Sample records for sutter buttes volcano

  1. Volcanoes (United States)

    ... other natural hazards, including earthquakes , mudflows and flash floods , rock falls and landslides , acid rain, fire , and (under special conditions) tsunamis . Active volcanoes in the U.S. are found mainly in Hawaii, Alaska and the Pacific Northwest. The danger area ...

  2. Subterranean fragmentation of magma during conduit initiation and evolution in the shallow plumbing system of the small-volume Jagged Rocks volcanoes (Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field, Arizona, USA) (United States)

    Re, Giuseppe; White, James D. L.; Muirhead, James D.; Ort, Michael H.


    Monogenetic volcanoes have limited magma supply and lack long-lived sustained magma plumbing systems. They erupt once, often from multiple vents and sometimes over several years, and are rarely or never re-activated. Eruptive behavior is very sensitive to physical processes (e.g., volatile exsolution, magma-water interaction) occurring in the later stages of magma ascent at shallow crustal depths (shapes, dense groundmasses, and composite clasts (loaded and cored). The extent of fragmentation and the formation of subterranean open space controlled the nature of the particles and the architecture and geometry of these conduit structures and their deposits.

  3. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.


    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  4. Butt Joint Tool Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N N


    ITER Central Solenoid uses butt joints for connecting the pancakes in the CS module. The principles of the butt joining of the CICC were developed by the JAPT during CSMC project. The difference between the CSMC butt joint and the CS butt joint is that the CS butt joint is an in-line joint, while the CSMC is a double joint through a hairpin jumper. The CS butt joint has to carry the hoop load. The straight length of the joint is only 320 mm, and the vacuum chamber around the joint has to have a split in the clamp shell. These requirements are challenging. Fig.1 presents a CSMC joint, and Fig.2 shows a CS butt joint. The butt joint procedure was verified and demonstrated. The tool is capable of achieving all specified parameters. The vacuum in the end was a little higher than the target, which is not critical and readily correctable. We consider, tentatively that the procedure is established. Unexpectedly, we discover significant temperature nonuniformity in the joint cross section, which is not formally a violation of the specs, but is a point of concern. All testing parameters are recorded for QA purposes. We plan to modify the butt joining tool to improve its convenience of operation and provide all features necessary for production of butt joints by qualified personnel.

  5. On multivariate trace inequalities of Sutter, Berta, and Tomamichel (United States)

    Lemm, Marius


    We consider a family of multivariate trace inequalities recently derived by Sutter, Berta, and Tomamichel. These inequalities generalize the Golden-Thompson inequality and Lieb's triple matrix inequality to an arbitrary number of matrices in a way that features complex matrix powers (i.e., certain unitaries). We show that their inequalities can be rewritten as an n-matrix generalization of Lieb's original triple matrix inequality. The complex matrix powers are replaced by resolvents and appropriate maximally entangled states. We expect that the technically advantageous properties of resolvents, in particular for perturbation theory, can be of use in applications of the n-matrix inequalities, e.g., for analyzing the performance of the rotated Petz recovery map in quantum information theory and for removing the unitaries altogether.

  6. Coyote Buttes Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is the result of a study commencing July 3, 1970 and ending August 20 1970. The study area was the Coyote Buttes Field just east of refuge headquarters....

  7. Interview with Gavin Butt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Alexandra Sofie, Jönsson


    We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory.......We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory....

  8. adil wahid butt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. ADIL WAHID BUTT. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 88 Issue 3 March 2017 pp 52 Research Article. Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous flow through a ciliated porous tube · NOREEN SHER AKBAR ADIL WAHID BUTT ...

  9. Coordinated In Situ Analyses of Organic Nanoglobules in the Sutter's Mill Meteorite (United States)

    Nakamura--Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Nguyen, A. N.; Gibson, E. K.


    The Sutter s Mill meteorite is a newly fallen carbonaceous chondrite that was collected and curated quickly after its fall [1]. Preliminary petrographic and isotopic investigations suggest affinities to the CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. The primitive nature of this meteorite and its rapid recovery provide an opportunity to investigate primordial solar system organic matter in a unique new sample. Organic matter in primitive meteorites and chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) is commonly enriched in D/H and N-15/N-14 relative to terrestrial values [2-4]. These anomalies are ascribed to the partial preservation of presolar cold molecular cloud material [2]. Some meteorites and IDPs contain gm-size inclusions with extreme H and N isotopic anomalies [3-5], possibly due to preserved primordial organic grains. The abundance and isotopic composition of C in Sutter's Mill were found to be similar to the Tagish Lake meteorite [6]. In the Tagish Lake meteorite, the principle carriers of large H and N isotopic anomalies are sub-micron hollow organic spherules known as organic nanoglobules [7]. Organic nanoglobules are commonly distributed among primitive meteorites [8, 9] and cometary samples [10]. Here we report in-situ analyses of organic nano-globules in the Sutter's Mill meteorite using UV fluorescence imaging, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), NanoSIMS, and ultrafast two-step laser mass spectrometry (ultra-L2MS).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin


    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  11. R. Freeman Butts: Educational Foundations and Educational Diplomacy (United States)

    Allison, John


    R. Freeman Butts was an American historian and philosopher of education who died in March 2010. This paper will investigate Butts' various roles and writings and ask the question: why is Butts important to the contemporary generation of teacher educators and teachers? This paper will argue that the breadth of Butts' work builds connections and is…

  12. What Are Volcano Hazards? (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  13. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Square Butt Pipe Welding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhelm, J; Scheltens, James


    .... X-ray quality full penetration square butt weld joints were expected. Significant cost savings can be achieved through the reduction in pipe fitting and welding man-hours by utilization of a saw cut square butt joint design...

  14. 77 FR 12106 - Kapka Butte Sno-Park Construction (United States)


    ... Federal Highway Administration Kapka Butte Sno-Park Construction AGENCY: Western Federal Lands Highway... designation as Joint-Lead Agency for the Kapka Butte Sno-Park Construction project. SUMMARY: The FHWA is... pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 139(c)(1) for the Kapka Butte Sno-Park Construction project which is being studied in...

  15. Santorini Volcano (United States)

    Druitt, T.H.; Edwards, L.; Mellors, R.M.; Pyle, D.M.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Lanphere, M.; Davies, M.; Barreirio, B.


    Santorini is one of the most spectacular caldera volcanoes in the world. It has been the focus of significant scientific and scholastic interest because of the great Bronze Age explosive eruption that buried the Minoan town of Akrotiri. Santorini is still active. It has been dormant since 1950, but there have been several substantial historic eruptions. Because of this potential risk to life, both for the indigenous population and for the large number of tourists who visit it, Santorini has been designated one of five European Laboratory Volcanoes by the European Commission. Santorini has long fascinated geologists, with some important early work on volcanoes being conducted there. Since 1980, research groups at Cambridge University, and later at the University of Bristol and Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, have collected a large amount of data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, geochronology and petrology of the volcanics. The volcanic field has been remapped at a scale of 1:10 000. A remarkable picture of cyclic volcanic activity and magmatic evolution has emerged from this work. Much of this work has remained unpublished until now. This Memoir synthesizes for the first time all the data from the Cambridge/Bristol/Clermont groups, and integrates published data from other research groups. It provides the latest interpretation of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of Santorini. It is accompanied by the new 1:10 000 full-colour geological map of the island.

  16. Butt-log grade distributions for five Appalachian hardwood species (United States)

    John R. Myers; Gary W. Miller; Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Joseph E. Barnard; Joseph E. Barnard


    Tree quality is an important factor in determining the market value of hardwood timber stands, but many forest inventories do not include estimates of tree quality. Butt-log grade distributions were developed for northern red oak, black oak, white oak, chestnut oak, and yellow-poplar using USDA Forest Service log grades on more than 4,700 trees in West Virginia. Butt-...

  17. Global Volcano Locations Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  18. Volcano seismology (United States)

    Chouet, B.


    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  19. Volcanoes: observations and impact (United States)

    Thurber, Clifford; Prejean, Stephanie G.


    Volcanoes are critical geologic hazards that challenge our ability to make long-term forecasts of their eruptive behaviors. They also have direct and indirect impacts on human lives and society. As is the case with many geologic phenomena, the time scales over which volcanoes evolve greatly exceed that of a human lifetime. On the other hand, the time scale over which a volcano can move from inactivity to eruption can be rather short: months, weeks, days, and even hours. Thus, scientific study and monitoring of volcanoes is essential to mitigate risk. There are thousands of volcanoes on Earth, and it is impractical to study and implement ground-based monitoring at them all. Fortunately, there are other effective means for volcano monitoring, including increasing capabilities for satellite-based technologies.

  20. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob


    Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at

  1. Visions of Volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Pyle


    Full Text Available The long nineteenth century marked an important transition in the understanding of the nature of combustion and fire, and of volcanoes and the interior of the earth. It was also a period when dramatic eruptions of Vesuvius lit up the night skies of Naples, providing ample opportunities for travellers, natural philosophers, and early geologists to get up close to the glowing lavas of an active volcano. This article explores written and visual representations of volcanoes and volcanic activity during the period, with the particular perspective of writers from the non-volcanic regions of northern Europe. I explore how the language of ‘fire’ was used in both first-hand and fictionalized accounts of peoples’ interactions with volcanoes and experiences of volcanic phenomena, and see how the routine or implicit linkage of ‘fire’ with ‘combustion’ as an explanation for the deep forces at play within and beneath volcanoes slowly changed as the formal scientific study of volcanoes developed. I show how Vesuvius was used as a ‘model’ volcano in science and literature and how, later, following devastating eruptions in Indonesia and the Caribbean, volcanoes took on a new dimension as contemporary agents of death and destruction.

  2. Geology of Gable Mountain-Gable Butte Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K.R.


    Gable Mountain and Gable Butte are two ridges which form the only extensive outcrops of the Columbia River Basalt Group in the central portion of the Pasco Basin. The Saddle Mountains Basalt and two interbedded sedimentary units of the Ellensburg Formation crop out on the ridges. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Asotin Member (oldest), Esquatzel Member, Selah Interbed, Pomona Member, Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed, and Elephant Mountain Member (youngest). A fluvial plain composed of sediments from the Ringold and Hanford (informal) formations surrounds these ridges. The structure of Gable Mountain and Gable Butte is dominated by an east-west-trending major fold and northwest-southeast-trending parasitic folds. Two faults associated with the uplift of these structures were mapped on Gable Mountain. The geomorphic expression of the Gable Mountain-Gable Butte area resulted from the comlex folding and subsequent scouring by post-basalt fluvial systems.

  3. Boundary for the Deadman coal zone in the Black Butte area (bbbndg.shp) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the Deadman coal zone in the Black Butte area of the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coalfield, Wyoming. This...

  4. Equipment for Preparing Pipeline Position Butts for Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobanov L.M.


    Full Text Available The results of developments of the Ye.O.Paton Electric Welding Institute and its specialized departments on the designing national equipment models for preparation during the assembly the edges and butt ends of pipeline position butts with the diameter from 14 up to 159 mm, repair and modernization of power engineering objects, including the power units of nuclear and heat electric stations, in chemical and machine building, at enterprises of oil-gas complex and other branches of industry are presented.

  5. 75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan (United States)


    ... 564 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

  6. 78 FR 9945 - Crow Butte Resources, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Crow Butte Resources, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to... Licensing Board (Board) is being established to preside over the following proceeding: Crow Butte Resources, Inc. (Marsland Expansion Area) This proceeding involves a request from Crow Butte Resources, Inc. to...

  7. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.


    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    In this paper the maximum allowable gap width in laser butt-welding is intensively studied. The gap width study (GWS) is performed on the material of SST of W1.4401 (AISI 316) under various welding conditions, which are the gap width : 0.00-0.50 mm, the welding speed : 0.5-2.0 m/min, the laser po...

  9. ANSYS Simulation of Residual Strains in Butt-welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Atroshenko


    Full Text Available The effect of thermal-strain cycle on residual strains in thin-walled circular seams of cylindrical shells using TIG butt welds was studied. Estimates were calculated using numerical modelling. The structure was made of corrosion-resistant austenitic steels.

  10. Relative toxicity of cigarette butts leachate and usefulness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative acute toxicity of cigarette butts leachate, antioxidant biomarkers; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), gluthathione (GSH)activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO), an index of malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to two selected commonly consumed brand of ...

  11. Critical Gap distance in Laser Butt-welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    When butt-welding metal sheets with high power lasers the gap distance between the sheets determine the final quality of the seam. In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the critical gap distance that results in sound beads is identified. By grinding the edges of the sheets, a number...

  12. Development of science imperative for progress: Pervez Butt

    CERN Multimedia


    Mr. Parvez Butt, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, has said that development of science and technology is imperative for progress and prosperity of any country. He was addressing a meeting on "CERN Data Grid and its Application" an opportunity for learning for scientists of developing countries (1/2 page).

  13. Control of GMA Butt Joint Welding Based on Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben


    in the challenging field of butt joint welding with full penetration under stochastically changing boundary conditions, e.g. major gap width variations. GMAW experiments performed on mild-steel plates (3 mm of thickness), show that high quality welds with uniform back-bead geometry are achievable for gap width...

  14. Critical Gap distance in Laser Butt-welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove


    In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the critical gap distance that results in sound beads in laser butt welding is sought identified. By grinding the edges of the sheets, a number of "reference" welds are made and compared to the sheets with shear cut edges. In the tests the gap...

  15. A Neural Network Approach for GMA Butt Joint Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben


    This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...

  16. Willamette Valley - Baskett Butte Oak Savannah Restoration-Phase 2 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project is a follow-up to the 2010 project that removed three invasive tree species across 85 acres on Baskett Butte at Baskett Slough NWR. Lack of fire in the...

  17. Impact of cigarette butt leachate on tidepool snails. (United States)

    Booth, David J; Gribben, Paul; Parkinson, Kerryn


    In urban areas, cigarette butts are the most common discarded refuse articles. In marine intertidal zones, they often fall into tidepools. We tested how common intertidal molluscs were affected by butt leachate in a laboratory experiment, where snails were exposed to various leachate concentrations. Mortality was very high, with all species showing 100% mortality at the full leachate concentration (5 butts per litre and 2h soak time) after 8days. However, Austrocochlea porcata showed higher mortality than the other 2 species at lower concentrations (10%, 25%) which may affect the relative abundance of the 3 snails under different concentrations of leachate pollution. Also, sublethal effects of leachate on snail activity were observed, with greater activity of Nerita atramentosa than the other 2 species at higher concentrations, suggesting it is more resilient than the other 2 species. While human health concerns predominate with respect to smoking, we show strong lethal and sublethal (via behavioural modifications) impacts of discarded butts on intertidal organisms, with even closely-related taxa responding differently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Upsetting Butt Edge Increases Weld-Joint Strength (United States)

    Vesco, D.


    Mechanical upsetting /a mode of cold forging/ of butt edges to be welded is accomplished by the use of hydraulic rams and pressure rollers. The mechanical upsetting increases the thickness of the material in the heat-affected zone and compensates for the lower specific strength per unit thickness common to this area.

  19. Volcanoes - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Holocene volcanoes, which are those thought to be active in the last 10,000 years, that are within an extended area of the northern...

  20. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste. (United States)

    Barnes, Richard L


    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste, but most post-consumer waste disposal is the responsibility of the consumer. Concepts such as extended producer responsibility (EPR) are being used for some post-consumer waste to pass the responsibility and cost for recycling or disposal to the manufacturer of the product. In total, 32 states in the US have passed EPR laws covering auto switches, batteries, carpet, cell phones, electronics, fluorescent lighting, mercury thermostats, paint and pesticide containers, and these could be models for cigarette waste legislation. A broader concept of producer stewardship includes EPR, but adds the consumer and the retailer into the regulation. The State of Maine considered a comprehensive product stewardship law in 2010 that is a much better model than EPR. By using either EPR or the Maine model, the tobacco industry will be required to cover the cost of collecting and disposing of cigarette butt waste. Additional requirements included in the Maine model are needed for consumers and businesses to complete the network that will be necessary to maximise the segregation and collection of cigarette butts to protect the environment.

  1. Smoke-free college campuses: no ifs, ands or toxic butts. (United States)

    Sawdey, Michael; Lindsay, Ryan P; Novotny, Thomas E


    To better estimate the burden of toxic cigarette butt waste and create awareness of the hazardous nature of cigarette butts on two large university campuses in San Diego by organizing and conducting student cigarette butt clean-up activities. Two separate campus-wide clean-ups were conducted by student volunteers at San Diego State University (SDSU) and at University of California San Diego (UCSD) between April and July 2010. In 1 h, 63 volunteers at SDSU collected 23,885 butts; 6525 cigarette butts were collected in 1 h by 17 volunteers at UCSD. The average number of cigarette butts picked up per individual was 379.1 at SDSU and 383.8 at UCSD (range 25-1030 per volunteer). The amount of cigarette waste on college campuses nationally may be quite substantial given the many thousands of cigarette butts gathered at each of the San Diego institutions. In just 10 s on average a volunteer could locate, walk to, pick up and put a cigarette butt in the collection bag and then begin looking for another discarded butt, indicating the saturation of cigarette butts on campus. Smoke-free policies on campus could have far-reaching effects not only in reducing smoking behaviour on campus and ground clean-up costs, but also on the environment. Campus cigarette waste clean-ups can be utilized to call attention to the issue of cigarette butt waste in the environment.

  2. Brittle deformation and slope failure at the North Menan Butte tuff cone, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho (United States)

    Okubo, Chris H.


    The manifestation of brittle deformation within inactive slumps along the North Menan Butte, a basaltic tuff cone in the Eastern Snake River Plain, is investigated through field and laboratory studies. Microstructural observations indicate that brittle strain is localized along deformation bands, a class of structural discontinuity that is predominant within moderate to high-porosity, clastic sedimentary rocks. Various subtypes of deformation bands are recognized in the study area based on the sense of strain they accommodate. These include dilation bands (no shear displacement), dilational shear bands, compactional shear bands and simple shear bands (no volume change). Measurements of the host rock permeability between the deformation bands indicate that the amount of brittle strain distributed throughout this part of the rock is negligible, and thus deformation bands are the primary means by which brittle strain is manifest within this tuff. Structural discontinuities that are similar in appearance to deformation bands are observed in other basaltic tuffs. Therefore deformation bands may represent a common structural feature of basaltic tuffs that have been widely misclassified as fractures. Slumping and collapse along the flanks of active volcanoes strongly influence their eruptive behavior and structural evolution. Therefore characterizing the process of deformation band and fault growth within basaltic tuff is key to achieving a more complete understanding of the evolution of basaltic volcanoes and their associated hazards.

  3. Environmental Assessment Military Housing Privatization Initiative at Beale Air Force Base, California (United States)


    the key management personnel, investigators and technical 5 personnel that contributed to document preparation. 6 Name Degree Professional...conducted Marysville California kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys californicus eximus) SC/SSC Sutter Buttes in Sutter County Occurs in grassland and

  4. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....


    Ohlin, Henry N.; Spear, R.J.


    A mineral investigation in the nearly contiguous Black Butte and Elk Creek Roadless Areas of northern California, indicates that small parts of both roadless areas have a probable mineral-resource potential for small manganese-copper- or chromite-type deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the areas. Investigation of geothermal resource potential and of the potential for other hydrothermal base- and precious-metal mineralization should be initiated.

  6. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO`s areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation`s largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST`s Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management.

  7. Ice-clad volcanoes (United States)

    Waitt, Richard B.; Edwards, B.R.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Huggel, C.; Carey, Mark; Clague, John J.; Kääb, Andreas


    An icy volcano even if called extinct or dormant may be active at depth. Magma creeps up, crystallizes, releases gas. After decades or millennia the pressure from magmatic gas exceeds the resistance of overlying rock and the volcano erupts. Repeated eruptions build a cone that pokes one or two kilometers or more above its surroundings - a point of cool climate supporting glaciers. Ice-clad volcanic peaks ring the northern Pacific and reach south to Chile, New Zealand, and Antarctica. Others punctuate Iceland and Africa (Fig 4.1). To climb is irresistible - if only “because it’s there” in George Mallory’s words. Among the intrepid ascents of icy volcanoes we count Alexander von Humboldt’s attempt on 6270-meter Chimborazo in 1802 and Edward Whymper’s success there 78 years later. By then Cotopaxi steamed to the north.

  8. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes (United States)

    Gordon, David W.


    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  9. Volcano-electromagnetic effects (United States)

    Johnston, Malcolm J. S.


    Volcano-electromagnetic effects—electromagnetic (EM) signals generated by volcanic activity—derive from a variety of physical processes. These include piezomagnetic effects, electrokinetic effects, fluid vaporization, thermal demagnetization/remagnetization, resistivity changes, thermochemical effects, magnetohydrodynamic effects, and blast-excited traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Identification of different physical processes and their interdependence is often possible with multiparameter monitoring, now common on volcanoes, since many of these processes occur with different timescales and some are simultaneously identified in other geophysical data (deformation, seismic, gas, ionospheric disturbances, etc.). EM monitoring plays an important part in understanding these processes.

  10. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. Volume I. Completion and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willits, M.H.; McCoy, R.L.; Dobson, R.J.; Hartsock, J.H.


    The Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well, located in the East Franklin area of St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, is the first successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the Well-of-Opportunity program. The section tested was the MA-6 sand of lower Miocene age which has produced large quantities of gas from the adjacent but structurally separated Garden City field. In the subject well the observed temperature was 270{sup 0}F (132{sup 0}C) and the measured gradient was 0.77 psi/ft. The gross sand thickness was 270 feet, the net sand thickness 190 feet, and the tested interval 58 net feet. The temperatures and pressures encountered approached the limits of the surface-recording bottomhole pressure gauge and particularly the single-conductor cables on which the gauges were run. The objectives of the tests were all accomplished, and data were obtained which will contribute to the overall assessment of the geopressured-geothermal resource of the Upper Gulf of Mexico basin. In general, the gas solubility (22.8 scf/bbl) was as expected for the temperature, pressure, and salinity of the brine. The produced water was more saline than expected (160,000 mg/l). The high concentrations of dissolved solids, coupled with the evolution of CO{sub 2} from these waters during production, created a scaling problem in the tubular goods and surface equipment that will have to be addressed in future tests.

  11. Anatomy of a volcano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooper, A.; Wassink, J.


    The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull caused major disruption in European airspace last year. According to his co-author, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, the reconstruction published in Nature six months later by aerospace engineering researcher, Dr Andy Hooper, opens up a new direction in volcanology. “We

  12. Spying on volcanoes (United States)

    Watson, Matthew


    Active volcanoes can be incredibly dangerous, especially to those who live nearby, but how do you get close enough to observe one in action? Matthew Watson explains how artificial drones are providing volcanologists with insights that could one day save human lives

  13. Volcanoes and the Environment (United States)

    Marti, Edited By Joan; Ernst, Gerald G. J.


    Volcanoes and the Environment is a comprehensive and accessible text incorporating contributions from some of the world's authorities in volcanology. This book is an indispensable guide for those interested in how volcanism affects our planet's environment. It spans a wide variety of topics from geology to climatology and ecology; it also considers the economic and social impacts of volcanic activity on humans. Topics covered include how volcanoes shape the environment, their effect on the geological cycle, atmosphere and climate, impacts on health of living on active volcanoes, volcanism and early life, effects of eruptions on plant and animal life, large eruptions and mass extinctions, and the impact of volcanic disasters on the economy. This book is intended for students and researchers interested in environmental change from the fields of earth and environmental science, geography, ecology and social science. It will also interest policy makers and professionals working on natural hazards. An all-inclusive text that goes beyond the geological working of volcanoes to consider their environmental and sociological impacts Each chapter is written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject Accessible to students and researchers from a wide variety of backgrounds

  14. Welding residual stress distributions for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Ju Hee; Bae, Hong Yeol; OH, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyungsoo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Tae Kwang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In pressurized water nuclear reactors, dissimilar metal welds are susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking. To access this problem, accurate estimation of welding residual stresses is important. This paper provides general welding residual stress profiles in dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds using finite element analysis. By introducing a simplified shape for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds, changes in the welding residual stress distribution can be seen using a geometry variable. Based on the results, a welding residual stress profile for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds is proposed that modifies the existing welding residual stress profile for austenitic pipe butt welds.

  15. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun


    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  16. Littered cigarette butts as a source of nicotine in urban waters (United States)

    Roder Green, Amy L.; Putschew, Anke; Nehls, Thomas


    The effect of nicotine from littered cigarette butts on the quality of urban water resources has yet to be investigated. This two-part study addresses the spatial variation, seasonal dynamics and average residence time of littered cigarette butts in public space, as well as the release of nicotine from cigarette butts to run-off in urban areas during its residence time. Thereby, we tested two typical situations: release to standing water in a puddle and release during alternating rainfall and drying. The study took place in Berlin, Germany, a city which completely relies on its own water resources to meet its drinking water demand. Nine typical sites located in a central district, each divided into 20 plots were studied during five sampling periods between May 2012 and February 2013. The nicotine release from standardized cigarette butts prepared with a smoking machine was examined in batch and rainfall experiments. Littered cigarette butts are unevenly distributed among both sites and plots. The average butt concentration was 2.7 m-2 (SD = 0.6 m-2, N = 862); the maximum plot concentration was 48.8 butts m-2. This heterogeneity is caused by preferential littering (gastronomy, entrances, bus stops), redistribution processes such as litter removal (gastronomy, shop owners), and the increased accumulation in plots protected from mechanized street sweeping (tree pits, bicycle stands). No significant seasonal variation of cigarette butt accumulation was observed. On average, cigarette butt accumulation is characterized by a 6 days cadence due to the rhythm and effectiveness of street sweeping (mean weekly butt accumulation rate = 0.18 m-2 d-1; SD = 0.15 m-1). Once the butt is exposed to standing water, elution of nicotine occurs rapidly. Standardized butts released 7.3 mg g-1 nicotine in a batch experiment (equivalent to 2.5 mg L-1), 50% of which occurred within the first 27 min. In the rainfall experiment, the cumulative nicotine release from fifteen consecutive

  17. A comparison of electronic and traditional cigarette butt leachate on the development of Xenopus laevis embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tatum Parker

    Full Text Available Potential developmental toxicities of three different cigarette butt leachates were evaluated using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay–Xenopus (FETAX. Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to regular cigarette butt (RCB, menthol (MCB and electronic (ECB in concentrations ranging from 0 to 4 butts/l for RCB and MCB and 0–10 butts/l for ECB. The embryos were from stage 8 to 11 and were exposed for a 96-h period in static renewal test conditions. Median lethal concentration (LC50, malformation (EC50, non-observed adverse effect concentration (NOAEC, and lowest observed adverse effect concentration (LOAEC were calculated. Results from these studies suggest that each tested leachate is teratogenic for X. laevis embryos. The lowest LC50 was determined for ECB exposure at 17.9 cigarette butts/L. The LC50 value was the highest with RCB and MCB having LC50 s of approximately 1 cigarette butt/L. There were notable EC50 differences with RCB having the highest and ECB the lowest. The NOAEC and LOAEC levels for RCB and MCB were below 1 cigarette butt/L for both mortality and malformations; over 8 butts/L for ECB mortality and over 4 butts/L for malformations. From these results, we conclude that RCB leachate is the most toxic compound, while MCB leachate has the higher teratogenicity. ECB leachate has the lowest toxic and teratogenic effects on embryos but there were still noticeable effects. The results confirmed that the FETAX assay can be useful in an integrated biological hazard assessment for the preliminary screening for ecological risks of cigarette butts, and electronic cigarettes, in aquatic environment. Keywords: Cigarette butt leachate, Xenopus laevis, Development

  18. A Neural Network Approach for GMA Butt Joint Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben


    This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...... penetration, when the gap width is varying during the welding process. The process modeling to facilitate the mapping from joint geometry and reference weld quality to significant welding parameters has been based on a multi-layer feed-forward network. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for non-linear least...

  19. Observations of elk movement patterns on Fossil Butte National Monument (United States)

    Olexa, Edward M.; Soileau, Suzanna Carrithers.; Allen, Leslie A.


    The elk herd that frequents Fossil Butte National Monument, a subset of the West Green River elk population, provides visitors with seasonal opportunities to view an iconic species of the western United States. Throughout the year, these elk range across a variety of private, State, and Federal lands within close proximity to the Monument. These lands are managed differently for various uses which can create challenging wildlife-management issues and influence the herd’s seasonal movements and distribution. Research lead by the USGS investigates some of the factors associated with these seasonal changes.

  20. Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes (United States)


    A distance of about 80 kilometers (50 miles) separates Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Despite this distance, however, the two acted in unison on April 26, 2007, when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite caught them both erupting simultaneously. ASTER 'sees' a slightly different portion of the light spectrum than human eyes. Besides a portion of visible light, ASTER detects thermal energy, meaning it can detect volcanic activity invisible to human eyes. Inset in each image above is a thermal infrared picture of the volcano's summit. In these insets, dark red shows where temperatures are coolest, and yellowish-white shows where temperatures are hottest, heated by molten lava. Both insets show activity at the crater. In the case of Klyuchevskaya, some activity at the crater is also visible in the larger image. In the larger images, the landscapes around the volcanoes appear in varying shades of blue-gray. Dark areas on the snow surface are likely stains left over from previous eruptions of volcanic ash. Overhead, clouds dot the sky, casting their shadows on the snow, especially southeast of Shiveluch and northeast of Klyuchevskaya. To the northwest of Klyuchevskaya is a large bank of clouds, appearing as a brighter white than the snow surface. Shiveluch (sometimes spelled Sheveluch) and Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) are both stratovolcanoes composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and rocks from earlier eruptions. Both volcanoes rank among Kamchatka's most active. Because Kamchatka is part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Large-scale plate tectonic activity causing simultaneous volcanic eruptions in Kamchatka is not uncommon.

  1. Beavis and Butt-head: Two More White Males for the Canon. (United States)

    Skretta, John


    Discusses a high school unit involving the cartoon characters "Beavis" and "Butt-head." Examines how social values and social conflicts affect and mirror language use. Describes Beavis and Butt-head projects, and objections to the unit. Argues that schools must embrace nonprint texts to help students become skilled, literate,…

  2. On the mechanical behaviour of a butt jointed thermoplastic composite under bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko; Thomsen, O.T


    In the present work, the mechanical behavior of a recently developed novel butt jointed thermoplastic composite was investigated under bending conditions. The laminated skin and the web were made of carbon fiber (AS4) and polyetherketoneketone (PEKK). The butt joint (filler) was injection molded

  3. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrún; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna


    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (CIV) is a newly developed open-access web resource ( intended to serve as an official source of information about volcanoes in Iceland for the public and decision makers. CIV contains text and graphic information on all 32 active volcanic systems in Iceland, as well as real-time data from monitoring systems in a format that enables non-specialists to understand the volcanic activity status. The CIV data portal contains scientific data on all eruptions since Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and is an unprecedented endeavour in making volcanological data open and easy to access. CIV forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the European Union funded effort FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. The supersite concept implies integration of space and ground based observations for improved monitoring and evaluation of volcanic hazards, and open data policy. This work is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere.

  4. A comparison of electronic and traditional cigarette butt leachate on the development of Xenopus laevis embryos. (United States)

    Parker, Tatiana Tatum; Rayburn, James


    Potential developmental toxicities of three different cigarette butt leachates were evaluated using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to regular cigarette butt (RCB), menthol (MCB) and electronic (ECB) in concentrations ranging from 0 to 4 butts/l for RCB and MCB and 0-10 butts/l for ECB. The embryos were from stage 8 to 11 and were exposed for a 96-h period in static renewal test conditions. Median lethal concentration (LC50), malformation (EC50), non-observed adverse effect concentration (NOAEC), and lowest observed adverse effect concentration (LOAEC) were calculated. Results from these studies suggest that each tested leachate is teratogenic for X. laevis embryos. The lowest LC50 was determined for ECB exposure at 17.9 cigarette butts/L. The LC50 value was the highest with RCB and MCB having LC50 s of approximately 1 cigarette butt/L. There were notable EC50 differences with RCB having the highest and ECB the lowest. The NOAEC and LOAEC levels for RCB and MCB were below 1 cigarette butt/L for both mortality and malformations; over 8 butts/L for ECB mortality and over 4 butts/L for malformations. From these results, we conclude that RCB leachate is the most toxic compound, while MCB leachate has the higher teratogenicity. ECB leachate has the lowest toxic and teratogenic effects on embryos but there were still noticeable effects. The results confirmed that the FETAX assay can be useful in an integrated biological hazard assessment for the preliminary screening for ecological risks of cigarette butts, and electronic cigarettes, in aquatic environment.

  5. 75 FR 60814 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY... antidumping duty orders on carbon steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and... antidumping duty orders on carbon steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and...

  6. 75 FR 60804 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the West Butte Wind Power... (United States)


    ... Butte Wind Power Right-of-Way, Crook and Deschutes Counties, OR AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the West Butte Wind Power Right-of-Way and by... Federal Register notice. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Storo, BLM West Butte Wind Power Right of...

  7. 76 FR 79651 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Preliminary Results of... antidumping duty order on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings (SSBW pipe fittings) from Italy. The review... results of the review to no later than December 15, 2011. See Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From...

  8. 77 FR 24459 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Final Results of... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings (SSBW pipe fittings) from Italy.\\1\\ This review covers two... results remain unchanged from the preliminary results of review. \\1\\ See Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe...

  9. 76 FR 4633 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court... (United States)


    ... rate on carbon steel butt-weld pipe fittings used only in structural applications will be zero percent... International Trade Administration Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China... scope of the Order \\1\\ as excluding carbon steel butt-weld pipe fittings from the People's Republic of...

  10. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards at Newberry Volcano, Oregon (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Mastin, L.G.; Scott, W.E.


    Newberry volcano is a broad shield volcano located in central Oregon, the product of thousands of eruptions, beginning about 600,000 years ago. At least 25 vents on the flanks and summit have been active during the past 10,000 years. The most recent eruption 1,300 years ago produced the Big Obsidian Flow. Thus, the volcano's long history and recent activity indicate that Newberry will erupt in the future. Newberry Crater, a volcanic depression or caldera has been the focus of Newberry's volcanic activity for at least the past 10,000 years. Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service, includes the caldera and extends to the Deschutes River. Newberry volcano is quiet. Local earthquake activity (seismicity) has been trifling throughout historic time. Subterranean heat is still present, as indicated by hot springs in the caldera and high temperatures encountered during exploratory drilling for geothermal energy. The report USGS Open-File Report 97-513 (Sherrod and others, 1997) describes the kinds of hazardous geologic events that might occur in the future at Newberry volcano. A hazard-zonation map is included to show the areas that will most likely be affected by renewed eruptions. When Newberry volcano becomes restless, the eruptive scenarios described herein can inform planners, emergency response personnel, and citizens about the kinds and sizes of events to expect. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layers used to produce the Newberry volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-513 are included in this data set. Scientists at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory created a GIS data layer to depict zones subject to the effects of an explosive pyroclastic eruption (tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows, and ballistics), lava flows, volcanic gasses, and lahars/floods in Paulina Creek. A separate GIS data layer depicts drill holes on the flanks of Newberry Volcano that were used to estimate the probability

  11. Microstructure observations on butt joint composed of Nb3Sn CIC conductors (United States)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Tokitani, Masayuki; Takahata, Kazuya; Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki


    To precisely evaluate a butt joint technology for the JT-60SA CS coils, microstructure observations on the butt joint composed of Nb3Sn CIC conductors were conducted using a FE-SEM. As a sample for the observations, the butt joint sample utilized in the joint resistance measurement was used. During the sample fabrication, the butt joint sample was heated up to about 920 K from room temperature for diffusion bonding after heat treatment for Nb3Sn production. Then, the sample was subjected to the cycles of electromagnetic force in the joint measurement. The observation results indicated that Nb3Sn strands and a copper sheet were butted properly at the interface of the butt joint. In addition, there were hairline cracks in the Nb3Sn layers of the strands near the interface. To investigate a cause of the crack initiation, the stresses generated in the butt joint under same conditions were analyzed using a simple model. As a result, the cracks would occur with an axial compressive stress generated by the butt joint fabrication.

  12. The Geology of East Butte, a Rhyolitic Volcanic Dome on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho (United States)

    Bretches, J. E.; King, J. S.


    East Butte is a prominent volcanic dome located on the eastern Snake River Plain. It is situated 51 km west of Idaho Fallls in the southeast corner of the Idaho National Engineering facility. East Butte rises 350 meters above the Quaternary basalt flows which encircle its 2.4 kilometer diameter base. Its maximum elevation is 2003 meters above sea level. East Butte is composed dominantly of rhyolite. Armstrong and others (1975) determined a K-Ar age of 0.6 +/- m.y. for a rhyolite sample from East Butte. Detailed geologic mapping revealed East Butte to be a single, large cumulo-dome composed dominantly of rhyolite. Major element geochemical analyses indicate that the rhyolite of East Butte is mildly peralkaline (molecular excess of Na2O and K2O over Al2O3 and compositionally homogeneous. Color variations in the East Butte rhyolite result from varying amounts of chemical and physical weathering and to the degree of devitrification that the glass in the groundmass of the rhyolite underwent.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Residual Stress in Wide Butt Welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ding


    Full Text Available The presence of residual stress in steel members can significantly compromise the stiffness and fatigue life of steel structural components. This influence becomes more serious for the wide butt welds in the construction of large-sized steel members due to the different residual stress distribution from the normal size butt welds. This paper experimentally studied the residual stress in the wide butt welds through an 8-experiment test program. High residual stress was produced during the wide butt welding and this stress was observed to be even higher than the yield strength of the steel. Moreover, this residual stress in the steel plate was firstly compressive and then transferred into tensile stress with the increase in the distance away from the butt weld line. The magnitude of the residual stress increased with the increase in the width of the welding seams. This paper also developed a finite element model by SYSWELD to simulate the residual stress produced by the wide butt welding. The accuracy of the FE simulation was checked by the reported test results. In order to reduce the residual stress, the ultrasonic peening method was adopted. The analysis results indicated that ultrasonic peening method effectively reduced the residual stress caused by the wide butt welding during the construction.

  14. A Neural Network Approach for GMA Butt Joint Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben


    This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...... penetration, when the gap width is varying during the welding process. The process modeling to facilitate the mapping from joint geometry and reference weld quality to significant welding parameters has been based on a multi-layer feed-forward network. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for non-linear least...... squares has been used with the back-propagation algorithm for training the network, while a Bayesian regularization technique has been successfully applied for minimizing the risk of inexpedient over-training. Finally, a predictive closed-loop control strategy based on a so-called single-neuron self...

  15. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana, technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of useable resources from waste. Environmental technology development and commercialization activities will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management. Since the site has no record of radioactive material use and no history of environmental contamination/remediation activities, DOE-EM can concentrate on performing developmental and demonstration activities without the demands of regulatory requirements and schedules. Thus, WETO will serve as a national resource for the development of new and innovative environmental technologies.

  16. Smoke-free college campuses: no ifs, ands or toxic butts


    Sawdey, Michael; Lindsay, Ryan P; Novotny, Thomas E


    Objective To better estimate the burden of toxic cigarette butt waste and create awareness of the hazardous nature of cigarette butts on two large university campuses in San Diego by organizing and conducting student cigarette butt clean-up activities. Methods Two separate campus-wide clean-ups were conducted by student volunteers at San Diego State University (SDSU) and at University of California San Diego (UCSD) between April and July 2010. Results In 1 h, 63 volunteers at SDSU collected 2...

  17. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Kanaga Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Miller, Thomas P.; Nye, Christopher J.


    Kanaga Volcano is a steep-sided, symmetrical, cone-shaped, 1307 meter high, andesitic stratovolcano on the north end of Kanaga Island (51°55’ N latitude, 177°10’ W longitude) in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Kanaga Island is an elongated, low-relief (except for the volcano) island, located about 35 kilometers west of the community of Adak on Adak Island and is part of the Andreanof Islands Group of islands. Kanaga Volcano is one of the 41 historically active volcanoes in Alaska and has erupted numerous times in the past 11,000 years, including at least 10 eruptions in the past 250 years (Miller and others, 1998). The most recent eruption occurred in 1993-95 and caused minor ash fall on Adak Island and produced blocky aa lava flows that reached the sea on the northwest and west sides of the volcano (Neal and others, 1995). The summit of the volcano is characterized by a small, circular crater about 200 meters in diameter and 50-70 meters deep. Several active fumaroles are present in the crater and around the crater rim. The flanking slopes of the volcano are steep (20-30 degrees) and consist mainly of blocky, linear to spoonshaped lava flows that formed during eruptions of late Holocene age (about the past 3,000 years). The modern cone sits within a circular caldera structure that formed by large-scale collapse of a preexisting volcano. Evidence for eruptions of this preexisting volcano mainly consists of lava flows exposed along Kanaton Ridge, indicating that this former volcanic center was predominantly effusive in character. In winter (October-April), Kanaga Volcano may be covered by substantial amounts of snow that would be a source of water for lahars (volcanic mudflows). In summer, much of the snowpack melts, leaving only a patchy distribution of snow on the volcano. Glacier ice is not present on the volcano or on other parts of Kanaga Island. Kanaga Island is uninhabited and is part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, managed by

  18. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano (United States)


    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  19. Geologic map of the Strawberry Butte 7.5’ quadrangle, Meagher County, Montana (United States)

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Brandt, Theodore R.


    The 7.5′ Strawberry Butte quadrangle in Meagher County, Montana near the southwest margin of the Little Belt Mountains, encompasses two sharply different geologic terranes.  The northern three-quarters of the quadrangle are underlain mainly by Paleoproterozoic granite gneiss, across which Middle Cambrian sedimentary rocks rest unconformably.  An ancestral valley of probable late Eocene age, eroded northwest across the granite gneiss terrane, is filled with Oligocene basalt and overlying Miocene and Oligocene sandstone, siltstone, tuffaceous siltstone, and conglomerate.  The southern quarter of the quadrangle is underlain principally by deformed Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of the Newland Formation, which are intruded by Eocene biotite hornblende dacite dikes.  In this southern terrane, Tertiary strata are exposed only in a limited area near the southeast margin of the quadrangle.  The distinct terranes are juxtaposed along the Volcano Valley fault zone—a zone of recurrent crustal movement beginning possibly in Mesoproterozoic time and certainly established from Neoproterozoic–Early Cambrian to late Tertiary time.  Movement along the fault zone has included normal faulting, the southern terrane faulted down relative to the northern terrane, some reverse faulting as the southern terrane later moved up against the northern terrane, and lateral movement during which the southern terrane likely moved west relative to the northern terrane.  Near the eastern margin of the quadrangle, the Newland Formation is locally the host of stratabound sulfide mineralization adjacent to the fault zone; west along the fault zone across the remainder of the quadrangle are significant areas and bands of hematite and iron-silicate mineral concentrations related to apparent alteration of iron sulfides.  The map defines the distribution of a variety of surficial deposits, including the distribution of hematite-rich colluvium and iron-silicate boulders.  The southeast

  20. Soufriere Hills Volcano (United States)


    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  1. Counterfactual Volcano Hazard Analysis (United States)

    Woo, Gordon


    , if a major storm surge happens to arrive at a high astronomical tide, sea walls may be overtopped and flooding may ensue. In the domain of geological hazards, periods of volcanic unrest may generate precursory signals suggestive of imminent volcanic danger, but without leading to an actual eruption. Near-miss unrest periods provide vital evidence for assessing the dynamics of volcanoes close to eruption. Where the volcano catalogue has been diligently revised to include the maximum amount of information on the phenomenology of unrest periods, dynamic modelling and hazard assessment may be significantly refined. This is illustrated with some topical volcano hazard examples, including Montserrat and Santorini.

  2. True Color Orthophotography for Fossil Butte National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This photo mosaic of Fossil Butte National Monument was created from scanned 9x9s flown in 2004 in conjunction with the Vegetation Mapping Program. The photography...

  3. Contraband tobacco on post-secondary campuses in Ontario, Canada: analysis of discarded cigarette butts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barkans, Meagan; Lawrance, Kelli-an


    .... This study examined the proportion of First Nations/Native cigarette butts discarded on post-secondary campuses in the province of Ontario, and potential differences between colleges and universities...

  4. Mr Parvez Butt, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Photo 01: Mr. Parvez Butt, Chairman Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (standing 4th from left) with his delegation and ATLAS team standing in front of the Barrel Supports manufactured in HMC3 - Pakistan.

  5. 75 FR 76025 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan (United States)


    ... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to... can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205-1810. Persons with mobility...

  6. Willamette Valley - Oregon White Oak Restoration: North Baskett Butte and Maple Knoll RNA (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project was the initial work needed to preserve the existing oak habitat on WVNWRC by eliminating the Douglas fir overstory. North Baskett Butte, on Baskett...

  7. Spatial Vegetation Data for Fossil Butte National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Fossil Butte National Monument. The polygons were generated using guidelines set by the...

  8. Comparison of the use of notched wedge joints vs. traditional butt joints in Connecticut (United States)


    Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) longitudinal joints have been an item of increasing scrutiny in : Connecticut. The traditional butt joint has typically been the method used in Connecticut. These joints : have been reportedly opening up, creating...

  9. 78 FR 21582 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management...

  10. Field Plot and Observation Points for Fossil Butte National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file contains 255 point locations of field plot and observation data used by, and collected for, the vegetation mapping project for Fossil Butte National...

  11. Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    Founded in 1912 at the edge of the caldera of Kīlauea Volcano, HVO was the vision of Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., a geologist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, whose studies of natural disasters around the world had convinced him that systematic, continuous observations of seismic and volcanic activity were needed to better understand—and potentially predict—earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Jaggar summarized the aim of HVO by stating that “the work should be humanitarian” and have the goals of developing “prediction and methods of protecting life and property on the basis of sound scientific achievement.” These goals align well with those of the USGS, whose mission is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage natural resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.

  12. Variation in, and causes of, toxicity of cigarette butts to a cladoceran and microtox. (United States)

    Micevska, T; Warne, M St J; Pablo, F; Patra, R


    Cigarette butts are the most numerically frequent form of litter in the world. In Australia alone, 24-32 billion cigarette butts are littered annually. Despite this littering, few studies have been undertaken to explore the toxicity of cigarette butts in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of 19 filtered cigarette types to Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia (48-hr EC50 (immobilization)) and Vibrio fischeri (30-min EC50 (bioluminescence)) was determined using leachates from artificially smoked cigarette butts. There was a 2.9- and 8-fold difference in toxicity between the least and most toxic cigarette butts to C. cf. dubia and V. fischeri, respectively. Overall, C. cf. dubia was more inherently sensitive than V. fischeri by a factor of approximately 15.4, and the interspecies relationship between C. cf. dubia and V. fischeri was poor (R(2) = 0.07). This poor relationship indicates that toxicity data for cigarette butts for one species could not predict or model the toxicity of cigarette butts to the other species. However, the order of the toxicity of leachates can be predicted. It was determined that organic compounds caused the majority of toxicity in the cigarette butt leachates. Of the 14 organic compounds identified, nicotine and ethylphenol were suspected to be the main causative toxicants. There was a strong relationship between toxicity and tar content and between toxicity and nicotine content for two of the three brands of cigarettes (R(2 )> 0.70) for C. cf. dubia and one brand for V. fischeri. However, when the cigarettes were pooled, the relationship was weak (R(2) < 0.40) for both test species. Brand affected the toxicity to both species but more so for V. fischeri.

  13. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 1 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  14. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 2 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  15. Fatigue Properties of Welded Butt Joint and Base Metal of MB8 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-xia YU


    Full Text Available The fatigue properties of welded butt joint and base metal of MB8 magnesium alloy were investigated. The comparative fatigue tests were carried out using EHF-EM200K2-070-1A fatigue testing machine for both welded butt joint and base metal specimens with the same size and shape. The fatigue fractures were observed and analyzed by a scanning electron microscope of 6360 LA type. The experimental results show that the fatigue performance of the welded butt joint of MB8 magnesium alloy is sharply decreased. The conditional fatigue limit (1×107 of base metal and welded butt joint is about 69.41 and 32.76 MPa, respectively. The conditional fatigue limit (1×107 of the welded butt joint is 47.2 % of that of base metal. The main reasons are that the welding can lead to stress concentration in the weld toe area, tensile welding residual stress in the welded joint, as well as grain coarsening in the welding seam. The cleavage steps or quasi-cleavage patterns present on the fatigue fracture surface, indicating the fracture type of the welded butt joint belongs to a brittle fracture.DOI:

  16. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.


    Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift

  17. Chiliques volcano, Chile (United States)


    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U

  18. Northern Arizona Volcanoes (United States)


    Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111.5 degrees West longitude

  19. "Mediterranean volcanoes vs. chain volcanoes in the Carpathians" (United States)

    Chivarean, Radu


    Volcanoes have always represent an attractive subject for students. Europe has a small number of volcanoes and Romania has none active ones. The curricula is poor in the study of volcanoes. We want to make a parallel between the Mediterranean active volcanoes and the old extinct ones in the Oriental Carpathians. We made an comparison of the two regions in what concerns their genesis, space and time distribution, the specific relief and the impact in the landscape, consequences of their activities, etc… The most of the Mediterranean volcanoes are in Italy, in the peninsula in Napoli's area - Vezuviu, Campi Flegrei, Puzzoli, volcanic islands in Tirenian Sea - Ischia, Aeolian Islands, Sicily - Etna and Pantelleria Island. Santorini is located in Aegean Sea - Greece. Between Sicily and Tunisia there are 13 underwater volcanoes. The island called Vulcano, it has an active volcano, and it is the origin of the word. Every volcano in the world is named after this island, just north of Sicily. Vulcano is the southernmost of the 7 main Aeolian Islands, all volcanic in origin, which together form a small island arc. The cause of the volcanoes appears to be a combination of an old subduction event and tectonic fault lines. They can be considered as the origin of the science of volcanology. The volcanism of the Carpathian region is part of the extensive volcanic activity in the Mediterranean and surrounding regions. The Carpathian Neogene/Quaternary volcanic arc is naturally subdivided into six geographically distinct segments: Oas, Gutai, Tibles, Calimani, Gurghiu and Harghita. It is located roughly between the Carpathian thrust-and-fold arc to the east and the Transylvanian Basin to the west. It formed as a result of the convergence between two plate fragments, the Transylvanian micro-plate and the Eurasian plate. Volcanic edifices are typical medium-sized andesitic composite volcanoes, some of them attaining the caldera stage, complicated by submittal or peripheral domes

  20. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.


    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  1. The Search for Hot Jupiters using Red Buttes Observatory (United States)

    Sorber, Rebecca L.; Kar, Aman; Hancock, Daniel A.; Leuquire, Jacob D.; Suhaimi, Afiq; Kasper, David; Jang-Condell, Hannah


    The goal of this research is to use the University of Wyoming’s Red Buttes Observatory (RBO) to perform manual, remote, or automated observations of transiting exoplanet candidates. The data contributes to discovery of star systems that include never before identified exoplanets. RBO houses a 0.6-meter telescope and is located approximately 10 miles south of the University of Wyoming’s campus. Our targets are catalogued by the KELT (Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope) Survey, a photometric search for transiting exoplanets around bright main sequence stars. The KELT Follow-up Network (KELT-FUN), a collaboration of small-aperture telescope users located all over the world, confirms new exoplanet candidates. As part of KELT-FUN, students use the RBO to monitor candidates identified by the KELT team. RBO typically detects transits around stars that are 8-12 in V magnitude, with transit durations of ~1-4 hours and full depth relative changes in brightness above 2 mmags. Using AstroImageJ, we process the data and we look for any indication of a transit occurrence in the processed lightcurve which might confirm the presence of the potential exoplanet. Our team has contributed over 50 light curves to KELT-FUN to date. We are able to compare our data with simultaneous observations by other members of KELT-FUN to maximize the utility of our observations. This project gives undergraduates an authentic scientific research experience, learning how to operate an observatory, process data, and participate in a scientific collaboration.

  2. Lifespans of Cascade Arc volcanoes (United States)

    Calvert, A. T.


    Compiled argon ages reveal inception, eruptive episodes, ages, and durations of Cascade stratovolcanoes and their ancestral predecessors. Geologic mapping and geochronology show that most Cascade volcanoes grew episodically on multiple scales with periods of elevated behavior lasting hundreds of years to ca. 100 kyr. Notable examples include the paleomag-constrained, few-hundred-year-long building of the entire 15-20 km3 Shastina edifice at Mt. Shasta, the 100 kyr-long episode that produced half of Mt. Rainier's output, and the 30 kyr-long episode responsible for all of South and Middle Sister. Despite significant differences in timing and rates of construction, total durations of active and ancestral volcanoes at discrete central-vent locations are similar. Glacier Peak, Mt. Rainier, Mt. Adams, Mt. Hood, and Mt. Mazama all have inception ages of 400-600 ka. Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Jefferson, Newberry Volcano, Mt. Shasta and Lassen Domefield have more recent inception ages of 200-300 ka. Only the Sisters cluster and Mt. Baker have established eruptive histories spanning less than 50 kyr. Ancestral volcanoes centered 5-20 km from active stratocones appear to have similar total durations (200-600 kyr), but are less well exposed and dated. The underlying mechanisms governing volcano lifecycles are cryptic, presumably involving tectonic and plumbing changes and perhaps circulation cycles in the mantle wedge, but are remarkably consistent along the arc.

  3. Global Volcano Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of volcano hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  4. Global Volcano Hazard Frequency and Distribution (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Hazard Frequency and Distribution is a 2.5 minute gridded data set based upon the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) Volcano Database spanning...

  5. Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid representing global volcano mortality risks. The data set was constructed using historical...

  6. Global Volcano Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global volcano total economic loss risks. First, subnational distributions of Gross Domestic...

  7. Global Volcano Model (United States)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.


    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  8. Volcano Hazards - A National Threat (United States)



    When the violent energy of a volcano is unleashed, the results are often catastrophic. The risks to life, property, and infrastructure from volcanoes are escalating as more and more people live, work, play, and travel in volcanic regions. Since 1980, 45 eruptions and 15 cases of notable volcanic unrest have occurred at 33 U.S. volcanoes. Lava flows, debris avalanches, and explosive blasts have invaded communities, swept people to their deaths, choked major riverways, destroyed bridges, and devastated huge tracts of forest. Noxious volcanic gas emissions have caused widespread lung problems. Airborne ash clouds have disrupted the health, lives, and businesses of hundreds of thousands of people; caused millions of dollars of aircraft damage; and nearly brought down passenger flights.

  9. Systematic radon survey over active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Garcia Vindas, J.R. [Centre National de la Recherche Cientifique, Montpellier (France). Lab. GBE; Ricard, L.P.; Staudacher, T. [Observatoire Volcanologique Du Pitou de la Fournaise, La Plaine des Cafres (France)


    Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate.

  10. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers (United States)

    Adleman, Jennifer N.


    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  11. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Augustine Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Waitt, Richard B.


    Augustine Volcano is a 1250-meter high stratovolcano in southwestern Cook Inlet about 280 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and within about 300 kilometers of more than half of the population of Alaska. Explosive eruptions have occurred six times since the early 1800s (1812, 1883, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, and 1986). The 1976 and 1986 eruptions began with an initial series of vent-clearing explosions and high vertical plumes of volcanic ash followed by pyroclastic flows, surges, and lahars on the volcano flanks. Unlike some prehistoric eruptions, a summit edifice collapse and debris avalanche did not occur in 1812, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, or 1986. However, early in the 1883 eruption, a portion of the volcano summit broke loose forming a debris avalanche that flowed to the sea. The avalanche initiated a small tsunami reported on the Kenai Peninsula at English Bay, 90 kilometers east of the volcano. Plumes of volcanic ash are a major hazard to jet aircraft using Anchorage International and other local airports. Ashfall from future eruptions could disrupt oil and gas operations and shipping activities in Cook Inlet. Eruptions similar to the historical and prehistoric eruptions are likely in Augustine's future.

  12. Requirements to gap widths and clamping for CO2 laser butt welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Juhl, Thomas Winther


    In the experimental study of fixturing and gap width requirements a clamping device for laser butt welding of steel sheets has been developed and tested. It has fulfilled the work and made the gap width experiments possible.It has shown that the maximum allowable gap width to some extent is inver......In the experimental study of fixturing and gap width requirements a clamping device for laser butt welding of steel sheets has been developed and tested. It has fulfilled the work and made the gap width experiments possible.It has shown that the maximum allowable gap width to some extent....../min 2.6 kWThe quality level is measured according to ISO 13919-1. Qualities of the butt welds with the maximum gap width listed in the table are mainly grouped in level B (stringent). The maximum gap width should be chosen with respect to the application requirements....

  13. Pueblo Folklore, Landscape Phenomenology and the Visual Poetics of Fajada Butte (United States)

    Carey, C.


    In the interest of reexamining the site of Fajada Butte in Chaco Canyon, this paper seeks to recontextualize discussions of its controversial spiral petroglyphs and astronomical phenomena (Sun Daggers) with reference to landscape phenomenology, visual and literary poetics, and the astronomical orientation of contemporary Pueblo ceremonial practices. The dearth of recent scholarship on Fajada Butte may have arisen from the many controversial arguments about its function from a variety of disciplinary locations including archaeology, anthropology, geology, and archeoastronomy. Via an emphasis on the physical landscape, storytelling, contemporary ceremonial practices and ancestral ties to Chaco Canyon, the Zuni and Hopi pueblos provide a context for re-examining the astronomical phenomena of Fajada Butte as a natural shrine of the of Chacoan culture and repository of an array of symbolic content.

  14. Dormaier and Chester Butte 2007 Follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.


    Follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analyses were conducted on the Dormaier and Chester Butte wildlife mitigation sites in April 2007 to determine the number of additional habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to enhance, and maintain the project sites as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Dormaier follow-up HEP survey generated 482.92 habitat units (HU) or 1.51 HUs per acre for an increase of 34.92 HUs over baseline credits. Likewise, 2,949.06 HUs (1.45 HUs/acre) were generated from the Chester Butte follow-up HEP analysis for an increase of 1,511.29 habitat units above baseline survey results. Combined, BPA will be credited with an additional 1,546.21 follow-up habitat units from the Dormaier and Chester Butte parcels.

  15. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Nye, Christopher J.


    Mount Spurr volcano is an ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano complex located in the north-central Cook Inlet region about 100 kilometers west of Anchorage, Alaska. Mount Spurr volcano consists of a breached stratovolcano, a lava dome at the summit of Mount Spurr, and Crater Peak vent, a small stratocone on the south flank of Mount Spurr volcano. Historical eruptions of Crater Peak occurred in 1953 and 1992. These eruptions were relatively small but explosive, and they dispersed volcanic ash over areas of interior, south-central, and southeastern Alaska. Individual ash clouds produced by the 1992 eruption drifted east, north, and south. Within a few days of the eruption, the south-moving ash cloud was detected over the North Atlantic. Pyroclastic flows that descended the south flank of Crater Peak during both historical eruptions initiated volcanic-debris flows or lahars that formed temporary debris dams across the Chakachatna River, the principal drainage south of Crater Peak. Prehistoric eruptions of Crater Peak and Mount Spurr generated clouds of volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that extended to the volcano flanks and beyond. A flank collapse on the southeast side of Mount Spurr generated a large debris avalanche that flowed about 20 kilometers beyond the volcano into the Chakachatna River valley. The debris-avalanche deposit probably formed a large, temporary debris dam across the Chakachatna River. The distribution and thickness of volcanic-ash deposits from Mount Spurr volcano in the Cook Inlet region indicate that volcanic-ash clouds from most prehistoric eruptions were as voluminous as those produced by the 1953 and 1992 eruptions. Clouds of volcanic ash emitted from the active vent, Crater Peak, would be a major hazard to all aircraft using Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport and other local airports and, depending on wind direction, could drift a considerable distance beyond the volcano. Ash fall from future eruptions could disrupt many

  16. Field-trip guide to the geologic highlights of Newberry Volcano, Oregon (United States)

    Jensen, Robert A.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.


    Newberry Volcano and its surrounding lavas cover about 3,000 square kilometers (km2) in central Oregon. This massive, shield-shaped, composite volcano is located in the rear of the Cascades Volcanic Arc, ~60 km east of the Cascade Range crest. The volcano overlaps the northwestern corner of the Basin and Range tectonic province, known locally as the High Lava Plains, and is strongly influenced by the east-west extensional environment. Lava compositions range from basalt to rhyolite. Eruptions began about half a million years ago and built a broad composite edifice that has generated more than one caldera collapse event. At the center of the volcano is the 6- by 8-km caldera, created ~75,000 years ago when a major explosive eruption of compositionally zoned tephra led to caldera collapse, leaving the massive shield shape visible today. The volcano hosts Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which encompasses the caldera and much of the northwest rift zone where mafic eruptions occurred about 7,000 years ago. These young lava flows erupted after the volcano was mantled by the informally named Mazama ash, a blanket of volcanic ash generated by the eruption that created Crater Lake about 7,700 years ago. This field trip guide takes the visitor to a variety of easily accessible geologic sites in Newberry National Volcanic Monument, including the youngest and most spectacular lava flows. The selected sites offer an overview of the geologic story of Newberry Volcano and feature a broad range of lava compositions. Newberry’s most recent eruption took place about 1,300 years ago in the center of the caldera and produced tephra and lava of rhyolitic composition. A significant mafic eruptive event occurred about 7,000 years ago along the northwest rift zone. This event produced lavas ranging in composition from basalt to andesite, which erupted over a distance of 35 km from south of the caldera to Lava Butte where erupted lava flowed west to temporarily block the Deschutes

  17. 76 FR 5205 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY... concerning the antidumping duty orders on carbon steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, China, Japan..., China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  18. 76 FR 9320 - Foreign-Trade Zone 274-Butte-Silver Bow, MT; Application for Manufacturing Authority REC Silicon... (United States)


    ... Authority REC Silicon (Polysilicon and Silane Gas) Butte, MT An application has been submitted to the..., requesting manufacturing authority on behalf of REC Silicon, located in Butte, Montana. The application was... regulations of the Board (15 CFR part 400). It was formally filed on February 11, 2011. The REC Silicon...

  19. 77 FR 71454 - Crow Butte Resources, Inc. License SUA-1534, License Amendment To Construct and Operate Marsland... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Crow Butte Resources, Inc. License SUA-1534, License Amendment To Construct and Operate Marsland... 16, 2012 and June 8, 2012, Crow Butte Resources, Inc. (CBR) submitted a request to amend Source...

  20. 75 FR 68350 - Burley Butte Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Burley Butte Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Burley Butte Wind Park, LLC's application for market...

  1. 77 FR 10773 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling of... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling of... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines...

  2. What Happened to Our Volcano? (United States)

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva


    In this article, the author presents an investigative approach to "understanding Earth changes." The author states that students were familiar with earthquakes and volcanoes in other regions of the world but never considered how the land beneath their feet had experienced changes over time. Here, their geology unit helped them understand…

  3. Morphometry of terrestrial shield volcanoes (United States)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu


    Shield volcanoes are described as low-angle edifices built primarily by the accumulation of successive lava flows. This generic view of shield volcano morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (Hawaii, Galápagos). Here, the morphometry of 158 monogenetic and polygenetic shield volcanoes is analyzed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution SRTM DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 24 lava-dominated 'shield-like' volcanoes, considered so far as stratovolcanoes, are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes from 0.1 to > 1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width (H/WB) ratios mostly from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients (average slopes mostly from 1° to 15°), elongation and summit truncation. Although there is no clear-cut morphometric difference between shield volcanoes and stratovolcanoes, an approximate threshold can be drawn at 12° average slope and 0.10 H/WB ratio. Principal component analysis of the obtained database enables to identify four key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Hierarchical cluster analysis of these descriptors results in 12 end-member shield types, with intermediate cases defining a continuum of morphologies. The shield types can be linked in terms of growth stages and shape evolution, related to (1) magma composition and rheology, effusion rate and lava/pyroclast ratio, which will condition edifice steepness; (2) spatial distribution of vents, in turn related to the magmatic feeding system and the tectonic framework, which will control edifice plan shape; and (3) caldera formation, which will condition edifice truncation.

  4. 76 FR 43341 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the West Butte Wind Power Right-of-Way... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the West Butte Wind Power... INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Storo, BLM West Butte Wind Power Right-of-Way Project Lead: telephone (541) 416... INFORMATION: The applicant, West Butte Wind Power, LLC, filed right-of-way (ROW) application OR-065784 to...

  5. 77 FR 39735 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines (United States)


    ...)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines Determination On the basis..., Malaysia, and the Philippines would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to... Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Inv. Nos. 731-TA-865-867 (Second Review...

  6. 33 CFR 208.22 - Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir, Middle and South Concho Rivers, Tex. (United States)


    ...) Whenever the Twin Buttes Reservoir level is between elevations 1,940.2 (top of conservation pool) and... Angelo, Tex. (river mile 60.9); or a 22.8-foot stage (25,000 c.f.s.) on the USGS gage near Paint Rock...

  7. Wildfire case study: Butte City Fire, southeastern Idaho, July 1, 1994 (United States)

    Bret W. Butler; Timothy D. Reynolds


    The Butte City Fire occurred on July 1, 1994, west of Idaho Falls, ID. Ignited from a burning flat tire, the blaze was driven by high winds that caused it to cover over 20,500 acres in just over 6.5 hours. Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) is the principal shrub species of this high desert rangeland...

  8. Quantifying Littered Cigarette Butts to Measure Effectiveness of Smoking Bans to Building Perimeters (United States)

    Seitz, Christopher M.; Strack, Robert W.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Rosario, Carrie; Haugh, Christie; Rice, Rebecca; Wyrick, David L.; Wagner, Lorelei


    Objective: The authors estimated the number of violations of a university policy that prohibited smoking within 25 ft of all campus buildings. Participants: The project was conducted by 13 student researchers from the university and a member of the local public health department. Methods: Students quantified cigarette butts that were littered in a…

  9. Assessing contraband tobacco in two jurisdictions: a direct collection of cigarette butts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Stratton


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sale of contraband tobacco allows for tobacco tax evasion, which can undermine the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies in reducing the number of smokers. Estimates of the proportion of contraband vary widely as do the methods used to measure the proportion of contraband being smoked. The purpose of this study is to determine the proportion of contraband use in two different jurisdictions. Methods A cross-sectional direct collection of cigarette butts was conducted in Peel and Brantford, Ontario, Canada in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Cigarette butts were collected from a variety of locations within both regions. Cigarette butts were assessed and classified into one of the following categories: contraband, legal Canadian, legal Native, International, unknown, and discards. Results The overall proportion of contraband cigarettes in Peel was 5.3 %, ranging from 2.8 to 8.6 % by location. In Brantford, the proportion of contraband was 33.0 %, with a range from 32.8 to 33.1 % by location. Conclusions The direct collection of cigarette butts was determined to be a feasible method for a local public health unit in determining the proportion of contraband cigarettes. This approach showed that Brantford has a higher proportion of contraband consumption compared to Peel, which may be due to geographic location and proximity to the United States (US-Canada border and Native Reserves. More research is needed to confirm this geographic association with other jurisdictions.

  10. Incidence of butt rot in a tree species experiment in northern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronnberg, J; Vollbrecht, G.; Thomsen, Iben Margrete


    that had been infected by H. annosum. Douglas fir and noble fir showed the greatest mortality due to H. annosum during the first 5 years after planting. At first thinning the highest incidences of butt rot were recorded in noble fir, Japanese larch and Sitka spruce, with 44%, 43% and 36% of the thinned...

  11. Gap Width Study and Fixture Design in Laser Butt-Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    This paper discusses some practical consideration for design of a mechanical fixture, which enables to accurately measure the width of a gap between two stainless steel workpieces and to steadfastly clamp the workpieces for butt-welding with a high power CO2 laser.With such a fixture, a series...... of butt-welding experiment is successfully carried out in order to find the maximum allowable gap width in laser butt-welding. The gap width study (GWS) is performed on the material of SST of W1.4401 (AISI 316) under various welding conditions, which are the gap width : 0.00-0.50 mm, the welding speed : 0.......5-2.0 m/min, the laser power : 2 and 2.6 kW and the focal point position : 0 and -1.2 mm. Quality of all the butt welds are destructively tested according to ISO 13919-1.Influences of the variable process parameters to the maximum allowable gap width are observed as (1) the maximum gap width is inversely...

  12. Gas metal arc welding of butt joint with varying gap width based on neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben


    This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...

  13. TIG-dressing of high strength butt welded connection - Part 2: physical testing and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, S.H.J. van; Kolstein, M.H.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.


    Weld improvement techniques are aimed at reducing the notch effects of welds and generally focus on two aspects: a change of geometry of the weld toe and a change of the weld residual stresses. In this paper, fatigue tests are discussed, performed on butt welded specimens in steel grades ranging

  14. TIG-dressing of High Strength Butt Welded Connection. Part 2 : Physical Testing and Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, S.H.J.; Kolstein, M.H.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.


    Weld improvement techniques are aimed at reducing the notch effects of welds and generally focus on two aspects: a change of geometry of the weld toe and a change of the weld residual stresses. In this paper, fatigue tests are discussed, performed on butt welded specimens in steel grades ranging

  15. Assessing contraband tobacco in two jurisdictions: a direct collection of cigarette butts. (United States)

    Stratton, Julie; Shiplo, Samantha; Ward, Megan; Babayan, Alexey; Stevens, Adam; Edwards, Sarah


    The sale of contraband tobacco allows for tobacco tax evasion, which can undermine the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies in reducing the number of smokers. Estimates of the proportion of contraband vary widely as do the methods used to measure the proportion of contraband being smoked. The purpose of this study is to determine the proportion of contraband use in two different jurisdictions. A cross-sectional direct collection of cigarette butts was conducted in Peel and Brantford, Ontario, Canada in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Cigarette butts were collected from a variety of locations within both regions. Cigarette butts were assessed and classified into one of the following categories: contraband, legal Canadian, legal Native, International, unknown, and discards. The overall proportion of contraband cigarettes in Peel was 5.3 %, ranging from 2.8 to 8.6 % by location. In Brantford, the proportion of contraband was 33.0 %, with a range from 32.8 to 33.1 % by location. The direct collection of cigarette butts was determined to be a feasible method for a local public health unit in determining the proportion of contraband cigarettes. This approach showed that Brantford has a higher proportion of contraband consumption compared to Peel, which may be due to geographic location and proximity to the United States (US)-Canada border and Native Reserves. More research is needed to confirm this geographic association with other jurisdictions.

  16. Characterizing butt-rot fungi on USA-affiliated islands in the western Pacific (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Roland J. Quitugua; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; J. D. Sweeney


    Ganoderma and Phellinus are genera that commonly cause tree butt-rot on USA-affiliated islands of the western Pacific. These fungal genera can be quite prevalent, especially in older mangrove stands. Although the majority of infections caused by these fungi lead to severe rotting of the heartwood, they typically do not directly kill the living tissues of the sapwood,...

  17. Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for Redoubt Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Dorava, Joseph M.; Miller, Thomas P.; Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.


    Redoubt Volcano is a stratovolcano located within a few hundred kilometers of more than half of the population of Alaska. This volcano has erupted explosively at least six times since historical observations began in 1778. The most recent eruption occurred in 1989-90 and similar eruptions can be expected in the future. The early part of the 1989-90 eruption was characterized by explosive emission of substantial volumes of volcanic ash to altitudes greater than 12 kilometers above sea level and widespread flooding of the Drift River valley. Later, the eruption became less violent, as developing lava domes collapsed, forming short-lived pyroclastic flows associated with low-level ash emission. Clouds of volcanic ash had significant effects on air travel as they drifted across Alaska, over Canada, and over parts of the conterminous United States causing damage to jet aircraft. Economic hardships were encountered by the people of south-central Alaska as a result of ash fallout. Based on new information gained from studies of the 1989-90 eruption, an updated assessment of the principal volcanic hazards is now possible. Volcanic hazards from a future eruption of Redoubt Volcano require public awareness and planning so that risks to life and property are reduced as much as possible.

  18. Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Barnes


    Full Text Available Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell ‘safe’ cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  19. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains point locations of active volcanoes as compiled by Motyka et al., 1993. Eighty-nine volcanoes with eruptive phases in the Quaternary are...

  20. Venus - Volcano With Massive Landslides (United States)


    This Magellan full-resolution mosaic which covers an area 143 by 146 kilometers (89 by 91 miles) is centered at 55 degrees north latitude, 266 degrees east longitude. The bright feature, slightly south of center is interpreted to be a volcano, 15-20 kilometers (9.3 to 12.4 miles) in diameter with a large apron of blocky debris to its right and some smaller aprons to its left. A preferred explanation is that several massive catastrophic landslides dropped down steep slopes and were carried by their momentum out into the smooth, dark lava plains. At the base of the east-facing or largest scallop on the volcano is what appears to be a large block of coherent rock, 8 to 10 kilometers (5 to 6 miles) in length. The similar margin of both the scallop and block and the shape in general is typical of terrestrial slumped blocks (masses of rock which slide and rotate down a slope instead of breaking apart and tumbling). The bright lobe to the south of the volcano may either be a lava flow or finer debris from other landslides. This volcanic feature, characterized by its scalloped flanks is part of a class of volcanoes called scalloped or collapsed domes of which there are more than 80 on Venus. Based on the chute-like shapes of the scallops and the existence of a spectrum of intermediate to well defined examples, it is hypothesized that all of the scallops are remnants of landslides even though the landslide debris is often not visible. Possible explanations for the missing debris are that it may have been covered by lava flows, the debris may have weathered or that the radar may not be recognizing it because the individual blocks are too small

  1. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20 (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.


    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  2. What Crested Butte Mountain Resort Feels the Ski Industry Is, In General, Looking for in College Graduates. (United States)

    Jernigan, Rick

    This paper describes general employment requirements for employment candidates in the skiing industry, as seen by Crested Butte Mountain Resort personnel. General educational requirements are primarily business skills, including: communications, computers, math, finance, accounting, economics, personnel administration, and psychology. Other…

  3. Unioned layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coal assessment area, Green River Basin, Wyoming (porbbfing.shp) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the spatial query layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coalfield, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming....

  4. Comparison of the use of a notched wedge joint vs. traditional butt joints in Connecticut : phase 1 report. (United States)


    Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) longitudinal joints have been an : item of increasing scrutiny in Connecticut. The traditional butt joint : has typically been the method used in Connecticut. These joints have : been reportedly opening up creatin...

  5. 77 FR 14002 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Final Results... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the... AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On...

  6. 76 FR 30962 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Sigurd to Red Butte No. 2... (United States)


    ... in Sevier County with the existing Red Butte Substation near the community of Central in Washington... Service; State of Utah; Millard, Sevier, Beaver, Iron, and Washington counties, Utah; and the cities of St...

  7. 77 FR 18266 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Revised... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Revised Schedule for the Subject Reviews AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice...

  8. ASTER Images Mt. Usu Volcano (United States)


    On April 3, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra Satellite captured this image of the erupting Mt. Usu volcano in Hokkaido, Japan. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.This false color infrared image of Mt Usu volcano is dominated by Lake Toya, an ancient volcanic caldera. On the south shore is the active Usu volcano. On Friday, March 31, more than 11,000 people were evacuated by helicopter, truck and boat from the foot of Usu, that began erupting from the northwest flank, shooting debris and plumes of smoke streaked with blue lightning thousands of feet in the air. Although no lava gushed from the mountain, rocks and ash continued to fall after the eruption. The region was shaken by thousands of tremors before the eruption. People said they could taste grit from the ash that was spewed as high as 2,700 meters (8,850 ft) into the sky and fell to coat surrounding towns with ash. 'Mount Usu has had seven significant eruptions that we know of, and at no time has it ended quickly with only a small scale eruption,' said Yoshio Katsui, a professor at Hokkaido University. This was the seventh major eruption of Mount Usu in the past 300 years. Fifty people died when the volcano erupted in 1822, its worst known eruption.In the image, most of the land is covered by snow. Vegetation, appearing red in the false color composite, can be seen in the agricultural fields, and forests in the mountains. Mt. Usu is crossed by three dark streaks. These are the paths of ash deposits that rained out from eruption plumes two days earlier. The prevailing wind was from the northwest, carrying the ash away from the main city of Date. Ash deposited can be traced on the image as far away as 10 kilometers (16 miles

  9. Loss of butt-end leg bands on male wild turkeys (United States)

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Schiavone, Michael V.; Swanson, David A.; Reynolds, Michael; Boyd, Robert C.; Eriksen, Robert; Swift, Bryan L.


    We estimated loss of butt-end leg bands on male wild turkeys (Meleagris gallapavo) captured in New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (USA) during December–March, 2006–2008. We used aluminum rivet leg bands as permanent marks to estimate loss of regular aluminum, enameled aluminum, anodized aluminum, and stainless steel butt-end leg bands placed below the spur. We used band loss information from 887 turkeys recovered between 31 days and 570 days after release (x¯  =  202 days). Band loss was greater for turkeys banded as adults (>1 yr old) than juveniles and was greater for aluminum than stainless steel bands. We estimated band retention was 79–96%, depending on age at banding and type of band, for turkeys recovered 3 months after release. Band retention was studies.

  10. Characterization of Sheet Fracture Patterns in Polygonal-Jointed Lavas at Kokostick Butte, OR, and Mazama Ridge, WA: Investigation and Interpretation of Their Formation and Significance (United States)

    Lodge, R. W.; Lescinsky, D. T.


    Polygonal joints in lava flows ("columns") are commonly equant leading to a model of formation associated with cooling in an isotropic stress field. This model, however, does not explain rectangular columns, sheet-like fractures, fractures with crosscutting relationships, and fractures with orientations other than perpendicular to the cooling surface. These fracture patterns are often observed at glaciated volcanoes. The presence of preferential fracture orientations suggests an applied stress component likely due to environmental conditions such as the presence of glaciers or flow dynamics such as down-slope settling or flow margin inflation. During this study we investigated the formation and significance of these non-equant fracture patterns to propose a model for their formation. These `abnormal' fracture patterns have not been discussed in the literature and may be important to better understanding the cooling conditions of such lava flows. To test these possibilities we studied Kokostick Butte dacite flow, OR (near South Sister), and Mazama Ridge andesite flow at Mount Rainier, WA. Both of these flows have well developed sheet-like fractures and display evidence of ice-contact during eruption and emplacement. Sheet fractures are long and continuous fractures that have perpendicular connecting fractures forming rectangular columns. The sheet-like fractures are largely parallel to each other on the exposure surface and the connecting fractures vary locally from primary fractures (associated with cooling toward flow interior) to secondary fractures (associated with cooling by water infiltration). Detailed measurements of fracture orientations and spacing were collected at Kokostick Butte and Mazama Ridge to examine the relationship between the sheet fractures and flow geometry. Preliminary results support this relationship and suggest these patterns likely form due to shear associated with small amounts of flow advance by the rapidly cooling lava. Laboratory

  11. Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows (United States)

    Robinson, Joel E.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.


    Most of Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows are found within the Newberry National Volcanic Monument in central Oregon. Established November 5, 1990, the monument is managed by the U.S. Forest Service as part of the Deschutes National Forest. Since 2011, a series of aerial surveys over the monument collected elevation data using lidar (light detection and ranging) technology, which uses lasers to directly measure the ground surface. These data record previously unseen detail in the volcano’s numerous lava flows and vents. On average, a laser return was collected from the ground’s surface every 2.17 feet (ft) with ±1.3 inches vertical precision.

  12. Structural architecture and glacitectonic evolution of the Mud Buttes cupola hill complex, southern Alberta, Canada (United States)

    Phillips, Emrys; Evans, David J. A.; Atkinson, Nigel; Kendall, Allison


    This paper presents the results of a detailed multidisciplinary study of the deformed bedrock and overlying Quaternary sediments exposed at the Mud Buttes in southern Alberta, Canada. This large, arcuate cupola hill is composed of intensely folded and thrust sandstones, siltstones and mudstones of the Cretaceous Belly River Group. Glacitectonism responsible for the development of this internally complex landform occurred at the margin of the newly defined Prospect Valley lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Analysis of the deformation structures reveals that construction of this landform occurred in response to at least two phases of south-directed ice sheet advance separated by a period of retreat. The first phase led to the formation of a forward propagating imbricate thrust stack leading to polyphase deformation of the Belly River Group. D1 thrusting led to the detachment of thrust-bound slices of bedrock which were accreted to the base of the developing imbricate stack. This process resulted in the structurally higher and older thrust-slices being progressively ;back-rotated; (tilted), accompanied by D2 thrusting and folding. Further thrusting during D3 was restricted to the core of the Mud Buttes as the deforming sequence accommodated further compression imposed by the advancing ice. Minor oscillations of the ice margin led to localised brittle-ductile shearing (D4) of the bedrock immediately adjacent to the ice contact part of the thrust stack. The second phase of ice advance led to the accretion of a relatively simple thrust and folded sequence seen the northern side of Mud Buttes. The resulting composite thrust moraine was subsequently overridden by ice advancing from the NNW to form a dome-like cupola-hill. This readvance of the Prospect Valley lobe led to the formation of a thin carapace of Quaternary sediments mantling the Mud Buttes which include glacitectonite, till and an organic-rich clay-silt (?palaeosol).

  13. Pengaruh Konformasi Butt Shape terhadap Karakteristik Karkas Sapi Brahman Cross pada Beberapa Klasifikasi Jenis Kelamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harapin Hafid H


    Full Text Available Domestic demand on beef is increasing today. However the beef supply can not fulfil the demand so that importation of beef and feeder cattle is still required. Beef cattle feedloting is now growing in Indonesia. This research was done to study the growth and development of carcass components of beef carcas from Brahman Cross cattle. The number of animals used was 165 heads with the body weight range 350 – 400 kg taken from feedlot fattening. The experiment was set in completely randomized factorial design withh two factors, namely butt shape conformation (butt shape score D, C, B and sex class (heifer, steer, cow. Parameter of carcass characteristic, i.e. carcass weight, carcass percentage, loin eye area, fat thickness of ribs 12th, fat percentage of kidney, pelvic and hearth, and fat thickness of rump P8.The result of this study showed that the increase of butt shape conformation score significantly increased loin eye area, especially in heifer and cow sex class.

  14. Joining of the AMC Composites Reinforced with Ti3Al Intermetallic Particles by Resistance Butt Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamiak M.


    Full Text Available The introduction of new reinforcing materials continues to be investigated to improve the final behaviour of AMCs as well as to avoid some drawbacks of using ceramics as reinforcement. The present work investigates the structure, properties and ability of joining aluminium EN-AW 6061 matrix composite materials reinforced with Ti3Al particles by resistance butt welding as well as composite materials produced by mechanical milling, powder metallurgy and hot extrusion techniques. Mechanically milled and extruded composites show finer and better distribution of reinforcement particles, which leads to better mechanical properties of the obtained products. Finer microstructure improves mechanical properties of obtained composites. The hardness increases twice in the case of mechanically milled composites also, a higher reinforcement content results in higher particle dispersion hardening, for 15 wt.% of intermetallics reinforcement concentration composites reach about 400 MPa UTS. Investigation results of joints show that best hardness and tensile properties of joints can be achieved by altering soft conditions of butt welding process e.g. current flow time 1.2 s and current 1400 A. To improve mechanical properties of butt welding joints age hardening techniques can also be used.

  15. Vision and spectroscopic sensing for joint tracing in narrow gap laser butt welding (United States)

    Nilsen, Morgan; Sikström, Fredrik; Christiansson, Anna-Karin; Ancona, Antonio


    The automated laser beam butt welding process is sensitive to positioning the laser beam with respect to the joint because a small offset may result in detrimental lack of sidewall fusion. This problem is even more pronounced in case of narrow gap butt welding, where most of the commercial automatic joint tracing systems fail to detect the exact position and size of the gap. In this work, a dual vision and spectroscopic sensing approach is proposed to trace narrow gap butt joints during laser welding. The system consists of a camera with suitable illumination and matched optical filters and a fast miniature spectrometer. An image processing algorithm of the camera recordings has been developed in order to estimate the laser spot position relative to the joint position. The spectral emissions from the laser induced plasma plume have been acquired by the spectrometer, and based on the measurements of the intensities of selected lines of the spectrum, the electron temperature signal has been calculated and correlated to variations of process conditions. The individual performances of these two systems have been experimentally investigated and evaluated offline by data from several welding experiments, where artificial abrupt as well as gradual deviations of the laser beam out of the joint were produced. Results indicate that a combination of the information provided by the vision and spectroscopic systems is beneficial for development of a hybrid sensing system for joint tracing.

  16. A Demonstration System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters beneath Butte, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackketter, Donald [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)


    Executive Summary An innovative 50-ton ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system was installed to provide space heating and cooling for a 56,000 square foot (5,200 square meter) building in Butte Montana, in conjunction with its heating and chiller systems. Butte is a location with winter conditions much colder than the national average. The GSHP uses flooded mine waters at 78F (25C) as the heat source and heat sink. The heat transfer performance and efficiency of the system were analyzed using data from January through July 2014. This analysis indicated that for typical winter conditions in Butte, Montana, the GSHP could deliver about 88% of the building’s annual heating needs. Compared with a baseline natural-gas/electric system, the system demonstrated at least 69% site energy savings, 38% source energy savings, 39% carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and a savings of $17,000 per year (40%) in utility costs. Assuming a $10,000 per ton cost for installing a production system, the payback period at natural gas costs of $9.63/MMBtu and electricity costs of $0.08/kWh would be in the range of 40 to 50 years. At higher utility prices, or lower installation costs, the payback period would obviously be reduced.

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Butt Joint in High Density Polyethylene Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashupati Pokharel


    Full Text Available The microstructure and mechanical properties of the butt joint in high density polyethylene (HDPE pipes were evaluated by preparing the joints with increasing the cooling time from 10 s to 70 s before pressure created for fusion of the pipes. Here, cold fusion flaws in HDPE butt joint were created with increasing the cooling time around 70 s caused by the close molecular contact followed by insufficient interdiffusion of chain segments back and forth across the wetted interface. The tensile failure mechanism of the welded pipes at different fusion time was projected based on the tensile test of dog-bone shaped, fully notched bar type as well as round U-notched specimens. The mechanical properties of the joints at different fusion time were correlated with the corresponding fracture surface morphology. The weld seam as well as tensile fracture surfaces were etched using strong oxidizing agents. The crystallinity of surface etched weld zone by potassium permanganate based etchant was found higher than unetched sample due to the higher susceptibility of amorphous phase of polyethylene with oxidizing agent. The U-notched tensile test of butt welded HDPE pipe and surface etching of the weldments provided clear delineation about the joint quality.

  18. The 2014 eruptions of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Haney, Matthew M.; Wallace, Kristi; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Schneider, David J.


    Pavlof Volcano is one of the most frequently active volcanoes in the Aleutian Island arc, having erupted more than 40 times since observations were first recorded in the early 1800s . The volcano is located on the Alaska Peninsula (lat 55.4173° N, long 161.8937° W), near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. The towns and villages closest to the volcano are Cold Bay, Nelson Lagoon, Sand Point, and King Cove, which are all within 90 kilometers (km) of the volcano (fig. 1). Pavlof is a symmetrically shaped stratocone that is 2,518 meters (m) high, and has about 2,300 m of relief. The volcano supports a cover of glacial ice and perennial snow roughly 2 to 4 cubic kilometers (km3) in volume, which is mantled by variable amounts of tephra fall, rockfall debris, and pyroclastic-flow deposits produced during historical eruptions. Typical Pavlof eruptions are characterized by moderate amounts of ash emission, lava fountaining, spatter-fed lava flows, explosions, and the accumulation of unstable mounds of spatter on the upper flanks of the volcano. The accumulation and subsequent collapse of spatter piles on the upper flanks of the volcano creates hot granular avalanches, which erode and melt snow and ice, and thereby generate watery debris-flow and hyperconcentrated-flow lahars. Seismic instruments were first installed on Pavlof Volcano in the early 1970s, and since then eruptive episodes have been better characterized and specific processes have been documented with greater certainty. The application of remote sensing techniques, including the use of infrasound data, has also aided the study of more recent eruptions. Although Pavlof Volcano is located in a remote part of Alaska, it is visible from Cold Bay, Sand Point, and Nelson Lagoon, making distal observations of eruptive activity possible, weather permitting. A busy air-travel corridor that is utilized by a numerous transcontinental and regional air carriers passes near Pavlof Volcano. The frequency of air travel

  19. A scale for ranking volcanoes by risk (United States)

    Scandone, Roberto; Bartolini, Stefania; Martí, Joan


    We propose a simple volcanic risk coefficient (VRC) useful for comparing the degree of risk arising from different volcanoes, which may be used by civil protection agencies and volcano observatories to rapidly allocate limited resources even without a detailed knowledge of each volcano. Volcanic risk coefficient is given by the sum of the volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of the maximum expected eruption from the volcano, the logarithm of the eruption rate, and the logarithm of the population that may be affected by the maximum expected eruption. We show how to apply the method to rank the risk using as examples the volcanoes of Italy and in the Canary Islands. Moreover, we demonstrate that the maximum theoretical volcanic risk coefficient is 17 and pertains to the large caldera-forming volcanoes like Toba or Yellowstone that may affect the life of the entire planet. We develop also a simple plugin for a dedicated Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS) software to graphically display the VRC of different volcanoes in a region.

  20. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula (United States)


    On March 29, 2007, the Shiveluch Volcano on the Russian Federation's Kamchatka Peninsula erupted. According to the Alaska Volcano Observatory the volcano underwent an explosive eruption between 01:50 and 2:30 UTC, sending an ash cloud skyward roughly 9,750 meters (32,000 feet), based on visual estimates. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard NASA's Aqua satellite took this picture at 02:00 UTC on March 29. The top image shows the volcano and its surroundings. The bottom image shows a close-up view of the volcano at 250 meters per pixel. Satellites often capture images of volcanic ash plumes, but usually as the plumes are blowing away. Plumes have been observed blowing away from Shiveluch before. This image, however, is different. At the time the Aqua satellite passed overhead, the eruption was recent enough (and the air was apparently still enough) that the ash cloud still hovered above the summit. In this image, the bulbous cloud casts its shadow northward over the icy landscape. Volcanic ash eruptions inject particles into Earth's atmosphere. Substantial eruptions of light-reflecting particles can reduce temperatures and even affect atmospheric circulation. Large eruptions impact climate patterns for years. A massive eruption of the Tambora Volcano in Indonesia in 1815, for instance, earned 1816 the nickname 'the year without a summer.' Shiveluch is a stratovolcano--a steep-sloped volcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava, and volcanic rocks. One of Kamchatka's largest volcanoes, it sports a summit reaching 3,283 meters (10,771 feet). Shiveluch is also one of the peninsula's most active volcanoes, with an estimated 60 substantial eruptions in the past 10,000 years.

  1. Keefektifan Puntung Rokok Sebagai Pengendali Gloeosporium Fructigenum Pada Buah Apel ( Effectivity of Cigarette Butts as Control Agent of Gloeosporium Fructigenum on Apple)


    Suharti, Woro Sri; Wachjadi, Muljo; Feti, Ruth


    The objective of the research was to determine the effectivity of cigarette butts extract to control the growth of Gloeosporium fructigenum causing apple bitter rot in vitro and in vivo. Randomized block design was used with factorial pattern for both in vitro and in vivo treatments. The first factor for in vitro treatment was kinds of solvent, i.e., water and ethanol. The second one was type of cigarette consisted of filtered cigarette butts, non-filtered cigarette butts and slic...

  2. Volcanoes (United States)

    ... or Traumatic Event Resources for Families Resources for Leaders Resources for State and Local Governments Emergency Responders: ... Emergency Wound Care Wound Management for Healthcare Pros Power Outages When the Power Goes Out Worker Safety ...

  3. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot (United States)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.


    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  4. Small Volcano in Terra Cimmeria (United States)


    (Released 26 June 2002) The Science This positive relief feature (see MOLA context) in the ancient highlands of Mars appears to be a heavily eroded volcanic center. The top of this feature appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. Light-toned streaks are visible, trending northeast to southwest, and may be caused by scouring of the terrain, or they may be dune forms moving sand. The northeast portion of the caldera area looks as though a layer of material is being removed to expose a slightly lighter-toned surface underneath. The flanks of this feature are slightly less cratered than the surrounding terrain, which could be explained in two ways: 1) this feature may be younger than the surrounding area, and has had less time to accumulate meteorite impacts, or 2) the slopes that are observed today may be so heavily eroded that the original, cratered surfaces are now gone, exposing relatively uncratered rocks. Although most of Terra Cimmeria has low albedo, some eastern portions, such as shown in this image, demonstrate an overall lack of contrast that attests to the presence of a layer of dust mantling the surface. This dust, in part, is responsible for the muted appearance and infill of many of the craters at the northern and southern ends of this image The Story This flat-topped volcano pops out from the surface, the swirls of its ancient lava flows running down onto the ancient highlands of Mars. Its smooth top appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. How can you tell? Click on the image above for a close-up look. You'll see some light-toned streaks that run in a northeast-southwest direction. They are caused either by the scouring of the terrain or dunes of moving sand. Either way, the wind likely plays upon the volcano's surface. Look also for the subtle, nearly crescent shaped feature at the northeast portion of the volcano's cap. It looks as if a layer of material has been removed by the wind, exposing

  5. A field guide to Newberry Volcano, Oregon (United States)

    Jenson, Robert A.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; McKay, Daniele


    Newberry Volcano is located in central Oregon at the intersection of the Cascade Range and the High Lava Plains. Its lavas range in age from ca. 0.5 Ma to late Holocene. Erupted products range in composition from basalt through rhyolite and cover ~3000 km2. The most recent caldera-forming eruption occurred ~80,000 years ago. This trip will highlight a revised understanding of the volcano's history based on new detailed geologic work. Stops will also focus on evidence for ice and flooding on the volcano, as well as new studies of Holocene mafic eruptions. Newberry is one of the most accessible U.S. volcanoes, and this trip will visit a range of lava types and compositions including tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basalt flows, cinder cones, and rhyolitic domes and tuffs. Stops will include early distal basalts as well as the youngest intracaldera obsidian flow.

  6. Recent unrest at Canary Islands' Teide Volcano?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Troll, Valentin R; Pérez, Francisco J; Badiola, Eduardo Rodríguez; Machín, Alex Hansen; Paris, Raphael; Guillou, Hervé; Scaillet, Stéphane


    ... that the volcanic unrest might culminate in renewed eruptive activity. Such was the situation for Teide volcano, located on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, when a mild seismic swarm during April...

  7. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.


    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Yarymbash


    Full Text Available The methods of the electrical parameter identification of the butt end bus connections of graphitization furnace current feeders with side bus packets basing on the conjugate three-dimensional mathematical models of electromagnetic and electro-thermal processes are presented. The finite element methods of solving partial derivatives vector equations systems in three-dimensional domain are used. The temperature dependences of the electro-physical properties and thermo-physical properties of the active materials and the external bus surface conditions of natural convection and radiation heat transfer are taken into account. The high accuracy and computational efficiency numerical calculations by using variations of the finite elements densities in the computational domain are produced. The finite elements densities in the domains of the magnetic field concentration are increased. The basic and new designs of butt end bus systems of AC graphitization furnace are considered. The calculations of geometric parameters of the bus conductors by using the equality criterion of active loss densities are presented. The currents, voltage drops, current density, electrical losses densities, active and inductive resistance of bus of side bus packages, butt end bus connections and graphite feeders are identified. The energy efficiency of butt end graphitization furnace electrical connections of different numbers of parallel buses is analyzed. The technical decisions to reduce weight, active and reactive power losses of bus butt end connections are substantiated.

  9. Ambient Noise Tomography at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka (United States)

    Shuler, A. E.; Ekström, G.; West, M.; Senyukov, S.


    Bezymianny Volcano is an active stratovolcano located in the Kluychevskoy volcanic group on the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. Since its dramatic sector collapse eruption in 1956, the volcano's activity has been characterized by nearly twice annual plinian eruptions accompanying ongoing lava-dome growth. Its frequent eruptions and similarity to Mt. St. Helens have made it the target of a multifaceted geologic and geophysical project supported by the NSF Partners in Research and Education (PIRE) program. Since mid- 2006, the volcano has been monitored by a broadband seismic array that is currently composed of 8 stations within 10 kilometers of the active dome. In this project, we use continuous data from these stations to investigate the static and dynamic structure of the volcano. Using methods similar to those used by Brenguier et al. (2007, 2008), we estimate the Green's function for each pair of stations by cross-correlating day-long time series of ambient noise. Paths with high signal-to-noise ratios can be used to estimate group velocity dispersion curves. From these measurements, we work towards constructing the first velocity model of this volcano. Furthermore, we begin to test whether measurements of ambient noise can be used to monitor changes inside the volcano prior to eruptive activity. These problems will continue to be addressed as more data becomes available in future field seasons.

  10. Perbandingan Deformasi dan Tegangan Sisa pada Socket-Weld dan Butt-Weld Menggunakan Metode Elemen Hingga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Prasetyo Nugroho


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui deformasi dan tegangan sisa pada sambungan pipa-flange dengan variasi sambungan socket-weld, butt-weld dan urutan pengelasan untuk material stainless steel. Penelitian dilakukan dengan pendekatan numerik. Validasi hasil dilakukan dengan dengan hasil percobaan yang dilakukan oleh Xiangyang Lu untuk validasi struktur dan percobaan S. Murugan untuk validasi termal. Hasil variasi sambungan dan urutan pengelasan yang telah dilakukan diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa pada sambungan socket-weld (urutan pengelasan loncat memiliki nilai tegangan sisa lebih besar dibandingkan sambungan butt-weld (urutan pengelasan loncat, sedangkan deformasi yang terjadi sambungan pada socket-weld (urutan pengelasan loncat memiliki nilai yang lebih kecil dibandingkan sambungan butt-weld (urutan pengelasan loncat.

  11. Nyiragongo Volcano before the Eruption (United States)


    Nyiragongo is an active stratovolcano situated on the Eastern African Rift; it is part of Africa's Virunga Volcanic Chain. In a massive eruption that occurred on January 17, 2002, Nyiragongo sent a vast plume of smoke and ash skyward, and three swifly-moving rivers of lava streaming down its western and eastern flanks. Previous lava flows from Nyiragongo have been observed moving at speeds of up to 40 miles per hour (60 kph). The lava flows from the January 17 eruption destroyed more than 14 villages in the surrounding countryside, forcing tens of thousands to flee into the neighboring country of Rwanda. Within one day the lava ran to the city of Goma, situated on the northern shore of Lake Kivu about 12 miles (19 km) south of Nyiragongo. The lava cut a 200 foot (60 meter) wide swath right through Goma, setting off many fires, as it ran into Lake Kivu. Goma, the most heavily populated city in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, is home to about 400,000 people. Most of these citizens were forced to flee, while many have begun to return to their homes only to find their homes destroyed. This true-color scene was captured by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, on December 11, 2001, just over a month before the most recent eruption. Nyiragongo's large crater is clearly visible in the image. As recently as June 1994, there was a large lava lake in the volcano's crater which had since solidified. The larger Nyamuragira Volcano is located roughly 13 miles (21 km) to the north of Nyiragongo. Nyamuragira last erupted in February and March 2001. That eruption was also marked by columns of erupted ash and long fluid lava flows, some of which are apparent in the image as dark greyish swaths radiating away from Nyamuragira. Both peaks are also notorious for releasing large amounts of sulfur dioxide, which presents another health hazard to people and animals living in close proximity. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data supplied

  12. Growth History of Kaena Volcano, the Isolated, Dominantly Submarine, Precursor Volcano to Oahu, Hawaii (United States)

    Sinton, J. M.; Eason, D. E.


    The construction of O'ahu began with the recently recognized, ~3.5-4.9 Ma Ka'ena Volcano, as an isolated edifice in the Kaua'i Channel. Ka'ena remained submarine until, near the end of its lifetime as magma supply waned and the volcano transitioned to a late-shield stage of activity, it emerged to reach a maximum elevation of ~1000 m above sea level. We estimate that Ka'ena was emergent only for the last 15-25% of its lifespan, and that subaerial lavas make up < 5% of the total volume (20-27 x 103 km3). O'ahu's other volcanoes, Wai'anae (~3.9-2.85 Ma) and Ko'olau (~3.0-1.9 Ma), were built at least partly on the flanks of earlier edifices and both were active subaerial volcanoes for at least 1 Ma. The constructional history of Ka'ena contrasts with that of Wai'anae, Ko'olau, and many other Hawaiian volcanoes, which likely emerge within a few hundred kyr after inception, and with subaerial lavas comprising up to 35 volume % of the volcano. These relations suggest that volcano growth history and morphology are critically dependent on whether volcanic initiation and growth occur in the deep ocean floor (isolated), or on the flanks of pre-existing edifices. Two other volcanoes that likely formed in isolation are West Moloka'i and Kohala, both of which have long submarine rift zones, and neither attained great heights above sea level despite having substantial volume. The partitioning of volcanism between submarine and subaerial volcanism depends on the distance between volcanic centers, whether new volcanoes initiate on the flanks of earlier ones, and the time over which neighboring volcanoes are concurrently active. Ka'ena might represent an end-member in this spectrum, having initiated far from its next oldest neighbor and completed much of its evolution in isolation.

  13. Classification of Martian Volcanoes on Basis of Volcano Ground Ice Interaction (United States)

    Helgason, J.


    Most Martian volcanoes have common morphological features indicating mass wasting and erosion compatible with large scale break down of ground ice. While some features suggest the ground ice melted rapidly resulting in catastrophic erosive events, other features indicate a slow melting process (e.g sublimation) resulting in collapse structures. To determine relative volcano age and activity on Mars it is suggested that volcano interactions with an overlying ice sheet may be helpful. Examples of the various morphological features indicating volcano-ice interaction are drawn from the literature: (1) valley formation that probably formed in response to joekulhlaups and subglacial volcanism, (2) isolated thermocarst depressions probably formed by geothermal melting of ground ice, (3) large scale sublimation of distal strata, (4) small fluvial valleys, (5) large scale failure of volcano flanks through aureole development, (6) rimless craters without ash collars, (7) rampart craters on volcanoes, (8) channels, (9) mud flows or lahars. A Viking Orbiter image showing possible thermocarst landscape on the flank of the volcano Hadriaca Patera (Dao Vallis). Although various other explanations can account for some of these features they are all compatible with a ground ice-volcano interaction. These features suggests that to an extent most Martian volcanoes are covered with sheet of ground ice of variable thickness. Over a vast time interval this ground ice layer (or ice sheet) has been failing to a variable extent and in a number of ways depending on different volcano characteristics. As a result it is suggested that Martian volcanoes can be classified or assigned an evolutionary status depending on how widespread their interaction is with the ground ice layer. Thus, for example, within the Tharsis region the volcanoes Olympus Mons and Arsia Mons can be regarded as two evolutionary end points. Volcanism in the former has completely built up through and destroyed the ice sheet

  14. Volcano-structure of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becerril, L; Galve, J.P; Morales, J.M; Romero, C; Sánchez, N; Martí, J; Galindo, I


    The first complete volcano-structural map of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) has been developed in order to provide a tool for volcano-tectonic analyses and volcanic hazard evaluation on the island...

  15. Electrical conductivity beneath the volcanoes of the NW Argentinian Puna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lezaeta, Pamela; Brasse, Heinrich


    ...., in the eastern Puna and backarc zone. The 2‐D conductivity models show a conductive zone beneath the eastern Puna shoshonitic volcanoes and nearby Tuzgle volcano, which reaches from the upper crust to the upper mantle...

  16. Bombs, welded spatter, rockfall and cross-cutting breccia enclosed in avalanche deposits 300 m deep in a debris-filled vent (diatreme), Hopi Buttes, Arizona (United States)

    White, James; Lefebvre, Nathalie; Kjarsgaard, Bruce


    Diatremes are debris-filled vents that are surprisingly large relative to the small maar volcanoes that are their surface expression. Field characteristics of well-exposed diatreme deposits in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, in Arizona, USA, challenge existing diatreme models, but may provide insight into the broader behavior of magma plumbing systems feeding small basaltic volcanoes. Standing Rocks East is a volcanic "neck" rising 35 m above the adjacent land surface. It was previously identified as the deposit of a "root zone", i.e. the fragmental zone at the base of a diatreme structure, based on the depth of exposure, textural diversity of its deposits, irregular dikes that terminate within it, and its small footprint relative to a nearby diatreme remnant. Painstaking mapping in a new study reveals: (1) most of the diatreme structure at the level of the "neck" is filled by a coarse country-rock breccia, which contains blocks sourced both from as far as 200 m below exposure, and as much as 300 m above it at the paleosurface; (2) a zone of juvenile-rich heterolithic lapilli tuff, with domainal map-view variations in deposit granulometry and componentry were emplaced after the country-rock breccia but before the rocks of the neck; (3) the neck comprises an architecturally complex range of deposits in which metres-wide subvertical sheets dominated by coherent basaltic rock cut, locally with surface wrinkes and clast imprints, and locally grade outward into, subhorizontally layered domains, up to several metres in extent, of breccia and welded spatter including large isolated boulders of mixed pyroclastic and host mud/mudrock that deformed adjacent spattery deposits. From these relationships we draw these conclusions. (A) The neck is not a root zone, because it is entirely enclosed within earlier deposits in the diatreme structure - it is not at the bottom of this diatreme structure, and hence represents an intra-diatreme fragmentation zone. (B) This fragmentation

  17. Kilauea volcano eruption seen from orbit (United States)


    The STS-51 crew had a clear view of the erupting Kilauea volcano during the early morning pass over the Hawaiian islands. Kilauea, on the southwest side of the island of Hawaii, has been erupting almost continuously since January, 1983. Kilauea's summit caldera, with the smaller Halemaumau crater nestled within, is highlighted in the early morning sun (just above the center of the picture). The lava flows which covered roads and subdivisions in 1983-90 can be seen as dark flows to the east (toward the upper right) of the steam plumes on this photo. The summit crater and lava flows of Mauna Loa volcano make up the left side of the photo. Features like the Volcano House and Kilauea Visitor Center on the edge of the caldera, the small subdivisions east of the summit, Ola's Rain Forest north of the summit, and agricultural land along the coast are easily identified.

  18. The role of mud volcanoes in the evolution of Hecate Tholus Volcano on the surface of Mars (United States)

    Kangi, Abas


    Hecate Tholus Volcano has undergone numerous changes in its history of evolution. Further, the phenomena occurring on the surface of this volcano endow us with a remarkable perspective of recent martian geological changes. In the vicinity of this volcano cone, most of the lava is covered with a thick layer of loose sediments (probably clay). The presence of such sediments at the base of the volcano cone has led to the formation of several major landslides. Moreover, liquid water flow on the volcano cone has created a myriad of radial channels. The formation of such structures on the cone of a volcano is only plausible as a result of eruption of a mud volcano from its crater. Besides, the constant discharge of mud-like materials as well as hot water from the volcano paves the way for the growth and evolution of hydrothermal organisms.

  19. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit. (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  20. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano (United States)

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole


    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  1. Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaiten Volcano, Chile (United States)

    John S. Pallister; Jon J. Major; Thomas C. Pierson; Richard P. Hoblitt; Jacob B. Lowenstern; John C. Eichelberger; Lara. Luis; Hugo Moreno; Jorge Munoz; Jonathan M. Castro; Andres Iroume; Andrea Andreoli; Julia Jones; Fred Swanson; Charlie Crisafulli


    There was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaiten volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which...

  2. Living with Volcanoes: Year Eleven Teaching Resource Unit. (United States)

    Le Heron, Kiri; Andrews, Jill; Hooks, Stacey; Larnder, Michele; Le Heron, Richard


    Presents a unit on volcanoes and experiences with volcanoes that helps students develop geography skills. Focuses on four volcanoes: (1) Rangitoto Island; (2) Lake Pupuke; (3) Mount Smart; and (4) One Tree Hill. Includes an answer sheet and resources to use with the unit. (CMK)

  3. Volcano hazards program in the United States (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.; Bailey, R.A.


    Volcano monitoring and volcanic-hazards studies have received greatly increased attention in the United States in the past few years. Before 1980, the Volcanic Hazards Program was primarily focused on the active volcanoes of Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which have been monitored continuously since 1912 by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. After the reawakening and catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the program was substantially expanded as the government and general public became aware of the potential for eruptions and associated hazards within the conterminous United States. Integrated components of the expanded program include: volcanic-hazards assessment; volcano monitoring; fundamental research; and, in concert with federal, state, and local authorities, emergency-response planning. In 1980 the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory was established in Vancouver, Washington, to systematically monitor the continuing activity of Mount St. Helens, and to acquire baseline data for monitoring the other, presently quiescent, but potentially dangerous Cascade volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest. Since June 1980, all of the eruptions of Mount St. Helens have been predicted successfully on the basis of seismic and geodetic monitoring. The largest volcanic eruptions, but the least probable statistically, that pose a threat to western conterminous United States are those from the large Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic systems, such as Long Valley caldera (California) and Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming), which are underlain by large magma chambers still potentially capable of producing catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions. In order to become better prepared for possible future hazards associated with such historically unpecedented events, detailed studies of these, and similar, large volcanic systems should be intensified to gain better insight into caldera-forming processes and to recognize, if possible, the precursors of caldera-forming eruptions

  4. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.


    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  5. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, O. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Del Santo, M., E-mail: [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Pareschi, G. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)


    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  6. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Al/Steel Butt Joints Produced by Autogenous Laser Keyhole Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cui


    Full Text Available Dissimilar Al/steel butt joints of 6.0 mm thick plates have been achieved using fiber laser keyhole welding autogenously. The cross sections, interface microstructures, hardness and tensile properties of Al/steel butt joints obtained under different travel speeds and laser beam offsets were investigated. The phase morphology and thickness of the intermetallic compound (IMC layers at the interface were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopes (SEM using the energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD techniques. The results show that travel speeds and laser beam offsets are of considerable importance for the weld shape, morphology and thickness of IMC layers, and ultimate tensile strength (UTS of Al/steel butt joints. This proves that the IMC layers consist of Fe2Al5 phases and Fe4Al13 phases by EBSD phase mapping. Increasing laser beam offsets from 0.3 mm to 0.7 mm significantly decreases the quantity of Fe4Al13 phases and the thickness of Fe2Al5 layers at the interface. During tensile processing, the Fe2Al5 layer with the weakest bonding strength is the most brittle region at the interface. However, an intergranular fracture that occurred at Fe2Al5 layers leads to a relatively high UTS of Al/steel butt joints.

  7. 76 FR 19788 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand... fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or... Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-308-310 and...

  8. DNA-based characterization of wood-, butt- and root-rot fungi from the western Pacific Islands (United States)

    Sara M. Ashiglar; Phil G. Cannon; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Ned B. Klopfenstein


    Although the islands of the western Pacific comprise a hotspot of species, including fungi, a large number of these species have not been catalogued or documented in the scientific literature on an island to island basis. Butt- and root-rot fungi were collected from infected wood and fruiting bodies of diverse tropical trees from forest, agricultural, and...

  9. Tight butt joint weld detection based on optical flow and particle filtering of magneto-optical imaging (United States)

    Gao, Xiangdong; Mo, Ling; You, Deyong; Li, Zhuman


    It is a challenge to detect the weld position during tight butt joint laser welding in that the tight butt joint is non-grooved and invisible. This paper proposes a novel method for tight butt joint weld detection based on magneto optical imaging. Two pieces of weldment were magnetized by an electromagnet so that they could show magnetic N and S polarity respectively. When a polarized light was projected on a magneto-optical film, it would deflect due to magneto-optical effect. In accordance with magneto field distribution, an image formed on the visual sensor. A transition zone of magnetic field distribution which corresponded to the butt joint could be shown in a magneto optical image of weldment. Variation features of magnetic field distribution were obtained by using image sequence optical flow method, and a particle filter was integrated to make an accurate prediction on weld position. Weld position was obtained by calculating the maximum value of optical flow intensity in the vertical direction, and a particle filter was used to realize the accurate prediction on weld position. Experimental results showed that the proposed method was effective in detection of weld and realizing weld seam tracking.

  10. TIG-dressing of High Strength Steel Butt Welded Connections. Part 1 : Weld Toe Geometry and Local Hardness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, S.H.J.; Kolstein, M.H.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.


    This paper presents the results of extensive measurements on weld toe geometry of as-welded and TIG-dressed butt welded connections in high strength steels S460, S690 and very high strength steels S890 and S1100. Descriptions of the measurement techniques and data analysis are presented. Four weld

  11. TIG-dressing of high strength steel butt welded connections - Part 1: weld toe geometry and local hardness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, S.H.J. van; Kolstein, M.H.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.


    This paper presents the results of extensive measurements on weld toe geometry of as-welded and TIG-dressed butt welded connections in high strength steels S460, S690 and very high strength steels S890 and S1100. Descriptions of the measurement techniques and data analysis are presented. Four weld

  12. 77 FR 42697 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Continuation... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the... Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: As a result of the determinations by the Department of Commerce...

  13. 76 FR 67473 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and The Philippines; Institution of... (United States)


    ... Commerce. (2) The Subject Countries in these reviews are Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines. (3) The... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and The Philippines; Institution of... From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION...

  14. A practical proposal for solving the world's cigarette butt problem: Recycling in fired clay bricks. (United States)

    Mohajerani, Abbas; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Larobina, Luke


    The disposal and littering of cigarette butts (CBs) is a serious environmental problem. Trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in millions of tonnes of toxic waste being dumped into the environment in the form of cigarette butts. As CBs have poor biodegradability, it can take many years for them to break down. This paper reviews and presents some of the results of a study on the recycling of CBs into fired clay bricks. Bricks with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% CB content by weight were manufactured and tested, and then compared against control clay bricks with 0% CB content. The results showed that the dry density decreased by up to 30% and the compressive strength decreased by 88% in bricks with 10% CBs. The calculated compressive strength of bricks with 1% CBs was determined to be 19.53Mpa. To investigate the effect of mixing time, bricks with 7.5% CB content were manufactured with different mixing times of 5, 10, and 15min. To test the effect of heating time on the properties of CB bricks, the heating rate used during manufacturing was changed to 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). Bricks with 0% and 5% CB content were fired with these heating rates. Leachate tests were carried out for bricks with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% CB content. The emissions released during firing were tested for bricks with 0% and 5% CB content using heating rates of 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). The gases tested were carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorine (Cl2), nitrogen oxide (NO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Finally, estimations were made for the energy that could be saved by firing bricks incorporating CBs. Calculations showed that up to 58% of the firing energy could potentially be saved. Bricks were shown to be a viable solution for the disposal of CBs. They can reduce contamination caused by cigarette butts and provide a masonry construction material that can be either loadbearing or non-loadbearing, depending on the quantity of CBs incorporated. This

  15. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin


    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  16. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii' s Institute for Astronomy (United States)


    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  17. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben


    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  18. Microstructure and Failure Analysis of Flash Butt Welded HSLA 590CL Steel Joints in Wheel Rims (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Xu, Zhixin; Shu, Yang; Ma, Feng


    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the microstructures, mechanical properties and failure behavior of flash butt welded high strength low alloy 590CL steel joints. Acicular ferrite, Widmanstatten ferrite and granular bainite were observed in the weld. The micro-hardness values of the welded joints varied between 250 HV and 310 HV. The tensile strength of the welded joints met the strength standard of the wheel steel. The Charpy V-notch impact absorbing energy of the welded joints was higher than the base metal, and the impact fracture of the welded joints was composed of shearing and equiaxed dimples. The fracture mode of the wheel rim in the flaring and expanding process was brittle fracture and ductile fracture, respectively. A limited deviation was found in the terminal of the crack for the wheel in the flaring process. A transition from the weld to the Heat Affected Zone was observed for the wheel in the expanding process.

  19. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at glass buttes, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Patrick [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Fercho, Steven [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Perkin, Doug [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Martini, Brigette [Corescan Inc., Ascot (Australia); Boshmann, Darrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    The engineering and studies phase of the Glass Buttes project was aimed at reducing risk during the early stages of geothermal project development. The project’s inclusion of high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys allowed Ormat to evaluate the value of these surveys both independently and in combination to quantify the most valuable course of action for exploration in an area where structure, permeability, and temperature are the most pressing questions. The sizes of the thermal anomalies at Glass Buttes are unusually large. Over the course of Phase I Ormat acquired high resolution LIDAR data to accurately map fault manifestations at the surface and collected detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys to map subsurface structural features. In addition, Ormat collected airborne hyperspectral data to assist with mapping the rock petrology and mineral alteration assemblages along Glass Buttes faults and magnetotelluric (MT) survey to try to better constrain the structures at depth. Direct and indirect identification of alteration assemblages reveal not only the geochemical character and temperature of the causative hydrothermal fluids but can also constrain areas of upflow along specific fault segments. All five datasets were merged along with subsurface lithologies and temperatures to predict the most likely locations for high permeability and hot fluids. The Glass Buttes temperature anomalies include 2 areas, totaling 60 km2 (23 mi2) of measured temperature gradients over 165° C/km (10° F/100ft). The Midnight Point temperature anomaly includes the Strat-1 well with 90°C (194 °F) at 603 m (1981 ft) with a 164 °C/km (10°F/100ft) temperature gradient at bottom hole and the GB-18 well with 71°C (160 °F) at 396 m (1300 ft) with a 182°C/km (11°F/100ft) gradient. The primary area of alteration and elevated temperature occurs near major fault intersections associated with Brothers Fault Zone and Basin and Range systems. Evidence for faulting is

  20. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document has been prepared by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT&E) activities funded through the Western environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described in this document have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information presented in this document has been assembled from recently produced OST documents that highlight technology development activities within each of the OST program elements and Focus Areas. This document presents one in a series for each of DOE`s Operations Office and Energy Technology Centers.

  1. Application of ultrasonic NDT technique for butt fusion joints of plastic pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyung; Lim, Hyung Taik; Choi, Jeong Guen; Lee, Jae Myung [ANSCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The long term-durability and the soundness of the plastic pipe have been sufficiently verified through use of the plastic pipe during the past several decades. Recently, as the pipe material have been constantly developed, the application of the plastic pipe is expanded to various industrial fields, such as an increase of a use pressure, the bigger diameter of the pipe, etc. In a nuclear power plant where a carbon steel pipe and a stainless steel pipe are mainly used as a safety class III buried pipe, safety in an operation is seriously threatened by abrasion, heat deterioration or the like, frequently generated in a metal pipe. Therefore, in order to provide an alternate to this problem there is a rising interest on using high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes which are known to provide much enhanced corrosion, abrasion and impact resistant properties. With polyethylene piping, one of the issue that is being looked into is the integrity of butt-fusion joint. At the present time the Referencing Code and Standard for the NDT technology of for butt fusion joint of the plastic pipe have not yet established. An optimum inspection parameters were determined according to the thickness of the HDPE pipe. It was also confirmed that most of the detection results of two techniques have matched with each other. In the PAUT, it is easy to distinguish signals with from the flaws made by the thin plate and the void. Also the resolving power of PAUT on the detection in the depth direction has been demonstrated to be satisfactory.

  2. Geophysical Investigation of Buried Slag at the Parrot Tailings Site, Butte, Montana (United States)

    Ha, C. D. M.; Shepherd, K.; Mack, A.; Rutherford, B. S.; Speece, M. A.


    Butte, Montana, has served as an important mining district for more than 120 years. This area contains historic mine waste from decades of unregulated mining practices. In July 1881, the Parrot smelter in Butte started operations and was soon processing ore and producing copper. The Parrot smelter also had a concentrating plant that treated the ore prior to smelting. The Parrot smelter wastes (slag and tailings) were later covered with Berkeley Pit crushed quartz monzonite overburden. The slag is bricked because it was deposited hot and, as a consequence forms a laterally extensive, cohesive, hard body that is difficult to remove without blasting. With the mine waste being covered by unknown quantities of overburden and soil throughout the area, and core data being limited and expensive to retrieve, the only economical method of discovery is geophysics. Several geophysical techniques were used to determine the lateral boundaries and depth of the buried slag body. The geophysical methods used were seismic, gravity, electromagnetic induction, and magnetics. Not all of these geophysical surveys produced useful results due to the nature of the slag. For instance, electromagnetic induction could not distinguish between the slag and adjacent tailings; and, the microgravity profiles showed only a small gravitational field variation caused by the density contrast between slag and the surrounding tailings, sediment and granitic cover. On the other hand, the seismic surveys resulted in unexpected first arrival times that distinctly showed velocity variations due to the slag. In addition, the slag body produced a large magnetic response. Unpublished, proprietary well data allowed us to model the slag body from our magnetic data. This model was confirmed by projecting velocity tomograms, that we created using seismic diving waves, onto our magnetic models. Model results were combined to form a three-dimensional image of the slag body. These results will be used to help

  3. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Akutan Volcano east-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Power, John A.; Richter, Donlad H.; McGimsey, Robert G.


    Akutan Volcano is a 1100-meter-high stratovolcano on Akutan Island in the east-central Aleutian Islands of southwestern Alaska. The volcano is located about 1238 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and about 56 kilometers east of Dutch Harbor/Unalaska. Eruptive activity has occurred at least 27 times since historical observations were recorded beginning in the late 1700?s. Recent eruptions produced only small amounts of fine volcanic ash that fell primarily on the upper flanks of the volcano. Small amounts of ash fell on the Akutan Harbor area during eruptions in 1911, 1948, 1987, and 1989. Plumes of volcanic ash are the primary hazard associated with eruptions of Akutan Volcano and are a major hazard to all aircraft using the airfield at Dutch Harbor or approaching Akutan Island. Eruptions similar to historical Akutan eruptions should be anticipated in the future. Although unlikely, eruptions larger than those of historical time could generate significant amounts of volcanic ash, fallout, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that would be hazardous to life and property on all sectors of the volcano and other parts of the island, but especially in the major valleys that head on the volcano flanks. During a large eruption an ash cloud could be produced that may be hazardous to aircraft using the airfield at Cold Bay and the airspace downwind from the volcano. In the event of a large eruption, volcanic ash fallout could be relatively thick over parts of Akutan Island and volcanic bombs could strike areas more than 10 kilometers from the volcano.

  4. Growth and degradation of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 3 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Clague, David A.; Sherrod, David R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    The 19 known shield volcanoes of the main Hawaiian Islands—15 now emergent, 3 submerged, and 1 newly born and still submarine—lie at the southeast end of a long-lived hot spot chain. As the Pacific Plate of the Earth’s lithosphere moves slowly northwestward over the Hawaiian hot spot, volcanoes are successively born above it, evolve as they drift away from it, and eventually die and subside beneath the ocean surface.

  5. Digital data set of volcano hazards for active Cascade Volcanos, Washington (United States)

    Schilling, Steve P.


    Scientists at the Cascade Volcano Observatory have completed hazard assessments for the five active volcanos in Washington. The five studies included Mount Adams (Scott and others, 1995), Mount Baker (Gardner and others, 1995), Glacier Peak (Waitt and others, 1995), Mount Rainier (Hoblitt and others, 1995) and Mount St. Helens (Wolfe and Pierson, 1995). Twenty Geographic Information System (GIS) data sets have been created that represent the hazard information from the assessments. The twenty data sets have individual Open File part numbers and titles

  6. Biological Studies on a Live Volcano. (United States)

    Zipko, Stephen J.


    Describes scientific research on an Earthwatch expedition to study Arenal, one of the world's most active volcanoes, in north central Costa Rica. The purpose of the two-week project was to monitor and understand the past and ongoing development of a small, geologically young, highly active stratovolcano in a tropical, high-rainfall environment.…

  7. Of volcanoes, saints, trash, and frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    , at the same time as political elections and economic hardship. During one year of ethnographic fieldwork volcanoes, saints, trash and frogs were among the nonhuman entities referred to in conversations and engaged with when responding to the changes that trouble the world and everyday life of Arequipans...

  8. Muons reveal the interior of volcanoes

    CERN Document Server

    Francesco Poppi


    The MU-RAY project has the very challenging aim of providing a “muon X-ray” of the Vesuvius volcano (Italy) using a detector that records the muons hitting it after traversing the rock structures of the volcano. This technique was used for the first time in 1971 by the Nobel Prize-winner Louis Alvarez, who was searching for unknown burial chambers in the Chephren pyramid.   The location of the muon detector on the slopes of the Vesuvius volcano. Like X-ray scans of the human body, muon radiography allows researchers to obtain an image of the internal structures of the upper levels of volcanoes. Although such an image cannot help to predict ‘when’ an eruption might occur, it can, if combined with other observations, help to foresee ‘how’ it could develop and serves as a powerful tool for the study of geological structures. Muons come from the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. They are able to traverse layers of ro...

  9. Probing magma reservoirs to improve volcano forecasts (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Hurwitz, Shaul


    When it comes to forecasting eruptions, volcano observatories rely mostly on real-time signals from earthquakes, ground deformation, and gas discharge, combined with probabilistic assessments based on past behavior [Sparks and Cashman, 2017]. There is comparatively less reliance on geophysical and petrological understanding of subsurface magma reservoirs.

  10. Geophysical monitoring of the Purace volcano, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arcila


    Full Text Available Located in the extreme northwestern part of the Los Coconucos volcanic chain in the Central Cordillera, the Purace is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes. Recent geological studies indicate an eruptive history of mainly explosive behavior which was marked most recently by a minor ash eruption in 1977. Techniques used to forecast the renewal of activity of volcanoes after a long period of quiescence include the monitoring of seismicity and ground deformation near the volcano. As a first approach toward the monitoring of the Purace volcano, Southwest Seismological Observatory (OSSO, located in the city of Cali, set up one seismic station in 1986. Beginning in June 1991, the seismic signals have also been transmitted to the Colombian Geological Survey (INGEOMINAS at the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory (OVS-UOP, located in the city of Popayan. Two more seismic stations were installed early in 1994 forming a minimum seismic network and a geodetic monitoring program for ground deformation studies was established and conducted by INGEOMINAS.

  11. Volcano hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala (United States)

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Matías, O.; Rose, William I.; Howell, M.M.


    The Fuego-Acatenango massif comprises a string of five or more volcanic vents along a north-south trend that is perpendicular to that of the Central American arc in Guatemala. From north to south known centers of volcanism are Ancient Acatenango, Yepocapa, Pico Mayor de Acatenango, Meseta, and Fuego. Volcanism along the trend stretches back more than 200,000 years. Although many of the centers have been active contemporaneously, there is a general sequence of younger volcanism, from north to south along the trend. This massive volcano complex towers more than 3500 meters (m) above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan Highlands to the north. The volcano complex comprises remnants of multiple eruptive centers, which periodically have collapsed to form huge debris avalanches. The largest of these avalanches extended more than 50 kilometers (km) from its source and covered more than 300 square km. The volcano has potential to produce huge debris avalanches that could inundate large areas of the Pacific coastal plain. In areas around the volcanoes and downslope toward the coastal plain, more than 100,000 people are potentially at risk from these and other flowage phenomena.

  12. Carbonate assimilation at Merapi volcano, Java Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadwick, J.P; Troll, V.R; Ginibre,, C.


    Recent basaltic andesite lavas from Merapi volcano contain abundant, complexly zoned, plagioclase phenocrysts, analysed here for their petrographic textures, major element composition and Sr isotope composition. Anorthite (An) content in individual crystals can vary by as much as 55 mol% (An40^95...

  13. Seismicity at Baru Volcano, Western Panama, Panama (United States)

    Camacho, E.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Tapia, A.; Rodriguez, A.


    The Baru volcano in Western Panama (8.808°N, 82.543°W) is a 3,475 m high strato volcano that lies at about 50 km from the Costa Rican border. The last major eruptive event at this volcano occurred c.1550 AD and no further eruptive activity from that time is known. Since the 1930´s, approximately every 30 years a series of seismic swarms take place in the surroundings of the volcanic edifice. Theses swarms last several weeks alarming the population who lives near the volcano. The last of these episodes occurred on May 2006 and lasted one and a half months. More than 20,000 people live adjacent to the volcano and any future eruption has the potential to be very dangerous. In June 2007, a digital seismic monitoring network of ten stations, linked via internet, was installed around the volcano in a collaborative project between the University of Panama and the Panamanian Government. The seismic data acquisition at the sites is performed using LINUX-SEISLOG and the events are recorded by four servers at different locations using the Earth Worm system. In this work we analyze the characteristics of the volcano seismicity recorded from May 4th, 2006 to July 31st, 2008 by at least 4 stations and located at about 15 km from the summit. To determine the seismic parameters, we tested several crustal velocity models and used the seismic analysis software package SEISAN. Our final velocity model was determined using seismic data for the first four km obtained from a temporal seismic network deployed in 1981 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) as part of geothermal studies conducted at Cerro Pando, Western Panama Highlands. Our results indicate that all the events recorded in the quadrant 8.6-9.0°N and 82.2-82.7°W are located in the depth range of 0.1 to 8 km. Cross sections show vertical alignments of hypocenters below the summit although most of the seismicity is concentrated in its eastern flank reaching the town of Boquete. All the calculated focal mechanisms are of

  14. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman


    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  15. Effects of Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Welding Parameters on Penetration and Microstructure Characterization of a DP1000 Steel Butt Joint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xin Xue; António B Pereira; Jose Amorim; Juan Liao


    Of particular importance and interest are the effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam welding parameters on penetration and microstructure characterization of DP1000 butt joint, which is widely used in the automotive industry nowadays...

  16. Continuous monitoring of volcanoes with borehole strainmeters (United States)

    Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn

    Monitoring of volcanoes using various physical techniques has the potential to provide important information about the shape, size and location of the underlying magma bodies. Volcanoes erupt when the pressure in a magma chamber some kilometers below the surface overcomes the strength of the intervening rock, resulting in detectable deformations of the surrounding crust. Seismic activity may accompany and precede eruptions and, from the patterns of earthquake locations, inferences may be made about the location of magma and its movement. Ground deformation near volcanoes provides more direct evidence on these, but continuous monitoring of such deformation is necessary for all the important aspects of an eruption to be recorded. Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters have recorded strain changes associated with eruptions of Hekla, Iceland and Izu-Oshima, Japan. Those data have made possible well-constrained models of the geometry of the magma reservoirs and of the changes in their geometry during the eruption. The Hekla eruption produced clear changes in strain at the nearest instrument (15 km from the volcano) starting about 30 minutes before the surface breakout. The borehole instrument on Oshima showed an unequivocal increase in the amplitude of the solid earth tides beginning some years before the eruption. Deformational changes, detected by a borehole strainmeter and a very long baseline tiltmeter, and corresponding to the remote triggered seismicity at Long Valley, California in the several days immediately following the Landers earthquake are indicative of pressure changes in the magma body under Long Valley, raising the question of whether such transients are of more general importance in the eruption process. We extrapolate the experience with borehole strainmeters to estimate what could be learned from an installation of a small network of such instruments on Mauna Loa. Since the process of conduit formation from the magma sources in Mauna Loa and other

  17. Butt-joint integration of active optical components based on InP/AlInGaAsP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina; Kuznetsova, Nadezda; Semenova, Elizaveta


    We demonstrate all-active planar high quality butt-joint (BJ) integration of a QW Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) and MQW Electro-Absorption Modulator (EAM) based on an InP/AlInGaAsP platform. The degradation of the optical properties in the vicinity of ~1 μm to the BJ interface was determi......We demonstrate all-active planar high quality butt-joint (BJ) integration of a QW Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) and MQW Electro-Absorption Modulator (EAM) based on an InP/AlInGaAsP platform. The degradation of the optical properties in the vicinity of ~1 μm to the BJ interface...

  18. Darwin's triggering mechanism of volcano eruptions (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil


    Charles Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…' and ‘…a power, I may remark, which acts in paroxysmal upheavals like that of Concepcion, and in great volcanic eruptions,…'. Darwin reports that ‘…several of the great chimneys in the Cordillera of central Chile commenced a fresh period of activity ….' In particular, Darwin reported on four-simultaneous large eruptions from the following volcanoes: Robinson Crusoe, Minchinmavida, Cerro Yanteles and Peteroa (we cite the Darwin's sentences following his The Voyage of the Beagle and researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). Let us consider these eruptions taking into account the volcano shape and the conduit. Three of the volcanoes (Minchinmavida (2404 m), Cerro Yanteles (2050 m), and Peteroa (3603 m)) are stratovolcanos and are formed of symmetrical cones with steep sides. Robinson Crusoe (922 m) is a shield volcano and is formed of a cone with gently sloping sides. They are not very active. We may surmise, that their vents had a sealing plug (vent fill) in 1835. All these volcanoes are conical. These common features are important for Darwin's triggering model, which is discussed below. The vent fill material, usually, has high level of porosity and a very low tensile strength and can easily be fragmented by tension waves. The action of a severe earthquake on the volcano base may be compared with a nuclear blast explosion of the base. It is known, that after a underground nuclear explosion the vertical motion and the surface fractures in a tope of mountains were observed. The same is related to the propagation of waves in conical elements. After the explosive load of the base. the tip may break and fly off at high velocity. Analogous phenomenon may be generated as a result of a

  19. Laminating butt-jointed, log-run southern pine veneers into long beams of uniform high strength (United States)

    Peter Koch; G.E. Woodson


    Twenty laminated beams were constructed of log-run, butt-jointed, loblolly pine veneers 1|6 inch thick and 100 inches long. The beams were 18 inches deep, 2 inches wide, and 25 feet long. Veneers were arranged in the beams according to their modulus of elasticity (MOE). The stiffest were placed outermost, and the most limber in the center. The veneers, which were cut...

  20. Bubble mobility in mud and magmatic volcanoes (United States)

    Tran, Aaron; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael


    The rheology of particle-laden fluids with a yield stress, such as mud or crystal-rich magmas, controls the mobility of bubbles, both the size needed to overcome the yield stress and their rise speed. We experimentally measured the velocities of bubbles and rigid spheres in mud sampled from the Davis-Schrimpf mud volcanoes adjacent to the Salton Sea, Southern California. Combined with previous measurements in the polymer gel Carbopol, we obtained an empirical model for the drag coefficient and bounded the conditions under which bubbles overcome the yield stress. Yield stresses typical of mud and basaltic magmas with sub-mm particles can immobilize millimeter to centimeter sized bubbles. At Stromboli volcano, Italy, a vertical yield stress gradient in the shallow conduit may immobilize bubbles with diameter ≲ 1 cm and hinder slug coalescence.

  1. A Study on the compensation margin on butt welding joint of Large Steel plates during Shipbuilding construction. (United States)

    Kim, J.; Jeong, H.; Ji, M.; Jeong, K.; Yun, C.; Lee, J.; Chung, H.


    This paper examines the characteristics of butt welding joint shrinkage for shipbuilding and marine structures main plate. The shrinkage strain of butt welding joint which is caused by the process of heat input and cooling, results in the difference between dimensions of the actual parent metal and the dimensions of design. This, in turn, leads to poor quality in the production of ship blocks and reworking through period of correction brings about impediment on improvement of productivity. Through experiments on butt welding joint's shrinkage strain on large structures main plate, the deformation of welding residual stress in the form of I, Y, V was obtained. In addition, the results of experiments indicate that there is limited range of shrinkage in the range of 1 ∼ 2 mm in 11t ∼ 21.5t thickness and the effect of heat transfer of weld appears to be limited within 1000 mm based on one side of seam line so there was limited impact of weight of parent metal on the shrinkage. Finally, it has been learned that Shrinkage margin needs to be applied differently based on groove phenomenon in the design phase in order to minimize shrinkage.

  2. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories (United States)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.


    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  3. Geothermal Exploration of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waibel, Albert F. [Columbia Geoscience, Pasco, WA (United States); Frone, Zachary S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Blackwell, David D. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)


    Davenport Newberry (Davenport) has completed 8 years of exploration for geothermal energy on Newberry Volcano in central Oregon. Two deep exploration test wells were drilled by Davenport on the west flank of the volcano, one intersected a hydrothermal system; the other intersected isolated fractures with no hydrothermal interconnection. Both holes have bottom-hole temperatures near or above 315°C (600°F). Subsequent to deep test drilling an expanded exploration and evaluation program was initiated. These efforts have included reprocessing existing data, executing multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical programs, deep exploration test well drilling and shallow well drilling. The efforts over the last three years have been made possible through a DOE Innovative Exploration Technology (IET) Grant 109, designed to facilitate innovative geothermal exploration techniques. The combined results of the last 8 years have led to a better understanding of the history and complexity of Newberry Volcano and improved the design and interpretation of geophysical exploration techniques with regard to blind geothermal resources in volcanic terrain.

  4. Electrical structure of Newberry Volcano, Oregon (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Stanley, W.D.; Bisdorf, R.J.


    From the interpretation of magnetotelluric, transient electromagnetic, and Schlumberger resistivity soundings, the electrical structure of Newberry Volcano in central Oregon is found to consist of four units. From the surface downward, the geoelectrical units are 1) very resistive, young, unaltered volcanic rock, (2) a conductive layer of older volcanic material composed of altered tuffs, 3) a thick resistive layer thought to be in part intrusive rocks, and 4) a lower-crustal conductor. This model is similar to the regional geoelectrical structure found throughout the Cascade Range. Inside the caldera, the conductive second layer corresponds to the steep temperature gradient and alteration minerals observed in the USGS Newberry 2 test-hole. Drill hole information on the south and north flanks of the volcano (test holes GEO N-1 and GEO N-3, respectively) indicates that outside the caldera the conductor is due to alteration minerals (primarily smectite) and not high-temperature pore fluids. On the flanks of Newberry the conductor is generally deeper than inside the caldera, and it deepens with distance from the summit. A notable exception to this pattern is seen just west of the caldera rim, where the conductive zone is shallower than at other flank locations. The volcano sits atop a rise in the resistive layer, interpreted to be due to intrusive rocks. -from Authors

  5. Monitoring active volcanoes: The geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohba


    Full Text Available

    The geochemical surveillance of an active volcano aims to recognize possible signals that are related to changes in volcanic activity. Indeed, as a consequence of the magma rising inside the volcanic "plumbing system" and/or the refilling with new batches of magma, the dissolved volatiles in the magma are progressively released as a function of their relative solubilities. When approaching the surface, these fluids that are discharged during magma degassing can interact with shallow aquifers and/or can be released along the main volcano-tectonic structures. Under these conditions, the following main degassing processes represent strategic sites to be monitored.

    The main purpose of this special volume is to collect papers that cover a wide range of topics in volcanic fluid geochemistry, which include geochemical characterization and geochemical monitoring of active volcanoes using different techniques and at different sites. Moreover, part of this volume has been dedicated to the new geochemistry tools.

  6. The Volcanoes of Indonesia And Natural Disaster Reduction


    Verstappen, Herman Th.


    Indonesian volcanism is related to the subduction (genie zones of the Lido-Australian and the Pacific-Philippine plates at the contact with the Asian plate. Rows of volcanoes perpendicular to the plate movement point to steepening of the subduction zone. with time. Strafo volcanoes and also ignimbrite plateaus associated with socalled "volcano-tectonic" depressions Of deep-seated faiths are major features. •Fluvio-volcanic flows and slopes arc common due to the humid tropical climate. Large...

  7. Citizen empowerment in volcano monitoring, communication and decision-making at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador (United States)

    Bartel, B. A.; Mothes, P. A.


    Trained citizen volunteers called vigías have worked to help monitor and communicate warnings about Tungurahua volcano, in Ecuador, since the volcano reawoke in 1999. The network, organized by the scientists of Ecuador's Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Geophysical Institute) and the personnel from the Secretaría Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos (Risk Management, initially the Civil Defense), has grown to more than 20 observers living around the volcano who communicate regularly via handheld two-way radios. Interviews with participants conducted in 2010 indicate that the network enables direct communication between communities and authorities; engenders trust in scientists and emergency response personnel; builds community; and empowers communities to make decisions in times of crisis.

  8. Simulation and experimental study on distortion of butt and T-joints using WELD PLANNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Shahar; Manurung, Yupiter HP; Rahim, Mohammad Ridzwan Abdul Mohd; Redza, Ridhwan; Lidam, Robert Ngendang Ak.; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Tham, Ghalib [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haruman, Esa [Bakrie University, Jakarta (Indonesia); Chau, Chan Yin [ESI Group, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    This paper investigates the capability of linear thermal elastic numerical analysis to predict the welding distortion that occurs due to GMAW process. Distortion is considered as the major stumbling block that can adversely affect the dimensional accuracy and thus lead to expensive corrective work. Hence, forecast of distortion is crucially needed and ought to be determined in advance in order to minimize the negative effects, improve the quality of welded parts and finally to reduce the production costs. In this study, the welding deformation was simulated by using relatively new FEM software WELD PLANNER developed by ESI Group. This novel Welding Simulation Solution was employed to predict welding distortion induced in butt and T-joints with thickness of 4 mm. Low carbon steel material was used for the simulation and experimental study. A series of experiments using fully automated welding process were conducted for verification purpose to measure the distortion. By comparing between the simulation and experimental results, it was found out that this program code offered fast solution analysis time in estimating weld induced distortion within acceptable accuracy.

  9. Metamaterial Absorber Comprised of Butt-Facing U-Shaped Nanoengineered Gold Metasurface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masih Ghasemi


    Full Text Available The paper reports spectral features of the absorbed electromagnetic (EM waves in a new kind of multilayered plasmonic metamaterial thin film comprised of homogenous layers of copper and silicon as the bottom and the middle sections (of the thin film, respectively, and the inhomogeneous U-shaped nanoengineered gold layer as the top. Each unit cell of the top metasurface consists of one upside and one downside U-shaped (butt-facing structure. The absorbance of EM waves is simulated in the wavelength range of 200−1500 nm under different incidence angles considering the wave as being transmitted from the metasurface side. The low-order TE and TM modes are taken into account for the estimation of wave absorbance under varying metasurfaces as well as silicon layer thicknesses. It has been found that the nanoengineered gold layer causes higher confinement of power in silicon, which can be further controlled by suitably adjusting its thickness. Further, the increased thickness of metasurface results in shifts in absorption peak along with the existence of dual-absorption maxima in the visible spectral range. The obtained spectral features reveal possible application of the proposed structure as a prudent metamaterial absorber, which can be exploited for EM heating purposes.

  10. Entracking as a Brain Stem Code for Pitch: The Butte Hypothesis. (United States)

    Joris, Philip X


    The basic nature of pitch is much debated. A robust code for pitch exists in the auditory nerve in the form of an across-fiber pooled interspike interval (ISI) distribution, which resembles the stimulus autocorrelation. An unsolved question is how this representation can be "read out" by the brain. A new view is proposed in which a known brain-stem property plays a key role in the coding of periodicity, which I refer to as "entracking", a contraction of "entrained phase-locking". It is proposed that a scalar rather than vector code of periodicity exists by virtue of coincidence detectors that code the dominant ISI directly into spike rate through entracking. Perfect entracking means that a neuron fires one spike per stimulus-waveform repetition period, so that firing rate equals the repetition frequency. Key properties are invariance with SPL and generalization across stimuli. The main limitation in this code is the upper limit of firing (~ 500 Hz). It is proposed that entracking provides a periodicity tag which is superimposed on a tonotopic analysis: at low SPLs and fundamental frequencies > 500 Hz, a spectral or place mechanism codes for pitch. With increasing SPL the place code degrades but entracking improves and first occurs in neurons with low thresholds for the spectral components present. The prediction is that populations of entracking neurons, extended across characteristic frequency, form plateaus ("buttes") of firing rate tied to periodicity.

  11. Fiber laser welding of austenitic steel and commercially pure copper butt joint (United States)

    Kuryntsev, S. V.; Morushkin, A. E.; Gilmutdinov, A. Kh.


    The fiber laser welding of austenitic stainless steel and commercially pure copper in butt joint configuration without filler or intermediate material is presented. In order to melt stainless steel directly and melt copper via heat conduction a defocused laser beam was used with an offset to stainless steel. During mechanical tests the weld seam was more durable than heat affected zone of copper so samples without defects could be obtained. Three process variants of offset of the laser beam were applied. The following tests were conducted: tensile test of weldment, intermediate layer microhardness, optical metallography, study of the chemical composition of the intermediate layer, fractography. Measurements of electrical resistivity coefficients of stainless steel, copper and copper-stainless steel weldment were made, which can be interpreted or recalculated as the thermal conductivity coefficient. It shows that electrical resistivity coefficient of cooper-stainless steel weldment higher than that of stainless steel. The width of intermediate layer between stainless steel and commercially pure copper was 41-53 μm, microhardness was 128-170 HV0.01.

  12. Efficient inversion of volcano deformation based on finite element models : An application to Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Charco, María; González, Pablo J.; Galán del Sastre, Pedro


    The Kilauea volcano (Hawaii, USA) is one of the most active volcanoes world-wide and therefore one of the better monitored volcanoes around the world. Its complex system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of magma transport and supply. Geodetic techniques, as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are being extensively used to monitor ground deformation at volcanic areas. The quantitative interpretation of such surface ground deformation measurements using geodetic data requires both, physical modelling to simulate the observed signals and inversion approaches to estimate the magmatic source parameters. Here, we use synthetic aperture radar data from Sentinel-1 radar interferometry satellite mission to image volcano deformation sources during the inflation along Kilauea's Southwest Rift Zone in April-May 2015. We propose a Finite Element Model (FEM) for the calculation of Green functions in a mechanically heterogeneous domain. The key aspect of the methodology lies in applying the reciprocity relationship of the Green functions between the station and the source for efficient numerical inversions. The search for the best-fitting magmatic (point) source(s) is generally conducted for an array of 3-D locations extending below a predefined volume region. However, our approach allows to reduce the total number of Green functions to the number of the observation points by using the, above mentioned, reciprocity relationship. This new methodology is able to accurately represent magmatic processes using physical models capable of simulating volcano deformation in non-uniform material properties distribution domains, which eventually will lead to better description of the status of the volcano.

  13. Kamchatkan Volcanoes Explosive Eruptions in 2014 and Danger to Aviation (United States)

    Girina, Olga; Manevich, Alexander; Melnikov, Dmitry; Demyanchuk, Yury; Nuzhdaev, Anton; Petrova, Elena


    There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and several of them are continuously active. In 2014, three of the Kamchatkan volcanoes - Sheveluch, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky - had strong and moderate explosive eruptions. Moderate gas-steam activity was observing of Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Avachinsky, Koryaksky, Gorely, Mutnovsky and other volcanoes. Strong explosive eruption of volcanoes is the most dangerous for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch Volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2014: on January 08 and 12, May 12, September 24, October 02 and 28, November 16, 22 and 26, and December 05, 17, 26 and 29: ash plumes rose up to 9-12 km a.s.l. and extended more 900 km to the eastern and western directions of the volcano. Ashfalls occurred at Klyuchi Village (on January 12, June 11, and November 16). Activity of the volcano was dangerous to international and local aviation. Karymsky volcano has been in a state of explosive eruption since 1996. The moderate ash explosions of this volcano were noting during 2014: from March 24 till April 02; and from September 03 till December 10. Ash plumes rose up to 5 km a.s.l. and extended more 300 km mainly to the eastern directions of the volcano. Activity of the volcano was dangerous to local aviation. Explosive eruption of Zhupanovsky volcano began on June 06, 2014 and continues in January 2015 too. Ash explosions rose up to 8-10 km a.s.l. on June 19, September 05 and 07, October 11

  14. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling


    Full Text Available Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks – ground-based as well space-based – has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. elens (Washington, USA in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-of-the-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  15. Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation in the United States, 2008 (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Diefenbach, Angela K.; Ewert, John W.; Ramsey, David W.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Schilling, Steven P.


    The United States is one of the most volcanically active countries in the world. According to the global volcanism database of the Smithsonian Institution, the United States (including its Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) is home to about 170 volcanoes that are in an eruptive phase, have erupted in historical time, or have not erupted recently but are young enough (eruptions within the past 10,000 years) to be capable of reawakening. From 1980 through 2008, 30 of these volcanoes erupted, several repeatedly. Volcano monitoring in the United States is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program, which operates a system of five volcano observatories-Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). The observatories issue public alerts about conditions and hazards at U.S. volcanoes in support of the USGS mandate under P.L. 93-288 (Stafford Act) to provide timely warnings of potential volcanic disasters to the affected populace and civil authorities. To make efficient use of the Nation's scientific resources, the volcano observatories operate in partnership with universities and other governmental agencies through various formal agreements. The Consortium of U.S. Volcano Observatories (CUSVO) was established in 2001 to promote scientific cooperation among the Federal, academic, and State agencies involved in observatory operations. Other groups also contribute to volcano monitoring by sponsoring long-term installation of geophysical instruments at some volcanoes for specific research projects. This report describes a database of information about permanently installed ground-based instruments used by the U.S. volcano observatories to monitor volcanic activity (unrest and eruptions). The purposes of this Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation Database (VMID) are to (1) document the Nation's existing

  16. Magma Supply System at Batur Volcano Inferred from Volcano-Tectonic Earthquakes and Their Focal Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hidayati


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.159The Volcano-Tectonic (VT earthquakes occurring during September - November 2009 were analyzed. The result shows that the epicentres aligning in NE- SW direction coincided with the weak zone of Batur Volcano Complex. The focal zone is located at the depth around 1.5 - 5.5 km beneath the summit. Migration of magma was detected by ground deformation measured by GPS and focal mechanism. Mechanism of VT earthquake shows mostly normal fault types during the swarm in November 2009.

  17. Instability of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 4 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Denlinger, Roger P.; Morgan, Julia K.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    Hawaiian volcanoes build long rift zones and some of the largest volcanic edifices on Earth. For the active volcanoes on the Island of Hawai‘i, the growth of these rift zones is upward and seaward and occurs through a repetitive process of decades-long buildup of a magma-system head along the rift zones, followed by rapid large-scale displacement of the seaward flank in seconds to minutes. This large-scale flank movement, which may be rapid enough to generate a large earthquake and tsunami, always causes subsidence along the coast, opening of the rift zone, and collapse of the magma-system head. If magma continues to flow into the conduit and out into the rift system, then the cycle of growth and collapse begins again. This pattern characterizes currently active Kīlauea Volcano, where periods of upward and seaward growth along rift zones were punctuated by large (>10 m) and rapid flank displacements in 1823, 1868, 1924, and 1975. At the much larger Mauna Loa volcano, rapid flank movements have occurred only twice in the past 200 years, in 1868 and 1951.

  18. Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for Gareloi Volcano, Gareloi Island, Alaska (United States)

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.


    Gareloi Volcano (178.794 degrees W and 51.790 degrees N) is located on Gareloi Island in the Delarof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands, about 2,000 kilometers west-southwest of Anchorage and about 150 kilometers west of Adak, the westernmost community in Alaska. This small (about 8x10 kilometer) volcano has been one of the most active in the Aleutians since its discovery by the Bering expedition in the 1740s, though because of its remote location, observations have been scant and many smaller eruptions may have gone unrecorded. Eruptions of Gareloi commonly produce ash clouds and lava flows. Scars on the flanks of the volcano and debris-avalanche deposits on the adjacent seafloor indicate that the volcano has produced large landslides in the past, possibly causing tsunamis. Such events are infrequent, occurring at most every few thousand years. The primary hazard from Gareloi is airborne clouds of ash that could affect aircraft. In this report, we summarize and describe the major volcanic hazards associated with Gareloi.

  19. Volcano monitoring with an infrared camera: first insights from Villarrica Volcano (United States)

    Rosas Sotomayor, Florencia; Amigo Ramos, Alvaro; Velasquez Vargas, Gabriela; Medina, Roxana; Thomas, Helen; Prata, Fred; Geoffroy, Carolina


    This contribution focuses on the first trials of the, almost 24/7 monitoring of Villarrica volcano with an infrared camera. Results must be compared with other SO2 remote sensing instruments such as DOAS and UV-camera, for the ''day'' measurements. Infrared remote sensing of volcanic emissions is a fast and safe method to obtain gas abundances in volcanic plumes, in particular when the access to the vent is difficult, during volcanic crisis and at night time. In recent years, a ground-based infrared camera (Nicair) has been developed by Nicarnica Aviation, which quantifies SO2 and ash on volcanic plumes, based on the infrared radiance at specific wavelengths through the application of filters. Three Nicair1 (first model) have been acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile in order to study degassing of active volcanoes. Several trials with the instruments have been performed in northern Chilean volcanoes, and have proven that the intervals of retrieved SO2 concentration and fluxes are as expected. Measurements were also performed at Villarrica volcano, and a location to install a ''fixed'' camera, at 8km from the crater, was discovered here. It is a coffee house with electrical power, wifi network, polite and committed owners and a full view of the volcano summit. The first measurements are being made and processed in order to have full day and week of SO2 emissions, analyze data transfer and storage, improve the remote control of the instrument and notebook in case of breakdown, web-cam/GoPro support, and the goal of the project: which is to implement a fixed station to monitor and study the Villarrica volcano with a Nicair1 integrating and comparing these results with other remote sensing instruments. This works also looks upon the strengthen of bonds with the community by developing teaching material and giving talks to communicate volcanic hazards and other geoscience topics to the people who live "just around the corner" from one of the most active volcanoes

  20. Space Radar Image of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia (United States)


    This is an image of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the image, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the image. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the image. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the

  1. Using Google Earth to Study the Basic Characteristics of Volcanoes (United States)

    Schipper, Stacia; Mattox, Stephen


    Landforms, natural hazards, and the change in the Earth over time are common material in state and national standards. Volcanoes exemplify these standards and readily capture the interest and imagination of students. With a minimum of training, students can recognize erupted materials and types of volcanoes; in turn, students can relate these…

  2. Volcano ecology: Disturbance characteristics and assembly of biological communities (United States)

    Volcanic eruptions are powerful expressions of Earth’s geophysical forces which have shaped and influenced ecological systems since the earliest days of life. The study of the interactions of volcanoes and ecosystems, termed volcano ecology, focuses on the ecological responses of organisms and biolo...

  3. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of. Cadiz (North Atlantic ...

  4. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (a...

  5. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic ...

  6. Cigarette butt decomposition and associated chemical changes assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Bonanomi

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts (CBs are the most common type of litter on earth, with an estimated 4.5 trillion discarded annually. Apart from being unsightly, CBs pose a serious threat to living organisms and ecosystem health when discarded in the environment because they are toxic to microbes, insects, fish and mammals. In spite of the CB toxic hazard, no studies have addressed the effects of environmental conditions on CB decomposition rate. In this study we investigate the interactive effects of substrate fertility and N transfer dynamics on CB decomposition rate and carbon quality changes. We carried out an experiment using smoked CBs and wood sticks, used as a slow decomposing standard organic substrate, incubated in both laboratory and field conditions for two years. CB carbon quality changes during decomposition was assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR. Our experiment confirmed the low degradation rate of CBs which, on average, lost only 37.8% of their initial mass after two years of decomposition. Although a net N transfer occurred from soil to CBs, contrary to our hypothesis, mass loss in the medium-term (two years was unaffected by N availability in the surrounding substrate. The opposite held for wood sticks, in agreement with the model that N-rich substrates promote the decomposition of other N-poor natural organic materials with a high C/N ratio. As regards CB chemical quality, after two years of decomposition 13C NMR spectroscopy highlighted very small changes in C quality that are likely to reflect a limited microbial attack.

  7. Unravelling the magmatic system beneath a monogenetic volcanic complex (Jagged Rocks Complex, Hopi Buttes, AZ, USA) (United States)

    Re, G.; Palin, J. M.; White, J. D. L.; Parolari, M.


    The Jagged Rocks complex is the eroded remnant of the plumbing systems of closely spaced monogenetic alkaline volcanic centres in the southern Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field (AZ, USA). It contains different clinopyroxene populations with distinctive textures and geochemical patterns. In the Northwestern part of the complex, which exposes the best developed system of conduits, most of the clinopyroxenes consist of large- to medium-sized resorbed cores overgrown by euhedral rims (type 1), small moderately resorbed greenish cores with the same overgrown rims (type 2), and phlogopite as an accessory phase. By contrast, in the Southern part of the complex the majority of clinopyroxenes are euhedral with oscillatory zonation (type 3) and are accompanied by minor euhedral olivine. The differences between these mineral assemblages indicate a composite history of crystallization and magmatic evolution for the two parts of the complex, governed by different mechanisms and ascent patterns from a single source at 50 km depth (16 kbar). The Northwest system preserves a high-pressure assemblage that cooled rapidly from near-liquidus conditions, suggesting direct ascent from the source to the surface at high-to-moderate transport rates (average 1.25 m/s). By contrast, the Southern system represents magma that advanced upward at much lower overall ascent rates, stalling at times to form small-volume mid-crustal storage zones (e.g., sills or a network of sheeted intrusions); this allowed the re-equilibration of the magma at lower pressure ( 30 km; 8 kbar), and led to nucleation and growth of euhedral clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts.

  8. Copahue volcano and its regional magmatic setting (United States)

    Varekamp, J C; Zareski, J E; Camfield, L M; Todd, Erin


    Copahue volcano (Province of Neuquen, Argentina) has produced lavas and strombolian deposits over several 100,000s of years, building a rounded volcano with a 3 km elevation. The products are mainly basaltic andesites, with the 2000–2012 eruptive products the most mafic. The geochemistry of Copahue products is compared with those of the main Andes arc (Llaima, Callaqui, Tolhuaca), the older Caviahue volcano directly east of Copahue, and the back arc volcanics of the Loncopue graben. The Caviahue rocks resemble the main Andes arc suite, whereas the Copahue rocks are characterized by lower Fe and Ti contents and higher incompatible element concentrations. The rocks have negative Nb-Ta anomalies, modest enrichments in radiogenic Sr and Pb isotope ratios and slightly depleted Nd isotope ratios. The combined trace element and isotopic data indicate that Copahue magmas formed in a relatively dry mantle environment, with melting of a subducted sediment residue. The back arc basalts show a wide variation in isotopic composition, have similar water contents as the Copahue magmas and show evidence for a subducted sedimentary component in their source regions. The low 206Pb/204Pb of some backarc lava flows suggests the presence of a second endmember with an EM1 flavor in its source. The overall magma genesis is explained within the context of a subducted slab with sediment that gradually looses water, water-mobile elements, and then switches to sediment melt extracts deeper down in the subduction zone. With the change in element extraction mechanism with depth comes a depletion and fractionation of the subducted complex that is reflected in the isotope and trace element signatures of the products from the main arc to Copahue to the back arc basalts.

  9. Ensemble methods for Etna volcano warning system (United States)

    Scandura, Danila; Cannavò, Flavio; Aliotta, Marco; Cassisi, Carmelo; Montalto, Placido


    The large amount of signals used for volcanic monitoring allow detecting volcano criticalities with unprecedented reliability. At the same time, the use of different monitoring networks makes essential the development of a system that synthesizes into a single information the overall state of the volcano. In this context, the ensemble learning techniques can play a useful role accepting different nature inputs and synthesizing the information in a single output. In broad terms, these techniques use many weak learning algorithms to achieve the best predictive performance compared to any obtained from classical learning algorithms. By averaging the results of each weak learner, the ensemble algorithms reduce the risk of using a single non-discriminative weak learning algorithm and allows for a more accurate classification. Here we used the ensemble techniques to classify three different states of Etna volcano: 1) Quiet; 2) Strombolian activity; 3) Lava fountain. We carried out several simulations using a large data set spanning the 2011-2015 time interval, including the records of most part of monitored geophysical parameters and the corresponding volcanic state. Simulations were performed subdividing the available data into training and test sets. We checked the ability of the proposed method to recognize automatically the lava fountain episodes. To this purpose, we tested different ensemble techniques changing associated parameters and weak learners. The found system was able to identify the lava fountain episode with a reliability over 70% and to detect the beginning of lava fountain episode in the totality of the test cases. Results suggest that the proposed system can be seen as a promising tool for civil protection purposes.

  10. Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors (United States)

    Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.


    Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.

  11. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.


    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  12. Volcano morphometry and volume scaling on Venus (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Williams, R. S., Jr.


    A broad variety of volcanic edifices have been observed on Venus. They ranged in size from the limits of resolution of the Magellan SAR (i.e., hundreds of meters) to landforms over 500 km in basal diameter. One of the key questions pertaining to volcanism on Venus concerns the volume eruption rate or VER, which is linked to crustal productivity over time. While less than 3 percent of the surface area of Venus is manifested as discrete edifices larger than 50 km in diameter, a substantial component of the total crustal volume of the planet over the past 0.5 Ga is related to isolated volcanoes, which are certainly more easily studied than the relatively diffusely defined plains volcanic flow units. Thus, we have focused our efforts on constraining the volume productivity of major volcanic edifices larger than 100 km in basal diameter. Our approach takes advantage of the topographic data returned by Magellan, as well as our database of morphometric statistics for the 20 best known lava shields of Iceland, plus Mauna Loa of Hawaii. As part of this investigation, we have quantified the detailed morphometry of nearly 50 intermediate to large scale edifices, with particular attention to their shape systematics. We found that a set of venusian edifices which include Maat, Sapas, Tepev, Sif, Gula, a feature at 46 deg S, 215 deg E, as well as the shield-like structure at 10 deg N, 275 deg E are broadly representative of the approx. 400 volcanic landforms larger than 50 km. The cross-sectional shapes of these 7 representative edifices range from flattened cones (i.e., Sif) similar to classic terrestrial lava shields such as Mauna Loa and Skjaldbreidur, to rather dome-like structures which include Maat and Sapas. The majority of these larger volcanoes surveyed as part of our study displayed cross-sectional topographies with paraboloidal shaped, in sharp contrast with the cone-like appearance of most simple terrestrial lava shields. In order to more fully explore the

  13. Magmatic gas scrubbing: Implications for volcano monitoring (United States)

    Symonds, R.B.; Gerlach, T.M.; Reed, M.H.


    Despite the abundance of SO2(g) in magmatic gases, precursory increases in magmatic SO2(g) are not always observed prior to volcanic eruption, probably because many terrestrial volcanoes contain abundant groundwater or surface water that scrubs magmatic gases until a dry pathway to the atmosphere is established. To better understand scrubbing and its implications for volcano monitoring, we model thermochemically the reaction of magmatic gases with water. First, we inject a 915??C magmatic gas from Merapi volcano into 25??C air-saturated water (ASW) over a wide range of gas/water mass ratios from 0.0002 to 100 and at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Then we model closed-system cooling of the magmatic gas, magmatic gas-ASW mixing at 5.0 MPa, runs with varied temperature and composition of the ASW, a case with a wide range of magmatic-gas compositions, and a reaction of a magmatic gas-ASW mixture with rock. The modeling predicts gas and water compositions, and, in one case, alteration assemblages for a wide range of scrubbing conditions; these results can be compared directly with samples from degassing volcanoes. The modeling suggests that CO2(g) is the main species to monitor when scrubbing exists; another candidate is H2S(g), but it can be affected by reactions with aqueous ferrous iron. In contrast, scrubbing by water will prevent significant SO2(g) and most HCl(g) emissions until dry pathways are established, except for moderate HCl(g) degassing from pH 100 t/d (tons per day) of SO2(g) in addition to CO2(g) and H2S(g) should be taken as a criterion of magma intrusion. Finally, the modeling suggests that the interpretation of gas-ratio data requires a case-by-case evaluation since ratio changes can often be produced by several mechanisms; nevertheless, several gas ratios may provide useful indices for monitoring the drying out of gas pathways. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein


    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  15. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M.


    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region. PMID:25370529

  16. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.


    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  17. A novel weld seam detection method for space weld seam of narrow butt joint in laser welding (United States)

    Shao, Wen Jun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yong


    Structured light measurement is widely used for weld seam detection owing to its high measurement precision and robust. However, there is nearly no geometrical deformation of the stripe projected onto weld face, whose seam width is less than 0.1 mm and without misalignment. So, it's very difficult to ensure an exact retrieval of the seam feature. This issue is raised as laser welding for butt joint of thin metal plate is widely applied. Moreover, measurement for the seam width, seam center and the normal vector of the weld face at the same time during welding process is of great importance to the welding quality but rarely reported. Consequently, a seam measurement method based on vision sensor for space weld seam of narrow butt joint is proposed in this article. Three laser stripes with different wave length are project on the weldment, in which two red laser stripes are designed and used to measure the three dimensional profile of the weld face by the principle of optical triangulation, and the third green laser stripe is used as light source to measure the edge and the centerline of the seam by the principle of passive vision sensor. The corresponding image process algorithm is proposed to extract the centerline of the red laser stripes as well as the seam feature. All these three laser stripes are captured and processed in a single image so that the three dimensional position of the space weld seam can be obtained simultaneously. Finally, the result of experiment reveals that the proposed method can meet the precision demand of space narrow butt joint.

  18. Integrated FEM-DBEM simulation of crack propagation in AA2024-T3 FSW butt joints considering manufacturing effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Carlone, P.; Citarella, R.


    This paper deals with a numerical and experimental investigation on the influence of residual stresses on fatigue crack growth in AA2024-T3 friction stir welded butt joints. An integrated FEM-DBEM procedure for the simulation of crack propagation is proposed and discussed. A numerical FEM model...... of the welding process of precipitation hardenable AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy is employed to infer the process induced residual stress field. The reliability of the FEM simulations with respect to the induced residual stresses is assessed comparing numerical outcomes with experimental data obtained by means...

  19. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) and Sedimentary Fabric Studies of Phreatomagmatic Surge Deposits, Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation, NE Arizona (United States)

    Newkirk, T. T.


    The Hopi Buttes volcanic field is a group of late Mio-Pliocene volcanic vents characterized by hydrovolcanic features. The volcanism at the Hopi Buttes produced ~300 maar and diatreme volcanic landforms scattered within an area of 50km in diameter. The maars in the area formed from phreatomagmatic explosions involving the interaction of the rapidly ascending monchiquitic/nephelinitic magmas and liquefied lower Bidahochi sediments, and groundwater. Phreatomagmatic eruptions produce a spectrum of pyroclastic density currents (i.e. "pyroclastic flows" or "pyroclastic surges/hydrovolcanic surges"). The direct products of these violent eruptive events are dilute gravity driven gas charged pyroclastic density currents. Which, over distances gain and/or lose competency due to a decreasing energy budget and/or paleotopographic control. Paleotopographic reconstructions of the Hopi Buttes volcanic field reveal a sub-horizontal playa type environment. This affords the opportunity to study individual surge deposits on the micro- to macroscopic scales to determine the emplacement dynamics of individual eruptive events without the complications of paleotopographic interference. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary fabric analysis has been used to examine the micro- to macroscopic fabrics of individual surge deposits at proximal, medial, and distal locations from the eruptive vent. These techniques give insight on the flow and depositional processes of the transient hydrovolcanic surges. Data shows a distinct correlation of microscopic AMS fabric changes to macroscopic sedimentary facies changes. At the proximal-medial interface ~150-200m AMS fabrics turn from chaotic/lack of orientation to a lineated fabric long axis perpendicular to flow direction. This fabric is interpreted to be transitional debulking interface from a highly concentrated rapid depositional flow to a more dilute transient flow, thus allowing the internal sorting and individual particles to

  20. 3-D Characteristics of the Residual Stress in the Plate Butt Weld Between SA508 and F316L SS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Tae Ryong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Won [GNEC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seon Yeong [KLES, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This study is performed to check the three dimensional characteristics of residual stress in the dissimilar metal weld. Although two dimensional analysis has been widely used for the assessment of weld residual stress, it has limitations to understand the stress distribution of the third direction. 3-D analysis was done to understand residual stress distribution of the welded plate. A simple butt-welded plate was considered to show the stress variation on all direction. A mock-up plate weldment was fabricated with SA-508 and F316L, which are widely used in nuclear power plants. The analysis results were validated with the measured values in the mock-up.

  1.  Ischemic Stroke Secondary to Aortic Dissection Following Rifle Butt Recoil Chest Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Valiath


    Full Text Available  Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection is not uncommon. We present a patient with left hemiplegia secondary to Stanford type A aortic dissection extending to the supra-aortic vessels, which was precipitated by rifle butt recoil chest injury. The diagnosis of aortic dissection was delayed due to various factors. Finally, the patient underwent successful Bentall procedure with complete resolution of symptoms. This case emphasizes the need for caution in the use of firearms for recreation and to take precautions in preventing such incidents. In addition, this case illustrates the need for prompt cardiovascular physical examination in patients presenting with stroke.

  2. The hydrothermal system at Newberry Volcano, Oregon (United States)

    Sammel, E.A.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Mariner, R.H.


    Results of recent geological and geophysical studies at Newberry Volcano have been incorporated into conceptual and numerical models of a magma-based hydrothermal system. Numerical simulations begin with emplacement of a small magma body, the presumed source of silicic eruptions at Newberry that began about 10 000 BP, into a thermal regime representing 100 000 yr of cooling of a large underlying intrusion. Simulated flow patterns and thermal histories for three sets of hypothetical permeability values are compatible with data from four geothermal drill holes on the volcano. Meteoric recharge cools the caldera-fill deposits, but thermal water moving up a central conduit representing a permeable volcanic vent produces temperatures close to those observed in drill holes within the caldera. Meteoric recharge from the caldera moves down the flanks and creates a near-isothermal zone that extends several hundred meters below the water table, producing temperature profiles similar to those obserbed in drill holes on the flanks. The temperatures observed in drillholes on the flanks are not influenced by the postulated Holocene magma body. The elevated temperature gradients measured in the lower portions of these holes may be related to the cumulative effect of older intrusions. The models also indicate that meteoric recharge to the deep hyrothermal system probably originates within or near the caldera. Relatively low fluid velocities at depth suggest that at least a significant fraction of the thermal fluid may be very old. -Authors

  3. Shallow seismicity at open-vent volcanoes (United States)

    Girona, T.; Caudron, C.; Huber, C.


    Understanding the origin of the shallow seismicity detected at active volcanoes is fundamental to interpret geophysical and geochemical signals in terms of sub-surface magmatic processes. One of the most intriguing seismic signals is shallow tremor, which is long-lasting (from minutes to months), is usually sourced at shallow levels ( 100's of meters), has dominant frequencies in the range 0.1-20 Hz, and is common to many open-vent and hydrothermal systems. Here, we present a viable mechanism to explain the origin of shallow tremor and its correlation with magma degassing. In particular, we show from basic principles (mass and momentum balance) that shallow tremor can emerge spontaneously as a result of three coupled processes: (1) the formation of gas pockets beneath rheological or geometrical barriers; (2) the intermittent supply of volatiles from depth, e.g., through a bubbly magma column; and (3) the permeable transfer of these gases through a porous lava dome, conduit, or volcanic edifice. Our model, which can be solved analytically at first order, reproduces and provides an explanation for the main features of shallow tremor, including frequency gliding, changes of seismic amplitude when volcanoes enter a period of unrest, and the different types of amplitude spectra observed (i.e., monochromatic, harmonic, and broadband). A crucial conclusion of our study is that different processes (e.g., magma ascent and sealing of gas pathways) cause distinguishable variations in the tremor properties, which could be used by monitoring agencies to improve volcanic forecasting.

  4. Small-scale volcanoes on Mars: distribution and types (United States)

    Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst


    Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (images now enable discovering and studying kilometer-size volcanoes with various shapes in unprecedented detail. Several types of small-scale volcanoes in various regions on Mars were recently described. Scoria cones provide a record of magmatic volatile content and have been identified in Tharsis (Ulysses Colles), on flanks of large volcanoes (e.g., Pavonis Mons), in the caldera of Ulysses Patera, in chaotic terrains or other large depressions (Hydraotes Colles, Coprates Chasma) and in the northern lowlands. Tuff rings and tuff cones, formed as a result of water-magma interaction, seem to be relatively rare on Mars and were only tentatively identified in three locations (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud volcanoes) seem possible. Other relatively rare volcanoes seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small volcanoes on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade ago. There are sometimes significant differences in the final morphologies between Martian hypothesized and possible terrestrial analogs, despite fact that the physical processes behind volcano formation should be similar on both planets. For example, Martian scoria cones are ~2.6 times wider than terrestrial analogues, as lower gravity and atmospheric pressure enable wider dispersion of pyroclasts from the vent. In addition, exit velocities of ejected particles should be

  5. Terrestrial Real-Time Volcano Monitoring (United States)

    Franke, M.


    As volcano monitoring involves more and different sensors from seismic to GPS receivers, from video and thermal cameras to multi-parameter probes measuring temperature, ph values and humidity in the ground and the air, it becomes important to design real-time networks that integrate and leverage the multitude of available parameters. In order to do so some simple principles need to be observed: a) a common time base for all measurements, b) a packetized general data communication protocol for acquisition and distribution, c) an open and well documented interface to the data permitting standard and emerging innovative processing, and d) an intuitive visualization platform for scientists and civil defense personnel. Although mentioned as simple principles, the list above does not necessarily lead to obvious solutions or integrated systems, which is, however, required to take advantage of the available data. Only once the different data streams are put into context to each other in terms of time and location can a broader view be obtained and additional information extracted. The presentation is a summary of currently available technologies and how they can achieve the goal of an integrated real-time volcano monitoring system. A common time base are standard for seismic and GPS networks. In different projects we extended this to video feeds and time-lapse photography. Other probes have been integrated with vault interface enclosures (VIE) as used in the Transportable Array (TA) of the USArray. The VIE can accommodate the sensors employed in volcano monitoring. The TA has shown that Antelope is a versatile and robust middleware. It provides the required packetized general communication protocol that is independent from the actual physical communication link leaving the network design to adopt appropriate and possible hybrid solutions. This applies for the data acquisition and the data/information dissemination providing both a much needed collaboration platform, as

  6. Igneous Petrogenesis of Tequila Volcano, Western Mexico (United States)

    Vázquez-Duarte, A.; Gómez-Tuena, A.; Díaz-Bravo, B.


    Tequila volcano belongs to a Quaternary volcanic chain that runs in parallel to the Middle American Trench, but that have been constructed within the so-called Tepic-Zacoalco rift: an extensional tectonic structure that has been active for the past 3.5 Ma. This unusual tectonic setting, and the existence of a high-resolution stratigraphy for the Tequila Volcanic Field (Lewis-Kenedi, 2005, Bull Volcanol), provide an excellent opportunity to study andesite petrogenesis. New comprehensive geochemical data allow the recognition of at least four different magmatic series around Tequila: 1) The Santa Rosa intraplate basalts (1.0 - 0.2 Ma), a volcanic plateau constructed along the Santiago River Fault north of Tequila volcano. These Na-alkaline basalts are olivine-phyric, have negligible subduction signatures (Ba/Nb= 11.75 - 49.36), and display Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions that correlate with fractionation indexes, probably indicating melt-crust interactions. 2) A group of vitreous domes and flows of dacitic to rhyolitic compositions, mostly contemporaneous to the Santa Rosa basalts, that were emplaced on the periphery of Tequila volcano. These rocks can have very low Sr and Eu contents but their isotopic compositions are remarkably constant and similar to the Santa Rosa basalts, probably indicating a genetic link through low pressure fractionation in the stability field of plagioclase. 3) The main edifice of Tequila volcano (~0.2 Ma) is made of two pyroxene andesites and dacites with strong subduction signatures (Ba/Nb= 53-112), that inversely correlate with MgO contents, but that follow a diverging evolutionary trend as the rest of the sequences. The isotopic compositions of Tequila main edifice can extend to slightly more enriched values, but do not correlate with fractionation indexes, thus indicating provenance from a different source. 4) The youngest activity on Tequila volcano (~0.09 Ma) is represented by amphibole bearing andesites that erupted through the

  7. System for ranking relative threats of U.S. volcanoes (United States)

    Ewert, J.W.


    A methodology to systematically rank volcanic threat was developed as the basis for prioritizing volcanoes for long-term hazards evaluations, monitoring, and mitigation activities. A ranking of 169 volcanoes in the United States and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (U.S. volcanoes) is presented based on scores assigned for various hazard and exposure factors. Fifteen factors define the hazard: Volcano type, maximum known eruptive explosivity, magnitude of recent explosivity within the past 500 and 5,000 years, average eruption-recurrence interval, presence or potential for a suite of hazardous phenomena (pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, tsunami, flank collapse, hydrothermal explosion, primary lahar), and deformation, seismic, or degassing unrest. Nine factors define exposure: a measure of ground-based human population in hazard zones, past fatalities and evacuations, a measure of airport exposure, a measure of human population on aircraft, the presence of power, transportation, and developed infrastructure, and whether or not the volcano forms a significant part of a populated island. The hazard score and exposure score for each volcano are multiplied to give its overall threat score. Once scored, the ordered list of volcanoes is divided into five overall threat categories from very high to very low. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  8. Microtremor study of Gunung Anyar mud volcano, Surabaya, East Java (United States)

    Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan


    The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.

  9. Eruption history of the Tharsis shield volcanoes, Mars (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.


    The Tharsis Montes volcanoes and Olympus Mons are giant shield volcanoes. Although estimates of their average surface age have been made using crater counts, the length of time required to build the shields has not been considered. Crater counts for the volcanoes indicate the constructs are young; average ages are Amazonian to Hesperian. In relative terms; Arsia Mons is the oldest, Pavonis Mons intermediate, and Ascreaus Mons the youngest of the Tharsis Montes shield; Olympus Mons is the youngest of the group. Depending upon the calibration, absolute ages range from 730 Ma to 3100 Ma for Arsia Mons and 25 Ma to 100 Ma for Olympus Mons. These absolute chronologies are highly model dependent, and indicate only the time surficial volcanism ceased, not the time over which the volcano was built. The problem of estimating the time necessary to build the volcanoes can be attacked in two ways. First, eruption rates from terrestrial and extraterrestrial examples can be used to calculate the required period of time to build the shields. Second, some relation of eruptive activity between the volcanoes can be assumed, such as they all began at a speficic time or they were active sequentially, and calculate the eruptive rate. Volumes of the shield volcanoes were derived from topographic/volume data.

  10. Turtles to Terabytes: The Ongoing Revolution in Volcano Geodesy (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.


    Volcano geodesy is in the midst of a revolution. GPS and InSAR, together with extensive ground-based sensor networks, have enabled major advances in understanding how and why volcanoes deform. Surveying techniques that produced a few bytes of information per benchmark per year have been replaced by continuously operating deformation networks and imaging radar satellites that generate terabytes of data at resolutions unattainable only a few decades ago. These developments have enabled more detailed assessments of volcano hazards, more accurate forecasts of volcanic activity, and better insights into how volcanoes behave over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Forty years ago, repeated leveling surveys showed that the floor of the Yellowstone caldera had risen more than 70 cm in the past 5 decades. Today a network of GPS stations tracks surface movements continuously with millimeter-scale accuracy and the entire deformation field is imaged frequently by a growing number of SAR satellites, revealing a far more complex style of deformation than was recognized previously. At Mount St. Helens, the 1980-1986 eruption taught us that a seemingly quiescent volcano can suddenly become overtly restless, and that accurate eruption predictions are possible at least in some limited circumstances given sufficient observations. The lessons were revisited during the volcano's 2004-2008 eruption, during which a new generation of geodetic sensors and methods detected a range of co-eruptive changes that enabled new insights into the volcano's magma storage and transport system. These examples highlight volcano deformation styles and scales that were unknown just a few decades ago but now have been revealed by a growing number of data types and modeling methods. The rapid evolution that volcano geodesy is currently experiencing provides an ongoing challenge for geodesists, while also demonstrating that geodetic unrest is common, widespread, and illuminating. Vive la révolution!

  11. The lifecycle of caldera-forming volcanoes in the Main Ethiopian Rift: insights from Aluto volcano (United States)

    Mather, T. A.; Hutchison, W.; Yirgu, G.; Biggs, J.; Cohen, B. E.; Barfod, D. N.; Lewi, E.; Pyle, D. M.


    The silicic peralkaline volcanoes of the East African Rift are some of the least studied and yet potentially most dangerous volcanoes in the world. We present the first detailed account of the eruptive history of Aluto, a restless silicic volcano located in the Main Ethiopian Rift, using new constraints from fieldwork, remote sensing, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and geochemistry. Prior to the growth of the Aluto volcanic complex (before 500 ka) the region was characterized by a significant period of fault development and mafic fissure eruptions. The earliest volcanism at Aluto built up a trachytic complex over 8 km in diameter. Aluto then underwent large-volume ignimbrite eruptions at ca. 300 ka developing a ~42 km2 collapse structure. After a hiatus of ~250 kyr, a phase of post-caldera volcanism began. Since ca. 60 ka, highly-evolved peralkaline rhyolite lavas, ignimbrites and pumice fall deposits have erupted from vents across the complex. The age of the youngest volcanism is not well known. Geochemical modelling is consistent with rhyolite genesis from protracted fractionation (>80 %) of typical 'rift basalt'. Based on the field stratigraphy and the number, style and volume of recent eruptions we suggest that silicic eruptions occur at an average rate of 1 per 1000 years, and that future eruptions of Aluto will involve explosive emplacement of localised pumice cones and effusive obsidian coulees of volumes between 1-100 × 106 m3. Comparisons with other caldera volcanoes in this section of the rift suggest that there may be parallels between Aluto's behaviour and that of other volcanic centres, both in terms of the volcanic 'lifecycle', and broad timings of caldera collapse events.

  12. Exploring the links between volcano flank collapse and magma evolution: Fogo oceanic shield volcano, Cape Verde (United States)

    Cornu, Melodie-Neige; Paris, Raphael; Doucelance, Regis; Bachelery, Patrick; Guillou, Hervé


    Mass wasting of oceanic shield volcanoes is largely documented through the recognition of collapse scars and submarine debris fans. However, it is actually difficult to infer the mechanisms controlling volcano flank failures that potentially imply tens to hundreds of km3. Studies coupling detailed petrological and geochemical analyses of eruptive products hold clues for better understanding the relationships between magma sources, the plumbing system, and flank instability. Our study aims at tracking potential variations of magma source, storage and transport beneath Fogo shield volcano (Cape Verde) before and after its major flank collapse. We also provide a geochronological framework of this magmatic evolution through new radiometric ages (K-Ar and Ar-Ar) of both pre-collapse and post-collapse lavas. The central part of Fogo volcanic edifice is truncated by an 8 km-wide caldera opened to the East, corresponding to the scar of the last flank collapse (Monte Amarelo collapse, Late Pleistocene, 150 km3). Lavas sampled at the base of the scar (the so-called Bordeira) yielded ages between 158 and 136 ka. The age of the collapse is constrained between 68 ka (youngest lava flow cut by the collapse scar) and 59 ka (oldest lava flow overlapping the scar). The collapse walls display a complex structural, intrusive and eruptive history. Undersaturated volcanism (SiO2elements analyses indicate that the pre-collapse lavas are significantly less differentiated than post-collapse lavas, with a peak of alkalis at the collapse. Rare-earth elements concentration decreases with time, with a notable positive anomaly before the collapse. The evolution of the isotopic ratios (Sr, Nd and Pb) through time displays unusual V-shaped profiles centered around the collapse. The occurrence of the Monte Amarelo collapse is thus not disconnected from the magmatic evolution, both at the crustal and mantellic levels. Our results also point out the importance and relative frequency of explosive

  13. Large-N in Volcano Settings: Volcanosri (United States)

    Lees, J. M.; Song, W.; Xing, G.; Vick, S.; Phillips, D.


    We seek a paradigm shift in the approach we take on volcano monitoring where the compromise from high fidelity to large numbers of sensors is used to increase coverage and resolution. Accessibility, danger and the risk of equipment loss requires that we develop systems that are independent and inexpensive. Furthermore, rather than simply record data on hard disk for later analysis we desire a system that will work autonomously, capitalizing on wireless technology and in field network analysis. To this end we are currently producing a low cost seismic array which will incorporate, at the very basic level, seismological tools for first cut analysis of a volcano in crises mode. At the advanced end we expect to perform tomographic inversions in the network in near real time. Geophone (4 Hz) sensors connected to a low cost recording system will be installed on an active volcano where triggering earthquake location and velocity analysis will take place independent of human interaction. Stations are designed to be inexpensive and possibly disposable. In one of the first implementations the seismic nodes consist of an Arduino Due processor board with an attached Seismic Shield. The Arduino Due processor board contains an Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU. This 32 bit 84 MHz processor can filter and perform coarse seismic event detection on a 1600 sample signal in fewer than 200 milliseconds. The Seismic Shield contains a GPS module, 900 MHz high power mesh network radio, SD card, seismic amplifier, and 24 bit ADC. External sensors can be attached to either this 24-bit ADC or to the internal multichannel 12 bit ADC contained on the Arduino Due processor board. This allows the node to support attachment of multiple sensors. By utilizing a high-speed 32 bit processor complex signal processing tasks can be performed simultaneously on multiple sensors. Using a 10 W solar panel, second system being developed can run autonomously and collect data on 3 channels at 100Hz for 6 months

  14. Muon imaging of volcanoes with Cherenkov telescopes (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Del Santo, Melania; La Parola, Valentina; La Rosa, Giovanni; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Mineo, Teresa; Pareschi, Giovanni; Sottile, Giuseppe; Zuccarello, Luciano


    The quantitative understanding of the inner structure of a volcano is a key feature to model the processes leading to paroxysmal activity and, hence, to mitigate volcanic hazards. To pursue this aim, different geophysical techniques are utilized, that are sensitive to different properties of the rocks (elastic, electrical, density). In most cases, these techniques do not allow to achieve the spatial resolution needed to characterize the shallowest part of the plumbing system and may require dense measurements in active zones, implying a high level of risk. Volcano imaging through cosmic-ray muons is a promising technique that allows to overcome the above shortcomings. Muons constantly bombard the Earth's surface and can travel through large thicknesses of rock, with an energy loss depending on the amount of crossed matter. By measuring the absorption of muons through a solid body, one can deduce the density distribution inside the target. To date, muon imaging of volcanic structures has been mainly achieved with scintillation detectors. They are sensitive to noise sourced from (i) the accidental coincidence of vertical EM shower particles, (ii) the fake tracks initiated from horizontal high-energy electrons and low-energy muons (not crossing the target) and (iii) the flux of upward going muons. A possible alternative to scintillation detectors is given by Cherenkov telescopes. They exploit the Cherenkov light emitted when charged particles (like muons) travel through a dielectric medium, with velocity higher than the speed of light. Cherenkov detectors are not significantly affected by the above noise sources. Furthermore, contrarily to scintillator-based detectors, Cherenkov telescopes permit a measurement of the energy spectrum of the incident muon flux at the installation site, an issue that is indeed relevant for deducing the density distribution inside the target. In 2014, a prototype Cherenkov telescope was installed at the Astrophysical Observatory of Serra

  15. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia (United States)


    On the night of June 4, 2001 ASTER captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 8028'. The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25 km ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and the Far East, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous

  16. Understanding the complexities of volcanoes that erupt just once (United States)

    Schultz, Colin


    Most of the world's volcanoes erupt only once and, often, only for a short time—a few days to a couple of weeks. Because of the brevity of the eruptions and possibly because of a presumed docility, singly erupting volcanoes, known as monogenetic volcanoes, are not nearly as well studied as their polygenetic fellows. Traditionally, researchers have assumed that monogenetic volcanic eruptions are simple in their dynamics. A new investigation by Barde-Cabusson et al., however, reveals that these volcanic eruptions can be highly complex, sometimes incorporating multiple phases and magma vents.

  17. Seismic anisotropy beneath Ruapehu volcano: a possible eruption forecasting tool. (United States)

    Gerst, Alexander; Savage, Martha K


    The orientation of crustal seismic anisotropy changed at least twice by up to 80 degrees because of volcanic eruptions at Ruapehu Volcano, New Zealand. These changes provide the basis for a new monitoring technique and possibly for future midterm eruption forecasting at volcanoes. The fast anisotropic direction was measured during three seismometer deployments in 1994, 1998, and 2002, providing an in situ measurement of the stress in the crust under the volcano. The stress direction changed because of an eruption in 1995-1996. Our 2002 measurements revealed a partial return to the pre-eruption stress state. These changes were probably caused by repeated filling and depressurizing of a magmatic dike system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjito Jokosisworo


    Full Text Available The influence of mechanic disposition, is one of the factor influence ship strength. This influence can be test by mechanical test in welding butt joint. The result test database analysis can be conclude that very helpful to increase safety and quality butt joint. With steel specification C= 0,15%, Si= 0,24%, Mn= 0,88%,P= 0,018%, S= 0,034%. This material give a 90, 110, 125 ampere with SMAW AC electrode diameter 3,2 mm x 350 mm with V root and 600 angle In the fabrication of mild steel products, components or equipment, manufacturers employ welding as the principal joining method. Mild steel are weldable materials, and a welded joint can provide optimum corrosion resistance, strength, and fabrication economy. However, designers should recognize that any metal, including stainless steels, may undergo certain changes during welding. It is necessary, therefore, to exercise a reasonable degree of care during welding to minimize or prevent any deleterious effects that may occur, and to preserve the same degree of corrosion resistance and strength in weld zone that is an intheren part of the base metal

  19. The Effect of Welding-Pass Grouping on the Prediction Accuracy of Residual Stress in Multipass Butt Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongung Park


    Full Text Available The residual stress analysis of a thick welded structure requires a lot of time and computer memory, which are different from those in thin welded structure analysis. This study investigated the effect of residual stress due to welding-pass grouping as a way to reduce the analysis time in multipass thick butt welding joint. For this purpose, the parametric analysis which changes the number of grouping passes was conducted in the multipass butt weld of a structure with a thickness of 25 mm and 70 mm. In addition, the residual stress by thermal elastoplastic FE analysis is compared with the results by the neutron diffraction method for verifying the reliability of the FE analysis. The welding sequence is considered in order to predict the residual stress more accurately when using welding-pass grouping method. The results of the welding-pass grouping model and half model occurred between the results of the left/right of the full model. If the total number of welding-pass grouping is less than half of that of welding pass, a large difference with real residual stress is found. Therefore, the total number of the welding-pass grouping should not be reduced to more than half.

  20. VS crustal models of the Roccamonfina volcano and relationships with Neapolitan volcanoes (southern Italy) (United States)

    Nunziata, C.; Gerecitano, F.


    Shear wave velocities of the crust and upper mantle are defined beneath the Roccamonfina volcano and surrounding Apennines (southern Italy) from the simultaneous nonlinear inversion of the local group velocity dispersion data, obtained from seismic events recorded in 1988-2004 at Roccamonfina station of the INGV-RSNC network, and regional dispersion data obtained in previous studies. The main features of the representative VS models are a carbonatic basement and a low velocity zone at 6-10 km of depth. The sedimentary succession is ~5 km thick below the Roccamonfina volcano and lays above a high VS (3.8 km/s) ascribable to solidified magma body, while it is ~10 km thick below the surrounding Apennines. A low velocity layer with an average thickness of 10 km is detected below the Roccamonfina volcano which can be associated with the presence of partial melting and interpreted as magmatic reservoir. Such low velocity layer, also found below the surrounding Apennines but with a reduced thickness of 2-3 km, extends to the Campanian Plain and to the Neapolitan volcanic area, from Campi Flegrei to Somma-Vesuvius.

  1. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Russia (United States)


    This is an image of the Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the bright white peak surrounded by red slopes in the lower left portion of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 25th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 30 kilometers by 60 kilometers (18.5 miles by 37 miles) that is centered at 56.18 degrees north latitude and 160.78 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the current activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The Kamchatka River runs from left to right across the image. An older, dormant volcanic region appears in green on the north side of the river. The current eruption included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). New lava flows are visible on the flanks of Kliuchevskoi, appearing yellow/green in the image, superimposed on the red surfaces in the lower center. Melting snow triggered mudflows on the north flank of the volcano, which may threaten agricultural zones and other settlements in the valley to the north. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars

  2. Space Radar Image of Taal Volcano, Philippines (United States)


    This is an image of Taal volcano, near Manila on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The black area in the center is Taal Lake, which nearly fills the 30-kilometer-diameter (18-mile) caldera. The caldera rim consists of deeply eroded hills and cliffs. The large island in Taal Lake, which itself contains a crater lake, is known as Volcano Island. The bright yellow patch on the southwest side of the island marks the site of an explosion crater that formed during a deadly eruption of Taal in 1965. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 78th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 56 kilometers by 112 kilometers (34 miles by 68 miles) that is centered at 14.0 degrees north latitude and 121.0 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Since 1572, Taal has erupted at least 34 times. Since early 1991, the volcano has been restless, with swarms of earthquakes, new steaming areas, ground fracturing, and increases in water temperature of the lake. Volcanologists and other local authorities are carefully monitoring Taal to understand if the current activity may foretell an eruption. Taal is one of 15 'Decade Volcanoes' that have been identified by the volcanology community as presenting large potential hazards to population centers. The bright area in the upper right of the image is the densely populated city of Manila, only 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of the central crater. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth

  3. Researchers discuss Mt. Unzen, a decade volcano (United States)

    Nakada, Setsuya; Eichelberger, John; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    In November 1989, a swarm of earthquakes deep beneath Tachibana Bay, Kyushu Island, Japan, heralded the inexorable rise of magma toward the summit of Unzen Volcano, some 15 km upward and 15 km eastward, on the Shimabara Peninsula. When the “magma head” emerged in Jigokuato Crater on May 20, 1991, a beautiful but tragic drama began. It started peacefully as a budding flower unfolding lava petals (Figure 1). But by the time lava stopped flowing in February 1995, it had cost the city of Shimabara and the surrounding towns over $2 billion in damage and 44 human lives. At its height, the crisis required the prolonged evacuation of 11,000 residents. Amid this tragedy, however, volcanologists were able to make unprecedented visual and geophysical observations of processes of magma ascent, dome growth, and dome-fed pyroclastic flows.

  4. Project 'VOLCANO': Electronics of tethered satellite system (United States)

    Savich, N. A.

    The main goal of the 'VOLCANO' project developed jointly by the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics and space concern 'ENERGIA' is experimental investigation of the current-voltage characteristics of the 'Collector-Boom-Emitter' system simulating the long Tethered Satellite System (TSS) in the real space flight conditions on the transport ship 'PROGRESS'. These measurements will allow scientists to determine the attainable current values for different combinations of collectors and emitters (passive metallic sphere, thermocathode, hollow cathodes and show up some prospects of active TSS. The report is concerned with the concept, purpose and tasks of the project, the planned set up of the measurement equipment on the 'PROGRESS' ship and in the container extended on the deployable 100 m long boom end.

  5. Deep magma transport at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Wright, T.L.; Klein, F.W.


    The shallow part of Kilauea's magma system is conceptually well-understood. Long-period and short-period (brittle-failure) earthquake swarms outline a near-vertical magma transport path beneath Kilauea's summit to 20 km depth. A gravity high centered above the magma transport path demonstrates that Kilauea's shallow magma system, established early in the volcano's history, has remained fixed in place. Low seismicity at 4-7 km outlines a storage region from which magma is supplied for eruptions and intrusions. Brittle-failure earthquake swarms shallower than 5 km beneath the rift zones accompany dike emplacement. Sparse earthquakes extend to a decollement at 10-12 km along which the south flank of Kilauea is sliding seaward. This zone below 5 km can sustain aseismic magma transport, consistent with recent tomographic studies. Long-period earthquake clusters deeper than 40 km occur parallel to and offshore of Kilauea's south coast, defining the deepest seismic response to magma transport from the Hawaiian hot spot. A path connecting the shallow and deep long-period earthquakes is defined by mainshock-aftershock locations of brittle-failure earthquakes unique to Kilauea whose hypocenters are deeper than 25 km with magnitudes from 4.4 to 5.2. Separation of deep and shallow long-period clusters occurs as the shallow plumbing moves with the volcanic edifice, while the deep plumbing is centered over the hotspot. Recent GPS data agrees with the volcano-propagation vector from Kauai to Maui, suggesting that Pacific plate motion, azimuth 293.5?? and rate of 7.4 cm/yr, has been constant over Kilauea's lifetime. However, volcano propagation on the island of Hawaii, azimuth 325??, rate 13 cm/yr, requires southwesterly migration of the locus of melting within the broad hotspot. Deep, long-period earthquakes lie west of the extrapolated position of Kilauea backward in time along a plate-motion vector, requiring southwesterly migration of Kilauea's magma source. Assumed ages of 0

  6. Spring Deposits and Mud Volcanoes on Mars (United States)

    Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.; Baker, D. M.


    We report evidence for spring deposits in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra. The Vernal structures are low mounds, each approximately 250 m by 500 m in extent, with terraced flanks, apical depressions, river-like channels, concentric fractures, and elliptical tonal anomalies. All of these features are common in terrestrial springs such as the Dalhousie complex in Australia. The structures occur in an apparent unit of interdune, water-laid sediment and are associated with evidence of subsurface fluid flow in sets of aligned outcrops. The Vernal springs may be part of a larger complex of spring deposits and lineations, suggesting that fluid flow in this region was relatively extensive. The structures in Vernal Crater are coated with a thin layer of dust, which prevents mineral identification from orbit. In an attempt to find evidence for additional spring mounds, we conducted a survey of nearly 2,000 locations for which CRISM spectral images are available. We used CRISM data to identify dust-free, hydrated areas and HiRISE, CTX, and MOC images to evaluate morphology. This study covered all longitudes and latitudes from 50N to 70S, except near Tharsis where data were analyzed south of 15S. No location exhibited morphological features that closely resembled those in Vernal Crater, suggesting that these putative spring mounds are not common in the highlands of Mars. Our search led us to concentrate on a dust-free area, centered at 41.8N, 332.5E in Acidalia Planitia where Farrand et al. (2005) identified features resembling spring mounds or mud volcanoes. Tanaka et al. (2005) mapped this region as part of the Early Amazonian Vastitas Borealis Unit, interpreted as reworked sediments from outflow channels and highland sources. We mapped over 20 high-albedo pitted domes in the area covered by one HiRISE frame, with dome diameters ranging from 350 m to 1 km. Nearby, similar domes have measured heights ranging from 36 to 65 m. The dome material is darker in THEMIS nighttime IR than

  7. Embedded multiparametric system for volcano monitoring (United States)

    Moure, David; Torres, Pedro A.; Meletlidis, Stavros; Lopez, Carmen; José Blanco, María


    A low cost and low power consumption multiparametric system designed for volcano monitoring is presented. Once tested with various sensors, at present it is installed in two locations in Tenerife, Canary Islands, acquiring and transmitting data in real time. The system is based on a commercial board (Raspberry Pi®, RPi®) that uses an embedded ARMTM processor with a Debian (Wheezy-Raspbian) Linux Operating System. This configuration permits different standard communication systems between devices as USB and ETHERNET, and also communication with integrated circuits is possible. The whole system includes this platform and self-developed hardware and software. Analog signals are acquired at an expansion board with an ADC converter with three 16 bits channels. This board, which is powered directly from the RPi®, provides timing to the sampling data using a Real Time Clock (RTC). Two serial protocols (I2C and SPI) are responsible for communications. Due to the influence of atmospheric phenomena on the volcano monitoring data, the system is complemented by a self-developed meteorological station based on ArduinoCC and low cost commercial sensors (atmospheric pressure, humidity and rainfall). It is powered with the RPi® and it uses a serial protocol for communications. Self-developed software run under Linux OS and handles configuration, signal acquisition, data storage (USB storage or SD card) and data transmission (FTP, web server). Remote configuration, data plotting and downloading is available through a web interface tool. Nowadays, the system is used for gravimetric and oceanic tides data acquisition in Tenerife and soon it will be applied for clinometric data.

  8. Geomechanical rock properties of a basaltic volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N Schaefer


    Full Text Available In volcanic regions, reliable estimates of mechanical properties for specific volcanic events such as cyclic inflation-deflation cycles by magmatic intrusions, thermal stressing, and high temperatures are crucial for building accurate models of volcanic phenomena. This study focuses on the challenge of characterizing volcanic materials for the numerical analyses of such events. To do this, we evaluated the physical (porosity, permeability and mechanical (strength properties of basaltic rocks at Pacaya Volcano (Guatemala through a variety of laboratory experiments, including: room temperature, high temperature (935 °C, and cyclically-loaded uniaxial compressive strength tests on as-collected and thermally-treated rock samples. Knowledge of the material response to such varied stressing conditions is necessary to analyze potential hazards at Pacaya, whose persistent activity has led to 13 evacuations of towns near the volcano since 1987. The rocks show a non-linear relationship between permeability and porosity, which relates to the importance of the crack network connecting the vesicles in these rocks. Here we show that strength not only decreases with porosity and permeability, but also with prolonged stressing (i.e., at lower strain rates and upon cooling. Complimentary tests in which cyclic episodes of thermal or load stressing showed no systematic weakening of the material on the scale of our experiments. Most importantly, we show the extremely heterogeneous nature of volcanic edifices that arise from differences in porosity and permeability of the local lithologies, the limited lateral extent of lava flows, and the scars of previous collapse events. Input of these process-specific rock behaviors into slope stability and deformation models can change the resultant hazard analysis. We anticipate that an increased parameterization of rock properties will improve mitigation power.

  9. Antarctic volcanoes: A remote but significant hazard (United States)

    Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Alex; Folch, Arnau; Giralt, Santiago


    Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions can be dispersed over massive areas of the globe, posing a threat to both human health and infrastructures, such as the air traffic. Some of the last eruptions occurred during this decade (e.g. 14/04/2010 - Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland; 24/05/2011-Grímsvötn, Iceland; 05/06/2011-Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile) have strongly affected the air traffic in different areas of the world, leading to economic losses of billions of euros. From the tens of volcanoes located in Antarctica, at least nine are known to be active and five of them have reported volcanic activity in historical times. However, until now, no attention has been paid to the possible social, economical and environmental consequences of an eruption that would occur on high southern latitudes, perhaps because it is considered that its impacts would be minor or local, and mainly restricted to the practically inhabited Antarctic continent. We show here, as a case study and using climate models, how volcanic ash emitted during a regular eruption of one of the most active volcanoes in Antarctica, Deception Island (South Shetland Islands), could reach the African continent as well as Australia and South America. The volcanic cloud could strongly affect the air traffic not only in the region and at high southern latitudes, but also the flights connecting Africa, South America and Oceania. Results obtained are crucial to understand the patterns of volcanic ash distribution at high southern latitudes with obvious implications for tephrostratigraphical and chronological studies that provide valuable isochrones with which to synchronize palaeoclimate records. This research was partially funded by the MINECO grants VOLCLIMA (CGL2015-72629-EXP)and POSVOLDEC(CTM2016-79617-P)(AEI/FEDER, UE), the Ramón y Cajal research program (RYC-2012-11024) and the NEMOH European project (REA grant 34 agreement n° 289976).

  10. Metal loading in Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park, Montana and Wyoming; a retrospective analysis of previous research; and quantification of metal loading, August 1999 (United States)

    Boughton, G.K.


    Acid drainage from historic mining activities has affected the water quality and aquatic biota of Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park. Numerous investigations focusing on metals contamination have been conducted in the Soda Butte Creek basin, but interpretations of how metals contamination is currently impacting Soda Butte Creek differ greatly. A retrospective analysis of previous research on metal loading in Soda Butte Creek was completed to provide summaries of studies pertinent to metal loading in Soda Butte Creek and to identify data gaps warranting further investigation. Identification and quantification of the sources of metal loading to Soda Butte Creek was recognized as a significant data gap. The McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site has long been identified as a source of metals but its contribution relative to the total metal load entering Yellowstone National Park was unknown. A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was designed to determine metal loads upstream of Yellowstone National Park.A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was conducted on an 8,511-meter reach of Soda Butte Creek from upstream of the McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site downstream to the Yellowstone National Park boundary in August 1999. Synoptic-sampling sites were selected to divide the creek into discrete segments. A lithium bromide tracer was injected continuously into Soda Butte Creek for 24.5 hours. Downstream dilution of the tracer and current-meter measurements were used to calculate the stream discharge. Stream discharge values, combined with constituent concentrations obtained by synoptic sampling, were used to quantify constituent loading in each segment of Soda Butte Creek.Loads were calculated for dissolved calcium, silica, and sulfate, as well as for dissolved and total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese. Loads were not calculated for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc because these elements were infrequently

  11. Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument : Acoustical Monitoring 2010 (United States)


    During the summer of 2010 (July - August), the Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument (SUCR) at a site deployed for approximately 30 days. The baseline data collected during this period will help pa...

  12. Vegetation damage and recovery after Chiginagak Volcano Crater drainage event (United States)

    Department of the Interior — From August 20 — 23, 2006, I revisited Chiginigak volcano to document vegetation recovery after the crater drainage event that severely damaged vegetation in May of...

  13. Chasing lava: a geologist's adventures at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.


    A lively account of the three years (1969-1972) spent by geologist Wendell Duffield working at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory at Kilauea, one of the world's more active volcanoes. Abundantly illustrated in b&w and color, with line drawings and maps, as well. Volcanologists and general readers alike will enjoy author Wendell Duffield's report from Kilauea--home of Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes. Duffield's narrative encompasses everything from the scientific (his discovery that the movements of cooled lava on a lava lake mimic the movements of the earth's crust, providing an accessible model for understanding plate tectonics) to the humorous (his dog's discovery of a snake on the supposedly snake-free island) to the life-threatening (a colleague's plunge into molten lava). This charming account of living and working at Kilauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, is sure to be a delight.

  14. Volcanism offshore of Vesuvius Volcano in Naples Bay (United States)

    Milia, A.; Mirabile, L.; Torrente, M.M.; Dvorak, J.J.


    High-resolution seismic reflection data are used to identify structural features in Naples Bay near Vesuvius Volcano. Several buried seismic units with reflection-free interiors are probably volcanic deposits erupted during and since the formation of the breached crater of Monte Somma Volcano, which preceded the growth of Vesuvius. The presumed undersea volcanic deposits are limited in extent; thus, stratigraphie relationships cannot be established among them. Other features revealed by our data include (a) the warping of lowstand marine deposits by undersea cryptodomes located approximately 10 km from the summit of Vesuvius, (b) a succession of normal step faults that record seaward collapse of the volcano, and (c) a small undersea slump in the uppermost marine deposits of Naples Bay, which may be the result of nue??e ardentes that entered the sea during a major eruption of Vesuvius in 1631. Detection of these undersea features illustrates some capabilities of making detailed seismic reflection profiles across undersea volcanoes.

  15. Evidence for explosive volcanic density currents on certain Martian volcanoes (United States)

    Reimers, C. E.; Komar, P. D.


    The morphologies of certain of the smaller Martian volcanoes are discussed as possible results of explosive volcanic density currents. An examination of newly-photographed flank and caldera features of the Martian volcanoes Ceraunius Tholus, Uranius Tholus, Uranius Patera and Hecates Tholus, including steep slope angles, Krakatoa-type caldera morphologies, erosional features (radial channels and anastamosing gullies) and constructional features (blanketed flanks and possible lava deltas) reveals their similarity to terrestrial cones and composite volcanoes such as Barcena Volcano. Crater age data from the surface of Martian domes and shields indicates that such explosive activity occurred more frequently early in Martian geologic history, consistent with the view that the volcanic density currents were base surges rather than nuees ardentes, with the melting of permafrost supplying the water required in base surge generation.

  16. Examining the interior of Llaima Volcano with receiver functions (United States)

    Bishop, J. W.; Lees, J. M.; Biryol, C. B.; Mikesell, T. D.; Franco, L.


    Llaima Volcano in Chile is one of the largest and most active volcanoes in the southern Andes, with over 50 eruptions since the 1600s. After years of persistent degassing, Llaima most recently erupted in a series of violent Strombolian eruptions in 2007-2009. This period had few precursory signals, which highlights the need to obtain accurate magma storage information. While petrologic advancements have been made in understanding magma degassing and crystallization trends, a comprehensive seismic study has yet to be completed. Here we present results of a receiver function survey utilizing a dense seismic array surrounding Llaima Volcano. Application of H-κ stacking and Common Conversion Point stacking techniques reveal the general structural architecture and ceiling of a low velocity zone between 8 and 13 km beneath Llaima Volcano. We interpret this anomaly as a deep magma accumulation zone.

  17. One hundred years of volcano monitoring in Hawaii (United States)

    Kauahikaua, Jim; Poland, Mike


    In 2012 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), the oldest of five volcano observatories in the United States, is commemorating the 100th anniversary of its founding. HVO's location, on the rim of Kilauea volcano (Figure 1)—one of the most active volcanoes on Earth—has provided an unprecedented opportunity over the past century to study processes associated with active volcanism and develop methods for hazards assessment and mitigation. The scientifically and societally important results that have come from 100 years of HVO's existence are the realization of one man's vision of the best way to protect humanity from natural disasters. That vision was a response to an unusually destructive decade that began the twentieth century, a decade that saw almost 200,000 people killed by the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

  18. Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano provides unusual example of venting (United States)

    Vogt, P. R.; Cherkashev, G.; Ginsburg, G.; Ivanov, G.; Milkov, A.; Crane, K.; Sundvor, A.; Pimenov, N.; Egorov, A.

    A seafloor mud volcano north of Norway is presenting researchers with an uncommon example of venting and is raising important questions. Seafloor aqueous vents, gas vents, mud volcanoes, and mud diapirs are found in a variety of geological settings. However, scientists did not expect to discover venting at the northern site, now known as the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV). It is considered especially unusual because of its Arctitc Location (72°N), its development largely within glacial marine sediments, and its lack of association either with salt tectonics or with plate subduction. Further, the volcano is posing questions for investigators about the relationship of methane generation and mud volcanism to thick, rapidly deposited sediments; sediment failure; and gas hydrates (GH).

  19. KrakMon: Seismic signals recorded at Krakatau Volcano, Indonesia (United States)

    Ibs-von Seht, M.; Hoffmann-Rothe, A.; Kniess, R.


    A recently installed multi-parameter monitoring system on the Krakatau volcanic island complex located in the Sunda Strait (Indonesia) provides continuous broadband records of seismic data. We present here an overview of the different signal types identified and first results of an automated detection and classification procedure for volcano-seismic events recorded at Krakatau volcano. In comparison to seismic signals known from other volcanoes, an unusually high portion of high-frequency content is observed in the spectra of the Krakatau signals. This observation applies to short-term volcano-tectonic (VT) events as well as to continuous tremor signals: most VT events show significant energy at frequencies above 30Hz, harmonic signals last almost continuously for days and show spectral peaks at distinct frequencies well above15Hz. The automated detection and classification procedure bases a spectrogram analysis of volcano-seismic signals using a straight-forward pattern recognition approach: a suitable threshold operator generates a binary representation of the spectrogram which is processed by a contour finding algorithm. The resulting contour-polygons define regions in the spectrogram containing significant spectral energy and their shapes reveal information about the respective volcano-seismic signals. By the extraction of stable shape-describing properties from the polygons and their statistical analysis it is attempted to identify different classes of signal types. A comparison of the resulting signal types with those determined visually by the operator can improve classification schemes for volcano-seismic signals and contribute to defining the activity status of Krakatau and other volcanoes.

  20. ICE-VOLC Project: unravelling the dynamics of Antarctica volcanoes (United States)

    Cannata, Andrea; Del Carlo, Paola; Giudice, Gaetano; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Larocca, Graziano; Liuzzo, Marco


    Melbourne and Rittmann volcanoes are located in the Victoria Land. Whilst Rittmann's last eruption dates probably to Pleistocene, Melbourne's most recent eruption between 1862 and 1922, testifying it is still active. At present, both volcanoes display fumarolic activity. Melbourne was discovered in 1841 by James Clark Ross, Rittmann during the 4th Italian Expedition (1988/1989). Our knowledge on both volcanoes is really little. The position of these volcanoes in the Antarctic region (characterised by absence of anthropic noise) and its proximity with the Italian Mario Zucchelli Station makes them ideal sites for studying volcano seismic sources, geothermal emissions, seismo-acoustic signals caused by cryosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere dynamics, and volcanic gas impact on environment. Hence, the main aim of the ICE-VOLC ("multiparametrIC Experiment at antarctica VOLCanoes: data from volcano and cryosphere-ocean-atmosphere dynamics") project is the study of Melbourne and Rittmann, by acquisition, analysis and integration of multiparametric geophysical, geochemical and thermal data. Complementary objectives include investigation of the relationship between seismo-acoustic activity recorded in Antarctica and cryosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere dynamics, evaluation of the impact of volcanic gas in atmosphere. This project involves 26 researchers, technologists and technicians from University of Perugia and from Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia of Catania, Palermo, Pisa and Rome. In this work, we show the preliminary results obtained after the first expedition in Antarctica, aiming to perform geochemical-thermal surveys in the volcano ice caves, as well as to collect ash samples and to install temporary seismic stations.

  1. Three-dimensional shallow velocity structure beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines (United States)

    You, Shuei-Huei; Konstantinou, Konstantinos I.; Gung, Yuancheng; Lin, Cheng-Horng


    Based on its numerous historical explosive eruptions and high potential hazards to nearby population of millions, Taal Volcano is one of the most dangerous "Decade Volcanoes" in the world. To provide better investigation on local seismicity and seismic structure beneath Taal Volcano, we deployed a temporary seismic network consisting of eight stations from March 2008 to March 2010. In the preliminary data processing stage, three periods showing linear time-drifting of internal clock were clearly identified from noise-derived empirical Green's functions. The time-drifting errors were corrected prior to further data analyses. By using VELEST, 2274 local earthquakes were manually picked and located. Two major earthquake groups are noticed, with one lying beneath the western shore of Taal Lake showing a linear feature, and the other spreading around the eastern flank of Taal Volcano Island at shallower depths. We performed seismic tomography to image the 3D structure beneath Taal Volcano using the LOTOS algorithm. Some interesting features are revealed from the tomographic results, including a solidified magma conduit below the northwestern corner of Taal Volcano Island, indicated by high Vp, Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio, and a large potential hydrothermal reservoir beneath the center of Taal Volcano Island, suggested by low Vs and high Vp/Vs ratio. Furthermore, combining earthquake distributions and tomographic images, we suggest potential existence of a hydrothermal reservoir beneath the southwestern corner of Taal Lake, and a fluid conduit extending to the northwest. These seismic features have never been proposed in previous studies, implying that new hydrothermal activity might be formed in places away from the historical craters on Taal Volcano Island.

  2. Conifer root and butt rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. s.l. (United States)

    Asiegbu, Fred O; Adomas, Aleksandra; Stenlid, Jan


    SUMMARY The root and butt rot caused by Heterobasidon annosum is one of the most destructive diseases of conifers in the northern temperate regions of the world, particularly in Europe. Economic losses attributable to Heterobasidion infection in Europe are estimated at 800 million euros annually. The fungus has been classified into three separate European intersterile species P (H. annosum), S (H. parviporum) and F (H. abietinum) based on their main host preferences: pine, spruce and fir, respectively. In North America, two intersterile groups are present, P and S/F, but these have not been given scientific names. The ecology of the disease spread has been intensively studied but the genetics, biochemistry and molecular aspects of pathogen virulence have been relatively little examined. Recent advances in transcript profiling, molecular characterization of pathogenicity factors and establishment of DNA-transformation systems have paved the way for future advances in our understanding of this pathosystem. Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref., H. parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen and H. abietinum Niemelä & Korhonen; kingdom Fungi; class Basidiomycotina; order Aphyllophorales; family Bondarzewiaceae; genus Heterobasidion. presence of the fungus fruit bodies, basidiocarps whitish in the margins, upper surface is tan to dark brown, usually irregular shaped, 3.5 (-7) cm thick and up to 40 cm in diameter; pores 5-19, 7-22 and 13-26 mm(2) for the P, F and S groups, respectively. Small brownish non-sporulating postules develop on the outside of infected roots. Asexual spores (conidiospores) are 3.8-6.6 x 2.8-5.0 microm in size. Mating tests are necessary for identification of intersterility groups. The fungus attacks many coniferous tree species. In Europe, particularly trees of the genera Pinus and Juniperus (P), Picea (S), Abies (F) and in North America Pinus (P) and Picea, Tsuga and Abies (S/F). To a lesser extent it causes root rot on some decidous trees (Betula and Quercus

  3. A preliminary seismic study of Taal Volcano, Luzon Island Philippines (United States)

    You, S.-H.; Gung, Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Chang, T.-M.; Chang, E. T. Y.; Solidum, R.


    The very active Taal Volcano lies in the southern part of Luzon Island only 60 km from Manila, the capital of the Philippines. In March 2008 we deployed a temporary seismic network around Taal that consisted of 8 three-component short period seismometers. This network recorded during the period from March to November 2008 about 1050 local events. In the early data processing stages, unexpected linear drifting of clock time was clearly identified for a number of stations. The drifting rates of each problematic station were determined and the errors were corrected before further processing. Initial location of each event was derived by manually picked P-/S-phases arrival times using HYPO71 and a general velocity model based on AK135. Since the velocity structure beneath Taal is essentially unknown, we used travel times of 338 well-located events in order to derive a minimum 1D velocity model using VELEST. The resulting locations show that most events occurred at the shallow depth beneath the Taal Volcano, and two major earthquake groups were noticed, with one lying underneath the western shore of Taal lake and the other one spread around the eastern flank of the Taal Volcano. Since there is no reported volcano activities during the operation period of our seismic array, we are still not confident to interpret these findings in terms of other natures of volcano at the current stage. However, our work represents an important pioneer step towards other more advanced seismic studies in Taal Volcano.

  4. Arrested diatreme development: Standing Rocks East, Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation, USA (United States)

    Lefebvre, Nathalie S.; White, James D. L.; Kjarsgaard, Bruce A.


    Maar-diatreme volcanoes, defined by their relatively large pyroclastic debris-filled subsurface structures and craters that cut into the pre-eruptive land surface, are typically found in small-volume mafic to ultramafic monogenetic volcanic fields. Diatremes are associated with strong explosions throughout most of their development, focused along feeder dikes and generally attributed to magma-water interaction, or high magmatic volatiles. Detailed mapping of the magnificently exposed Standing Rocks East (SRE) diatreme shows evidence of additional eruptive complexity, and offers new insights into how the plumbing and vent structures of small-volume volcanoes evolve during an eruption. SRE is part of a larger, basanitic volcanic complex that includes several diatremes formed along a series of irregular, offset NW-SE trending dikes exposed 300 m below the pre-eruptive land surface. Its similarly oriented elliptical-shaped diatreme structure comprises predominantly country rock lithic-rich breccia of coarse inhomogeneously mixed wall-rock blocks sourced from above and below the current surface, plus sparse juvenile material. Domains of pyroclastic deposits crosscut the country rock breccia deposits, and the best exposed is the NW massif rising 35 m above the current erosional surface. It represents a cross-section of an evolving crater floor, and comprises matrix-rich lapilli tuff and spatter deposits cut by irregularly distributed dikes, some with very complex textures. The most significant deposit, in terms of volume, is an unbedded lapilli tuff that is poorly sorted and has a well-mixed population of wall-rock and juvenile clast varieties, thus resembling deposits typical of diatremes. It is overlain by and locally intercalated with spatter deposits, and this irregular contact demarcates the base of what was during eruption an uneven, evolving crater floor. The generally massive, variably welded spatter deposits constitute mostly lapilli-sized juvenile clasts with

  5. Downstream effects of the Pelton-Round Butte hydroelectric project on bedload, transport, channel morphology, and channel-bed texture, lower Deschutes River, Oregon. (United States)

    Heidi Fassnacht; Ellen M. McClure; Gordon E. Grant; Peter C. Klingeman


    Field, laboratory, and historical data provide the basis for interpreting the effects of the Pelton-Round Butte dam complex on the surface water hydrology and geomorphology of the lower Deschutes River, Oregon, USA. The river's response to upstream impoundment and flow regulation is evaluated in terms of changes in predicted bedload transport rates, channel...

  6. High-quality MOVPE butt-joint integration of InP/AlGaInAs/InGaAsP-based all-active optical components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Kuznetsova, Nadezda


    In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of MOVPE butt-joint regrowth for integration of all-active InP/AlGaAs/InGaAsP optical components and the realization of high-functionality compact photonic devices. Planar high-quality integration of semiconductor optical amplifiers of various epi...

  7. Composite Sunrise Butte pluton: Insights into Jurassic–Cretaceous collisional tectonics and magmatism in the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Schwartz, J.J.; Žák, Jiří; Verner, Krystof; Barnes, Calvin G.; Walton, Clay; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wright, James E.; Kistler, Ronald W.


    The composite Sunrise Butte pluton, in the central part of the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon, preserves a record of subduction-related magmatism, arc-arc collision, crustal thickening, and deep-crustal anatexis. The earliest phase of the pluton (Desolation Creek unit) was generated in a subduction zone environment, as the oceanic lithosphere between the Wallowa and Olds Ferry island arcs was consumed. Zircons from this unit yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 160.2 ± 2.1 Ma. A magmatic lull ensued during arc-arc collision, after which partial melting at the base of the thickened Wallowa arc crust produced siliceous magma that was emplaced into metasedimentary rocks and serpentinite of the overthrust forearc complex. This magma crystallized to form the bulk of the Sunrise Butte composite pluton (the Sunrise Butte unit; 145.8 ± 2.2 Ma). The heat necessary for crustal anatexis was supplied by coeval mantle-derived magma (the Onion Gulch unit; 147.9 ± 1.8 Ma).The lull in magmatic activity between 160 and 148 Ma encompasses the timing of arc-arc collision (159–154 Ma), and it is similar to those lulls observed in adjacent areas of the Blue Mountains Province related to the same shortening event. Previous researchers have proposed a tectonic link between the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath Mountains and northern Sierra Nevada Provinces farther to the south; however, timing of Late Jurassic deformation in the Blue Mountains Province predates the timing of the so-called Nevadan orogeny in the Klamath Mountains. In both the Blue Mountains Province and Klamath Mountains, the onset of deep-crustal partial melting initiated at ca. 148 Ma, suggesting a possible geodynamic link. One possibility is that the Late Jurassic shortening event recorded in the Blue Mountains Province may be a northerly extension of the Nevadan orogeny. Differences in the timing of these events in the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath–Sierra Nevada Provinces suggest that

  8. How volcano monitoring in New Zealand can contribute to a global volcano dataset: The GeoNet Project (United States)

    Jolly, G. E.; Scott, B.


    Volcanism plays an important role in New Zealand. Much of the landscape of the central North Island owes its shape to volcanism, with the soils supporting forestry and farming economies, geothermal systems providing renewable electricity production and the spectacular landscape supporting tourism and adventure. However volcanism also has it disadvantages: eruptive activity brings physical damage and economic losses and, sometimes, tragically the loss of life. Historically, in New Zealand, volcanoes represent the largest single source of fatalities from natural disasters. To better mitigate the hazard from New Zealand’s volcanoes, a multidisciplinary approach is applied. In 2001 the NZ Earthquake Commission (EQC) commenced funding the GeoNet project, providing the first totally national modern geological hazard monitoring system in New Zealand. The GeoNet project is responsibly for monitoring and assessing all of the active volcanoes (and other geological hazards) in New Zealand. The volcano monitoring programme is integrated into the national seismograph and geodetic networks. The volcano monitoring covers active volcanic cones, resting calderas, volcanic fields, and submarine volcanoes. Monitoring techniques include volcano seismology, geodesy, gas and water chemistry, remote sensing and other geophysical techniques, producing a wide variety of data sets, with both temporal and spatial distribution. These data sets form the basis for detailed research to achieve in depth understanding of these volcanoes and will contribute to the global knowledge of volcanic processes. However to achieve this the data sets need to be accessible by a range of end users, so that they can be used to underpin fundamental research and applied hazard assessments. This presentation will outline the NZ data sets and the problems of presenting and sharing them globally.

  9. 2006-2008 Eruptions and Volcano Hazards Of Soputan Volcano, North Sulawesi, Indonesia (United States)

    Hendratno, K.; Pallister, J. S.; McCausland, W. A.; Kristianto, M.; Bina, F. R.; Carn, S. A.; Haerani, N.; Griswold, J.; Keeler, R.


    Soputan is a basalt volcano located in North Sulawesi near the southern margin of the Quaternary Tondano Caldera. Unusual for a basalt volcano, Soputan produces summit lava domes and explosive eruptions, as well as voluminous basaltic tephra deposits and lava flows. Soputan erupted five times during 2006-2008: on 14 December, 2006, 12-15 August, 2007, 25-26 October, 2007, 5-6 June, 2008, and 5-6 October, 2008. The 2006-2007 eruptions destroyed a lava dome at the volcano’s summit and exposed the conduit, resulting in Vulcanian eruptions and St. Vincent type pyroclastic flows from an open vent structure. We used high-resolution satellite images and digital elevation models to make photo-geologic maps of the deposits from the 2006, 2007 and 2008 eruptions, to estimate volumes of deposits using GIS and to model potential flow hazards. In March, 2008 and in March 2009 we conducted reconnaissance geologic field investigations at Soputan. This work was done to field-check our photo-geologic mapping, to reconstruct the sequence of eruptive events in 2006-2008 and to collect samples for geochemical and petrographic analysis. We also analyzed seismic records and SO2 emission data from the eruptions and we interpreted these data in the context of our geologic and geochemical data to provide insights into the ascent and degassing of magmas. On the basis of the eruptive history and modeling of potential lahar inundation areas we present an updated assessment of volcano hazards and a forecast for future eruptions at Soputan. Our analysis of field and petrologic data indicates that Soputan is an open-system volcano, which taps basalt magma from great depth, apparently with little shallow storage of this magma. Degassing of the magma as it rises within the conduit results in growth of micro-phenocrysts, evolution of the matrix melt and a commensurate increase in the viscosity of the magma. This, in turn, results in growth of lava domes and more explosive eruptions than are

  10. Felsic maar-diatreme volcanoes: a review (United States)

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Hayman, Patrick


    Felsic maar-diatreme volcanoes host major ore deposits but have been largely ignored in the volcanology literature, especially for the diatreme portion of the system. Here, we use two Mexican tuff rings as analogs for the maar ejecta ring, new observations from one diatreme, and the economic geology literature on four other mineralized felsic maar-diatremes to produce an integrated picture of this type of volcano. The ejecta rings are up to 50 m+ thick and extend laterally up to ˜1.5 km from the crater edge. In two Mexican examples, the lower part of the ejecta ring is dominated by pyroclastic surge deposits with abundant lithic clasts (up to 80% at Hoya de Estrada). These deposits display low-angle cross-bedding, dune bedforms, undulating beds, channels, bomb sags, and accretionary lapilli and are interpreted as phreatomagmatic. Rhyolitic juvenile clasts at Tepexitl have only 0-25% vesicles in this portion of the ring. The upper parts of the ejecta ring sequences in the Mexican examples have a different character: lithic clasts can be less abundant, the grain size is typically coarser, and the juvenile clasts can be different in character (with some more vesicular fragments). Fragmentation was probably shallower at this stage. The post-eruptive maar crater infill is known at Wau and consists of reworked pyroclastic deposits as well as lacustrine and other sediments. Underneath are bedded upper diatreme deposits, interpreted as pyroclastic surge and fall deposits. The upper diatreme and post-eruptive crater deposits have dips larger than 30° at Wau, with approximately centroclinal attitudes. At still lower structural levels, the diatreme pyroclastic infill is largely unbedded; Montana Tunnels and Kelian are good examples of this. At Cerro de Pasco, the pyroclastic infill seems bedded despite about 500 m of post-eruptive erosion relative to the pre-eruptive surface. The contact between the country rocks and the diatreme is sometimes characterized by country rock

  11. Preliminary Result of The Influence of Earthquake Stress Change and The Implication for Soputan Volcano and Lokon Volcano (United States)

    Bunaga, I. G. K. S.; Nugraha, M. F.


    On February 6, 2016, an eruption occurred on the Northern Sulawesi arm, particularly Soputan volcano. One day earlier, Lokon volcano located close to Soputan volcano was decreased its status from standby to alert level by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM). The different reactions of two volcanoes proposed the question why the increment activity just happened in Soputan volcano. This uniqueness made us to suggest that static stress of earthquake may control the magmatic systems. We investigate here the earthquake-volcanism interaction through static stress changes by using Coulomb failure stress associated with an earthquake occurred in the Northern Molluca Sea on 25 November 2015. We slice the same dip for the each region in vertical cross sections. Therefore, the Coulomb failure stress pattern can be investigated beneath the study area. Our results suggest that Coulomb failure stress was increased by 0.3 × 10-3 to 0.4 × 10-3 bar below the Soputan’s region. Lokon’s region, the stress was reduced by -0.1 × 10-3 to -0.4 × 10-3 bar. The positive change may perturb magma overpressure leading to eruption and promoted volcanic earthquakes. The situation was very different that Lokon volcano ran into reduction activity and volcanic earthquakes were discourage due to stress shadow. We show that the difference volcanic response were likely controlled by static stress of the earthquake.

  12. Study on influence of three kinds of stress on crack propagation in butt welds of spiral coil waterwall for ultra supercritical boiler (United States)

    Yan, Zhenrong; Si, Jun


    The spiral coil waterwall is the main pressure parts and the core functional components of Ultra Supercritical Boiler. In the process of operation, the spiral coil waterwall is under the combined action of welding residual stress, installation defects stress and working fluid stress, Cracks and crack propagation are easy to occur in butt welds with defects. In view of the early cracks in the butt welds of more T23 water cooled walls, in this paper, the influence of various stresses on the crack propagation in the butt welds of spiral coil waterwall was studied by numerical simulation. Firstly, the welding process of T23 water cooled wall tube was simulated, and the welding residual stress field was obtained. Then,on the basis, put the working medium load on the spiral coil waterwall, the supercoated stress distribution of the welding residual stress and the stress of the working medium is obtained. Considering the bending moment formed by stagger joint which is the most common installation defects, the stress field distribution of butt welds in T23 water-cooled wall tubes was obtained by applying bending moment on the basis of the stress field of the welding residual stress and the working medium stress. The results show that, the welding residual stress is small, the effect of T23 heat treatment after welding to improve the weld quality is not obvious; The working medium load plays a great role in the hoop stress of the water cooled wall tube, and promotes the cracks in the butt welds; The axial stress on the water cooled wall tube produced by the installation defect stress is obvious, the stagger joint, and other installation defects are the main reason of crack propagation of spiral coil waterwall. It is recommended that the control the bending moment resulting from the stagger joint not exceed 756.5 NM.

  13. Three Short Videos by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Wessells, Stephen; Lowenstern, Jake; Venezky, Dina


    This is a collection of videos of unscripted interviews with Jake Lowenstern, who is the Scientist in Charge of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). YVO was created as a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and University of Utah to strengthen the long-term monitoring of volcanic and earthquake unrest in the Yellowstone National Park region. Yellowstone is the site of the largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features in the world and the first National Park. YVO is one of the five USGS Volcano Observatories that monitor volcanoes within the United States for science and public safety. These video presentations give insights about many topics of interest about this area. Title: Yes! Yellowstone is a Volcano An unscripted interview, January 2009, 7:00 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions to explain volcanic features at Yellowstone: 'How do we know Yellowstone is a volcano?', 'What is a Supervolcano?', 'What is a Caldera?','Why are there geysers at Yellowstone?', and 'What are the other geologic hazards in Yellowstone?' Title: Yellowstone Volcano Observatory An unscripted interview, January 2009, 7:15 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions about the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory: 'What is YVO?', 'How do you monitor volcanic activity at Yellowstone?', 'How are satellites used to study deformation?', 'Do you monitor geysers or any other aspect of the Park?', 'Are earthquakes and ground deformation common at Yellowstone?', 'Why is YVO a relatively small group?', and 'Where can I get more information?' Title: Yellowstone Eruptions An unscripted interview, January 2009, 6.45 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions to explain volcanic

  14. Volcano surveillance by ACR silver fox (United States)

    Patterson, M.C.L.; Mulligair, A.; Douglas, J.; Robinson, J.; Pallister, J.S.


    Recent growth in the business of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) both in the US and abroad has improved their overall capability, resulting in a reduction in cost, greater reliability and adoption into areas where they had previously not been considered. Uses in coastal and border patrol, forestry and agriculture have recently been evaluated in an effort to expand the observed area and reduce surveillance and reconnaissance costs for information gathering. The scientific community has both contributed and benefited greatly in this development. A larger suite of light-weight miniaturized sensors now exists for a range of applications which in turn has led to an increase in the gathering of information from these autonomous vehicles. In October 2004 the first eruption of Mount St Helens since 1986 caused tremendous interest amoUg people worldwide. Volcanologists at the U.S. Geological Survey rapidly ramped up the level of monitoring using a variety of ground-based sensors deployed in the crater and on the flanks of the volcano using manned helicopters. In order to develop additional unmanned sensing methods that can be used in potentially hazardous and low visibility conditions, a UAV experiment was conducted during the ongoing eruption early in November. The Silver Fox UAV was flown over and inside the crater to perform routine observation and data gathering, thereby demonstrating a technology that could reduce physical risk to scientists and other field operatives. It was demonstrated that UAVs can be flown autonomously at an active volcano and can deliver real time data to a remote location. Although still relatively limited in extent, these initial flights provided information on volcanic activity and thermal conditions within the crater and at the new (2004) lava dome. The flights demonstrated that readily available visual and infrared video sensors mounted in a small and relatively low-cost aerial platform can provide useful data on volcanic phenomena. This was

  15. Volcano Flank Structures on Earth and Mars (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Byrne, P. K.; Mathieu, L.; Murray, J. B.; Troll, V. R.


    Shield volcanoes on Earth and Mars share common features, including calderas and pit crater chains. A set of structures present on the sides of several of the large shields on Mars are not regarded as having Earth analogues, however. Flank terraces are topographically subtle structures, characterised by a gentle convex profile and a distinctive "fish scale" imbricate distribution pattern. Magma chamber inflation, lithospheric flexure, flank relaxation, or gravitational slumping have been suggested as terrace formation mechanisms. Terraces on both Mars and Earth are clearly visible only in slope maps, and may thus escape visual detection in the field. We show that both Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Etna (Sicily) display the same characteristic "fish scale" terrace pattern. This pattern delineates structures that we contend are terrestrial flank terraces. Heterogeneities in volcano geometry, due to buttressing or extension, result in terrace distributions that are not as evenly circumferential as those on Mars. Plan and cross-sectional profiles, however, parallel those of the Martian structures. These structures may also be present on Alayta (Ethiopia), Santa Cruz (Galapagos), and Tendürek Dagi (Turkey). Another type of structure, larger and steeper than flank terraces but sharing a similar plan-view morphology, is also present on Mauna Lau and Etna. These "flank bulges" appear to correlate with structures on Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion), Cosiguina (Nicaragua), and Karthala (Comoros) on Earth, and Apollinaris Patera and Tharsis Tholus on Mars. Elsewhere (Paul K. Byrne et al., this volume) we argue that lithospheric flexure is a likely formation mechanism for Martian terraces. Flexure is active beneath Mauna Loa, and possibly under Etna, and so may also be responsible for terrestrial flank terraces. Scaled analogue models suggest that the larger flank bulges are due to magma intrusions derived from large chambers within these edifices. There is thus a strong

  16. Numerical Simulation of Heat and Flow Behaviors in Butt-fusion Welding Process of HDPE Pipes with Curved Fusion Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Kyung Hyun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sunwoong; Oh, Ju Seok [Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Butt-fusion welding process is used to join the polymeric pipes. Recently, some researchers suggest the curved surface to enhance a welding quality. We investigated how curved welding surface affects heat and flow behaviors of polymer melt during the process in 2D axisymmetric domain with finite element method, and discussed the effect to the welding quality. In this study, we considered HDPE pipes. In heat soak stage, curved phase interface between the melt and solid is shown along the shape of welding surface. In jointing stage, squeezing flow is generated between curved welding surface and phase interface. The low shear rate in fusion domain reduces the alignment of polymer to the perpendicular direction of pipes, and then this phenomenon is expected to help to enhance the welding quality.

  17. Influence of the phase morphology on the weldability of PLA/PBAT-blends by using butt-welding (United States)

    Goebel, L.; Bonten, C.


    The material development in the field of bioplastics is steadily increasing. It is important to examine the processability but the Investigation of further process steps is also very important. In this paper the weldability of bioplastics is discussed. Compounds of Polylactide (PLA) and Polybutyleneadipate-terephthalate (PBAT) are produced by a twin screw extruder with different mixing ratios. Tensile specimens are produced by injection moulding and the tensile tests are carried out. In order to verify the weldability, some tensile specimens are cut in halfes and butt welded. Afterwards a tensile test is performed with the welded samples and the results are compared with the values of the unwelded samples. For understanding the results, the morphology of the welds were examined and correlated. It has been found that blends with a mixing ratio of 50:50 have the lowest welding factor, because of the immiscibility of PLA and PBAT. Weld images show segregated areas that reduce the force transmission.

  18. Fatigue properties of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy butt joints processed by vacuum brazing and tungsten inert gas welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei Lin


    Full Text Available Tungsten inert gas welding and vacuum brazing butt joints of Al–Mg–Si alloy 6061 in the artificially aged condition T6 were studied. Constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue loading tests were performed. The experimental S-N curves were compared with the fatigue design curves recommended by the International Institute of Welding, British Standard, and Eurocode 9. Two mean stress correction methods, Goodman and Gerber, were evaluated. In terms of the size effect on the fatigue life, this article proposed an innovational thickness correction method based on the ratio of the ultimate tensile strengths of specimens with different thickness. For vacuum brazing components, the tensile strength–based thickness correction method was better than the thickness correction methods recommended by the International Institute of Welding and Eurocode 9.

  19. The coal deposits of the Alkali Butte, the Big Sand Draw, and the Beaver Creek fields, Fremont County, Wyoming (United States)

    Thompson, Raymond M.; White, Vincent L.


    Large coal reserves are present in three areas located between 12 and 20 miles southeast of Riverton, Fremont County, central Wyoming. Coal in two of these areas, the Alkali Butte coal field and the Big Sand Draw coal field, is exposed on the surface and has been developed to some extent by underground mining. The Beaver Creek coal field is known only from drill cuttings and cores from wells drilled for oil and gas in the Beaver Creek oil and gas field.These three coal areas can be reached most readily from Riverton, Wyo. State Route 320 crosses Wind River about 1 mile south of Riverton. A few hundred yards south of the river a graveled road branches off the highway and extends south across the Popo Agie River toward Sand Draw oil and gas field. About 8 miles south of the highway along the Sand Draw road, a dirt road bears east and along this road it is about 12 miles to the Bell coal mine in the Alkali Butte coal field. Three miles southeast of the Alkali Butte turn-off, 3 miles of oiled road extends southwest into the Beaver Creek oil and gas field. About 6 miles southeast of the Beaver Creek turn-off, in the valley of Little Sand Draw Creek, a dirt road extends east 1. mile and then southeast 1 mile to the Downey mine in the Big Sand Draw coal field. Location of these coal fields is shown on figure 1 with their relationship to the Wind River basin and other coal fields, place localities, and wells mentioned in this report. The coal in the Alkali Butte coal field is exposed partly on the Wind River Indian Reservation in Tps. 1 and 2 S., R. 6 E., and partly on public land. Coal in the Beaver Creek and Big Sand Draw coal fields is mainly on public land. The region has a semiarid climate with rainfall averaging less than 10 in. per year. When rain does fall the sandy-bottomed stream channels fill rapidly and are frequently impassable for a few hours. Beaver Creek, Big Sand Draw, Little Sand Draw, and Kirby Draw and their smaller tributaries drain the area and flow

  20. Aluminum 6060-T6 friction stir welded butt joints: fatigue resistance with different tools and feed rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baragetti, S.; D' Urso, G. [University of Bergamo, Viale Marconi (Italy)


    The fatigue behavior of AA6060-T6 friction stir welded butt joints was investigated. The joints were produced by using both a standard and a threaded tri-flute cylindrical-tool with flat shoulder. The friction stir welding process was carried out using different feed rates. Preliminary tensile tests, micrograph analyses and hardness profile measurements across the welds were carried out. Welded and unwelded fatigue samples were tested under axial loading (R = 0.1) with upper limits of 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5} cycles, using threaded and unthreaded (standard) tools at different feed rates. The best tensile and fatigue performance was obtained using the standard tool at low feed rate.

  1. Streamlining volcano-related, web-based data display and design with a new U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Science Center website (United States)

    Stovall, W. K.; Randall, M. J.; Cervelli, P. F.


    The goal of the newly designed U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Science Center website is to provide a reliable, easy to understand, and accessible format to display volcano monitoring data and scientific information on US volcanoes and their hazards. There are greater than 150 active or potentially active volcanoes in the United States, and the Volcano Science Center aims to advance the scientific understanding of volcanic processes at these volcanoes and to lessen the harmful impacts of potential volcanic activity. To fulfill a Congressional mandate, the USGS Volcano Hazards Program must communicate scientific findings to authorities and the public in a timely and understandable form. The easiest and most efficient way to deliver this information is via the Internet. We implemented a new database model to organize website content, ensuring consistency, accuracy, and timeliness of information display. Real-time monitoring data is available for over 50 volcanoes in the United States, and web-site visitors are able to interact with a dynamic, map-based display system to access and analyze these data, which are managed by scientists from the five USGS volcano observatories. Helicorders, recent hypocenters, webcams, tilt measurements, deformation, gas emissions, and changes in hydrology can be viewed for any of the real-time instruments. The newly designed Volcano Science Center web presence streamlines the display of research findings, hazard assessments, and real-time monitoring data for the U.S. volcanoes.

  2. Deformation time series at Llaima volcano, southern Andes (United States)

    Bathke, Hannes; Walter, Thomas; Motagh, Mahdi; Shirzaei, Manoochehr


    Llaima volcano, with an edifice height of 3125 m and a volume of about 400 km³, is one of the largest and most active volcanoes in South America. Its eruptive history suggest a potential for very large and hazardous eruptions including pyroclastic flows, air falls and material remobilization in the form of lahars affecting regions even at the lower apron and beyond, posing a significant risk to civilizations, infrastructure and traffic ways. Llaima volcano is near constantly active; since the 17th century strombolian eruptions occurred at a mean frequency of one eruptive phase every five years. Although this strong activity and socioeconomic importance the source of magma, possible magma reservoirs and deformations prior to or associated with eruptions are hitherto unknown. One of the problems for establishing a monitoring system is that Llaima is difficult to access and located in vegetated and topographically rough terrain. To better understand the volcano physics, we created an InSAR time series based on the PS technique using 18 Envisat images from Dezember 2002 to November 2008. Using the StaMPS software we obtained 24,000 stable pixels in the vicinity of the volcano, that allow to investigate a spatiotemporal displacement field. Associated with the recent eruptions, we observed non-linear subsidence at the vicinity of the volcano base. We assessed the validiy of the deformation signal, using statistical tests and discussed the possible influence of athmospheric and topographic errors. To investigate the cause of the observed spatiotemporal deformation we employed an inverse source modelling approach, and simulated the dislocation source as an analytical pressurized spherical model. The inverted source can reproduce the observed deformation and allows to constrain the location of the magma reservoir under Llaima. Moreover we observed a signal might be associated to a slow landslide at the eastern flank of the volcano between December 2007 and Januar 2008. In


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto Kurnio


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to understand the characteristics of a volcano occurred in marine environment, as Weh Island where Sabang City located is still demonstrated its volcanic cone morphology either through satellite imagery or bathymetric map. Methods used were marine geology, marine geophysics and oceanography. Results show that surface volcanism (sea depth less than 50 m take place as fumaroles, solfataras, hot ground, hot spring, hot mud pool and alteration in the vicinities of seafloor and coastal area vents. Seismic records also showed acoustic turbidity in the sea water column due to gas bubblings produced by seafloor fumaroles. Geochemical analyses show that seafloor samples in the vicinities of active and non-active fumarole vent are abundances with rare earth elements (REE. These were interpreted that the fumarole bring along REE through its gases and deposited on the surrounding seafloor surface. Co-existence between active fault of Sumatra and current volcanism produce hydrothermal mineralization in fault zone as observed in Serui and Pria Laot-middle of Weh Island which both are controlled by normal faults and graben.

  4. Permafrost on tropical Maunakea volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Leopold, Matthias; Schorghofer, Norbert; Yoshikawa, Kenji


    Maunakea volcano on Hawaii Island is known for one of the most unusual occurrences of sporadic permafrost. It was first documented in two cinder cone craters in the 1970's near the summit of the mountain where mean annual air temperatures are currently around +4 deg. Our study investigates the current state of this permafrost, by acquiring multi-year ground temperature data and by applying electrical resistivity tomography and ground penetrating radar techniques along several survey lines. Both of the previously known ice bodies still exist, but one of them has dramatically shrunken in volume. Based on current warming trends it might disappear soon. In addition insolation modelling, temperature probing, and geomorphological indicators were used to prospect for additional permafrost bodies on the wider summit region, however, none was found. It seems that permafrost preferentially appears in the interiors of cinder cones, even though there are exterior slopes that receive less sunlight annually. We hypothesis that snow cover with its high albedo, and a layer of coarse boulders where cold air settles in the pore space during calm nights, play a significant role in cooling the subsurface. Due to the relatively simple setting, the study site is an ideal model system and may also serve as an analogue to Mars.

  5. Volcano-tectonic architecture of a Caldera Complex, Karthala volcano, Grande Comore: new field observations (United States)

    Poppe, S.; Kervyn, M.; Soulé, H.; Cnudde, V.; De Kock, T.; Jacobs, P.


    Karthala volcano on the oceanic island of Grande Comore, West-Indian Ocean, is one of worlds' largest active alkaline basalt shield volcanoes, with 5 eruptions since 1991. In the last century the volcanic activity mainly concentrated within the 3.5 x 2.8 km large area of the summit caldera complex. Limited study has so far been carried out to unravel the structure and geometry of the summit caldera complex, the collapse chronology and the recent changes caused by the 2005 - 2007 eruption phases. Two exploratory missions to the Karthala summit in July 2011 led to an updated overview of the volcano-tectonic structures, evidence of the local orientation of the principle stresses and a preliminary stratigraphy of the 400 m deep rock sequence exposed in the caldera walls. Three overlapping caldera's build the main structure of the complex, with vertically-subsided blocks forming intermediate terraces along the caldera structures. Within these blocks, several graben-like structures with N-S and N135°E orientations are evidencing a secondary influence of extension during or after the overall vertical collapse. One of the southwestern caldera blocks shows a 'tilted block' morphology, with a caldera-inward rotation. 'Choungou Changouméni', a nested pit crater in the Northern caldera, was 30 m deep in 1965 and has now been almost completely filled with pyroclastic deposits and lava flows. Caldera walls in the whole complex consist of massif meter-thick alkali-basalt flows with decimetric intercalations of weathered pyroclastic layers, and are topped by scoria and tuff cones. The caldera floor itself is covered by volcanic ash, lapilli, and massif scoriaceous surfaces of ancient flows. At the intersection of the 3 main caldera structures two deep explosion craters are located, together named 'Choungou Chahalé'. These were the centres of recent phreatic activity. Their vertical walls show a sequence of thick alkali basalt flows and hold numerous cross-cutting dykes which

  6. Tephra compositions from Late Quaternary volcanoes around the Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Kraus, S.


    Crustal extension and rifting processes opened the Bransfield Strait between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula during the last 4 Ma. Similar processes on the Peninsula's eastern side are responsible for volcanism along Larsen Rift. There are at least 11 volcanic centers with known or suspected Late Pleistocene / Holocene explosive activity (Fig. 1). Fieldwork was carried out on the islands Deception, Penguin, Bridgeman and Paulet, moreover at Melville Peak (King George Is.) and Rezen Peak (Livingston Is.). Of special importance is the second ever reported visit and sampling at Sail Rock, and the work on never before visited outcrops on the northern slopes and at the summit of Cape Purvis volcano (Fig. 1). The new bulk tephra ICP-MS geochemical data provide a reliable framework to distinguish the individual volcanic centers from each other. According to their Mg-number, Melville Peak and Penguin Island represent the most primitive magma source. Nb/Y ratios higher than 0.67 in combination with elevated Th/Yb and Ta/Yb ratios and strongly enriched LREE seem to be diagnostic to distinguish the volcanoes located along the Larsen Rift from those associated with Bransfield Rift. Sr/Y ratios discriminate between the individual Larsen Rift volcanoes, Paulet Island showing considerably higher values than Cape Purvis volcano. Along Bransfield Rift, Bridgeman Island and Melville Peak have notably lower Nb/Y and much higher Th/Nb than Deception Island, Penguin Island and Sail Rock. The latter displays almost double the Th/Yb ratio as compared to Deception Island, and also much higher LREE enrichment but extraordinarily low Ba/Th, discriminating it from Penguin Island. Such extremely low Ba/Th ratios are also typical for Melville Peak, but for none of the other volcanoes. Penguin Island has almost double the Ba/Th and Sr/Y ratios higher than any other investigated volcano. Whereas the volcanoes located in the northern part of Bransfield Strait have Zr

  7. Eruptions of Hawaiian volcanoes - Past, present, and future (United States)

    Tilling, Robert I.; Heliker, Christina; Swanson, Donald A.


    Viewing an erupting volcano is a memorable experience, one that has inspired fear, superstition, worship, curiosity, and fascination since before the dawn of civilization. In modern times, volcanic phenomena have attracted intense scientific interest, because they provide the key to understanding processes that have created and shaped more than 80 percent of the Earth's surface. The active Hawaiian volcanoes have received special attention worldwide because of their frequent spectacular eruptions, which often can be viewed and studied with relative ease and safety. In January 1987, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), located on the rim of Kilauea Volcano, celebrated its 75th Anniversary. In honor of HVO's Diamond Jubilee, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published Professional Paper 1350 (see list of Selected Readings, page 57), a comprehensive summary of the many studies on Hawaiian volcanism by USGS and other scientists through the mid-1980s. Drawing from the wealth of data contained in that volume, the USGS also published in 1987 the original edition of this general-interest booklet, focusing on selected aspects of the eruptive history, style, and products of two of Hawai'i's active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. This revised edition of the booklet-spurred by the approaching Centennial of HVO in January 2012-summarizes new information gained since the January 1983 onset of Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption, which has continued essentially nonstop through 2010 and shows no signs of letup. It also includes description of Kilauea's summit activity within Halema'uma'u Crater, which began in mid-March 2008 and continues as of this writing (late 2010). This general-interest booklet is a companion to the one on Mount St. Helens Volcano first published in 1984 and revised in 1990 (see Selected Readings). Together, these publications illustrate the contrast between the two main types of volcanoes: shield volcanoes, such as those in Hawai'i, which generally

  8. A Broadly-Based Training Program in Volcano Hazards Monitoring at the Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes (United States)

    Thomas, D. M.; Bevens, D.


    The Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes, in cooperation with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program at HVO and CVO, offers a broadly based volcano hazards training program targeted toward scientists and technicians from developing nations. The program has been offered for 25 years and provides a hands-on introduction to a broad suite of volcano monitoring techniques, rather than detailed training with just one. The course content has evolved over the life of the program as the needs of the trainees have changed: initially emphasizing very basic monitoring techniques (e.g. precise leveling, interpretation of seismic drum records, etc.) but, as the level of sophistication of the trainees has increased, training in more advanced technologies has been added. Currently, topics of primary emphasis have included volcano seismology and seismic networks; acquisition and modeling of geodetic data; methods of analysis and monitoring of gas geochemistry; interpretation of volcanic deposits and landforms; training in LAHARZ, GIS mapping of lahar risks; and response to and management of volcanic crises. The course also provides training on public outreach, based on CSAV's Hawaii-specific hazards outreach programs, and volcano preparedness and interactions with the media during volcanic crises. It is an intensive eight week course with instruction and field activities underway 6 days per week; it is now offered in two locations, Hawaii Island, for six weeks, and the Cascades volcanoes of the Pacific Northwest, for two weeks, to enable trainees to experience field conditions in both basaltic and continental volcanic environments. The survival of the program for more than two decades demonstrates that a need for such training exists and there has been interaction and contribution to the program by the research community, however broader engagement with the latter continues to present challenges. Some of the reasons for this will be discussed.

  9. The Seismic Structure of the Mantle Wedge under Cascade Volcanoes (United States)

    Levander, A.; Liu, K.; Porritt, R. W.; Allen, R. M.


    Under a number of Cascade volcanoes we have identified a characteristic seismic signature in individual station Ps receiver functions and in Ps CCP image volumes made from USArray Transportable Array and Flexible Array stations. In the mantle wedge, the CCP images and the RFs show a strong negative event just below the Moho, paired with a weak to moderate positive event between 50-70 km, and a strong slab event. At most of these volcanoes, a strong negative signal also appears between 15 and 25 km depth in the crust. The signature is particularly clear under Mt. Lassen and Mt. Shasta in data from FAME (Flexible Array Mendocino Experiment), where instruments were close to the volcanic centers. Comparing the average Cascadia volcano signature to those of stations throughout the western U.S. and specifically those of the Cascadia backarc region, shows that this signal is unique to the Cascadia volcanoes. Joint inversion of the Ps receiver functions and ambient noise Rayleigh wave phase velocities (Porritt et al., 2011; Liu et al., submitted) for those volcanoes with the paired events provides 1D shear velocity profiles having common characteristics. A strong sub-Moho low velocity zone from 5 to 15 km thick gives rise to the paired negative-positive signals in the receiver functions. The sub-Moho low velocity zones, with velocities of 3.7 CIDER 2011 summer program.

  10. Machine Learning Method for Pattern Recognition in Volcano Seismic Spectra (United States)

    Radic, V.; Unglert, K.; Jellinek, M.


    Variations in the spectral content of volcano seismicity related to changes in volcanic activity are commonly identified manually in spectrograms. However, long time series of monitoring data at volcano observatories require tools to facilitate automated and rapid processing. Techniques such as Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering methods can help to quickly and automatically identify important patterns related to impending eruptions. In this study we develop and evaluate an algorithm applied on a set of synthetic volcano seismic spectra as well as observed spectra from Kılauea Volcano, Hawai`i. Our goal is to retrieve a set of known spectral patterns that are associated with dominant phases of volcanic tremor before, during, and after periods of volcanic unrest. The algorithm is based on training a SOM on the spectra and then identifying local maxima and minima on the SOM 'topography'. The topography is derived from the first two PCA modes so that the maxima represent the SOM patterns that carry most of the variance in the spectra. Patterns identified in this way reproduce the known set of spectra. Our results show that, regardless of the level of white noise in the spectra, the algorithm can accurately reproduce the characteristic spectral patterns and their occurrence in time. The ability to rapidly classify spectra of volcano seismic data without prior knowledge of the character of the seismicity at a given volcanic system holds great potential for real time or near-real time applications, and thus ultimately for eruption forecasting.

  11. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes (United States)

    Nichols, M.L.; Malone, S.D.; Moran, S.C.; Thelen, W.A.; Vidale, J.E.


    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Distribution of Gassy Sediments and Mud Volcanoes Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Kun Chiu


    Full Text Available This study presents the results from recent intense marine geophysical surveys conducted offshore of southwestern Taiwan. Mud volcanoes and gassy sediments have been identified along chirp sonar and seismic reflection profile data. The distribution of gassy sediments and mud volcanoes has been compiled, showing these features extending from the accretionary wedge to the passive China continental margin. Submarine mud volcanoes could be grouped into four main clusters in the accretionary wedge province: offshore Kaohsiung, adjacent to the Kaoping Submarine Canyon, near the head of the Fangliao Submarine Canyon and along the Yung-An Lineament. Each cluster is composed of a few to more than 10 submarine mud volcanoes. Their origin could be related to gas hydrate dissociation with rising highpressure fluid along faults or mud diapir piercing the seafloor. These gassy sediments and mud volcanoes could be formed by fluids escaping from dewatering sedimentary layers of mud diapirs, or along faults and fractures where free gases or gases dissociating from hydrates migrate to the seafloor.

  13. Pattern recognition in volcano seismology - Reducing spectral dimensionality (United States)

    Unglert, K.; Radic, V.; Jellinek, M.


    Variations in the spectral content of volcano seismicity can relate to changes in volcanic activity. Low-frequency seismic signals often precede or accompany volcanic eruptions. However, they are commonly manually identified in spectra or spectrograms, and their definition in spectral space differs from one volcanic setting to the next. Increasingly long time series of monitoring data at volcano observatories require automated tools to facilitate rapid processing and aid with pattern identification related to impending eruptions. Furthermore, knowledge transfer between volcanic settings is difficult if the methods to identify and analyze the characteristics of seismic signals differ. To address these challenges we evaluate whether a machine learning technique called Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) can be used to characterize the dominant spectral components of volcano seismicity without the need for any a priori knowledge of different signal classes. This could reduce the dimensions of the spectral space typically analyzed by orders of magnitude, and enable rapid processing and visualization. Preliminary results suggest that the temporal evolution of volcano seismicity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, can be reduced to as few as 2 spectral components by using a combination of SOMs and cluster analysis. We will further refine our methodology with several datasets from Hawai`i and Alaska, among others, and compare it to other techniques.

  14. Multibeam Bathymetry of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas; Rathlau, Rike; Schenke, Hans Werner


    The Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano is a natural laboratory to study geological, geochemical, and ecological processes related to deep-water mud volcanism. High resolution bathymetry of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano was recorded during RV Polarstern expedition ARK XIX/3 utilizing the multibeam system Hydrosweep DS-2. Dense spacing of the survey lines and slow ship speed (5 knots) provided necessary point density to generate a regular 10 m grid. Generalization was applied to preserve and represent morphological structures appropriately. Contour lines were derived showing detailed topography at the centre of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano and generalized contours in the vicinity. We provide a brief introduction to the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano area and describe in detail data recording and processing methods, as well as the morphology of the area. Accuracy assessment was made to evaluate the reliability of a 10 m resolution terrain model. Multibeam sidescan data were recorded along with depth measurements and show reflectivity variations from light grey values at the centre of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano to dark grey values (less reflective) at the surrounding moat.

  15. Investigating the potential for volcano flank instability triggered by recent dike intrusions at Fogo volcano, Cape Verde (United States)

    Bagnardi, Marco; González, Pablo; Hooper, Andrew; Wright, Tim


    Gravitational flank-collapses at volcanoes are rare but catastrophic events that have rarely been witnessed by humans (e.g., Mount St. Helens in 1980). It has been proposed that gravitationally unstable volcanic flanks can be classified in two different types based on the flanks slope: volcanoes characterized by gentle slopes (Hawaiian-like) and that have very dynamic flanks exhibiting high rates of deformation and, conversely, steep-sided volcanoes (Macaronesian-like) showing minimal ground deformation. The two types of volcanoes could therefore reach the stable-state through different mechanisms and experience different mass-wasting processes. Numerous giant debris-avalanche deposits have been identified offshore the volcanoes of the Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Given the steep slopes of these volcanoes, the mass-wasting events may have occurred suddenly and with minimal precursory signals. Several mechanisms have been proposed as potential triggers and among these the intrusion of shallow dikes feeding fissure eruptions is one of the best candidates. In this work, we investigate this hypothesis in the light of new and revised results derived from the analysis of geodetic observations at Fogo volcano (Cape Verde). Fogo has erupted twice in the last 20 years (1995 and 2014-2015) and in both occasions the volcano erupted along fissures that seem to be fed by dykes intruding the shallow crust and the volcanic edifice. We re-process radar data from the ERS satellite to obtain state-of-the-art deformation maps spanning the 1995 eruption and revisit previously proposed models of the magmatic system. Our results indicate that both eruptions were fed by sub-vertical dikes, steeply dipping to the SE, and radiating from the Pico do Fogo volcanic cone to the SW. We also study the effect of such magmatic intrusions in terms of the stress regime that they generate and analyze whether the 1995 and 2014 intrusions could potentially destabilize the structures along which a

  16. Detailed Mapping of the Alu Volcano, Ethiopia (United States)

    Agrain, Guillaume; Buso, Roxane; Carlier, Jean; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin


    The Alu volcano in the Danakil Depression is interpreted as a forced-fold related uplift, related to progressive intrusions of sills, or similar tabular intrusions. Alu is in a very isolated and difficult to access area, but Google Earth provides high resolution images that can be used for mapping the structure and volcanic features. We use the imagery to map in as much detail as possible all the morphological features of Alu, which we separate into primary volcanic features and secondary structural features. The mapping has been undertaken by a group undergraduates, graduates and researchers. The group has checked and validated the interpretation of each feature mapped. The data set is available as a kmz, and has been imported into QGIS. The detailed mapping reveals a complex history of multiple lava fields and fissure eruptions, some which pre-date uplift, while others have occurred during uplift, but are subsequently deformed. Similarly, there are cross-cutting structures, and we are able to set up a chronology of events. This shows that uplift grew in an area which was already covered by lavas, that some lava has been probably erupted from Alu's flanks, while most eruptions have been from around the base of Alu. Early in the deformation, thrust faults developed on the lower flanks, similar to those described near the Grosmanaux uplift (van Wyk de Vries et al 2014). These are cut by the larger faults, and by minor fissures. The mapping provides an accessible way of preparing for dedicated fieldwork in preparation of an eventual field expedition to Alu, while extracting the most from remote sensing data.

  17. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.


    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  18. The 2013 eruption of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska: a spatter eruption at an ice- and snow-clad volcano (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Haney, Matthew M.; Fee, David; Schneider, David J.; Wech, Aaron G.


    The 2013 eruption of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska began on 13 May and ended 49 days later on 1 July. The eruption was characterized by persistent lava fountaining from a vent just north of the summit, intermittent strombolian explosions, and ash, gas, and aerosol plumes that reached as high as 8 km above sea level and on several occasions extended as much as 500 km downwind of the volcano. During the first several days of the eruption, accumulations of spatter near the vent periodically collapsed to form small pyroclastic avalanches that eroded and melted snow and ice to form lahars on the lower north flank of the volcano. Continued lava fountaining led to the production of agglutinate lava flows that extended to the base of the volcano, about 3–4 km beyond the vent. The generation of fountain-fed lava flows was a dominant process during the 2013 eruption; however, episodic collapse of spatter accumulations and formation of hot spatter-rich granular avalanches was a more efficient process for melting snow and ice and initiating lahars. The lahars and ash plumes generated during the eruption did not pose any serious hazards for the area. However, numerous local airline flights were cancelled or rerouted, and trace amounts of ash fall occurred at all of the local communities surrounding the volcano, including Cold Bay, Nelson Lagoon, Sand Point, and King Cove.

  19. Determining the stress field in active volcanoes using focal mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Massa


    Full Text Available Stress inversion of seismological datasets became an essential tool to retrieve the stress field of active tectonics and volcanic areas. In particular, in volcanic areas, it is able to put constrains on volcano-tectonics and in general in a better understanding of the volcano dynamics. During the last decades, a wide range of stress inversion techniques has been proposed, some of them specifically conceived to manage seismological datasets. A modern technique of stress inversion, the BRTM, has been applied to seismological datasets available at three different regions of active volcanism: Mt. Somma-Vesuvius (197 Fault Plane Solutions, FPSs, Campi Flegrei (217 FPSs and Long Valley Caldera (38,000 FPSs. The key role of stress inversion techniques in the analysis of the volcano dynamics has been critically discussed. A particular emphasis was devoted to performances of the BRTM applied to volcanic areas.

  20. Earth Girl Volcano: An Interactive Game for Disaster Preparedness (United States)

    Kerlow, Isaac


    Earth Girl Volcano is an interactive casual strategy game for disaster preparedness. The project is designed for mainstream audiences, particularly for children, as an engaging and fun way to learn about volcano hazards. Earth Girl is a friendly character that kids can easily connect with and she helps players understand how to best minimize volcanic risk. Our previous award-winning game, Earth Girl Tsunami, has seen success on social media, and is available as a free app for both Android and iOS tables and large phones in seven languages: Indonesian, Thai, Tamil, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, French and English. This is the first public viewing of the Earth Girl Volcano new game prototype.

  1. Determining the stress field in active volcanoes using focal mechanisms (United States)

    Massa, Bruno; D'Auria, Luca; Cristiano, Elena; De Matteo, Ada


    Stress inversion of seismological datasets became an essential tool to retrieve the stress field of active tectonics and volcanic areas. In particular, in volcanic areas, it is able to put constrains on volcano-tectonics and in general in a better understanding of the volcano dynamics. During the last decades, a wide range of stress inversion techniques has been proposed, some of them specifically conceived to manage seismological datasets. A modern technique of stress inversion, the BRTM, has been applied to seismological datasets available at three different regions of active volcanism: Mt. Somma-Vesuvius (197 Fault Plane Solutions, FPSs), Campi Flegrei (217 FPSs) and Long Valley Caldera (38,000 FPSs). The key role of stress inversion techniques in the analysis of the volcano dynamics has been critically discussed. A particular emphasis was devoted to performances of the BRTM applied to volcanic areas.

  2. Linking petrology and seismology at an active volcano. (United States)

    Saunders, Kate; Blundy, Jon; Dohmen, Ralf; Cashman, Kathy


    Many active volcanoes exhibit changes in seismicity, ground deformation, and gas emissions, which in some instances arise from magma movement in the crust before eruption. An enduring challenge in volcano monitoring is interpreting signs of unrest in terms of the causal subterranean magmatic processes. We examined over 300 zoned orthopyroxene crystals from the 1980-1986 eruption of Mount St. Helens that record pulsatory intrusions of new magma and volatiles into an existing larger reservoir before the eruption occurred. Diffusion chronometry applied to orthopyroxene crystal rims shows that episodes of magma intrusion correlate temporally with recorded seismicity, providing evidence that some seismic events are related to magma intrusion. These time scales are commensurate with monitoring signals at restless volcanoes, thus improving our ability to forecast volcanic eruptions by using petrology.

  3. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano (United States)

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.


    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  4. Topography of the shield volcano, Olympus Mons on Mars (United States)

    Wu, S. S. C.; Garcia, P. A.; Jordan, R.; Schafer, F. J.; Skiff, B. A.


    Olympus Mons, one of the largest known shield volcanoes in the solar system, covers an area of more than 3.2 x 10 to the 5th sq km and has a diameter of more than 600 km, excluding its vast aureole deposits. The structure is five times larger than the largest shield volcano on the earth. It is situated on the north-west flank of the Tharsis volcanic region, a broad topographic rise on the Martian surface. The volcano has three physical subdivisions: the summit caldera, the terraced upper flanks, and the lower flanks, which terminate in a scarp 2-10 km high that nearly surrounds the structure. A large block of images of the Tharsis region, including Olympus Mons, was obtained by the Viking mission. A topographic map of Olympus Mons is presented here, which has been compiled using various combinations of stereo pairs of these images, together with stereoscopic perspective views generated by image processing techniques.

  5. Volcanoes: effusions and explosions. Interactive exhibits to understand how volcanoes work. (United States)

    Nostro, C.; Freda, L.; Castellano, C.; Arcoraci, L.; Baroux, E.


    The Educational & Outreach Group (EOG) of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica & Vulcanologia created a portable museum to provide educational opportunities in volcanology, volcanic risk and Earth science for students and visitors. The EOG developed this project for the "Festival della Scienza", organized in Genoa, Italy, in October - November, 2007, which was a parade of over 200 events, including scientific and technological exhibitions, workshops, meetings, lectures, books and video presentations. In this museum visitors can successively see many posters and movies and play with interactive exhibits. A little 3D-movie shows the Big Bang, the formation of Solar System and, in particular the formation of the Earth. Many interactive exhibits illustrate why, where and when earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur around the world and allow to introduce the visitor to the plate tectonics theory. A 3D magnetic plate tectonic puzzle can be put down and reconstructed by visitors to understand the Earth's surface configuration. Then two other 3D Earth models show what drives the plates and the inner Earth structure. An interactive program illustrates where and when earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in accelerated time on maps of various areas around the world. Playing with a block diagram it is possible to produce an earthquake along a 1 meter long strike slip fault in a destroying all the man-made constructions close to it. A little movie introduces to volcanoes' world. Two small interactive exhibits allow visitors to understand the mechanism for the explosive and the effusive eruptions. Two other exciting interactive exhibits allow visitors to "create" two different eruptions: the explosive and the effusive ones. It is possible to get inside a volcano (a 2 meter high interactive exhibit) to attend an eruption from the magmatic chamber to the Earth surface. A big hall is completed dedicated to Italian volcanoes (Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei, Etna, Stromboli, Vulcano

  6. 2004 Deformation of Okmok Volcano,Alaska, USA (United States)

    Fournier, T. J.; Freymueller, J. T.


    Okmok Volcano is a basaltic shield volcano with a 10km diameter caldera located on Umnak Island in the Aleutian Arc, Alaska. Okmok has had frequent effusive eruptions, the latest in 1997. In 2002 the Alaska Volcano Observatory installed a seismic network and three continuous GPS stations. Two stations are located in the caldera and one is located at the base of the volcano at Fort Glenn. Because of instrumentation problems the GPS network was not fully operational until August 2003. A fourth GPS site, located on the south flank of the volcano, came online in September 2004. The three continuous GPS instruments captured a rapid inflation event at Okmok Volcano spanning 6 months from March to August 2004. The instruments give a wonderful time-series of the episode but poor spatial coverage. Modeling the deformation is accomplished by supplementing the continuous data with campaign surveys conducted in the summers of 2002, 2003 and 2004. Displacements between the 2002 and 2003 campaigns show a large inflation event between those time periods. The continuous and campaign data suggest that deformation at Okmok is characterized by short-lived rapid inflation interspersed with periods of moderate inflation. Velocities during the 2004 event reached a maximum of 31cm/yr in the vertical direction and 15cm/yr eastward at the station OKCD, compared with the pre-inflation velocities of 4cm/yr in the vertical and 2.5cm/yr southeastward. Using a Mogi point source model both prior to and during the inflation gives a source location in the center of the caldera and a depth of about 3km. The source strength rate is three times larger during the inflation event than the period preceding it. Based on the full time series of campaign and continuous GPS data, it appears that the variation in inflation rate results from changes in the magma supply rate and not from changes in the depth of the source.

  7. Slope movement and instability in Kanlaon Volcano, Philippines (United States)

    Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A. M. A.; Herrero, T. M. L.; Morales Rivera, A. M.; Amelug, F.


    Kanlaon is an active stratovolcano with at least 29 recorded eruptions since 1899. It is one of the few volcanoes in the Philippines with known debris avalanche deposits associated to it. The deposit is characterized by prominent hummocks distributed at least 300 sq. km. in the southwest side of the volcano. Stratovolcanoes are known to be inherently unstable due to numerous factors such as overburden, edifice discontinuities, basement structures and magmatic migration. Catastrophic debris avalanches are often the consequence of this instability.Lineaments and collapse structures were mapped by interpreting a high-resolution topographic model of the volcano. Several arcuate scarp structures opening southwest towards the direction of the deposit are clearly seen, most likely the amphitheater from the debris avalanche. Most prominent are those near the summit, where more recent eruptions have overlain most of the amphitheater. In addition, clusters of N-S, NNW-SSE, and NE-SW lineaments are seen in the SE to the SW flank of the volcano, possibly a manifestation of spreading or downward movement to the south or southwest, where the debris avalanche deposits are.InSAR time-series analysis using ascending ALOS PALSAR imagery acquired from 2007-2011 shows LOS range decrease at a rate of ~2 cm/yr in the western flank of Kanlaon near the summit. During this period, there was no eruption in the volcano, with the last an explosive phreatic eruption on June 2006, prior to the acquisition of the imagery. The gradual movement appears to be constrained within the old collapsed sector of the volcano and may be related to potential incipient flank instability controlled by edifice discontinuities.

  8. New geophysical views of Mt.Melbourne Volcano (East Antarctica) (United States)

    Armadillo, E.; Gambetta, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Corr, H.; Bozzo, E.


    Mt. Melbourne volcano is located along the transition between the Transantarctic Mountains and the West Antarctic Rift System. Recent volcanic activity is suggested by the occurrence of blankets of pyroclastic pumice and scoria fall around the eastern and southern flanks of Mt Melbourne and by pyroclastic layers interbedded with the summit snows. Geothermal activity in the crater area of Mount Melbourne may be linked to the intrusion of dykes within the last 200 years. Geophysical networks suggest that Mount Melbourne is a quiescent volcano, possibly characterised by slow internal dynamics. During the 2002-2003 Italian Antarctic campaign a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was performed within the TIMM (Tectonics and Interior of Mt. Melbourne area) project. This helicopter-borne survey was flown at low-altitude and in drape-mode configuration (305 m above terrain) with a line separation less than 500 m. Our new high-resolution magnetic maps reveal the largely ice-covered magmatic and tectonic patters in the Mt. Melbourne volcano area. Additionally, in the frame of the UK-Italian ISODYN-WISE project (2005-06), an airborne ice-sounding radar survey was flown. We combine the sub-ice topography with images and models of the interior of Mt. Melbourne volcano, as derived from the high resolution aeromagnetic data and land gravity data. Our new geophysical maps and models also provide a new tool to study the regional setting of the volcano. In particular we re-assess whether there is geophysical evidence for coupling between strike-slip faulting, the Terror Rift, and Mount Melbourne volcano.

  9. Introduction to Special Section on How Volcanoes Work: Part 3 (United States)

    Tilling, Robert I.


    The nine papers in this issue represent the third, and final, part of the special section on "How Volcanoes Work." Part 1 of this special section was published in the December 1987 [Tilling, 1987] and part 2 in May 1988 [Tilling, 1988] all three parts will be published together as a separate volume titled "How Volcanoes Work" by the American Geophysical Union. In its entirety, the special section gives a good sampling of the nearly 300 papers presented at an international symposium of the same name held in Hilo, Hawaii, in January 1987 in commemoration of the Diamond Jubilee (75th Anniversary) of the founding of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory [Wright and Decker, 1987]. The breadth of topics covered in all three parts of the special section (Table 1) amply attests to the multidisciplinary nature of modern studies of volcanic phenomena. Collectively, these studies also comprise a most fitting tribute to Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., who founded the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1912 and was a dominant force in quantifying the science of volcanology. Not only was Jaggar a scientific visionary, but he also stressed that the scientific knowledge on volcanoes must be applied to reduce death and destruction from volcanic hazards. It is clear from the papers contained in the special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research that great strides have been made in our scientific understanding of how volcanoes work since Jaggar's time. But the destructive eruptions at Mount St. Helens (United States, May 1980), E1 Chichón (Mexico, March-April 1982), and Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia, November 1985), each causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of each of these countries [Tilling and Newhall, 1987] are tragic reminders that commensurate advances in reducing volcanic risk on a global basis have not yet been achieved.

  10. Schoolyard Volcanoes: A Unit in Volcanology and Hazards (United States)

    Lechner, H. N.; Gochis, E. E.; Brill, K. A.


    How do you teach volcanology and volcanic hazards to students when there is no volcano nearby? You bring the volcano to them! At Michigan Technological University we have developed a four-lesson-unit for middle and high school students which incorporates virtual, analogue and numerical models to increase students' interests in geosciences while simultaneously expanding the community of earth-science-literate individuals necessary for a disaster resilient society. The unit aims to build on students' prior geoscience knowledge by examining the physical properties that influence volcanic eruptions and introduces them to challenges and methods of communicating hazards and risk. Lesson one engages students in a series of hands-on investigations that explore the "3-Vs" of volcanology: Viscosity, Volatiles and Volume. The students learn about the relationship between magma composition and viscosity and the influence on eruption style, behavior and morphology of different volcanoes. Lesson two uses an analogue model of a volcano to demonstrate the forces involved in an explosive eruption and associated hazards. Students think critically about the factors that affect hazards and risk as well as the variables (such as topography) that affect the eruption and the hazard. During lesson three students use Google Earth for a virtual field trip to Pacaya volcano, Guatemala to examine changes in the landscape over time and other evidence of volcanic activity to make interpretations about the volcano. The final lesson has the students use numerical models and GIS to create hazard maps based on probabilistic lahar scenarios. Throughout the unit students are engaged in an inquiry-based exploration that covers several Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) content and practices. This four lesson unit has been field tested in two school districts and during a summer engineering program. Results from student work and post-surveys show that this strategy raises interests in and

  11. Expert Systems for Real-Time Volcano Monitoring (United States)

    Cassisi, C.; Cannavo, F.; Montalto, P.; Motta, P.; Schembra, G.; Aliotta, M. A.; Cannata, A.; Patanè, D.; Prestifilippo, M.


    In the last decade, the capability to monitor and quickly respond to remote detection of volcanic activity has been greatly improved through use of advanced techniques and semi-automatic software applications installed in most of the 24h control rooms devoted to volcanic surveillance. Ability to monitor volcanoes is being advanced by new technology, such as broad-band seismology, microphone networks mainly recording in the infrasonic frequency band, satellite observations of ground deformation, high quality video surveillance systems, also in infrared band, improved sensors for volcanic gas measurements, and advances in computer power and speed, leading to improvements in data transmission, data analysis and modeling techniques. One of the most critical point in the real-time monitoring chain is the evaluation of the volcano state from all the measurements. At the present, most of this task is delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology. Unfortunately, the volcano state assessment becomes harder if we observe that, due to the coupling of highly non-linear and complex volcanic dynamic processes, the measurable effects can show a rich range of different behaviors. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data, precise state assessment is usually not achievable. Hence, the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms that take account of uncertainties. In the framework of the project PON SIGMA (Integrated Cloud-Sensor System for Advanced Multirisk Management) work, we have developed an expert system approach to estimate the ongoing volcano state from all the available measurements and with minimal human interaction. The approach is based on hidden markov model and deals with uncertainties and probabilities. We tested the proposed approach on data coming from the Mt. Etna (Italy) continuous monitoring networks for the period 2011-2013. Results show that this approach can be a valuable tool to aid the

  12. Measuring Gases Using Drones at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica (United States)

    Stix, J.; Alan, A., Jr.; Corrales, E.; D'Arcy, F.; de Moor, M. J.; Diaz, J. A.


    We are currently developing a series of drones and associated instrumentation to study Turrialba volcano in Costa Rica. This volcano has shown increasing activity during the last 20 years, and the volcano is currently in a state of heightened unrest as exemplified by recent explosive activity in May-August 2016. The eruptive activity has made the summit area inaccessible to normal gas monitoring activities, prompting development of new techniques to measure gas compositions. We have been using two drones, a DJI Spreading Wings S1000 octocopter and a Turbo Ace Matrix-i quadcopter, to airlift a series of instruments to measure volcanic gases in the plume of the volcano. These instruments comprise optical and electrochemical sensors to measure CO2, SO2, and H2S concentrations which are considered the most significant species to help forecast explosive eruptions and determine the relative proportions of magmatic and hydrothermal components in the volcanic gas. Additionally, cameras and sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and GPS location are included in the package to provide meteorological and geo-referenced information to complement the concentration data and provide a better picture of the volcano from a remote location. The integrated payloads weigh 1-2 kg, which can typically be flown by the drones in 10-20 minutes at altitudes of 2000-4000 meters. Preliminary tests at Turrialba in May 2016 have been very encouraging, and we are in the process of refining both the drones and the instrumentation packages for future flights. Our broader goals are to map gases in detail with the drones in order to make flux measurements of each species, and to apply this approach at other volcanoes.

  13. Volcano plots in hydrogen electrocatalysis – uses and abuses


    Paola Quaino; Fernanda Juarez; Elizabeth Santos; Wolfgang Schmickler


    Summary Sabatier’s principle suggests, that for hydrogen evolution a plot of the rate constant versus the hydrogen adsorption energy should result in a volcano, and several such plots have been presented in the literature. A thorough examination of the data shows, that there is no volcano once the oxide-covered metals are left out. We examine the factors that govern the reaction rate in the light of our own theory and conclude, that Sabatier’s principle is only one of several factors that det...

  14. Tracking Pyroclastic Flows at Soufrière Hills Volcano (United States)

    Ripepe, Maurizio; De Angelis, Silvio; Lacanna, Giorgio; Poggi, Pasquale; Williams, Carlisle; Marchetti, Emanuele; Delle Donne, Dario; Ulivieri, Giacomo


    Explosive volcanic eruptions typically show a huge column of ash and debris ejected into the stratosphere, crackling with lightning. Yet equally hazardous are the fast moving avalanches of hot gas and rock that can rush down the volcano's flanks at speeds approaching 280 kilometers per hour. Called pyroclastic flows, these surges can reach temperatures of 400°C. Fast currents and hot temperatures can quickly overwhelm communities living in the shadow of volcanoes, such as what happened to Pompeii and Herculaneum after the 79 C.E. eruption of Italy's Mount Vesuvius or to Saint-Pierre after Martinique's Mount Pelée erupted in 1902.

  15. Classification of uranium deposits associated with volcano-tectonic depressions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinov, V.M.


    Advisability of separating uranium deposits associated with volcano-techtonic depressions as a class is grounded. Three groups of deposits are stated: foundation or low depression zone, medium depression zone, upper depression zone. Deposits are unified in five subgroups: in terrigenic molass, effusion-sedimentary formations, paleovolcanic setups and subvolcanic intrusions, granitoides, sedimentary and metamorphical rocks of geocinclinic complex. 18 structural-morphological types of deposits are determined by accounting of the basic structural-lithologic factors of ore control. An idealized diagram of ore-bearing volcano-tectonic depression and its alternations at different erosion shears are presented. A conclusion is made on practical application of the classification.

  16. Deformation Survey of Volcanoes in Central America Using ALOS (United States)

    Cao, Y. M.; Amelung, F.; Li, Z.


    The Japanese L-Band satellite ALOS-1 has proven a useful tool to for deformation monitoring of active volcanoes. Deformation surveys in volcanic arcs sound the world have detected a multitude of deformation signals that have led to improved understanding of the volcanic systems. Here we present a systematic deformation survey of volcanoes in central America for the 2007-2011 time frame. We use a small-baseline time-series approach and correct for atmospheric delays using global numerical weather models.

  17. Technical Letter Report - Preliminary Assessment of NDE Methods on Inspection of HDPE Butt Fusion Piping Joints for Lack of Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Hall, Thomas E.; Anderson, Michael T.


    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a multi-year program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide engineering studies and assessments of issues related to the use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for the reliable inspection of nuclear power plant components. As part of this program, there is a subtask 2D that was set up to address an assessment of issues related to the NDE of high density polyethylene (HDPE) butt fusion joints. This work is being driven by the nuclear industry wanting to employ HDPE materials in nuclear power plant systems. This being a new material for use in nuclear applications, there are a number of issues related to its use and potential problems that may evolve. The industry is pursuing ASME Code Case N-755 entitled “Use of Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe for Section III, Division 1, Construction and Section XI Repair/Replacement Activities” that contains the requirements for nuclear power plant applications of HDPE. This Code Case requires that inspections be performed after the fusion joint is made by visually examining the bead that is formed and conducting a pressure test of the joint. These tests are only effective in general if gross through-wall flaws exist in the fusion joint. The NRC wants to know whether a volumetric inspection can be conducted on the fusion joint that will reliably detect lack-of-fusion conditions that may be produced during joint fusing. The NRC has requested that the work that PNNL is conducting be provided to assist them in resolving this inspection issue of whether effective volumetric NDE can be conducted to detect lack of fusion (LOF) in the butt HDPE joints. PNNL had 24 HDPE pipe specimens manufactured of 3408 material to contain LOF conditions that could be used to assess the effectiveness of NDE in detecting the LOF. Basic ultrasonic material properties were measured and used to guide the use of phased arrays and time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) work that

  18. Three-dimensional displacements of a large volcano flank movement during the May 2010 eruptions at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala (United States)

    Schaefer, L. N.; Wang, T.; Escobar-Wolf, R.; Oommen, T.; Lu, Z.; Kim, J.; Lundgren, P. R.; Waite, G. P.


    Although massive flank failure is fairly common in the evolution of volcanoes, measurements of flank movement indicative of instability are rare. Here 3-D displacements from airborne radar amplitude images derived using an amplitude image pixel offset tracking technique show that the west and southwest flanks of Pacaya Volcano in Guatemala experienced large ( 4 m), discrete landsliding that was ultimately aborted. Pixel offset tracking improved measurement recovery by nearly 50% over classic interferometric synthetic aperture radar techniques, providing unique measurements at the event. The 3-D displacement field shows that the flank moved coherently downslope along a complex failure surface involving both rotational and along-slope movement. Notably, the lack of continuous movement of the slide in the years leading up to the event emphasizes that active movement should not always be expected at volcanoes for which triggering factors (e.g., magmatic intrusions and eruptions) could precipitate sudden major flank instability.

  19. Volcano and Earthquake Monitoring Plan for the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, 2006-2015 (United States)



    To provide Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and its surrounding communities with a modern, comprehensive system for volcano and earthquake monitoring, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) has developed a monitoring plan for the period 2006-2015. Such a plan is needed so that YVO can provide timely information during seismic, volcanic, and hydrothermal crises and can anticipate hazardous events before they occur. The monitoring network will also provide high-quality data for scientific study and interpretation of one of the largest active volcanic systems in the world. Among the needs of the observatory are to upgrade its seismograph network to modern standards and to add five new seismograph stations in areas of the park that currently lack adequate station density. In cooperation with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and its Plate Boundary Observatory Program (PBO), YVO seeks to install five borehole strainmeters and two tiltmeters to measure crustal movements. The boreholes would be located in developed areas close to existing infrastructure and away from sensitive geothermal features. In conjunction with the park's geothermal monitoring program, installation of new stream gages, and gas-measuring instruments will allow YVO to compare geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes and ground motions, to hydrothermal events, such as anomalous water and gas discharge. In addition, YVO seeks to characterize the behavior of geyser basins, both to detect any precursors to hydrothermal explosions and to monitor earthquakes related to fluid movements that are difficult to detect with the current monitoring system. Finally, a monitoring network consists not solely of instruments, but requires also a secure system for real-time transmission of data. The current telemetry system is vulnerable to failures that could jeopardize data transmission out of Yellowstone. Future advances in monitoring technologies must be accompanied by improvements in the infrastructure for

  20. Remote sensing of Damavand volcano (Iran) using Landsat imagery: Implications for the volcano dynamics (United States)

    Eskandari, Amir; De Rosa, Rosanna; Amini, Sadraddin


    Remote sensing techniques are applied to retrieve land surface temperature (LST), radiative heat flux (RHF), geothermal heat flux (GHF), and to map hydrothermal alteration zones around the Damavand stratovolcano (Iran). Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) day and nighttime images are used and merged to available geological data to identify thermal anomaly areas. RHF is determined using the Stefan-Boltzmann equation after preprocessing (geometric, radiometric and atmospheric correction) and processing (emissivity calculation and LST retrieval) of thermal infrared bands. In order to estimate GHF from daytime image, solar radiation and albedo maps are generated to minimize these effects. The GHF values are derived from nighttime image using the background subtraction technique. Using Boolean operation, only those pixels with the GHF values greater than 30 W/m2 obtained from daytime image and the GHF values greater than 10 W/m2 estimated from nighttime image are identified as thermal anomalies. The geothermal areas are identified by combining the thermal anomaly map and other geological information. Thermal anomalies have close spatial correlation to faults, thermal springs, and high heat flow measurements from subsurface data and lithology. Some of the thermal anomalies and hydrothermal alteration areas also overlap active deformation areas. This suggests role of heat and hydrothermal alteration on flank instability processes. The thermal anomaly areas show an arc-shaped pattern. This pattern and the concentration of higher GHF areas in the eastern sector of the volcano are consistent with a release of fluids in a transition zone between a transpressional and a transtensional tectonic regime. The combination of thermal infrared data with other geological information layers can be used to detect geothermal areas as well as to analyze the complex relationships among geothermal activity, active tectonics, and gravity instability processes on volcanoes.

  1. Multiple Eruptive Phases and Deposits of a Monogenetic Volcano: Tabernacle Hill Volcano, Utah, USA (United States)

    Hintz, A.; Connor, C. B.


    Tabernacle Hill volcano, located near the eastern edge of North America's great basin, is one of a group of monogenetic small-volume (0.47 km3) basaltic volcanoes forming a long-lived (~ 1 Ma) north-south trending alignment in Utah's Black Rock Desert. Initial phreatomagmatic eruptions at Tabernacle Hill are reported to have begun 14,320 ± 90 years ago. The initial eruptive phase produced a tuff cone approximately 80 m high (1,511 m a.s.l.) and 1.5 km in diameter with distinct bedding layers. Recent mapping and sampling of Tabernacle Hill's lava and tuff cone deposits has been aimed at better constraining the sequence of events, physical volcanology, rheology, and geochemistry of this eruption. Blocks located on the rim of the tuff cone of mid-crustal and near-surface origin were mapped and analyzed to yield preliminary minimum muzzle velocities of 70-100 m/s. After the initial phreatomagmatic explosions, the eruption style transitioned to a more effusive phase that partially filled the tuff cone with a semi-steady state lava lake 200 m wide and 15 m deep. Eventually, the tuff cone was breached by the impinging lava resulting in large portions of the cone rafting on top of the lava flows away from the vent. Eruption onto the Lake Bonneville lake bed allowed the Tabernacle Hill lava flows to flow radially from the tuff cone and cover an area of 18.1 km2, producing a very uniform high aspect ratio (100:1) flow field. Tabernacle Hill lava flows are pâhoehoe flows with many large phenocrysts of olivine and plagioclase (>1 cm) and have an average thickness of 26.3 m. Subsequent eruptive phases cycled several times between effusive and explosive, producing scoria cones and more lava flows, culminating in an almost complete drainage of the lava lake through large lava tubes and drainback.

  2. The Icelandic Volcanoes Supersite: Integrating InSAR space geodetic results into interdisciplinary hazard response and volcano science studies (United States)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Parks, Michelle; Dumont, Stéphanie; Drouin, Vincent; Wittman, Werner; Hooper, Andy; Bagnardi, Marco; Spaans, Karsten; Giniaux, Jeanne; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Geirsson, Halldór; Vogfjord, Kristín; Jonsdottir, Kristín; Li, Siqi; Barnie, Talfan; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús; Barsotti, Sara; Gylfason, Ágúst Gunnar; Oddsson, Björn


    The Icelandic Volcanoes Supersite was established in 2013 as a permanent supersite under the GEO initiative on Geohazard Supersite and Natural Laboratories. The supersite has received support from the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) in the form of several hundred SAR satellite images per year. The most extensively used satellite data are those from the COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X satellites. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques have been used to generate a time series of high-resolution ground displacement along the line-of-sight from ground to satellite. The data have been integrated and interpreted together with ground-based observations including continuous and campaign GPS measurements of three-dimensional ground displacements, and earthquake observations. In 2012-2016 this was carried out within the framework of the FUTUREVOLC project, a 26-partner project funded by FP7 Environment Programme of the European Commission, addressing the topic "Long-term monitoring experiment in geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: the Supersite concept". Data, results and information on Icelandic volcanoes produced during this project are stored at the Icelandic Volcanoes Web Portal operated by the Icelandic Met Office ( The InSAR data were used throughout the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption to study the major unrest, dyking and caldera collapse within the Bardarbunga volcanic system, and contributed significantly to the response to these events. The data have also been used to study ground deformation and subsurface pressure changes at Hekla, Krafla, Askja, Eyjafjallajökull, Katla, Krísuvík and Reykjanes volcanoes. We present an overview of results and lessons learned at several example volcanoes in terms of magma transfer and storage, changes in volcano behaviour, and how the supersite data have been used for disaster risk reduction.

  3. Influence of Material Model on Prediction Accuracy of Welding Residual Stress in an Austenitic Stainless Steel Multi-pass Butt-Welded Joint (United States)

    Deng, Dean; Zhang, Chaohua; Pu, Xiaowei; Liang, Wei


    Both experimental method and numerical simulation technology were employed to investigate welding residual stress distribution in a SUS304 steel multi-pass butt-welded joint in the current study. The main objective is to clarify the influence of strain hardening model and the yield strength of weld metal on prediction accuracy of welding residual stress. In the experiment, a SUS304 steel butt-welded joint with 17 passes was fabricated, and the welding residual stresses on both the upper and bottom surfaces of the middle cross section were measured. Meanwhile, based on ABAQUS Code, an advanced computational approach considering different plastic models as well as annealing effect was developed to simulate welding residual stress. In the simulations, the perfect plastic model, the isotropic strain hardening model, the kinematic strain hardening model and the mixed isotropic-kinematic strain hardening model were employed to calculate the welding residual stress distributions in the multi-pass butt-welded joint. In all plastic models with the consideration of strain hardening, the annealing effect was also taken into account. In addition, the influence of the yield strength of weld metal on the simulation result of residual stress was also investigated numerically. The conclusions drawn by this work will be helpful in predicting welding residual stresses of austenitic stainless steel welded structures used in nuclear power plants.

  4. Deformation Study of Papandayan Volcano using GPS Survey Method and Its Correlation with Seismic Data Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina A. Sarsito


    Full Text Available Papandayan volcano located in the southern part of Garut regency, around 70 km away from Bandung city, West Java. Many methods carried out to monitoring the activities of volcano, both continuously or periodically, one of the monitoring method is periodically GPS survey. Basically those surveys are carried out to understand the pattern and velocity of displacement which occurred in the volcano body, both horizontally and vertically, and also others deformation elements such as; translation, rotation and dilatation. The Mogi modeling was also used to determine the location and volume of the pressure source which caused deformation of volcano body. By comparing seismic activity and the deformation reveal from GPS measurement, before, during and after eruption, it could be understood there is a correlation between the seismicity and its deformation. These studies is hoping that GPS measurement in Papandayan volcano could be one of supported method to determine the volcano activities, at least in Papandayan volcano.

  5. Decreasing Magmatic Footprints of Individual Volcanos in a Waning Basaltic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A> Valentine; F.V. Perry


    The distribution and characteristics of individual basaltic volcanoes in the waning Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field provide insight into the changing physical nature of magmatism and the controls on volcano location. During Pliocene-Pleistocene times the volumes of individual volcanoes have decreased by more than one order of magnitude, as have fissure lengths and inferred lava effusion rates. Eruptions evolved from Hawaiian-style eruptions with extensive lavas to eruptions characterized by small pulses of lava and Strombolian to violent Strombolian mechanisms. These trends indicate progressively decreasing partial melting and length scales, or magmatic footprints, of mantle source zones for individual volcanoes. The location of each volcano is determined by the location of its magmatic footprint at depth, and only by shallow structural and topographic features that are within that footprint. The locations of future volcanoes in a waning system are less likely to be determined by large-scale topography or structures than were older, larger volume volcanoes.

  6. SSMILes: Investigating Various Volcanic Eruptions and Volcano Heights. (United States)

    Wagner-Pine, Linda; Keith, Donna Graham


    Presents an integrated math/science activity that shows students the differences among the three types of volcanoes using observation, classification, graphing, sorting, problem solving, measurement, averages, pattern relationships, calculators, computers, and research skills. Includes reproducible student worksheet. Lists 13 teacher resources.…

  7. Volcano ecology: flourishing on the flanks of Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Charlie Crisafulli


    Mount St. Helens’ explosive eruption on May 18, 1980, was a pivotal moment in the field of disturbance ecology. The subsequent sustained, integrated research effort has shaped the development of volcano ecology, an emerging field of focused research. Excessive heat, burial, and impact force are some of the disturbance mechanisms following an eruption. They are also...

  8. The Active Lava Flows of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 6. The Active Lava Flows of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Hetu Sheth. General Article Volume 8 Issue 6 June 2003 pp 24-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  9. Stem Cells: A Dormant Volcano Within Our Body?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 3. Stem Cells: A Dormant Volcano Within Our Body? Devaveena Dey Annapoorni Rangarajan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 3 March 2007 pp 27-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Topography and Volcanology of the Huangtsuishan Volcano Subgroup, Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Lai


    Full Text Available Combining the shaded relief topography model and the slope map from the Digital Terrain Model (DTM images, toporaphical map, field occurrences and petrography, the volcanic sequences of the Huangtsuishan Volcano Subgroup (HVS can be constructed. Two types of volcanic centers can be identified in this area. One is the Tachienhou volcanic dome, which may be located in the center of an older caldera. The other is the Huangtsui composite volcano, which is composed of interbedding lava flows and pyroclastic deposits with a volcanic crater named the Huangtsui pond at the summit. Eight lava plateaus radiated from Mts. Huangtsui and Tachienhou to the north and the east can be distinguished based on the DTM images. The volcanic deposits are comprised of four lithofacies, the lava flows, pyroclastic breccias, tuffs and lahars on the base of field occurrences. At least thirteen layers of lava flow, named the H1 to H13 can be recognized in the HVS and can be reconstructed and categorized into four stages. An old and large volcano erupted lava flows to form the products of stages one and two, then collapsed to form a caldera with a dome for the third stage. The latest stage of lava flow was poured out from the Huangtsui volcano, which formed a crater at the summit.

  11. Volcanic Environments Monitoring by Drones Mud Volcano Case Study (United States)

    Amici, S.; Turci, M.; Giulietti, F.; Giammanco, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; La Spina, A.; Spampinato, L.


    Volcanic activity has often affected human life both at large and at small scale. For example, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption caused severe economic damage at continental scale due to its strong effect on air traffic. At a local scale, ash fall and lava flow emission can cause harm and disruption. Understanding precursory signals to volcanic eruptions is still an open and tricky challenge: seismic tremor and gas emissions, for example, are related to upcoming eruptive activity but the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Furthermore, information related to gases emission mostly comes from the summit crater area of a volcano, which is usually hard to investigate with required accuracy. Although many regulation problems are still on the discussion table, an increasing interest in the application of cutting-edge technology like unmanned flying systems is growing up. In this sense, INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) started to investigate the possibility to use unmanned air vehicles for volcanic environment application already in 2004. A flight both in visual- and radio-controlled mode was carried out on Stromboli volcano as feasibility test. In this work we present the preliminary results of a test performed by INGV in collaboration with the University of Bologna (aerospace division) by using a multi-rotor aircraft in a hexacopter configuration. Thermal camera observations and flying tests have been realised over a mud volcano located on its SW flank of Mt. Etna and whose activity proved to be related to early stages of magma accumulation within the volcano.

  12. Volcan Baru: Eruptive History and Volcano-Hazards Assessment (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Vallance, James W.; Tapia Espinosa, Arkin; McGeehin, John P.


    Volcan Baru is a potentially active volcano in western Panama, about 35 km east of the Costa Rican border. The volcano has had four eruptive episodes during the past 1,600 years, including its most recent eruption about 400?500 years ago. Several other eruptions occurred in the prior 10,000 years. Several seismic swarms in the 20th century and a recent swarm in 2006 serve as reminders of a restless tectonic terrane. Given this history, Volcan Baru likely will erupt again in the near or distant future, following some premonitory period of seismic activity and subtle ground deformation that may last for days or months. Future eruptions will likely be similar to past eruptions?explosive and dangerous to those living on the volcano?s flanks. Outlying towns and cities could endure several years of disruption in the wake of renewed volcanic activity. Described in this open-file report are reconnaissance mapping and stratigraphic studies, radiocarbon dating, lahar-inundation modeling, and hazard-analysis maps. Existing data have been compiled and included to make this report as comprehensive as possible. The report is prepared in coooperation with National Secretariat for Science, Technology and Innovation (SENACYT) of the Republic of Panama and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).

  13. Understanding the Potential for Volcanoes at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    By studying the rocks and geologic features of an area, experts can assess whether it is vulnerable to future volcanic eruptions. Scientists have performed extensive studies at and near Yucca Mountain to determine whether future volcanoes could possibly affect the proposed repository for nuclear waste.

  14. Volcanic Ash from the 1999 Eruption of Mount Cameroon Volcano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volcanic ash from the 1999 eruption of Mount Cameroon volcano has been characterized for its particle size and shape (by scanning electron microscopy, SEM), and mineralogy (by X-ray diffractometry, XRD). Also the total fluorine (F) content of the ash was determined by the selective ion electrode method. The results ...

  15. Clasts from mud volcanoes from the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Benkhelil, J.; Giresse, P.; Mascle, J.; Muller, C.L.C.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.


    In the eastern Mediterranean, numerous argilo-kinetic manifestations, commonly named 'mud volcanoes', have been identified and studied in some detail during the last twenty years using several techniques. The Medinaut survey (December 1998) has provided new insights into this phenomenon through

  16. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The Ginsburg mud volcano was broadly studied since its discovery: the chemical composition of pore water, the gas hydrate, the petrography of clasts and micropaleon- tological studies (León et al., 2006; Mazurenko et al.,. 2003; Niemann et al., 2006; Pinheiro et al., 2003). Both cores, 521G and 522G, were collected from ...

  17. The first days of the new submarine volcano near Krakatoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.


    The geological history of the Krakatoa volcano, especially the eruption of 1883, is amply described in the great work “Krakatau” by R. D. M. Verheer (1885), the Report of the Krakatoa Committee (Royal Soc. London 1888) and in the publications of B. G. Escher (Handel. 1e Nederl. Indisch Natuurwet

  18. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano. (United States)

    Embley, Robert W; Chadwick, William W; Baker, Edward T; Butterfield, David A; Resing, Joseph A; de Ronde, Cornel E J; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Lupton, John E; Juniper, S Kim; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stern, Robert J; Lebon, Geoffrey T; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Merle, Susan G; Hein, James R; Wiens, Douglas A; Tamura, Yoshihiko


    Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact. We describe here direct observations and sampling of an eruption at a submarine arc volcano named NW Rota-1, located 60 km northwest of the island of Rota (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). We observed a pulsating plume permeated with droplets of molten sulphur disgorging volcanic ash and lapilli from a 15-m diameter pit in March 2004 and again in October 2005 near the summit of the volcano at a water depth of 555 m (depth in 2004). A turbid layer found on the flanks of the volcano (in 2004) at depths from 700 m to more than 1,400 m was probably formed by mass-wasting events related to the eruption. Long-term eruptive activity has produced an unusual chemical environment and a very unstable benthic habitat exploited by only a few mobile decapod species. Such conditions are perhaps distinctive of active arc and hotspot volcanoes.

  19. Collaborative Monitoring and Hazard Mitigation at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala (United States)

    Lyons, J. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Patrick, M.; Johnson, J. B.; Stix, J.


    A portable, digital sensor network has been installed to closely monitor changing activity at Fuego volcano, which takes advantage of an international collaborative effort among Guatemala, U.S. and Canadian universities, and the Peace Corps. The goal of this effort is to improve the understanding shallow internal processes, and consequently to more effectively mitigate volcanic hazards. Fuego volcano has had more than 60 historical eruptions and nearly-continuous activity make it an ideal laboratory to study volcanic processes. Close monitoring is needed to identify base-line activity, and rapidly identify and disseminate changes in the activity which might threaten nearby communities. The sensor network is comprised of a miniature DOAS ultraviolet spectrometer fitted with a system for automated plume scans, a digital video camera, and two seismo-acoustic stations and portable dataloggers. These sensors are on loan from scientists who visited Fuego during short field seasons and donated use of their sensors to a resident Peace Corps Masters International student from Michigan Technological University for extended data collection. The sensor network is based around the local volcano observatory maintained by Instituto National de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Metrologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH). INSIVUMEH provides local support and historical knowledge of Fuego activity as well as a secure location for storage of scientific equipment, data processing, and charging of the batteries that power the sensors. The complete sensor network came online in mid-February 2007 and here we present preliminary results from concurrent gas, seismic, and acoustic monitoring of activity from Fuego volcano.

  20. Seismic instrumentation plan for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.


    The seismic network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is the main source of authoritative data for reporting earthquakes in the State of Hawaii, including those that occur on the State’s six active volcanoes (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, Haleakalā, Lō‘ihi). Of these volcanoes, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa are considered “very high threat” in a report on the rationale for a National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) (Ewert and others, 2005). This seismic instrumentation plan assesses the current state of HVO’s seismic network with respect to the State’s active volcanoes and calculates the number of stations that are needed to upgrade the current network to provide a seismic early warning capability for forecasting volcanic activity. Further, the report provides proposed priorities for upgrading the seismic network and a cost assessment for both the installation costs and maintenance costs of the improved network that are required to fully realize the potential of the early warning system.

  1. Effect of Friction Stir Welding Parameters on the Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of the Al-Cu Butt Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sare Celik


    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is a solid-state welding process used for welding similar and dissimilar materials. FSW is especially suitable to join sheet Al alloys, and this technique allows different material couples to be welded continuously. In this study, 1050 Al alloys and commercially pure Cu were produced at three different tool rotation speeds (630, 1330, 2440 rpm and three different tool traverse speeds (20, 30, 50 mm/min with four different tool position (0, 1, 1.5, 2 mm by friction stir welding. The influence of the welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints was investigated. Tensile and bending tests and microhardness measurements were used to determine the mechanical properties. The microstructures of the weld zone were investigated by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM and were analyzed in an energy dispersed spectrometer (EDS. Intermetallic phases were detected based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis results that evaluated the formation of phases in the weld zone. When the welding performance of the friction stir welded butt joints was evaluated, the maximum value obtained was 89.55% with a 1330 rpm tool rotational speed, 20 mm/min traverse speed and a 1 mm tool position configuration. The higher tensile strength is attributed to the dispersion strengthening of the fine Cu particles distributed over the Al material in the stir zone region.

  2. New Method for Mitigating the Tensile Residual Stresses induced on the Inside Wall of Butt Welded Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Kang Soo; Kim, Ki Baik; Kim, Kwang Mo; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Because dissimilar metal welding between ferritic steel and austenitic stainless steel needs not post weld heat treatment (PWHT), the effect of residual stresses induce during the welding should be investigated to assess the reliability of the weld process. It is known that the A82/182 weld metals, which are used for filler metals of the butt welding between the ferritic steel pipe and the stainless steel pipe, are susceptible to PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking) in PWR plant. The tensile residual stresses on the inside wall of the pipe, which are induced during the production welding, tend to be the dominant driving force for the PWSCC initiation and crack growth. In order to prevent the PWSCC the tensile residual stresses should be mitigated or removed. Two methods, weld overlay and mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP) have been considered proper tools to reduce the tensile residual stresses and to mitigate the PWSCC susceptibility of the dissimilar metal welded nozzles and pipes. In this research, new method for mitigating the tensile residual stresses induced on the inside wall of pipe during the production welding between the ferritic steel pipe and the stainless steel pipe was suggested. This new method may be able to apply to the SA508 /A182/SS316 nozzles of the pressure vessels in PWR to prevent PWSCC susceptibility as another substitute method.

  3. A Study on the Optimal Welding Condition for Root-Pass in Horizontal Butt-Joint TIG Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Hun; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, to investigate the shape of the back bead as a weld quality parameter and to select the optimal condition of the root-pass TIG welding of a horizontal butt-joint, an experimental design and the response surface method (RSM) have been employed. Three parameters are used as input variables, which include the base current, peak current, and welding speed. The back bead width is selected as an output variable representing the weld quality, the target value of the width is 5.4 mm. Conducting the experiments according to the Box-Behnken experimental design, a 2nd regression model for the back bead width was made, and the validation of the model was confirmed by using the F-test. The desirability function was designed through the nominal-the-best formula for the appropriate back bead width. Finally, the following optimal condition for welding was selected using the RSM: base current of 0.9204, peak current of 0.8676, and welding speed of 0.3776 in coded values. For verification, a test welding process under the optimal condition was executed and the result showed the back bead width of 5.38 mm that matched the target value well.

  4. Alaska - Russian Far East connection in volcano research and monitoring (United States)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Neal, C. A.; Chebrov, V. N.; Girina, O. A.; Demyanchuk, Y. V.; Rybin, A. V.


    The Kurile-Kamchatka-Alaska portion of the Pacific Rim of Fire spans for nearly 5400 km. It includes more than 80 active volcanoes and averages 4-6 eruptions per year. Resulting ash clouds travel for hundreds to thousands of kilometers defying political borders. To mitigate volcano hazard to aviation and local communities, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS), in partnership with the Kamchatkan Branch of the Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences (KBGS), have established a collaborative program with three integrated components: (1) volcano monitoring with rapid information exchange, (2) cooperation in research projects at active volcanoes, and (3) volcanological field schools for students and young scientists. Cooperation in volcano monitoring includes dissemination of daily information on the state of volcanic activity in neighboring regions, satellite and visual data exchange, as well as sharing expertise and technologies between AVO and the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT). Collaboration in scientific research is best illustrated by involvement of AVO, IVS, and KBGS faculty and graduate students in mutual international studies. One of the most recent examples is the NSF-funded Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE)-Kamchatka project focusing on multi-disciplinary study of Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka. This international project is one of many that have been initiated as a direct result of a bi-annual series of meetings known as Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) workshops that we organize together with colleagues from Hokkaido University, Japan. The most recent JKASP meeting was held in August 2011 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and brought together more than 130 scientists and students from Russia, Japan, and the United States. The key educational component of our collaborative program

  5. Maps showing mineral resource assessment for skarn deposits of gold, silver, copper, tungsten, and iron in the Butte 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Wallace, C.A.; Lee, G.K.; Antweiler, J.C.; Lidke, D.J.; Rowan, L.C.; Hanna, W.F.; Trautwein, C.M.; Dwyer, J.L.; Moll, S.H.


    The purpose of this report is to assess the potential for undiscovered skarn deposits of gold, silver, copper, tungsten, and iron in the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. Other deposit types have been assessed and reports for each of the following have been prepared: Vein and replacement deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, ·manganese, and tungsten; porphyry-stockwork deposits of copper, molybdenum, and tungsten; stockwork-disseminated deposits of gold and silver; placer deposits of gold; and miscellaneous deposit types including strata-bound deposits of copper and silver in rocks of the Middle Proterozoic Belt Supergroup, phosphate deposits in the Permian Phosporia Formation, and deposits of barite and fluorite. The Butte quadrangle, in west-central Montana, is one of the most mineralized and productive mining regions in the U.S. Its mining districts, including the world famous Butte or Summit Valley district, have produced a variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities valued at more than $6.4 billion (at the time of production). Because of its importance as a mineral producing region, the Butte quadrangle was selected for study by the U.S. Geological Survey under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Under this program, new data on geology, geochemistry, geophysics, geochronology, mineral resources, and remote sensing were collected and synthesized. The field and laboratory studies were supported, in part, by funding from the Geologic Framework and Synthesis Program and the Wilderness Program. The methods used in resource assessment include a compilation of all data into data sets, the development of an occurrence model for skarn deposits in the quadrangle, and the analysis of data using techniques provided by a Geographic Information System (GIS). This map is one of a number of reports and maps on the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. Other publications resulting from this study include U.S. Geological Survey (USGS

  6. Geologic Mapping of the Olympus Mons Volcano, Mars (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Williams, D. A.; Shean, D.; Greeley, R.


    We are in the third year of a three-year Mars Data Analysis Program project to map the morphology of the Olympus Mons volcano, Mars, using ArcGIS by ESRI. The final product of this project is to be a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map. The scientific questions upon which this mapping project is based include understanding the volcanic development and modification by structural, aeolian, and possibly glacial processes. The project s scientific objectives are based upon preliminary mapping by Bleacher et al. [1] along a approx.80-km-wide north-south swath of the volcano corresponding to High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) image h0037. The preliminary project, which covered approx.20% of the volcano s surface, resulted in several significant findings, including: 1) channel-fed lava flow surfaces are areally more abundant than tube-fed surfaces by a ratio of 5:1, 2) channel-fed flows consistently embay tube-fed flows, 3) lava fans appear to be linked to tube-fed flows, 4) no volcanic vents were identified within the map region, and 5) a Hummocky unit surrounds the summit and is likely a combination of non-channelized flows, dust, ash, and/or frozen volatiles. These results led to the suggestion that the volcano had experienced a transition from long-lived tube-forming eruptions to more sporadic and shorter-lived, channel-forming eruptions, as seen at Hawaiian volcanoes between the tholeiitic shield building phase (Kilauea to Mauna Loa) and alkalic capping phase (Hualalai and Mauna Kea).

  7. WOVOdat Progress 2012: Installable DB template for Volcano Monitoring Database (United States)

    Ratdomopurbo, A.; Widiwijayanti, C.; Win, N.-T.-Z.; Chen, L.-D.; Newhall, C.


    WOVOdat is the World Organization of Volcano Observatories' (WOVO) Database of Volcanic Unrest. Volcanoes are frequently restless but only a fraction of unrest leads to eruptions. We aim to compile and make the data of historical volcanic unrest available as a reference tool during volcanic crises, for observatory or other user to compare or look for systematic in many unrest episodes, and also provide educational tools for teachers and students on understanding volcanic processes. Furthermore, we promote the use of relational databases for countries that are still planning to develop their own monitoring database. We are now in the process of populating WOVOdat in collaboration with volcano observatories worldwide. Proprietary data remains at the observatories where the data originally from. Therefore, users who wish to use the data for publication or to obtain detail information about the data should directly contact the observatories. To encourage the use of relational database system in volcano observatories with no monitoring database, WOVOdat project is preparing an installable standalone package. This package is freely downloadable through our website (, ready to install and serve as database system in the local domain to host various types of volcano monitoring data. The WOVOdat project is now hosted at Earth Observatory of Singapore (Nanyang Technological University). In the current stage of data population, our website supports interaction between WOVOdat developers, observatories, and other partners in building the database, e.g. accessing schematic design, information and documentation, and also data submission. As anticipation of various data formats coming from different observatories, we provide an interactive tools for user to convert their data into standard WOVOdat format file before then able to upload and store in the database system. We are also developing various visualization tools that will be integrated in the system to ease

  8. Geofluid Systems of Koryaksky-Avachinsky Volcanoes (Kamchatka, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiryukhin


    Full Text Available The Koryaksky-Avachinsky volcanogenic basin, which has an area of 2530 km2, is located 25 km from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky City and includes five Quaternary volcanoes (two of which, Avachinsky (2750 masl and Koryaksky (3456 masl, are active, and is located within a depression that has formed atop Cretaceous basement rocks. Magma injection zones (dikes and chamber-like shapes are defined by plane-oriented clusters of local earthquakes that occur during volcanic activity (mostly in 2008–2011 below Koryaksky and Avachinsky volcanoes at depths ranging from −4.0 to −2.0 km and +1.0 to +2.0 km, respectively. Water isotopic (δD, δ18O data indicate that these volcanoes act as recharge areas for their adjacent thermal mineral springs (Koryaksky Narzans, Isotovsky, and Pinachevsky and the wells of the Bystrinsky and Elizovo aquifers. Carbon δ13С data in СО2 from CO2 springs in the northern foothills of Koryaksky Volcano reflect the magmatic origin of CO2. Carbon δ13С data in methane CH4 reservoirs penetrated by wells in the Neogene-Quaternary layer around Koryaksky and Avachinsky volcanoes indicate the thermobiogenic origin of methane. Thermal-hydrodynamic TOUGH2 conceptual modeling is used to determine what types of hydrogeologic boundaries and heat and mass sources are required to create the temperature, pressure, phase, and CO2 distributions observed within the given geological conditions of the Koryaksky-Avachinsky volcanic geofluid system.

  9. Hydrochemical fluxes from Baransky volcano, Iturup, Kuril Islands (United States)

    Chelnokov, George; Zharkov, Rafael; Bragin, Ivan; Kharitonova, Natalia


    The Sernaya River and its tributary the Kipyashaya River are the only rivers that drain all thermal waters coming down the Baransky volcano (Iturup, the Kuril Islands). Hydrological parameters and a chemical composition relating to these rivers and all inflow streams coming from the volcano were measured from August to October 2013. The main aims of this investigation were to develop a data baseline for the catchment of the Sernaya River in order to monitor the Baransky volcano, to estimate total discharge of solute elements and finally to identify thermal groundwater inflow. Since the Kipyashaya River and the Sernaya River receive all water streams coming along the south-west and south flanks of the Baransky volcano within approximately 10 kilometers we can suggest that the whole thermal discharge runs into the Kipyashaya River. Thus a frequent sampling of the rivers presents the best way to monitor the volcano as they comprise a mix of all thermal waters from the Baransky volcano. The Sernaia River, at the end of its course along the flanks of the Baransky volcano, has a total flux of 12 m³/s ± 1%. Multiplication of the discharge by the concentration in main ions of the river at this point yields an aggregate flux of ~130 tons/day ± 10%. This flux performs the dissolution flux as a result of rocks dissolution beneath the active crater and in the aquifer of the Kipyashaya River. Cl total discharge was estimated at ~33 tons/day ± 10%, SO4 ~67 tons/day ± 10%, and total cation discharge ~28 tons/day ± 10%. The Kipyashaya River brings in to the Sernaya River 15 tons/day ± 10% of Cl, ~30 tons/day ± 10% of SO4, and ~3,5 tons/day ± 10% cations average. Several thermal springs with low water discharge are located on the right waterside of the Sernaya River 100 m up and down from the Kipyashaya River influx. These thermal springs with Cl discharge ~ 5g/s have significant concentrations of Ca due to water-rock interaction with basement rocks. The way of sampling

  10. Thermal surveillance of active volcanoes. [infrared scanner recordings of thermal anomalies of Mt. Baker volcano (United States)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. By the end of 1973, aerial infrared scanner traverses for thermal anomaly recordings of all Cascade Range volcanoes were essentially completed. Amplitude level slices of the Mount Baker anomalies were completed and compiled at a scale of 1:24,000, thus producing, for the first time, an accurate map of the distribution and intensity of thermal activity on Mount Baker. The major thermal activity is concentrated within the crater south of the main summit and although it is characterized by intensive solfataric activity and warm ground, it is largely subglacial, causing the development of sizable glacier perforation features. The outgoing radiative flux from the east breach anomalies is sufficient to account for the volume of ice melted to form the glacier perforations. DCP station 6251 has been monitoring a thermally anomalous area on the north slope of Mount Baker. The present thermal activity of Mount Baker accounts for continuing hydrothermal alteration in the crater south of the main summit and recurrent debris avalanches from Sherman Peak on its south rim. The infrared anomalies mapped as part of the experiment SR 251 are considered the basic evidence of the subglacial heating which was the probable triggering mechanism of an avalanche down Boulder Glacier on August 20-21, 1973.

  11. Space Radar Image of Colima Volcano, Jalisco, Mexico (United States)


    This is an image of the Colima volcano in Jalisco, Mexico, a vigorously active volcano that erupted as recently as July 1994. The eruption partially destroyed a lava dome at the summit and deposited a new layer of ash on the volcano's southern slopes. Surrounding communities face a continuing threat of ash falls and volcanic mudflows from the volcano, which has been designated one of 15 high-risk volcanoes for scientific study during the next decade. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 24th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image is centered at 19.4 degrees north latitude, 103.7 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 35.7 kilometers by 37.5 kilometers (22 miles by 23 miles). This single-frequency, multi-polarized SIR-C image shows: red as L-band horizontally transmitted and received; green as L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue as the ratio of the two channels. The summit area appears orange and the recent deposits fill the valleys along the south and southwest slopes. Observations from space are helping scientists understand the behavior of dangerous volcanoes and will be used to mitigate the effects of future eruptions on surrounding populations. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), the C-band (6 cm) and the X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature

  12. Seismic tomography reveals magma chamber location beneath Uturuncu volcano (Bolivia) (United States)

    Kukarina, Ekaterina; West, Michael; Koulakov, Ivan


    Uturuncu volcano belongs to the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex in the central Andes, the product of an ignimbrite ''flare-up''. The region has been the site of large-scale silicic magmatism since 10 Ma, producing 10 major eruptive calderas and edifices, some of which are multiple-eruption resurgent complexes as large as the Yellowstone or Long Valley caldera. Satellite measurements show that the hill has been rising more than half an inch a year for almost 20 years, suggesting that the Uturuncu volcano, which has erupted last time more than 300,000 years ago, is steadily inflating, which makes it fertile ground for study. In 2009 an international multidisciplinary team formed a project called PLUTONS to study Uturuncu. Under this project a 100 km wide seismic network was set around the volcano by seismologists from University of Alaska Fairbanks. Local seismicity is well distributed and provides constraints on the shallow crust. Ray paths from earthquakes in the subducting slab complement this with steep ray paths that sample the deeper crust. Together the shallow and deep earthquakes provide strong 3D coverage of Uturuncu and the surrounding region. To study the deformation source beneath the volcano we performed simultaneous tomographic inversion for the Vp and Vs anomalies and source locations, using the non-linear passive source tomographic code, LOTOS. We estimated both P and S wave velocity structures beneath the entire Uturuncu volcano by using arrival times of P and S waves from more than 600 events registered by 33 stations. To show the reliability of the results, we performed a number of different tests, including checkerboard synthetic tests and tests with odd/even data. Obtained Vp/Vs ratio distribution shows increased values beneath the south Uturuncu, at a depth of about 15 km. We suggest the high ratio anomaly is caused by partial melt, presented in expanding magma chamber, responsible for the volcano inflation. The resulting Vp, Vs and the ratio

  13. Butt Welding of 2205/X65 Bimetallic Sheet and Study on the Inhomogeneity of the Properties of the Welded Joint (United States)

    Gou, Ning-Nian; Zhang, Jian-Xun; Wang, Jian-Long; Bi, Zong-Yue


    The explosively welded 2205 duplex stainless steel/X65 pipe steel bimetallic sheets were butt jointed by multilayer and multi-pass welding (gas tungsten arc welding for the flyer and gas metal arc welding for the transition and parent layers of the bimetallic sheets). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joint were investigated. The results showed that in the thickness direction, microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joint exhibited obvious inhomogeneity. The microstructures of parent filler layers consisted of acicular ferrite, widmanstatten ferrite, and a small amount of blocky ferrite. The microstructure of the transition layer and flyer layer consisted of both austenite and ferrite structures; however, the transition layer of weld had a higher volume fraction of austenite. The results of the microhardness test showed that in both weld metal (WM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the parent filler layers, the average hardness decreased with the increasing (from parent filler layer 1 to parent filler layer 3) welding heat input. The results of hardness test also indicated that the hardness of the WM and the HAZ for the flyer and transition layers was equivalent. The tensile test combined with Digital Specklegram Processing Technology demonstrated that the fracturing of the welded joint started at the HAZ of the flyer, and then the fracture grew toward the base metal of the parent flyer near the parent HAZ. The stratified impact test at -5 °C showed that the WM and HAZ of the flyer exhibited lower impact toughness, and the fracture mode was ductile and brittle mixed fracture.


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  15. Volcanic tremor and plume height hysteresis from Pavlof Volcano, Alaska. (United States)

    Fee, David; Haney, Matthew M; Matoza, Robin S; Van Eaton, Alexa R; Cervelli, Peter; Schneider, David J; Iezzi, Alexandra M


    The March 2016 eruption of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska, produced an ash plume that caused the cancellation of more than 100 flights in North America. The eruption generated strong tremor that was recorded by seismic and remote low-frequency acoustic (infrasound) stations, including the EarthScope Transportable Array. The relationship between the tremor amplitudes and plume height changes considerably between the waxing and waning portions of the eruption. Similar hysteresis has been observed between seismic river noise and discharge during storms, suggesting that flow and erosional processes in both rivers and volcanoes can produce irreversible structural changes that are detectable in geophysical data. We propose that the time-varying relationship at Pavlof arose from changes in the tremor source related to volcanic vent erosion. This relationship may improve estimates of volcanic emissions and characterization of eruption size and intensity. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Volcano plots in hydrogen electrocatalysis - uses and abuses. (United States)

    Quaino, Paola; Juarez, Fernanda; Santos, Elizabeth; Schmickler, Wolfgang


    Sabatier's principle suggests, that for hydrogen evolution a plot of the rate constant versus the hydrogen adsorption energy should result in a volcano, and several such plots have been presented in the literature. A thorough examination of the data shows, that there is no volcano once the oxide-covered metals are left out. We examine the factors that govern the reaction rate in the light of our own theory and conclude, that Sabatier's principle is only one of several factors that determine the rate. With the exception of nickel and cobalt, the reaction rate does not decrease for highly exothermic hydrogen adsorption as predicted, because the reaction passes through more suitable intermediate states. The case of nickel is given special attention; since it is a 3d metal, its orbitals are compact and the overlap with hydrogen is too low to make it a good catalyst.

  17. Volcano plots in hydrogen electrocatalysis – uses and abuses (United States)

    Quaino, Paola; Juarez, Fernanda; Santos, Elizabeth


    Summary Sabatier’s principle suggests, that for hydrogen evolution a plot of the rate constant versus the hydrogen adsorption energy should result in a volcano, and several such plots have been presented in the literature. A thorough examination of the data shows, that there is no volcano once the oxide-covered metals are left out. We examine the factors that govern the reaction rate in the light of our own theory and conclude, that Sabatier’s principle is only one of several factors that determine the rate. With the exception of nickel and cobalt, the reaction rate does not decrease for highly exothermic hydrogen adsorption as predicted, because the reaction passes through more suitable intermediate states. The case of nickel is given special attention; since it is a 3d metal, its orbitals are compact and the overlap with hydrogen is too low to make it a good catalyst. PMID:24991521

  18. Evolution of a Quaternary peralkaline volcano: Mayor Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Houghton, Bruce F.; Weaver, S.D.; Wilson, C.J.N.; Lanphere, M.A.


    Mayor Island is a Holocene pantelleritic volcano showing a wide range of dispersive power and eruptive intensity despite a very limited range in magma composition of only 2% SiO2. The primary controls on this range appear to have been the magmatic gas content on eruption and a varying involvement of basaltic magma, rather than major-element chemistry of the rhyolites. The ca. 130 ka subaerial history of the volcano contains portions of three geochemical cycles with abrupt changes in trace-element chemistry following episodes of caldera collapse. The uniform major-element chemistry of the magma may relate to a fine balance between rates of eruption and supply and the higher density of the more evolved (Ferich) magmas which could be tapped only after caldera-forming events had removed significant volumes of less evolved but lighter magma. ?? 1992.

  19. Volcano plots in hydrogen electrocatalysis – uses and abuses

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    Paola Quaino


    Full Text Available Sabatier’s principle suggests, that for hydrogen evolution a plot of the rate constant versus the hydrogen adsorption energy should result in a volcano, and several such plots have been presented in the literature. A thorough examination of the data shows, that there is no volcano once the oxide-covered metals are left out. We examine the factors that govern the reaction rate in the light of our own theory and conclude, that Sabatier’s principle is only one of several factors that determine the rate. With the exception of nickel and cobalt, the reaction rate does not decrease for highly exothermic hydrogen adsorption as predicted, because the reaction passes through more suitable intermediate states. The case of nickel is given special attention; since it is a 3d metal, its orbitals are compact and the overlap with hydrogen is too low to make it a good catalyst.

  20. Kīlauea - An explosive volcano in Hawai‘i (United States)

    Swanson, Donald A.; Fiske, Dick; Rose, Tim; Houghton, Bruce F.; Mastin, Larry


    Kīlauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i, though best known for its frequent quiet eruptions of lava flows, has erupted explosively many times in its history - most recently in 2011. At least six such eruptions in the past 1,500 years sent ash into the jet stream, at the cruising altitudes for today's aircraft. The eruption of 1790 remains the most lethal eruption known from a U.S. volcano. However, the tendency of Kīlauea's 2 million annual visitors is to forget this dangerous potential. Cooperative research by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey, Smithsonian Institution, and University of Hawai‘i is improving our understanding of Kīlauea's explosive past and its potential for future violent eruptions.

  1. Geomagnetism, volcanoes, global climate change, and predictability. A progress report

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    G. P. Gregori


    Full Text Available A model is investigated, by which the encounters of the solar system with dense interstellar clouds ought to trigger either geomagnetic field reversals or excursions, that produce extra electric currents within the Earth dynamo, that cause extra Joule's heating, that supplies volcanoes and endogenous processes. Volcanoes increase the Earth degassing into the atmosphere, hence the concentration of the minor atmospheric constituents, including the greenhouse gases, hence they affect climate temperature, glacier melting, sea level and global change. This investigation implies both theoretical studies and observational data handling on different time scales, including present day phenomena, instrumental data series, historical records, proxy data, and geological and palaeontological evidences. The state of the art is briefly outlined, mentioning some already completed achievements, investigations in progress, and future perspectives.

  2. Kilometer-scale Kaiser effect identified in Krafla volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Heimisson, Elías Rafn; Einarsson, Páll; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís.


    The Krafla rifting episode in 1975-1984, consisted of around 20 inflation-deflation events within the Krafla caldera, where magma accumulated during inflation periods and was intruded into the transecting fissure swarm during brief periods of deflation. We reanalyze geodetic and seismic data from the rifting episode and perform a time-dependent inversion of a leveling time series for a spherical point source in an elastic half-space. Using the volume change as a proxy for stress shows that during inflation periods the seismicity rate remains low until the maximum inflation of previous cycles is exceeded thus exhibiting the Kaiser effect. Our observations demonstrate that this phenomenon, commonly observed in small-scale experiments, is also produced in kilometer-scale volcanic deformation. This behavior sheds new light on the relationship between deformation and seismicity of a deforming volcano. As a consequence of the Kaiser effect, a volcano may inflate rapidly without significant changes in seismicity rate.

  3. Advances(?) in mitigating volcano hazards in Latin America (United States)

    Hall, M.L.


    The 1980's were incredible years for volcanology. As a consequence of the Mount St. Helens and other eruptions, major advances in our understanding of volcanic processes and eruption dynamics were made. the decade also witnessed the greatest death toll caused by volcanism since 1902. Following Mount St. Helens, awareness of volcano hazards increased throughout the world; however, in Latin America, subsequent events showed that much was still to be learned. 


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    Muhammad Mifta Hasan


    Full Text Available Papandayan volcano is a stratovolcano with irregular cone-shaped has eight craters around the peak. The most active crater in Papandayan is a Mas crater. Distribution of relocated event calculated using Geiger Adaptive Damping Algorithm (GAD shows that the epicenter of the event centered below Mas crater with maximum rms 0.114. While depth of the hypocenter range between 0-2 km and 5-6 km due to activity of steam and gas.

  5. Seismic Hazards at Kilauea and Mauna LOA Volcanoes, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Fred W.


    A significant seismic hazard exists in south Hawaii from large tectonic earthquakes that can reach magnitude 8 and intensity XII. This paper quantifies the hazard by estimating the horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) in south Hawaii which occurs with a 90% probability of not being exceeded during exposure times from 10 to 250 years. The largest earthquakes occur beneath active, unbuttressed and mobile flanks of volcanoes in their shield building stage.

  6. Forecasting deflation, intrusion and eruption at inflating volcanoes (United States)

    Blake, Stephen; Cortés, Joaquín A.


    A principal goal of volcanology is to successfully forecast the start of volcanic eruptions. This paper introduces a general forecasting method, which relies on a stream of monitoring data and a statistical description of a given threshold criterion for an eruption to start. Specifically we investigate the timing of intrusive and eruptive events at inflating volcanoes. The gradual inflation of the ground surface is a well-known phenomenon at many volcanoes and is attributable to pressurised magma accumulating within a shallow chamber. Inflation usually culminates in a rapid deflation event caused by magma escaping from the chamber to produce a shallow intrusion and, in some cases, a volcanic eruption. We show that the ground elevation during 15 inflation periods at Krafla volcano, Iceland, increased with time towards a limiting value by following a decaying exponential with characteristic timescale τ. The available data for Krafla, Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes show that the duration of inflation (t*) is approximately equal to τ. The distribution of t* / τ values follows a log-logistic distribution in which the central 60% of the data lie between 0.99 distribution function of t* / τ values calibrated from other inflation periods allows the probability of a deflation event starting during a specified time interval to be estimated. The time window in which there is a specified probability of deflation starting can also be forecast, and forecasts can be updated after each new deformation measurement. The method provides stronger forecasts than one based on the distribution of repose times alone and is transferable to other types of monitoring data and/or other patterns of pre-eruptive unrest.

  7. Multiresolution pattern recognition of small volcanos in Magellan data (United States)

    Smyth, P.; Anderson, C. H.; Aubele, J. C.; Crumpler, L. S.


    The Magellan data is a treasure-trove for scientific analysis of venusian geology, providing far more detail than was previously available from Pioneer Venus, Venera 15/16, or ground-based radar observations. However, at this point, planetary scientists are being overwhelmed by the sheer quantities of data collected--data analysis technology has not kept pace with our ability to collect and store it. In particular, 'small-shield' volcanos (less than 20 km in diameter) are the most abundant visible geologic feature on the planet. It is estimated, based on extrapolating from previous studies and knowledge of the underlying geologic processes, that there should be on the order of 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) of these volcanos visible in the Magellan data. Identifying and studying these volcanos is fundamental to a proper understanding of the geologic evolution of Venus. However, locating and parameterizing them in a manual manner is very time-consuming. Hence, we have undertaken the development of techniques to partially automate this task. The goal is not the unrealistic one of total automation, but rather the development of a useful tool to aid the project scientists. The primary constraints for this particular problem are as follows: (1) the method must be reasonably robust; and (2) the method must be reasonably fast. Unlike most geological features, the small volcanos of Venus can be ascribed to a basic process that produces features with a short list of readily defined characteristics differing significantly from other surface features on Venus. For pattern recognition purposes the relevant criteria include the following: (1) a circular planimetric outline; (2) known diameter frequency distribution from preliminary studies; (3) a limited number of basic morphological shapes; and (4) the common occurrence of a single, circular summit pit at the center of the edifice.

  8. Database for volcanic processes and geology of Augustine Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    McIntire, Jacqueline; Ramsey, David W.; Thoms, Evan; Waitt, Richard B.; Beget, James E.


    Augustine Island (volcano) in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, has erupted repeatedly in late-Holocene and historical times. Eruptions typically beget high-energy volcanic processes. Most notable are bouldery debris avalanches containing immense angular clasts shed from summit domes. Coarse deposits of these avalanches form much of Augustine's lower flanks. This geologic map at 1:25,000 scale depicts these deposits, these processes.


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    S. Amici


    Full Text Available Volcanic activity has often affected human life both at large and at small scale. For example, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption caused severe economic damage at continental scale due to its strong effect on air traffic. At a local scale, ash fall and lava flow emission can cause harm and disruption. Understanding precursory signals to volcanic eruptions is still an open and tricky challenge: seismic tremor and gas emissions, for example, are related to upcoming eruptive activity but the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Furthermore, information related to gases emission mostly comes from the summit crater area of a volcano, which is usually hard to investigate with required accuracy. Although many regulation problems are still on the discussion table, an increasing interest in the application of cutting-edge technology like unmanned flying systems is growing up. In this sense, INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia started to investigate the possibility to use unmanned air vehicles for volcanic environment application already in 2004. A flight both in visual- and radio-controlled mode was carried out on Stromboli volcano as feasibility test. In this work we present the preliminary results of a test performed by INGV in collaboration with the University of Bologna (aerospace division by using a multi-rotor aircraft in a hexacopter configuration. Thermal camera observations and flying tests have been realised over a mud volcano located on its SW flank of Mt. Etna and whose activity proved to be related to early stages of magma accumulation within the volcano.

  10. Ring and Volcano Structures Formed by a Metal Dipyrromethene Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seung Bae; Hahn, Jae Ryang [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Miao, Qing; Shin, Jiyoung; Dolphin, David [Univ. of British Columbia, Columbia (Canada)


    Dichloromethane liquid droplets containing a cobalt dipyrromethene trimer deposited on a graphite surface were found to form coffee ring, toroid ring, or volcano dot structures due to the redistribution of the solute during solvent evaporation. The shapes and size distributions of the ring structures depended on the drying temperature. The shape differences were attributed to the fact that the solvent evaporation rate controlled the self-assembly process that yielded the coffee stain and pinhole structures.

  11. Linking subsurface to surface degassing at active volcanoes: A thermodynamic model with applications to Erebus volcano (United States)

    Iacovino, Kayla


    Volcanic plumbing systems are the pathways through which volatiles are exchanged between the deep Earth and the atmosphere. The interplay of a multitude of processes occurring at various depths in the system dictates the composition and quantity of gas eventually erupted through volcanic vents. Here, a model is presented as a framework for interpreting surface volcanic gas measurements in terms of subsurface degassing processes occurring throughout a volcanic plumbing system. The model considers all possible sources of fluid from multiple depths, including degassing of dissolved volatiles during crystallization and/or decompression as recorded in melt inclusions plus any co-existing fluid phase present in a magma reservoir. The former is achieved by differencing melt inclusion volatile contents between groups of melt inclusions saturated at discrete depths. The latter is calculated using a thermodynamic model, which computes the composition of a C-O-H-S fluid in equilibrium with a melt given a minimum of five thermodynamic parameters commonly known for natural systems (T, P, fO2, either fH2 or one parameter for H2O, and either fS2 or one parameter for CO2). The calculated fluids are thermodynamically decompressed and run through a mixing model, which finds all possible mixtures of subsurface fluid that match the chemistry of surface gas within ±2.0 mol%. The method is applied to Mount Erebus (Antarctica), an active, intraplate volcano whose gas emissions, which emanate from an active phonolitic lava lake, have been well quantified by FTIR, UV spectroscopy, and multi-gas sensors over the last several decades. In addition, a well-characterized suite of lavas and melt inclusions, and petrological interpretations thereof, represent a wealth of knowledge about the shallow, intermediate, and deep parts of the Erebus plumbing system. The model has been used to calculate the compositions of seven C-O-H-S fluids that originate from four distinct regions within the Erebus

  12. Bedrock and surficial geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles, Navajo and Apache Counties, northern Arizona (United States)

    Amoroso, Lee; Priest, Susan S.; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret


    The geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles is the result of a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Navajo Nation to provide regional geologic information for management and planning officials. This map provides geologic information useful for range management, plant and animal studies, flood control, water resource investigations, and natural hazards associated with sand-dune mobility. The map provides connectivity to the regional geologic framework of the Grand Canyon area of northern Arizona. The map area encompasses approximately 314 km2 (123 mi2) within Navajo and Apache Counties of northern Arizona and is bounded by lat 35°37'30" to 35°30' N., long 109°45' to 110° W. The quadrangles lie within the southern Colorado Plateau geologic province and within the northeastern portion of the Hopi Buttes (Tsézhin Bií). Large ephemeral drainages, Pueblo Colorado Wash and Steamboat Wash, originate north of the map area on the Defiance Plateau and Balakai Mesa respectively. Elevations range from 1,930 m (6,330 ft) at the top of Satan Butte to about 1,787 m (5,860 ft) at Pueblo Colorado Wash where it exits the southwest corner of the Greasewood quadrangle. The only settlement within the map area is Greasewood, Arizona, on the north side of Pueblo Colorado Wash. Navajo Highway 15 crosses both quadrangles and joins State Highway 264 northwest of Ganado. Unimproved dirt roads provide access to remote parts of the Navajo Reservation.

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacterial Leakage at Implant-Abutment Connection: An 11-Degree Morse Taper Compared to a Butt Joint Connection (United States)

    Khorshidi, Hooman; Raoofi, Saeed; Moattari, Afagh; Bagheri, Atoosa; Kalantari, Mohammad Hassan


    Background and Aim. The geometry of implant-abutment interface (IAI) affects the risk of bacterial leakage and invasion into the internal parts of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of an 11-degree Morse taper IAI with that of a butt joint connection. Materials and Methods. Two implants systems were tested (n = 10 per group): CSM (submerged) and TBR (connect). The deepest inner parts of the implants were inoculated with 2 μL of Streptococcus mutans suspension with a concentration of 108 CFU/mL. The abutments were tightened on the implants. The specimens were stored in the incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 14 days and the penetration of the bacterium in the surrounding area was determined by the observation of the solution turbidity and comparison with control specimens. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was traced for the estimation of bacterial leakage and the results between two groups of implants were statistically analyzed by chi-square test. Results. No case of the implant system with the internal conical connection design revealed bacterial leakage in 14 days and no turbidity of the solution was reported for it. In the system with butt joint implant-abutment connection, 1 case showed leakage on the third day, 1 case on the eighth day, and 5 cases on the 13th day. In total, 7 (70%) cases showed bacterial leakage in this system. Significant differences were found between the two groups of implants based on the incidence of bacterial leakage (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The 11-degree Morse taper demonstrated better resistance to microbial leakage than butt joint connection. PMID:27242903

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacterial Leakage at Implant-Abutment Connection: An 11-Degree Morse Taper Compared to a Butt Joint Connection

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    Hooman Khorshidi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The geometry of implant-abutment interface (IAI affects the risk of bacterial leakage and invasion into the internal parts of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of an 11-degree Morse taper IAI with that of a butt joint connection. Materials and Methods. Two implants systems were tested (n=10 per group: CSM (submerged and TBR (connect. The deepest inner parts of the implants were inoculated with 2 μL of Streptococcus mutans suspension with a concentration of 108 CFU/mL. The abutments were tightened on the implants. The specimens were stored in the incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 14 days and the penetration of the bacterium in the surrounding area was determined by the observation of the solution turbidity and comparison with control specimens. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was traced for the estimation of bacterial leakage and the results between two groups of implants were statistically analyzed by chi-square test. Results. No case of the implant system with the internal conical connection design revealed bacterial leakage in 14 days and no turbidity of the solution was reported for it. In the system with butt joint implant-abutment connection, 1 case showed leakage on the third day, 1 case on the eighth day, and 5 cases on the 13th day. In total, 7 (70% cases showed bacterial leakage in this system. Significant differences were found between the two groups of implants based on the incidence of bacterial leakage (p<0.05. Conclusion. The 11-degree Morse taper demonstrated better resistance to microbial leakage than butt joint connection.

  15. Volcano-related materials in concretes: a comprehensive review. (United States)

    Cai, Gaochuang; Noguchi, Takafumi; Degée, Hervé; Zhao, Jun; Kitagaki, Ryoma


    Massive volcano-related materials (VRMs) erupted from volcanoes bring the impacts to natural environment and humanity health worldwide, which include generally volcanic ash (VA), volcanic pumice (VP), volcanic tuff (VT), etc. Considering the pozzolanic activities and mechanical characters of these materials, civil engineers propose to use them in low carbon/cement and environment-friendly concrete industries as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) or artificial/natural aggregates. The utilization of VRMs in concretes has attracted increasing and pressing attentions from research community. Through a literature review, this paper presents comprehensively the properties of VRMs and VRM concretes (VRMCs), including the physical and chemical properties of raw VRMs and VRMCs, and the fresh, microstructural and mechanical properties of VRMCs. Besides, considering environmental impacts and the development of long-term properties, the durability and stability properties of VRMCs also are summarized in this paper. The former focuses on the resistance properties of VRMCs when subjected to aggressive environmental impacts such as chloride, sulfate, seawater, and freezing-thawing. The latter mainly includes the fatigue, creep, heat-insulating, and expansion properties of VRMCs. This study will be helpful to promote the sustainability in concrete industries, protect natural environment, and reduce the impacts of volcano disaster. Based on this review, some main conclusions are discussed and important recommendations regarding future research on the application of VRMs in concrete industries are provided.

  16. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece. (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust


    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  17. Volcano collapse along the Aleutian Ridge (western Aleutian Arc

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    C. Montanaro


    Full Text Available The Aleutian Ridge, in the western part of the Aleutian Arc, consists of a chain of volcanic islands perched atop the crest of a submarine ridge with most of the active Quaternary stratocones or caldera-like volcanoes being located on the northern margins of the Aleutian Islands. Integrated analysis of marine and terrestrial data resulted in the identification and characterization of 17 extensive submarine debris avalanche deposits from 11 volcanoes. Two morphological types of deposits are recognizable, elongate and lobate, with primary controls on the size and distribution of the volcanic debris being the volume and nature of material involved, proportion of fine grained material, depth of emplacement and the paleo-bathymetry. Volume calculations show the amount of material deposited in debris avalanches is as much as three times larger than the amount of material initially involved in the collapse, suggesting the incorporation of large amounts of submarine material during transport. The orientation of the collapse events is influenced by regional fault systems underling the volcanoes. The western Aleutian Arc has a significant tsunamigenic potential and communities within the Aleutian Islands and surrounding areas of the North Pacific as well as shipping and fishing fleets that cross the North Pacific may be at risk during future eruptions in this area.

  18. Anatomy of the Colima volcano magmatic system, Mexico (United States)

    Spica, Zack; Perton, Mathieu; Legrand, Denis


    Colima volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in continental north America. It is located within the Colima graben on the western part of the Colima rift zone. Although extensively studied, the internal structure and deep magmatic system remains unknown. This research gives new clues to understand how and where magmas are produced and stored at depth. Using ambient seismic noise, we jointly invert for Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves for both phase and group velocity, which is applied for the first time in a volcanic environment. We invert for both the shear wave velocity and radial anisotropy. The 3D high resolution shear wave velocity model shows a deep, large and well-delineated elliptic-shape magmatic reservoir below the Colima volcano complex at a depth of about 15 km. On the other hand, the radial anisotropy model shows a significant negative feature (i.e., VSV >VSH) revealed from ≥35 km depth until the top of the magma reservoir at about 12 km depth. The latter suggests the presence of numerous vertical fractures where fluids, rooting from a well-known mantle window, can easily migrate upward and then accumulate in the magma reservoir. Furthermore, the convergence of both a low velocity zone and a negative anisotropy suggests that the magma is mainly stored in conduits or inter-fingered dykes as opposed to horizontally stratified magma reservoir.

  19. Monitoring Active Volcanos Using Aerial Images and the Orthoview Tool

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    Maria Marsella


    Full Text Available In volcanic areas, where it can be difficult to perform direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely adopted for routine volcano monitoring. Nevertheless, they have remarkable potentialities for observing active volcanic features (e.g., fissures, lava flows and the connected deformation processes. The ability to obtain accurate quantitative data of definite accuracy in short time spans makes digital photogrammetry a suitable method for controlling the evolution of rapidly changing large-area volcanic phenomena. The systematic acquisition of airborne photogrammetric datasets can be adopted for implementing a more effective procedure aimed at long-term volcano monitoring and hazard assessment. In addition, during the volcanic crisis, the frequent acquisition of oblique digital images from helicopter allows for quasi-real-time monitoring to support mitigation actions by civil protection. These images are commonly used to update existing maps through a photo-interpretation approach that provide data of unknown accuracy. This work presents a scientific tool (Orthoview that implements a straightforward photogrammetric approach to generate digital orthophotos from single-view oblique images provided that at least four Ground Control Points (GCP and current Digital Elevation Models (DEM are available. The influence of the view geometry, of sparse and not-signalized GCP and DEM inaccuracies is analyzed for evaluating the performance of the developed tool in comparison with other remote sensing techniques. Results obtained with datasets from Etna and Stromboli volcanoes demonstrate that 2D features measured on the produced orthophotos can reach sub-meter-level accuracy.

  20. Continuous gravity observations at active volcanoes through superconducting gravimeters (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Greco, Filippo


    Continuous gravity measurements at active volcanoes are usually taken through spring gravimeters that are easily portable and do not require much power to work. However, intrinsic limitations dictate that, when used in continuous, these instruments do not provide high-quality data over periods longer than some days. Superconducting gravimeters (SG), that feature a superconducting sphere in a magnetic field as the proof mass, provide better-quality data than spring gravimeters, but are bigger and need mains electricity to work, implying that they cannot be installed close to the active structures of high volcanoes. An iGrav SG was installed on Mt. Etna (Italy) in September 2014 and has worked almost continuously since then. It was installed about 6km from the active craters in the summit zone of the volcano. Such distance is normally too much to observe gravity changes due to relatively fast (minutes to days) volcanic processes. Indeed, mass redistributions in the shallowest part of the plumbing system induce short-wavelength gravity anomalies, centered below the summit craters. Nevertheless, thanks to the high precision and long-term stability of SGs, it was possible to observe low-amplitude changes over a wide range of timescales (minutes to months), likely driven by volcanic activity. Plans are in place for the implementation of a mini-array of SGs at Etna.

  1. Peeking Beneath the Caldera: Communicating Subsurface Knowledge of Newberry Volcano (United States)

    Mark-Moser, M.; Rose, K.; Schultz, J.; Cameron, E.


    "Imaging the Subsurface: Enhanced Geothermal Systems and Exploring Beneath Newberry Volcano" is an interactive website that presents a three-dimensional subsurface model of Newberry Volcano developed at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Created using the Story Maps application by ArcGIS Online, this format's dynamic capabilities provide the user the opportunity for multimedia engagement with the datasets and information used to build the subsurface model. This website allows for an interactive experience that the user dictates, including interactive maps, instructive videos and video capture of the subsurface model, and linked information throughout the text. This Story Map offers a general background on the technology of enhanced geothermal systems and the geologic and development history of Newberry Volcano before presenting NETL's modeling efforts that support the installation of enhanced geothermal systems. The model is driven by multiple geologic and geophysical datasets to compare and contrast results which allow for the targeting of potential EGS sites and the reduction of subsurface uncertainty. This Story Map aims to communicate to a broad audience, and provides a platform to effectively introduce the model to researchers and stakeholders.

  2. Volcano hazards assessment for the Lassen region, northern California (United States)

    Clynne, Michael A.; Robinson, Joel E.; Nathenson, Manuel; Muffler, L.J. Patrick


    The Lassen region of the southernmost Cascade Range is an active volcanic area. At least 70 eruptions have occurred in the past 100,000 years, including 3 in the past 1,000 years, most recently in 1915. The record of past eruptions and the present state of the underlying magmatic and hydrothermal systems make it clear that future eruptions within the Lassen Volcanic Center are very likely. Although the annual probability of an eruption is small, the consequences of some types of eruptions could be severe. Compared to those of a typical Cascade composite volcano, eruptive vents at Lassen Volcanic Center and the surrounding area are widely dispersed, extending in a zone about 50 km wide from the southern boundary of Lassen Volcanic National Park north to the Pit River. This report presents a discussion of volcanic and other geologic hazards in the Lassen area and delineates hazards zones for different types of volcanic activity. Owing to its presence in a national park with significant visitorship, its explosive behavior, and its proximity to regional infrastructure, the Lassen Volcanic Center has been designated a "high threat volcano" in the U.S. Geological Survey National Volcano Early Warning System assessment. Volcanic eruptions are typically preceded by seismic activity and ground deformation, and the Lassen area has a network of seismometers and Global Positioning System stations in place to monitor for early warning of volcanic activity.

  3. Climbing in the high volcanoes of central Mexico (United States)

    Secor, R. J.


    A chain of volcanoes extends across central Mexico along the 19th parallel, a line just south of Mexico City. The westernmost of these peaks is Nevado de Colima at 4,636 feet above sea level. A subsidiary summit of Nevado de Colima is Volcan de Colima, locally called Fuego (fire) it still emits sulphurous fumes and an occasional plume of smoke since its disastrous eruption in 1941. Parictuin, now dormant, was born in the fall of 1943 when a cornfield suddenly erupted. Within 18 months, the cone grew more than 1,700 feet. Nevado de Toluca is a 15,433-foot volcanic peak south of the city of Toluca. Just southeast of Mexico City are two high volcanoes that are permanently covered by snow: Iztaccihuatl (17,342 fet) and Popocatepetl (17,887 feet) Further east is the third highest mountain in North America: 18,700-foot Citlateptl, or El Pico de Orizaba. North of these high peaks are two volcanoes, 14, 436-foot La Malinche and Cofre de Perote at 14,048 feet. This range of mountains is known variously as the Cordillera de Anahuac, the Sierra Volcanica Transversal, or the Cordillera Neovolcanica. 

  4. Petrological insights into pre- and syn-eruptive degassing at Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu


    Sheehan, Fionnuala


    Abstract This study is a petrological investigation of magmatic conditions and degassing processes at Ambrym volcano, a basaltic island arc volcano recently identified as a prodigious emitter of volcanic gases. Typical activity at this volcano entails heavy degassing from quasipermanent lava lakes, with Strombolian activity of fluctuating intensity. This is punctuated on an approximately decadal timescale by moderate sub-Plinian paroxysms, often accompanied by overflow of la...

  5. Shallow Resistivity Structure of Sakurajima Volcano Revealed by Audio-frequency Magnetotellurics


    Kanda, Wataru; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Ogawa, Yasuo; Hashimoto, Takeshi; SAKANAKA, Shinʼya; aizawa, koki; Takakura, Shinichi; Koyama, Takao; Yamada, Kenta; Kobayashi, Tsukasa; KOMORI, Shogo


    An audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) survey was conducted at the foot of Sakurajima volcano in November 2007. This survey was carried out within the framework of the 7th National Project for Prediction of Volcano Eruptions. The main objective was to clarify the shallow layers of Sakurajima volcano for better understanding of the volcanic activity. We measured electromagnetic fields at frequencies from 1 to 10400 Hz at 27 locations along only three lines set on the northern, we...

  6. Geochemical constraints on magma processes in a peralkaline system - The Paisano volcano, west Texas (United States)

    Mcdonough, W. F.; Nelson, D. O.


    Petrographic and trace element data from a continuous stratigraphic sequence of flows from the peralkaline Paisano Volcano in west Texas are used to delineate magnetic processes responsible for the chemical evolution of this volcano. It is shown that crystal fractionation of the phenocrystic assemblage explains the main compositional variation, but magma mixing of a less evolved melt composition also affected the chemical evolution of the volcano.

  7. Characteristics of Lusi Mud Volcano and Its Impacts on the Porong River


    B D Krisnayanti; D. S. Agustawijaya


    Since the first gas and mud volcano spewed from well at Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia (called Lusi or Lapindo mud) in 2006, its keep flowing ever since. Despite the occurrence of Lusi mud volcano was debated. Either it was natural or unnatural disaster, but maintaining the impact of the mud on social and environment is important. In addition, monitoring water, land and air quality under permitable condition is urgently necessary, due to some scientist stated that the eruption of mud volcano ...



    Sergio Andres Rivera Ibanez; Gino Casassa Rogazinski; Jorge Eduardo Clavero Ribes; Claudio Bravo Lechuga; Angelo Castruccio Alvarez; Pablo Zenteno Soto


    GLACIER-VOLCANO INTERACTIONS IN SOUTHERN CHILE: VOLCANIC HAZARD AND CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS A 3 years long study on the glacier-volcano interaction in Southern Chile (Los Lagos Region), where most glaciers are located on active volcanic cones. The main objective of the project is differentiating glacier responses to climate changes from responses that might be caused by geothermal systems associated to active volcanoes. In the last few years, most glaciers in the region have significa...

  9. Magma chamber cooling by episodic volatile expulsion as constrained by mineral vein distributions in the Butte, Montana Cu-Mo porphyry deposit (United States)

    Daly, K.; Karlstrom, L.; Reed, M. H.


    The role of hydrothermal systems in the thermal evolution of magma chambers is poorly constrained yet likely significant. We analyze trends in mineral composition, vein thickness and overall volumetric fluid flux of the Butte, Montana porphyry Cu-Mo deposit to constrain the role of episodic volatile discharge in the crystallization of the source magma chamber ( 300 km3of silicic magma). An aqueous fluid sourced from injection of porphyritic dikes formed the Butte porphyry Cu network of veins. At least three separate pulses of fluid through the system are defined by alteration envelopes of [1] gray sericite (GS); [2] early-dark micaceous (EDM), pale-green sericite (PGS), and dark-green sericite (DGS); and [3] quartz-molybdenite (Qmb) and barren-quartz. Previous research using geothermometers and geobarometers has found that vein mineral composition, inferred temperatures and inferred pressures vary systematically with depth. Later fluid pulses are characterized by lower temperatures, consistent with progressive cooling of the source. We have digitized previously unused structural data from Butte area drill cores, and applied thermomechanical modeling of fluid release from the source magma chamber through time. Vein number density and vein thickness increase with depth as a clear function of mineralogy and thus primary temperature and pressure. We identify structural trends in the three fluid pulses which seem to imply time evolution of average vein characteristics. Pulses of Qmb-barren quartz and EDM-PGS-DGS (1st and 2nd in time) exhibit increasing vein number density (157 & 95 veins/50m, respectively) and thickness (300mm & 120mm, respectively) as a function of depth. EDM-PGS-DGS has a shallower peak in vein density (800m) than Qmb-barren quartz (>1600m). These data provide the basis for idealized mechanical models of hydrofractures, to predict driving pressures and to compare with existing source temperatures and total fluid volumes in order to estimate the total

  10. Volcano monitoring using GPS: Developing data analysis strategies based on the June 2007 Kīlauea Volcano intrusion and eruption (United States)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Poland, Michael; Miklius, Asta


    The global positioning system (GPS) is one of the most common techniques, and the current state of the art, used to monitor volcano deformation. In addition to slow (several centimeters per year) displacement rates, GPS can be used to study eruptions and intrusions that result in much larger (tens of centimeters over hours-days) displacements. It is challenging to resolve precise positions using GPS at subdaily time intervals because of error sources such as multipath and atmospheric refraction. In this paper, the impact of errors due to multipath and atmospheric refraction at subdaily periods is examined using data from the GPS network on Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i. Methods for filtering position estimates to enhance precision are both simulated and tested on data collected during the June 2007 intrusion and eruption. Comparisons with tiltmeter records show that GPS instruments can precisely recover the timing of the activity.

  11. 2014 volcanic activity in Alaska: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl E.; Dixon, James P.; Neal, Christina A.; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Schaefer, Janet R.; McGimsey, Robert G.


    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest, and seismic events at 18 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2014. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash eruptions from long-active Cleveland and Shishaldin Volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands, and two eruptive episodes at Pavlof Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula. Semisopochnoi and Akutan volcanoes had seismic swarms, both likely the result of magmatic intrusion. The AVO also installed seismometers and infrasound instruments at Mount Cleveland during 2014.

  12. Numerical Simulation for Scenario Based Volcanic Hazard Assessment (VHA) at Seulawah Agam Volcano, Aceh, Sumatra


    Syukri, Muhammad; Fauzi, Amir; Fashbir,; Irwandi,


    Seulawah Agam is an active volcano with high 1,810 m located at 5.448°N 95.658°E and close to the capital of Aceh province densely populated. Following Sumatra-Andaman earthquake 26 December 2004, Sumatra Island has increased not only seismicity but also volcanic activity. On the other hand, Sinabung volcano categorized as inactive volcano, but beyond expectations on the 3rd September 2010 experienced eruption and the closest volcanic eruption location to Seulawah Agam volcano. Meanwhile, in ...

  13. State of stress, faulting, and eruption characteristics of large volcanoes on Mars (United States)

    Mcgovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.


    The formation of a large volcano loads the underlying lithospheric plate and can lead to lithospheric flexure and faulting. In turn, lithospheric deformation affects the stress field beneath and within the volcanic edifice and can influence magma transport. Modeling the interaction of these processes is crucial to an understanding of the history of eruption characteristics and tectonic deformation of large volcanoes. We develop models of time-dependent stress and deformation for the Tharsis volcanoes on Mars. By means of a finite element code, we calculate stresses and displacements due to a volcano-shaped load emplaced on an elastic plate overlying a viscoelastic mantle. Models variously incorporate growth of the volcanic load with time and a detachment between volcano and lithosphere. The models illustrate the manner in which time-dependent stresses induced by lithospheric plate flexure beneath the volcanic load may affect eruption histories, and the derived stress fields can be related to tectonic features on and surrounding Martian volcanoes. As a result of flexure there are three regions where stresses become sufficiently large to cause failure by faulting, according to the Mohr-Coulomb criterion: at the surface of the plate just outward of the volcano, near the base of the elastic lithosphere beneath the center of the volcano, and on the upper flanks of the volcano early in its growth history.

  14. Methane concentration inside a submarine mud volcano examined through seismic velocity profiles (United States)

    Kioka, Arata; Tsuji, Takeshi; Otsuka, Hironori; Ashi, Juichiro


    Mud volcanoes are considered to be among largest geological sources releasing hydrocarbon gases into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have revealed their origins and compositions from submarine mud volcanoes. A recent long-term observation at a submarine mud volcano sheds light on that larger volume of methane gas than expected is escaped from deep-water mud volcanoes, suggesting that the global methane flux from the seafloor is likely underestimated. Yet, estimates of the gas amount inside mud volcanoes have been still challenging, because of the difficulty of in-situ measurements. This study provides a new model to bridge methane amounts and seismic velocities in fluidized mud conduits of submarine mud volcanoes. This model is universally applicable and enables estimates of methane concentration in the mud conduits, using the seismic velocity profile derived from reflection/refraction seismic and/or downhole logging data. In this study, (1) we examine our modeled results through deep-drilling data obtained at mud volcanoes in the Olimpi mud field of the central Mediterranean Ridge accretionary margin, to evaluate the difference between in situ methane amounts and those calculated from our model, and (2) apply our model to the seismic velocity profile derived from seicmic data to estimate the methane amount inside the submarine mud volcano in the Nankai accretionary margin. Our scheme may provide an opportunity to re-estimate the total methane flux from submarine mud volcanoes.

  15. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1999 (United States)

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Lahr, John C.; Paskievitch, John; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Lockhart, Andrew B.; Moran, Seth C.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Hammond, William R.


    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska - Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained a seismic monitoring program at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism.Between 1994 and 1999, the AVO seismic monitoring program underwent significant changes with networks added at new volcanoes during each summer from 1995 through 1999. The existing network at Katmai –Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) was repaired in 1995, and new networks were installed at Makushin (1996), Akutan (1996), Pavlof (1996), Katmai - south (1996), Aniakchak (1997), Shishaldin (1997), Katmai - north (1998), Westdahl, (1998), Great Sitkin (1999) and Kanaga (1999). These networks added to AVO's existing seismograph networks in the Cook Inlet area and increased the number of AVO seismograph stations from 46 sites and 57 components in 1994 to 121 sites and 155 components in 1999. The 1995–1999 seismic network expansion increased the number of volcanoes monitored in real-time from 4 to 22, including Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Mount Snowy, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin, Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski volcano, Shisaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl volcano, Akutan volcano, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (see Figures 1-15). The network expansion also increased the number of earthquakes located from about 600 per year in1994 and 1995 to about 3000 per year between 1997 and 1999.Highlights of the catalog period include: 1) a large volcanogenic seismic

  16. Technology and Geologic Mapping at Newberry Volcano, Oregon (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Jensen, R. A.; Ramsey, D. W.; Robinson, J. E.


    Rapid changes in technology over the past dozen years have provided powerful new tools for geologic mapping. During the 20th century, improved topographic maps and aerial photography were the major innovations for fieldwork. But, beginning in 2000, the use of a hand-held GPS receiver changed the first mapping question at Newberry Volcano from "where exactly am I?" to "I know where I am, so now I can ask first, which lava flow is this?" Hand plotting of the GPS locations was done using a transparent grid over a paper topographic map. Recently, digital compilation and production of maps facilitated by the critical role of GIS experts has dramatically speeded the process of completing a map. The field geologist can now take a new and up-to-date colored copy of the mapping to the field each season. At Newberry Volcano, digital compilation has played a very important role. By contrast, aerial photos have been of little use because the volcano is mantled with Mazama ash from the 7.7-ka eruption that produced Crater Lake and by thick vegetation that has grown in the ash blanket. Finding an outcrop in the thick forest is time-consuming and difficult. In 2011, however, lidar coverage of much of the volcano became available and otherwise hidden outcrops became obvious in the shaded relief image generated from the lidar data. In 2012, the power of the lidar was enhanced at Newberry Volcano by using it on a tablet computer in an app that has location services and the ability to record information-rich placemarks. The blue location dot shows the exact location of the geologist; the app records the location of a point in a variety of formats (lat/long, UTM), provides an entry field for a description, and can incorporate photos tied to the location - all of which can be e-mailed. Images of the lidar with placemarks can also be saved as pdfs that can be annotated with lines and labels, all while in the field. The tablet can also provide immediate access to field notes scanned as

  17. Update of the volcanic risk map of Colima volcano, Mexico (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Nuñez Cornu, F. J.; Marquez-Azua, B.


    The Colima volcano, located in western Mexico (19° 30.696 N, 103° 37.026 W) began its current eruptive process in February 10, 1999. This event was the basis for the development of two volcanic hazard maps: one for ballistics (rock fall) lahars, and another one for ash fall. During the period of 2003 to 2008 this volcano has had an intense effusive-explosive activity, similar to the one that took place during the period of 1890 through 1900. Intense pre-Plinian eruption in January 20, 1913, generated little economic losses in the lower parts of the volcano thanks to the low population density and low socio-economic activities at the time The current volcanic activity has triggered ballistic projections, pyroclastic and ash flows, and lahars, all have exceeded the maps limits established in 1999. Vulnerable elements within these areas have gradually changed due to the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east and southeast sides of the Colima volcano. On the slopes of the northwest side, new blue agave Tequilana weber and avocado orchard crops have emerged along with important production of greenhouse tomato, alfalfa and fruit (citrus) crops that will eventually be processed and dried for exportation to the United States and Europe. Also, in addition to the above, large expanses of corn and sugar cane have been planted on the slopes of the volcano since the nineteenth century. The increased agricultural activity has had a direct impact in the reduction of the available forest land area. Coinciding with this increased activity, the 0.8% growth population during the period of 2000 - 2005, - due to the construction of the Guadalajara-Colima highway-, also increased this impact. The growth in vulnerability changed the level of risk with respect to the one identified in the year 1999 (Suarez, 2000), thus motivating us to perform an update to the risk map at 1:25,000 using vector models of the INEGI, SPOT images of different dates, and fieldwork done in order

  18. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica). (United States)

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón


    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  19. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Peci


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARMTM processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (DebianTM as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  20. Volatile fluxes integrated over four decades at Grimsvoetn volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Agustsdottir, Anna Maria; Brantley, Susan L.


    Samples of the subglacial lake in the crater of the tholeiitic basaltic caldera Grimsvoetn in Iceland were obtained by using a hot-water drill to sink two boreholes through the 250-m-thick ice shelf covering the lake. The lake generally shows an increase in solutes with increased depth, as solutes are added from the lake's bottom and dilute glacial meltwater is added continuously from above. The crater lake temperature ranges from 0 C in the upper part to temperatures of 1 C to 4 C near the bottom of the lake. The lake water pH ranges between 7.0 and 5.7. The crater lake is assumed to be closed, with respect to volatile components released from subsurface magma, except for periodic draining by joekulhlaups. From the periodicity and water chemistry of the joekulhlaups, we have estimated the volcano's average release rates of carbon, sulfur, chlorine and fluorine between 1954 and 1991 and corrected these rates for dissolution of bedrock into the lake water and seepage of solutes to groundwater. The corrected mean release rates are 5.3 x 10(exp 7) kg C/yr, 5.3 x 10(exp 6) kg S/yr, 6.6 x 10(exp 5) kg Cl/yr, and 1.5 x 10(exp 5) kg F/yr. The emision rate estimates for Grimsvoetn, one of the most active volcanoes in Iceland, are the longest integrated estimates obtained for an active volcano and are equal to or lower than those of other major active volcanoes worldwide. This difference may imply that published release rates for other volcanoes are overestimated, because they are usually not integrated over time. The values of the S/Cl and F/Cl ratios for noneruptive periods are 0.53 plus or minus 0.20 and 0.013 plus or minus 0.003, and for the two eruptive events are 0.69 and 2.14, and 0.034 and 0.041, respectively. The response of the elemental ratios to eruptive events, followed by the return to lower ratios, supports the assumption of steady state, because no long-term accumulation of volatiles occurs. The energy output from the volcano, estimated from the amount of

  1. Late Holocene volcanism at Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California Cascades (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Champion, Duane E.; Grove, Timothy L.


    Late Holocene volcanism at Medicine Lake volcano in the southern Cascades arc exhibited widespread and compositionally diverse magmatism ranging from basalt to rhyolite. Nine well-characterized eruptions have taken place at this very large rear-arc volcano since 5,200 years ago, an eruptive frequency greater than nearly all other Cascade volcanoes. The lavas are widely distributed, scattered over an area of ~300 km2 across the >2,000-km2 volcano. The eruptions are radiocarbon dated and the ages are also constrained by paleomagnetic data that provide strong evidence that the volcanic activity occurred in three distinct episodes at ~1 ka, ~3 ka, and ~5 ka. The ~1-ka final episode produced a variety of compositions including west- and north-flank mafic flows interspersed in time with fissure rhyolites erupted tangential to the volcano’s central caldera, including the youngest and most spectacular lava flow at the volcano, the ~950-yr-old compositionally zoned Glass Mountain flow. At ~3 ka, a north-flank basalt eruption was followed by an andesite eruption 27 km farther south that contains quenched basalt inclusions. The ~5-ka episode produced two caldera-focused dacitic eruptions. Quenched magmatic inclusions record evidence of intrusions that did not independently reach the surface. The inclusions are present in five andesitic, dacitic, and rhyolitic host lavas, and were erupted in each of the three episodes. Compositional and mineralogic evidence from mafic lavas and inclusions indicate that both tholeiitic (dry) and calcalkaline (wet) parental magmas were present. Petrologic evidence records the operation of complex, multi-stage processes including fractional crystallization, crustal assimilation, and magma mixing. Experimental evidence suggests that magmas were stored at 3 to 6 km depth prior to eruption, and that both wet and dry parental magmas were involved in generating the more silicic magmas. The broad distribution of eruptive events and the relative

  2. Kamchatka and North Kurile Volcano Explosive Eruptions in 2015 and Danger to Aviation (United States)

    Girina, Olga; Melnikov, Dmitry; Manevich, Alexander; Demyanchuk, Yury; Nuzhdaev, Anton; Petrova, Elena


    There are 36 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka and North Kurile, and several of them are continuously active. In 2015, four of the Kamchatkan volcanoes (Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky) and two volcanoes of North Kurile (Alaid and Chikurachki) had strong and moderate explosive eruptions. Moderate gas-steam activity was observing of Bezymianny, Kizimen, Avachinsky, Koryaksky, Gorely, Mutnovsky and other volcanoes. Strong explosive eruptions of volcanoes are the most dangerous for aircraft because they can produce in a few hours or days to the atmosphere and the stratosphere till several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2015: on 07, 12, and 15 January, 01, 17, and 28 February, 04, 08, 16, 21-22, and 26 March, 07 and 12 April: ash plumes rose up to 7-12 km a.s.l. and extended more 900 km to the different directions of the volcano. Ashfalls occurred at Ust'-Kamchatsk on 16 March, and Klyuchi on 30 October. Strong and moderate hot avalanches from the lava dome were observing more often in the second half of the year. Aviation color code of Sheveluch was Orange during the year. Activity of the volcano was dangerous to international and local aviation. Explosive-effusive eruption of Klyuchevskoy volcano lasted from 01 January till 24 March. Strombolian explosive volcanic activity began from 01 January, and on 08-09 January a lava flow was detected at the Apakhonchich chute on the southeastern flank of the volcano. Vulcanian activity of the volcano began from 10 January. Ashfalls

  3. Mass Balance Analyses of Flushing, Evaporation, Infiltration, and Biological Activity in California Park Lakes, Butte County, California (United States)

    Murphy, W. M.; Sundermann, C. R.


    California Park Lakes are retained by dams on Dead Horse Slough, an ephemeral stream network, which flows over volcanic/sedimentary rocks of the Tuscan Formation at the eastern margin of the Sacramento Valley, Butte County, California. Surface area of the lakes is approximately 0.2 km2, maximum depth is 8 m, and approximate lake volume is 700,000 m3. Flow rate and depth measurements in Dead Horse Slough indicate that discharges associated with winter storms flush the lakes repeatedly. During dry summer months no surface water discharges from the lakes and water is pumped from the underlying aquifer to maintain the water level. Average pumping rates are approximately 1250 m3/day. Surface and storm drain runoff, mainly from nearby lawn irrigation, also supply water at fluctuating rates estimated to equal a fraction (e.g., 35 percent) of well water supply. Reported pan evaporation data indicate that summer evaporation from lake surfaces is 1000 to 1500 m3/day. Thus, the estimated evaporation rate approximately equals the well water and runoff supply rate. Periodic chemical analyses of water supplies and lake water have been conducted primarily to evaluate nutrient sources. Typical nitrate and chloride concentrations are 2 to 10 mg/liter, and typical phosphate concentrations are 0.2 to 1 mg/liter. Chloride concentrations in lake water during summer 2002 increased slightly corresponding closely to mass balance calculations for evaporative concentration. Infiltration (including leakage through the terminal dam) is small relative to evaporation and difficult to measure within the uncertainty of chloride measurements and water mass balance estimates. Lake concentrations of nitrate and phosphate are generally lower than source water concentrations consistent with biological consumption. Mass balance analyses of dissolved nutrients in lakes and water sources compared to chloride provide a measure of the rate of biological activity in the lakes, which is a water quality

  4. Bayesian estimation of magma supply, storage, and eruption rates using a multiphysical volcano model: Kīlauea Volcano, 2000–2012 (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle R.; Poland, Michael


    Estimating rates of magma supply to the world's volcanoes remains one of the most fundamental aims of volcanology. Yet, supply rates can be difficult to estimate even at well-monitored volcanoes, in part because observations are noisy and are usually considered independently rather than as part of a holistic system. In this work we demonstrate a technique for probabilistically estimating time-variable rates of magma supply to a volcano through probabilistic constraint on storage and eruption rates. This approach utilizes Bayesian joint inversion of diverse datasets using predictions from a multiphysical volcano model, and independent prior information derived from previous geophysical, geochemical, and geological studies. The solution to the inverse problem takes the form of a probability density function which takes into account uncertainties in observations and prior information, and which we sample using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Applying the technique to Kīlauea Volcano, we develop a model which relates magma flow rates with deformation of the volcano's surface, sulfur dioxide emission rates, lava flow field volumes, and composition of the volcano's basaltic magma. This model accounts for effects and processes mostly neglected in previous supply rate estimates at Kīlauea, including magma compressibility, loss of sulfur to the hydrothermal system, and potential magma storage in the volcano's deep rift zones. We jointly invert data and prior information to estimate rates of supply, storage, and eruption during three recent quasi-steady-state periods at the volcano. Results shed new light on the time-variability of magma supply to Kīlauea, which we find to have increased by 35–100% between 2001 and 2006 (from 0.11–0.17 to 0.18–0.28 km3/yr), before subsequently decreasing to 0.08–0.12 km3/yr by 2012. Changes in supply rate directly impact hazard at the volcano, and were largely responsible for an increase in eruption rate of 60–150% between

  5. Analysis of Distribution of Volcanoes around the Korean Peninsula and the Potential Effects on Korea (United States)

    Choi, Eun-kyeong; Kim, Sung-wook


    Since the scale and disaster characteristics of volcanic eruptions are determined by their geological features, it is important not only to grasp the current states of the volcanoes in neighboring countries around the Korean Peninsula, but also to analyze the tectonic settings, tectonic regions, geological features, volcanic types, and eruption histories of these volcanoes. Volcanic data were based on the volcano information registered with the Global Volcanism Program at the Smithsonian Institute. We created a database of 289 volcanoes around Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, and the Kamchatka area in Russia, and then identified a high-risk group of 29 volcanoes that are highly likely to affect the region, based on conditions such as volcanic activity, types of rock at risk of eruption, distance from Seoul, and volcanoes having Plinian eruption history with volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of 4 or more. We selected 29 hazardous volcanoes, including Baekdusan, Ulleungdo, and 27 Japanese volcanoes that can cause widespread ashfall on the Korean peninsula by potentially explosive eruptions. In addition, we identified ten volcanoes that should be given the highest priority, through an analysis of data available in literature, such as volcanic ash dispersion results from previous Japanese eruptions, the definition of a large-scale volcano used by Japan's Cabinet Office, and examination of cumulative magma layer volumes from Japan's quaternary volcanoes. We expect that predicting the extent of the spread of ash caused by this hazardous activity and analyzing its impact on the Korean peninsula will be help to predict volcanic ash damage as well as provide direction for hazard mitigation research. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-NH-2015-81] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  6. Geoheritage value of the UNESCO site at Leon Viejo and Momotombo volcano, Nicaragua (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Navarro, Martha; Espinoza, Eveling; Delgado, Hugo


    The Momotombo volcano has a special place in the history of Nicaragua. It is perfectly visible from the Capital, Managua, and from the major city of Leon. The old capital "Leon Viejo", founded in 1524 was abandoned in 1610, after a series of earthquakes and some major eruptions from Momotombo. The site was subsequently covered by Momotombo ash. A major geothermal power plant stands at the base of the volcano. Momotombo had been dormant for a hundred years, but had maintained high fumarole temperatures (900°C), indicating magma had been close to the surface for decades. In recent years, seismic activity has increased around the volcano. In December 2015, after a short ash eruption phase the volcano erupted lava, then a string of Vulcanian explosions. The volcano is now in a phase of small Vulcanian explosions and degassing. The Leon Viejo World Heritage site is at risk to mainly ash fall from the volcano, but the abandonment of the old city was primarily due to earthquakes. Additional risks come from high rainfall during hurricanes. There is an obvious link between the cultural site (inscribed under UNESCO cultural criteria) and the geological environment. First, the reactivation of Momotombo volcano makes it more important to revise the hazard of the site. At the same time, Leon Viejo can provide a portal for outreach related to the volcano and for geological risk in general. To maximise this, we provide a geosite inventory of the main features of Momotombo, and it's environs, that can be used as the first base for such studies. The volcano was visited by many adventure tourists before the 2015/2016 eruption, but is out of bounds at present. Alternative routes, around the volcano could be made, to adapt to the new situation and to show to visitors more of the geodiversity of this fascinating volcano-tectonic and cultural area.

  7. 75 FR 10814 - Proposed Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement for the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum in... (United States)


    ... Conservation Area Forum in Shasta, Tehama, Butte, Glenn, Colusa, Yolo, and Sutter Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and... application for an Enhancement of Survival Permit from the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum (applicant... Conservation Area Forum under the Act (16 U.S.C 1531 et seq.). The permit application includes a proposed Safe...

  8. 7 CFR 993.128 - Nominations for membership. (United States)


    .... 2. That portion of Sutter County north of a line extending along Franklin Road easterly to the Yuba... of a line extending along Franklin Road easterly to the Yuba County line and westerly to the Colusa... Trinity. District No. 5. All of Butte County. District No. 6. All of Yuba County. District No. 7. The...

  9. Timber resource statistics for the Sacramento resource area of California. (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett


    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Sacramento Resource Area of California, which includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lake, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, Sierra, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except...

  10. Explosive Eruptions of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2013 and Danger to Aviation (United States)

    Girina, Olga; Manevich, Alexander; Melnikov, Dmitry; Demyanchuk, Yury; Petrova, Elena


    There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and three of them (Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, and Karymsky) continuously active. In 2013, five of the Kamchatkan volcanoes - Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Karymsky, Zhupanovsky, and Mutnovsky - had strong and moderate explosive eruptions. Strong explosive eruption of volcanoes is the most dangerous for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch Volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2013: on June 26, on October 18, and on December 03: ash plumes rose up to 10 km a.s.l. and extended about 200-400 km, respectively, to the south-west, south-southeast, and north of the volcano. A form of pyroclastic flow deposits with run-out 12 km accompanied these explosive eruptions. Ashfalls occurred at Klyuchi Village (on June 26) and Ivashka Village (on December 03). Activity of the volcano was dangerous to international and local aviation. Klyuchevskoy volcano had two eruptions in 2013: moderate Strombolian explosive eruption from October 14, 2012, till January 15, 2013; and strong Strombolian-Vulcanian explosive and effusive eruption from August 15, 2013, till December 20, 2013. There were four lava flows to effuse on the north-west, west and south-western volcanic flanks. Probably a flank eruption began at the pass between Klyuchevskoy volcano and Kamen volcano on October 06. Culmination of strong Vulcanian explosive activity of the volcano occurred on October 15-20: ash column rose up to 10-12 km a.s.l. and

  11. Contiuous gas monitoring at the volcano Galeras, Colombia (United States)

    Faber, E.; Morán, C.; Poggenburg, J.; Garzón, G.; Teschner, M.; Weinlich, F. H.


    (1) Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover, Germany (, (2) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, San Juan de Pasto, Colombia (3) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, Manizales, Colombia A gas monitoring system has been installed on the volcano Galeras in Colombia as part of a multi-parameter station. Gases are extracted from the fumarolic vapour through a short pipe. After the water has been condensed the gas passes over sensors for carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and radon. Other parameters measured are temperature of the fumarolic vapour, fumarolic pressure, temperature of the ambient air and the ambient atmospheric pressure. The signals of the sensors are digitised in the electronics. The digital data are transmitted every 6 seconds by a telemetry system to the observatory down in the city of Pasto via a repeater station at the rim of the Galeras. The system at the volcano is powered by batteries connected to solar panels. Data are stored in the observatory, they are plotted and compared with all the other information of the multi-parameter station. Although the various compounds of the gas system are well preserved for the very aggressive environment close to the fumarole some problems still remain: Sulphur often plugs the pipe to the sensors and requires maintenance more often than desired. As the volcano is most of the time in clouds the installed solar power system (about 400 Watts maximum power) does not enable to run the system at the fumarole (consumption about 15 Watts) continuously during all nights. Despite these still existing problems some results have been obtained encouraging us to continue the operation of the system, to further develop the technical quality and to increase the number of fumaroles included into a growing monitoring network. In March 2000 seismic activity in the crater increased accompanied by a

  12. Constructing a reference tephrochronology for Augustine Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Wallace, K.; Coombs, M. L.


    Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in Alaska's populous Cook Inlet region. Past on-island work on pre-historic tephra deposits mainly focused on using tephra layers as markers to help distinguish among prevalent debris-avalanche deposits on the island (Waitt and Beget, 2009, USGS Prof Paper 1762), or as source material for petrogenetic studies. No comprehensive reference study of tephra fall from Augustine Volcano previously existed. Numerous workers have identified Holocene-age tephra layers in the region surrounding Augustine Island, but without well-characterized reference deposits, correlation back to the source volcano is difficult. The purpose of this detailed tephra study is to provide a record of eruption frequency and magnitude, as well as to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics for use as reference standards for comparison with regionally distributed Augustine tephra layers. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, deposit componentry, and field context are used to correlate tephra units on the island where deposits are coarse grained. Major-element glass geochemistry was collected for use in correlating to unknown regional tephra. Due to the small size of the volcanic island (9 by 11 km in diameter) and frequent eruptive activity, on-island exposures of tephra deposits older than a couple thousand years are sparse, and the lettered Tephras B, M, C, H, I, and G of Waitt and Beget (2009) range in age from 370-2200 yrs B.P. There are, however, a few exposures on the south side of the volcano, within about 2 km of the vent, where stratigraphic sections that extend back to the late Pleistocene glaciation include coarse pumice-fall deposits. We have linked the letter-named tephras from the coast to these higher exposures on the south side using physical and chemical characteristics of the deposits. In addition, these exposures preserve at least 5 older major post-glacial eruptions of Augustine. These ultra

  13. Constructing a reference tephrochronology for Augustine Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Wallace, Kristi; Coombs, Michelle L.


    Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in Alaska's populous Cook Inlet region. Past on-island work on pre-historic tephra deposits mainly focused on using tephra layers as markers to help distinguish among prevalent debris-avalanche deposits on the island (Waitt and Beget, 2009, USGS Prof Paper 1762), or as source material for petrogenetic studies. No comprehensive reference study of tephra fall from Augustine Volcano previously existed. Numerous workers have identified Holocene-age tephra layers in the region surrounding Augustine Island, but without well-characterized reference deposits, correlation back to the source volcano is difficult. The purpose of this detailed tephra study is to provide a record of eruption frequency and magnitude, as well as to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics for use as reference standards for comparison with regionally distributed Augustine tephra layers. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, deposit componentry, and field context are used to correlate tephra units on the island where deposits are coarse grained. Major-element glass geochemistry was collected for use in correlating to unknown regional tephra. Due to the small size of the volcanic island (9 by 11 km in diameter) and frequent eruptive activity, on-island exposures of tephra deposits older than a couple thousand years are sparse, and the lettered Tephras B, M, C, H, I, and G of Waitt and Beget (2009) range in age from 370-2200 yrs B.P. There are, however, a few exposures on the south side of the volcano, within about 2 km of the vent, where stratigraphic sections that extend back to the late Pleistocene glaciation include coarse pumice-fall deposits. We have linked the letter-named tephras from the coast to these higher exposures on the south side using physical and chemical characteristics of the deposits. In addition, these exposures preserve at least 5 older major post-glacial eruptions of Augustine. These ultra

  14. Borehole Strain Measurements on Volcanoes: Insights from Montserrat and Hekla (United States)

    Linde, A. T.; Sacks, S. I.


    In Fall 2000 we reported that data from Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters allowed a short term (~20 minutes) warning of an eruption of Hekla, Iceland, in 2000 and showed clear changes before an eruption of Izu-Oshima, Japan, in 1986. In 2002-2003 (CALIPSO program) we installed a small net of strainmeters near Montserrat’s Soufriere Hills Volcano, an active andesitic dome building volcano. We have sites in Long Valley and Hawaii (with USGS); at Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei area, Stromboli and (planned) Etna (with Italian colleagues). Gladwin strainmeters have been installed at Yellowstone and Mt. St. Helens (PBO). Our recent volcano research efforts have been on Montserrat and Hekla. Analyses of a very large dome collapse (Montserrat) in July 2003 (Voight et al, 2006) and an explosion in March 2004 (Linde et al., 2010) reveal a reservoir at about 5 km with a NW-SE trending dike extending from the reservoir to about 1.5 km from the surface. A number of explosions require only a narrow conduit (15 m radius) that extends from the top of the dike to the surface (Voight et al. 2010); others have a different strain signature and require deeper sources. A 1 month long clear strain excursion required an additional contribution from a reservoir at about 11 km (Hautmann et al. in prep). Many small signals with similar strain change patterns take place over much shorter time scales (2 - 20 mins) are presumably due to gas transfer. We now realize, from the 2000 eruption of Hekla, that the magma geometry is quite different from that in all earlier models. The reservoir is about 11 km deep but the dike that breaks the surface in Hekla's characteristic fissure eruption does not extend to the reservoir as had been thought; but to no more than about 1 km. Although undetectable by any available surface measurements, there must be a conduit to connect the reservoir to the dike. In Sturkell et al. (in prep) we propose that this conduit is now sufficiently large in diameter to remain

  15. The Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) - Past and Future (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Pallister, J. S.


    For 24 years the U.S. Geological Survey and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance have supported a small team of scientists and the monitoring equipment required to respond to volcanic crises at short notice anywhere in the world. This VDAP team was founded following the 1985 tragedy at Nevado del Ruiz, where 23,000 perished following an eruption-triggered lahar that swept through the town of Armero, Colombia. Through its first two decades, VDAP has deployed teams and equipment to assist host-country counterparts in responding to volcanic eruptions and unrest at numerous volcanoes in Central and South America, the Caribbean, the Western Pacific and Africa and the Middle East. VDAP and the larger USGS Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) have a synergistic relationship. VDAP contributes to domestic eruption responses (e.g., Anatahan, Commonwealth of the Marianas Islands (2003-05), Mount St. Helens (2004) and several Alaskan eruptions). In turn, when VDAP lacks sufficient capability, the larger USGS Volcano Hazards Program provides a “backstop” of staff and expertise to support its international work. Between crises, VDAP conducts capacity-building projects, including construction of volcano-monitoring networks and education programs in monitoring, hazard assessment and eruption forecasting. Major capacity-building projects have focused on Central and South America (1998-present), Papua New Guinea (1998-2000) and Indonesia (2004-present). In all cases, VDAP scientists work in the background, providing support to counterpart agencies and representing the U.S. Government as scientist-diplomats. All VDAP monitoring equipment (whether used in crisis response or in capacity building) is donated to counterpart agencies as a form of U.S. foreign aid. Over the years, VDAP has helped build and sustain volcano observatories and monitoring programs in more than a dozen countries. As observatories, monitoring networks, and the science of volcanology and forecasting have

  16. Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Pre-eruption Perspective View, SRTM / Landsat (United States)


    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This computer generated visualization combines a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to provide a view of both the volcano and the city of Goma, looking slightly east of north.Nyiragongo is the steep volcano on the right, Lake Kivu is in the foreground, and the city of Goma has a light pink speckled appearance along the shoreline. Nyiragongo peaks at about 3470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2000 meters (6560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but broader Nyamuragira volcano appears in the left background. Topographic expression has been exaggerated vertically by a factor of 1.5 for this visualization.Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. Volcanic activity is common here, and older but geologically recent lava flows (magenta in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before the eruption, and shows an unusually cloud-free view of this tropical terrain. Minor clouds and their shadows were digitally removed to clarify the view, topographic shading derived from the SRTM elevation model was added to the Landsat image, and a false sky was added.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive

  17. The added value of time-variable microgravimetry to the understanding of how volcanoes work (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Poland, Michael; Greco, Filippo; Diament, Michel


    During the past few decades, time-variable volcano gravimetry has shown great potential for imaging subsurface processes at active volcanoes (including some processes that might otherwise remain “hidden”), especially when combined with other methods (e.g., ground deformation, seismicity, and gas emissions). By supplying information on changes in the distribution of bulk mass over time, gravimetry can provide information regarding processes such as magma accumulation in void space, gas segregation at shallow depths, and mechanisms driving volcanic uplift and subsidence. Despite its potential, time-variable volcano gravimetry is an underexploited method, not widely adopted by volcano researchers or observatories. The cost of instrumentation and the difficulty in using it under harsh environmental conditions is a significant impediment to the exploitation of gravimetry at many volcanoes. In addition, retrieving useful information from gravity changes in noisy volcanic environments is a major challenge. While these difficulties are not trivial, neither are they insurmountable; indeed, creative efforts in a variety of volcanic settings highlight the value of time-variable gravimetry for understanding hazards as well as revealing fundamental insights into how volcanoes work. Building on previous work, we provide a comprehensive review of time-variable volcano gravimetry, including discussions of instrumentation, modeling and analysis techniques, and case studies that emphasize what can be learned from campaign, continuous, and hybrid gravity observations. We are hopeful that this exploration of time-variable volcano gravimetry will excite more scientists about the potential of the method, spurring further application, development, and innovation.

  18. Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlou, J.-L.; Donval, J.-P.; Zitter, T.; Roy, N.; Jean Baptiste, P.; Foucher, J.P.; Woodside, J.M.; Medinaut, Party


    As a part of the Dutch-French MEDINAUT diving expedition in 1998, cold seeps and mud volcanoes were studied and sampled in two distinctive tectonic settings in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The first setting was the Olimpi Mud Volcano field (OMV area), including Napoli, Milano, Maidstone and Moscow

  19. Late Holocene phases of dome growth and Plinian activity at Guagua Pichincha volcano (Ecuador)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, Claude; Samaniego, Pablo; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Mothes, Patricia; van der Plicht, Johannes


    Since the eruption which affected Quito in AD 1660, Guagua Pichincha has been considered a hazardous volcano. Based on field studies and twenty C-14 dates, this paper discusses the eruptive activity of this volcano, especially that of the last 2000 years. Three major Plinian eruptions with

  20. Taking the pulse of Mars via dating of a plume-fed volcano

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benjamin E Cohen; Darren F Mark; William S Cassata; Martin R Lee; Tim Tomkinson; Caroline L Smith


    .... Our data show that the nakhlite-source volcano grew at a rate of ca. 0.4–0.7 m Ma−1—three orders of magnitude slower than comparable volcanoes on Earth, and necessitating that Mars was far more volcanically...

  1. Evaluation of Llaima volcano activities for localization and classification of LP, VT and TR events (United States)

    Dehghan Firoozabadi, Ali; Seguel, Fabian; Soto, Ismael; Guevara, David; Huenupan, Fernando; Curilem, Millaray; Franco, Luis


    Evaluation of seismic signals is one of the most important research topics on Volcanology. Volcanoes have daily activity; therefore, high speed evaluation of recorded signals is a challenge for improving the study of the natural phenomena occurring inside these natural formations. The aim of this paper is the evaluation (denoising, localization and classification) and analysis of Llaima volcano activities, one of the most actives volcanoes in South America. Different already proposed methods, such as, Butterworth, Spectral Subtraction (SS) and Wiener Filter (WF) are compared to the proposed Modified Spectral Subtraction (MSS) and Modified Wiener Filter (MWF) to find the best method for denoising the volcano signals. Then, event localization based on received signals of volcano is performed. In this step, Time Delay Estimation (TDE)-based method is used on data acquired from 3 mechanical sensors located in the volcano area. The proposed method is used to estimate the area for event location. The proposed denoising methods make the starting point for the event more evident to increase the localization accuracy for events where the starting point is difficult to find. In the last step, a method based on the novel DNN technique is proposed to classify the three main events occurring in the Llaima volcano (TR (Tremor), LP (Long Period) and VT (Volcano Tectonic)).

  2. Volcanoes magnify Metro Manila's southwest monsoon rains and lethal floods (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar; Bagtasa, Gerry; Crisologo, Irene; Racoma, Bernard Alan; David, Carlos Primo

    Many volcanoes worldwide are located near populated cities that experience monsoon seasons, characterised by shifting winds each year. Because of the severity of flood impact to large populations, it is worthy of investigation in the Philippines and elsewhere to better understand the phenomenon for possible hazard mitigating solutions, if any. During the monsoon season, the change in flow direction of winds brings moist warm air to cross the mountains and volcanoes in western Philippines and cause lift into the atmosphere, which normally leads to heavy rains and floods. Heavy southwest monsoon rains from 18-21 August 2013 flooded Metro Manila (population of 12 million) and its suburbs paralyzing the nation’s capital for an entire week. Called the 2013 Habagat event, it was a repeat of the 2012 Habagat or extreme southwest monsoon weather from 6-9 August, which delivered record rains in the mega city. In both the 2012 and 2013 Habagat events, cyclones, the usual suspects for the delivery of heavy rains, were passing northeast of the Philippine archipelago, respectively, and enhanced the southwest monsoon. Analysis of Doppler data, rainfall measurements, and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations show that two large stratovolcanoes, Natib and Mariveles, across from Manila Bay and approximately 70 km west of Metro Manila, played a substantial role in delivering extreme rains and consequent floods to Metro Manila. The study highlights how volcanoes, with their shape and height create an orographic effect and dispersive tail of rain clouds which constitutes a significant flood hazard to large communities like Metro Manila.

  3. Glaciers of Avacha group of volcanoes in Neoholocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Manevich


    Full Text Available The study of moraines at the Avacha volcano group revealed that glaciers changes at all volcanoes within the group happened almost synchronously. Glacial deposits could be grouped into three generations, corresponding to three periods of glacier fluctuations in Neoholocene. The largest glaciation within the group occurred ~2000 years ago. Fragments of moraine, corresponding to that period were found only in the moraine complex of the Ditmar Glacier which was 15% larger then today at that time. The most of moraines at the Avacha volcano group were formed during the Little Ice Age, which in the studied region continued up to the first decades of XX centuries. The maximal advance of glaciers probably happened in XVII century. The moraine corresponding to that period was found at the Kozelsky Glacier valley. At present time the total area of glaciers which moraines were described and dated approaches 21.46  km2. The area of reconstructed moraines corresponding to the Little Ice Age is estimated to be 2.79 km2, therefore at that period the total glaciation area reaches 24,25 км2 exceeding the present area by 13%. It could be claimed that in general during the time past the Little Ice Age the glaciation nature and glacier types did not change sufficiently. The rate of glacier degradation at various parts of the group is different and depends mainly on exposition. At the valleys of four glaciers we found moraines formed in the middle of XX century. They may appear in 1941–1952 when the unfavorable weather conditions leaded to stable negative anomalies in accumulation have happened.

  4. Some Recent USF Studies at Volcanoes in Central America (United States)

    McNutt, S. R.


    Scientists at the University of South Florida (USF) have been working in Central America for several decades. Efforts have focused on Physical Volcanology in Nicaragua, GPS in Costa Rica, and assessment of Geothermal projects in El Salvador, amongst others. Two years ago a Seismology Lab was established at USF. Personnel now include three Professors, a Post-Doc, and 4 graduate students. Seismic and GPS networks were installed at Telica Volcano, Nicaragua, in 2010 by Roman, LaFemina and colleagues. Data are recorded on site and recovered several times per year at this persistently restless volcano, which has rates of 5 to 1400 low frequency seismic events per day (Rodgers et al., submitted). Proposals have been submitted to install instruments on other Nicaraguan volcanoes, including seismometers, GPS, infrasound, and lightning sensors. This suite of instruments has proven to be very effective to study a range of volcanic processes. The proposals have not been successful to date (some are pending), and alternative funding sources are being explored. One interesting scientific issue is the presence of strong seasonal effects, specifically a pronounced rainy season and dry season and possible interaction between shallow volcanic processes and surface waters. We are also pursuing a variety of studies that are complementary to the instrumental efforts. One such study is examining volcanic earthquake swarms, with the focus to date on identifying diagnostics. One clear pattern is that peak rates often occur early in swarms, whereas the largest M event occurs late. Additional evidence suggests that the seismic source size grows systematically, especially for events with similar waveforms (families). Recognition of such patterns, linked to processes, may help to improve monitoring and better take advantage of instrumental data to reduce vulnerability from eruptions.

  5. Multiple inflation events at Akutan volcano, Alaska, from GPS observations (United States)

    Hyeun Ji, Kang; Rim, Hyoung-Rae


    Detecting anomalous volcanic activities helps constrain characteristics of eruption cycles. We have developed a signal detection tool, called Targeted Projection Operator (TPO), to monitor surface deformation with Global Positioning System (GPS) data. We assume that deformation events of a volcano have similar spatial patterns but with different amplitudes. This assumption is reasonable because a deformation source (e.g., a magma chamber) is relatively stationary in space but its strength varies in time. TPO projects GPS position time series onto a pre-determined spatial pattern (or "target") and calculates the amplitude of the projection at each epoch. Large amplitudes imply that an event occurs with a spatial pattern similar to the target. We have applied the TPO technique to monitor surface deformation of Akutan volcano, Alaska, using GPS data from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) stations collected during 2005-2016. The 2008 inflationary event was used as a target. We detected three inflationary events occurred in 2011, 2014 and 2016. The last event is larger than the first two but smaller than the 2008 event that has maximum horizontal displacement of about 9 mm. The three events are significant in TPO detection because changes in the amplitude of projection are larger than the root-mean-square (RMS) error from relatively quiet periods. A simple Mogi model, as well as the pattern similarity, indicates that the deformation source of Akutan volcano has remained stationary in space during the 11-year period of observation. However, the source has activated episodically as inflationary events, which suggests that magma has accumulated in the magma chamber continually and magma accumulation could eventually cause the next eruption.

  6. Volcanoes of the Tibesti massif (Chad, northern Africa) (United States)

    Permenter, Jason L.; Oppenheimer, Clive


    The Tibesti massif, one of the most prominent features of the Sahara desert, covers an area of some 100,000 km2. Though largely absent from scientific inquiry for several decades, it is one of the world’s major volcanic provinces, and a key example of continental hot spot volcanism. The intense activity of the TVP began as early as the Oligocene, though the major products that mark its surface date from Lower Miocene to Quaternary (Furon (Geology of Africa. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh (trans 1963, orig French 1960), pp 1-377, 1963)); Gourgaud and Vincent (J Volcanol Geotherm Res 129:261-290, 2004). We present here a new and consistent analysis of each of the main components of the Tibesti Volcanic Province (TVP), based on examination of multispectral imagery and digital elevation data acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Our synthesis of these individual surveys shows that the TVP is made up of several shield volcanoes (up to 80 km diameter) with large-scale calderas, extensive lava plateaux and flow fields, widespread tephra deposits, and a highly varied structural relief. We compare morphometric characteristics of the major TVP structures with other hot spot volcanoes (the Hawaiian Islands, the Galápagos Islands, the Canary and Cape Verdes archipelagos, Jebel Marra (western Sudan), and Martian volcanoes), and consider the implications of differing tectonic setting (continental versus oceanic), the thickness and velocity of the lithosphere, the relative sizes of main volcanic features (e.g. summit calderas, steep slopes at summit regions), and the extent and diversity of volcanic features. These comparisons reveal morphologic similarities between volcanism in the Tibesti, the Galápagos, and Western Sudan but also some distinct features of the TVP. Additionally, we find that a relatively haphazard spatial development of the TVP has occurred, with volcanism initially appearing in the Central TVP and subsequently

  7. Seismic Observations of Westdahl volcano and Western Unimak Island Alaska: 1999-2005 (United States)

    Dixon, J. P.; Power, J. A.; Stihler, S. D.


    Westdahl volcano is a large basaltic shield volcano on the western end of Unimak Island Alaska in the Aleutian Island Arc. The volcano is topped by three separate vents, Pogromni Volcano, Faris Peak, and Westdahl Peak. The volcano is frequently active with known eruptions from Westdahl Peak in 1964, 1978, and 1991-92 that produced large basaltic lava flows. InSAR measurements indicate that Westdahl Volcano has been inflating at a slowly declining rate since 1992 (Lu et al., 2003). The Alaska Volcano Observatory has operated a network of six short-period seismometers on Westdahl Peak since 1998. Complementing this network are similar networks centered on Shishaldin and Akutan Volcanoes. Since 1999 more than 300 earthquakes have been located within 20 km of Westdahl Volcano. A volcano specific velocity model was determined for the western half of Uminak Island by simultaneously inverting for the velocity model and hypocentral earthquake locations using the program VELEST. Earthquakes located with the new model reveal five clusters of hypocenters: (a) a shallow cluster beneath Westdahl Peak, that largely occurred during a 24-hour period on January 7, 2004, (b) a concentration of 68 earthquakes with hypocenters ranging in depth from zero to eight km beneath Faris Peak occurring continually since 1999, (c) a diffuse cluster of long-period events northwest of Westdahl and Faris Peaks, (d) a cluster of 12 earthquakes near Pinnacle Rock, 12 km southwest of Westdahl Peak in October 2003, and (e) a cluster of 43 hypocenters near Unimak Bight, 20 km east of Westdahl Peak, that occurred between January and April 2004. Focal mechanisms were derived for four earthquakes in the Faris Peak cluster and four additional earthquakes that locate off the volcanic edifice (the four mechanisms are in the Pinnacle Rock cluster, the Unimak Bight cluster, and 20 km southeast and 30 km northeast of the volcano). Focal mechanisms in the Faris Peak cluster showed normal faulting with nodal

  8. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe


    In response to the EC call ENV.2012.6.4-2 (Long-term monitoring experiments in geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: the Supersite concept - FP7-ENV-2012-two-stage) a wide community of volcanological institutions proposed the project Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV), which is in the negotiation phase at the time of writing. The Consortium is composed by 18 European University and research institutes, four Small or Medium Enterprises (SME) and two non-European University and research institutes. MED-SUV will improve the consortium capacity of assessment of volcanic hazards in Supersites of Southern Italy by optimising and integrating existing and new observation/monitoring systems, by a breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes and by increasing the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities. More than 3 million of people are exposed to potential volcanic hazards in a large region in the Mediterranean Sea, where two among the largest European volcanic areas are located: Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. This project will fully exploit the unique detailed long-term in-situ monitoring data sets available for these volcanoes and integrate with Earth Observation (EO) data, setting the basic tools for a significant step ahead in the discrimination of pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. The wide range of styles and intensities of volcanic phenomena observed on these volcanoes, which can be assumed as archetypes of 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcano, together with the long-term multidisciplinary data sets give an exceptional opportunity to improve the understanding of a very wide spectrum of geo-hazards, as well as implementing and testing a large variety of innovative models of ground deformation and motion. Important impacts on the European industrial sector are expected, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new

  9. Magnetic volcanos in gadolinium Langmuir-Blodgett films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tishin, A.M.; Snigirev, O.V.; Khomutov, G.B.


    -plane and out-of-plane pre-magnetization in a field of 1.4 T at 300 K. Randomly placed “magnetic volcanos” with a remanent magnetic moment of the order of 10−13 A m2 was observed. A decay of the remanent magnetization with a characteristic time of about 120 h was observed. It is suggested that the magnetic...... order is relatively long ranged, and that topological defects (vortices) lead to the observed out-of-plane field lines, and are responsible for the magnetic volcanos. Finally, it is hypothesized that a similar topology of field lines is responsible for superconductivity as observed in ceramic high...

  10. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 31, 2006) (United States)


    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. In the last week, volcanic flows have been seen on the volcano's flanks. An ASTER thermal image was acquired at night at 22:50 AST on January 31, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The image shows three volcanic flows down the north flank of Augustine as white (hot) areas. The eruption plume spreads out to the east in a cone shape: it appears dark blue over the summit because it is cold and water ice dominates the composition; further downwind a change to orange color indicates that the plume is thinning and the signal is dominated by the presence of ash. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion

  11. USGS GNSS Applications to Volcano Disaster Response and Hazard Mitigation (United States)

    Lisowski, M.; McCaffrey, R.


    Volcanic unrest is often identified by increased rates of seismicity, deformation, or the release of volcanic gases. Deformation results when ascending magma accumulates in crustal reservoirs, creates new pathways to the surface, or drains from magma reservoirs to feed an eruption. This volcanic deformation is overprinted by deformation from tectonic processes. GNSS monitoring of volcanoes captures transient volcanic deformation and steady and transient tectonic deformation, and we use the TDEFNODE software to unravel these effects. We apply the technique on portions of the Cascades Volcanic arc in central Oregon and in southern Washington that include a deforming volcano. In central Oregon, the regional TDEFNODE model consists of several blocks that rotate and deform internally and a decaying inflationary volcanic pressure source to reproduce the crustal bulge centered ~5 km west of South Sister. We jointly invert 47 interferograms that cover the interval from 1992 to 2010, as well as 2001 to 2015 continuous GNSS (cGNSS) and survey-mode (sGNSS) time series from stations in and around the Three Sisters, Newberry, and Crater Lake areas. A single, smoothly-decaying ~5 km deep spherical or prolate spheroid volcanic pressure source activated around 1998 provides the best fit to the combined geodetic data. In southern Washington, GNSS displacement time-series track decaying deflation of a ~8 km deep magma reservoir that fed the 2004 to 2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens. That deformation reversed when it began to recharge after the eruption ended. Offsets from slow slip events on the Cascadia subduction zone punctuate the GNSS displacement time series, and we remove them by estimating source parameters for these events. This regional TDEFNODE model extends from Mount Rainier south to Mount Hood, and additional volcanic sources could be added if these volcanoes start deforming. Other TDEFNODE regional models are planned for northern Washington (Mount Baker and Glacier

  12. Protocols for geologic hazards response by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (United States)



    The Yellowstone Plateau hosts an active volcanic system, with subterranean magma (molten rock), boiling, pressurized waters, and a variety of active faults with significant earthquake hazards. Within the next few decades, light-to-moderate earthquakes and steam explosions are certain to occur. Volcanic eruptions are less likely, but are ultimately inevitable in this active volcanic region. This document summarizes protocols, policies, and tools to be used by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) during earthquakes, hydrothermal explosions, or any geologic activity that could lead to a volcanic eruption.

  13. Analysis of Vulnerability Around The Colima Volcano, MEXICO (United States)

    Carlos, S. P.


    The Colima volcano located in the western of the Trasmexican Volcanic Belt, in the central portion of the Colima Rift Zone, between the Mexican States of Jalisco and Colima. The volcano since January of 1998 presents a new activity, which has been characterized by two stages: the first one was an effusive phase that begin on 20 November 1998 and finish by the middle of January 1999. On February 10of 1999 a great explosion in the summit marked the beginning of an explosive phase, these facts implies that the eruptive process changes from an effusive model to an explosive one. Suárez-Plascencia et al, 2000, present hazard maps to ballistic projectiles, ashfalls and lahars for this scenario. This work presents the evaluation of the vulnerability in the areas identified as hazardous in the maps for ballistic, ashfalls and lahars, based on the economic elements located in the middle and lower sections of the volcano building, like agriculture, forestry, agroindustries and communication lines (highways, power, telephonic, railroad, etc). The method is based in Geographic Information Systems, using digital cartography scale 1:50,000, digital orthophotos from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática, SPOT and Landsat satellite images from 1997 and 2000 in the bands 1, 2 and 3. The land use maps obtained for 1997 and 2000, were compared with the land use map reported by Suárez in 1992, from these maps an increase of the 5 porcent of the sugar cane area and corn cultivations were observed compared of those of 1990 (1225.7 km2) and a decrease of the forest surface, moving the agricultural limits uphill, and showing also some agave cultivation in the northwest and north hillslopes of the Nevado de Colima. This increment of the agricultural surface results in bigger economic activity in the area, which makes that the vulnerability also be increased to different volcanic products emitted during this phase of activity. The degradation of the soil by the

  14. Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador : structure, eruptive history and hazards


    Hall, M.L.; Robin, Claude; Beate, B.; Mothes, P.; Monzier, Michel


    Tungurahua, one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes, is made up of three volcanic edifices. Tungurahua 1 was a 14-km-wide andesitic stratocone which experienced at least one sector collapse followed by the extrusion of a dacite lava series. Tungurahua 2, mainly composed of acid andesite lava flows younger than 14,000 years BP, was partly destroyed by the last collapse event, 2955 plus or minus 90 years ago, which left a large amphitheater and produced an approximately 8-km3 debris deposit. The...

  15. Gas Concentration Mapping of Arenal Volcano Using AVEMS (United States)

    Diaz, J. Andres; Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Conejo, Elian; Heinrich, Kristel; Soto, Carlomagno


    The Airborne Volcanic Emissions Mass Spectrometer (AVEMS) System developed by NASA-Kennedy Space Center and deployed in collaboration with the National Center for Advanced Technology (CENAT) and the University of Costa Rica was used for mapping the volcanic plume of Arenal Volcano, the most active volcano in Costa Rica. The measurements were conducted as part of the second CARTA (Costa Rica Airborne Research and Technology Application) mission conducted in March 2005. The CARTA 2005 mission, involving multiple sensors and agencies, consisted of three different planes collecting data over all of Costa Rica. The WB-57F from NASA collected ground data with a digital camera, an analog photogrametric camera (RC-30), a multispectral scanner (MASTER) and a hyperspectral sensor (HYMAP). The second aircraft, a King Air 200 from DoE, mounted with a LIDAR based instrument, targeted topography mapping and forest density measurements. A smaller third aircraft, a Navajo from Costa Rica, integrated with the AVEMS instrument and designed for real-time measurements of air pollutants from both natural and anthropogenic sources, was flown over the volcanoes. The improved AVEMS system is designed for deployment via aircraft, car or hand-transport. The 85 pound system employs a 200 Da quadrupole mass analyzer, has a volume of 92,000 cubic cm, requires 350 W of power at steady state, can operate up to an altitude of 41,000 feet above sea level (-65 C; 50 torr). The system uses on-board gas bottles on-site calibration and is capable of monitoring and quantifying up to 16 gases simultaneously. The in-situ gas data in this work, consisting of helium, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and acetone, was acquired in conjunction of GPS data which was plotted with the ground imagery, topography and remote sensing data collected by the other instruments, allowing the 3 dimensional visualization of the volcanic plume at Arenal Volcano. The modeling of possible scenarios of Arenal s activity and its

  16. Nature's refineries — Metals and metalloids in arc volcanoes (United States)

    Henley, R.W.; Berger, Byron R.


    Chemical data for fumaroles and for atmospheric gas and ash plumes from active arc volcanoes provide glimpses of the rates of release of metal and metalloids, such as Tl and Cd, from shallow and mid-crust magmas. Data from copper deposits formed in ancient volcanoes at depths of up to about 1500 m in the fractures below paleo-fumaroles, and at around 2000–4000 m in association with sub-volcanic intrusions (porphyry copper deposits) provide evidence of sub-surface deposition of Cu–Au–Ag–Mo and a range of other minor elements including Te, Se, As and Sb. These deposits, or ‘sinks’, of metals consistently record sustained histories of magmatic gas streaming through volcanic systems interspersed by continuing intrusive and eruptive activity. Here we integrate data from ancient and modern volcanic systems and show that the fluxes of metals and metalloids are controlled by a) the maintenance of fracture permeability in the stressed crust below volcanoes and b) the chemical processes that are triggered as magmatic gas, initially undersaturated with metals and metalloids, expands from lithostatic to very low pressure conditions through fracture arrays. The recognition of gas streaming may also account for the phenomenon of ‘excess degassing’, and defines an integral, but generally understated, component of active volcanic systems – a volcanic gas core – that is likely to be integral to the progression of eruptions to Plinean state.Destabilization of solvated molecular metal and metalloid species in magmatic gas mixtures and changes in their redox state are triggered, as it expands to the surface by abrupt pressure drops, or throttles' in the fracture array that guides expansion to the surface. The electronically harder, low electronegativity metals, such as copper and iron, deposit rapidly in response to expansion followed more slowly by arsenic with antimony as sulfosalts. Heavy, large radius, softer elements such as bismuth, lead, and thallium

  17. Development and implication of a human-volcano system model (United States)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Monreal, Matthias; Sartohadi, Junun


    In an attempt to understand the complexity of human-environment systems, models help to define, quantify, describe, or simulate complex interactions. With regards to the human-volcano system, we develop a conceptual model in order to assist analysis of its two basic elements, the physical and the social environment. A field survey of the human environment interaction of two of the most active volcanic areas in Indonesia (Mt. Merapi and Mt. Bromo) and a corresponding literature review from other case studies was carried out. A differentiated understanding of human interaction with hazard potential elements within the human-volcano system is the main focus of the model development. We classified volcanic processes and effects as three pairs of dichotomies: positive or negative impacts, on society or environment in an indirect or direct way. Each volcanically induced process or effect characterized accordingly leads to eight distinct process/effect classes. They are positive direct effects on society (PDS); positive direct effects on natural resources (PDN); positive indirect effects on society (PIS); positive indirect effects on natural resources (PIN); negative direct effects on society (NDS); negative direct effects on natural resources (NDN); negative indirect effects on society (NIS) and lastly negative indirect effects on natural resources (NIN). Such differentiated view of volcanic process/effects bears several advantages. First, whereas volcanic processes have hitherto been viewed as hazards only, it becomes possible now to describe a particular process/effect in a particular context as negative or positive. Secondly, such a categorization makes it possible to account for processes of the human-volcano system that do not have a direct physical expression but are of socio-cultural relevance. Thirdly, the greater degree of differentiation that is made possible when evaluating volcanic processes has significant repercussions on the way volcanic risk must be

  18. Linear scaling relationships and volcano plots in homogeneous catalysis - revisiting the Suzuki reaction. (United States)

    Busch, Michael; Wodrich, Matthew D; Corminboeuf, Clémence


    Linear free energy scaling relationships and volcano plots are common tools used to identify potential heterogeneous catalysts for myriad applications. Despite the striking simplicity and predictive power of volcano plots, they remain unknown in homogeneous catalysis. Here, we construct volcano plots to analyze a prototypical reaction from homogeneous catalysis, the Suzuki cross-coupling of olefins. Volcano plots succeed both in discriminating amongst different catalysts and reproducing experimentally known trends, which serves as validation of the model for this proof-of-principle example. These findings indicate that the combination of linear scaling relationships and volcano plots could serve as a valuable methodology for identifying homogeneous catalysts possessing a desired activity through a priori computational screening.

  19. Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.


    Mauna Loa on the Island Hawaiʻi is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawaiʻi (Island of Hawaiʻi) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.

  20. Survey of Potential Geothermal Exploration Sites at Newberry Volcano Deschutes County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, George R.; Vogt, Beverly F.; Black, Gerald L.


    The study summarizes the current data, generates some new data, and recommends further steps which should be taken to investigate the electrical power production potential of Newberry volcano. The objective was to concentrate on data from the developable flanks of the volcano. All previous data on the geology, hydrology, and geophysics were summarized. A soil-mercury survey focused on the flanks of the volcano was conducted. Samples from 1000 km/sup 2/ of the volcano were analyzed for mercury content. All this information was utilized to evaluate (1) the likelihood of future discovery of electrical-quality geothermal fluids on the flanks, and (2) the most cost-effective means of improving the quality of available power generation estimates for the volcano. 37 figures.

  1. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano; Mediciones de radon y elementos quimicos: Volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. [UMR 5569 CNRS Hydrosciences, Montpellier (France)


    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  2. Biogeochemical interactions among the arsenic, iron, humic substances, and microbes in mud volcanoes in southern Taiwan. (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Sracek, Ondra; Kar, Sandeep; Li, Zhaohui; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chen, Chien-Yen; Lu, Hsueh-Yu


    Fluid and mud samples collected from Hsiaokunshui (HKS), Wushanting (WST), Yenshuikeng (YSK), Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), and Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH) mud volcanoes of southwestern Taiwan were characterized for major ions, humic substances (HS) and trace elements concentrations. The relationship between the release of arsenic (As) and activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria has been assessed to understand relevant geochemical processes in the mud volcanoes. Arsenic (0.02-0.06 mg/L) and humic substances (4.13 × 10(-4) to 1.64 × 10(-3) mM) in the fluids of mud volcanoes showed a positive correlation (r = 0.99, p mud volcano. Arsenic and iron in mud sediments formed two separate groups i) high As, but low Fe in HKS, WST, and SYNH; and ii) low As, but high Fe in the YSK, KSP, and LYS mud volcanoes. The Eh(S.H.E.) values of the mud volcano liquids were characterized by mild to strongly reducing conditions. The HKS, SYNH, and WST mud volcanoes (near the Chishan Fault) belongs to strong reducing environment (-33 to -116 mV), whereas the LYS, YSK, and KSP mud volcanoes located near the coastal plain are under mild reducing environment (-11 to 172 mV). At low Eh values mud volcanoes, saturation index (SI) values of poorly crystalline phases such as amorphous ferric hydroxide indicate understaturation, whereas saturation is reached in relatively high Eh(S.H.E.) values mud volcanoes. Arsenic contents in sediments are low, presumably due to its release to fluids (As/Fe ratio in YSK, KSP, and LYS sediment: 4.86 × 10(-4)-6.20 × 10(-4)). At low Eh(S.H.E.) values (mild to strong reducing environment), arsenic may co-precipitate with sulfides as a consequence of sulfate reduction (As/Fe ratios in WST, HKS, and SYNH sediments: 0.42-0.69).

  3. Volcano-tectonic interaction at Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat (W.I.), constrained by dynamic gravity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautmann, Stefanie; Gottsmann, Joachim; Sparks, R Stephen J [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Camacho, Antonio [Instituto de AstronomIa y Geodesia (CSIC-UCM), Facultad CC Matematicas, Universidad Complutense Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fournier, Nicolas [Seismic Research Unit, University of the West Indies, St Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)], E-mail:


    We report on a joint gravimetric and ground deformation study on Montserrat, with the aim of quantifying mass and/or density changes beneath the island related to the volcanic activity at Soufrire Hills Volcano (SHV). Our observations coupled with 3-D data inversion indicate the existence of a previously unrecognised NNW-SSE trending zone of structural weakness (i.e. fault) that is located at shallow depths beneath the Centre Hills of Montserrat, along which active fluid migration is coupled to magmatic stressing at SHV.

  4. Explosive Eruptions of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2012 and Danger to Aviation (United States)

    Girina, Olga; Manevich, Alexander; Melnikov, Dmitry; Nuzhdaev, Anton; Demyanchuk, Yury; Petrova, Elena


    Strong explosive eruption of volcanoes is the most dangerous for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines. There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka and 6 active volcanoes in the Northern Kuriles, and 4 of them continuously active. In 2012 seven strong explosive eruptions of the Kamchatkan and the Northern Kuriles volcanoes Sheveluch, Bezymianny, Kizimen, Tolbachik, Klyuchevskoy, and Karymsky took place. In addition, higher fumarolic activity of Gorely volcano was observed. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch Volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2012: on January 22-23; on March 16-17; March 25-30 - June 03; and on September 18: ash plumes rose up to 10 km a.s.l. and extended about 200-2000 km to the different directions of the volcano. The eruptive activity of Bezymianny volcano began since 1955, and is continuing at present as growth of the lava dome. Two paroxysmal explosive phases of the eruption occurred on March 08 and September 01: ash plumes rose up to 8-12 km a.s.l. and extended about 1500 km to the east-north-east of the volcano. Eruption of Kizimen volcano began on December 09, 2010, and continues. Strong explosive eruption began in mid-December, 2010, - ash plumes rose up to 10 km a.s.l. and extended > 800 km from the volcano. There are several stages of the eruption: explosive (from 09 December 2010 to mid-January 2011); explosive-effusive (mid-January to mid-June 2011); effusive (mid-January 2011 to September 2012). Extrusive-effusive phase of eruption

  5. Ambient noise tomography of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Benediktsdóttir, Ásdís; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís; Tryggvason, Ari


    We present a shear-velocity model for the Eyjafjallajökull stratovolcano, based on ambient seismic noise tomography applied to seven months of data from six permanent stations and 10 temporary seismic stations, deployed during and after the 2010 volcanic unrest. Vertical components of noise were cross correlated resulting in 30 robust phase-velocity dispersion curves between 1.6 and 6.5 s in period, displaying a ± 20% variation in phase velocity beneath the volcano. The uneven distribution of noise sources, evaluated using signal-to-noise ratios, was estimated to cause less than 2% error in most curves. Sensitivity kernels showed resolution down to 10 km and the lateral resolution of the resulting phase-velocity maps was about 5 km. The model reveals east-west oriented high-velocity anomalies due east and west of the caldera. Between these a zone of lower velocity is identified, coinciding with the location of earthquakes that occurred during the summit eruption in April 2010. A shallow, southwest elongated low-velocity anomaly is located 5 km southwest of the caldera. The limited depth resolution of the shear-velocity model precludes detection of melt within the volcano.

  6. ICA-based polarization analysis on volcano-tectonic earthquakes (United States)

    Falanga, Mariarosaria; De Lauro, Enza; De Martino, Salvatore; Petrosino, Simona


    A new approach for the analysis of polarization of seismic signals is proposed. The method is based on Independent Component Analysis and allows the identification and separation of the basic sources, which are naturally polarized into the vertical and horizontal planes. The results from the case study of a swarm of volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred at Campi Flegrei in October 2015 are impressive: a clear separation of the P- and S-wave seismic phases in the time domain is obtained. In addition, the efficiency of the method in retrieving the polarization parameters is demonstrated by the comparison with other standard techniques. The presented approach provides wavefield decomposition and polarization analysis in a single step, thus avoiding a priori cumbersome filtering procedures and segmentation of the signals. It is useful for discriminating and analysing different seismic phases and can be applied to a variety of volcanic and tectonic signals, therefore it can strongly support all the studies on propagation and source mechanism. Moreover, due to its fastness and robustness this stand-alone tool can be routinely used in the volcano monitoring practice.

  7. Development of a wireless seismic array for volcano monitoring (United States)

    Moure, David; Toma, Daniel; Lázaro, Antoni Manuel; Del Río, Joaquín; Carreras, Normandino; José Blanco, María


    Volcano monitoring is mainly based on three sciences: seismology, geodesy and geochemistry. Seismic arrays are used to locate the seismic source, based on analysis of signals recorded by each seismometer. The most important advantages of arrays over classical seismic networks are: painless deployment, no major infrastructures needed, able to provide an approximate location of a signal that is not feasible by a seismic network. In this paper the design of a low-power wireless array is presented. All sensors transmit acquired data to a central node which is capable to calculate the possible location of the seismic source in real-time. The reliability of those locations depends, among other parameters (number of sensors and geometrical distribution), on precision of time synchronization between the nodes. To achieve the necessary precision, the wireless seismic array implements a time synchronization protocol based on the IEEE1588 protocol, which ensures clock synchronization between nodes better than a microsecond, therefore, signal correlation between sensors is achieved correlating the signals from all the sensors. The ultimate challenge would be that the central node receives data from all the seismometers locating the seismic source, only transmitting the result, which dramatically reduces data traffic. Often, active volcano areas are located far from inhabited areas and data transmission options are limited. In situ calculation is crucial in order to reduce data volume transmission generated by the seismic array.

  8. Magnetic volcanos in gadolinium Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tishin, A.M. E-mail:; Snigirev, O.V.; Khomutov, G.B.; Gudoshnikov, S.A.; Bohr, J


    Magnetic, structural and electronic properties of Langmuir-Blodgett films with incorporated Gd{sup 3+} ions has been detected using a scanning DC SQUID microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic images of 28 and 50 layer thick films at 77 K have been obtained after in-plane and out-of-plane pre-magnetization in a field of 1.4 T at 300 K. Randomly placed 'magnetic volcanos' with a remanent magnetic moment of the order of 10{sup -13} A m{sup 2} was observed. A decay of the remanent magnetization with a characteristic time of about 120 h was observed. It is suggested that the magnetic order is relatively long ranged, and that topological defects (vortices) lead to the observed out-of-plane field lines, and are responsible for the magnetic volcanos. Finally, it is hypothesized that a similar topology of field lines is responsible for superconductivity as observed in ceramic high-T{sub C} superconductors.

  9. Geothermal Power Potential in the Tatun Volcano Group, Taiwan (United States)

    Tseng, H. H.; Song, S.


    Recent energy issues have concentrated the attention on finding alternative ones. National demands for renewable and sustainable energy increase rapidly, especially the geothermal power production, which is viewed as the most potential opportunity. This study attempts to estimate the geothermal powers in the Tatung Volcano Group (TVG), Taiwan and evaluate the possibility to develop the Enhanced Geothermal System. Tatung Volcano Group is located at the northwest part of Taiwan. It has violent volcanism during 0.8-0.20Ma, and is still active with many thermal manifestations. The young volcanic activity provides the TVG with high geothermal gradient and is well suitable for exploiting geothermal resources. Many explorations on geothermal energy have been accomplished in this area during1966-1973. They included resistivity survey, magnetic prospecting, gravity method, seismic prospecting and etc. In this study, we base on previous data and apply the probabilistic volumetric method proposed by Geotherm EX Inc., modified from the approach introduced by the USGS to evaluate the geothermal power potential in TVG. Meanwhile, use a Monte Carlo simulation technique to calculate the probability distribution of potentially recoverable energy reserves. The results show that the mean value is 270Mw, and P50 is 254Mw for 30 years, separately. Furthermore, the power potential of enhanced geothermal system in TVG is also estimated by the quantitative model proposed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT 2006). The results suggest that the mean value is 3,000 MW and P50 is 2,780 MW for 30 years, separately.

  10. Large historical eruptions at subaerial mud volcanoes, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manga


    Full Text Available Active mud volcanoes in the northern Apennines, Italy, currently have gentle eruptions. There are, however, historical accounts of violent eruptions and outbursts. Evidence for large past eruptions is also recorded by large decimeter rock clasts preserved in erupted mud. We measured the rheological properties of mud currently being erupted in order to evaluate the conditions needed to transport such large clasts to the surface. The mud is well-characterized by the Herschel-Bulkley model, with yield stresses between 4 and 8 Pa. Yield stresses of this magnitude can support the weight of particles with diameters up to several mm. At present, particles larger than this size are not being carried to the surface. The transport of larger clasts to the surface requires ascent speeds greater than their settling speed in the mud. We use a model for the settling of particles and rheological parameters from laboratory measurements to show that the eruption of large clasts requires ascent velocities > 1 m s−1, at least three orders of magnitude greater than during the present, comparatively quiescent, activity. After regional earthquakes on 20 May and 29 May 2012, discharge also increased at locations where the stress changes produced by the earthquakes would have unclamped feeder dikes below the mud volcanoes. The magnitude of increased discharge, however, is less than that inferred from the large clasts. Both historical accounts and erupted deposits are consistent in recording episodic large eruptions.

  11. Catastrophic debris avalanche deposit of Socompa volcano, northern Chile (United States)

    Francis, P. W.; Gardeweg, M.; Ramirez, C. F.; Rothery, D. A.


    Between 10,000 and 500 yr ago the Socompa volcano in northern Chile experienced a catastrophic collapse of a 70 deg sector of the original cone, causing a debris avalanche that descended nearly 3000 m vertically and traveled more than 35 km from the volcano. The deposits cover some 490 sq km and have a minimum volume of 15 cu km. Parts of the original cone slumped in a nearly coherent form and are now preserved as large blocks more than 400 m high. The primary avalanche traveled northwestward over sloping ground before coming to rest transiently, forming a prominent marginal ridge, and then slid away northeastward to form a secondary flow, overriding much of the primary avalanche deposit. Abundant, prismatic, jointed dacite blocks within the debris avalanche deposit and a thin, fine-grained pumiceous deposit beneath it suggest that the collapse was triggered by magmatic activity and may have been accompanied by a violent lateral blast. Collapse was followed by eruption of pumiceous pyroclastic flows and extrusion of voluminous dacite domes.

  12. DIAPHANE: muon tomography applied to volcanoes, civil engineering, archaelogy (United States)

    Marteau, J.; de Bremond d'Ars, J.; Gibert, D.; Jourde, K.; Ianigro, J.-C.; Carlus, B.


    Muography techniques applied to geological structures greatly improved in the past ten years. Recent applications demonstrate the interest of the method not only to perform structural imaging but also to monitor the dynamics of inner movements like magma ascent inside volcanoes or density variations in hydrothermal systems. Muography time-resolution has been studied thanks to dedicated experiments, e.g. in a water tower tank. This paper presents the activities of the DIAPHANE collaboration between particle- and geo-physicists and the most recent results obtained in the field of volcanology, with a focus on the main target, the Soufrière of Guadeloupe active volcano. Special emphasis is given on the monitoring of the dome's inner volumes opacity variations, that could be ascribed to the hydrothermal system dynamics (vaporization of inner liquid water in coincidence with the appearance of new fumaroles at the summit). I also briefly present results obtained in the fields of civil engineering (study of urban underground tunnels) and archaelogy (greek tumulus scanning).

  13. Volcanic gas impacts on vegetation at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica (United States)

    Teasdale, R.; Jenkins, M.; Pushnik, J.; Houpis, J. L.; Brown, D. L.


    Turrialba volcano is an active composite stratovolcano that is located approximately 40 km east of San Jose, Costa Rica. Seismic activity and degassing have increased since 2005, and gas compositions reflect further increased activity since 2007 peaking in January 2010 with a phreatic eruption. Gas fumes dispersed by trade winds toward the west, northwest, and southwest flanks of Turrialba volcano have caused significant vegetation kill zones, in areas important to local agriculture, including dairy pastures and potato fields, wildlife and human populations. In addition to extensive vegetative degradation is the potential for soil and water contamination and soil erosion. Summit fumarole temperatures have been measured over 200 degrees C and gas emissions are dominated by SO2; gas and vapor plumes reach up to 2 km (fumaroles and gases are measured regularly by OVSICORI-UNA). A recent network of passive air sampling, monitoring of water temperatures of hydrothermal systems, and soil pH measurements coupled with measurement of the physiological status of surrounding plants using gas exchange and fluorescence measurements to: (1) identify physiological correlations between leaf-level gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of plants under long term stress induced by the volcanic gas emissions, and (2) use measurements in tandem with remotely sensed reflectance-derived fluorescence ratio indices to track natural photo inhibition caused by volcanic gas emissions, for use in monitoring plant stress and photosynthetic function. Results may prove helpful in developing potential land management strategies to maintain the biological health of the area.

  14. Earthquake families in the seismicity of Popocatepetl volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espindola, J. M [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Zamora-Camacho, A [Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Jimenez, Z [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)


    Analysis of the seismicity of Popocatepetl volcano (Central Mexico) over the period September 1 to December 31, 1995, shows the existence of three earthquake families, with correlation coefficients better than 0.5 in all components of three stations. For two families the events have similar magnitudes and occur over a relatively long period of time. This suggests that they are of the asperity type. They occur up to a depth of 4 km below sea level underneath the volcano, and may be generated by the passage of magma through the upper volcanic conduits. [Spanish] El analisis de la sismicidad asociada al volcan Popocatepetl (Meseta Central, Mexico) en el periodo 1 de septiembre a 31 de diciembre de 1995 permitio la identificacion de 3 familias de temblores. El coeficiente de correlacion encontrado para todos los miembros de las familias es mayor de 0.5 en todas las componentes de 3 estaciones cercanas a los epicentros. Los eventos de dos de las familias son de similar magnitud y ocurren dentro de un periodo relativamente largo. Esto sugiere que sean generados por la accion de una misma aspereza. Los hipocentros de los eventos se localizan bajo el edificio volcanico a profundidades de hasta 4 km bajo el nivel del mar y fueron generados probablemente por el paso de magma a traves de los conductos volcanicos superiores.

  15. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy) (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano


    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  16. Evolution and genesis of volcanic rocks from Mutnovsky Volcano, Kamchatka (United States)

    Simon, A.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Robertson, K.; Smith, E.; Selyangin, O.; Kiryukhin, A.; Mulcahy, S. R.; Walker, J. D.


    This study presents new geochemical data for Mutnovsky Volcano, located on the volcanic front of the southern portion of the Kamchatka arc. Field relationships show that Mutnovsky Volcano is comprised of four distinct stratocones, which have grown over that past 80 ka. The youngest center, Mutnovsky IV, has produced basalts and basaltic andesites only. The three older centers (Mutnovsky I, II, III) are dominated by basalt and basaltic andesite (60-80% by volume), but each has also produced small volumes of andesite and dacite. Across centers of all ages, Mutnovsky lavas define a tholeiitic igneous series, from 48-70% SiO2. Basalts and basaltic andesites have relatively low K2O and Na2O, and high FeO* and Al2O3 compared to volcanic rocks throughout Kamchatka. The mafic lavas are also depleted in the light rare earth elements (REEs), with chondrite-normalized La/Sm rocks worldwide. Radiogenic isotope ratios (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf) are similar for samples from all four eruptive centers, and indicate that all samples were produced by melting of a similar source mixture. No clear age-progressive changes are evident in the compositions of Mutnovsky lavas. Mass balance and assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) modeling of major and rare earth elements (REEs) indicate that basaltic andesites were produced by FC of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine from a parental basalt, combined with assimilation of a melt composition similar to dacite lavas present at Mutnovsky. This modeling also indicates that andesites were produced by FC of plagioclase from basaltic andesite, combined with assimilation of dacite. Dacites erupted from Mutnovsky I and II have low abundances of REEs, and do not appear to be related to mafic magmas by FC or AFC processes. These dacites are modeled as the products of dehydration partial melting at mid-crustal levels of a garnet-free, amphibole-bearing basaltic rock, which itself formed in the mid-crust by emplacement of magma that originated from

  17. The 2008 Eruption of Chaitén Volcano, Chile and National Volcano-Monitoring Programs in the U.S. and Chile (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Lara, L. E.; Moreno, H.


    Chaitén volcano, southern Chile, began erupting on 2 May 2008. The eruption produced 3 Plinian eruption pulses between May 2 and 8. Between Plinian phases the volcano emitted a constant column of ash to approximately 10 km, gradually diminishing to approximately 3 km by the end of June. The eruption of Chaitén was remarkable on several counts--it was the first rhyolite eruption on the planet since Novarupta (Katmai) erupted in 1912, and Chaitén had apparently lain dormant for approximately 9300 years. Though Chaitén is located in a generally sparsely populated region, the eruption had widespread impacts. More than 5000 people had to be quickly evacuated from proximal areas and aviation in southern South America was disrupted for weeks. Within 10 days secondary lahars had overrun much of the town of Chaitén complicating the prospects of the townspeople to return to their homes. Prior to the eruption onset, the nearest real-time seismic station was 300 km distant, and earthquakes were not felt by local citizens until approximately 30 hours before the eruption onset. No other signs of unrest were noted. Owing to the lack of near-field monitoring, and the nighttime eruption onset, there was initial confusion about which volcano was erupting: Chaitén or nearby Michinmahuida. Lack of monitoring systems at Chaitén meant that warning time for the public at risk was extremely short, and owing to the nature of the eruption and the physical geography of the area, it was very difficult to install monitoring instruments to track its progress after the eruption started. The lack of geophysical monitoring also means that an important data set on precursory behavior for silicic systems was not collected. With more than 120 Pleistocene to Holocene-age volcanoes within its continental territory, Chile is one of the more volcanically active countries in the world. The eruption of Chaitén has catalyzed the creation of a new program within the Servicio Nacional de Geología y

  18. The pattern of circumferential and radial eruptive fissures on the volcanoes of Fernandina and Isabela islands, Galapagos (United States)

    Chadwick, W.W.; Howard, K.A.


    Maps of the eruptive vents on the active shield volcanoes of Fernandina and Isabela islands, Galapagos, made from aerial photographs, display a distinctive pattern that consists of circumferential eruptive fissures around the summit calderas and radial fissures lower on the flanks. On some volcano flanks either circumferential or radial eruptions have been dominant in recent time. The location of circumferential vents outside the calderas is independent of caldera-related normal faults. The eruptive fissures are the surface expression of dike emplacement, and the dike orientations are interpreted to be controlled by the state of stress in the volcano. Very few subaerial volcanoes display a pattern of fissures similar to that of the Galapagos volcanoes. Some seamounts and shield volcanoes on Mars morphologically resemble the Galapagos volcanoes, but more specific evidence is needed to determine if they also share common structure and eruptive style. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  19. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory: a natural laboratory for studying basaltic volcanism: Chapter 1 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Tilling, Robert I.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Brantley, Steven R.; Neal, Christina A.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    In the beginning of the 20th century, geologist Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., argued that, to fully understand volcanic and associated hazards, the expeditionary mode of studying eruptions only after they occurred was inadequate. Instead, he fervently advocated the use of permanent observatories to record and measure volcanic phenomena—at and below the surface—before, during, and after eruptions to obtain the basic scientific information needed to protect people and property from volcanic hazards. With the crucial early help of American volcanologist Frank Alvord Perret and the Hawaiian business community, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established in 1912, and Jaggar’s vision became reality. From its inception, HVO’s mission has centered on several goals: (1) measuring and documenting the seismic, eruptive, and geodetic processes of active Hawaiian volcanoes (principally Kīlauea and Mauna Loa); (2) geological mapping and dating of deposits to reconstruct volcanic histories, understand island evolution, and determine eruptive frequencies and volcanic hazards; (3) systematically collecting eruptive products, including gases, for laboratory analysis; and (4) widely disseminating observatory-acquired data and analysis, reports, and hazard warnings to the global scientific community, emergency-management authorities, news media, and the public. The long-term focus on these goals by HVO scientists, in collaboration with investigators from many other organizations, continues to fulfill Jaggar’s career-long vision of reducing risks from volcanic and earthquake hazards across the globe.

  20. Numerical Simulation and Artificial Neural Network Modeling for Predicting Welding-Induced Distortion in Butt-Welded 304L Stainless Steel Plates (United States)

    Narayanareddy, V. V.; Chandrasekhar, N.; Vasudevan, M.; Muthukumaran, S.; Vasantharaja, P.


    In the present study, artificial neural network modeling has been employed for predicting welding-induced angular distortions in autogenous butt-welded 304L stainless steel plates. The input data for the neural network have been obtained from a series of three-dimensional finite element simulations of TIG welding for a wide range of plate dimensions. Thermo-elasto-plastic analysis was carried out for 304L stainless steel plates during autogenous TIG welding employing double ellipsoidal heat source. The simulated thermal cycles were validated by measuring thermal cycles using thermocouples at predetermined positions, and the simulated distortion values were validated by measuring distortion using vertical height gauge for three cases. There was a good agreement between the model predictions and the measured values. Then, a multilayer feed-forward back propagation neural network has been developed using the numerically simulated data. Artificial neural network model developed in the present study predicted the angular distortion accurately.