Kessler repairs (2 of 24). Biomechanical testing revealed no significant difference in tensile strength between 4-strand Kessler and barbed repairs; however, this lack of difference may be attributed to lower statistical power. We noted a trend toward a gradual decrease in strength over time for barbed repairs, whereas we noticed the opposite for the 4-strand Kessler repairs. Mode of failure during testing differed between repair types. The barbed repairs tended toward suture breakage as opposed to 4-strand Kessler repairs, which demonstrated suture pullout. Histological analysis identified no difference in the degree of inflammation or fibrosis; however, there was a vigorous foreign body reaction around the 4-strand Kessler repair and no such response around the barbed repairs. In this model, knotless barbed repairs trended toward higher in vivo failure rates and biomechanical inferiority under physiologic conditions, with each repair technique differing in mode of failure and respective histologic reaction. We are unable to recommend the use of knotless barbed repair over the 4-strand modified Kessler technique. For the repair techniques tested, surgeons should prefer standard Kessler repairs over the described knotless technique with barbed suture. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery

  20. Suture spanning augmentation of single-row rotator cuff repair: a biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Nicholas A; Elias, John J; Lippitt, Steven B; Filipkowski, Danielle E; Pedowitz, Robert A; Ciccone, William J

    2017-02-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the biomechanical benefit of adding spanning sutures to single-row rotator cuff repair. Mechanical testing was performed to evaluate 9 pairs of cadaveric shoulders with complete rotator cuff repairs, with a single-row technique used on one side and the suture spanning technique on the other. The spanning technique included sutures from 2 lateral anchors securing tendon near the musculotendinous junction, spanning the same anchor placement from single-row repair. The supraspinatus muscle was loaded to 100 N at 0.25 Hz for 100 cycles, followed by a ramp to failure. Markers and a video tracking system measured anterior and posterior gap formation across the repair at 25-cycle intervals. The force at which the stiffness decreased by 50% and 75% was determined. Data were compared using paired t-tests. One single-row repair failed at row repairs than for the suture spanning technique. The difference was statistically significant at all cycles for the posterior gap formation (P ≤ .02). The trends were not significant for the anterior gap (P ≥ .13). The loads at which the stiffness decreased by 50% and 75% did not differ significantly between the 2 types of repair (P ≥ .10). The suture spanning technique primarily improved posterior gap formation. Decreased posterior gap formation could reduce failure rates for rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Deformation behavior of curling strips on tearing tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Kwon, Tae Soo; Jung, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jin Sung [Dept. of Robotics and Virtual Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper discusses the analysis of the curl deformation behavior when a dynamic force is applied to a tearing tube installed on a flat die to predict the energy absorption capacity and deformation behavior. The deformation of the tips of the curling strips was obtained when the curl tips and tube body are in contact with each other, and a formula describing the energy dissipation rate caused by the deformation of the curl tips is proposed. To improve this formula, we focused on the variation of the curl radius and the reduced thickness of the tube. A formula describing the mean curl radius is proposed and verified using the curl radius measurement data of collision test specimens. These improved formulas are added to the theoretical model previously proposed by Huang et al. and verified from the collision test results of a tearing tube.

  2. The resistive tearing instability for generalized resistivity models: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, G.T.; Otto, A.

    1991-01-01

    The dispersion relation for the resistive tearing mode is investigated with a general form of the resistivity that allows for evaluating the dependence of the mode on the anomalous dissipation caused by the lower-hybrid-drift turbulence and the ion-acoustic turbulence. The coupling of the plasma dynamic and radiative processes due to a temperature-dependent Spitzer resistivity are also discussed. The dispersion relation is solved numerically for two-dimensional equilibrium configurations with applications to the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar corona. In the case of the parameter regimes of the magnetopause and the solar corona, growth rates that result in realistic time scales for the respective dynamic processes as flux transfer events and solar flares were found. Moreover, the influence of a nonvanishing component of the magnetic field normal to the current sheet on the dispersion relation is examined. The normal field component leads to overstable modes and the growth rate of the pure tearing mode is not altered, whereas the radiative tearing mode is damped effectively

  3. Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs with normal tear film were evaluated with a full ophthalmoscopic examination and a Schirmer tear test type 1 ...

  4. US detection of rotator cuff tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soble, M.G.; Guay, R.C.; Kaye, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Between June 1986 and April 1988, 75 patients suspected of having a tear of the rotator cuff underwent shoulder sonography and arthrography. Compared with anthrography, US demonstrated 92% of rotor cuff tears, with a specificity of 84% and a negative predictive value of 95%. In 30 patients who underwent surgery for a rotator cuff tear or other soft-tissue abnormality, sonography demonstrated a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 73%, while arthrography demonstrated a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 100%. The above data indicate that US is a useful, noninvasive screening procedure for patients suspected of having rotator cuff injury

  5. The hip fluid seal--Part II: The effect of an acetabular labral tear, repair, resection, and reconstruction on hip stability to distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepple, Jeffrey J; Philippon, Marc J; Campbell, Kevin J; Dornan, Grant J; Jansson, Kyle S; LaPrade, Robert F; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2014-04-01

    The acetabular labrum is theorized to be important to normal hip function by providing stability to distraction forces through the suction effect of the hip fluid seal. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of the hip capsule and labrum to the distractive stability of the hip, and to characterize hip stability to distraction forces in six labral conditions: intact labrum, labral tear, labral repair (looped vs. through sutures), partial resection, labral reconstruction with iliotibial band, and complete resection. Eight cadaveric hips with a mean age of 47.8 years (SD 4.3, range 41-51 years) were included. For each condition, the hip seal was broken by distracting the hip at a rate of 0.33 mm/s while the required force, energy, and negative intra-articular pressure were measured. For comparisons between labral conditions, measurements were normalized to the intact labral state (percent of intact). The relative contribution of the labrum to distractive stability was greatest at 1 and 2 mm of displacement, where it was significantly greater than the role of the capsule and accounted for 77 % (SD 27 %, p = 0.006) and 70 % (SD 7 %, p = 0.009) of total distractive stability, respectively. The relative contribution of the capsule to distractive stability increased with progressive displacement, providing 41 % (SD 49 %) and 52 % (SD 53 %) of distractive stability at 3 and 5 mm of distraction, respectively. The maximal distraction force required to break the hip seal in the intact labral state (capsule removed) varied from 124 to 150 N. Labral tear, partial resection, and complete resection resulted in average maximal distraction forces of 76 % (SD 34 %), 29 % (SD 26 %), and 27 % (SD 22 %), respectively, compared to the intact state. Through type labral repairs resulted in significantly greater improvements (from the labral tear state) in maximal negative pressure generated, compared to looped type repairs (median increase; +32 vs. -9 %, p

  6. Complications with mechanical suture use in colorectal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, G.; Ruso, L.; Gatti, A.; Quiros, F.; Balboa, O.

    1998-01-01

    The great development of mechanical suture and its qualitative impact in colorectal surgery has not been able to avoid persistent mortality due to suture failure which is still about 5% and rectal stenosis, which is significantly higher than with manual sutures.The present paper analyses 63 cases of colorrectal anastomosis performed of coordination with mechanical suture at CASMU, in a period of four years (1991-1995).There were 51 rectum resections and colorrectal anastomosis and 12 reconstruction of intestinal transit.There were 28 females and 35 males with and average age of 66 years.Three patients died (4,7%), 20 (31,7%) suffered various complications among which some are pointed out in relation to mechanical suture to suture failures(3,1%) who died and 8 rectal stenosis(12,9%)with favourable evolution after dilations.The authors analyse the issues that incide on the production of complications in colorrectal surgery and conclude that the incidence of global complications in their series is elevated, although mortality, suture failure and rectal stenosis figures are comparable to those in international literature analysed.The incidence of machine width proximal ostomies and radiotherapy on the development of stenosis in our milieu require a multicentric studie with a greater number of patients

  7. Ectocranial suture fusion in primates: pattern and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, James; Cooper, Gregory M; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2014-03-01

    Patterns of ectocranial suture fusion among Primates are subject to species-specific variation. In this study, we used Guttman Scaling to compare modal progression of ectocranial suture fusion among Hominidae (Homo, Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo), Hylobates, and Cercopithecidae (Macaca and Papio) groups. Our hypothesis is that suture fusion patterns should reflect their evolutionary relationship. For the lateral-anterior suture sites there appear to be three major patterns of fusion, one shared by Homo-Pan-Gorilla, anterior to posterior; one shared by Pongo and Hylobates, superior to inferior; and one shared by Cercopithecidae, posterior to anterior. For the vault suture pattern, the Hominidae groups reflect the known phylogeny. The data for Hylobates and Cercopithecidae groups is less clear. The vault suture site termination pattern of Papio is similar to that reported for Gorilla and Pongo. Thus, it may be that some suture sites are under larger genetic influence for patterns of fusion, while others are influenced by environmental/biomechanic influences. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  9. Role of ultrasound in rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, H.A.; Mirza, T.

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound in rotator cuff tears and to compare it with MRI. Total number of patients was thirty. All of these were above thirty years of age and were referred by clinicians, with shoulder pain for diagnostic workup. Post operative patients were excluded. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were performed on each patient. Same operator performed ultrasound in all patients. Ultrasound (US) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) detected equal number of full thickness tears while two partial thickness tears were missed on US. Hypoechoic defect was the most important primary sign while cortical irregularity and fluid in subacromial and subdeltroid busra were the most important secondary signs on US. US was equally effective to MRI in detection of rotator cuff tears. It should be the primary investigation because of its availability, cost effective and real time evaluation provided significant expertise is developed, as it is highly operator dependent. (author)

  10. An Athlete's Nightmare: Tearing the ACL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the balls of their feet. "If the calf muscles are not absorbing the force, and if the knee is not in the proper position, the knee buckles and tears the ACL," explains Dr. Boden. After her initial ...

  11. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Matthewson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized.

  12. Tearing mode analysis in tokamaks, revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    1997-12-01

    A new Δ' shooting code has been developed to investigate tokamak plasma tearing mode stability in a cylinder and large aspect ratio (ε ≤ 0.25) toroidal geometries, neglecting toroidal mode coupling. A different computational algorithm is used (shooting out from the singular surface instead of into it) to resolve the strong singularities at the mode rational surface, particularly in the presence of finite pressure term. Numerical results compare favorably with Furth et al. results. The effects of finite pressure, which are shown to decrease Δ', are discussed. It is shown that the distortion of the flux surfaces by the Shafranov shift, which modifies the geometry metric element stabilizes the tearing mode significantly, even in a low β regime before the toroidal magnetic curvature effects come into play. Double tearing modes in toroidal geometries are examined as well. Furthermore, m ≥ 2 tearing mode stability criteria are compared with three dimensional initial value MHD simulation by the FAR code

  13. A two-crown finite element technique for the determination of tearing modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, X.Z.; Combescure, A.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of approach to the subject of crack instability for the design of structures containing cracks has increased considerably over the last few years. The tearing modulus theory recently enunciated by Paris and co-workers has emerged as one of the leading criterions for stable crack growth and for instability, and the estimation of T termed Tearing modulus in the theory has since been extensively investigated theoretically as well as experimentally. Analytical methods exist for calculating the tearing modulus of various crack configurations in simple-shaped structures under certain loading conditions. However, for arbitrary structures under general loading, more sophisticated calculation techniques are required. Extending the virtual crack extension method introduced independently by Hellen and Parks, a new numerical approach for calculating the tearing modulus is presented hereafter and put in a form suitable for the instability analysis of structures containing one single crack or several interacting cracks. As it is well-known that the calculation of the energy release rate in elasticity by the virtual crack extension method is related to a stiffness derivative to which only a small region around the crack tip has a contribution, the technique described in the paper shows that it would be reasonable to evaluate the tearing modulus, or rather, the second derivative of potential energy with respect to the crack length, by means of two stiffness derivative calculations in two crowns around the crack tip. In particular, when one crown is strictly included in another one, computation is largely curtailed at this point with some saving of computer time, but a very accurate value of tearing modulus is obtained. As an interesting consequence, an another expression of the tearing modulus is carried out. In Section 4: the classical tearing modulus is proved to be precisely equivalent to a line integral which is independent of integration path. Numerical example

  14. Collisionless tearing mode reconnection at the dayside magnetopause of the earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quest, K.B.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine if the collisionless tearing mode, a plasma instability, is a viable mechanism for interconnecting field lines at the dayside magnetopause. More generally, it was wished to test theoretically the assertion that collisionless tearing is a probable first step in cosmical reconnection. The procedure was to model the magnetopause as a local one-dimensional Vlasov equilibrium, and then calculate the linear and nonlinear stability properties of tearing and tearing-like oscillations. Quantitative estimates of the range of plasma parameter space over which significant growth occurs were obtained. Assuming that significant tearing mode growth implies significant reconnection, conditions were determined for which tearing will be important to dayside reconnection. Linearly it was found that the growth rate is relatively insensitive to the temperature of the species, but depends sensitively on (1) the thickness of the magnetopause current, (2) the number density at the location of the singular layer, and (3) the magnitude of the magnetic shear. For significant linear growth the magnetopause half-sheet thickness was required to be on the order of or less than a thermal ion gyroradius, the number density was required to be no more than 100 cm - 3 , and the magnetosheath field was required to be locally antialigned with the magnetospheric field. If the above conditions are met, which are stringent but not impossible, the mode will linearly amplify. Another topic examined is the question of the structure of the tearing eigenmodes at the dayside magnetopause. By considering finite transit time effects on electron Landau resonance it was concluded that magnetopause tearing turbulence probably occurs in spatially bounded wave packets

  15. Efficacy of artificial tears for children xerophthalmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the efficacy and safety of artificial tears for children xerophthalmia.METHODS:Fifty-eight cases with 116 eyes were diagnosed as xerophthalmia by tear break-up time(BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test(SⅠt, tear meniscus height, corneal staining, meibomian gland function test and were given artificial tears therapy for 1mo. Then the aforementioned tests were conducted again for statistical analysis.RESULTS:The mean BUT of all the children before treatments was 6.03±1.19s, SⅠt was 7.67±2.32mm/5min, tear meniscus height was 0.20±0.02mm, corneal staining was 1.02±0.13 scores and meibomian gland function was 2.45±0.86 scores. Sixty-two eyes in 31 cases were the lipid-deficient type, 40 eyes in 20 cases were aqueous-deficient type, and 14 eyes in 7 cases were other types. According to their types, corresponding artificial tears therapy was given. At 1mo after treatments, the clinical symptoms were improved significantly. BUT was 13.72±1.83s, SⅠt was 12.38±3.64mm/5min, tear meniscus height was 0.36±0.08mm, corneal fluorescein staining was 0.03±0.24 scores and meibomian gland function was 1.57±0.93 scores. Compared with those before treatments, the difference of each observed indicators was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION:Artificial tears treatment for children xerophthalmia is safe and effective.

  16. Ponderomotive modification of drift tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquijo, G.; Singh, R.; Sen, A.

    1997-01-01

    The linear characteristics of drift tearing modes are investigated in the presence of a significant background of radio-frequency (RF) waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The ponderomotive force, arising from the radial gradients in the RF field energy, is found to significantly modify the inner layer solutions of the drift tearing modes. It can have a stabilizing influence, even at moderate RF powers, provided the field energy has a decreasing radial profile at the mode rational surface. (author)

  17. Human tears reveal insights into corneal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nadia; Van Grasdorff, Sigi; Wouters, Kristien; Rozema, Jos; Koppen, Carina; Lion, Eva; Cools, Nathalie; Berneman, Zwi; Tassignon, Marie-José

    2012-01-01

    Corneal neovascularization results from the encroachment of blood vessels from the surrounding conjunctiva onto the normally avascular cornea. The aim of this study is to identify factors in human tears that are involved in development and/or maintenance of corneal neovascularization in humans. This could allow development of diagnostic tools for monitoring corneal neovascularization and combination monoclonal antibody therapies for its treatment. In an observational case-control study we enrolled a total of 12 patients with corneal neovascularization and 10 healthy volunteers. Basal tears along with reflex tears from the inferior fornix, superior fornix and using a corneal bath were collected along with blood serum samples. From all patients, ocular surface photographs were taken. Concentrations of the pro-angiogenic cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) and Fas Ligand (FasL) were determined in blood and tear samples using a flow cytometric multiplex assay. Our results show that the concentration of pro-angiogenic cytokines in human tears are significantly higher compared to their concentrations in serum, with highest levels found in basal tears. Interestingly, we could detect a significantly higher concentration of IL- 6, IL-8 and VEGF in localized corneal tears of patients with neovascularized corneas when compared to the control group. This is the first study of its kind demonstrating a significant difference of defined factors in tears from patients with neovascularized corneas as compared to healthy controls. These results provide the basis for future research using animal models to further substantiate the role of these cytokines in the establishment and maintenance of corneal neovascularization.

  18. Fixation in laparoscopic incisional hernia repair: Suture versus tacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Bangash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To compare the frequency of complications of laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia using fixation of mesh with transabdominal sutures tacks. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as part of an interventional multicenter trial at the Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar, Peshawar Institute of Medical Sciences, and Pakistan Institute of Medical Science, Islamabad, from the 1 st of November 2008 till 31 st October 2011. The frequency of complications was calculated as the measure of comparing two methods of fixation in laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia using the IPOM technique. These patients were admitted via the outpatient department and their demographic data were collected on a pro forma basis. Forty-five patients were alternately placed in either group, and group I comprised patients with a ventral hernia that was fixed using spiral tacks whereas the other group was fixed with transabdominal sutures. A polytetraflouroethylene (Dual R mesh was applied in all cases. All data were collected onthe individual pro forma of each patient and was loaded on the SPSS R version 13.0. Results: The BMI in both groups was similar (P=0.94 The mean hospital stay was higher in the PTFE mesh group but the values were not significant (P=1.22.No perioperative death was observed in either group. One patient (2.2% from group I was readmitted with varying complaints and was diagnosed as having subacute intestinal obstruction (P>0.05. A higher but insignificant recurrence rate was observed in the polyester group over a one-year period of follow-up. Three patients (6.6% were diagnosed with recurrences in group I. Instead the PTFE group had a similar recurrence rate recurrence (P=1.00. Conclusion: The rate of recurrence in this study showed no significant difference by either mode of fixation. But statistically significant pain scores and increased operative time to fixation favors the use of tacks that limits to the few inner

  19. Prediction of Hot Tearing Using a Dimensionless Niyama Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Charles; Beckermann, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    The dimensionless form of the well-known Niyama criterion is extended to include the effect of applied strain. Under applied tensile strain, the pressure drop in the mushy zone is enhanced and pores grow beyond typical shrinkage porosity without deformation. This porosity growth can be expected to align perpendicular to the applied strain and to contribute to hot tearing. A model to capture this coupled effect of solidification shrinkage and applied strain on the mushy zone is derived. The dimensionless Niyama criterion can be used to determine the critical liquid fraction value below which porosity forms. This critical value is a function of alloy properties, solidification conditions, and strain rate. Once a dimensionless Niyama criterion value is obtained from thermal and mechanical simulation results, the corresponding shrinkage and deformation pore volume fractions can be calculated. The novelty of the proposed method lies in using the critical liquid fraction at the critical pressure drop within the mushy zone to determine the onset of hot tearing. The magnitude of pore growth due to shrinkage and deformation is plotted as a function of the dimensionless Niyama criterion for an Al-Cu alloy as an example. Furthermore, a typical hot tear "lambda"-shaped curve showing deformation pore volume as a function of alloy content is produced for two Niyama criterion values.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of single-helicity neoclassical MHD tearing instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, D.A.; Shaing, K.C.; Carreras, B.A.; Callen, J.D.; Garcia, L.

    1988-10-01

    Neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects can significantly alter the nonlinear evolution of resistive tearing instabilities. This is studied numerically by using a flux-surface-averaged set of evolution equations that includes the lowest-order neoclassical MHD effects. The new terms in the equations are fluctuating bootstrap current, neoclassical modification of the resistivity, and neoclassical damping of the vorticity. Single-helicity tearing modes are studied in a cylindrical model over a range of neoclassical viscosities (μ/sub e//ν/sup e/) and values of the Δ' parameter of tearing mode theory. Increasing the neoclassical viscosity leads to increased growth rate and saturated island width as predicted analytically. The larger island width is caused by the fluctuating bootstrap current contribution in Ohm's law. The Δ' parameter no longer solely determines the island width, and finite-width saturated islands may be obtained even when Δ' is negative. The importance of the bootstrap current (/approximately/∂/rho///partial derivative/psi/) in the nonlinear dynamics leads us to examine the sensitivity of the results with respect to different models for the density evolution. 11 refs., 8 figs

  1. Bacterial adhesion to suture material in a contaminated wound model: Comparison of monofilament, braided, and barbed sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhom, Jonas; Bloes, Dominik A; Peschel, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulf K

    2017-04-01

    Contaminated suture material plays an important role in the physiopathology of surgical site infections. Recently, suture material has been developed characterized by barbs projecting from a monofilament base. Claimed advantages for barbed sutures are a shortened wound closure time and reduced maximum wound tension. It has also been suggested that these sutures would be advantageous microbiologically. The aim of this study was to test the microbiological characteristics of the barbed Quill in comparison to the monofilament Ethilon II and the braided sutures Vicryl and triclosan-coated Vicryl Plus. In our study, sutures were cultivated on color-change agar with Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the halo size was measured. In a second study arm with longer cultivation bacterial growth was followed by antibiotic treatment. Ethilon II and Quill showed good comparable results, whereas large halos were found around Vicryl. Vicryl Plus results depended on triclosan sensitivity. After longer bacterial cultivation and antibiotic treatment, halos were up to 3.6 times smaller on Quill than on Vicryl (p barbs on Quill. From a microbiological perspective, barbed sutures can be recommended in aseptic surgery, but should only be used carefully in septic surgery. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:925-933, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. MonoMax Suture: A New Long-Term Absorbable Monofilament Suture Made from Poly-4-Hydroxybutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich K. Odermatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-term absorbable monofilament suture was developed using poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB made from a biosynthetically produced homopolymer of the natural metabolite 4-hydroxybutyrate. The suture, called MonoMax, has prolonged strength retention. At 12 weeks, a size 3-0 MonoMax suture retains approximately 50% of its initial tensile strength in vivo and is substantially degraded in one year with minimal tissue reaction. In contrast, PDS II monofilament suture (Ethicon, Inc., Somerville, NJ has no residual strength in vivo after 12 weeks. In vivo, the MonoMax suture is hydrolyzed primarily by bulk hydrolysis, and is then degraded via the Krebs cycle. MonoMax is substantially more compliant than other monofilament sutures, and incorporates an element of elasticity. Its tensile modulus of 0.48 GPa is approximately one-third of the value of the PDS II fiber providing an exceptionally flexible and pliable fiber with excellent knot strength and security. These features are further enhanced by the fiber's elasticity, which also improves knot security and may help prevent wound dehiscence. Because of its performance advantages, this suture may find clinical utility in applications where prolonged strength retention, and greater flexibility are required, particularly in procedures like abdominal wall closure where wound dehiscence is still a significant post-surgical complication.

  3. Thermal effects on tearing mode saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Chu, M.S.; Greene, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of geometry on tearing modes, saturated states of tearing modes, and the thermal effect on tearing modes are presented. The configuration of current and magnetic fields are quite different in slabs and in Tokamaks. However, for any magnetic island regardless of geometry and heating conditions, at island saturation the product of resistivity and current is the same at magnetic O and X lines. The temperature perturbation effect on the nonlinear development of tearing modes is investigated. Thermal conduction along the field lines is much faster than that in the perpendicular direction, and thus the temperature profile follows the island structure. Utilizing Spitzer's conductivity relation, the temperature perturbation is modelled as helical components of resistivity. For a usual tearing mode unstable Tokamak, where shear is positive, the islands continue to grow to a larger size when the islands are cooled. When they are heated, the island sizes are reduced. The temperature perturbation can induce islands even for equilibria stable with respect to tearing modes. Again, the islands appear when cooling takes place. The equilibria with the cooled islands show enhanced field line stochasticity, thus enhanced heat transport. Therefore, thermal instability can be directly related to pressure disruptions. (author)

  4. Tear ferning test in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriá, Arianne P; Raposo, Ana Claudia S; Araújo, Nayone L L C; Lima, Felipe B; Masmali, Ali M

    2017-11-07

    To evaluate and compare three tear sampling methods using two grading scales for administering the tear ferning test (TFT) to healthy dogs. In total, 90 dogs (180 eyes) were subjected to tear sampling using millimetered strips, reused after the Schirmer tear test (STT) (Schirmer group, SG). Then, the dogs were subdivided into three groups according to sampling approach: micropipette (MPG), microcapillary (MCG), and Schirmer sample 2 (S2G). The collected tears were dried on a clean microscope glass slide at room temperature and humidity. The ferning patterns were observed under a polarized light microscope and classified according to the Rolando and Masmali grading scales. Although all three methods were feasible, the STT was easier to perform in clinical settings. Type I and Grade 1 were the most commonly observed (64.17% and 61.7%, respectively) regardless of collection method. There was no significant difference between the STT median values and the TFT classifications. The TFT is appropriate for dogs and can be performed using the three suggested sampling methods, with a higher frequency of Type I and Grade 1. Thus, it is possible to use both grading scales in the classification of tear ferning in dogs. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Sonographic evaluation of digital annular pulley tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinoli, C.; Derchi, L.E.; Bianchi, S.; Garcia, J.F.; Nebiolo, M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the sonographic (US) appearance of digital annular pulley (DAP) tears in high-level rock climbers. Design and patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the US examinations of 16 high-level rock climbers with clinical signs of DAP lesions. MRI and surgical evaluation were performed in five and three patients respectively. The normal US and MRI appearances of DAP were evaluated in 40 and three normal fingers respectively. Results. Nine of 16 patients presented a DAP tear. In eight subjects (seven with complete tears involving the fourth finger and one the fifth finger), US diagnosis was based on the indirect sign of volar bowstringing of the flexor tendons. Injured pulleys were not appreciated by US. Tears concerned the A2 and A3 in six patients and the A3 and A4 in two patients. A2 pulley thickening and hypoechogenicity compatible with a partial tear was demonstrated in one patient. MRI and surgical data correlated well with the US findings. Four patients had tenosynovitis of the flexor tendons but no evidence of pulley disruption. US examinations of three patients were normal. In the healthy subjects US demonstrated DAP in 16 of 40 digits. Conclusion. US can diagnose DAP tears and correlates with the MRI and surgical data. Because of its low cost and non-invasiveness we suggest US as the first imaging modality in the evaluation of injuries of the digital pulley. (orig.)

  6. Sonographic evaluation of digital annular pulley tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinoli, C.; Derchi, L.E. [Istituto di Radiologia, Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Bianchi, S.; Garcia, J.F. [Dept. de Radiologie, Hopital Cantonal Universitaire de Geneve (Switzerland); Nebiolo, M. [Reparto Pronto Soccorso Medico, Pietra Ligure (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Objective. To evaluate the sonographic (US) appearance of digital annular pulley (DAP) tears in high-level rock climbers. Design and patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the US examinations of 16 high-level rock climbers with clinical signs of DAP lesions. MRI and surgical evaluation were performed in five and three patients respectively. The normal US and MRI appearances of DAP were evaluated in 40 and three normal fingers respectively. Results. Nine of 16 patients presented a DAP tear. In eight subjects (seven with complete tears involving the fourth finger and one the fifth finger), US diagnosis was based on the indirect sign of volar bowstringing of the flexor tendons. Injured pulleys were not appreciated by US. Tears concerned the A2 and A3 in six patients and the A3 and A4 in two patients. A2 pulley thickening and hypoechogenicity compatible with a partial tear was demonstrated in one patient. MRI and surgical data correlated well with the US findings. Four patients had tenosynovitis of the flexor tendons but no evidence of pulley disruption. US examinations of three patients were normal. In the healthy subjects US demonstrated DAP in 16 of 40 digits. Conclusion. US can diagnose DAP tears and correlates with the MRI and surgical data. Because of its low cost and non-invasiveness we suggest US as the first imaging modality in the evaluation of injuries of the digital pulley. (orig.)

  7. MR imaging of rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    A total of 115 patients with clinical symptoms and signs suggesting rotator cuff tears underwent MR imaging with a 1.5-Tesla system. The body coil was used as the receiver coil in 24 patients and a single 10 cm surface coil in 91. Arthrography or MR imaging with intra-articular Gd-DTPA (MR arthrography) was performed in 95 of the 115. T2-weighted images with the body coil showed high signal intensity lesions in rotator cuffs in only seven of the 10 patients who had tears demonstrated by arthrography or MR arthrography. On the other hand, T2-weighted images with the surface coil demonstrated high signal intensity lesions in cuffs in all 27 patients who were diagnosed to have tears by arthrography or MR arthrography. In 12 patietns, T2-wighted images with the surface coil showed high signal intensity lesions in cuffs, while arthrography and MR arthrography did not show tears. Surgery was performed in four of the 12 patients and partial tears were confirmed. A single 10 cm surface coil, 3 mm slice thickness and 2.5 second repetition time seem to account for the fine visualization of cuff tears by the T2-weighted images. These results suggest that T2-weighted images obtained with the surface coil are superior to arthrography and MR arthrography. (author)

  8. Magnetic resonance findings in skeletal muscle tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of skeletal muscle tears can clearly delineate the severity of muscle injury. Although MR imaging is seldom necessary in patients with acute musle trauma, it can be helpful in deciding on clinical management. The two major MR findings in acute muscle tears are deformity of the muscle and the presence of abnormal signal reflecting hemorrhage and edema. In acute tears, methemoglobin within the extravascular blood causes high-signal areas on both T1- and T2-weighted images. With partial tears, the blood may dissect in a distinctive linear pattern along the muscle bundles and fibers. As healing begins, the muscle signal diminishes, first on the T1-weighted images and then on the T2-weighted images. When there is residual abnormal signal on images obtained more than several months after the injury, it is presumed to represent hemorrhage from recurrent tears. In patients with a questionable history of a remote injury, the clinical presentation may be that of persistent pain or a soft tissue mass. In these cases MR imaging may identify the cause of the pain and can exclude a neoplasm by proving that the mass is a hypertrophied or retracted musle. Thus, MR imaging has a limited, but occasionally important role in selected patients with skeletal muscle tears. (orig.)

  9. Diet, nutraceuticals and the tear film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    Nutrition disorders and their correlates such as obesity are increasingly prevalent worldwide. A number of studies to date have suggested numerous potential associations between diet and tear film health; this paper will provide a summary of the available literature. The tear film is characterized through its protein and lipid content and through clinical measurements of characteristics such as osmolarity, volume and stability. Malnutrition, protein and vitamin-A deficiencies are extremely deleterious to tear film health and supplementation with oral vitamin A in this setting is of clear benefit. The relative impact of diet on tear film within what would be considered normal ranges of consumption is less clear. A number of population studies have suggested that hyperlipidemia and a diet low in omega-3 fatty acids are risks factor for dry eye disease. Numerous studies have investigated the effectiveness of oral supplementation with antioxidants, omega-3 (e.g. fish oil and linseed oil) and omega-6 (e.g. evening primrose oil) fatty acids in the last 10 years. Taken together, these suggest a small benefit of oral supplementation on tear film volume, stability and decreased ocular symptoms in patients previously diagnosed with diseases involving the ocular surface (e.g. Sjögren's syndrome, meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye disease) and contact lens wearers suffering from dry eye. More research is required to determine the exact composition, dosage and indications for their use and to fully characterize how these nutraceuticals modulate the tear film. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostic performance of indirect MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Young Cheol; Jee, Sukkyung

    2015-06-01

    Indirect magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is a non-invasive method for shoulder imaging. However, there are no studies that have examined the diagnostic performance of indirect MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears in a large patient population. To assess the diagnostic performance of indirect fast spin-echo (FSE) MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears at 3.0 T. A total of 149 patients who had undergone indirect shoulder MR arthrography followed by arthroscopic surgery were enrolled in this retrospective study. Two musculoskeletal radiologists evaluated images from each patient for the presence of supraspinatus-infraspinatus (SSP-ISP) or subscapularis (SSC) tendon tears. Using the arthroscopic findings as the reference standard, the overall diagnostic performance and detection rates for SSP-ISP and SSC tendon tears were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of readers I and II for the diagnosis of SSP-ISP tendon tears were 94% and 95%, 89% and 85%, and 93% and 93%, respectively. The sensitivity of imaging for detection of SSP-ISP tendon tears by readers I and II were 100% and 100% for full-thickness tears and 84% and 86% for partial-thickness tears, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of readers I and II for the diagnosis of SSC tendon tears were 80% and 76%, 89% and 93%, and 85% and 85%, respectively. Indirect MR arthrography is useful for the detection of SSP-ISP and SSC tendon tears. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Outcome of Strabismus Surgery by Nonadjustable Suture among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-06

    years old with strabismus seen ... adult with nonadjustable suture is safe and effective procedure with low risk of ... Strabismus or misalignment of the eyes is a condition that ... with Log MAR, type of refractive error, auto-refraction,.

  12. Outcome of strabismus surgery by nonadjustable suture among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome of strabismus surgery by nonadjustable suture among adults attending a ... postoperative residual deviation, 83 patients (86%) had defective vision with amblyopia. ... Conclusion: Surgical treatment of strabismus in Saudi adult with ...

  13. Integral Suture-Handling Techniques for Arthroscopic Sliding Knots

    OpenAIRE

    Kanchanatawan, Wichan; Kongtharvonskul, Jatupon; Dorjiee, Gem; Suppauksorn, Sunikom; Pornvoranunt, Umpire; Karchana, Pongsakorn

    2016-01-01

    In arthroscopic tissue repair, the final step is achieving adequate tissue approximation with a secure knot. The sliding knot is widely preferred over the nonsliding knot, with numerous publications describing knot configurations. However, in the literature there are few published descriptions of suture-handling techniques, even though they are fundamental to arthroscopic knot tying. We describe integral suture-handling techniques for arthroscopic sliding knots to improve the surgeon's perfor...

  14. Experimental evaluation of horse hair as a nonabsorbable monofilament suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati R Yedke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Success of surgery depends on wound closure and healing. Ancients had coated many suture materials from plant and animal origin. As the quest for natural nonabsorbable, monofilament surgical suture continues, horsehair has been taken for study, which is mentioned in ancient literature. Objectives: Aim of the study was to evaluate detail mechanical and biophysical properties of horsehair. Materials and Methods: Physical properties, that are diameter, straight pull and knot pull tensile strength, bioburden, sterility tests were performed. Visual and histological wound healing parameters were studied in experimental Wistar rat incision wound model. Two experimental wounds about 5 cm long were created on each side of dorsal midline. Each animal received two sutures-Horsehair 4-0 and Ethilon 4-0. The sutured areas were grossly examined on 3 rd and 7 th days for visual observations like congestion, edema, infection, wound disruption, and impression of suture material on healed wound and then subjected for histological study. Results: Revealed that horsehair has got diameter of 0.19 mm which complies with the 4-0 size USP standard. Straight pull tensile strength was found 0.5851 ± 0.122 kg and knot pull tensile strength was 0.3998 ± 0.078 kg, which complies with the standards of United State Pharmacopia for class II nonabsorbable suture materials. In vivo study revealed that there was no evidence of edema, congestion, and discharge in both the groups. Wounds healed with minimum impressions of suture material with minimum scar mark. Mean histological scoring shows very mild tissue reaction. Conclusion: Horsehair has got properties of standard suture material except low tensile strength and hence can be used in reconstructive, plastic surgeries, and ophthalmic surgeries.

  15. SUTURE NON-SUTSRE CIRCUMFERENTIAL REPAIR OF CAROTID ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Nader

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available plastic adhesives, normal butyl cyanoacrylate monomer, isobutyl cyanoacrylate monomer and methyl 2 _ cyaooacrylate monomer, have been utilized in a comparative study with 5-{ silk suture in the repair of transected carotid arteries. Follow _ up arteriog ramS indicate isobutyl cyanoacrylate monomer and normal butyl cyanoacrylate monomer as having the most impressive rerults with only tWO thrombosis each. The silk suture had three thromboses and the adhesive methyl 2 _ cyanoacrylate monomer had nine, one of which a delayed

  16. Fixation of the Achilles tendon insertion using suture button technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanter, Nathan J; Davis, Edward W; Baker, Champ L

    2012-09-01

    In the operative treatment of Achilles insertional tendinopathy, no guidelines exist concerning which form of fixation of the Achilles tendon insertion is superior. Transcalcaneal drill pin passage does not place any major plantar structures at risk, and the addition of a Krackow stitch and suture button to the fixation technique provides a significant increase in ultimate load to failure in Achilles tendon insertional repairs. Controlled laboratory study. The Achilles tendon insertions in 6 fresh-frozen cadaveric ankles were detached, and transcalcaneal drill pins were passed. Plantar dissection took place to evaluate the drill pin relationship to the plantar fascia, lateral plantar nerve and artery, flexor digitorum longus tendon, and master knot of Henry. The Achilles tendons were then repaired with a double-row suture anchor construct alone or with a suture button and Krackow stitch added to the double-row suture anchor construct. The repairs were then tested to maximum load to failure at 20 mm/min. The mode of failure was recorded, and the mean maximum load to failure was assessed using the Student t test for distributions with equal variance. Transcalcaneal drill pin passage did not place any selected anatomic structures at risk. The mean maximum load to failure for the suture bridge group was 239.2 N; it was 391.4 N for the group with the suture button (P = .014). The lateral plantar artery was the structure placed at greatest risk from drill pin placement, with a mean distance of 22.7 mm (range, 16.5-29.2 mm) between the pin and artery. In this laboratory study, transcalcaneal drill pin passage appeared to be anatomically safe, and the use of suture button technology with a Krackow stitch for Achilles tendon insertional repair significantly increased repair strength. Achilles tendon insertional repair with suture button fixation and a Krackow stitch may facilitate the earlier institution of postoperative rehabilitation and improve clinical outcomes.

  17. The Efficacy of Polydioxanone Monofilament Absorbable Suture for Tracheal Anastomosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Katsunobu; Yamasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Kusano, Hiroyuki; Akamine, Shinji; Takahashi, Takao; Tomita, Masao

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of polydioxanon absorbable suture for tracheal anastomoses, we performed an experimental study using dose. Eight adult mongrel dogs underwent sleeve resection of the mediastinal trachea. A length of ten to twelve cartilage rings was resected. An end-to-end anastomosis was performed using either interrupted or continuous running 4-0 polydioxanone (PDS) suture. There was no detectable difference bronchoscopically, microangiografically, or histologically, in tracheal ana...

  18. A comparison of lateral ankle ligament suture anchor strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Herbert, Morley A; Crates, John M

    2013-06-01

    Lateral ankle ligament repairs increasingly use suture anchors instead of bone tunnels. Our purpose was to compare the biomechanical properties of a knotted and knotless suture anchor appropriate for a lateral ankle ligament reconstruction. In porcine distal fibulae, 10 samples of 2 different PEEK anchors were inserted. The attached sutures were cyclically loaded between 10N and 60N for 200 cycles. A destructive pull was performed and failure loads, cyclic displacement, stiffness, and failure mode recorded. PushLock 2.5 anchors failed before 200 cycles. PushLock 100 cycle displacement was less than Morphix 2.5 displacement (panchors completing 200 cycles was 86.5N (PushLock) and 252.1N (Morphix) (panchor breaking and suture breakage. The knotted Morphix demonstrated more displacement and greater failure strength than the knotless PushLock. The PushLock failed consistently with suture breaking. The Morphix anchor failed both by anchor breaking and by suture breaking. Copyright © 2012 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Danish translation and validation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel Skin Tear Classification System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, J; Bermark, S; LeBlanc, K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate, validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear Classification System in Danish. METHOD: Phase 1 of the project involved the translation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) Skin Tear Classification System......) and social and health-care assistants (non-RN) from both primary health care and a Danish university hospital in Copenhagen. Thirty photographs, with equal representation of the three types of skin tears, were selected to test validity. The photographs chosen were those originally used for internal...... and external validation by the ISTAP group. The subjects were approached in their place of work and invited to participate in the study and to attend an educational session related to skin tears. RESULTS: The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system was tested on 270 non-wound specialists...

  20. Superior glenoid inclination and rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Peter N; Beck, Lindsay; Granger, Erin; Henninger, Heath; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2018-03-23

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether glenoid inclination (1) could be measured accurately on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using computed tomography (CT) as a gold standard, (2) could be measured reliably on MRI, and (3) whether it differed between patients with rotator cuff tears and age-matched controls without evidence of rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In this comparative retrospective radiographic study, we measured glenoid inclination on T1 coronal MRI corrected into the plane of the scapula. We determined accuracy by comparison with CT and inter-rater reliability. We compared glenoid inclination between patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears and patients aged >50 years without evidence of a rotator cuff tear or glenohumeral arthritis. An a priori power analysis determined adequate power to detect a 2° difference in glenoid inclination. (1) In a validation cohort of 37 patients with MRI and CT, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.877, with a mean difference of 0° (95% confidence interval, -1° to 1°). (2) For MRI inclination, the inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.911. (3) Superior glenoid inclination was 2° higher (range, 1°-4°, P rotator cuff tear group of 192 patients than in the control cohort of 107 patients. Glenoid inclination can be accurately and reliably measured on MRI. Although superior glenoid inclination is statistically greater in those with rotator cuff tears than in patients of similar age without rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral arthritis, the difference is likely below clinical significance. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A combination of subcuticular suture and sterile Micropore tape compared with conventional interrupted sutures for skin closure. A controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, M.; Porter, R. J.; Lord, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    We have conducted a controlled trial to compare skin closure using conventional interrupted sutures with a combination of subcuticular suture and sterile Micropore tape in 169 patients undergoing appendicectomy, inguinal herniorrhaphy, or saphenofemoral ligation. We have found that the combination technique consistently gives a better cosmetic result and that the tape acts well as a dressing, is convenient, and is well tolerated by patients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6344732

  2. Energetic approach for ductile tearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, St.

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on ductile crack initiation and propagation. It aims to propose an approach for the engineer allowing the prediction of the evolution of cracks in large scale components, from parameters determined on laboratory specimens. A crack initiation criterion, defining a J i tenacity related to crack tip blunting proposed in the literature is validated in the study. This criterion is shown to be transferable from laboratory specimens to structures. The literature review shows that an approach based on the dissipated energy in the fracture process during propagation offers an economical and simple solution to simulate large crack growth. A numerical method is proposed to estimate this fracture energy. The existence of an energy parameter G fr is shown, by simulating the propagation by the simultaneous release of several elements and by the use of the Rice integral with an original integration path. This parameter represents the needed energy for a unit crack extension and appears to be intrinsic to the material. A global energy statement allows to relate this parameter to a variation of the plastic part of J integral. It offers a second numerical method to simulate the propagation just from stationary numerical calculations, as well as the elaboration of a simplified method. This approach, using two parameters J i and G fr , intrinsic to the material and experimentally measurable on specimens, is validated on many tests such as crack pipes subjected to four points bending and cracked rings in compression. For example, this approach allows to model up to 90 mm ductile tearing in a pipe with a circumferential through-wall crack in ferritic steel, or to anticipate the evolution of a semi-elliptical crack in an aged austenitic ferritic steel plate subjected to bending. (author)

  3. Massive cuff tears treated with arthroscopically assisted latissimus dorsi transfer. Surgical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cupis, Vincenzo; De Cupis, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Summary Latissimus dorsi transfer is our preferred treatment for active disabled patients with a posterosuperior massive cuff tear. We present an arthroscopically assisted technique which avoids an incision through the deltoid obtaining a better and faster clinical outcome. The patient is placed in lateral decubitus. After the arthroscopic evaluation of the lesion through a posterior and a posterolateral portal, with the limb in traction we perform the preparation of the greater tuberosity of the humerus. We place the arm in abduction and internal rotation and we proceed to the harvest of the latissimus dorsi and the tendon preparation by stitching the two sides using very resistant sutures. After restoring limb traction, under arthroscopic visualization, we pass a curved grasper through the posterolateral portal by going to the armpit in the space between the teres minor and the posterior deltoid. Once the grasper has exited the access at the level of the axilla we fix two drainage transparent tubes, each with a wire inside, and, withdrawing it back, we shuttle the two tubes in the subacromial space. After tensioning the suture wires from the anterior portals these are assembled in a knotless anchor of 5.5 mm that we place in the prepared site on the greater tuberosity of the humerus. A shoulder brace at 15° of abduction and neutral rotation protect the patient for the first month post-surgery but physical therapy can immediately start. PMID:23738290

  4. Rotator cuff tears: An evidence based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Khanna, Vishesh; Gul, Arif; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the rotator cuff (RC) are a common occurrence affecting millions of people across all parts of the globe. RC tears are also rampantly prevalent with an age-dependent increase in numbers. Other associated factors include a history of trauma, limb dominance, contralateral shoulder, smoking-status, hypercholesterolemia, posture and occupational dispositions. The challenge lies in early diagnosis since a high proportion of patients are asymptomatic. Pain and decreasing shoulder power and function should alert the heedful practitioner in recognizing promptly the onset or aggravation of existing RC tears. Partial-thickness tears (PTT) can be bursal-sided or articular-sided tears. Over the course of time, PTT enlarge and propagate into full-thickness tears (FTT) and develop distinct chronic pathological changes due to muscle retraction, fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy. These lead to a reduction in tendon elasticity and viability. Eventually, the glenohumeral joint experiences a series of degenerative alterations - cuff tear arthropathy. To avert this, a vigilant clinician must utilize and corroborate clinical skill and radiological findings to identify tear progression. Modern radio-diagnostic means of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging provide excellent visualization of structural details and are crucial in determining further course of action for these patients. Physical therapy along with activity modifications, anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications form the pillars of nonoperative treatment. Elderly patients with minimal functional demands can be managed conservatively and reassessed at frequent intervals. Regular monitoring helps in isolating patients who require surgical interventions. Early surgery should be considered in younger, active and symptomatic, healthy patients. In addition to being cost-effective, this helps in providing a functional shoulder with a stable cuff. An easily reproducible technique of maximal strength and

  5. Craniosynostosis of coronal suture in Twist1+/- mice occurs through endochondral ossification recapitulating the physiological closure of posterior frontal suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn eBehr

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Craniosynostosis, the premature closure of cranial suture, is a pathologic condition that affects 1/2000 live births. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by craniosynostosis. The Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, which is defined by loss-of-function mutations in the TWIST gene, is the second most prevalent craniosynostosis. Although much of the genetics and phenotypes in craniosynostosis syndromes is understood, less is known about the underlying ossification mechanism during suture closure. We have previously demonstrated that physiological closure of the posterior frontal (PF suture occurs through endochondral ossification. Moreover, we revealed that antagonizing canonical Wnt signaling in the sagittal suture leads to endochondral ossification of the suture mesenchyme and sagittal synostosis, presumably by inhibiting Twist1. Classic Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is characterized by coronal synostosis, and the haploinsufficient Twist1+/- mice represents a suitable model for studying this syndrome. Thus, we seeked to understand the underlying ossification process in coronal craniosynostosis in Twist1+/- mice. Our data indicate that coronal suture closure in Twist1+/- mice occurs between postnatal day 9 to 13 by endochondral ossification, as shown by histology, gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, this study reveals that coronal craniosynostosis in Twist1+/- mice occurs through endochondral ossification. Moreover, it suggests that haploinsufficency of Twist1 gene, a target of canonical Wnt-signaling, and inhibitor of chondrogenesis, mimics conditions of inactive canonical Wnt-signaling leading to craniosynostosis.

  6. Biomechanical characteristics of single-row repair in comparison to double-row repair with consideration of the suture configuration and suture material

    OpenAIRE

    Baums, M. H.; Buchhorn, G. H.; Spahn, G.; Poppendieck, B.; Schultz, W.; Klinger, H.-M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the time zero mechanical properties of single- versus double-row configuration for rotator cuff repair in an animal model with consideration of the stitch technique and suture material. Thirty-two fresh-frozen sheep shoulders were randomly assigned to four repair groups: suture anchor single-row repair coupled with (1) braided, nonabsorbable polyester suture sized USP No. 2 (SRAE) or (2) braided polyblend polyethylene suture sized No. 2 (SRAH). The double-...

  7. A case of recurrent bloody tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karslıoğlu Ş

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Şafak Karslioğlu1, Ilke Bahçeci Şimşek2, Müslime Akbaba11Ìstanbul Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgery and Ocular Oncology Center, 2Ophthalmology Department, Medicine Hospital, Ìstanbul, TurkeyAbstract: Well-known causes of blood-tinged epiphora are conjunctival lesions, tumors of the lacrimal apparatus, and systemic bleeding disorders. We describe an unusual patient who presented with recurrent episodes of bloody tearing which began following an erythema multiforme-like drug eruption. He experienced chronic conjunctivitis which resulted in a few minor symblephara. One year later, the patient developed attacks of bloody tearing. All clinical, radiologic, and laboratory investigations related to bloody epiphora were within normal limits except for a mild, nonspecific chronic inflammatory reaction in the perivascular tissues of the lacrimal gland and orbital soft tissues. Also, an increase in vascular permeability and contrast extravasation on carotid angiography was detected. High-dose vitamin C was administered. The patient continued to have unilateral bloody tears intermittently for two years, but the episodes became much less frequent and had resolved by three years. It is conceivable that increased vascular permeability following the systemic inflammatory process could have played a role in the etiology of recurrent bloody tears in this atypical patient.Keywords: bloody tears, erythema multiforme, drug eruption, vitamin C

  8. Allergy and allergic mediators in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    The identification of inflammatory mediators in the tear fluid have been extensively used in ocular allergy to find either a 'disease marker', to better understand the immune mechanisms involved in the ocular surface inflammation, or to identify potential targets for therapeutic interventions. While the clinical characteristics allow a relatively convincing diagnosis of ocular allergic diseases, in the initial, non active phases, or in the chronic stages, the diagnosis may not be clear. Although not highly specific, total tear IgE can be measured with local tests by inserting a paper strip in the lower meniscus. The measurement of tear specific inflammatory markers, such as histamine, tryptase, ECP, IL-4, IL-5 and eotaxin, may be useful for the diagnosis or monitoring ocular allergy. New technologies such as multiplex bead assays, membrane-bound antibody array and proteomic techniques can characterize the distribution of a wide range of bioactive trace proteins in tears. Dozens of mediators, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, angiogenic modulators, enzymes and inhibitors were thus identified in small tear samples using these techniques, providing the possible identification of specific biomarker for either specific disease or disease activity. However, to date, there is no a single specific laboratory test suitable for the diagnosis and monitoring of allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical results of arthroscopic polyglycolic acid sheet patch graft for irreparable rotator cuff tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mochizuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high retear rates after surgery for irreparable rotator cuff tears can be explained by the healing capacity potential of tendons and the native rotator cuff enthesis characterised by complex morphological structures, called direct insertion. Many experimental researches have focused on biologically augmenting the rotator cuff reconstruction and improving tendon–bone healing of the rotator cuff. The results of the experimental study showed that the polyglycolic acid sheet scaffold material allows for the regeneration of not only tendon-to-tendon, but also tendon-to-bone interface in an animal model. We performed a clinical study of the arthroscopic polyglycolic acid sheet patch graft used for the repair of irreparable rotator cuff tears. One-year clinical results of the repair of irreparable rotator cuff tears by arthroscopic patch graft with a polyglycolic acid sheet demonstrated improved shoulder function and a significantly lower retear rate, compared with patients treated with a fascia lata patch.

  10. Prevalence of Skin Tears in Elderly Patients: A Retrospective Chart Review of Incidence Reports in 6 Long-term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Joyce; Shannon, Mary

    2018-04-01

    The incidence and prevalence of skin tears in long-term care (LTC) facilities has not been well established. To ascertain the point prevalence of reported skin tears, a retrospective review of incident reports was performed in 6 LTC facilities in western Pennsylvania from November 1, 2016 through December 31, 2016. Report data, including resident age; gender; mobility limitations; skin tear location, number, and cause (if known); occurrence time (7 am to 3 pm, 3 pm to 11 pm, or 11 pm to 7 am nursing shift); and history of previous skin tears, were abstracted. All data were entered into a statistical analysis program and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Period prevalence was used to determine prevalence rate; an independent t test was used to compare the presence of skin tears between genders. Differences between location and cause of skin tears were evaluated using a multinomial test of related proportions. A test of proportions was used to evaluate skin tear occurrence time (nursing shift) differences. The overall point prevalence rate was 9% (N = 1253 residents) ranging from 6 to 28 skin tears per facility. The average age of residents with a skin tear (n = 119) was 83.5 years. The majority (111, 93%) had mobility limitations. Falls accounted for 38 skin tears (31.9%), followed by propelling in a wheelchair (18, 15.1%; X2 =7.14; P = .008). Forearm skin tears (37, 31.1%) occurred significantly more frequently than lower leg skin tears (19, 16%; P = .016). Significantly more skin tears occurred during the 7 am to 3 pm shift (47, 39.5%) and 3 pm to 11 pm shift (49, 41.2%) than during the 11 pm to 7 am shift (23, 19.3%; X2 = 5.78; P skin tears are a significant problem among elderly residents in LTC, especially because the reported rate is likely lower than the actual rate. Research to further elucidate the incidence and prevalence of skin tears and associated risk factors is needed to help develop evidence-based risk assessment, classification systems

  11. Major Lung Resections Using Manual Suturing Versus Staplers During Fiscal Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potaris, Konstantinos; Kapetanakis, Emmanuil; Papamichail, Konstantinos; Midvighi, Elena; Verveniotis, Alexis; Parissis, Fotios; Apostolou, Demetrios; Tziortziotis, Vaios; Maimani, Spiridoula; Pouliara, Evangelia; Vogiatzis, Gregorios; Kakaris, Stamatis; Konstantinou, Marios

    2015-07-27

    AbstractObjective: During fiscal crisis there was a period of shortage of staplers in our hospital, which drove us to manual suturing of bronchi and pulmonary vessels during major lung resections. We present our experience during that period in comparison to a subsequent period when staplers became available again. A total of 256 lobectomies and 78 pneumonectomies were performed using manual suturing (group A), between September 2009 and September 2010, and compared regarding surgical outcome to 248 lobectomies and 60 pneumonectomies using staplers (group B), between September 2011 and September 2012. Although we did not observe statistically significant differences but only a trend towards less operative time, for both lobectomies (p=0.21) and pneumonectomies (p=0.31), we actually noted a 41 and 47 minutes saving of operative time using staplers (group B), in comparison to manual suturing (group A). We also observed a trend towards less morbidity rates in patients of group B, who underwent lobectomy (10.48%), and pneumonectomy (20%), versus patients of group A, who underwent lobectomy (15.62%), and pneumonectomy (30.76%); we did not observe any substantial differences in the other surgical outcome variables, and in patients' demographics comorbidities, and anatomic allocation of surgical procedures performed. The use of staplers offers safety with secure bronchial or vascular sealing, and saving of operative time. Their unavailability at an interval during fiscal crisis although it did not affect surgical outcome, revealed their usefulness and value.

  12. Oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing prevent gastrooesophageal reflux disease in dogs after oesophageal anastomosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ji-Gang; Liu, Quan-Xing; Den, Xu-Feng; Min, Jia-Xin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficiency of oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing technique in decreasing the rate of postoperative gastrooesophageal reflux disease in a dog model. METHODS: We operated on 10 dogs in this study. First, we resected a 5-cm portion of the distal oesophagus and then restored the continuity of the oesophageal and gastric walls by end-to-end anastomosis. A group of five dogs was subjected to the oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing technique, whereas another group (control) of five dogs was subjected to the stapling technique after oesophagectomy. The symptom of gastrooesophageal reflux was recorded by 24-h pH oesophageal monitoring. Endoscopy and barium swallow examination were performed on all dogs. Anastomotic leakage was observed by X-ray imaging, whereas benign anastomotic stricture and mucosal damage were observed by endoscopy. RESULTS: None of the 10 dogs experienced anastomotic leakage after oesophagectomy. Four dogs in the new technology group resumed regular feeding, whereas only two of the dogs in the control group tolerated solid food intake. pH monitoring demonstrated that 25% of the dogs in the experimental group exhibited reflux and that none had mucosal damage consistent with reflux. Conversely, both reflux and mucosal damage were observed in all dogs in the control group. CONCLUSION: The oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing technique can improve the postoperative quality of life through the long-term elimination of reflux oesophagitis and decreased stricture formation after primary oesophageal anastomosis. PMID:25516655

  13. Unidirectional barbed suture versus standard monofilament for urethrovesical anastomosis during robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Manganiello

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: V-LocTM180 (Covidien Healthcare, Mansfield, MA is a new unidirectional barbed suture that may reduce loss of tension during a running closure. We evaluated the use of the barbed suture for urethrovesical anastomosis (UVA during robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP. Time to completion of UVA, post-operative anastomotic leak rate, and urinary incontinence were compared in patients undergoing UVA with 3-0 unidirectional-barbed suture vs. 3-0 MonocrylTM (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were prospectively collected for 70 consecutive patients undergoing RALP for prostate cancer between November 2009 and October 2010. In the first 35 patients, the UVA was performed using a modified running van Velthoven anastomosis technique using two separate 3-0 monofilament sutures. In the subsequent 35 patients, the UVA was performed using two running novel unidirectional barbed sutures. At 7-12 days postoperatively, all patients were evaluated with a cystogram to determine anastomotic integrity. Urinary incontinence was assessed at two months and five months by total daily pad usage. Clinical symptoms suggestive of bladder neck contracture were elicited. RESULTS: Age, PSA, Gleason score, prostate size, estimated blood loss, body mass index, and clinical and pathologic stage between the 2 groups were similar. Comparing the monofilament group and V-LocTM180 cohorts, average time to complete the anastomosis was similar (27.4 vs. 26.4 minutes, p = 0.73 as was the rate of urinary extravasation on cystogram (5.7 % vs. 8.6%, p = 0.65. There were no symptomatic bladder neck contractures noted at 5 months of follow-up. At 2 months, the percentage of patients using 2 or more pads per day was lower in the V-LocTM180 cohort (24% vs. 44%, p < 0.02. At 5 months, this difference was no longer evident. CONCLUSIONS: Time to complete the UVA was similar in the intervention and control groups. Rates of urine leak were also comparable

  14. Effect of ion viscosity on neoclassical tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shigeki; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Azumi, Masafumi

    2004-01-01

    Linear stability analysis of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) is performed on the basis of four-field reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model which takes account of fluctuating ion parallel flow and ion neoclassical viscosity. The dependence of the growth rate on the kinetic effects is investigated. It is shown that the linear NTM is stabilized by ion neoclassical viscosity and that the stabilizing effect of ion parallel compressibility is weak in the banana-plateau regime. It is found that not only ion neoclassical viscosity but also both ion and electron diamagnetic effects are important for the stabilization of NTM. (author)

  15. Comparison of ultrasonic shears and traditional suture ligature for vaginal hysterectomy: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz-Gerald, Alison Louise; Tan, Jason; Chan, Kok-Weng; Polyakov, Alex; Edwards, Geoff N; Najjar, Haider; Tsaltas, Jim; Vollenhoven, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    To compare operating time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative analgesia, and length of hospital stay using ultrasonic shears vs traditional suture ligature in vaginal hysterectomy. Randomized controlled trial (Canadian Task Force classification I). Gynecology units within a single health network, university hospital. Forty women requiring vaginal hysterectomy because of benign disease. Vaginal hysterectomy performed using either ultrasonically activated shears (USS) or traditional suture ligatures. Twenty-one patients were randomized to the USS arm, and 19 patients to the traditional suture ligature arm. Patient characteristics were comparable. Mean (SD) hysterectomy time and was similar in both the USS and traditional arms, 28.66 (4.0) minutes vs 32.37 (3.18) minutes (p = .47), as was total operating time, 97.38 (8.9) minutes vs 91.63 (7.69) minutes (p = .63). Operative blood loss was significantly decreased in the USS group: 62.63 (12.46) mL vs 136.05 (21.54) mL (p = .006). There was, however, no significant change in hemoglobin concentration between the 2 groups: 19.53 (1.79) g/L vs -16.72 (2.5) g/L. There was no significant difference in mean oxycodone use: 9.29 (2.66) mg vs 8.06 (3.19) mg (p = .77). Length of hospital stay was similar in both groups: 58.98 (3.27) hours vs 60.05 (6.48) hours (p = .88). There was no significant difference in overall complication rates between the groups. Although the Harmonic scalpel system, compared with the traditional suture ligation method, seems to be a safe alternative for securing the pedicles in vaginal hysterectomy, it offers no benefit insofar as operative time, reduction in clinically significant blood loss, and analgesic requirements. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills for Laparoscopic Suturing and Intracorporeal Knot Tying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Olivia H; King, Louise P; Modest, Anna M; Hur, Hye-Chun

    2016-01-01

    To develop a teaching and assessment tool for laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot tying. We designed an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) tool that includes a procedure-specific checklist (PSC) and global rating scale (GRS) to assess laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying performance. Obstetrics and Gynecology residents at our institution were videotaped while performing a laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying task at a surgical simulation workshop. A total of 2 expert reviewers assessed resident performance using the OSATS tool during live performance and 1 month later using the videotaped recordings. OSATS scores were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Data are presented as median scores (interquartile range [IQR]). Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were assessed using a Spearman correlation and are presented as an r correlation coefficient and p value. An r ≥ 0.8 was considered as a high correlation. After testing, we received feedback from residents and faculty to improve the OSATS tool as part of an iterative design process. In all, 14 of 21 residents (66.7%) completed the study, with 9 junior residents and 5 senior residents. Junior residents had a lower score on the PSC than senior residents did; however, this was not statistically significant (median = 6.0 [IQR: 4.0-10.0] and median = 13.0 [IQR: 10.0-13.0]; p = 0.09). There was excellent intrarater reliability with our OSATS tool (for PSC component, r = 0.88 for Rater 1 and 0.93 for Rater 2, both p assessment and teaching tool for laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying skills. Overall, good intrarater reliability was demonstrated, suggesting that this tool may be useful for longitudinal assessment of surgical skills. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of chemosignals from sad tears and postprandial plasma on appetite and food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Min Young; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2012-01-01

    Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 µl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years) were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (-28.6±3.3% vs. -14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019). These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation.

  18. Evaluation of outgassing, tear strength, and detail reproduction in alginate substitute materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, R T; Lawson, N C; Cakir, D; Beck, P; Ramp, L C; Burgess, J O

    2012-01-01

    To compare three alginate substitute materials to an alginate impression material for cast surface porosity (outgassing), tear strength, and detail reproduction. Detail reproduction tests were performed following American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification No. 19. To measure tear strength, 12 samples of each material were made using a split mold, placed in a water bath until testing, and loaded in tension until failure at a rate of 500 mm/min using a universal testing machine. For cast surface porosity testing, five impressions of a Teflon mold with each material were placed in a water bath (37.8°C) for the in-mouth setting time and poured with vacuum-mixed Silky Rock die stone at 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes from the start of mixing. The gypsum samples were analyzed with a digital microscope for surface porosity indicative of hydrogen gas release by comparing the surface obtained at each interval with four casts representing no, little, some, and significant porosity. Data analysis was performed using parametric and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey/Kramer post-hoc tests (α=0.05), and individual Mann-Whitney U tests (α=0.0167). All alginate substitute materials passed the detail reproduction test. Tear strength of the alginate substitute materials was significantly better than alginate and formed three statistically different groups: AlgiNot had the lowest tear strength, Algin-X Ultra had the highest tear strength, and Position Penta Quick had intermediate tear strength. Significant variation in outgassing existed between materials and pouring times (palginate substitute materials exhibited the least outgassing and cast porosity 60 minutes after mixing. Detail reproduction and tear strength of alginate substitute materials were superior to traditional alginate. The outgassing effect was minimal for most materials tested. Alginate substitute materials are superior replacements for irreversible

  19. [Treatment of calcaneal avulsion fractures with twinfix suture anchors fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin-xiu; Wang, Kun-zheng; Wang, Chun-sheng; Xie, Yue; Dai, Zhi-tang; Liu, Gang; Liu, Wei-dong

    2011-06-01

    For the calcaneal avulsion fracture, the current method is more commonly used screws or Kirschner wire to fix fracture fragment. This article intended to explore the feasibility and clinical efficacy for the treatment of avulsion fractures with TwinFix suture anchors. From July 2007 to November 2010, 21 patients were reviewed, including 15 males and 6 females, ranging in age from 49 to 65 years,with a mean of 58.7 years. Twelve patients had nodules in the right heel and 9 patients had nodules in the left heel. All the patients had closed fractures. The typical preoperative symptoms of the patients included pain in the upper heel and weak in heel lift. Body examination results: palpable sense of bone rubbing in the back of the heel, and swelling in the heel. Surgery treatment with TwinFix suture anchors performed as follows : to fix TwinFix suture anchors into the calcaneal body, then to drill the fracture block, to make the double strand suture through the fracture holes, to knot the suture eachother to fix the block, and to use stitch to fix the remaining suture in the Achilles tendon in order to improve the block fixation. The criteria of the AOFAS Foot and Ankle Surgery by the United States Association of ankle-rear foot functional recovery was used to evaluate the Achilles tendon. Total average score was (95.5 +/- 3.12) points, including pain items of(38.5 +/- 2.18) points,the average score of functional items of (49.5 +/- 3.09) points,and power lines of 10 points in all patients. Twenty-one patients got an excellent result, 16 good and 5 poor. The methods of treatment for the calcaneal avulsion fractures with TwinFix suture anchors is a simple operation, and have excellent clinical effect, which is worthy of promotion.

  20. Plate Tearing Under Mixed Mode Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Grau; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Felter, Christian Lotz

    2016-01-01

    the mesh cannot accurately capture the localization process that precedes ductile failure. To fertilize accurate predictions of such sheet tearing, the energy dissipated during localization must, therefore, be accounted for in the cohesive traction-separation law. The fact is that the local thinning...... that takes place in front of an advancing crack can significantly enhance the crack growth resistanceas the energy going into thinning the sheet typically dominates the total fracture energy.This has been investigated in great details for the case of pure Mode I tearing and both the energy dissipation, peak...... stress, and shape of the cohesive traction-separation law have been laid out. In a similar fashion, the present study resolves the sequence of failure details related to steady-state sheet tearing under mixed mode loading by employing the micro-mechanics based Gurson model. But, the fracture process...

  1. Bilateral Giant Retinal Tear and Sequential Vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mushawiahti; Roufail Franzco, Edward

    2017-01-01

    To describe the excellent outcome of surgery for bilateral giant retinal tears (GRTs) with better options of endotamponade. This is a case report of a 62-year-old man who presented with bilateral GRTs and associated retinal detachment. The tear in the right eye was supero-temporal and silicone oil was used as an endotamponade. The tear in the left eye was infero-temporal and perfluorocarbon liquid was used as an endotamponade. The outcome at 6 months after surgery was excellent with visual acuities of 6/6 in both eyes. Improved availability of endotamponade agents allows repair of bilateral GRTs to be done at the same time, with good surgical outcomes.

  2. Rotator cuff tear measurement by arthropneumotomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcoyne, R.F.; Matsen, F.A. III

    1983-01-01

    Five years of experience with a method of shoulder arthrography using upright tomography in cases of suspected or known rotator cuff tears has demonstrated its effectiveness. The value of the procedure lies in its ability to demonstrate the size of the cuff tear and the thickness of the remaining cuff tissue. This information provides the surgeon with a preoperative estimate of the difficulty of the repair and the prognosis for a good functional recovery. In 33 cases, there was good correlation between the upright thin-section tomogram findings and the surgical results. The tomograms provided better information about the size of the tear and the quality of the remaining cuff than did plain arthrograms

  3. The effectiveness of the double B-lynch suture as a modification in the treatment of intractable postpartum haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Hanifi; Soylu Karapınar, Oya; Şahin, Eda Adeviye; Dolapçıoğlu, Kenan; Baloğlu, Ali

    2018-03-20

    A broader range of more effective compression techniques are needed in the patients who have an intractable postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine atony despite medical treatment and B-Lynch sutures. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of a series of patients with haemorrhage who were managed by double B-Lynch suture. Fourteen patients who were treated in a tertiary hospital between July 2010 and February 2015 were included in the study. The intractable haemorrhage rate was 0.35% over 5 years (14/4000 births). Bleeding was controlled in all the patients with a double B-Lynch suture. The mean age of the patients was 24 ± 3.4 years. The mean estimated blood loss was 1696 ± 272.075 mL, and the mean transfusion rate was 4.2 ± 2.5 units. Pregnancy was observed in five patients at follow up. The double B-Lynch suture seems to be an effective and reliable solution to an intractable postpartum haemorrhage resulting from uterine atony and has no unfavourable impacts on fertility. It should be considered before the use of any aggressive surgical techniques such as a hypogastric artery ligation or a hysterectomy. This the first study to investigate the effectiveness of the double B-Lynch suture, and we showed that the hysterectomy and/or hypogastric artery ligation rate can be decreased by adding a second B-Lynch suture in cases where the medical treatment or a single B-Lynch has failed. Impact statement What is already known on the subject? Uterine atony is the most common cause of a primary postpartum haemorrhage. When a simple massage of the uterus and medication failed to manage this condition, various surgical solutions have been sought, including uterine compression sutures, uterine artery ligation, devascularisation of the uterus, internal iliac artery ligation and, ultimately, a hysterectomy. The B-Lynch suturing technique is particularly useful because of its simplicity of application, life-saving potential, relative safety and capacity

  4. Meniscal Tear Film Fluid Dynamics Near Marx’s Line

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.; Breward, C. J. W.; Gaffney, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    meniscus. However, resolving tear film behaviour within the meniscus and especially its apices is required to characterise the flow dynamics where the tear film is especially thin, and thus most susceptible to evaporatively induced hyperosmolarity

  5. Strength of suture anchor versus transosseous tunnel in anatomic reconstruction of the ankle lateral ligaments: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yun; Hua, Ying-Hui; Wu, Zi-Ying; Chen, Bo; Chen, Shi-Yi

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of fixation with 2-suture anchors versus transosseous tunnel fixation in anatomic reconstruction of the ankle lateral ligaments. Six matched pairs of human cadaveric ankles underwent anatomic lateral ankle reconstruction, and fixation of the graft on the talus was achieved with 2 suture anchors or a transosseous tunnel. Ankles for the transosseous tunnel group were chosen at random, with the paired contralateral ankles used for the 2-suture anchor group. Half of the peroneus brevis tendon was harvested as a graft. For each technique, one end of the tendon was secured to the original insertion point of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) at the talus, whereas the other end was armed with 2 No. 5 nonabsorbable sutures (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) and passed through the bone tunnel in the fibula. Biomechanical testing was performed by applying the force in line with the graft. Load to failure was determined at a displacement rate of 50 mm/min. The load-displacement curve, maximum load at failure (N), and stiffness (N/mm) were recorded and compared between the 2 techniques. There was no difference between constructs in the 2-suture anchor group and the transosseous tunnel group in terms of the ultimate load and stiffness (161.8 ± 47.6 N v 171.9 ± 76.0 N; P = .92; 4.59 ± 1.85 N/mm v 5.77 ± 1.98 N/mm; P = .35). Most constructs failed because of anchor pullout in the 2-suture anchor group (5 of 6) and fracture of the bony bridge in the transosseous tunnel group (6 of 6). The strength of fixation with suture anchors in anatomic reconstruction of the ankle lateral ligaments was equivalent to transosseous tunnel fixation as determined with biomechanical testing. However, this study did not prove that one is advantageous over the other. Both techniques showed excellent biomechanical results. Therefore, the 2-suture anchor fixation approach can be safely used in anatomic reconstruction of the

  6. Superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Jonathan C; Omid, Reza

    2012-12-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old male college student with a chief complaint of right shoulder pain. The patient was initially diagnosed with bicipital tendinitis by his physician and had been treated for 4 weeks by a physical therapist. However, his symptoms did not improve and he was unable to return to his preinjury activity levels, so he sought the services of another physical therapist for a second opinion. Due to concern for a labrum tear, the physical therapist referred the patient to an orthopaedic surgeon. Magnetic resonance arthrography revealed findings consistent with a superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

  7. Local Delivery of Growth Factors Using Coated Suture Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Fuchs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of healing processes in a wide range of tissues represents a central point for surgical research. One approach is to stimulate healing processes with growth factors. These substances have a short half-life and therefore it seems useful to administer these substances locally rather than systemically. One possible method of local delivery is to incorporate growth factors into a bioabsorbable poly (D, L-lactide suspension (PDLLA and coat suture material. The aim of the present study was to establish a procedure for the local delivery of growth factors using coated suture material. Sutures coated with growth factors were tested in an animal model. Anastomoses of the colon were created in a rat model using monofilament sutures. These were either untreated or coated with PDLLA coating alone or coated with PDLLA incorporating insulin—like growth factor-I (IGF-I. The anastomoses were subjected to biomechanical, histological, and immunohistochemical examination. After 3 days the treated groups showed a significantly greater capacity to withstand biomechanical stress than the control groups. This finding was supported by the results of the histomorphometric. The results of the study indicate that it is possible to deliver bioactive growth factors locally using PDLLA coated suture material. Healing processes can thus be stimulated locally without subjecting the whole organism to potentially damaging high systemic doses.

  8. Selective laser vaporization of polypropylene sutures and mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, David; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-02-01

    Complications from polypropylene mesh after surgery for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) may require tedious surgical revision and removal of mesh materials with risk of damage to healthy adjacent tissue. This study explores selective laser vaporization of polypropylene suture/mesh materials commonly used in SUI. A compact, 7 Watt, 647-nm, red diode laser was operated with a radiant exposure of 81 J/cm2, pulse duration of 100 ms, and 1.0-mm-diameter laser spot. The 647-nm wavelength was selected because its absorption by water, hemoglobin, and other major tissue chromophores is low, while polypropylene absorption is high. Laser vaporization of ~200-μm-diameter polypropylene suture/mesh strands, in contact with fresh urinary tissue samples, ex vivo, was performed. Non-contact temperature mapping of the suture/mesh samples with a thermal camera was also conducted. Photoselective vaporization of polypropylene suture and mesh using a single laser pulse was achieved with peak temperatures of 180 and 232 °C, respectively. In control (safety) studies, direct laser irradiation of tissue alone resulted in only a 1 °C temperature increase. Selective laser vaporization of polypropylene suture/mesh materials is feasible without significant thermal damage to tissue. This technique may be useful for SUI procedures requiring surgical revision.

  9. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SUTURE MATERIALS ON TISSUE HEALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fırat SELVİ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the healing differences in between four different widely used suture materials in the oral surgery practice, including silk (Perma- Hand; Ethicon, INC., Somerville, NJ, USA, polypropylene (Prolene; Ethicon, INC., Somerville, NJ, USA, coated polyglactin 910 (Ethicon, INC., Somerville, NJ, USA. and polyglecaprone 25 (Ethicon, INC., Somerville, NJ, USA . Materials and Methods: 20 male rats were randomly allocated into two groups depending on their sacrification days (post-operative 1st and the 7th days. Four longitudinal incision wounds, each 1cm in size, were created on the dorsum of each animal which were then primarily closed with four different types of sutures. Results: The effects of these suture materials on soft tissue healing were compared histopathologically, by means of density of the cells, necrosis, fibrosis, foreign body reaction, the presence of cells of acute and chronic infection. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups regarding the density of the cells, necrosis, fibrosis, foreign body reaction, and the presence of the cells of acute & chronic infections. Of note, propylene showed slightly less tissue reaction among the other materials. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that there is no only one ideal suture material for surgical practice. The factors related to the patient, the type of the surgery and the quality of the tissue are important to decide an appropriate suture material.

  10. Mechanical Behavior of Bio-inspired Model Suture Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaning; Lin, Erica; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary

    2012-02-01

    Suture joints of varying degrees of geometric complexity are prevalent throughout nature as a means of joining structural elements while providing locally tailored mechanical performance. Here, micromechanical models of general trapezoidal waveforms of varying hierarchy are formulated to reveal the role of geometric complexity in governing stiffness, strength, toughness and corresponding deformation and failure mechanisms. Physical constructs of model composite suture systems are fabricated via multi-material 3D printing (Object Connex500). Tensile tests are conducted on samples covering a range in geometry, thus providing quantitative measures of stiffness, strength, and failure. The experiments include direct visualization of the deformation and failure mechanisms and their progression, as well as their dependence on suture geometry, showing the interplay between shear and tension/compression of the interfacial layers and tension of the skeletal teeth and the transition in failure modes with geometry. The results provide quantitative guidelines for the design and tailoring of suture geometry to achieve the desired mechanical properties and also facilitate understanding of suture growth and fusion, and evolutionary phenotype.

  11. Active delivery of the anterior arm and incidence of second-degree perineal tears: a clinical practice evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottet, Nicolas; Bonneaud, Marine; Eckman-Lacroix, Astrid; Ramanah, Rajeev; Riethmuller, Didier

    2017-05-12

    Evaluate the feasibility of active delivery of the anterior arm during spontaneous delivery. This maneuver could decrease incidence of second-degree perineal tears because it reduces fetal biacromial diameter. An observational comparative prospective study was conducted at our teaching maternity from July 2012 to March 2013. The study included 199 nulliparous women ≥18 years, who met the following criteria: singleton pregnancy, vaginal delivery with occiput anterior presentation, on epidural analgesia, from 37 weeks of gestation onward. The distribution of rate and type of perineal tears were compared between two groups: a non-exposed group and a group exposed to the maneuver. A total of 101 patients were exposed to Couder's maneuver (CM) and 98 patients were not exposed. In the intervention group, 3 failures of the maneuver were reported. The maneuver was considered easy in 80% of cases, moderately easy in 12% and difficult in 8% of cases. There was a significant difference (p = 0.03) in the distribution of perineal tears between the two groups. There was a significant reduction (p tears in the patients exposed to CM. There was no significant difference in the rate of anterior perineal trauma between the exposed and non-exposed arms. CM in primiparous women at term is feasible with a low failure rate and influences the distribution of perineal tears by lowering second-degree perineal tears in a highly significant manner (p <0.01).

  12. Kink and tearing mode instabilities in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogutse, O.P.

    The continuous transition from a free-boundary-kink mode to a tearing mode in a current carrying plasma column is investigated. It is shown that in the real experimental situation, even for high temperatures in the plasma periphery, the kink mode exists due to electron inertia, the growth rate of the instability being at least a few times smaller than the growth rate with a free boundary. We find the dispersion relation allowing us to calculate the growth rate for plasma parameters of physical interest. It is shown that as the size of the current channel increases the growth rate falls, but the range of values of the safety factor where the mode is unstable broadens

  13. Water-tight knee arthrotomy closure: comparison of a novel single bidirectional barbed self-retaining running suture versus conventional interrupted sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Michael; Avelar, Rui; Sheehan, Michael; Cushner, Fred

    2011-03-01

    Standard medial parapatellar arthrotomies of 10 cadaveric knees were closed with either conventional interrupted absorbable sutures (control group, mean of 19.4 sutures) or a single running knotless bidirectional barbed absorbable suture (experimental group). Water-tightness of the arthrotomy closure was compared by simulating a tense hemarthrosis and measuring arthrotomy leakage over 3 minutes. Mean total leakage was 356 mL and 89 mL in the control and experimental groups, respectively (p = 0.027). Using 8 of the 10 knees (4 closed with control sutures, 4 closed with an experimental suture), a tense hemarthrosis was again created, and iatrogenic suture rupture was performed: a proximal suture was cut at 1 minute; a distal suture was cut at 2 minutes. The impact of suture rupture was compared by measuring total arthrotomy leakage over 3 minutes. Mean total leakage was 601 mL and 174 mL in the control and experimental groups, respectively (p = 0.3). In summary, using a cadaveric model, arthrotomies closed with a single bidirectional barbed running suture were statistically significantly more water-tight than those closed using a standard interrupted technique. The sample size was insufficient to determine whether the two closure techniques differed in leakage volume after suture rupture.

  14. Hot-Tearing Assessment of Multicomponent Nongrain-Refined Al-Cu Alloys for Permanent Mold Castings Based on Load Measurements in a Constrained Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Mirmiran, Seyed; Glaspie, Christopher; Li, Shimin; Apelian, Diran; Shyam, Amit; Allen Haynes, J.; Rodriguez, Andres F.

    2018-06-01

    The hot-tearing resistance of multicomponent Al-Cu alloys during permanent mold casting was investigated using a constrained permanent mold in which the load and temperature were measured. The nominal Cu composition was varied from 5 to 8 wt pct. Casting experiments were conducted without adding any grain-refining inoculants. The following variables, which were obtained from the measured load data during casting, were considered to assess the hot-tearing resistance of the Al-Cu multicomponent alloys: "V"-like signature in the load rate variation, load at solidus point, and load rate average over the freezing range. In addition, a hot-tearing criterion based on the variation of the fraction of solid in the late stages of solidification was used. It was found that all criteria considered can accurately predict the alloys with the lowest and highest hot-tear resistance, respectively. It was found that the rate of measured load during casting could be used to indicate substantial hot tearing. However, the load rate variation could not be used to detect when small hot tears were present. Among all the criteria considered, the load at the solidus point shows an excellent agreement with experimentally observed hot-tearing resistance for all but one alloy. The poorly resistant hot-tearing alloys exhibited mainly coarse columnar grains while the most hot-tearing resistant alloys exhibited a much more refined grain microstructure. This is the first study in which good hot-tear resistance is demonstrated for multicomponent Al-Cu alloys with nominal Cu content greater than 7 wt pct.

  15. Elimination of Hot Tears in Steel Castings by Means of Solidification Pattern Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotas, Petr; Tutum, Cem Celal; Thorborg, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    A methodology of how to exploit the Niyama criterion for the elimination of various defects such as centerline porosity, macrosegregation, and hot tearing in steel castings is presented. The tendency of forming centerline porosity is governed by the temperature distribution close to the end...... of the solidification interval, specifically by thermal gradients and cooling rates. The physics behind macrosegregation and hot tears indicate that these two defects also are dependent heavily on thermal gradients and pressure drop in the mushy zone. The objective of this work is to show that by optimizing...... the solidification pattern, i.e., establishing directional and progressive solidification with the help of the Niyama criterion, macrosegregation and hot tearing issues can be both minimized or eliminated entirely. An original casting layout was simulated using a transient three-dimensional (3-D) thermal fluid model...

  16. Quasi-linear evolution of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.; Frey, M.; Tagger, M.

    1983-07-01

    The growth of a Tearing instability in Rutherford's nonlinear regime is investigated. Using a singular perturbation technique, lowest order Rutherford's result is recovered. To the following order it is shown that the mode generates a quasi-linear deformation of the equilibrium flux profile, whose resistive diffusion slows down the growth and shows the possibility of a saturation of the instability

  17. Simulation of saturated tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Canh N.; Bateman, Glenn; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2004-01-01

    A quasi-linear model, which includes the effect of the neoclassical bootstrap current, is developed for saturated tearing modes in order to compute magnetic island widths in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with arbitrary aspect ratio and cross-sectional shape. The model is tested in a simple stand-alone code and is implemented in the BALDUR [C. E. Singer et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 275 (1982)] predictive modeling code. It is found that the widths of tearing mode islands increase with decreasing aspect ratio and with increasing elongation. Also, the island widths increase when the gradient of the current density increases at the edge of the islands and when the current density inside the islands is suppressed, such as the suppression caused by the near absence of the bootstrap current within the islands. In simulations of tokamak discharges, it is found that tearing mode island widths oscillate in time in response to periodic sawtooth crashes. The local enhancements in the transport produced by magnetic islands have a noticeable effect on global plasma confinement in simulations of low aspect ratio, high beta tokamaks, where saturated tearing mode islands can occur with widths that are greater than 15% of the plasma minor radius

  18. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, Richard B; Roos, Harald P; Roos, Ewa M

    2013-01-01

    To compare, in young active adults with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, the mid-term (five year) patient reported and radiographic outcomes between those treated with rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and those treated with rehabilitation and optional delayed ACL...

  19. Glenohumeral stability in simulated rotator cuff tears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbrink, F.; Groot, J.H.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Helm, F.C.; Rozing, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears disrupt the force balance in the shoulder and the glenohumeral joint in particular, resulting in compromised arm elevation torques. The trade-off between glenohumeral torque and glenohumeral stability is not yet understood. We hypothesize that compensation of lost abduction torque

  20. Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Yan Kit; Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-02-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear is very rare. It can involve the superficial posterior compartment alone or progress to involve all the 4 compartments of the lower legs. Those patients with high pain tolerance and minor trauma can lead to delayed presentation. Immediate fasciotomy is the treatment of choice. Therapeutic Level IV, Case Study. © 2014 The Author(s).

  1. EVALUATION OF ADJUSTABLE SUTURE TECHNIQUE IN OUTCOME OF PTOSIS SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the outcome of adjustable suture technique in ptosis surgery. INTRODUCTION : Surgical management of blepharoptosis is indicated in multiple situations and the post - operative outcomes can be as variable as the indications for surgery. Adjustable suture techniques in ptosis repair have been introduced and variable efficacies have been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case review of medical records from June 2010 to May 2011 (12 months of 5 eyes of 5 consecutive patients operated by a single surgeon at a Tertiary Eye care center in South India were reviewed. The clinical profile of patients included was r ecorded and results of adjustable suture technique described by Borman and collegues for these patients was reported. RESULTS: 5 eyes of 5 patients underwent adjustable suture ptosis repair in the study duration. 4 patients with moderate and 1 with severe ptosis, all having good levator function were diagnosed to have c ongenital ptosis in 3 cases and a cquired involutional ptosis in 2 cases. All 5 cases had a satisfactory outcome at day 4 post - operative after adjustment of lid height in the out - patient clini c. 1 patient with acquired involutional ptosis, identified with levator dehiscence intra - operatively had overcorrection at 6 months warranting re - surgery while the other 4 patients had satisfactory cosmetic lid height and functional outcome at 6 months fol low up after the adjustable suture technique for ptosis repair. CONCLUSION: Use of adjustable sutures in ptosis surgery can eliminate the intraoperative lid factors that can lead to unpredictable results. The technique described is easy to adapt and perfor m and can give repeatable and well acceptable results in the properly selected cases

  2. The Primary Stability of a Bioabsorbable Poly-L-Lactic Acid Suture Anchor for Rotator Cuff Repair Is Not Improved with Polymethylmethacrylate or Bioabsorbable Bone Cement Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleçyüz, Mehmet F; Kraus-Petersen, Michael; Schröder, Christian; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Wagenhäuser, Markus U; Braun, Christian; Müller, Peter E; Pietschmann, Matthias F

    2018-02-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis and rotator cuff tears increases with age. Cement augmentation of bones is an established method in orthopedic and trauma surgery. This study analyses if polymethylmethacrylate or bioabsorbable cement can improve the primary stability of a bioabsorbable suture anchor in vitro in comparison to a non-augmented suture anchor in osteoporotic human humeri. The trabecular bone mineral density was measured to ensure osteopenic human specimens. Then the poly-l-lactic acid Bio-Corkscrew® FT was implanted in the greater tuberosity footprint with polymethylmethacrylate Refobacin® cement augmentation ( n  = 8), with Cerament™ Bone Void Filler augmentation ( n  = 8) and without augmentation ( n  = 8). Using a cyclic testing protocol, the failure loads, system displacement, and failure modes were recorded. The Cerament™ augmented Bio-Corkscrew® FT yielded the highest failure loads (206.7 N), followed by polymethylmethacrylate Refobacin® augmentation (206.1 N) and without augmentation (160.0 N). The system displacement was lowest for Cerament™ augmentation (0.72 mm), followed by polymethylmethacrylate (0.82 mm) and without augmentation (1.50 mm). Statistical analysis showed no significant differences regarding the maximum failure loads ( p  = 0.1644) or system displacement ( p  = 0.4199). The main mode of failure for all three groups was suture slippage. The primary stability of the Bio-Corkscrew® FT is not influenced by bone cement augmentation with polymethylmethacrylate Refobacin® or with bioabsorbable Cerament™ in comparison to the non-cemented anchors. The cement augmentation of rotator cuff suture anchors in osteoporotic bones remains questionable since biomechanical tests show no significant advantage.

  3. Graft Utilization in the Bridging Reconstruction of Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewington, Matthew R; Ferguson, Devin P; Smith, T Duncan; Burks, Robert; Coady, Catherine; Wong, Ivan Ho-Bun

    2017-11-01

    Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common conditions affecting the shoulder. Because of the difficulty in managing massive rotator cuff tears and the inability of standard techniques to prevent arthropathy, surgeons have developed several novel techniques to improve outcomes and ideally alter the natural history. To systematically review the existing literature and analyze reported outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of using a bridging graft reconstruction technique to treat large to massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. Systematic review. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL was employed with the key terms "tear," "allograft," and "rotator cuff." Eligibility was determined by a 3-phase screening process according to the outlined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data in relation to the primary and secondary outcomes were summarized. The results were synthesized according to the origin of the graft and the level of evidence. Fifteen studies in total were included in this review: 2 comparative studies and 13 observational case series. Both the biceps tendon and the fascia lata autograft groups had significantly superior structural integrity rates on magnetic resonance imaging at 12-month minimum follow-up when compared with their partial primary repair counterparts (58% vs 26%, P = .036; 79% vs 58%, P rotator cuff tears demonstrated high structural healing rates (74%-90%, 73%-100%, and 60%-90%, respectively). Additionally, both comparative studies and case series demonstrated a general improvement of patients' functional outcome scores. Using a graft for an anatomic bridging rotator cuff repair results in improved function on objective testing and may be functionally better than nonanatomic or partial repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears. Allograft or xenograft techniques appear to be favorable options, given demonstrated functional improvement, imaging-supported graft survival, and lack of harvest complication risk. More high

  4. MRI in diagnosing partial thickness tears of the rotator cuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Takeshi

    2000-01-01

    In this study 270 patients who had been treated for 10 years and had suspected rupture of the tendon and complete or partial thickness tears of the rotator cuff were diagnosed. Among these patients, MRI images in 50 cases were investigated to establish the diagnostic criteria for partial thickness tears of the rotator cuff. The rupture sites included the bursal surface in 15 shoulders, the articular surface in 30 shoulders, complicated cases of both surfaces in five shoulders with no intrasubstance. As for the imaging method, T2-weighted images were employed and the oblique coronary section, which is parallel to the scapula, was used as a imaging plane. From the results of the variation of the MRI signal intensity in the tendon, it was found that the signal intensity increased to 80% in the rupture of the bursal surface and 93.3% in the rupture of the articular surface. As for sites where the signals in the tendon increased, these were found at the bursal side in 83.3% of rupture at the bursal surface, and at the articular side in 100% of rupture at the articular surface. From these findings, the MRI-diagnostic criteria of partial thickness tears of the rotator cuff was defined as those cases which show a localized increase in signal intensity on the oblique coronary surface of T2 weighted images, but not in whole layers of the tendon. A high diagnostic rate with these criteria could be obtained with a sensitivity of 82.0%, specificity 90.9%, accuracy 84.7%, and positive predictive value 95.3%. (author)

  5. A reusable suture anchor for arthroscopy psychomotor skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, Edward D; Rogers, Rainie; Nyland, John

    2003-03-01

    For residents to adequately develop the early arthroscopy psychomotor skills required to better learn how to manage the improvisational situations they will encounter during actual patient cases, they need to experience sufficient practice repetitions within a contextually relevant environment. Unfortunately, the cost of suture anchors can be a practice repetition-limiting factor in learning arthroscopic knot-tying techniques. We describe a technique for creating inexpensive reusable suture anchors and provide an example of their application to repair the anterior glenoid labrum during an arthroscopy psychomotor skills laboratory training session.

  6. Combination of intracostal sutures with muscle flap to decrease post thoracotomy pain: A single blinded randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazer, Majid; Hashemzade, Shahryar; Gargari, Reza Movassaghi; Ramouz, Ali; Sanaie, Sarvin; Rasihashemi, Seyed Ziaeddin

    2017-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of intercostal nerve protection by intercostal muscle (ICM) flap in post-thoracotomy pain improvement compared to intracostal suturing. In a randomized controlled trial, ninety-four patients undergoing posterolateral thoracotomy surgery were divided into two subgroups. Intracostal sutures in isolation and in combination with ICM flap techniques were used for thoracotomy closure in both groups. Numeric Pain Scale and Visual Pain Scale as pain scores were assessed on the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh postoperative days and follow-up visits during the 2 nd week, 1 st , 2 nd , 4 th and 6 th months after thoracotomy. Out of 94 patients, 58 were male and 36 were females. While the mean age of patients in intracostal group was 45.3 ± 17.6 years, it was 47.4 ± 16.1 years in intracostal plus ICM flap group. The mean operation time for the first group was 191.0 ± 74.7 minutes, while it was 219.3 ± 68.8 minutes in the second (p>0.05). Numeric rating score and visual pain scale did not demonstrate any significant difference in pain severity on postoperative days and follow-up visits between both groups (p>0.05). Although the trend of pain reduction was significant in each group (p0.001). Intracostal sutures in combination with muscle flap did not reduce postoperative pain in thoracotomy compared with intracostal sutures alone in thoracotomy closure.

  7. Effect of robotic manipulation on unidirectional barbed suture integrity: evaluation of tensile strength and sliding force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Dharam; Clay, Kevin; Hossain, S G M; Park, Eugene; Nelson, Carl A; LaGrange, Chad A

    2012-06-01

    One of the more challenging portions of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is the urethrovesical anastomosis. Because of this, a unidirectional absorbable barbed suture (V-Loc(™)) has been used to complete the anastomosis with better efficiency and less tension. The effect of robotic needle driver manipulation on barbed suture is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine whether robotic manipulation decreases the tensile strength and peak sliding force of V-Loc barbed suture. Fifty-six V-Loc sutures were compared with 56 Maxon sutures. All sutures were 3-0 caliber. Half of the sutures in each group were manipulated with a da Vinci(®) robot large needle driver five times over a 5 cm length of suture. The other half was not manipulated. Breaking force was determined by placing sutures in a Bose ElectroForce load testing device. For sliding force testing, 28 V-Loc sutures were manipulated in the same fashion and compared with 28 nonmanipulated V-Loc sutures. Peak force needed to make the suture slip backward in porcine small intestine was determined to be the sliding force. Scanning electron microscopy of the barbs before and after robotic manipulation was also performed. The mean difference in breaking forces for manipulated vs nonmanipulated Maxon sutures was 4.52 N (P=0.004). The mean difference in breaking forces for manipulated vs nonmanipulated V-Loc sutures was 1.30 N (P=0.046). The manipulated V-Loc group demonstrated a lower peak sliding force compared with the nonmanipulated group (0.76 vs 0.88 N, P=0.199). Electron microscopy revealed minor structural damage to the barbs and suture. Tensile strength and peak sliding force of V-Loc suture is decreased by robotic manipulation. This is likely because of structural damage to the suture and barbs. This structural damage, however, is likely not clinically significant.

  8. MR accuracy and arthroscopic incidence of meniscal radial tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, Thomas; Shapiro, Marc; Williams, David [Department of Radiology, Neuroimaging Institute, 27 East Hibiscus Blvd., Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2002-12-01

    A meniscal radial tear is a vertical tear that involves the inner meniscal margin. The tear is most frequent in the middle third of the lateral meniscus and may extend outward in any direction. We report (1) the arthroscopic incidence of radial tears, (2) MR signs that aid in the detection of radial tears and (3) our prospective accuracy in detection of radial tears. Design and patients. Three musculoskeletal radiologists prospectively read 200 consecutive MR examinations of the knee that went on to arthroscopy by one orthopedic surgeon. MR images were assessed for location and MR characteristics of radial tears. MR criteria used for diagnosis of a radial tear were those outlined by Tuckman et al.: truncation, abnormal morphology and/or lack of continuity or absence of the meniscus on one or more MR images. An additional criterion used was abnormal increased signal in that area on fat-saturated proton density or T2-weighted coronal and sagittal images. Prospective MR readings were correlated with the arthroscopic findings.Results. Of the 200 consecutive knee arthroscopies, 28 patients had radial tears reported arthroscopically (14% incidence). MR readings prospectively demonstrated 19 of the 28 radial tears (68% sensitivity) when the criteria for diagnosis of a radial tear were truncation or abnormal morphology of the meniscus. With the use of the additional criterion of increased signal in the area of abnormal morphology on fat-saturated T2-weighted or proton density weighted sequences, the prospective sensitivity was 25 of 28 radial tears (89% sensitivity). There were no radial tears described in MR reports that were not demonstrated on arthroscopy (i.e., there were no false positive MR readings of radial tears in these 200 patients). Radial tears are commonly seen at arthroscopy. There was a 14% incidence in this series of 200 patients who underwent arthroscopy. Prospective detection of radial tears was 68% as compared with arthroscopy when the criteria as

  9. MR accuracy and arthroscopic incidence of meniscal radial tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, Thomas; Shapiro, Marc; Williams, David

    2002-01-01

    A meniscal radial tear is a vertical tear that involves the inner meniscal margin. The tear is most frequent in the middle third of the lateral meniscus and may extend outward in any direction. We report (1) the arthroscopic incidence of radial tears, (2) MR signs that aid in the detection of radial tears and (3) our prospective accuracy in detection of radial tears. Design and patients. Three musculoskeletal radiologists prospectively read 200 consecutive MR examinations of the knee that went on to arthroscopy by one orthopedic surgeon. MR images were assessed for location and MR characteristics of radial tears. MR criteria used for diagnosis of a radial tear were those outlined by Tuckman et al.: truncation, abnormal morphology and/or lack of continuity or absence of the meniscus on one or more MR images. An additional criterion used was abnormal increased signal in that area on fat-saturated proton density or T2-weighted coronal and sagittal images. Prospective MR readings were correlated with the arthroscopic findings.Results. Of the 200 consecutive knee arthroscopies, 28 patients had radial tears reported arthroscopically (14% incidence). MR readings prospectively demonstrated 19 of the 28 radial tears (68% sensitivity) when the criteria for diagnosis of a radial tear were truncation or abnormal morphology of the meniscus. With the use of the additional criterion of increased signal in the area of abnormal morphology on fat-saturated T2-weighted or proton density weighted sequences, the prospective sensitivity was 25 of 28 radial tears (89% sensitivity). There were no radial tears described in MR reports that were not demonstrated on arthroscopy (i.e., there were no false positive MR readings of radial tears in these 200 patients). Radial tears are commonly seen at arthroscopy. There was a 14% incidence in this series of 200 patients who underwent arthroscopy. Prospective detection of radial tears was 68% as compared with arthroscopy when the criteria as

  10. Association of MRI findings and expert diagnosis of symptomatic meniscal tear among middle-aged and older adults with knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Bhushan R; Losina, Elena; Smith, Savannah R; Martin, Scott D; Wright, R John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2016-04-11

    Our aim was to examine the association between an expert clinician's impression of symptomatic meniscal tears and subsequent MRI in the context of middle-aged and older adults with knee pain. Patients older than 45 were eligible for this IRB-approved substudy if they had knee pain, had not undergone MRI and saw one of two orthopaedic surgeons experienced in the diagnosis of meniscal tear. The surgeon rated their confidence that the patient's symptoms were due to meniscal tear. The patient subsequently had a 1.5 or 3.0 T MRI within 6 months. We examined the association between presence of meniscal tear on MRI and the surgeon's confidence that the knee pain was due to meniscal tear using a χ(2) test for trend. Of 84 eligible patients, 63% were female, with a mean age of 64 years and a mean BMI of 27. The surgeon was confident that symptoms emanated from a tear among 39%. The prevalence of meniscal tear on MRI overall was 74%. Among subjects whose surgeon indicated high confidence that symptoms were due to meniscal tear, the prevalence was 80% (95% CI 63-90%). Similarly, the prevalence was 87% (95% CI 62-96%) among those whose surgeon had medium confidence and 64% (95% CI 48-77%) among those whose surgeon had low confidence (p = 0.12). Meniscal tears were frequently found on MRI even when an expert clinician was confident that a patient's knee symptoms were not due to a meniscal tear, indicating that providers should use MRI sparingly and cautiously to confirm or rule out the attribution of knee pain to meniscal tear.

  11. Interrupted or continuous-intradermal suturing? Statistical analysis of postoperative scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Sarı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Postoperative scar development is an important problem for patients treated in plastic surgery clinics. Most patients think that continuous intradermal suturing is superior to interrupted suturing because they assume that it creates less scarring. We evaluated scars that form following intradermal and interrupted suturing. This article presents our controlled study that objectively compared the scars on patients' faces using a wound evaluation scale. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients, who had undergone operations on the bilateral cheeks, were included in this study. Thirty patients were female; five patients were male. Their mean age was 40.05 years. The average scar evaluation time after surgery was 9.05 months. Elliptical excisions were made on the lesions under local anesthesia. The incisions on the right cheeks were sutured with 6/0 monofilament nonabsorbable sutures using the continuous intradermal suturing technique. The left cheek incisions were sutured with same sutures using the interrupted suturing method. Results: The patients were evaluated 7–11 months after operation (mean: 9.05 months using the Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale. A Related Samples T-test was used for statistical evaluation of the differences between the suturing techniques. No significant differences were noted in scar formation between the two suturing methods (p>0.05. Conclusion: We found no differences in scar formation between the two frequently used suturing techniques studied here. We believe that the suturing technique is a less important determinant of scar formation than are other factors.

  12. The Tear Osmolarity Changes After Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Öncel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To determine the tear osmolarity changes in patients who had undergone phacoemulsification surgery. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Tear osmolarity measurements were performed in 30 eyes of 30 patients who had undergone cataract surgery without any complication. Measurements were performed before surgery and consecutively at 1st month, 3rd month, and 6th month after the surgery. TearLab osmometer (TearLab Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA device was used for the measurements and paired ttest was used for statistical analysis. Re sults: The mean age of the patients was 72.3±3.7 (67-78 years. Thirteen patients were men and 17 patients were women. The mean osmolarity values were 305.8±6.5 mOsm/L before the surgery and 312.3±6.4 mOsm/L at 1st month, 307.5±5.1 mOsm/L at 3rd month and 305.1±5.7 at 6th month after the surgery. The difference between the values before surgery and at 1st month was found statistically significant (p=0.001. Dis cus si on: The tear osmolarity increases at the first month after surgery but decreases to the levels measured before surgery at the 3rd month. The increase at the first month may be due to the corneal incisions and medication used after the surgery. We think that we have to take into account this similarity increase in all cataract patients, especially in those who also have dry eye disease. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 35-7

  13. Posterior horn lateral meniscal tears simulating meniscofemoral ligament attachment in the setting of ACL tear: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Lawrence S.; Jacobson, Jon A.; Jamadar, David A.; Caoili, Elaine; Kalume-Brigido, Monica; Wojtys, Edward

    2007-01-01

    We have noted apparent far lateral meniscal attachment of the meniscofemoral ligament (MFL) with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. This study evaluates MFL attachment and association with posterior horn lateral meniscus (PHLM) tear. Nine months of knee arthroscopy reports were reviewed to classify the PHLM and ACL as torn or normal. After excluding those with prior knee surgery, MR images were reviewed by two radiologists to determine the number of images lateral to PCL, which showed the ligaments of Humphrey and Wrisberg visible as structures separate from the PHLM. Any patient with abnormal PHLM surface signal not continuous with the MFL was excluded. MRI findings were compared with arthroscopy using Student's t test and Fisher's exact test. Of the 54 participants, 5 had PHLM tears and 49 were normal. Twenty-one had ACL tears; all those with an PHLM tear had an ACL tear. The ligament of Humphrey inserted on average 0.9 consecutive images lateral to the PCL without an PHLM tear and 4.7 with an PHLM tear; the ligament of Wrisberg inserted on average 3.0 consecutive images without an PHLM tear and 4.5 with an PHLM tear (slice thickness/gap = 3 mm/0.5 mm). There was a significant association between PHLM tear and number of images (p = 0.0028), and between ACL tear and this type of PHLM tear (p = 0.0064). Apparent far lateral meniscal extension of a meniscofemoral ligament (greater than or equal to four images lateral to the PCL) should be considered as a possible PHLM tear, especially in the setting of an ACL tear. (orig.)

  14. [Alterations in tears aqueous layer during cytostatics treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Wieckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Rózalska, Barbara; Jurowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate tears secretion, pH and lysozyme activity in tears aqueous layer during chemotherapy in lung, breast and bowel cancer. 36 patients were enrolled to the study. Depending on the type of cancer and type of chemotherapy patients were divided into three groups. Group I (12 patients) diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer treated with PE schema (cisplatin, etoposide), Group II (12 patients) with breast cancer treated with FAC schema (fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide), Group III (12 patients) with bowel cancer treated with FU/LV schema (fluorouracil, leucovorin). In all the patients: Schirmer's I test, pH measurements and lysozyme test were performed. Patients were examined before chemotherapy, after 2nd, 4th, 6th cycle. In group I and II lowering of tears secretion (p tears secretion (p tears film in all groups (p tears aqueous layer causing alterations of tears secretions. PH alterations depending on type of chemotherapy was observed. Lowering of lysozyme activity in tears was observed. All the deteriorations aggravate with duration of chemotherapy. Alterations of tears film parameters during chemotherapy may influence upon eye surface homeostasis and infectious complication. tears aqueous layer, Schirmer's test, lysozyme activity, tears pH.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of meniscal bucket-handle tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dfouni, N.; Garcia, J.; Kindynis, Ph.; Bosson, D.

    1997-01-01

    To define MR signs of meniscal bucket-handle tears and evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of this technique. Retrospective study of 30 patients with a meniscal bucket-handle tear and 30 with a different type of tear, all proven by arthroscopy. The following MR signs of a bucket-handle tear were evaluated: 'separate meniscal fragment, 'double posterior cruciate ligament', 'snake sign' and 'double anterior horn'. A correct diagnosis of a bucket-handle tear was only made in 18/30 of patients. Several of the MR signs were seen in the same patient in 17 cases. A double posterior cruciate ligament was present only in cases of medial meniscus tears. The 12 menisci without these signs, and therefore not diagnosed as bucket-handle tears, were all classified as meniscal tears on the basis of signal extending to the meniscal surface. Nine of these were not displaced into the inter-condylar notch at arthroscopy. The interobserver agreement was excellent: kappa 0.88. The diagnosis of a bucket-handle meniscal tear, if it is displaced, can be made when one or more of the four MR evaluated signs are present. Other forms of meniscal tears are only exceptionally diagnosed as bucket-handle tears. (authors)

  16. MR imaging-based diagnosis and classification of meniscal tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jie C; De Smet, Arthur A; Graf, Ben K; Rosas, Humberto G

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently the modality of choice for detecting meniscal injuries and planning subsequent treatment. A thorough understanding of the imaging protocols, normal meniscal anatomy, surrounding anatomic structures, and anatomic variants and pitfalls is critical to ensure diagnostic accuracy and prevent unnecessary surgery. High-spatial-resolution imaging of the meniscus can be performed using fast spin-echo and three-dimensional MR imaging sequences. Normal anatomic structures that can mimic a tear include the meniscal ligament, meniscofemoral ligaments, popliteomeniscal fascicles, and meniscomeniscal ligament. Anatomic variants and pitfalls that can mimic a tear include discoid meniscus, meniscal flounce, a meniscal ossicle, and chondrocalcinosis. When a meniscal tear is identified, accurate description and classification of the tear pattern can guide the referring clinician in patient education and surgical planning. For example, longitudinal tears are often amenable to repair, whereas horizontal and radial tears may require partial meniscectomy. Tear patterns include horizontal, longitudinal, radial, root, complex, displaced, and bucket-handle tears. Occasionally, meniscal tears can be difficult to detect at imaging; however, secondary indirect signs, such as a parameniscal cyst, meniscal extrusion, or linear subchondral bone marrow edema, should increase the radiologist's suspicion for an underlying tear. Awareness of common diagnostic errors can ensure accurate diagnosis of meniscal tears. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2014.

  17. Biomechanical Comparison of Modified Suture Bridge Using Rip-Stop versus Traditional Suture Bridge for Rotator Cuff Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZiYing Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the biomechanical properties of 3 suture-bridge techniques for rotator cuff repair. Methods. Twelve pair-matched fresh-frozen shoulder specimens were randomized to 3 groups of different repair types: the medially Knotted Suture Bridge (KSB, the medially Untied Suture Bridge (USB, and the Modified Suture Bridge (MSB. Cyclic loading and load-to-failure test were performed. Parameters of elongation, stiffness, load at failure, and mode of failure were recorded. Results. The MSB technique had the significantly greatest load to failure (515.6±78.0 N, P=0.04 for KSB group; P<0.001 for USB group, stiffness (58.0±10.7 N/mm, P=0.005 for KSB group; P<0.001 for USB group, and lowest elongation (1.49±0.39 mm, P=0.009 for KSB group; P=0.001 for USB group among 3 groups. The KSB repair had significantly higher ultimate load (443.5±65.0 N than USB repair (363.5±52.3 N, P=0.024. However, there was no statistical difference in stiffness and elongation between KSB and USB technique (P=0.396 for stiffness and P=0.242 for elongation, resp.. The failure mode for all specimens was suture pulling through the cuff tendon. Conclusions. Our modified suture bridge technique (MSB may provide enhanced biomechanical properties when compared with medially knotted or knotless repair. Clinical Relevance. Our modified technique may represent a promising alternative in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

  18. Achondroplasia with multiple-suture craniosynostosis: a report of a new case of this rare association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessenyei, Beáta; Nagy, Andrea; Balogh, Erzsébet; Novák, László; Bognár, László; Knegt, Alida C.; Oláh, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We report on a female patient with an exceedingly rare combination of achondroplasia and multiple-suture craniosynostosis. Besides the specific features of achondroplasia, synostosis of the metopic, coronal, lambdoid, and squamosal sutures was found. Series of neurosurgical interventions were

  19. [Subluxation of scleral-fixated PC IOL caused by polypropylene suture degradation--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigowska, Krystyna; Grałek, Mirosława; Czarnowska, Elzbieta; Zajaczkowska, Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate factors related to late-onset of lens subluxation in transscleral sutured posterior chamber IOL. We report a child, which required surgical treatment for dislocation of a scleral-sutured PC IOL. 11 years earlier the secondary lens implantation with scleral fixation was performed in 4 years old boy. The first surgical procedure included an anterior victrectomy and suturing a single- piece PMMA IOL under the scleral flaps with a 10-0 polipropylene suture. The second--included explantation of the dislocated lens. Optic and scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the surface of the explanted remnants of the breakage suture. Microscopic findings indicate that the late suture breakage and subluxation of suture-fixated PC IOL was due to the degradation of polypropylene suture.

  20. Evaluation of surgical implantation of electronic tags in European eel and effects of different suture materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, Eva B.; Økland, Finn; Westerberg, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Effects of implanting data-storage tags in European eel, Anguilla anguilla, and the suitability of different suture materials (braided permanent silk, permanent monofilament, absorbable and absorbable antibacterial) were examined. The tags consisted of an electronic unit and three floats on a wire....... Antibacterial treatment had no effect on inflammation or healing rates. After 6 months, the tag started to become expelled through the incision in five fish (12%). The internal reaction appeared stronger around the floats, suggesting that the coating material of the floats created a tissue reaction, which...

  1. Comparison of ophthalmic sponges and extraction buffers for quantifying cytokine profiles in tears using Luminex technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inic-Kanada, Aleksandra; Nussbaumer, Andrea; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Belij, Sandra; Schlacher, Simone; Stein, Elisabeth; Bintner, Nora; Merio, Margarethe; Zlabinger, Gerhard J; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

    2012-01-01

    proinflammatory cytokines, Th1/Th2 distinguishing cytokines, nonspecific acting cytokines, and chemokines. WE DEMONSTRATED THE FOLLOWING: (i) 25 cytokines/chemokines expressed highly variable interactions with buffers and matrices. Several buffers enabled recovery of similar cytokine values (regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES], interleukin [IL]-13, IL-6, IL-8, IL-2R, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]); others were highly variable (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1], monokine induced by interferon-gamma [MIG], IL-1β, IL-4, IL-7, and eotaxin). (ii) Various extraction buffers displayed significantly different recovery rates on the same sponge for the same cytokine/chemokine. (iii) The highest recovery rates were obtained with the Merocel ophthalmic sponge except for tumor necrosis factor-α: the Weck-Cel ophthalmic sponge showed the best results, either with cytokine standards loaded onto sponges or with tears collected from the inner canthus of the eye, using the sponge. (iv) IL-5, IL-10, and interferon-α were not detected in any tear sample from four normal human subjects. Twenty-two cytokines/chemokines that we detected were extracted from the Merocel sponge to a satisfactory recovery percentage. The recovery of IL-7 was significantly lower in the extracted Merocel sponge compared to the diluted tear samples. The cytokine/chemokine extraction from tears showed the same pattern of extraction that we observed for extracting the standards. Simultaneous measurement of various cytokines using ophthalmic sponges yielded diverse results for various cytokines as the level of extraction differs noticeably for certain cytokines. A second set of controls (standard curves "with sponges") should be used to delineate the extent of extraction for each cytokine to be analyzed. Many cytokines/chemokines were detected in tear samples collected with the Merocel sponge, including many that have been implicated in ocular surface disease

  2. Comparison of ophthalmic sponges and extraction buffers for quantifying cytokine profiles in tears using Luminex technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inic-Kanada, Aleksandra; Nussbaumer, Andrea; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Belij, Sandra; Schlacher, Simone; Stein, Elisabeth; Bintner, Nora; Merio, Margarethe; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.

    2012-01-01

    measurement of proinflammatory cytokines, Th1/Th2 distinguishing cytokines, nonspecific acting cytokines, and chemokines. Results We demonstrated the following: (i) 25 cytokines/chemokines expressed highly variable interactions with buffers and matrices. Several buffers enabled recovery of similar cytokine values (regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES], interleukin [IL]-13, IL-6, IL-8, IL-2R, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]); others were highly variable (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1], monokine induced by interferon-gamma [MIG], IL-1β, IL-4, IL-7, and eotaxin). (ii) Various extraction buffers displayed significantly different recovery rates on the same sponge for the same cytokine/chemokine. (iii) The highest recovery rates were obtained with the Merocel ophthalmic sponge except for tumor necrosis factor-α: the Weck-Cel ophthalmic sponge showed the best results, either with cytokine standards loaded onto sponges or with tears collected from the inner canthus of the eye, using the sponge. (iv) IL-5, IL-10, and interferon-α were not detected in any tear sample from four normal human subjects. Twenty-two cytokines/chemokines that we detected were extracted from the Merocel sponge to a satisfactory recovery percentage. The recovery of IL-7 was significantly lower in the extracted Merocel sponge compared to the diluted tear samples. The cytokine/chemokine extraction from tears showed the same pattern of extraction that we observed for extracting the standards. Conclusions Simultaneous measurement of various cytokines using ophthalmic sponges yielded diverse results for various cytokines as the level of extraction differs noticeably for certain cytokines. A second set of controls (standard curves “with sponges”) should be used to delineate the extent of extraction for each cytokine to be analyzed. Many cytokines/chemokines were detected in tear samples collected with the Merocel sponge, including many that have been

  3. Healing of the suture line in the irradiated small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    With the help of data from literature the author goes more deeply into the aetiology, treatment and possible prevention of lesions of the small intestine related to preceding irradiation. In a clinical retrospective study at twenty patients who, after irradiation of the abdominal and pelvic areas, have been submitted to abdominal surgery, the relation is studied between predistion factors for gastrointestinal complications after irradiation, the surgeries applied in case of small-intestine problems and postoperative complications. The third part of the thesis covers an experimental part in which the healing process of suture line in the terminal ileum has been studied after resection and reanastomosis in previously irradiated bowel of the rat. It was investigated whether differences occurred in the healing process of suture line after various periods - 4, 10 and 40 weeks, after irradiation. Also comparison took place with a control group which underwent a similar procedure with the exception of the radiation treatment, which was simulated in this group. In a second experiment it was investigated if the healing process of suture line depends on the type of anastomosis. An end-to-end anastomosis was chosen versus side-to-side anastomosis. Also in this experiment an irradiated group was compared with a control group. Furthermore a method was developed for performing micro-angiographies of the rat intestine in order to demonstrate obliteration of blood vessels in irradiated intestine and to assess neovascularization in the intestinal wall at the suture line. (author). 84 refs.; 18 figs.; 27 tabs

  4. non absorbable sutures in the urinary bladder resulting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vesical calculus. Urol Clin North AM. 2000, 27:333-346. 3. Evans JW, Chapple CR, Ralph DJ, Millory EJ: Bladder calculus formation as a complication of the Stamey procedure. Br J Urol 1990,. 65:580-582. 4. Sheng-Tsun Su, He-Fu Haung, Shu-Fen. Chang. Encrusted Bladder stone on Non- absorbable sutures after a ...

  5. Polymeric Medical Sutures: An Exploration of Polymers and Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Cassandra M.; Schneiderman, Deborah K.; Yu, Ming; Javner, Cassidy H.; Distefano, Mark D.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2017-01-01

    With new K-12 national science standards emerging, there is an increased need for experiments that integrate engineering into the context of society. Here we describe a chemistry experiment that combines science and engineering principles while introducing basic polymer and green chemistry concepts. Using medical sutures as a platform for…

  6. Suture supported P C IOL in a homocystinuric child.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatti S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A homocystinuric child presented with a secondary pupillary block glaucoma due to anteriorly subluxated lens. After removal of the subluxated lens, a suture supported posterior chamber IOL was implanted. Postoperative complication of cerebral venous thrombosis following general anaesthesia was managed with high doses of pyridoxine special diet and drugs.

  7. Hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to suture line breakdown after bladder operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogerd, W; Zoetmulder, F A; Moffie, D

    1990-01-01

    A patient is described with a severe encephalopathy and hyperammonemia in absence of liver dysfunction, attributed to urine absorption into the systemic circulation due to suture line breakdown after bladder dome resection. At autopsy characteristic Alzheimer type II astrocytes were found in the basal ganglia.

  8. A Simple Suturing Technique for Laparoscopic Ligation of Vascular Pedicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Aqua

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the performance of 348 adnexectomies and 35 uterine artery ligations for both benign and malignant disease using a simple laparoscopic suturing technique. Only 5-mm ports are required, and there was no morbidity directly associated with this approach. The procedure can be performed quickly, is relatively inexpensive, and allows hysterectomy and oophorectomy to be performed without bipolar electrocautery.

  9. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  10. Expression of Lipid Peroxidation Markers in the Tear Film and Ocular Surface of Patients with Non-Sjogren Syndrome: Potential Biomarkers for Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won; Lian, Cui; Ying, Li; Kim, Ga Eon; You, In Cheon; Park, Soo Hyun; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the expression of lipid peroxidation markers in the tear film and ocular surface and their correlation with disease severity in patients with dry eye disease. The concentrations of hexanoyl-lysine (HEL), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in tears obtained from 44 patients with non-Sjogren syndrome dry eye and 33 control subjects. The correlations between the marker levels and the tear film and ocular surface parameters, including tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer tear value, tear clearance rate, keratoepitheliopathy scores, corneal sensitivity, conjunctival goblet cell density, and symptom score, were analyzed. The expression of the lipid peroxidation markers HEL, 4-HNE, and MDA in the conjunctiva was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The concentrations of HEL, 4-HNE, and MDA were 279.84 ± 69.98 nmol/L, 0.02 ± 0.01 μg/mL, and 3.80 ± 1.05 pmol/mg in control subjects and 283.21 ± 89.67 nmol/L (p = 0.97), 0.20 ± 0.03 μg/mL (p dry eye patients. 4-HNE and MDA levels significantly correlated with BUT, Schirmer tear value, tear clearance rate, keratoepitheliopathy scores, conjunctival goblet cell density, and symptom score (p dry eye patients. The expression of late lipid peroxidation markers, 4-HNE and MDA, increases in the tear film and ocular surface of patients with dry eye. The levels correlate with various tear film and ocular surface parameters and may reflect the severity of dry eye disease.

  11. Analytic theory of the nonlinear M = 1 tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Meiss, J.D.; Morrison, P.J.

    1985-09-01

    Numerical studies show that the m = 1 tearing mode continues to grow exponentially well into the nonlinear regime, in contrast with the slow, ''Rutherford,'' growth of m > 1 modes. We present a single helicity calculation which generalizes that of Rutherford to the case when the constant-psi approximation is invalid. As in that theory, the parallel current becomes an approximate flux function when the island size, W, exceeds the linear tearing layer width. However for the m = 1 mode, W becomes proportional to deltaB, rather than (deltaB)/sup 1/2/ above this critical amplitude. This implies that the convective nonlinearity in Ohm's law, which couples the m = 0 component to the m = 1 component, dominates the resistive diffusion term. The balance between the inductive electric field and this convective nonlinearity results in exponential growth. Assuming the form of the perturbed fields to be like that of the linear mode, we find that the growth occurs at 71% of the linear rate

  12. Nonsuturing or Skin Adhesives versus Suturing of the Perineal Skin After Childbirth: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijmonsbergen-Schermers, A.E.; Sahami, S.; Lucas, C.; de Jonge, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suturing of perineal trauma after childbirth can cause problems such as pain, discomfort because of tight sutures, the need for suture removal, and dyspareunia. It is unclear whether leaving the perineal skin unsutured or using skin adhesives might prevent these problems. Methods:

  13. Nonsuturing or Skin Adhesives versus Suturing of the Perineal Skin After Childbirth: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijmonsbergen-Schermers, Anna E.; Sahami, Saloomeh; Lucas, Cees; Jonge, Ank de

    2015-01-01

    Suturing of perineal trauma after childbirth can cause problems such as pain, discomfort because of tight sutures, the need for suture removal, and dyspareunia. It is unclear whether leaving the perineal skin unsutured or using skin adhesives might prevent these problems. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  14. Nickel-Titanium Wire as Suture Material: A New Technique for the Fixation of Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haidong; Song, Tao

    2018-01-29

    To introduce nickel-titanium wire as suture material for closure of incisions in cleft lip procedures. Closure of skin incisions using nickel-titanium wire as suture material, with postoperative follow-up wound evaluation. There was excellent patient satisfaction and good cosmetic outcome. Nickel-titanium wire is an excellent alternative for suture closure of cleft lip surgical incisions.

  15. Development of a penetration friction apparatus (PFA) to measure the frictional performance of surgical suture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Gangqiang; Ren, Tianhui; Lette, Walter; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van der Heide, Emile

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays there is a wide variety of surgical sutures available in the market. Surgical sutures have different sizes, structures, materials and coatings, whereas they are being used for various surgeries. The frictional performances of surgical sutures have been found to play a vital role in their

  16. Rotator cuff tear state modulates self-renewal and differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kelsey A; Gibbons, Michael C; Lane, John G; Singh, Anshuman; Ward, Samuel R; Engler, Adam J

    2017-08-01

    Full thickness rotator cuff tendon (RCT) tears have long-term effects on RC muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration, with lasting damage even after surgical tendon repair. Skeletal muscle progenitor cells (SMPs) are critical for muscle repair in response to injury, but the inability of RC muscles to recover from chronic RCT tear indicates possible deficits in repair mechanisms. Here we investigated if muscle injury state was a crucial factor during human SMP expansion and differentiation ex vivo. SMPs were isolated from muscles in patients with no, partial-thickness (PT), or full-thickness (FT) RCT tears. Despite using growth factors, physiological niche stiffness, and muscle-mimetic extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, we found that SMPs isolated from human RC muscle with RCT tears proliferated slower but fused into myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotubes at higher rates than SMPs from untorn RCTs. Proteomic analysis of RC muscle tissue revealed shifts in muscle composition with pathology, as muscle from massive RCT tears had increased ECM deposition compared with no tear RC muscle. Together these data imply that the remodeled niche in a torn RCT primes SMPs not for expansion but for differentiation, thus limiting longer-term self-renewal necessary for regeneration after surgical repair. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1816-1823, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Treatment of chronic deltoid ligament injury using suture anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Ma, Xin; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chen; Huang, Jia-zhang

    2014-08-01

    To explore the efficacy of overlapping suture-anchor fixation for treatment of chronic deltoid ligament injury. Seventeen patients (11 men, 6 women of mean age 32.1 years [range, 18-58 years]) who had undergone surgery for chronic deltoid ligament injury from January 2007 to December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperatively, they had undergone bilateral weight-bearing posterior-anterior radiographs, (MRI) and ultrasound examinations of the ankle. Ankle arthroscopy was performed to confirm the diagnosis, followed by surgery to clear intra-articular proliferating synovial tissues and remove cartilage debris and scar tissue. The deep layer of the deltoid ligament was sutured onto the tip of the medial malleolus and its superficial layer sutured onto its periosteum and fixed with suture anchors. American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring system for the ankle-hindfoot was used to evaluate the ankles pre- and post-operatively. The 17 patients were followed up for 12-34 months (mean 20.1 months). The angle between the long axes of the talus and first metatarsal and the hindfoot angle measured in a hindfoot alignment view (as described by Saltzman) were reduced from 5.4° ± 1.8° and 8.2° ± 2.6° preoperatively to 4.0° ± 0.9° and 5.3° ± 1.3° postoperatively, respectively. The mean AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score was 76.8 ± 7.0 preoperatively and 94.1 ± 3.3 at the last follow-up visit. Ten patients were scored as excellent, six as good, and one as fair. Pain was relieved in all patients and no patients had recurrent deltoid ligament injury. Using suture anchors to treat chronic deltoid ligament injury has relatively satisfactory outcomes. © 2014 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Do Lipids Retard the Evaporation of the Tear Fluid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantamaki, A. H.; Javanainen, M.; Vattulainen, I.

    2012-01-01

    phosphatidylcholine (PC), nonpolar cholesteryl ester, triglycerides, and wax ester (WE). Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and interfacial shear rheometry (ISR) were used to assess the lateral structure and shear stress response of the lipid layers, respectively. RESULTS. Olive oil and long-chain alcohol decreased......PURPOSE. We examined in vitro the potential evaporation-retarding effect of the tear film lipid layer (TFLL). The artificial TFLL compositions used here were based on the present knowledge of TFLL composition. METHODS. A custom-built system was developed to measure evaporation rates at 35 degrees C....... Lipids were applied to an air-water interface, and the evaporation rate through the lipid layer was defined as water loss from the interface. A thick layer of olive oil and a monolayer of long-chain alcohol were used as controls. The artificial TFLLs were composed of 1 to 4 lipid species: polar...

  19. Tear dysfunction and the cornea: LXVIII Edward Jackson Memorial Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2011-12-01

    To describe the cause and consequence of tear dysfunction-related corneal disease. Perspective on effects of tear dysfunction on the cornea. Evidence is presented on the effects of tear dysfunction on corneal morphology, function, and health, as well as efficacy of therapies for tear dysfunction-related corneal disease. Tear dysfunction is a prevalent eye disease and the most frequent cause for superficial corneal epithelial disease that results in corneal barrier disruption, an irregular optical surface, light scattering, optical aberrations, and exposure and sensitization of pain-sensing nerve endings (nociceptors). Tear dysfunction-related corneal disease causes irritation and visual symptoms such as photophobia and blurred and fluctuating vision that may decrease quality of life. Dysfunction of 1 or more components of the lacrimal functional unit results in changes in tear composition, including elevated osmolarity and increased concentrations of matrix metalloproteinases, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. These tear compositional changes promote disruption of tight junctions, alter differentiation, and accelerate death of corneal epithelial cells. Corneal epithelial disease resulting from tear dysfunction causes eye irritation and decreases visual function. Clinical and basic research has improved understanding of the pathogenesis of tear dysfunction-related corneal epithelial disease, as well as treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of the subject of tearing instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.C.

    1977-07-01

    A simple approach is taken to the mechanics of potential instability associated with the steady tearing portion of J-Integral R-curves. The analysis is developed from simple examples of structural component (or test specimen) configurations with cracks, examining their instability possibilities individually, in order to draw more general conclusions about elastic-plastic cracking instability as contrasted to linear-elastic behavior. Finally, an attempt is made to model a more local cleavage-like instability for material in the fracture process zone just ahead of a crack tip. Results are then presented of a testing program which clearly demonstrates the appropriateness of the tearing instability analysis and which illustrates its broad potential for future application, as well as presenting guidelines for its further development. The material selected for analysis was Ni-Cr-Mo-V rotor steel

  1. Saturated tearing modes in tokamaks with divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.

    1982-12-01

    We have developed a self-consistent theory of saturated tearing modes capable of predicting multiple magnetic island widths in tokamaks with no assumptions on the cross-sectional shape, aspect ratio, or plasma pressure. We are in the process of implementing this algorithm in the form of a computer code. We propose: (1) to complete, refine, document and publish this computer code; (2) to carry out a survey in which we vary the current profile, aspect ratio, cross-sectional shape, and pressure profile in order to determine their effect on saturated tearing mode magnetic island widths; and (3) to determine the effect of some externally applied magnetic perturbation harmonics on these magnetic island widths. Particular attention will be paid to the coupling between different helical harmonics, the effect of multiple magnetic islands on the profiles of temperature, pressure and current, and the potential of magnetic island overlap leading to a disruptive instability

  2. Stability of tearing modes in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1994-02-01

    The stability properties of m ≥ 2 tearing instabilities in tokamak plasmas are analyzed. A boundary layer theory is used to find asymptotic solutions to the ideal external kink equation which are used to obtain a simple analytic expression for the tearing instability parameter Δ'. This calculation generalizes previous work on this topic by considering more general toroidal equilibria (however, toroidal coupling effects are ignored). Constructions of Δ' are obtained for plasmas with finite beta and for islands that have nonzero width. A simple heuristic estimate is given for the value of the saturated island width when the instability criterion is violated. A connection is made between the calculation of the asymptotic matching parameter in the finite beta and island width case to the nonlinear analog of the Glasser effect

  3. Geometrical influences on neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1997-07-01

    The influence of geometry on the pressure drives of nonideal magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes is presented. In order to study the effects of elongation, triangularity, and aspect ratio, three different machines are considered to provide a range of tokamak configurations: TFTR (circular), DIII-D (D-shaped), and Pegasus (extremely low aspect ratio). For large aspect ratio tokamaks, shaping does very little to influence the pressure gradient drives, while at low aspect ratios, a very strong sensitivity to the profiles is found. In particular, this sensitivity is connected to the strong dependence on the magnetic shear. This suggests that at low aspect ratio it may be possible to stabilize neoclassical tearing modes by flattening the q profile near low order rational surfaces (e.g., q = 2/1) using a combination of shaping and localized current drive, whereas at large aspect ratio it is more difficult

  4. Influence of preoperative artificial tears on tear film after phacoemulsification on dry eye of diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Su

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the artificial tears on the tear film of diabetic patients with dry eye preoperatively, and the influence on the tear film's fuctional after phacoemulsification.METHODS: Fifty-four diabetic patients with dry eye(60 eyeswere followed up before phacoemulsification. Preoperatively, group A(30 eyes in 28 caseswas treated with Hydroxyl Indican eye drops and group B(30 eyes in 26 caseswas not treated. Postoperatively, both group A and B were treated with Tobramycin Dexamethasone eye drops, Oprah Winfrey Ibuprofen eye drops and Hydroxyl Indican eye drops. Dry eye symptoms, break up time(BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test(S Ⅰ t, fluorescein stain test(FIwere measured at 3d preoperatively, and 1, 7, 30, 90d postoperatively.RESULTS: At 3d preoperatively, there was no statistical differences between the two groups for dry eye symptoms, BUT, SⅠt, FI(P>0.05. At 1 and 7d postoperatively, there were significant statistical differents between the two groups for dry eye symptoms(PPP>0.05.CONCLUSION: Using artificial tears before phacoemulsification can improve symptoms of the diabetic patients with dry eye and accelerate the recovery of the tear film.

  5. [Assessment of restrictive episiotomy use and impact on perineal tears in the Burgundy's Perinatal Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginod, P; Khallouk, B; Benzenine, E; Desplanches, T; Dub, T; Schmutz, E; Douvier, S; Sagot, P

    2016-11-01

    To analyse episiotomy and perineal tears rates in Burgundy after French National College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (CNGOF) guidelines in 2005. Multicenter retrospective study, between 2003-2005 (period 1) et 2012-2014 (period 2), conducted on singletons vaginal deliveries, in cephalic presentation from 37 weeks. We compared the episiotomy rate (ER), and perineal lesions in normal deliveries (ND) and instrumental deliveries (ID) between the two periods. A total of 74,268 women were included. The overall ER significantly decreased from 35.8 to 16.7% (Pdegree perineal tears (0.73% vs. 0.66%) or fourth degree (0.14% vs 0.14%). First degree perineal tears rose (42.1% vs 17.6%, Pdegree decreased (13.5% vs 20.5%, P<0.001). ER decreased whatever the level of motherhood, healthcare ward, vaginal delivery type, or the instrument used. Our study found a strong impact in Burgundy of the French guidelines for the practice of restrictive episiotomy for both ND and for ID without increasing sphincter tears and in decreasing spontaneous morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears: tendon quality as a prognostic factor for repair integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seok Won; Kim, Jae Yoon; Yoon, Jong Pil; Lyu, Seong Hwa; Rhee, Sung Min; Oh, Se Bong

    2015-03-01

    The healing failure rate is high for partial-thickness or small full-thickness rotator cuff tears. To retrospectively evaluate and compare outcomes after arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears and factors affecting rotator cuff healing. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in the study were 55 consecutive patients (mean age, 57.9 ± 7.2 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair for high-grade partial-thickness (n = 34) and small full-thickness (n = 21) rotator cuff tears. The study patients also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) preoperatively and computed tomography arthrography (CTA) at least 6 months postoperatively, and their functional outcomes were evaluated preoperatively and at the last follow-up (>24 months). All partial-thickness tears were repaired after being converted to full-thickness tears; thus, the repair process was almost the same as for small full-thickness tears. The tendinosis of the torn tendon was graded from the MRI images using a 4-point scale, and the reliabilities were assessed. The outcomes between high-grade partial-thickness tears that were converted to small full-thickness tears and initially small full-thickness tears were compared, and factors affecting outcomes were evaluated. The inter- and intraobserver reliabilities of the tendinosis grade were good (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.706 and 0.777, respectively). Failure to heal as determined by CTA was observed in 12 patients with a high-grade partial-thickness tear (35.3%; complete failure in 4 and partial failure in 8) and in 3 patients with a small full-thickness tear (14.3%; complete failure in 1 and partial failure in 2). The patients with high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears showed a higher tendinosis grade than did those with small full-thickness tears (P = .014), and the severity of the tendinosis was related to the failure to heal (P = .037). Tears with a higher tendinosis grade

  7. Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Moshirfar, Majid; Pierson, Kasey; Hanamaikai, Kamalani; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Muthappan, Valliammai; Passi, Samuel F

    2014-01-01

    Majid Moshirfar,1 Kasey Pierson,2,* Kamalani Hanamaikai,3,* Luis Santiago-Caban,1 Valliammai Muthappan,1 Samuel F Passi11Department of Ophthalmology, John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 3A T Still University, School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona, Mesa, AZ, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the...

  8. Nonlinear growth of strongly unstable tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1993-11-01

    Rutherford's theory of the tearing instability is extended to cases where current nonlinearities are important, such as long wavelength modes in current slabs and the m = 1 instability in tokamaks with moderately large aspect-ratios. Of particular interest is the possibility that the associated magnetic islands, as a result of secondary instabilities, have a singular response to the Ohmic diffusion of the current. A family of islands is used to test this possibility; it is found that the response remains bounded

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of muscle tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.; Fisher, D.R.; Heiner, J.P.; Keene, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance scans were obtained on 17 patients with acute, subacute, or chronic muscle tears. These patients presented with complaints of persistent pain or a palpable mass. Magnetic resonance findings were characterized according to alterations in muscle shape and the presence of abnormal high signal within the injured muscle. These areas of high signal were noted on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted scans and were presumed to represent areas of intramuscular hemorrhage. (orig.)

  10. Small-scale tearing mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, N.V.

    1983-01-01

    Considerations are given on the possible effect of small-scale tearing mode with m >> 1 on the plasma electron thermal conductivity in a tokamak. The estimate of the electron thermal conductivity coefficient is obtained. Calculation results are compared with experimental data. The calculated dependence of radial distribution of electron temperature is shown to vary weakly with the tn(m 2 /m 1 ) alteration everywhere, except for the vicinity of point r approximately 0

  11. Assessment of tear film osmolarity using the TearLab™ osmometer in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbag, Lionel; Park, Shin Ae; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J; Attar, Mayssa; Murphy, Christopher J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of tear osmolarity measured using the TearLab ™ osmometer in normal dogs and to assess its diagnostic potential in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Beagle dogs; six normal and five with KCS. Tear osmolarity and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) values were obtained at various times. Normal dogs were assessed for diurnal variation and repeatability and reproducibility of measurements. Dogs with KCS were evaluated before and after 5 months' topical twice-daily therapy with 2% cyclosporine. Mean ± SD tear osmolarity (mOsm/L) was significantly higher in normal dogs (337.4 ± 16.2) than in dogs with KCS before therapy (306.2 ± 18.0; P dogs, tear osmolarity readings were stable during the daytime (P = 0.99). Repeated measurements revealed high variability and typically poor-to-moderate repeatability and reproducibility, although this was improved by taking three successive measurements at each session. Considering combined data from all dogs, a positive correlation existed between STT-1 and tear osmolarity measurements (Pearson's correlation test, P = 0.04, r = 0.62). Canine tear osmolarity as determined by TearLab ™ osmometer was variable, required multiple readings to be informative, and differed from values reported for humans. Dogs with KCS had a lower tear osmolarity than did normal dogs, and this increased following cyclosporine therapy. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. Arthroscopic anterior talofibular ligament repair for chronic ankle instability with a suture anchor technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung Soo; Lee, Kyung Tai; Park, Jun Sic; Lee, Young Koo

    2011-04-11

    The goal of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic repair for chronic ankle instability using a bioabsorbable anchor with 2 sutures. We evaluated the results of 28 ankles treated with arthroscopic anterior talofibular ligament repair using bioabsorbable anchors with a FiberWire and TigerWire suture (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, Florida) placed on the fibula from March 2008 to January 2009. Average follow-up was 15.9 months (range, 13-25 months). Patients were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot ankle score and stress radiographs. Mean AOFAS hindfoot ankle score was 92.48 ± 6.14 at last follow-up compared to the mean preoperative score of 60.78 ± 16.38 (P=.041). Mean postoperative anterior draw test score difference between 2 ankles was 0.61 ± 0.75 compared to the mean preoperative score difference of 3.59 ± 0.68 (P=.00). There was a 14% complication rate, including 3 cases of portal site irritation and 1 case of superficial infection. Stress radiographs revealed 3 cases of anterior displacement >3 mm compared to the other side. All patients returned to their previous activity level.Arthroscopic ligament reconstruction for chronic lateral ankle instability using suture anchors is effective in returning patients to their preinjury function levels. Good clinical results were obtained with some minor complications. This minimally invasive technique is a reasonable alternative to other open surgical procedures for chronic ankle instability. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Suture-Fixation Mucopexy and Doppler-Guided Hemorrhoidal Artery Ligation in Patients with Grade III Hemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a suture-fixation mucopexy procedure by comparing with Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation (DGHAL in the management of patients with grade III hemorrhoids. Methods. This was a randomized controlled trial. One hundred patients with grade III hemorrhoids were randomly assigned to receive suture-fixation mucopexy (n=50 or DGHAL (n=50. Outcome assessments were performed at 2 weeks, 12 months, and 24 months. Assessments included resolution of clinical symptoms, postoperative complications, duration of hospitalization, and total costs. Results. At 2 weeks, one (2% patient in suture-fixation group and four (8% patients in DGHAL group had persistent prolapsing hemorrhoids. Postoperative bleeding was observed in two patients (4% in suture-fixation group and one patient in DGHAL group. There was no significant difference in short-term recurrence between groups. Postoperative complications and duration of hospitalization were comparable between the two groups. Rates of recurrence of prolapse or bleeding at 12 months did not differ between groups. However, recurrence of prolapse at 24 months was significantly more common in DGHAL group (19.0% versus 2.3%, p=0.030. Conclusions. Compared with DGHAL, the suture-fixation mucopexy technique had comparable short-term outcomes and favorable long-term outcomes.

  14. Meniscus tears of the knee: Postarthrogram high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Do, Young Soo; You, Jin Jong; Gong, Jae Chul; Kim, Hyung Jin; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-eight knees with clinically suspected meniscal tears were examined with high resolution computed tomography(HRCT) immediately following double contrast arthrography. All subsequently underwent arthroscopy. The findings of postarthrogram HRCT and arthroscopy were compared to evaluated the usefulness of postarthrogram HRCT in diagnosis of the meniscal tears. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of HRCT were 96.2%. 83.3% and 92.1% respectively. The anatomic details of the meniscal tears were clearly visible on the HRCT scans. Sagittal and coronal reformation views well visualized the horizontal tears and the relationship of torn meniscal fragments, and well differential the peripheral tears from the synovial recess. Our result indicate that postarthrogram HRCT not only is a sensitive and effective method for the detection and characterization of the meniscal tears, but also provides arthroscopists with the appropriate surgical plans

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute and chronic rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buirski, G.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has been assessed in patients with acute rotator cuff tears and normal radiographs (9 cases) and those with chronic tears and changes of cuff arthropathy (9 cases). All images were obtained using a low field strength system (FONAR 0.3 T). Particular attention was placed on the appearances of the tendon and the cuff muscles themselves. Six complete acute tears were clearly identified, but MRI failed to demonstrate two partial tears. Muscle bulk was preserved in all patients in this group. In contrast, all patients with cuff arthropathy had complete tears of the supraspinatus tendon with marked tendon retraction and associated muscle atrophy: These changes precluded primary surgical repair. MRI should be used to assess muscle atrophy preoperatively in those patients with acute tears. When plain radiographs demonstrate cuff arthropathy, the MRI appearances are predictable and primary repair is unlikely to be successful. Further imaging is therefore not indicated. (orig.)

  16. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for Tear Meniscus Evaluation and its Correlation with other Tear Variables in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasmana, Renu; Nagpal, Ramesh Chander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dry eye is one of the most common ocular diseases in this cyber era. Despite availability of multiple tests, no single test is accurate for the diagnosis of dry eye. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography is the recent tool which can be added in the armentarium of dry eye tests. Aim To evaluate tear meniscus with anterior segment optical coherence tomography and its correlation with other tear variables in normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods In this prospective cross-sectional observational study, right eye of 203 consecutive patients were studied. All the patients were divided into three groups Group 1, 2 and 3 according to their age ≤20 years, 21-40 years and >40 years respectively. All patients underwent routine ophthalmologic examinations along with slit-lamp bio-microscopy for tear meniscus height measurement, tear film break up time, Schirmer’s I test (with anaesthesia) and optical coherence tomography imaging of inferior tear meniscus height. After focusing of the instrument with a Cross Line (CL) centered on lower tear meniscus at 6’0 clock of cornea, a 6 mm long scan was obtained. The tear meniscus height (μm) and tear meniscus area (mm2) were measured manually with help of callipers by joining upper corneo-meniscus junction to the lower lid-meniscus junction and tear meniscus height and area within the plotted line respectively and calculated by using the integrated analysis available in the custom software. Results There was significant decrease in the all tear variables with the increase in the age. According to age groups in group 1, the mean Schirmer’s (24.0±4.9)mm, tear film break up time (11.1±1.9) sec, tear meniscus height on slit lamp (600.2±167.3)mm were higher but decreased in group 2 (21.5±5.4,10.8±1.4, 597.5±186.3) and group 3 (19.8 ± 5.1, 10.2 ± 1.6, 485.6 ± 157.7) respectively. Schirmer’s test values and tear film break up time were similar in both sexes (p=0.1 and p= 0.9). Tear meniscus

  17. Development of a penetration friction apparatus (PFA) to measure the frictional performance of surgical suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gangqiang; Ren, Tianhui; Lette, Walter; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van der Heide, Emile

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays there is a wide variety of surgical sutures available in the market. Surgical sutures have different sizes, structures, materials and coatings, whereas they are being used for various surgeries. The frictional performances of surgical sutures have been found to play a vital role in their functionality. The high friction force of surgical sutures in the suturing process may cause inflammation and pain to the person, leading to a longer recovery time, and the second trauma of soft or fragile tissue. Thus, the investigation into the frictional performance of surgical suture is essential. Despite the unquestionable fact, little is actually known on the friction performances of surgical suture-tissue due to the lack of appropriate test equipment. This study presents a new penetration friction apparatus (PFA) that allowed for the evaluation of the friction performances of various surgical needles and sutures during the suturing process, under different contact conditions. It considered the deformation of tissue and can realize the puncture force measurements of surgical needles as well as the friction force of surgical sutures. The developed PFA could accurately evaluate and understand the frictional behaviour of surgical suture-tissue in the simulating clinical conditions. The forces measured by the PFA showed the same trend as that reported in literatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Timing of ectocranial suture activity in Gorilla gorilla as related to cranial volume and dental eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, James; Cooper, Gregory M; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-05-01

    Research has shown that Pan and Homo have similar ectocranial suture synostosis patterns and a similar suture ontogeny (relative timing of suture fusion during the species ontogeny). This ontogeny includes patency during and after neurocranial expansion with a delayed bony response associated with adaptation to biomechanical forces generated by mastication. Here we investigate these relationships for Gorilla by examining the association among ectocranial suture morphology, cranial volume (as a proxy for neurocranial expansion) and dental development (as a proxy for the length of time that it has been masticating hard foods and exerting such strains on the cranial vault) in a large sample of Gorilla gorilla skulls. Two-hundred and fifty-five Gorilla gorilla skulls were examined for ectocranial suture closure status, cranial volume and dental eruption. Regression models were calculated for cranial volumes by suture activity, and Kendall's tau (a non-parametric measure of association) was calculated for dental eruption status by suture activity. Results suggest that, as reported for Pan and Homo, neurocranial expansion precedes suture synostosis activity. Here, Gorilla was shown to have a strong relationship between dental development and suture activity (synostosis). These data are suggestive of suture fusion extending further into ontogeny than brain expansion, similar to Homo and Pan. This finding allows for the possibility that masticatory forces influence ectocranial suture morphology. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. MR imaging of meniscal tears: correlation with history of trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Cheul; Yang, Seoung Oh; Choi, Sun Seob; Son, Seok Hyun; Lee, Yung Il; Chung, Duck Hwan; Kim, Kyung Taek; Sohn, Sung Keun; Lee, Jung Yoon

    1994-01-01

    The medial meniscus is injured much more than the lateral meniscus. Because the medial meniscus is much larger in diameter, is thinner in its periphery and narrower in body than the lateral meniscus, and dose not attach to either cruciate ligament. We evaluated correlations with sites of tear and history of trauma. We reviewed retrospectively in 43 patients with meniscal tears on MR(51 cases) and correlated them with history of trauma. The most common site of injury was the posterior horn of the medial meniscuc(32/51), but high incidence of lateral meniscal tear compared with previous reports was seen. In the cases which had history of trauma, the posterior horn of medial meniscus was most commonly injured(26/34) and 5 meniscal tears were combined with meniscal tear in the other site. The tear in the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was seen only in a patient which had history of trauma and combined with meniscal tear in the other site. But in the meniscal tears without definite history of trauma, the incidence of meniscal tear was different from the meniscal tear with history of trauma. The incidence of lateral meniscal tear(11/17) was higher than medial meniscal tear and the posterior horn of lateral meniscus was commonly injured. We concluded that the medial meniscus was commonly injured, especially posterior horn, but in the cases which had no definite history of trauma, the lateral meniscus was commonly injured. An awareness of prevalent site of meniscal injuries may be helpful in the diagnostic interpretation of MR imaging of knee

  20. Effect of blinking on tear elimination as evaluated by dacryoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.L.; Glover, A.T.; Buckner, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    To document the change in drainage of tears that occurs with blinking, the authors evaluated 17 lacrimal systems of 12 individuals with dacryoscintigraphy. A significant difference in tear drainage was found by keeping the eyelids closed during the first 2 minutes after drop placement (P less than 0.03), but not from 2 to 5 minutes (P greater than 0.4). Retardation of tear drainage after droplet placement can be achieved by simple eyelid closure for 2 minutes

  1. Ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft transfer for reconstruction of chronic tears of the Achilles tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gougoulias Nikolaos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many techniques have been developed for the reconstruction of the Achilles tendon in chronic tears. In presence of a large gap (greater than 6 centimetres, tendon augmentation is required. Methods We present our method of minimally invasive semitendinosus reconstruction for the Achilles tendon using one para-midline and one midline incision. Results The first incision is a 5 cm longitudinal incision, made 2 cm proximal and just medial to the palpable end of the residual tendon. The second incision is 3 cm long and is also longitudinal but is 2 cm distal and in the midline to the distal end of the tendon rupture. The distal and proximal Achilles tendon stumps are mobilised. After trying to reduce the gap of the ruptured Achilles tendon, if the gap produced is greater than 6 cm despite maximal plantar flexion of the ankle and traction on the Achilles tendon stumps, the ipsilateral semitendinosus tendon is harvested. The semitendinosus tendon is passed through small incisions in the substance of the proximal stump of the Achilles tendon, and it is sutured to the Achilles tendon. It is then passed beneath the intact skin bridge into the distal incision, and passed from medial to lateral through a transverse tenotomy in the distal stump. With the ankle in maximal plantar flexion, the semitendinosus tendon is sutured to the Achilles tendon at each entry and exit point Conclusion This minimally invasive technique allows reconstruction of the Achilles tendon using the tendon of semitendinosus preserving skin integrity over the site most prone to wound breakdown, and can be especially used to reconstruct the Achilles tendon in the presence of large gap (greater than 6 centimetres.

  2. Randomized clinical trial comparing manual suture and different models of mechanical suture in the mimicking of bariatric surgery in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes MA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marcos AP Fernandes,1 Bruno MT Pereira,2 Sandra M Guimarães,1 Aline Paganelli,3 Carlos Manoel CT Pereira,1 Claudio Sergio Batista4 1Institute of Obesity and Advanced Video Laparoscopic Surgery of Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Division of Trauma, University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Laboratório de Patologia Micron Cell Diagnóstico, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine of Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Context and objective: Variations in the ability of surgeons served as motivation for the development of devices that, overcoming individual differences, allow the techniques to be properly performed, and of which the end result was the best possible. Every technique must be reproduced reliably by the majority of surgeons for their results to be adopted and recognized as effective. The aim of this study was to compare the results, from the point of view of anatomic pathology, of manual sutures versus mechanical sutures using different models of linear mechanical staplers, in the procedure of gastroenteroanastomosis and enteroanastomosis in swine. Methods: Thirty-six healthy, adult, male Sus scrofa domesticus pigs, weighing between 20.7 and 25.5 kg, were used. The swine were randomly divided into four groups of nine pigs, according to the type of suture employed: group A, manual suture with Polysorb® 3-0 wire; group B, 80-shear linear stapler (Covidien® Gia 8038-S; group C, 75-shear linear stapler (Ethicon® Tlc 75; and group D, 75-shear linear stapler (Resource® Yq 75-3. A temporal study was established on the seventh postoperative day for histopathological analysis, and the degree of inflammation, fibrosis, and newly formed vessels, as well as the presence or absence of granulation tissue, foreign body granuloma, and necrosis were all evaluated qualitatively and semiquantitatively. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: Observations during the histopathological

  3. Changes of tear film after trabeculectomy in glaucoma

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    Xue-Jun Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To learn the changes of the tear film before and after the trabeculectomy of glaucoma and explore the incidence of dry eye and the prevention and control measures.METHODS: The 36 patients(60 eyesof glaucoma were examined in detail before 3d of trabeculectomy and after the surgery at 3, 7, 14 and 30d. The examinations include lower eyelid central river of tears, break-up time(BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test(SⅠtand staining scores of corneal fluorescein under slit lamp microscope.RESULTS:The tear meniscus height of central lower eyelid was increased and the tear film BUT was shortened at the same time, the scores of SⅠt was reduced and corneal fluorescein staining score was increased at postoperative 3 and 7d compared with that of preoperation. The tear meniscus height of central lower eyelid, tear film BUT and SIt and score of corneal fluorescein staining began to recover in most of the affected eyes after surgery 14d. At 30d after surgery, 22% of patients tear film failed to recover to the preoperative level; dry eye occured in 18% preoperative eyes with normal tear film.CONCLUSION:Trabeculectomy of glaucoma may affect the stability of the tear film and some patients showeing obvious dry eye and should be intervened and treatmented timely.

  4. Lipid peroxidation is increased in tears from the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlloch-Navarro, Soledad; Franco, Ilenia; Sánchez-Vallejo, Violeta; Silvestre, Dolores; Romero, Francisco Javier; Miranda, María

    2013-10-01

    We describe a procedure in which tears, obtained from Schirmer strips, are used to measure a marker of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA). We also compared the levels of proteins and MDA in tears from two groups of people: young adults (18-30 years old) and elderly adults (65-85 years old), because the data related to total protein concentration of human tears vary widely and because the majority of people over the age of 65 experience some symptoms of dry eyes and this condition has been recognized as an oxidative stress-induced disease. Our results show a significant difference in the protein concentration of the tears taken from the two age categories, younger adults (18-30 years old) and older adults (65-85 years old). Herein, we report for the first time an increase in MDA concentrations determined by HPLC in human tears based on age. It is possible that alterations in the tear lipid layer may lead to an increase in lipid peroxidation. Further studies are needed to understand the nature and function of tear film and stability in order to obtain new methods to analyze tears in patients with different diseases. In this sense, it would be interesting to compare MDA concentration in tears from control subjects and from people with meibomian gland dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of tear film dynamics on quality of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Shizuka; Tung, Cynthia I; Inoue, Yasushi; Jhanji, Vishal

    2018-06-15

    The precorneal tear film is maintained by blinking and exhibits different phases in the tear cycle. The tear film serves as the most anterior surface of the eye and plays an important role as a first refractive component of the eye. Alterations in tear film dynamics may cause both vision-related and ocular surface-related symptoms. Although the optical quality associated with the tear film dynamics previously received little attention, objective measurements of optical quality using wavefront sensors have enabled us to quantify optical aberrations induced by the tear film. This has provided an objective method for assessing reduced optical quality in dry eye; thus, visual disturbances were included in the definition of dry eye disease in the 2007 Dry Eye Workshop report. In addition, sequential measurements of wavefront aberrations have provided us with valuable insights into the dynamic optical changes associated with tear film dynamics. This review will focus on the current knowledge of the mechanisms of wavefront variations that are caused by different aspects of tear film dynamics: specifically, quality, quantity and properties of the tear film, demonstrating the respective effects of dry eye, epiphora and instillation of eye drops on the quality of vision. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Accuracy of MR imaging in partial tears of rotator cuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Masao; Ito, Nobuyuki; Tomonaga, Tadashi; Harada, Shin'ichi; Rabbi, M.E.; Iwasaki, Katsuro

    1997-01-01

    MRI is very useful for the diagnosis of the rotator cuff tear However. in case of partial tears it is sometimes controvertible. In this study, we studied the accuracy of MRI in the diagnosis of partial tears. 67 patients who underwent MRI investigation before operation were chosen for this study. There were 61 males and 6 females, ranging from 30 to 80 years (mean: 54.8 years at the time of operation). MRI was performed with 1.5T superconductive system with shoulder surface coil. MPGR T2-weighted images were performed in the coronal oblique and sagittal oblique planes. Complete tears were diagnosed when full thickness high intensity was observed in the rotator cuff, whereas with partial high intensity of the rotator cuff, was considered as partial tears. MRI demonstrated 77.8% sensitivity, 91.4% specificity and 89.6% accuracy in the diagnosis of partial tear. In 8 cases MRI had misinterpretation. In MPGR T2-weighted images, not only the partial tears but the degenerative changes also show high intensity of the rotator cuff. Therefore, it is difficult to differentiate and maybe this is the reason of misinterpretations of partial tears by MRI. MRI provided with useful pre-operative informations of partial tears of the rotator cuff. However, in few cases it is hard to differentiate for the degenerative changes of the rotator cuff. (author)

  7. Assessment and treatment strategies for rotator cuff tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakim, Wisam; Noorani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Tears of the rotator cuff are common and becoming an increasingly frequent problem. There is a vast amount of literature on the merits and limitations of the various methods of clinical and radiological assessment of rotator cuff tears. This is also the case with regard to treatment strategies. Certain popular beliefs and principles practiced widely and the basis upon which they are derived may be prone to inaccuracy. We provide an overview of the historical management of rotator cuff tears, as well as an explanation for how and why rotator cuff tears should be managed, and propose a structured methodology for their assessment and treatment. PMID:27582960

  8. Progression of Fatty Muscle Degeneration in Atraumatic Rotator Cuff Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert-Davies, Jonah; Teefey, Sharlene A; Steger-May, Karen; Chamberlain, Aaron M; Middleton, William; Robinson, Kathryn; Yamaguchi, Ken; Keener, Jay D

    2017-05-17

    The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the progression of fatty muscle degeneration over time in asymptomatic shoulders with degenerative rotator cuff tears. Subjects with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear in 1 shoulder and pain due to rotator cuff disease in the contralateral shoulder were enrolled in a prospective cohort. Subjects were followed annually with shoulder ultrasonography, which evaluated tear size, location, and fatty muscle degeneration. Tears that were either full-thickness at enrollment or progressed to a full-thickness defect during follow-up were examined. A minimum follow-up of 2 years was necessary for eligibility. One hundred and fifty-six shoulders with full-thickness rotator cuff tears were potentially eligible. Seventy shoulders had measurable fatty muscle degeneration of at least 1 rotator cuff muscle at some time point. Patients with fatty muscle degeneration in the shoulder were older than those without degeneration (mean, 65.8 years [95% confidence interval (CI), 64.0 to 67.6 years] compared with 61.0 years [95% CI, 59.1 to 62.9 years]; p tears at baseline was larger in shoulders with degeneration than in shoulders that did not develop degeneration (13 and 10 mm wide, respectively, and 13 and 10 mm long; p Tears with fatty muscle degeneration were more likely to have enlarged during follow-up than were tears that never developed muscle degeneration (79% compared with 58%; odds ratio, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.29 to 5.39]; p muscle degeneration occurred more frequently in shoulders with tears that had enlarged (43%; 45 of 105) than in shoulders with tears that had not enlarged (20%; 10 of 51; p tears with enlargement and progression of muscle degeneration were more likely to extend into the anterior supraspinatus than were those without progression (53% and 17%, respectively; p tear size (p = 0.56). The median time from tear enlargement to progression of fatty muscle degeneration was 1.0 year (range, -2.0 to 6.9 years) for the

  9. MR imaging of the traumatic triangular fibrocartilaginous complex tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James F.; Fung, Cindy S. Y.; Lee, Ryan K. L.; Tong, Cina S. L.; Wong, Clara W. Y.; Tse, Wing Lim; Ho, Pak Cheong

    2017-01-01

    Triangular fibrocartilage complex is a major stabilizer of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). However, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tear is difficult to be diagnosed on MRI for its intrinsic small and thin structure with complex anatomy. The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy of TFCC, state of art MRI imaging technique, normal appearance and features of tear on MRI according to the Palmar’s classification. Atypical tear and limitations of MRI in diagnosis of TFCC tear are also discussed. PMID:28932701

  10. Comparison of Tibiofemoral Contact Mechanics After Various Transtibial and All-Inside Fixation Techniques for Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Radial Tears in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyu Sung; Choi, Choong Hyeok; Bae, Tae Soo; Ha, Jeong Ku; Jun, Dal Jae; Wang, Joon Ho; Kim, Jin Goo

    2018-04-01

    To compare tibiofemoral contact mechanics after fixation for medial meniscus posterior root radial tears (MMPRTs). Seven fresh knees from mature pigs were used. Each knee was tested under 5 conditions: normal knee, MMPRT, pullout fixation with simple sutures, fixation with modified Mason-Allen sutures, and all-inside fixation using Fastfix 360. The peak contact pressure and contact surface area were evaluated using a capacitive sensor positioned between the meniscus and tibial plateau, under a 1,000-N compression force, at different flexion angles (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°). The peak contact pressure was significantly higher in MMPRTs than in normal knees (P = .018). Although the peak contact pressure decreased significantly after fixation at all flexion angles (P = .031), it never recovered to the values noted in the normal meniscus. No difference was observed among fixation groups (P = .054). The contact surface area was significantly lower in MMPRTs than in the normal meniscus (P = .018) and increased significantly after fixation at all flexion angles (P = .018) but did not recover to within normal limits. For all flexion angles except 60°, the contact surface area was significantly higher for fixation with Mason-Allen sutures than for fixation with simple sutures or all-inside fixation (P = .027). At 90° of flexion, the contact surface area was significantly better for fixation with simple sutures than for all-inside fixation (P = .031). The peak contact pressure and contact surface area improved significantly after fixation, regardless of the fixation method, but did not recover to the levels noted in the normal meniscus after any type of fixation. Among the fixation methods evaluated in this time 0 study, fixation using modified Mason-Allen sutures provided a superior contact surface area compared with that noted after fixation using simple sutures or all-inside fixation, except at 60° of flexion. However, this study had insufficient power to

  11. Functional evaluation of patient after arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Jadhav, Umesh

    2014-06-01

    Rotator cuff tear is a common problem either after trauma or after degenerative tear in old age group. Arthroscopic repair is the current concept of rotator cuff repair. Here, we are trying to evaluate the functional outcome after arthroscopic repair of full thickness rotator cuff tear (single row) in Indian population. Twenty five patients (14 males and 11 females) who underwent arthroscopic repair of full thickness rotator cuff tear at a single institution were included in the study. Postoperatively patient's shoulder was rated according to UCLA score, pain was graded according to the visual analog score. The range of motion was analysed and documented. The mean age of the patients were 50.48 years. The preoperative VAS score mode was 7 and post operative VAS was 1 (p value fair in 12% (n = 3), excellent in 8% (n = 2) and poor results were seen in none of the patients. The mean UCLA improved from a score of 15.84 to 30.28 with a p value advantages, hence we used a single row repair considering the Indian population and the cost effectiveness of the surgery with good to excellent results.

  12. Pseudocyclops: two cases of ACL graft partial tears mimicking cyclops lesions on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpfendorfer, Claus; Subhas, Naveen; Winalski, Carl S.; Ilaslan, Hakan [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Miniaci, Anthony [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using autografts or allografts is a common surgical procedure, particularly in young athletes. Although the procedure has excellent success rates, complications such as mechanical impingement, graft rupture, and arthrofibrosis can occur, often necessitating additional surgery. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become a valuable tool in evaluating complications after ACL reconstruction. We report two cases of ACL reconstruction complicated by arthroscopically proven partial graft tears. In both cases the torn anterior graft fibers were flipped into the intercondylar notch, mimicking anterior arthrofibrosis, i.e., a ''cyclops lesion,'' on MR imaging. Careful review of the direction of graft fibers on MR imaging in the ''pseudocyclops'' lesions can help differentiate these partial tears from the fibrosis of a true cyclops. The ''pseudocyclops'' lesion is a previously undescribed MR imaging sign of partial ACL graft tear. Larger studies are required to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the sign, as well as the clinical importance of these partial graft tears. (orig.)

  13. Exchange of tears under a contact lens is driven by distortions of the contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kara L; Ross, David S

    2014-12-01

    We studied the flow of the post-lens tear film under a soft contact lens to understand how the design parameters of contact lenses can affect ocular health. When a soft contact lens is inserted, the blinking eyelid causes the lens to stretch in order to conform to the shape of the eye. The deformed contact lens acts to assume its un-deformed shape and thus generates a suction pressure in the post-lens tear film. In consequence, the post-lens tear fluid moves; it responds to the suction pressure. The suction pressure may draw in fresh fluid from the edge of the lens, or it may eject fluid there, as the lens reassumes its un-deformed shape. In this article, we develop a mathematical model of the flow of the post-lens tear fluid in response to the mechanical suction pressure of a deformed contact lens. We predict the amount of exchange of fluid exchange under a contact lens and we explore the influence of the eye's shape on the rate of exchange of fluid. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Elimination of Hot Tears in Steel Castings by Means of Solidification Pattern Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, Petr; Tutum, Cem Celal; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-06-01

    A methodology of how to exploit the Niyama criterion for the elimination of various defects such as centerline porosity, macrosegregation, and hot tearing in steel castings is presented. The tendency of forming centerline porosity is governed by the temperature distribution close to the end of the solidification interval, specifically by thermal gradients and cooling rates. The physics behind macrosegregation and hot tears indicate that these two defects also are dependent heavily on thermal gradients and pressure drop in the mushy zone. The objective of this work is to show that by optimizing the solidification pattern, i.e., establishing directional and progressive solidification with the help of the Niyama criterion, macrosegregation and hot tearing issues can be both minimized or eliminated entirely. An original casting layout was simulated using a transient three-dimensional (3-D) thermal fluid model incorporated in a commercial simulation software package to determine potential flaws and inadequacies. Based on the initial casting process assessment, multiobjective optimization of the solidification pattern of the considered steel part followed. That is, the multiobjective optimization problem of choosing the proper riser and chill designs has been investigated using genetic algorithms while simultaneously considering their impact on centerline porosity, the macrosegregation pattern, and primarily on hot tear formation.

  15. Diagnosis of radial tear of posterior horn of medial meniscus by MR imaging. Prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyama, Tatsuo; Ihara, Hidetoshi; Kawashima, Mahito

    2002-01-01

    It is not easy to detect radial tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (torn posterior horn) under arthroscopy if the surgeon does not notice the tear before arthroscopy. Occasionally the tear goes undetected or is missed during arthroscopy. The sagittal view of MR imaging is very useful for diagnosing torn posterior horns. The normal posterior horn of the medial meniscus appears as an image of low intensity triangle of the sagittal MRI medial slice next to the PCL. On the contrary, the image of the torn posterior horn shows a high intensity triangle, so we refer to the feature as a white meniscus sign. We prospectively examined the accuracy of white meniscus sign of MRI. Forty-two knees in 41 patients were studied. They were over 40 years of age, diagnosed with medial meniscus tear and had undergone MRI before arthroscopy. Before arthroscopy, we predicted the existence of torn posterior horn by the white meniscus sign and examined the accuracy of the MRI after arthroscopy. Total accuracy rate was 90.5%, sensitivity was 94.1%, and specificity was 88.0%. We concluded that the white meniscus sign on MRI is very useful for defecting torn posterior horn of the medial meniscus. (author)

  16. Effect of sheared flows on neoclassical tearing modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, A [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Chandra, D; Kaw, P [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Bora, M P [Physics Dept., Gauhati University, Guwahati (India); Kruger, S [Tech-X, Boulder, CO (United States); Ramos, J [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The influence of toroidal sheared equilibrium flows on the nonlinear evolution of classical and neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) is studied through numerical solutions of a set of reduced generalized MHD equations that include viscous force effects based on neoclassical closures. In general, differential flow is found to have a strong stabilizing influence leading to lower saturated island widths for the classical (m/n = 2/1) mode and reduced growth rates for the (m/n = 3/1) neoclassical mode. Velocity shear on the other hand is seen to make a destabilizing contribution. An analytic model calculation, consisting of a generalized Rutherford island evolution equation that includes shear flow effects is also presented and the numerical results are discussed in the context of this model. (author)

  17. Influence of magnetic flutter on tearing growth in linear and nonlinear theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifels, L.; Hornsby, W. A.; Weikl, A.; Peeters, A. G.

    2018-06-01

    Recent simulations of tearing modes in turbulent regimes show an unexpected enhancement in the growth rate. In this paper the effect is investigated analytically. The enhancement is linked to the influence of turbulent magnetic flutter, which is modelled by diffusion terms in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) momentum balance and Ohm’s law. Expressions for the linear growth rate as well as the island width in nonlinear theory for small amplitudes are derived. The results indicate an enhanced linear growth rate and a larger linear layer width compared with resistive MHD. Also the island width in the nonlinear regime grows faster in the diffusive model. These observations correspond well to simulations in which the effect of turbulence on the magnetic island width and tearing mode growth is analyzed.

  18. Biomechanical evaluation of a single-row versus double-row repair for complete subscapularis tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmann, Mathias; Wiebringhaus, Philipp; Lodde, Ina; Waizy, Hazibullah; Becher, Christoph; Raschke, Michael J; Petersen, Wolf

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare a single-row repair and a double-row repair technique for the specific characteristics of a complete subscapularis lesion. Ten pairs of human cadaveric shoulder human shoulder specimens were tested for stiffness and ultimate tensile strength of the intact tendons in a load to failure protocol. After a complete subscapularis tear was provoked, the specimens were assigned to two treatment groups: single-row repair (1) and a double-row repair using a "suture bridge" technique (2). After repair cyclic loading a subsequent load to failure protocol was performed to determine the ultimate tensile load, the stiffness and the elongation behaviour of the reconstructions. The intact subscapularis tendons had a mean stiffness of 115 N/mm and a mean ultimate load of 720 N. The predominant failure mode of the intact tendons was a tear at the humeral insertion site (65%). The double-row technique restored 48% of the ultimate load of the intact tendons (332 N), while the single-row technique revealed a significantly lower ultimate load of 244 N (P = 0.001). In terms of the stiffness, the double-row technique showed a mean stiffness of 81 N/mm which is significantly higher compared to the stiffness of the single-row repairs of 55 N/mm (P = 0.001). The double-row technique has been shown to be stronger and stiffer when compared to a conventional single-row repair. Therefore, this technique is recommended from a biomechanical point of view irrespectively if performed by an open or arthroscopic approach.

  19. Efficacy of b-lynch brace suture in postpartum haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarique, S.; Wazir, S.; Moeen, G.

    2011-01-01

    Massive uncontrolled haemorrhage after childbirth is the leading cause of maternal death in developing countries. Postpartum haemorrhage is traditionally defined as blood loss of more than 500 ml after vaginal delivery and more than 1000 ml after caesarean section, but intraoperative estimation of blood loss is inaccurate. Uterine atony alone accounts for 75 - 90% of PPH. To estimate the effectiveness and safety of B-Lynch brace Suture in the management of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). (author)

  20. A randomised controlled trial of absorbable versus non-absorbable sutures for skin closure after open carpal tunnel release.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Theopold, C

    2012-05-01

    We compared the aesthetic outcome of scars after closure of open carpal tunnel incisions with either absorbable 4-0 Vicryl Rapide or non-absorbable 4-0 Novafil. Patients were recruited in a randomized controlled trial and scars were scored at 6 weeks using a modified Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Scores demonstrated differences only for pain, vascularity and cross-hatching between both groups, though none of these were statistically significant. The dissolving and falling out of Vicryl Rapide was significantly more comfortable than removal of 4-0 Novafil sutures, assessed on a numerical analogue scale. There was no difference in infection rate between both study groups, supporting overall the use of Vicryl Rapide for the closure of palmar hand incisions, in light of the convenience and cost savings associated with absorbable sutures.

  1. Subgaleal Retention Sutures: Internal Pressure Dressing Technique for Dolenc Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anthony M; Rayan, Tarek; Van Gompel, Jamie J

    2017-08-01

    Extradural approach to the cavernous sinus, the "Dolenc" approach recognizing its developing Dr. Vinko Dolenc, is a critically important skull base approach. However, resection of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, most commonly for cavernous sinus meningiomas, results commonly in a defect that often cannot be reconstructed in a water-tight fashion. This may result in troublesome pseudomeningocele postoperatively. To describe a technique designed to mitigate the development of pseudomeningocele. We found the Dolenc approach critical for resection of cavernous lesions. However, a number of pseudomeningoceles were managed with prolonged external pressure wrapping in the early cohort. Therefore, we incorporated subgaleal to muscular sutures, which were designed to close this potential space and retrospectively analyzed our results. Twenty-one patients treated with a Dolenc approach and resection of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus over a 2-year period were included. Prior to incorporation of this technique, 12 patients were treated and 3 (25%) experienced postoperative pseudomeningoceles requiring multiple clinic visits and frequent dressing. After incorporation of subgaleal retention sutures, no patient (0%) experienced this complication. Although basic, subgaleal to temporalis muscle retention sutures likely aid in eliminating this potential dead space, thereby preventing patient distress postoperatively. This technique is simple and further emphasizes the importance of dead space elimination in complex closures. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  2. A Comfortable Solution To Tracheal Anastomosis Protection: Tracheal Retention Sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapolat, Sami; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Seyis, Kubra Nur; Tekinbas, Celal

    2018-04-01

    Fixation of the chin to the anterior chest wall is the most commonly used method of reducing anastomotic tension following a segmental resection of the trachea and reconstruction with primary anastomosis. However, the sutures required for this method may lead to various organic and psychological problems. In five patients who underwent tracheal resection and primary anastomosis, retention sutures were placed on the proximal and distal-lateral edges of the anastomotic line rather than placing a Guardian chin stitch. All patients were mobilised in the early postoperative period and were able to perform their routine daily activities without restrictions. During their average 14.4 months of follow-up, no complications were found in their anastomotic lines during their clinical, radiological, and bronchoscopic assessments. The placement of tracheal retention sutures proved an inexpensive and reliable method to reduce anastomotic tension without additional surgical burden, and was effective in terms of patient comfort. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dendritic Macromer Replaces Sutures in Cataract Surgery; Promising Polymer Therapy for Paralyzed Dogs; Compound in Smoke Provides the Spark for Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2005-03-01

    This Report surveys articles of interest to chemists that have been recently published in other science journals. Topics surveyed include reports that hydrogel offers an option to suturing the eye; polyethylene glycol aids recovery from spinal injury; and a compound in smoke increases germination rates. See Featured Molecules .

  4. Third- or Fourth-Degree Intrapartum Anal Sphincter Tears Are Associated With Levator Ani Avulsion in Primiparas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsky, Dan V; Cohen, Sarah M; Lipschuetz, Michal; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorith; Daum, Hagit; Yagel, Itai; Yagel, Simcha

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated primiparous women with clinically diagnosed third- and fourth-degree and anal sphincter tears, to evaluate the rate of levator ani muscle injury compared to primiparous women without sphincter tears. Primiparous women delivering in our maternity ward with intrapartum diagnoses of third- or fourth-degree anal sphincter tears, repaired by the overlapping technique, were recruited to undergo 3-dimensional transperineal sonography of the pelvic floor anatomy, including the anterior and posterior compartments. Primiparas with uncomplicated vaginal deliveries were recruited as a comparison group. Patient files were examined, and maternal backgrounds and delivery and neonatal details were extracted for all patients. Ninety-four women with tears were recruited to the study group, and 464 women with normal vaginal deliveries constituted the comparison group. The groups differed significantly in the rates of levator ani defects: 38 of 94 women (40.4%) in the study group versus 75 of 464 (16.2%) in the comparison group (P tears are associated with levator ani avulsion. Knowledge of complex pelvic floor damage may allow for prompt referral to secondary preventive measures for pelvic floor disorders. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. MR Imaging of Rotator Cuff Tears: Correlation with Arthroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Sudarshan; Khandige, Ganesh; Kabra, Utkarsh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rotator cuff tears are quite common and can cause significant disability. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has now emerged as the modality of choice in the preoperative evaluation of patients with rotator cuff injuries, in view of its improved inherent soft tissue contrast and resolution. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of routine MRI in the detection and characterisation of rotator cuff tears, by correlating the findings with arthroscopy. Materials and Methods This prospective study was carried out between July 2014 and August 2016 at the AJ Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. A total of 82 patients were diagnosed with rotator cuff injury on MRI during this period, out of which 45 patients who underwent further evaluation with arthroscopy were included in this study. The data collected was analysed for significant correlation between MRI diagnosis and arthroscopic findings using kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of full and partial thickness tears were calculated using arthroscopic findings as the reference standard. Results There were 27 males and 18 females in this study. The youngest patient was 22 years and the oldest was 74 years. Majority of rotator cuff tears (78%) were seen in patients above the age of 40 years. MRI showed a sensitivity of 89.6%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 83.3% for the diagnosis of full thickness rotator cuff tears. For partial thickness tears, MRI showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 86.6%, positive predictive value of 78.9% and negative predictive value of 100%. The accuracy was 93.1% for full thickness tears and 91.1% for partial thickness tears. The p-value was less than 0.01 for both full and partial thickness tears. There was good agreement between the MRI and arthroscopic findings, with kappa value of 0.85 for full thickness tears and 0.81 for partial

  6. Long-Term MRI Findings in Operated Rotator Cuff Tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyroelae, K.; Niemitukia, L.; Jaroma, H.; Vaeaetaeinen, U.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings at long-term follow-up after rotator cuff (RC) tear using standard MRI sequences without fat saturation. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight patients aged 55.8±7.6 underwent MRI examination 4.6±2.1 years after surgery for RC tear. Standard sequences in oblique coronal, oblique sagittal, and axial planes were obtained. The RC, including re-tears and tendon degeneration, was independently evaluated by two observers. Thickness of the supraspinatus tendon and narrowing of the subacromial space were measured. The clinical outcome was evaluated with the Constant score and compared with the MRI findings. Results: The RC tear was traumatic in 18 (64%) patients and degenerative in 10 (36%). At follow-up, 11 (39%) had normal RC tendons with good clinical outcome. Four (14%) patients had painful tendinosis without RC tear. A full-thickness RC tear was found in 7 (25%) patients and a partial tear in 6 (21%). In one patient with a full-thickness tear, and in two with partial tear, tendinosis was found in another of the RC tendons. The subacromial space was narrowed in 13 (46%) of the patients. A narrowing of the subacromial space correlated with re-tear (P<0.05). Conclusions: The RC may be evaluated with standard MRI sequences without fat saturation at long-term follow-up. A normal appearance of the RC is correlated with good clinical outcome, while re-tear and tendinosis are associated with pain

  7. SLAP tears of the glenoid labrum in contact athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Lennard; Snow, Martyn

    2007-01-01

    To describe the distribution and clinical presentation of labral injuries in rugby players and the time taken for them to return to sports. Retrospective cohort study. Busy shoulder practice in the North West of England, treating a large number of professional athletes. A review of 51 shoulder arthroscopies performed on professional rugby players over a 35 month period. All patients diagnosed with a SLAP lesion at arthroscopy were identified. Eighteen patients had a documented SLAP tear; this group represented our study population. Arthroscopic debridement and/or stabilization was carried out for all labral injuries using Panaloc anchors and No. 2 PDS via a 2 portal technique. Classification of injury, Satisfaction, Time to return to play. The incidence of SLAP tears in our study population was 35%. There were 11 isolated SLAP tears (61%), 3 SLAP tears associated with a Bankart lesion (17%), 2 SLAP tears associated with a posterior labral lesion (11%), and 2 SLAP tears associated with an anterior and posterior labral injuries (11%). Of the 18 SLAP tears, 14 (78%) were type 2, 3 (17%) were type 3, and 1 (5%) was type 4. None of the patients with a SLAP tear presented with symptoms of instability. MR Arthrogram had a 76% sensitivity for detecting SLAP tears. By 6 months postsurgery, 89% of patients were satisfied. Patients with isolated SLAP tears were the quickest to return to sports, at an average of 2.6 months postsurgery. SLAP tears are a common injury in rugby players. These can often be diagnosed with MR arthrography. Arthroscopic repair is associated with excellent results and early return to sports.

  8. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, Richard B; Roos, Harald P; Roos, Ewa M

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: In young active adults with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, do patient reported or radiographic outcomes after five years differ between those treated with rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and those treated with rehabilitation and optional delayed AC...... AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: The relative efficacy of surgical reconstruction and rehabilitation for short and long term outcomes of ACL rupture is debated. Clinicians and young active adult patients should consider rehabilitation as a primary treatment option following an acute ACL tear....

  9. Tearing instability in cylindrical plasma configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the neutral-layer cylindrical geometry on the development of the tearing instability has been investigated in detail. The increments of the instability for all the regimes have been found. The influence of cylindrical effects becomes manifesting itself at small, as compared to the layer characteristic thickness, distances from the axis, and, finally, the electron regime of the instability development transforms into an ion one. The results obtained are of interest for studying the plasma stability in the devices of the ''Astron'' type and in magnetospheres of cosmic objects

  10. Tissue reactions of abdominal integuments to surgical sutures in sonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Smereczyński

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical abdominal surgeries usually require long incisions of the abdominal integuments followed by tight closure with adequate suturing material. Nonabsorbable sutures may cause various reactions, including granuloma reactions, both sterile and inflammatory. The aim of the study was to analyze prospective ultrasound examinations of the abdominal integuments in order to detect tissue reactions to surgical sutures. Material and methods: For 10 years, ultrasound examinations of the abdominal integuments involved the assessment of surgical scars in all patients who underwent open or closed surgeries for various reasons (in total 2254 patients. Ultrasound examinations were performed only with the use of linear probes with the frequency ranging from 7 to 12 MHz. Each scar in the abdominal integuments was scanned in at least two planes. When a lesion was detected, the image was enlarged and the transducer was rotated by approximately 180° in order to capture the dimensions of the granuloma and the most characteristic image of the suture. Moreover, vascularization of the lesion was also assessed with the use of color Doppler mode set to detect the lowest flows. Results: All granulomas (19 lesions, two in one patient created hypoechoic oval or round nodules, were relatively well-circumscribed and their size ranged from 8 × 4 mm to 40 × 14 mm. In the center of the lesion, it was possible to notice a thread that was coiled to various degrees and presented itself as a double, curved hyperechoic line. In 9 out of 19 granulomas, slight peripheral vascularization was observed. The substantial majority of the lesions (n = 15 were in contact with the fascia. In seven patients, compression with the transducer induced known local pain (n = 4 or intensified pain that had already been present (n = 3; all of these granulomas infiltrated the fascia and showed slight peripheral vascularization. Cutaneous fistulae developed in two patients with purulent

  11. Optimal suture anchor direction in arthroscopic lateral ankle ligament repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Ichiro; Hagio, Tomonobu; Noda, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Minokawa, So; Yamamoto, Takuaki

    2017-05-26

    In this study, the distance between the insertion point of the suture anchors and posterior surface of the fibula during arthroscopic lateral ankle ligament repair was investigated on computed tomography (CT) images. The hypothesis of this study was that there is an optimal insertional direction of the suture anchor to avoid anchor-related complications. One hundred eleven ankles of 98 patients who had undergone three-dimensional CT scans for foot or ankle disorders without deformity of the fibula were assessed (59 males, 52 females; median age 25.5 years; age range 12-78 years). The shortest distance from the insertion point of the suture anchor to the deepest point of the fossa/top of the convex aspect of the fibula was measured on the axial plane, tilting from the longitudinal axis of the fibula at 90°, 75°, 60°, and 45°. The distance from the insertion point of the suture anchor to the posterior surface of the fibula was also measured in a direction parallel to the sagittal plane of the lateral surface of the talus on the axial plane, tilting from the longitudinal axis of the fibula at 90°, 75°, 60°, and 45°. The posterior fossa was observed in all cases on the 90° and 75° images. The distance from the insertion point to the posterior surface of the fibula in the parallel direction was 15.0 ± 3.4 mm at 90°, 17.5 ± 3.2 mm at 75°, 21.7 ± 3.3 mm at 60°, and 25.7 ± 3.6 mm at 45°. The posterior points in the parallel direction were located on the posterior fossa in 36.0% of cases at 90°, in 12.6% at 75°, and in 0.0% at 60° and 45°. The suture anchor should be directed from anterior to posterior at an angle of <45° to the longitudinal axis of the fibula, parallel to the lateral surface of the talus, to avoid passing through the fibula. Cohort study, Level III.

  12. Laser tissue welding in genitourinary reconstructive surgery: assessment of optimal suture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppas, D P; Klioze, S D; Uzzo, R G; Schlossberg, S M

    1995-02-01

    Laser tissue welding in genitourinary reconstructive surgery has been shown in animal models to decrease operative time, improve healing, and decrease postoperative fistula formation when compared with conventional suture controls. Although the absence of suture material is the ultimate goal, this has not been shown to be practical with current technology for larger repairs. Therefore, suture-assisted laser tissue welding will likely be performed. This study sought to determine the optimal suture to be used during laser welding. The integrity of various organic and synthetic sutures exposed to laser irradiation were analyzed. Sutures studied included gut, clear Vicryl, clear polydioxanone suture (PDS), and violet PDS. Sutures were irradiated with a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP)-532 laser or an 808-nm diode laser with and without the addition of a light-absorbing chromophore (fluorescein or indocyanine green, respectively). A remote temperature-sensing device obtained real-time surface temperatures during lasing. The average temperature, time, and total energy at break point were recorded. Overall, gut suture achieved significantly higher temperatures and withstood higher average energy delivery at break point with both the KTP-532 and the 808-nm diode lasers compared with all other groups (P welding appears to be between 60 degrees and 80 degrees C. Gut suture offers the greatest margin of error for KTP and 808-nm diode laser welding with or without the use of a chromophore.

  13. Evaluation of a novel suture material for closure of intestinal anastomoses in canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lane A; Monnet, Eric L

    2012-11-01

    To compare leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures for a novel suture material with pressures for comparable suture material when used in closure of intestinal anastomoses in canine cadavers. Healthy intestines from cadavers of dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study. 18 anastomoses were performed on intestinal sections within 72 hours after dogs were euthanized and intestinal samples collected. Anastomoses were performed with a simple continuous suture pattern. Leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were measured and recorded for 6 control segments and 18 anastomosed sections. A barbed glycomer 631 suture (size 4-0 United States Pharmacopeia [USP]) was compared with glycomer 631 sutures (sizes 3-0 and 4-0 USP). Results for leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were compared via an ANOVA. The barbed glycomer 631 suture material leaked at a significantly higher pressure than did the comparable glycomer 631 suture materials. Maximum intraluminal pressures were not significantly different among the suture materials. Barbed glycomer 631 4-0 USP suture material was as effective as glycomer 631 suture materials and may be a safe alternative for use in closure of enterectomies in dogs.

  14. Skull morphometry and vault sutures of Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila M. de S. Hossotani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to examine the relationship between skull size and the level of cranial vault suture closure. A total of 50 Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 and 178 Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758 skulls were analyzed in relation to 18 skull dimensions. The skulls were grouped into three levels of suture closure: no sutures closed (level 0, one or all the fallowing sutures closed: interfrontalis, sagitalis and coronalis (level 1 and all sutures closed (level 2. The results indicated that among the 18 variables measured, 17 showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.01 between level 0 and level 1 skulls of T. tetradactyla; as well as between level 0 and level 1, and level 0 and level 2 skulls of M. tridactyla. M. tridactyla level 1 and level 2 had no significant difference among any of the 18 dimensions. The foramen magnum height in both species showed no significant difference (p > 0.05 among any suture categories. In principle, suture closure level and cranial dimensions are related. The specimens with larger cranial dimensions showed greater number of cranial vault sutures closed for both species of anteaters. Tamandua tetradactyla and M. tridactyla specimens with none of the cranial vault suture closed have a foramen magnum height similar to those with cranial vault suture closed.

  15. Contact Lens-Induced Discomfort and Inflammatory Mediator Changes in Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Simin; Zhao, Zhenjun; Stapleton, Fiona; Willcox, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Studies indicate that contact lens (CL) discontinuation mostly occurs because of dryness and discomfort symptoms. This study aimed to investigate relationships between changes in the concentration of tear inflammatory mediators with subjective comfort ratings with CL wear and no contact lens wear between morning and evening. Forty-five subjects collected tears twice daily in the morning and in the evening with or without lenses. Comfort was rated subjectively on a scale from 1 to 100 (where 100 was extremely comfortable) just before each tear collection. Tear samples were assayed for complement components (C3 and C3a), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and bradykinin using commercially available immuno-based assay kits. Comfort ratings showed a statistically significant decline from morning to evening both with CL (89.0±10.1 AM vs. 76.7±15.2 PM; P0.05). Leukotriene B4 levels were slightly higher in CL (CL 43.4±12.6 pg/ml vs. No CL 39.4±13.4 pg/mL; P=0.034), whereas the concentration of LTB4, C3, C3a, and sIgA dropped by the end of the day in the presence or absence of lens wear (Ptear levels were not correlated with comfort ratings in any of the conditions. Leukotriene B4 had a higher concentration in the evening, and when measured as a ratio to sIgA, there was a trend for increased concentration of this mediator during CL wear. Although specific mediators showed changes from morning to evening with and without lens wear, most of these were not correlated with subjective comfort ratings in lens wear. The only mediator that showed an increase in concentration during the day and during lens wear was LTB4, and further studies on this mediator are warranted.

  16. The impact of postpartum cervical tear on the occurrence of preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafran, Noah; Gerszman, Eden; Garmi, Gali; Zuaretz-Easton, Sivan; Salim, Raed

    2017-08-01

    To examine the occurrence of subsequent preterm birth (PTB) among women who experienced a cervical tear during prior delivery. A retrospective study conducted at a single teaching hospital on data from January 1994 to March 2014. The study group included all women who had a cervical tear detected at uterine and cervical examination, performed due to early postpartum hemorrhage. The control group consisted of women who delivered vaginally, experienced an early postpartum hemorrhage, and had an intact cervix at uterine and cervical examination. The control group was matched for maternal age and ethnicity at a ratio of 1:2. Women who had a cervical tear but then did not have a subsequent delivery, or had multiple fetal gestations or cervical cerclage at subsequent pregnancies were excluded. Primary outcome was spontaneous PTB rate (PTBs in other subsequent pregnancies. Overall, 389 women were included. Of all cases of cervical tear, 129 were identified eligible and included in the final analysis. The control group included 260 women with an intact cervix. No significant differences were found between the study and control groups in the incidence of spontaneous PTB in the immediate subsequent pregnancy [1.6% (2/129) vs. 3.8% (10/260), respectively, p = 0.35]. The incidence of any spontaneous PTBs in all subsequent pregnancies did not differ also [4.7% (6/129) vs. 7.3% (19/260), respectively, p = 0.31]. Cervical tear detected after delivery does not increase the risk of spontaneous PTB in subsequent pregnancies.

  17. Development of tearing instability in a current sheet forming by sheared incompressible flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Elizabeth A.; Loureiro, Nuno F.; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.

    2018-02-01

    Sweet-Parker current sheets in high Lundquist number plasmas are unstable to tearing, suggesting they will not form in physical systems. Understanding magnetic reconnection thus requires study of the stability of a current sheet as it forms. Formation can occur due to sheared, sub-Alfvénic incompressible flows which narrow the sheet. Standard tearing theory (Furth et al. Phys. Fluids, vol. 6 (4), 1963, pp. 459-484, Rutherford, Phys. Fluids, vol. 16 (11), 1973, pp. 1903-1908, Coppi et al. Fizika Plazmy, vol. 2, 1976, pp. 961-966) is not immediately applicable to such forming sheets for two reasons: first, because the flow introduces terms not present in the standard calculation; second, because the changing equilibrium introduces time dependence to terms which are constant in the standard calculation, complicating the formulation of an eigenvalue problem. This paper adapts standard tearing mode analysis to confront these challenges. In an initial phase when any perturbations are primarily governed by ideal magnetohydrodynamics, a coordinate transformation reveals that the flow compresses and stretches perturbations. A multiple scale formulation describes how linear tearing mode theory (Furth et al. Phys. Fluids, vol. 6 (4), 1963, pp. 459-484, Coppi et al. Fizika Plazmy, vol. 2, 1976, pp. 961-966) can be applied to an equilibrium changing under flow, showing that the flow affects the separable exponential growth only implicitly, by making the standard scalings time dependent. In the nonlinear Rutherford stage, the coordinate transformation shows that standard theory can be adapted by adding to the stationary rates time dependence and an additional term due to the strengthening equilibrium magnetic field. Overall, this understanding supports the use of flow-free scalings with slight modifications to study tearing in a forming sheet.

  18. Patterns of Hamstring Muscle Tears in the General Population: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuske, Barbara; Hamilton, David F; Pattle, Sam B; Simpson, A Hamish R W

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring tears are well recognised in the sporting population. Little is known about these injuries in the general population. Evaluating the rates, patterns and risk factors of non-sporting hamstring tears, compared to sporting related hamstring tears. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1989-2015). Studies reporting patients with a grade 2 or 3 hamstring muscle tear, identified clinically, confirmed by MRI imaging or direct visualisation during surgical exploration. 144 sets of linked data were extracted for analysis. Most injuries were in males (81.3%), where mean age at injury was lower (30.2, 95% CI 29.1-31.3) than in females (35.4, 95% CI 32.4-38.4) p = 0.06. Key differences were found in the proportion of non-sporting injuries in patients under and over the age 40 (p = 0.001). The proportion of non-sporting injuries was significantly higher in females compared to males (25.9% female non-sporting injuries, versus 8.5% male; p = 0.02). Avulsions were more frequently reported in non-sporting activities (70.5%). The proportion of such injuries was notably higher in females, though this failed to meet significance (p = 0.124). Grouped by age category a bimodal distribution was noted, with the proportion of avulsions greater in younger (age 40) (p = 0.008). 86.8% of patients returned to pre-injury activity levels with a similar frequency across all study variables; age, activity (sporting vs non-sporting) and injury type (avulsion vs tear). This review highlights a proportion of adults suffering grade 2 or 3 hamstring injuries from activities other than the classic sports trauma. The majority of these non-sporting injuries were avulsion injuries that clustered in older female and skeletally immature patients suggesting a potential link to bone mineral density.

  19. Patterns of Hamstring Muscle Tears in the General Population: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kuske

    Full Text Available Hamstring tears are well recognised in the sporting population. Little is known about these injuries in the general population.Evaluating the rates, patterns and risk factors of non-sporting hamstring tears, compared to sporting related hamstring tears.MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1989-2015.Studies reporting patients with a grade 2 or 3 hamstring muscle tear, identified clinically, confirmed by MRI imaging or direct visualisation during surgical exploration.144 sets of linked data were extracted for analysis. Most injuries were in males (81.3%, where mean age at injury was lower (30.2, 95% CI 29.1-31.3 than in females (35.4, 95% CI 32.4-38.4 p = 0.06. Key differences were found in the proportion of non-sporting injuries in patients under and over the age 40 (p = 0.001. The proportion of non-sporting injuries was significantly higher in females compared to males (25.9% female non-sporting injuries, versus 8.5% male; p = 0.02. Avulsions were more frequently reported in non-sporting activities (70.5%. The proportion of such injuries was notably higher in females, though this failed to meet significance (p = 0.124. Grouped by age category a bimodal distribution was noted, with the proportion of avulsions greater in younger (age 40 (p = 0.008. 86.8% of patients returned to pre-injury activity levels with a similar frequency across all study variables; age, activity (sporting vs non-sporting and injury type (avulsion vs tear.This review highlights a proportion of adults suffering grade 2 or 3 hamstring injuries from activities other than the classic sports trauma. The majority of these non-sporting injuries were avulsion injuries that clustered in older female and skeletally immature patients suggesting a potential link to bone mineral density.

  20. Bundles of spider silk, braided into sutures, resist basic cyclic tests: potential use for flexor tendon repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hennecke

    Full Text Available Repair success for injuries to the flexor tendon in the hand is often limited by the in vivo behaviour of the suture used for repair. Common problems associated with the choice of suture material include increased risk of infection, foreign body reactions, and inappropriate mechanical responses, particularly decreases in mechanical properties over time. Improved suture materials are therefore needed. As high-performance materials with excellent tensile strength, spider silk fibres are an extremely promising candidate for use in surgical sutures. However, the mechanical behaviour of sutures comprised of individual silk fibres braided together has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we characterise the maximum tensile strength, stress, strain, elastic modulus, and fatigue response of silk sutures produced using different braiding methods to investigate the influence of braiding on the tensile properties of the sutures. The mechanical properties of conventional surgical sutures are also characterised to assess whether silk offers any advantages over conventional suture materials. The results demonstrate that braiding single spider silk fibres together produces strong sutures with excellent fatigue behaviour; the braided silk sutures exhibited tensile strengths comparable to those of conventional sutures and no loss of strength over 1000 fatigue cycles. In addition, the braiding technique had a significant influence on the tensile properties of the braided silk sutures. These results suggest that braided spider silk could be suitable for use as sutures in flexor tendon repair, providing similar tensile behaviour and improved fatigue properties compared with conventional suture materials.

  1. [The correlations between corneal sensation, tear meniscus volume, and tear film osmolarity after femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Sun, Xiyu; Yu, Ye; Xiong, Yan; Cui, Yuxin; Wang, Qinmei; Hu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the correlations between corneal sensation, tear meniscus volume, and tear film osmolarity after femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK) surgery. In this prospective clinical study, 31 patients undergoing FS-LASIK for myopia were recruited. The upper and lower tear meniscus volumes (UTMV and LTMV) were measured by customized anterior segment optical coherence tomography, tear film osmolarity was measured by a TearLab Osmolarity test device, central corneal sensation was measured by a Cochet-Bonner esthesiometer preoperatively, at 1 week, 1 and 3 months postoperatively. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate whether the tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus volume, and corneal sensation were changed after surgery. The correlations between these variables were analyzed by the Pearson correlation analysis. The tear film osmolarity was (310.03 ± 16.48) mOsms/L preoperatively, (323.51 ± 15.92) mOsms/L at 1 week, (319.93 ± 14.27) mOsms/L at 1 month, and (314.97±12.91) mOsms/L at 3 months. The UTMV was (0.42±0.15), (0.25± 0.09), (0.30±0.11), and (0.35±0.09) μL, respectively; the LTMV was (0.60±0.21),(0.37±0.08), (0.44± 0.14), and (0.52±0.17) μL, respectively. The tear film osmolarity was significantly higher at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively compared with the baseline (P=0.001, 0.004), and reduced to the preoperative level at 3 months (P=0.573). The UTMV, LTMV, and corneal sensation values presented significant decreases at all postoperative time points (all Psensation at 1 week after surgery (r=0.356,P=0.005). There were significant correlations between the preoperative LTMV and corneal sensation at 1 week, 1 and 3 months (respectively, r=0.422, 0.366, 0.352;P=0.001, 0.004, 0.006). No significant correlations were found between the tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus volume, and corneal sensation after surgery (all P>0.05). The tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus volume, and corneal sensation became aggravated due

  2. Rotator cuff tears: correlation between geometric tear patterns on MRI and arthroscopy and pre- and postoperative clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Yaron; Eshed, Iris; Shapira, Shachar; Oran, Ariel; Vogel, Guy; Herman, Amir; Perry Pritsch, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered to be the best non-invasive procedure for the evaluation of rotator cuff (RC) tendon tears. Burkhart's classification is a geometric classification of full-thickness RC tears on MRI. To correlate MRI and arthroscopic geometric full-thickness RC tears according to the Burkhart's classification with pre- and postoperative clinical findings. Patients who underwent arthroscopic RC repair between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Preoperative MRI and arthroscopic surgical reports were reviewed for tear geometry (Burkhart's) by three (1 radiologist, 2 surgeons) and two (surgeons) readers. MRIs were also evaluated for tear size and change of tear size in successive sagittal sections and for muscle mass and fatty infiltration. Clinical examinations were performed preoperatively and at least 12 months afterwards. Postoperative function questionnaires were filled in by the patients. Forty-six patients (35 men, 11 women; mean age, 57 years; range, 41-72 years) were evaluated. Tears depicted on MRIs were classified as crescent in 11 patients (24%), longitudinal in three (6.5%), massive contracted in 29 (63%), and cuff arthropathy in three (6.5%). Muscle changes were noted almost exclusively in patients with massive tears and cuff arthropathy (16/32 patients, P = 0.013). MRIs and arthroscopic geometric classifications were in close agreement. Tear type did not correlate with pre- and postoperative physical examination or with postoperative clinical questionnaires scores. Geometric RC tear characterizations on preoperative MRIs were closely associated with arthroscopic findings. Postoperative results were not affected by the geometric pattern of the tears. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. 49 CFR 173.340 - Tear gas devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.340 Tear gas devices. (a) Packagings for...) Tear gas devices may not be assembled with, or packed in the same packaging with, mechanically- or manually-operated firing, igniting, bursting, or other functioning elements unless of a type and design...

  4. Tear film lipid layer: A molecular level view

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1858, č. 10 (2016), s. 2421-2430 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14292S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : tear film * tear film lipid layer * molecular dynamics simulations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2016

  5. Why only humans shed emotional tears : Evolutionary and cultural perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracanin, A.; Bylsma, L.M.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    Producing emotional tears is a universal and uniquely human behavior. Until recently, tears have received little serious attention from scientists. Here, we summarize recent theoretical developments and research findings. The evolutionary approach offers a solid ground for the analysis of the

  6. Tearing mode stability of tokamak plasmas with elliptical cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Holmes, J.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Lynch, V.E.

    1981-02-01

    The effect of the ellipticity of the plasma cross section on tearing mode stability is investigated. The induced coupling between modes is shown to be destabilizing; however, the modification of the equilibrium tends to stabilize the tearing modes. The net effect depends on the manner in which the equilibrium is modified as the plasma cross-section shape is changed

  7. The Effect of Polar Lipids on Tear Film Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Aydemir, E.; Breward, C. J. W.; Witelski, T. P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a mathematical model describing the effect of polar lipids, excreted by glands in the eyelid and present on the surface of the tear film, on the evolution of a pre-corneal tear film. We aim to explain the interesting

  8. Long-term successful arthroscopic repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears with a functional and degradable reinforcement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Christopher S

    2014-10-01

    Rotator cuff repair is a procedure with varying outcomes, and there has been subsequent interest in devices that reinforce the repair and enhance structural and functional outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine these outcomes for arthroscopic repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears augmented with a synthetic absorbable mesh designed specifically for reinforcement of tendon repair by imaging and clinical assessments. Consecutive arthroscopic repairs were performed on 18 patients with large to massive rotator cuff tears by use of a poly-l-lactic acid synthetic patch as a reinforcement device and fixation with 4 sutures. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 6 months, 12 months, and a mean of 42 months after surgery by the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder score to evaluate clinical performance and at 12 months by ultrasound to assess structural repair. Ultrasound showed that 15 of 18 patients had intact rotator cuff repair at 12 months; at 42 months, an additional patient had a failed repair. Patients showed improvement in the ASES shoulder score from 25 preoperatively to 71 at 12 months and 70 at 42 months after surgery. Patients with intact rotator cuff (n = 14) at 42 months had an ASES shoulder score of 82. The poly-l-lactic acid bioabsorbable patch designed specifically to reinforce the surgical repair of tendons supported successful repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears in 83% of patients at 12 months after surgery and 78% of patients at 42 months after surgery, with substantial functional improvement. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of viscosity on the resistive tearing mode with the presence of shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.L.; Morrison, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of small isotropic viscosity on the ''constant ψ'' tearing mode in the presence of shear flow, is analyzed by the boundary layer approach. It is found that the influence of viscosity depends upon the parameter (G'(0)/F'(0)), where G'(0) and F'(0) denote that shear and magnetic field shear at the magnetic null plane, respectively. When |(G'(0)/F'(0))| much-lt 1, the tearing mode growth rate is suppressed by the viscosity, but not completely stabilized. When |(G'(0)/F'(0))| ∼ in the order of (1) and the viscosity is comparable with the resistivity, the growth rate vanishes as ((1 - G'(0) 2 /F'(0) 2 ) 1/3 ), when G'(0) 2 → F'(0) 2 from below. In the case where (1 - G'(0) 2 /F'(0) 2 ) < 0 matching cannot be achieved. 8 refs

  10. Modeling of Neoclassical Tearing Mode Stability for Generalized Toroidal Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.L. Rosenberg; D.A. Gates; A. Pletzer; J.E. Menard; S.E. Kruger; C.C. Hegna; F. Paoletti; S. Sabbagh

    2002-01-01

    Neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) can lead to disruption and loss of confinement. Previous analysis of these modes used large aspect ratio, low beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) approximations to determine the effect of NTMs on tokamak plasmas. A more accurate tool is needed to predict the onset of these instabilities. As a follow-up to recent theoretical work, a code has been written which computes the tearing mode island growth rate for arbitrary tokamak geometry. It calls PEST-3 [A. Pletzer et al., J. Comput. Phys. 115, 530 (1994)] to compute delta prime, the resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) matching parameter. The code also calls the FLUXGRID routines in NIMROD [A.H. Glasser et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, A747 (1999)] for Dnc, DI and DR [C.C. Hegna, Phys. Plasmas 6, 3980 (1999); A.H. Glasser et al., Phys. Fluids 18, 875 (1975)], which are the bootstrap current driven term and the ideal and resistive interchange mode criterion, respectively. In addition to these components, the NIMROD routines calculate alphas-H, a new correction to the Pfirsch-Schlter term. Finite parallel transport effects were added and a National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] equilibrium was analyzed. Another program takes the output of PEST-3 and allows the user to specify the rational surface, island width, and amount of detail near the perturbed surface to visualize the total helical flux. The results of this work will determine the stability of NTMs in an spherical torus (ST) [Y.-K.M. Peng et al., Nucl. Fusion 26, 769 (1986)] plasma with greater accuracy than previously achieved

  11. Nonlinear tearing mode and vortex chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, D.; Vranjes, J.

    1996-01-01

    We study the nonlinear stage of a tearing mode, whose island width exceeds the tearing layer thickness, and the wavelength is of the order of collisionless skin depth. A coherent solution is found in the form of a moving vortex chain. It is the result of a self-organization process, which adjusts the profile of the sheared poloidal magnetic field and excites a localized perpendicular sheared plasma flow, consisting of three counterstreaming jets. A numerical solution shows a twin chain of plasma vortices, coupled with a single chain of magnetic islands, whose width is of the order of collisionless skin depth. Adiabatic evolution of the vortex chain in the presence of small viscosity reveals its finite lifetime. The chain destruction may occur either directly, or through a sequence of bifurcations (corresponding to abrupt changes of the vortex chain parameters) to magnetic field stochastization within a layer of the collisionless skin depth scale, which occurs before the magnetic island overlapping takes place. This provides a new mechanism for the anomalous transport. (orig.)

  12. Forced tearing of ductile and brittle thin sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallinen, T; Mahadevan, L

    2011-12-09

    Tearing a thin sheet by forcing a rigid object through it leads to complex crack morphologies; a single oscillatory crack arises when a tool is driven laterally through a brittle sheet, while two diverging cracks and a series of concertinalike folds forms when a tool is forced laterally through a ductile sheet. On the other hand, forcing an object perpendicularly through the sheet leads to radial petallike tears in both ductile and brittle materials. To understand these different regimes we use a combination of experiments, simulations, and simple theories. In particular, we describe the transition from brittle oscillatory tearing via a single crack to ductile concertina tearing with two tears by deriving laws that describe the crack paths and wavelength of the concertina folds and provide a simple phase diagram for the morphologies in terms of the material properties of the sheet and the relative size of the tool.

  13. Success Rates of Vitrectomy in Treatment of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Yasser Helmy; Ono, Kozue; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Uematsu, Masafumi; Tsuiki, Eiko; Fujikawa, Azusa; Kitaoka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the anatomical success rates of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) after primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between December 2008 and October 2014 at Nagasaki University Hospital. The preoperative data recorded included the lens status, location of the retinal tear, whether a tear was visualized, presence of multiple tears, macula status, presence of peripheral lattice retinal degeneration, and best-corrected visual ac...

  14. Intermittent dynamics of nonlinear resistive tearing modes at extremely high magnetic Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Takahiro; Becchaku, Masahiro; Kusano, Kanya

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of the resistive tearing instability in high magnetic Reynolds number (R m ) plasmas is studied by newly developing an accurate and robust resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scheme. The results show that reconnection processes strongly depend on R m . Particularly, in a high R m case, small-scale plasmoids induced by a secondary instability are intermittently generated and ejected accompanied by fast shocks. According to the intermittent processes, the reconnection rate increases intermittently at a later nonlinear stage. (author)

  15. A simple suture-retrieval device for the placement of u-stitches during laparoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (U