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Sample records for sutherland linguistic variability

  1. Sutherland, Prof. Bill

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2000 Honorary. Sutherland, Prof. Bill. Date of birth: 1942. Address: Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 8412-0830, U.S.A.. Contact: Office: (+1-801) 581 6424. Residence: (+1-801) 355 8342. Fax: (+1-801) 581 4801. Email: suther@physics.utah.edu, ...

  2. Web Service Matchmaking Based on Linguistic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dexin; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Degan

    Matchmaking is considered as one of the crucial factors to ensure pervasive discovery of web services. Current matchmaking methods are inadequate to semantic information with machine understandable, therefore intelligent service discovery can not be carried on. In this paper, we use fuzzy linguistic variables to represent the vague or imprecise data at abstract level. The match method performs two levels, first level is capability match by inputs and outputs interfaces based on description logic reasoning, and the second level is the fuzzy match with linguistic variables, thus the more reasonable results will be presented to the users for selection.

  3. Generalized spin Sutherland systems revisited

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    L. Fehér

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present generalizations of the spin Sutherland systems obtained earlier by Blom and Langmann and by Polychronakos in two different ways: from SU(n Yang–Mills theory on the cylinder and by constraining geodesic motion on the N-fold direct product of SU(n with itself, for any N>1. Our systems are in correspondence with the Dynkin diagram automorphisms of arbitrary connected and simply connected compact simple Lie groups. We give a finite-dimensional as well as an infinite-dimensional derivation and shed light on the mechanism whereby they lead to the same classical integrable systems. The infinite-dimensional approach, based on twisted current algebras (alias Yang–Mills with twisted boundary conditions, was inspired by the derivation of the spinless Sutherland model due to Gorsky and Nekrasov. The finite-dimensional method relies on Hamiltonian reduction under twisted conjugations of N-fold direct product groups, linking the quantum mechanics of the reduced systems to representation theory similarly as was explored previously in the N=1 case.

  4. Rhythmic variability between speakers: articulatory, prosodic, and linguistic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellwo, Volker; Leemann, Adrian; Kolly, Marie-José

    2015-03-01

    Between-speaker variability of acoustically measurable speech rhythm [%V, ΔV(ln), ΔC(ln), and Δpeak(ln)] was investigated when within-speaker variability of (a) articulation rate and (b) linguistic structural characteristics was introduced. To study (a), 12 speakers of Standard German read seven lexically identical sentences under five different intended tempo conditions (very slow, slow, normal, fast, very fast). To study (b), 16 speakers of Zurich Swiss German produced 16 spontaneous utterances each (256 in total) for which transcripts were made and then read by all speakers (4096 sentences; 16 speaker × 256 sentences). Between-speaker variability was tested using analysis of variance with repeated measures on within-speaker factors. Results revealed strong and consistent between-speaker variability while within-speaker variability as a function of articulation rate and linguistic characteristics was typically not significant. It was concluded that between-speaker variability of acoustically measurable speech rhythm is strong and robust against various sources of within-speaker variability. Idiosyncratic articulatory movements were found to be the most plausible factor explaining between-speaker differences.

  5. An Extended TOPSIS Method for Multiple Attribute Decision Making based on Interval Neutrosophic Uncertain Linguistic Variables

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    Said Broumi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables can easily express the indeterminate and inconsistent information in real world, and TOPSIS is a very effective decision making method more and more extensive applications. In this paper, we will extend the TOPSIS method to deal with the interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic information, and propose an extended TOPSIS method to solve the multiple attribute decision making problems in which the attribute value takes the form of the interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables and attribute weight is unknown. Firstly, the operational rules and properties for the interval neutrosophic variables are introduced. Then the distance between two interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables is proposed and the attribute weight is calculated by the maximizing deviation method, and the closeness coefficients to the ideal solution for each alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the decision making steps and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Multiple Criteria Decision Making Based on Discrete Linguistic Stochastic Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Jian; Gao, Yang; Bian, Can

    2013-01-01

    For solving the discrete linguistic stochastic multiple criteria decision making problems with incomplete information, a new decision making method based on the differences between the superiorities and the inferiorities is proposed. According to the two basic parameters which are the possible outcome and the state probability, the superior decision matrix and the inferior decision matrix of the alternative set under each criterion are first worked out. Then, by the differences between the el...

  7. Variability in Second Language Learning: The Roles of Individual Differences, Learning Conditions, and Linguistic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagarelli, Kaitlyn M.; Ruiz, Simón; Vega, José Luis Moreno; Rebuschat, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Second language learning outcomes are highly variable, due to a variety of factors, including individual differences, exposure conditions, and linguistic complexity. However, exactly how these factors interact to influence language learning is unknown. This article examines the relationship between these three variables in language learners.…

  8. Multiple Criteria Decision Making Based on Discrete Linguistic Stochastic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For solving the discrete linguistic stochastic multiple criteria decision making problems with incomplete information, a new decision making method based on the differences between the superiorities and the inferiorities is proposed. According to the two basic parameters which are the possible outcome and the state probability, the superior decision matrix and the inferior decision matrix of the alternative set under each criterion are first worked out. Then, by the differences between the elements on the appropriate locations of these matrices, the corresponding dominant decision matrices are formed. Subsequently, with the help of the weight vector of the criterion set, the weighted integrated dominant decision matrix of the alternative set is built. Consequently, the weighted integrated dominant indices' sum of each alternative is calculated. Thus, the rank of the alternatives comes out. Finally, a numerical example is given. The result shows the superiority of the method.

  9. Relationships of linguistic and motivation variables with drinking outcomes following two mailed brief interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Carey, Kate B; Smyth, Joshua

    2005-07-01

    This study was a post hoc analysis of linguistic and motivation variables found in writing samples following the administration of two mailed brief interventions. At-risk college drinkers (N = 100) received personalized normative feedback (PNF) or an alcohol education (AE) brochure via mail. Participants responded to open-ended questions describing their reactions to the information they received. The writing samples were then coded for linguistic characteristics using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count program and for proportions of self-motivational statements using a modified version of the Motivational Interviewing Skills Code. Group comparisons indicated that the PNF group used a significantly higher percentage of first-person-singular and school-related words, whereas the AE group used a higher percentage of discrepancy, second-person and body-related words. Furthermore, the PNF group produced more language consistent with motivation to change than did the AE group. Hierarchical regressions testing mediation and moderation indicated that linguistic references to school and motivation moderated the group effect on changes in consumption during the heaviest drinking week. Further, although the group predicted reduction in heavy, episodic drinking, its effect was completely mediated by linguistic variables. Findings confirmed that PNF elicits distinct verbal responses that are associated with increased motivation and behavior change.

  10. Children’s Deviation in the Acquisition of Variable Linguistic Gender Patterns

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    Rania Habib

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the acquisition of variation from the vernacular Syrian Arabic input of 22 parents in the output of their 21 children in the village of Oyoun Al-Wadi in Syria, using the four rural vowel variables (o, (o:, (e, and (e:. Each variable has two realizations: rural [o, o:, e, e:] respectively and urban [a, a:, a, a:] respectively. Fathers use the rural vowels more than mothers, but the difference is statistically insignificant. Like fathers, boys use more rural vowels than girls. However, the difference between boys and girls is statistically significant. No correlation emerged between the children’s and parents’ use of the variants, indicating that children are not acquiring their parents’ exact frequencies, which suggests developmental effect rather than statistical learning of parental input effect. The boys’ higher use of the rural forms after age eight is attributed to a social, psychological polarization process between boys and girls to create a highly differentiated gendered linguistic behavior in line with another highly differentiated gendered linguistic behavior related to a stereotypical consonant variable, (q, which is observed in both parents and children.

  11. An Explicit Formula for Symmetric Polynomials Related to the Eigenfunctions of Calogero-Sutherland Models

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    Martin Hallnäs

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We review a recent construction of an explicit analytic series representation for symmetric polynomials which up to a groundstate factor are eigenfunctions of Calogero-Sutherland type models. We also indicate a generalisation of this result to polynomials which give the eigenfunctions of so-called 'deformed' Calogero-Sutherland type models.

  12. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety of Arab Learners of English: The Effect of Personality, Linguistic and Sociobiographical Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Al-Saraj, Taghreed M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the link between psychological, sociobiographical and linguistic variables and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety of 348 Arabic learners of English (250 females, 98 males). Data were collected using the Arabic Foreign Language Anxiety Questionnaire (AFLAQ; Al-Saraj, 2011, 2014) and an Arabic version of the…

  13. Between-session intra-individual variability in sustained, selective, and integrational non-linguistic attention in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Sarah; Kiran, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have identified impairments in one or more types/aspects of attention processing in patients with aphasia (PWA) relative to healthy controls; person-to-person variability in performance on attention tasks within the PWA group has also been noted. Studies using non-linguistic stimuli have found evidence that attention is impaired in this population even in the absence of language processing demands. An underlying impairment in non-linguistic, or domain-general, attention processing could have implications for the ability of PWA to attend during therapy sessions, which in turn could impact long-term treatment outcomes. With this in mind, this study aimed to systematically examine the effect of task complexity on reaction time (RT) during a non-linguistic attention task, in both PWA and controls. Additional goals were to assess the effect of task complexity on between-session intra-individual variability (BS-IIV) in RT and to examine inter-individual differences in BS-IIV. Eighteen PWA and five age-matched neurologically healthy controls each completed a novel computerized non-linguistic attention task measuring five types of attention on each of four different non-consecutive days. A significant effect of task complexity on both RT and BS-IIV in RT was found for the PWA group, whereas the control group showed a significant effect of task complexity on RT but not on BS-IIV in RT. Finally, in addition to these group-level findings, it was noted that different patients exhibited different patterns of BS-IIV, indicating the existence of inter-individual variability in BS-IIV within the PWA group. Results may have implications for session-to-session fluctuations in attention during language testing and therapy for PWA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Zigzagging causality EPR model: answer to Vigier and coworkers and to Sutherland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Beauregard, O.C.

    1987-08-01

    The concept of propagation in time of Vigier and co-workers (V et al.) implies the ideal of a supertime; it is thus alien to most Minkowskian pictures and certainly to the authors. From this stems much of V et al.'s misunderstandings of his position. In steady motion of a classical fluid nobody thinks that momentum conservation is violated, or that momentum is shot upstream without cause because of the suction from the sinks. Similarly with momentum-energy in spacetime and the acceptance of an advanced causality. As for the CT invariance of the Feynman propagator, the causality asymmetry it entails is factlike, not lawlike. The geometrical counterpart of the symmetry between prediction and retrodiction and between retarded and advanced waves, as expressed in the alternative expressions = = for a transition amplitude between a preparation lt. slashA> and a measurement lt. slashB>, is CPT-invariant, not PT-invariant. These three expressions respectively illustrate the collapse, the retrocollapse, and the symmetric collapse-and-retrocollapse concepts. As for Sutherland's argument, what it falsifies is not the authors retrocausation concept but the hidden-variables assumption he has unwittingly made.

  15. The Cognitive and Linguistic Foundations of Early Reading Development: A Norwegian Latent Variable Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lervag, Arne; Braten, Ivar; Hulme, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The authors present the results of a 2-year longitudinal study of 228 Norwegian children beginning some 12 months before formal reading instruction began. The relationships between a range of cognitive and linguistic skills (letter knowledge, phoneme manipulation, visual-verbal paired-associate learning, rapid automatized naming (RAN), short-term…

  16. Sutherland's legacy in the new millennium: the osteopathic cranial model and modern osteopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cranial osteopathy was introduced by W. G. Sutherland, DO, and became the foundation for setting the rules for use of skull palpation and many other techniques in the many types of dysfunctional patterns that craniosacral therapy treats. Sutherland's theories enabled modern osteopathy to develop and improve. The mechanism of primary respiration as well as the motion of neurocranial and viscerocranial sutures are phenomena intrinsic to the field and can be found in every living organism, independent of thoracic breathing and cardiac impulse. The sphenobasilar synchondrosis (ie, the joint between the base of the occiput and the body of the sphenoid bone) is the pillar supporting the concepts of craniosacral therapy. This article compares the cranial model devised by Sutherland with the present, relevant scientific research, aiming at clarifying the possibility of applying the craniosacral model in the new millennium.

  17. The influence of two cognitive-linguistic variables on incidental word learning in 5-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Alyson D; Schuele, C Melanie

    2014-08-01

    The relation between incidental word learning and two cognitive-linguistic variables--phonological memory and phonological awareness--is not fully understood. Thirty-five typically developing, 5-year-old, preschool children participated in a study examining the association between phonological memory, phonological awareness, and incidental word learning. Children were exposed to target words in a read-aloud story that accompanied a wordless picture book. Target word comprehension was assessed before and after two readings of the story. Phonological awareness predicted incidental word learning but phonological memory did not. The influence of phonological awareness and phonological memory on word learning may be dependent on the demands of the word learning task.

  18. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety of Arab learners of English: The effect of personality, linguistic and sociobiographical variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Dewaele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the link between psychological, sociobiographical and linguistic variables and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety of 348 Arabic learners of English (250 females, 98 males. Data were collected using the Arabic Foreign Language Anxiety Questionnaire (AFLAQ; Al-Saraj, 2011, 2014 and an Arabic version of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire-Short Form (MPQ-SF; van der Zee, van Oudenhoven, Ponterotto & Fietzer, 2013. Multiple regression analyses revealed that self-perceived proficiency in oral English and frequency of use of English explained over a third of variance in FLCA: More proficient and frequent users felt less anxious. Two personality traits, Emotional Stability and Social Initiative explained a further fifth of variance in FLCA, with emotionally stable and more extraverted participants scoring lower on FLCA. Age was the final predictor of a small amount of variance, with older participants feeling less anxious. Degree of multilingualism, sex and education level had no effect on FLCA.

  19. The Multi-Attribute Group Decision-Making Method Based on Interval Grey Trapezoid Fuzzy Linguistic Variables

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    Kedong Yin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With respect to multi-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM problems, where attribute values take the form of interval grey trapezoid fuzzy linguistic variables (IGTFLVs and the weights (including expert and attribute weight are unknown, improved grey relational MAGDM methods are proposed. First, the concept of IGTFLV, the operational rules, the distance between IGTFLVs, and the projection formula between the two IGTFLV vectors are defined. Second, the expert weights are determined by using the maximum proximity method based on the projection values between the IGTFLV vectors. The attribute weights are determined by the maximum deviation method and the priorities of alternatives are determined by improved grey relational analysis. Finally, an example is given to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method and the flexibility of IGTFLV.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA variability in the Titicaca basin: Matches and mismatches with linguistics and ethnohistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Chiara; Heggarty, Paul; Castrì, Loredana; Luiselli, Donata; Pettener, Davide

    2011-01-01

    The Titicaca basin was the cradle of some of the major complex societies of pre-Columbian South America and is today home to three surviving native languages: Quechua, Aymara, and Uro. This study seeks to contribute to reconstructing the population prehistory of the region, by providing a first genetic profile of its inhabitants, set also into the wider context of South American genetic background. We report the first mitochondrial DNA first hypervariable segment sequences of native populations of the environs of Lake Titicaca: speakers of Aymara and Quechua, and the "Uros" of the Lake's floating islands. We sampled Aymara speakers from a locality where the Uro language was formerly documented, to check for possible language shift patterns. These data are compared with those for other Amerindian populations, collated from already published sources. Our results uncover the genetic distinctiveness of our formerly Uro but now Aymara-speaking sample, in contrast with a relative homogeneity for all the other Central Andean samples. The genetic affinities that characterize Central Andean populations are highly consistent with the succession of expansive polities in the region, culminating with the Incas. In the environs of Lake Titicaca, however, one subset of the present day Aymara-speaking population exhibits a peculiar position: perhaps a genetic correlate to their original Uro linguistic lineage (now extinct in the area), tallying with ethnohistorical claims for the distinctiveness of the Uro population. Our results emphasize the need for genetic descriptions to consider the widespread phenomenon of language shift. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Viga on öelda, et me ei vaja PRi / Roger Hayes, Alasdair Sutherland ; interv. Tiiu Värbu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hayes, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Suhtekorraldajate Liidu 5. aastapäeva seminaril osalevad Rahvusvahelise Kommunikatsiooni Instituudi direktor R. Hayes ja maailma ühe juhtiva suhtekorraldusfirma Manning, Selvage & Lee asepresident A. Sutherland

  2. How Do Different Cognitive and Linguistic Variables Contribute to Reading in Arabic? A Cross-Sectional Study from First to Sixth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Ibrahim A.; Khateb, Asaid; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Taha, Haitham

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of linguistic and cognitive variables to reading processes might vary depending on the particularities of the languages studied. This view is thought to be particularly true for Arabic which is a diglossic language and has particular orthographic and morpho-syntactic systems. This cross-sectional study examined the contribution of…

  3. The interaction between awareness of one's own speech disorder with linguistics variables: distinctive features and severity of phonological disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Roberta Freitas; Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa; Mota, Helena Bolli

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the possible relationship among the awareness of one's own speech disorder and some aspects of the phonological system, as the number and the type of changed distinctive features, as well as the interaction among the severity of the disorder and the non-specification of distinctive features. The analyzed group has 23 children with diagnosis of speech disorder, aged 5:0 to 7:7. The speech data were analyzed through the Distinctive Features Analysis and classified by the Percentage of Correct Consonants. One also applied the Awareness of one's own speech disorder test. The children were separated in two groups: with awareness of their own speech disorder established (more than 50% of correct identification) and without awareness of their own speech disorder established (less than 50% of correct identification). Finally, the variables of this research were submitted to analysis using descriptive and inferential statistics. The type of changed distinctive features weren't different between the groups, as well as the total of changed features and the severity disorder. However, a correlation between the severity disorder and the non-specification of distinctive features was verified, because the more severe disorders have more changes in these linguistic variables. The awareness of one's own speech disorder doesn't seem to be directly influenced by the type and by the number of changed distinctive features, neither by the speech disorder severity. Moreover, one verifies that the greater phonological disorder severity, the greater the number of changed distinctive features.

  4. Adult Chinese as a Second Language Learners' Willingness to Communicate in Chinese: Effects of Cultural, Affective, and Linguistic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meihua

    2017-06-01

    The present research explored the effects of cultural, affective, and linguistic variables on adult Chinese as a second language learners' willingness to communicate in Chinese. One hundred and sixty-two Chinese as a second language learners from a Chinese university answered the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scale, the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, Use of Chinese Profile, as well as the Background Questionnaire. The major findings were as follows: (1) the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales were significantly negatively correlated with Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale but positively correlated with length of stay in China and (2) Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale was a powerful negative predictor for the overall willingness to communicate in Chinese and the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales, followed by length of stay in China, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, interaction attentiveness, and Chinese proficiency level. Apparently, students' willingness to communicate in Chinese is largely determined by their Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale level and length of stay in China, mediated by other variables such as Chinese proficiency level and intercultural communication sensitivity level.

  5. A comprehensive approach to handle the dynamics of customer’s needs in Quality Function Deployment based on linguistic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Bostaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the contexture of a customer-driven goods or service design process, a well-timed update of customer’s requirements may not only serve as a necessity indicator to observe how things change over time, but also it incorporates the firms a better ground to interoperate different strategies to meet the future needs of its customer. This paper proposes a systematic methodology to deal with the customer needs’ dynamics, in terms of their relative weights, in the QFD. Compared with previous research, the contribution of this paper is fourfold. First, it applies some linguistic variables to get preferences of customers and experts to determine the relative importance of customer requirements (CRs and the relationships between customer requirements and engineering characteristics (ECs. Second, it proposes the implementation of a forecasting technique. Third, it describes more comprehensively on how future uncertainty in the weights of customer’s needs could be estimated and transmitted into the design attributes. Fourth, it proposes the implementation of a quantitative approach, which takes into account the decision maker’s attitude towards risk to optimize the QFD decision making analysis. Finally, a real-world application of QFD is provided to demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed methodology.

  6. The spin Sutherland model of D-N type and its associated spin chain

    OpenAIRE

    Basu-Mallick, B.; Finkel Morgenstern, Federico; González López, Artemio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the su(m) spin Sutherland (trigonometric) model of D_N type and its related spin chain of Haldane-Shastry type obtained by means of Polychronakos's freezing trick. As in the rational case recently studied by the authors, we show that these are new models, whose properties cannot be simply deduced from those of their well-known BC_N counterparts by taking a suitable limit. We identify the Weyl-invariant extended configuration space of the spin dynamical model, which turn...

  7. Hydrology-induced signals at superconducting gravimeter site at Sutherland/South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Corinna; Werth, Susanna; Pflug, Hartmut; Güntner, Andreas; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin; Fourie, Pieter; Charles, Phil

    2010-05-01

    The superconducting gravimeter (SG) operating at the South African Geodynamic Observatory Sutherland (SAGOS) is one of the few instruments installed in the southern hemisphere and presently still the only one of its kind on the African continent. SAGOS is located in the Karoo, a semi-arid region with an average annual precipitation in the range of 200 to 400 mm. The distance to the ocean is approx. 220 km. A seasonal effect on gravity related to fluctuations in local hydrology is clearly seen in the SG record. Its general order of magnitude is estimated to be about 4 to 10 nm/s². A large-scale hydrological impact in a similar order of magnitude or even larger (up to 60 nm/s² peak-to-peak) is inferred from global hydrological models for the years 2003 to 2007. Significant contributions are found for the southern coast, the central Cape region, and the basin of the Orange river. Contributing basins with larger distance comprise the areas of Okavango/Sambesi, Congo, and eastern Africa. Between SG data, temporal GRACE gravity field solutions, and the gravity effect derived from global hydrological models clear differences are present. Among others, differences between the hydrological models can be traced to deviations in the gravity effect originating from the Okavango basin and the central Cape region. The present findings indicate the suitability of the SG observations at Sutherland for studies on changes in continental water storage in the South African region.

  8. Reception of Arthur Sutherland Neill's Pedagogical Concept and His Summerhill School in Hungarian and German Pedagogical Literature and Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer-Buchwald, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Arthur Sutherland Neill is one of the most debated personalities among the representatives of the classic reform pedagogy, due to his pedagogical concept and its practical realization, and his Summerhill School, equally. He is often mentioned during public debates, where mostly the "three S"--"sex, swearing and smoking", are…

  9. Probabilistic linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bod, R.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic linguistics takes all linguistic evidence as positive evidence and lets statistics decide. It allows for accurate modelling of gradient phenomena in production and perception, and suggests that rule-like behaviour is no more than a side effect of maximizing probability. This chapter

  10. Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  11. Linguistic Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    Linguistic polyphony is an utterance theory (la linguistique de l'énonciation) and is a French speciality. It deals with the numenrous points of view that are likely to be communicated through an utterance. The book introduces utterance act theory and polyphony as such, but most especially focuses...... on the Scandinavian variant of polyphony, ScaPoLine. ScaPoLine is a formal linguistic theory whose main purpose is to specify the instructions conveyed through linguistic form for the creation of polyphonic meaning. The theoretical introduction is followed by polyphonic analyses of linguistic phenomena...... such as negation, mood, modality and connectors, and of textual phenomena such as represented discourse and irony. The book suggests how ScaPoLine could offer new insights within cross-linguistic and interdisciplinary studies....

  12. The spin Sutherland model of D type and its associated spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Mallick, B.; Finkel, F.; González-López, A.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we study the su(m) spin Sutherland (trigonometric) model of D type and its related spin chain of Haldane-Shastry type obtained by means of Polychronakos's freezing trick. As in the rational case recently studied by the authors, we show that these are new models, whose properties cannot be simply deduced from those of their well-known BC counterparts by taking a suitable limit. We identify the Weyl-invariant extended configuration space of the spin dynamical model, which turns out to be the N-dimensional generalization of a rhombic dodecahedron. This is in fact one of the reasons underlying the greater complexity of the models studied in this paper in comparison with both their rational and BC counterparts. By constructing a non-orthogonal basis of the Hilbert space of the spin dynamical model on which its Hamiltonian acts triangularly, we compute its spectrum in closed form. Using this result and applying the freezing trick, we derive an exact expression for the partition function of the associated Haldane-Shastry spin chain of D type.

  13. Linguistic Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Nigel

    1992-01-01

    Advocates the application of Popper's ideas (1963, 1972) about the nature of science and objectivist epistemology to generativist linguistics, discussing the subsequent effects on five key metatheoretical positions: fallibilism; realism; objectivism; autonomism; and interactionism. (12 references) (CB)

  14. Pressure evolution of the Shastry-Sutherland magnet SrCu{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsirlin, Alexander; Rosner, Helge [Max-Planck Institute CPfS, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the evolution of crystal structure and individual magnetic couplings in the spin1/2 Shastry-Sutherland magnet SrCu{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} under hydrostatic pressure. Our results based on ab initio electronic structure calculations suggest the highly anisotropic compressibility of the structure that strongly shrinks along the interlayer c direction, while only weakly changing in the ab plane. This leads to a moderate change in the intralayer exchange couplings J and J' within the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 6} dimers and between the dimers, respectively. Above 4.5 GPa, SrCu{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} transforms into a monoclinic phase that has been scarcely characterized experimentally. We propose an improved structural model of this phase, and identify its spin system as an anisotropic Shastry-Sutherland lattice featuring inequivalent interdimer couplings J{sub 1}' and J{sub 2}. Our results compare well to the available experimental data, and call for a further investigation of the spin-lattice coupling phenomena in SrCu{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}.

  15. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Predicting panel scores by linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Stout, L.; Gou, X

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of text analysis for deriving quality indicators of project proposals. We do full text analysis of 3030 review reports. After term extraction, we aggregate the term occurrences to linguistic categories. Using thse linguistic categories as independent variables, we study how well these predict the grading by the review panels. Together, the different linguistic categories explain about 50% of the variance in the grading of the applications. The relative importance of the different linguistic categories inform us about the way the panels work. This can be used to develop altmetrics for the quality of the peer and panel review processes. (Author)

  18. Decorated Shastry-Sutherland lattice in the spin-(1)/(2) magnet CdCu2(BO3)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, O.; Rousochatzakis, I.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Richter, J.; Skourski, Yu.; Rosner, H.

    2012-02-01

    We report the microscopic magnetic model for the spin-1/2 Heisenberg system CdCu2(BO3)2, one of the few quantum magnets showing the 1/2-magnetization plateau. Recent neutron diffraction experiments on this compound [M. Hase , Phys. Rev. BPLRBAQ0556-280510.1103/PhysRevB.80.104405 80, 104405 (2009)] evidenced long-range magnetic order, inconsistent with the previously suggested phenomenological magnetic model of isolated dimers and spin chains. Based on extensive density functional theory band structure calculations, exact diagonalizations, quantum Monte Carlo simulations, third-order perturbation theory as well as high-field magnetization measurements, we find that the magnetic properties of CdCu2(BO3)2 are accounted for by a frustrated quasi-2D magnetic model featuring four inequivalent exchange couplings: the leading antiferromagnetic coupling Jd within the structural Cu2O6 dimers, two interdimer couplings Jt1 and Jt2, forming magnetic tetramers, and a ferromagnetic coupling Jit between the tetramers. Based on comparison to the experimental data, we evaluate the ratios of the leading couplings Jd : Jt1 : Jt2 : Jit = 1 : 0.20 : 0.45 : -0.30, with Jd of about 178 K. The inequivalence of Jt1 and Jt2 largely lifts the frustration and triggers long-range antiferromagnetic ordering. The proposed model accounts correctly for the different magnetic moments localized on structurally inequivalent Cu atoms in the ground-state magnetic configuration. We extensively analyze the magnetic properties of this model, including a detailed description of the magnetically ordered ground state and its evolution in magnetic field with particular emphasis on the 1/2-magnetization plateau. Our results establish remarkable analogies to the Shastry-Sutherland model of SrCu2(BO3)2, and characterize the closely related CdCu2(BO3)2 as a material realization for the spin-1/2 decorated anisotropic Shastry-Sutherland lattice.

  19. Third-Wave Feminist Linguistics: A Discursive Approach to Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper used the Discursive Approach to Language and Gender studies to examine all-female linguistic choices and how linguistic variation amongst female interlocutors is a representation of each female's individual and cultural identity and feminist ideology. The study revealed that linguistic variability abounds ...

  20. 4-spin plaquette singlet state in the Shastry-Sutherland compound SrCu2(BO3)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, M. E.; Rüegg, Ch.; Larrea J., J.; Läuchli, A. M.; Panagopoulos, C.; Saxena, S. S.; Ellerby, M.; McMorrow, D. F.; Strässle, Th.; Klotz, S.; Hamel, G.; Sadykov, R. A.; Pomjakushin, V.; Boehm, M.; Jiménez-Ruiz, M.; Schneidewind, A.; Pomjakushina, E.; Stingaciu, M.; Conder, K.; Rønnow, H. M.

    2017-10-01

    The study of interacting spin systems is of fundamental importance for modern condensed-matter physics. On frustrated lattices, magnetic exchange interactions cannot be simultaneously satisfied, and often give rise to competing exotic ground states. The frustrated two-dimensional Shastry-Sutherland lattice realized by SrCu2(BO3)2 (refs ,) is an important test case for our understanding of quantum magnetism. It was constructed to have an exactly solvable 2-spin dimer singlet ground state within a certain range of exchange parameters and frustration. While the exact dimer state and the antiferromagnetic order at both ends of the phase diagram are well known, the ground state and spin correlations in the intermediate frustration range have been widely debated. We report here the first experimental identification of the conjectured plaquette singlet intermediate phase in SrCu2(BO3)2. It is observed by inelastic neutron scattering after pressure tuning to 21.5 kbar. This gapped singlet state leads to a transition to long-range antiferromagnetic order above 40 kbar, consistent with the existence of a deconfined quantum critical point.

  1. Spin liquids and antiferromagnetic order in the Shastry-Sutherland-lattice compound Yb2Pt2Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M S; Aronson, M C

    2013-01-04

    We present measurements of the magnetic susceptibility χ and the magnetization M of single crystals of metallic Yb(2)Pt(2)Pb, where localized Yb moments lie on the dimerized and frustrated Shastry-Sutherland lattice (SSL). Strong magnetic frustration is found in this quasi-two-dimensional system, which orders antiferromagnetically at T(N) = 2.02 K from a paramagnetic liquid of Yb dimers, having a gap Δ = 4.6 K between the singlet ground state and the triplet excited states. Magnetic fields suppress the antiferromagnetic (AF) order, which vanishes at a 1.23 T quantum critical point. The spin gap Δ persists to 1.5 T, indicating that dimer singlets survive the collapse of the B = 0 AF state. Quantized steps are observed in M(B) within the AF state, a signature of SSL systems. Our results show that Yb(2) Pt(2)Pb is unique, both as a metallic SSL system that is close to an AF quantum critical point, and as a heavy fermion compound where quantum frustration plays a decisive role.

  2. LinguisticBelief: a java application for linguistic evaluation using belief, fuzzy sets, and approximate reasoning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    LinguisticBelief is a Java computer code that evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. The mathematics of fuzzy sets, approximate reasoning, and belief/ plausibility are complex. Without an automated tool, this complexity precludes their application to all but the simplest of problems. LinguisticBelief automates the use of these techniques, allowing complex problems to be evaluated easily. LinguisticBelief can be used free of charge on any Windows XP machine. This report documents the use and structure of the LinguisticBelief code, and the deployment package for installation client machines.

  3. Sutherland-Type Trigonometric Models, Trigonometric Invariants and Multivariate Polynomials Iii:. E8 Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreskov, K. G.; Turbiner, A. V.; López Vieyra, J. C.; García, M. A. G.

    It is shown that the E8 trigonometric Olshanetsky-Perelomov Hamiltonian, when written in terms of the fundamental trigonometric invariants, is in algebraic form, i.e. it has polynomial coefficients, and preserves two infinite flags of polynomial spaces marked by the Weyl (co)-vector and E8 highest root (both in the basis of simple roots) as characteristic vectors. The explicit form of the Hamiltonian in new variables has been obtained both by direct calculation and by means of the orbit function technique. It is shown the triangularity of the Hamiltonian in the bases of orbit functions and of algebraic monomials ordered through Weyl heights. Examples of first eigenfunctions are presented.

  4. Etymology and Modern Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiel, Yakov

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  5. Approaches to Contrastive Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmanova, Olga; And Others

    Linguistics as a science has been concerned with comparison ever since its inception, the number and variety of approaches increasing steadily in the course of its development. Interest in linguistic comparison extends into the field of foreign language teaching. Linguists have attempted to solve the problem of methodology in contrastive…

  6. Linguistic and Paralinguistic Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    Current linguistic theory rigidly compartmentalizes the "cognitive," linguistic aspects of human communication and the presumed "emotive," paralinguistic elements that occur in both human and nonhuman communication. The segmental phonetic units of human speech, according to this view, are supposed to convey linguistically relevant information,…

  7. Linguistic evaluation of terrorist scenarios: example application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    In 2005, a group of international decision makers developed a manual process for evaluating terrorist scenarios. That process has been implemented in the approximate reasoning Java software tool, LinguisticBelief, released in FY2007. One purpose of this report is to show the flexibility of the LinguisticBelief tool to automate a custom model developed by others. LinguisticBelief evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. This report documents the evaluation and rank-ordering of several example terrorist scenarios for the existing process implemented in our software. LinguisticBelief captures and propagates uncertainty and allows easy development of an expanded, more detailed evaluation, neither of which is feasible using a manual evaluation process. In conclusion, the Linguistic-Belief tool is able to (1) automate an expert-generated reasoning process for the evaluation of the risk of terrorist scenarios, including uncertainty, and (2) quickly evaluate and rank-order scenarios of concern using that process.

  8. Lessons learned for hydrogravimetry: the superconducting gravimeter observatories at Concepción (Chile) and Sutherland (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntner, Andreas; Ritschel, Maiko; Blume, Theresa; Dobslaw, Henryk; Förste, Christoph; Klügel, Thomas; Kuhlmann, Julian; Mikolaj, Michal; Reich, Marvin; Rossel, Ghislaine; Synisch, Jan; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    Superconducting gravimeters (SGs) continuously measure temporal variations of the Earth's gravity with very high precision. As SGs are sensitive to water mass changes in their surroundings, they potentially provide unique measurements of total water storage variations (the sum of variations in snow, soil and groundwater storage) at scales of several hundreds of meters. However, other geophysical signals by mass attraction and loading effects (e.g., tides, atmosphere, ocean, regional and global hydrology) have to be adequately removed from SG observations. In addition, the local settings of SG deployment (e.g., topographic position and near-field observatory infrastructure) are important controls on SG is sensitivity to the hydrological signal of interest. In this study, we evaluate the hydrological value of SGs for two sites in contrasting climate regions, i.e., (1) the Geodetic Observatory TIGO in the Coast Range of Southern Chile in Concepción, and (2) the South African Geodynamic Observatory Sutherland (SAGOS) in the semidesert Karoo region. At both sites, gravimetric as well as independent hydro-meteorological observations are available for several years. We remove large-scale atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological gravity effects by an ensemble approach using several global models. For the highly seasonal sub-humid climate at TIGO, the residual gravity signals had a larger seasonal amplitude (300-400 nm/s2) and a later annual phase than the gravimetric signal estimated from near-surface soil moisture observations in previous analyses. The gravity observations alluded to important and delayed water storage variations in the deeper (20 meter) unsaturated zone. This has been corroborated by soil moisture observations in deeper soil horizons, monitoring of the groundwater level, and hydrological modelling. At the semi-arid site SAGOS, water storage variations are considerably smaller, as are variations of SG residuals (amplitudes smaller than 20 nm/s2). While some

  9. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Noah A

    2011-01-01

    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  10. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  11. Linguistic Neutrosophic Cubic Numbers and Their Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To describe both certain linguistic neutrosophic information and uncertain linguistic neutrosophic information simultaneously in the real world, this paper originally proposes the concept of a linguistic neutrosophic cubic number (LNCN, including an internal LNCN and external LNCN. In LNCN, its uncertain linguistic neutrosophic number consists of the truth, indeterminacy, and falsity uncertain linguistic variables, and its linguistic neutrosophic number consists of the truth, indeterminacy, and falsity linguistic variables to express their hybrid information. Then, we present the operational laws of LNCNs and the score, accuracy, and certain functions of LNCN for comparing/ranking LNCNs. Next, we propose a LNCN weighted arithmetic averaging (LNCNWAA operator and a LNCN weighted geometric averaging (LNCNWGA operator to aggregate linguistic neutrosophic cubic information and discuss their properties. Further, a multiple attribute decision-making method based on the LNCNWAA or LNCNWGA operator is developed under a linguistic neutrosophic cubic environment. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to indicate the application of the developed method.

  12. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  13. What Are Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Several different conceptualizations of applied linguistics are evaluated, ranging from "applications of linguistic theory" to alternative models for studying language that extend and complement generative grammar as a theory of language. It is shown that they imply substantive differences in goals, methods, and priorities of language study. (30…

  14. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012...... of linguistic coordination and their effects at a fine-degree....

  15. Speech-on-speech masking with variable access to the linguistic content of the masker speech for native and nonnative english speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Bradlow, Ann R; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2014-04-01

    Masking release for an English sentence-recognition task in the presence of foreign-accented English speech compared with native-accented English speech was reported in Calandruccio et al (2010a). The masking release appeared to increase as the masker intelligibility decreased. However, it could not be ruled out that spectral differences between the speech maskers were influencing the significant differences observed. The purpose of the current experiment was to minimize spectral differences between speech maskers to determine how various amounts of linguistic information within competing speech Affiliationect masking release. A mixed-model design with within-subject (four two-talker speech maskers) and between-subject (listener group) factors was conducted. Speech maskers included native-accented English speech and high-intelligibility, moderate-intelligibility, and low-intelligibility Mandarin-accented English. Normalizing the long-term average speech spectra of the maskers to each other minimized spectral differences between the masker conditions. Three listener groups were tested, including monolingual English speakers with normal hearing, nonnative English speakers with normal hearing, and monolingual English speakers with hearing loss. The nonnative English speakers were from various native language backgrounds, not including Mandarin (or any other Chinese dialect). Listeners with hearing loss had symmetric mild sloping to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Listeners were asked to repeat back sentences that were presented in the presence of four different two-talker speech maskers. Responses were scored based on the key words within the sentences (100 key words per masker condition). A mixed-model regression analysis was used to analyze the difference in performance scores between the masker conditions and listener groups. Monolingual English speakers with normal hearing benefited when the competing speech signal was foreign accented compared with native

  16. NMR in Pulsed Magnetic Fields on the Orthogonal Shastry-Sutherland spin system SrCu2 (BO3)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Raivo; Kohlrautz, Jonas; Kühne, Hannes; Greene, Liz; Wosnitza, Jochen; Haase, Jügen

    2015-03-01

    SrCu2(BO3)2 is a quasi-two-dimensional spin system consisting of Cu2+ ions which form orthogonal spin singlet dimers, also known as the Shastry-Sutherland lattice, in the ground state. Though this system has been studied extensively using a variety of techniques to probe the spin triplet excitations, including recent magnetization measurements over 100 T, microscopic techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), could provide further insight into the spin excitations and spin-coupling mechanisms. We demonstrate the feasibility of performing NMR on real physics system in pulsed magnets. We present 11B NMR spectra measured in pulsed magnetic fields up to 53 T, and compare those with prior results obtained in static magnetic fields. Herewith we prove the efficacy of this technique and then extend to higher fields to fully explore the spin structure of the 1/3 plateau. Support by EMFL, DFG, ETAg (EML+ & PUT210).

  17. The focuses of linguistic personality investigations in modern linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Єрьоменко, С. В.

    2015-01-01

    The given articles defines the notion ‘linguistic personality’, discusses the focuses of linguistic personality investigations in linguistics, differentiates the notions ‘discourse’ and ‘linguistic personality’. In the numerous interpretations of linguistic personality that emerged at the end of the previous century, we can clearly distinguish two directions they are linguo-didactic and linguo-cultural. In linguo-didactics a personality is understood as a set of speech abilities. Linguocultu...

  18. Linguistics and the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plockinger, Othmar

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistics during the Third Reich in Nazi Germany. Discusses Nazi linguistics or linguistics in Nazism, Yiddish studies and the horror of assimilation, and remarks on the relevance of historical approaches in linguistics in the field of academic education. (Author/VWL)

  19. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...... a computer is, can follow the text. I cannot, of course, cover all aspects of logic programming in this text, and so we give references to other sources with more details. Students of linguistics must have a very good motivation to spend time on programming, and I show here how logic programming can be used...... for modelling different linguistic phenomena. When modelling language in this way, as opposed to using only paper and pencil, your models go live: you can run and test your models and you can use them as automatic language analyzers. This way you will get a better understanding of the dynamics of languages...

  20. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  1. Mathematics and linguistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  2. Fuzzy Linguistic Induced Ordered Weighted Averaging Operator and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidong Xian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM problems, in which the attribute weights take the form of real numbers, and the attribute values take the form of fuzzy linguistic scale variables, a decision analysis approach is proposed. In this paper, we develop a new fuzzy linguistic induce OWA (FLIOWA operator and analyze the properties of it by utilizing some operational laws of fuzzy linguistic scale variables. A method based on the FLIOWA operators for multiple attribute group decision making is presented. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Integrational Linguistics and the Structuralist Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines attempts to extend Ferdinand de Saussure's structuralist linguistic theory, particularly those by integrational linguists. Discusses the place of integrational linguistics with regard to Saussurean work. (MSE)

  4. Le paradoxe du linguiste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Vitez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le linguiste, dans sa volonté explicite de s'imposer comme sujet scientifique et de décrire objectivement la langue comme un objet qui lui est extérieur, est paradoxal, parce que, du fait même qu'il est habité de sa langue, il se trouve nécessairement dans l'impossibilité de remplir la tâche qu'il se propose. Le paradoxe du linguiste consiste donc en cela que, si on se permet de paraphraser l'observation de Labov, « les faits de la langue s'étudient selon la vision de tel ou tel linguiste individuel, alors que le linguiste n'existe que par son expérience personnelle des faits linguistiques ». Cela signifie très simplement que le linguiste, en tant que descripteur d'une langue, n'est opératif qu'à l'intérieur de son objet d'analyse. La crédibilité de l'analyste dépend entièrement de la position éthique qu'il prendra vis-à-vis de sa recherche.

  5. Linguistic variables, approximate reasoning and dispositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadeh, L.A.

    1983-07-01

    Test-score semantics is applied to the representation of meaning of dispositions, that is, propositions with suppressed fuzzy quantifiers, e.g. overeating causes obesity, icy roads are slippery, young men like young women, etc. The concept of a disposition plays an especially important role in the representation of commonsense knowledge. 45 references.

  6. Contrastive Linguistics at the Center for Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemser, William

    1970-01-01

    Describes the activities of the Center for Applied Linguistics in the field of contrastive linguistics since its founding in 1959. The author is Director of the Foreign Language Program at the Center. (FB)

  7. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC PRAGMATICS: MAPPING OUT SOME UNRECOGNIZED INTERDISCIPLINARY. COMMON GROUND. 1. Introduction. Melinda Sinclair. Department of General Linguistics. University of SteUenbosch. 83. On the whole, research into the various aspects of natural ...

  8. Linguistic Atlas of French Polynesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charpentier, Jean-Michel; François, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    ... François, the Linguistic Atlas of French Polynesia pays tribute to the rich linguistic landscape of the country by documenting thoroughly twenty different communalects, in the form of 2250 maps...

  9. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: Conventionally, dictionaries present information about institutionalized words, phrases, and senses of words; more creative formations and usages are generally ignored. Yet text and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordi- nary linguistic behaviour and indeed ...

  10. Numerical Methods in Linguistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Numerical Methods in Linguistics - An Introduction to Glottochronology. Raamesh Gowri Raghavan. General Article Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 17-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Willem

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  12. Noah Webster's Linguistic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines ways in which Noah Webster's linguistic theories and work on dictionaries influenced North American English lexicography, arguing that his impact on American education was great because his spellers and dictionaries monopolized a rapidly growing market, and influence on lexicography was substantial because he insisted on the validity of…

  13. ARMAH'S LINGUISTIC MYTHOPOEISIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    thing white and accepting everything black but in carefully selecting what is good in both cul- tures. Keywords: Linguistic mythopoeisis, black, white, road, way. ..... walker…' (p.186). The most recurrent of the pejorative associa- tions of whiteness in Two Thousand Seasons is death. Armah links death and whiteness be-.

  14. Formal monkey linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions: (i) what morphology and

  15. A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    communication with other people in the environment which they find themselves. This paper aims at carrying out linguistic theoretical exercise as regards the use of the English primary auxiliary verbs. The paper also aims at exposing the rate at which speakers of English Language misuse the. English primary auxiliary ...

  16. Papers in Contrastive Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Gerhard, Ed.

    The contrastive linguistics papers contained in this collection concern a wide variety of issues within the field -- ranging from phonology and syntax to interference and error analysis in foreign language instruction. The papers, while discussing specific topics, for example, "Equivalence, Congruence, and Deep Structure" or "Comparative Analysis…

  17. Promoting Linguistic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra Gilliyard

    2005-01-01

    To face up to the omnipresence of ‘Anglo-American’, conferences on language policy today address the issue of promoting linguistic diversity. This especially applies to contemporary Europe. Nevertheless, these conferences, which can be regarded as a kind of laboratories or academic microcosm, do...

  18. The linguistics of gender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, J.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter explores grammatical gender as a linguistic phenomenon. First, I define gender in terms of agreement, and look at the parts of speech that can take gender agreement. Because it relates to assumptions underlying much psycholinguistic gender research, I also examine the reasons why gender

  19. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordi- nary linguistic behaviour and indeed often systematic. This article looks at four specific types of lexical creativity in English: figurative meaning, ... in art and literature can also be found in the communication practices of every-.

  20. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  1. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... communication related to collaboration and ‘small talk’ may provide linguistic bridges to social capital formation....

  2. Applied Linguistics: What's That?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markee, Numa

    1990-01-01

    The historical development of strong and weak definitions of applied linguistics is traced. It is argued that weak definitions do not limit themselves to resolution of second-language teaching problems, potentially address all practical language-related problems, and provide the necessary flexibility for realistic theory and practice of applied…

  3. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  4. Four Conceptions of Linguistic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers need a conception of linguistic disadvantage to supply guidance about the relative priority of inequalities with a linguistic dimension and to inform decisions about whether such inequalities require correction or compensation. A satisfactory conception of linguistic disadvantage will make it possible to compare the situations of…

  5. Peace linguistics for language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GOMES DE MATOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text aims at presenting the concept of Peace Linguistics - origins and recent developments -- as being implemented in the author's ongoing work in that emerging branch of Applied Linguistics. Examples of applicational possibilities are given, with a focus on language teaching-learning and a Checklist is provided, of topics for suggested linguistic-educational research, centered on communicative peace.

  6. Noncollinear magnetic ordering in the Shastry-Sutherland Kondo lattice model: Insulating regime and the role of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Munir; Sengupta, Pinaki

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the necessary conditions for the emergence of complex, noncoplanar magnetic configurations in a Kondo lattice model with classical local moments on the geometrically frustrated Shastry-Sutherland lattice and their evolution in an external magnetic field. We demonstrate that topologically nontrivial spin textures, including a new canted flux state, with nonzero scalar chirality arise dynamically from realistic short-range interactions. Our results establish that a finite Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction is necessary for the emergence of these novel magnetic states when the system is at half filling, for which the ground state is insulating. We identify the minimal set of DM vectors that are necessary for the stabilization of chiral magnetic phases. The noncoplanarity of such structures can be tuned continually by applying an external magnetic field. This is the first part in a series of two papers; in the following paper the effects of frustration, thermal fluctuations, and magnetic field on the emergence of novel noncollinear states at metallic filling of itinerant electrons are discussed. Our results are crucial in understanding the magnetic and electronic properties of the rare-earth tetraboride family of frustrated magnets with separate spin and charge degrees of freedom.

  7. Pattern recognition using linguistic fuzzy logic predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballa, Hashim

    2016-06-01

    The problem of pattern recognition has been solved with numerous methods in the Artificial Intelligence field. We present an unconventional method based on Lingustic Fuzzy Logic Forecaster which is primarily used for the task of time series analysis and prediction through logical deduction wtih linguistic variables. This method should be used not only to the time series prediction itself, but also for recognition of patterns in a signal with seasonal component.

  8. Linguistics and the digital humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software......, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and figures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. This article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data...... and method and also offers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented...

  9. Formalism and functionalism in linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Frederick J

    2010-05-01

    Formalism and functionalism in linguistics are often taken to be diametrically opposed approaches. However, close examination of the relevant phenomena reveals that the two are complementary, rather than being irrevocably in opposition to each other. One can be a formal linguist and a functional linguist at the same time, without there being any contradiction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Linguistic Turn and Postmodernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Lorente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to show how postmodernity comes from doctrines originating in the «linguistic revolution». The thinkers of the 19th century German tradition —who are included in the socalled «Triple-H theory»— wanted to shift the line of argument from reason to language. The presupposition of the primacy of language will be presumed by the prophet of postmodernism, Nietzsche, thus making possible the dawning of postmodernity. Postmodernity will accept unquestionably the shift from the universal and absolute to the particular and relative.

  11. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. Editors SPiL. Department of General Linguistics University of Stellenbosch Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch South Africa. Principal Contact. Dr Kate Huddlestone Journal Manager Department of General Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Private Bag X1. Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch.

  12. Theoretical Linguistics And Multilingualism Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    and Garfunkel who released the legendary song with the singular bridge over forty years ago):. • It tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical linguistics and ...... Four types of morpheme: Evidence from aphasia, code switching, and second-language acquisition. Linguistics 38: 1053-1100. Newmeyer, F.J. ...

  13. A Survey of Structural Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepschy, Giulio C.

    This book, a revised and expanded English version of the author's Italian work "La Linguistica strutturale" (1961), is a survey of the main trends in structural linguistics intended not only for the linguist but for specialists in other fields and the general reader as well. The initial chapter, "Introductory Notions," discusses general linguistic…

  14. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  15. Ontological problems of contemporary linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Бондаренко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies linguistic ontology problems such as evolution of essential-existential views of language, interrelation within Being-Language-Man triad, linguistics gnosiological principles, language essence localization, and «expression» as language metalinguistic unit as well as architectonics of language personality et alia.

  16. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  17. Linguistics and the Literary Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Madeleine

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the opposing viewpoints of the two most influential linguists of this century--Saussure and Chomsky--suggesting that while both are interested in form as opposed to substance, Saussure sees linguistics as a branch of semiotics and Chomsky sees it as part of cognitive psychology. Evaluates the relevance of these two viewpoints to the…

  18. Linguistic Profiling of Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Prathibha

    2010-01-01

    The history of the evolution of language assessments for children and adults with language disorders is described briefly. This is followed by a discussion on language assessment of the clinical population with an emphasis on linguistic profiling, illustrated through the Linguistic Profile Test. Discourse analysis, in particular, is highlighted…

  19. Applied Linguistics for Language Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeng, Paul A.

    This article reviews the historical development of applied linguistics in foreign language instruction. Five major principles influencing early applied linguistic theory are summarized, emphasizing the oral nature of language. Central to the article are discussions of: (1) prescriptive or normative grammar, (2) transformational grammar, (3)…

  20. Contrastive Linguistics and Social Lectology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Walt

    In the past, social lectologists have not considered their work as contrastive linguistics. One reason is that sociolects of a language differ quantitatively; differences lie in the frequency patterns with which certain forms occur in each lect. Contrastive linguistics deals with standard or idealized languages, while sociolects are often…

  1. Linguistic Human Rights and Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    The Linguistic Human Rights (LHRs) paradigm is motivated by the desire to combat linguistic discrimination, where speakers of discriminated languages find themselves unable to use their preferred language in society at large. However, in an increasingly globalised world where speakers may feel the need or the desire to travel across state…

  2. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  3. The linguistically aware teacher and the teacher-aware linguist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue

    2013-07-01

    This review evaluates issues of teacher linguistic knowledge relating to their work with children with speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). Information is from Ellis and McCartney [(2011a). Applied linguistics and primary school teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press], a state-of-the-art text deriving from a British Association of Applied Linguistics/Cambridge University Press expert seminar series that details: linguistic research underpinning primary school curricula and pedagogy; the form of linguistic knowledge useful for teachers supporting children with SLCD in partnership with speech and language therapists; and how and when teachers acquire and learn to apply such knowledge. Critical analysis of the options presented for teacher learning indicate that policy enjoinders now include linguistic application as an expected part of teachers' professional knowledge, for all children including those with SLCD, but there is a large unmet learning need. It is concluded that there is a role for clinical linguists to disseminate useable knowledge to teachers in an accessible format. Ways of achieving this are considered.

  4. The Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol: a valid linguistic approach to awake brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, E; Satoer, D; Robert, E; Colle, H; Verheyen, S; Visch-Brink, E; Mariën, P

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES) is increasingly used in patients operated on for tumours in eloquent areas. Although a positive impact of DES on postoperative linguistic outcome is generally advocated, information about the neurolinguistic methods applied in awake surgery is scarce. We developed for the first time a standardised Dutch linguistic test battery (measuring phonology, semantics, syntax) to reliably identify the critical language zones in detail. A normative study was carried out in a control group of 250 native Dutch-speaking healthy adults. In addition, the clinical application of the Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol (DuLIP) was demonstrated by means of anatomo-functional models and five case studies. A set of DuLIP tests was selected for each patient depending on the tumour location and degree of linguistic impairment. DuLIP is a valid test battery for pre-, intraoperative and postoperative language testing and facilitates intraoperative mapping of eloquent language regions that are variably located. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multidimensional Analysis of Linguistic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Banisch, Sven

    Network-based approaches play an increasingly important role in the analysis of data even in systems in which a network representation is not immediately apparent. This is particularly true for linguistic networks, which use to be induced from a linguistic data set for which a network perspective is only one out of several options for representation. Here we introduce a multidimensional framework for network construction and analysis with special focus on linguistic networks. Such a framework is used to show that the higher is the abstraction level of network induction, the harder is the interpretation of the topological indicators used in network analysis. Several examples are provided allowing for the comparison of different linguistic networks as well as to networks in other fields of application of network theory. The computation and the intelligibility of some statistical indicators frequently used in linguistic networks are discussed. It suggests that the field of linguistic networks, by applying statistical tools inspired by network studies in other domains, may, in its current state, have only a limited contribution to the development of linguistic theory.

  6. A Novel Method for Multiattribute Decision Making with Dual Hesitant Fuzzy Triangular Linguistic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbing Ju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the multiattribute decision making (MADM problems in which the attribute values take the form of dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic elements and the weights of attributes take the form of real numbers. Firstly, to solve the situation where the membership degree and the nonmembership degree of an element to a triangular linguistic variable, the concept, operational laws, score function, and accuracy function of dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic elements (DHFTLEs are defined. Then, some dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic geometric aggregation operators are developed for aggregating the DHFTLEs, including dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic weighted geometric (DHFTLWG operator, dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic ordered weighted geometric (DHFTLOWG operator, dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic hybrid geometric (DHFTLHG operator, generalized dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic weighted geometric (GDHFTLWG operator, and generalized dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic ordered weighted geometric (GDHFTLOWG operator. Furthermore, some desirable properties of these operators are investigated in detail. Based on the proposed operators, an approach to MADM with dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic information is proposed. Finally, a numerical example for investment alternative selection is given to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

  7. A gradient-descent-based approach for transparent linguistic interface generation in fuzzy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Chen, C L Philip; Pedrycz, Witold

    2010-10-01

    Linguistic interface is a group of linguistic terms or fuzzy descriptions that describe variables in a system utilizing corresponding membership functions. Its transparency completely or partly decides the interpretability of fuzzy models. This paper proposes a GRadiEnt-descEnt-based Transparent lInguistic iNterface Generation (GREETING) approach to overcome the disadvantage of traditional linguistic interface generation methods where the consideration of the interpretability aspects of linguistic interface is limited. In GREETING, the widely used interpretability criteria of linguistic interface are considered and optimized. The numeric experiments on the data sets from University of California, Irvine (UCI) machine learning databases demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed GREETING method. The GREETING method is also applied to fuzzy decision tree generation. It is shown that GREETING generates better transparent fuzzy decision trees in terms of better classification rates and comparable tree sizes.

  8. Linguistics in the digital humanities: (computational) corpus linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Ebensgaard Jensen

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and fi gures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. Th is article provides an ove...

  9. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  10. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between linguistics and second language teaching has always been a controversial one. Many linguists have argued that linguistics has nothing to say to the teacher. Sampson (1980, p.10), for example, says: "I do not believe that linguistics has any contribution to make to the teaching of English or the.

  11. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. Sources of Support. The Department of General Linguistics acknowledges the financial support provided by the Fonds ...

  12. Gesture Modelling for Linguistic Purposes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of sign languages attempts to create a coherent model that binds the expressive nature of signs conveyed in gestures to a linguistic framework. Gesture modelling offers an alternative that provides device independence, scalability...

  13. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  15. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    Functional categories in comparative linguistics Even after many decades of typological research, the biggest methodological problem still concerns the fundamental question: how can we be sure that we identify and compare the same linguistic form, structure, meaning etc. across languages? Very few...... linguistic categories, if any, appear to be ‘universal’ in the sense that they are attested in each and every language (Evans and Levinson 2009). The language-specific nature of form-based (structural, morphosyntactic) categories is well known, which is why typologists usually resort to ‘Greenbergian......’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all...

  16. Heritage language and linguistic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence.

  17. Heritage Language and Linguistic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory eScontras

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language to their dominant language (the language of their speech community. To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence.

  18. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  19. Neuro Linguistic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Padežanin

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is in fact an introduction to the field known as neuro-linguistic programming or NLP. It describes the origins of thi s method and funda­ mental assumptions about NLP -current perception of reality, establishment of rapport, and  development of our unique potential in order to understand the world. The paper furthermore provides insight into how we use our inner senses for reflection , how language and thought interact, and how we can determine the way other people think. The NLP method simultaneousl y takes into consideration all of the personality signals - bod y a nd speech signals, and visua l pattems. NLP assumes tha t the usual framework of interpretation and criticism needs to be transcended in order for us to be able to see matters ina different light, and thus develop better al ternatives for achieving our original goals. The paper emphasizes the inner processing of information, which is captured by certain NLP diagnostic models, thus providing the starting point for change.

  20. Computational Linguistics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Piasecki, Maciej; Jassem, Krzysztof; Fuglewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Google over the recent decade has required a specific method of man-machine communication: human query should be short, whereas the machine answer may take a form of a wide range of documents. This type of communication has triggered a rapid development in the domain of Information Extraction, aimed at providing the asker with a  more precise information. The recent success of intelligent personal assistants supporting users in searching or even extracting information and answers from large collections of electronic documents signals the onset of a new era in man-machine communication – we shall soon explain to our small devices what we need to know and expect valuable answers quickly and automatically delivered. The progress of man-machine communication is accompanied by growth in the significance of applied Computational Linguistics – we need machines to understand much more from the language we speak naturally than it is the case of up-to-date search systems. Moreover, w...

  1. The new linguistic order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Fishman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation phenomenon that we are currently seeing has lead to major linguistic changes on a worldwide scale. English has become the leading international language, in economic and political spheres, and is becoming the language of high society and of the young. At the same time, however, regional languages are also making considerable headway, thanks to new social interaction and economic backing from their governments. In turn, and as a result of these two trends, there is impetus for feelings of belonging to local communities which see their language as a sign of their own authenticity, one that has to be defended against the phenomena of globalisation and regionalisation. We are thus heading towards a multilingual society, in which each language has its own, distinct social functions, even though it is inevitable that there will be conflict between the languages that come into contact. In this scenario, the author predicts a loss of hegemony for English, in favour of regional languages, and the future extinction of the least spoken minority languages.

  2. Improving the Validity of Quantitative Measures in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, James E.; Brown, James Dean; Schoonen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In empirical applied linguistics research it is essential that the key variables are operationalized in a valid and reliable way, and that the scores are treated appropriately, allowing for a proper testing of the hypotheses under investigation. The current article addresses several theoretical and practical issues regarding the use of measurement…

  3. Improving the validity of quantitative measures in applied linguistics research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purpura, J.E.; Brown, J.D.; Schoonen, R.

    2015-01-01

    In empirical applied linguistics research it is essential that the key variables are operationalized in a valid and reliable way, and that the scores are treated appropriately, allowing for a proper testing of the hypotheses under investigation. The current article addresses several theoretical and

  4. Socio cum linguistic interplay in language choice and performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data for the study were randomly collected from people, including students, artisans, businessmen, traders and other civil populace in the city. The result of the study indicates that the language that most people speak and the extent of their performance is a consequence of two variables: the linguistic knowledge of the ...

  5. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  6. Induced Unbalanced Linguistic Ordered Weighted Average and Its Application in Multiperson Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Marin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic variables are very useful to evaluate alternatives in decision making problems because they provide a vocabulary in natural language rather than numbers. Some aggregation operators for linguistic variables force the use of a symmetric and uniformly distributed set of terms. The need to relax these conditions has recently been posited. This paper presents the induced unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted average (IULOWA operator. This operator can deal with a set of unbalanced linguistic terms that are represented using fuzzy sets. We propose a new order-inducing criterion based on the specificity and fuzziness of the linguistic terms. Different relevancies are given to the fuzzy values according to their uncertainty degree. To illustrate the behaviour of the precision-based IULOWA operator, we present an environmental assessment case study in which a multiperson multicriteria decision making model is applied.

  7. Linguistic and Psycho-Physiological Fundamentals of Linguistic Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Juškienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses one of the most important aspects of linguistic activity, i.e. psycho-physiological fundamentals. The topic is of a great importance as there is no uniform theoretical concept of this issue, although there is a range of articles that analyze some of the aspects of the problem. The author has described physiological components of linguistic activity. From the psychological point of view, the author has accentuated two types of linguistic activity – the perceptive and the expressive – that are substantially analyzed in the present article. The author assumes that the implementation of linguistic activity as well as of any activity is possible by virtue of certain competences and skills. Linguistic competences and skills are thoroughly scrutinized and their distinctive features are pointed out in the current study. The paper also presents and analyzes the key stages of the nurturing of skills. The article could be useful both for theorists of linguodidactics and for language teaching specialists.

  8. The Open Linguistics Working Group: Developing the Linguistic Linked Open Data Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    McCrae, John Philip; Chiarcos, Christian; Bond, Francis; Cimiano, Philipp; Declerck, Thierry; de Melo, Gerard; Gracia, Jorge; Hellmann, Sebastian; Klimek, Bettina; Moran, Steven; Osenova, Petya; Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Pool, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Open Linguistics Working Group (OWLG) brings together researchers from various fields of linguistics, natural language processing, and information technology to present and discuss principles, case studies, and best practices for representing, publishing and linking linguistic data collections. A major outcome of our work is the Linguistic Linked Open Data (LLOD) cloud, an LOD (sub-)cloud of linguistic resources, which covers various linguistic databases, lexicons, corpora, terminologies,...

  9. A Novel Multiple Attribute Satisfaction Evaluation Approach with Hesitant Intuitionistic Linguistic Fuzzy Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanghong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the multiple attribute decision making (MADM problems in which the attribute values take the form of hesitant intuitionistic linguistic fuzzy element (HILFE. Firstly, motivated by the idea of intuitionistic linguistic variables (ILVs and hesitant fuzzy elements (HFEs, the concept, operational laws, and comparison laws of HILFE are defined. Then, some aggregation operators are developed for aggregating the hesitant intuitionistic linguistic fuzzy information, such as hesitant intuitionistic linguistic fuzzy weighted aggregation operators, hesitant intuitionistic linguistic fuzzy ordered weighted aggregation operators, and generalized hesitant intuitionistic linguistic fuzzy weighted aggregation operators. Moreover, some desirable properties of these operators and the relationships between them are discussed. Based on the hesitant intuitionistic linguistic fuzzy weighted average (HILFWA operator and the hesitant intuitionistic linguistic fuzzy weighted geometric (HILFWG operator, an approach for evaluating satisfaction degree is proposed under hesitant intuitionistic linguistic fuzzy environment. Finally, a practical example of satisfaction evaluation for milk products is given to illustrate the application of the proposed method and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  10. Linguistic Features Identify Alzheimer's Disease in Narrative Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kathleen C; Meltzer, Jed A; Rudzicz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Although memory impairment is the main symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD), language impairment can be an important marker. Relatively few studies of language in AD quantify the impairments in connected speech using computational techniques. We aim to demonstrate state-of-the-art accuracy in automatically identifying Alzheimer's disease from short narrative samples elicited with a picture description task, and to uncover the salient linguistic factors with a statistical factor analysis. Data are derived from the DementiaBank corpus, from which 167 patients diagnosed with "possible" or "probable" AD provide 240 narrative samples, and 97 controls provide an additional 233. We compute a number of linguistic variables from the transcripts, and acoustic variables from the associated audio files, and use these variables to train a machine learning classifier to distinguish between participants with AD and healthy controls. To examine the degree of heterogeneity of linguistic impairments in AD, we follow an exploratory factor analysis on these measures of speech and language with an oblique promax rotation, and provide interpretation for the resulting factors. We obtain state-of-the-art classification accuracies of over 81% in distinguishing individuals with AD from those without based on short samples of their language on a picture description task. Four clear factors emerge: semantic impairment, acoustic abnormality, syntactic impairment, and information impairment. Modern machine learning and linguistic analysis will be increasingly useful in assessment and clustering of suspected AD.

  11. Linguistic diversity and English language use in multicultural organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    organizations. Accordingly, the link between employee age and language use is of increasing importance. In this study, we report on the findings of a survey using responses from 489 members of Danish multicultural organizations. We studied the effect of linguistic diversity on English language communication...... as well as the moderating effect of respondents’ age.Wefound linguistic diversity to have positive associations with the two English language communication variables. We also found age to moderate the relationship between linguistic diversity and perceived use of English language by management. Since......Two great human resource management challenges face organizations in many parts of the world. The workforce is aging leaving fewer young people to take over. At the same time, globalization leads to a pressure for internationalization with great consequences for internal collaboration in many...

  12. Linguistic and Psycho-Linguistic Principles of Linguadidactics (theoretical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Mauzienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers linguadidactics being closely related to linguistics, psychology, psycholinguistics and didactics and applies their theoretical statements and regularities in its scientific studies. Methodology refers to linguistics which investigates the language as a teaching subject. Methodology is linked to psychology in two ways. First of all, it is based on psychology as the teaching process is an intellectual psychical act and its regularities are necessary to know. On the other hand, methodology applies rules of pedagogy that predicts ways of learning and development of language skills. The article emphasizes that sustainable work experience and analysis of scientific research show that teaching process is more effective if consistent patterns of linguistics and psychology are appropriately applied.

  13. Enhancing international medical graduates' communication: the contribution of applied linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Maria R; Yates, Lynda; Ogden, Kathryn; Rooney, Kim; Sheldon, Brooke

    2015-08-01

    International medical graduates (IMGs) make up one-third of the Australian medical workforce. Those from non-English-language backgrounds can face cultural and communication barriers, yet linguistic support is variable and medical educators are often required to provide feedback on both medical and communication issues. However, some communication difficulties may be very specific to the experiences of IMGs as second language users. This interdisciplinary study combines perspectives from applied linguistics experts and clinical educators to address IMGs' difficulties from multiple dimensions and to enhance feedback quality. Five video-recorded patient encounters with five IMGs were collected at Launceston General Hospital. Three clinical educators gave quantitative and qualitative feedback using the Rating Instrument for Clinical Consulting Skills, and two applied linguistics experts analysed the data for language, pragmatic and communication difficulties. The comparison of the educators' language-related feedback with linguistic analyses of the same interactions facilitated the exploration of differences in the difficulties identified by the two expert groups. Although the clinical educators were able to use their tacit intuitive understanding of communication issues to identify IMG difficulties, they less frequently addressed the underlying issues or suggested specific remedies in their feedback. This pilot study illustrates the effectiveness of interdisciplinary collaboration in highlighting the specific discourse features contributing to IMG communication difficulties and thus assists educators in deconstructing their intuitive knowledge. The authors suggest that linguistic insights can therefore improve communications training by assisting educators to provide more targeted feedback. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Linguistics and cognitive linguistics as tools of pedagogical discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurovskaya Yulia G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of linguistics and cognitive linguistics as tools of pedagogical discourse analysis, thus establishing a new branch of pedagogy called pedagogical semiology that is concerned with students’ acquisition of culture encoded in symbols and the way students’ sign consciousness formed in the context of learning affects their world cognition and interpersonal communication. The article introduces a set of tools that would enable the teacher to organize the educational process in compliance with the rules of language as a sign system applied to the context of pedagogy and with the formation of younger generation’s language picture of the world.

  15. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...

  16. Executive control influences linguistic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-02-01

    Although it is known that words acquire their meanings partly from the contexts in which they are used, we proposed that the way in which words are processed can also influence their representation. We further propose that individual differences in the way that words are processed can consequently lead to individual differences in the way that they are represented. Specifically, we showed that executive control influences linguistic representations by influencing the coactivation of competing and reinforcing terms. Consequently, people with poorer executive control perceive the meanings of homonymous terms as being more similar to one another, and those of polysemous terms as being less similar to one another, than do people with better executive control. We also showed that bilinguals with poorer executive control experience greater cross-linguistic interference than do bilinguals with better executive control. These results have implications for theories of linguistic representation and language organization.

  17. COGNITIVE METAPHOR IN MODERN LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina KARTASHOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  18. THE VARIABILITY OF INTERLANGUAGE USE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www

    This pattern of linguistic behaviour is called "non-systematic variability". In this article, the phenomenon of this variability in L2 knowledge is investigated. The existing body of knowledge about L2 acquisition provides ample proof that L2 learners are characteristically variable in their interlanguage use. The question arises ...

  19. Linguistic Justice and Endangered Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salverda Reinier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution will engage with Van Parijs’s approach to linguistic justice and his working principles for the reduction of unfairness in the language domain (in particular, the need for intervention and his territorial principle, reflecting on a range of cases of multilingual practice and linguistic coexistence – respectively, in the multilingual capital of the world which is London today; in Fryslân, the minority language area in northern Netherlands; and in Europe, through its European Charter of Regional Minority Languages.

  20. Linguistics, human communication and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Fraser, W

    1994-11-01

    Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics have extended our understanding of the abnormal communication seen in psychosis, as well as that of people with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Psycholinguistics has the potential to increase the explanatory power of cognitive and neuropsychological approaches to psychosis and new methods of assessment and therapy are now being developed, based on linguistic theory. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Of 205 relevant articles identified, 65 were selected for review. Greater familiarity with linguistic theory could improve psychiatrists' assessment skills and their understanding of the relevance of human communication to the new cognitive models of psychosis.

  1. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  2. Referential Metonymy across Languages: What Can Cognitive Linguistics and "Contrastive Linguistics" Learn from Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar-Szabó, Rita; Brdar, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The paper demonstrates how contrastive linguistics may receive a fresh breath of life from approaching certain problems from the cognitive linguistic point of view. Cognitive linguistics is not only capable of providing contrastive linguistics with a comprehensive but coherent theoretical backbone the latter has always badly needed for its…

  3. Archives: Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... The papers of this issue are a testament to the wide variety of theoretical approaches and diverse research areas pertaining to linguistics found in Africa. In this vein, GJL continues to serve as a hub of scholarship, providing an avenue for the publication of double-blind peer-reviewed studies on language, ...

  4. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  5. STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS AND BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALONE, KEMP

    A STRUCTURAL, LINGUISTIC APPROACH TO BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES WAS DESCRIBED. DETAILED DISCUSSIONS WERE INCLUDED FOR USES OF MORPHEMES, MORPHEMIC SEQUENCES, PHONEMES, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS, AND ALLOPHONES. THIS REPORT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF 13 PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE ON LEXICOGRAPHY, INDIANA UNIVERSITY, NOVEMBER 11-12, 1960. (GC)

  6. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. PLEASE follow these guidelines closely when preparing your paper for submission. The editors reserve the right to reject inadequately prepared papers. All areas of linguistics are invited – the journal is not limited to articles on languages of or in Ghana or Africa. ALL CONTRIBUTIONS must be submitted ...

  7. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  8. Understanding software through linguistic abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.

    2013-01-01

    Preprint submitted to "Science of Computer Programming", Elsevier, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scico.2013.12.001 In this essay, I argue that linguistic abstraction should be used systematically as a tool to capture our emerging understanding of domains of computation. Moreover, to enable that

  9. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  10. Text linguistics: memory and representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Lopes Fávero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Text Linguistics originates in Brazil in the 80s of the twentieth century. The first work that we know of is from 1981, authored by Prof. Ignacio Antonio Neiss, entitled Por uma gramática textua, which was followed by two other in 1983: Linguística textual: o que é e como se faz, by Prof. Luiz Antônio Marcuschi and Linguística textual: introdução by Leonor Lopes Favero and Ingedore Villaça Koch. Professor Neiss shows how initial attempts to textual linguistics, were generally related to structural and generative grammars. The work of Prof. Marcuschi focuses on the analysis of some text definitions and on the study of theoretical aspects in relation to their applicability. Leonor Lopes Favero and Ingedore V. Koch aim to provide the Brazilian reader with an overview of text linguistics in Europe, a recent branch of language science then. This work is part of the History of Linguistic Ideas, part of the Cultural History, which seeks to identify how at different times , a social reality is constructed, designed, and enlightened (Chartier, 1990.

  11. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    can be recovered solely on the basis of linguistic knowledge - or to put it differently, how ... The answer which Gricean pragmatic theories provide to this question goes ..... written language have important implications for conceptions of literacy - see e.g. (Olson, ..... Are academic texts really decontextualized and fully explicit?

  12. a systemic functional linguistic approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysing social identity in casual Zambian/English conversation: a systemic functional linguistic approach. ... Through an analysis of sentence-level grammatical patterns, and of speakers' mood choices in particular, the study shows how interactants construct identities ('self' and 'other') and social roles, as well as role ...

  13. A Bibliography of Contrastive Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, John H.; Rice, Frank A.

    This 484-item bibliography is a revised and expanded version of William W. Gage's "Contrastive Studies in Linguistics: A Bibliographical Checklist" (CAL, 1961). Following a general section, the entries are arranged alphabetically by foreign language. The language headings are: Afrikaans, Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bantu, Batak, Bengali,…

  14. Desiderata for Linguistic Software Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretson, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of guidelines both for researchers in search of software to be used in linguistic analysis and for programmers designing such software. A description of the intended audience and the types of software under consideration and a review of some relevant literature are followed by a discussion of several important…

  15. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

  16. Linguistics, Logic, and Finite Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackburn, P.; Meyer-Viol, W.

    1993-01-01

    A modal logic is developed to deal with finite ordered binary trees as they are used in (computational) linguistics. A modal language is introduced with operators for the 'mother of', 'first daughter of' and 'second daughter of' relations together with their transitive reflexive closures.

  17. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  18. Quantitative Research in Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingshun

    2018-01-01

    The research of Systemic Functional Linguistics has been quite in-depth in both theory and practice. However, many linguists hold that Systemic Functional Linguistics has no hypothesis testing or experiments and its research is only qualitative. Analyses of the corpus, intelligent computing and language evolution on the ideological background of…

  19. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies publishes articles on a wide range of linguistic topics and acts as a forum for research into ALL the languages of southern Africa, including English and Afrikaans. Original contributions are welcomed on any of the core areas of Linguistics, both theoretical (e.g. ...

  20. Corpus Linguistics: Discovering How We Use language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, John

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the use of corpus linguistics--or the the study of language through the use of a large collection of naturally-occurring written and spoken texts. Discusses corpora with computers, applications of corpus linguistics, and the University of Pennsylvania's Linguistic data Consortium, which is conducting a speech study to support linguistic…

  1. A Brief Reappraisal of Contrastive Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinker, Larry

    1972-01-01

    Two questions, what is a contrastive grammar, and what is comparable across linguistic systems, are touched on. The problem of the exact relationship of contrastive linguistics to linguistic theory is addressed. Two perhaps mutually exclusive views are discussed. See FL 508 197 for availability. (Author/RM)

  2. 1. Introduction Is theoretical linguistics, and specifically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MY discussion of the question of the empirical status of trans- formation8i generative grammar will focus on general-linguistic hypo- theses. That is. the thesis (1) will be argued with reference to linguistic hypotheses which postulate linguistic universals. A conventional sort of approach to the ~eneral question of the empirical.

  3. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  4. Functional Text Semantics, Idioms, and Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Jan-Ola

    A functional theory of semantics that accounts for idioms, rigid expressions, and language variability and indeterminacy is explored. The theory is based on the distinction between language as a natural, social phenomenon and linguistic systems as the constructions of linguists, and avoids the usual tendency of theory to assume that language is a…

  5. LINGUISTIC POETICS AND GENERAL THEORY OF LANGUAGE. (ON CONTEXT-DEPENDENT SEMANTICS AND TEXT-ORIENTED LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suren Zolyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest to reconsider the generally accepted conceptions on the relationship between the general theory of language, on the one hand, and the poetic semantics and linguistic poetics, on the other. Based on the concepts of ekspressema, createma and evristema were introduced by V.P.Grigoryev we try to demonstrate the inadequacy of the traditional dichotomy between the poetic usage of language - as if it were the only creative sphere of linguistic activity - and all another types. The matter is that the text-oriented methods of linguistic poetics have anticipated the lexical-oriented approaches in the general linguistic theory. Thus, linguistic poetics and poetic semantics are grounded on the idea that text is a basic unit of processing and lexical meanings are dependent on contextual and intertextual connections. In accordance of this approach V. Grigoryev had coined the new terminology and elaborated the special principles of compiling the dictionary of the Russian poetry. This was considered as a manifestation of the peculiarity of poetic language. Meanwhile, in the modern corpus linguistics the notion of any lexical unit is treated on similar way. Using the experience of poetic semantics, we put forward some principles of the text-oriented theory of language where word is not seen as a constant semantic entity predetermined through lexicon, but as a context-dependent variable. If meaning is identified as a function dependent on text, intertext and context, so the language proficiency is considered as a creative ability to determine what meaning can express the given word, including neologisms, in a particular context. 

  6. Holding emotional and linguistic rulers up to the poetry of Robert Frost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, C

    1999-12-01

    The words in a large and representative sample of Robert Frost's poetry were compared with information in several data bases which provided estimates of the poetry's pleasantness, arousal, emotionality, imagery, and linguistic complexity. Findings confirmed that Frost's poetry was linguistically simple and emotionally restrained in comparison to that of his cohort. They also highlighted the increasing variability in Frost's poetry across time and its decreasing imagery. Frost's poetry was more restrained than that of his male cohort but similar to the poetry of his female cohort in its linguistic simplicity. Frost's acknowledged death poems were in fact quite pleasant and passive in emotional tone.

  7. Recognizing Temporal Linguistic Expression Pattern of Individual with Suicide Risk on Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Aiqi; Li, Ang; Zhu, Tingshao

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a global public health problem. Early detection of individual suicide risk plays a key role in suicide prevention. In this paper, we propose to look into individual suicide risk through time series analysis of personal linguistic expression on social media (Weibo). We examined temporal patterns of the linguistic expression of individuals on Chinese social media (Weibo). Then, we used such temporal patterns as predictor variables to build classification models for estimating levels ...

  8. A primer in macromolecular linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, David B

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric macromolecules, when viewed abstractly as strings of symbols, can be treated in terms of formal language theory, providing a mathematical foundation for characterizing such strings both as collections and in terms of their individual structures. In addition this approach offers a framework for analysis of macromolecules by tools and conventions widely used in computational linguistics. This article introduces the ways that linguistics can be and has been applied to molecular biology, covering the relevant formal language theory at a relatively nontechnical level. Analogies between macromolecules and human natural language are used to provide intuitive insights into the relevance of grammars, parsing, and analysis of language complexity to biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. LANGUAGE ECOLOGY AS LINGUISTIC THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Garner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available language ecology was proposed by Einar Haugen in 1972 as the study of the interaction of any given language and its environment. Despite some use of the term in the literature, sociolinguistics have failed to develop the potenstial that Haugen saw in an ecological approach. Recent developments in ecological thought, however; when applied to language, raise questions about many basic assumptions of conventional linguistics. For example, from an ecological perspective, language is not a rule-governed system, but a form of patterned behaviour arising from the needs of human socialtity: communication, culture, and community. As Haugen foresaw, language ecology offers an exciting alternative approach to linguistic theory. Key words: language ecology, patterned behaviour, holistic, dynamic, and interactive

  10. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...... with understanding fundamental issues of talk in action and of intersubjectivity in human conduct. The field has expanded its scope from the analysis of talk—often phone calls—towards an integration of language with other semiotic resources for embodied action, including space and objects. Much of this expansion has...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...

  11. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  12. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.

  13. Phonological Variability in Canadian English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, Gaelan Dodds

    A study compared salient variables of Canadian English from two concurrent sociodialectal surveys, one for Ottawa, Ontario and one for Vancouver, British Columbia. Using the Labovian model of phonological variation in association with sociological parameters and other linguistic variables within each specific area, the analysis investigated four…

  14. Linguistic and cognitive skills in readers and nonreaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousinho, Renata; Correa, Jane

    2009-01-01

    investigation of linguistic and cognitive skills in readers and nonreaders. to evaluate the performance of readers and nonreaders in tasks related to several linguistic and cognitive skills and to determine the implication of the results to the clinical practice and to eduaction. participants of the study were 35 children in the process of alphabetization. The children were given tasks designed to assess their cognitive and linguistic abilities. The group of nonreaders was composed by 20 children who did not read any of the words presented on a list of 24 items. The group of readers included 15 children who read nearly every word presented on the same list. the group of readers presented a better performance on the following tasks: language development assessment; alphanumeric rapid automatized naming and working memory. There was a great variability in the performance of readers and nonreaders in the phonological awareness tasks. For the group of readers, syllabic judgment and segmentation tasks were considered easy or very easy; syllabic transposition and phonemic subtraction presented medium difficulty and phoneme identification was considered a difficult task. For the group of nonreaders, syllabic segmentation was considered an easy task; syllabic judgment presented medium difficulty, and syllabic transposition, phonemic subtraction and phoneme identification were considered very difficult. the experience with reading influences the performance of children in linguistic and cognitive tasks. The performance of readers and nonreaders in the phonological awareness assessments indicates the importance of taking into account not only the required level of linguistic segmentation but also the cognitive level required by the nature of the task.

  15. Individual differences in top-down restoration of interrupted speech : Links to linguistic and cognitive abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benard, Michel Ruben; Mensink, Jorien Susanne; Başkent, Deniz

    Top-down restoration mechanisms can enhance perception of degraded speech. Even in normal hearing, however, a large variability has been observed in how effectively individuals can benefit from these mechanisms. To investigate if this variability is partially caused by individuals' linguistic and

  16. English and Arabic Inscriptions in the Linguistic Landscape of Yemen: A Multilingual Writing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar A. H. Al-Athwary

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the multilingual written texts of the signboards in the public space of Yemen. It attempts to apply Reh's (2004 typology of multilingual writing. Reh introduces four strategies of multilingualism: duplicating, fragmentary, overlapping, and complementary. They refer to the arrangement of information in the inscriptions of multilingual signs in a given linguistic landscape (LL. To achieve this purpose, a data corpus of 755 multilingual signs in the LL of Yemen has been used, the majority of which are bilingual in Arabic and English. The analysis showed that all four strategies of duplicating, fragmentary, overlapping, and complementary multilingual writings were generally employed in Sana'a's LL. While overlapping and complementary multilingualism were totally absent in the top-down signs, duplicating and fragmentary multilingualism had much higher frequency over overlapping and complementary ones in bottom-up signs. Keeping in mind that speech community in Yemen is monolingual in Arabic, the absence or low frequency of overlapping, and complementary signs in both top-down and bottom-up levels can be explained by the fact that these two types of texts presuppose multilingual readers since knowledge of all the languages involved is necessary to understand the whole message. The model of writing mimicry system proposed by Sutherland (2015 is also examined. Writing mimicry system was found to be a salient feature of the public space of Yemen performing some specific functions; it is only used for advertising and promotional purposes rather than expressing the identity of ethnolinguistic minorities. The study also revealed that Sana'a multilingual LL is characterized by the use of Arabicised English, glocalisation and multifunctional signs, all of which are employed to serve a general purpose of promoting, and advertising commodities and showing modernity and success. Standard Arabic appears on almost all of both top

  17. Linguistic documents synchronizing sound and text

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Michel; Michailovsky, Boyd; Lowe, John

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the LACITO linguistic archive project is to conserve and to make available for research recorded and transcribed oral traditions and other linguistic materials in (mainly) unwritten languages, giving simultaneous access to sound recordings and text annotation. The project uses simple, TEI-inspired XML markup for the kinds of annotation traditionally used in field linguistics. Transcriptions are segmented at the levels of, roughly, the sentence and the word, and annotation associat...

  18. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Desagulier, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...

  19. Methodological Thoughts from the Linguistic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Davies

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data are the heart and soul of any linguistic research. Regardless of how incisive an analysis might be, or how clever, it can never be any better than the data it is based upon. For the field linguist gathering data, important considerations include the selection of informants, the number of informants selection, and data collection techniques. Different research objectives, be they descriptive, prescriptive or theory-driven, require techniques appropriate to those particular goals and should be evaluated within the context of inquiry. What follows is a consideration of the techniques generally used by field linguists with a general descriptive goal within the framework of generative linguistics.

  20. English linguistic purism: history, development, criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishechko Ovsanna Savvichna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic purism as an area of linguistic analysis describes the practices of identification and acknowledgement of a certain language variety as more structurally advanced as compared to its other varieties. Linguistic protection is associated with preservation of some abstract, classical, conservative linguistic ideal and performs the regulatory function, above all. The puristic approach to the development of the English language has been subjected to heated debate for several centuries and is reflected in both scientific research and literary texts. Supporters of purification of the English language champion the idea of protection of “pure language”. The idea, however, is actively criticized by opponents.

  1. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  2. Measuring Linguistic Empathy: An Experimental Approach to Connecting Linguistic and Social Psychological Notions of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the relationship between Linguistic Empathy and Psychological Empathy by implementing a psycholinguistic experiment that measured a person's acceptability ratings of sentences with violations of Linguistic Empathy and correlating them with a measure of the person's Psychological Empathy. Linguistic Empathy…

  3. Forensic Linguistics: The Linguistic Analyst and Expert Witness of Language Evidence in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever

    Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…

  4. The Concept of Linguistic Difficulty. Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 3, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Theodore

    Experimental work on the concept of linguistic difficulty is summarized. Inherent linguistic difficulty is distinguished from contrastive linguistic difficulty. Studies of phonological acquisition are cited which tend to support the notion of an ordered acquisition of language features, and it is recommended that we look to cross-linguistic…

  5. Transparency and accountability in applied linguistics | Weideman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The designed solutions to language problems that are the stock-in-trade of applied linguistics affect the lives of growing numbers of people. By calling for these designs to be accountable, applied linguistics has, in its most recent, postmodern form, added an ethical dimension that is lacking in earlier work. Postmodern ...

  6. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  7. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  8. Exploring Linguistic Identity in Young Multilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…

  9. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at www.ajol.info. However print-on-demand copies can be made ...

  10. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Publisher contact person: Mrs Christine Smit. Email: linguis@sun.ac.za. Phone: 021 808 2052. Fax: 021 808 2009. Mailing address: Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602. Department of General ...

  11. Plenary Speeches: Applied Linguists without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Until 1989, the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) could have been viewed as an interest group of the Linguistics Society of America (LSA); AAAL met in two designated meeting rooms as a subsection of the LSA conference. In 1991, I was asked to organize the first independent meeting of AAAL in New York City, with the help of…

  12. Applied Linguistics in Its Disciplinary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's current attempt to develop a process to evaluate the quality of research (Excellence in Research for Australia--ERA) places a central emphasis on the disciplinary organisation of academic work. This disciplinary focus poses particular problems for Applied Linguistics in Australia. This paper will examine Applied Linguistics in relation…

  13. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  14. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  15. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  16. The Role of Linguistics in Italian Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, John J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the presence and significance of linguistics in Italian departments at universities in Australia and worldwide against the background of multiculturalism, the politicization of the Italian population in Australia, and the emergence of Italy as a major economic and political power. Argues that the boundary lines between linguistics and…

  17. Developing Linguistic Flexibility across the School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Dafna; Berman, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The study examined linguistic flexibility of Hebrew-speaking students from middle childhood to adolescence compared with adults on tasks requiring them to alternate between different versions of varied linguistic stimuli. Lexical flexibility was tested by constructing different words with a shared root and a shared prosodic template;…

  18. Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for pursuing their work. The theme of this year’s TKE is ‘Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data’. Mono- and multi-lingual term bases, which contain information about concepts (terms, definitions, examples of use, references, comments on equivalence etc.), have always made up valuable linguistic resources...

  19. An Ever Closer Union . . . of Linguistic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomozeiu, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The analysis carried out between October 2014 and February 2015 by a team of researchers from the University of Westminster with support from colleagues from across the EU identified the linguistic communities across the 28 EU member states as recognized (or not) by the country's legislation and the linguistic rights of these communities in…

  20. Research Priority of Clinical Linguistics in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Study in clinical linguistics can reflect and requirements of this area, and can contribute to effective and useful changes in this area. Objectives Since there have been a few studies in the field of clinical linguistics in Iran, this research can pave the way to find research priorities of clinical linguistics in our country. Materials and Methods Studies related to linguistics and speech therapy were collected and studied since their appearance in the literature up to 2012 to determine the number of studies performed on clinical linguistics and its evolutionary trend. Results The most and least numbers of studies conducted by speech therapists on linguistics are related to phonetics/phonology (37% and pragmatics (14%, respectively. In linguistics, there are a few studies on disorders (0.02%, which are mostly in the domain of aphasia (40%; therefore, other disorders should be investigated too. Conclusions The number of linguistic studies on language and speech therapy is more than that of the studies in which clinical data are used to study the theories and hypotheses. Therefore, it is necessary to consider this area seriously and guide the studies toward the theories proposed in the related disorders. Thus, attention must be paid to pragmatic and semantic domains of the disorder which are considered less.

  1. Circumfixes as emergent linguistic structures | Hendrikse | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the manifestations of linguistic complexity is what Dahl (2004:2) describes as 'grammaticalconstructions whose expression is longer than apparently necessary from a cross-linguistic perspective'.In the morphological system of Nguni languages there is a range of co-occurring affixes in both the nominaland the verbal ...

  2. Developing linguistic literacy: a comprehensive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Dorit; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2002-05-01

    This is a position paper modelling the domain of linguistic literacy and its development through the life span. It aims to provide a framework for the analysis of language development in the school years, integrating sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic notions of variation, language awareness, and literacy in a comprehensive model. The paper focuses on those aspects of literacy competence that are expressed in language as well as aspects of linguistic knowledge that are affected by literacy competence, tracing the route that children take in appropriating linguistic literacy as part of their cognitive abilities and examining the effect of literacy on language across development. Our view of linguistic literacy consists of one defining feature: control over linguistic variation from both a user-dependent ('lectal') and a context-dependent (modality, genre, and register) perspective; of one concomitant process: metalanguage and its role in language development; and of one condition: familiarity with writing and written language from two aspects: written language as discourse style--the recognition that the kind of language used for writing is essentially different from the one used for speech; and written language as a notational system--the perception and growing command of the representational system that is used in the written modality. Linguistic literacy is viewed as a constituent of language knowledge characterized by the availability of multiple linguistic resources and by the ability to consciously access one's own linguistic knowledge and to view language from various perspectives.

  3. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SPiL Plus is an annual/biannual open access, peer-reviewed international journal, published by the Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. The papers published in SPiL Plus are primarily intended for scholars with an interest in linguistics and related disciplines in Southern Africa. SPiL Plus provides a ...

  4. Current Approaches to Punctuation in Computational Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Say, Bilge; Akman, Varol

    1997-01-01

    Some recent studies in computational linguistics have aimed to take advantage of various cues presented by punctuation marks. This short survey is intended to summarise these research efforts and additionally, to outline a current perspective for the usage and functions of punctuation marks. We conclude by presenting an information-based framework for punctuation, influenced by treatments of several related phenomena in computational linguistics.

  5. Political Liberalism, Linguistic Diversity and Equal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implications of John Rawls' political liberalism for linguistic diversity and language policy, by focusing on the following question: what kind(s) of equality between speakers of different languages and with different linguistic identities should the state guarantee under political liberalism? The article makes three…

  6. Linguistic Opportunism and English in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciscel, Matthew H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the role of English in Moldova. Building on Phillipson's concept of linguistic imperialism and Kachru's three concentric circles of world Englishes, proposes a weak form of linguistic dominance based on the notion of opportunism. The model is supported by data from a recent study of language attitudes and language use in Moldova. Data…

  7. Popular Derivation and Linguistic Inquiry: Les Javanais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Barbara E.

    1996-01-01

    "Javanais" refers to a French linguistic variation, often viewed as slang, in which a word's original form is masked through affixation or displacement of sounds and syllables. Its history and linguistic theory are reviewed. Three types of javanais (verlan, infixing javanais, largonji des louchebems) are compared, and implications for…

  8. The Linguistic Spaces within the Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    Based on translation theory, this paper shows how the linguistic spaces in an organization are created and which results it can have, when a big part of the organization doesn’t fit into the space that the strategy creates. The notion of linguistic spaces is established when an organization...

  9. Are Prospective English Teachers Linguistically Intelligent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Kadir Vefa

    2017-01-01

    Language is normally associated with linguistic capabilities of individuals. In the theory of multiple intelligences, language is considered to be related primarily to linguistic intelligence. Using the theory of Multiple Intelligences as its starting point, this descriptive survey study investigated to what extent prospective English teachers'…

  10. Clinical linguistics: its past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    Historiography is a growing area of research within the discipline of linguistics, but so far the subfield of clinical linguistics has received virtually no systematic attention. This article attempts to rectify this by tracing the development of the discipline from its pre-scientific days up to the present time. As part of this, I include the results of a survey of articles published in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics between 1987 and 2008 which shows, for example, a consistent primary focus on phonetics and phonology at the expense of grammar, semantics and pragmatics. I also trace the gradual broadening of the discipline from its roots in structural linguistics to its current reciprocal relationship with speech and language pathology and a range of other academic disciplines. Finally, I consider the scope of clinical linguistic research in 2011 and assess how the discipline seems likely develop in the future.

  11. The Appropriateness of Language Found in Research Consent Form Templates: A Computational Linguistic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafranca, Alexander; Kereliuk, Stephanie; Hamlin, Colin; Johnson, Andrea; Jacobsohn, Eric

    2017-01-01

    To facilitate informed consent, consent forms should use language below the grade eight level. Research Ethics Boards (REBs) provide consent form templates to facilitate this goal. Templates with inappropriate language could promote consent forms that participants find difficult to understand. However, a linguistic analysis of templates is lacking. We reviewed the websites of 124 REBs for their templates. These included English language medical school REBs in Australia/New Zealand (n = 23), Canada (n = 14), South Africa (n = 8), the United Kingdom (n = 34), and a geographically-stratified sample from the United States (n = 45). Template language was analyzed using Coh-Metrix linguistic software (v.3.0, Memphis, USA). We evaluated the proportion of REBs with five key linguistic outcomes at or below grade eight. Additionally, we compared quantitative readability to the REBs' own readability standards. To determine if the template's country of origin or the presence of a local REB readability standard influenced the linguistic variables, we used a MANOVA model. Of the REBs who provided templates, 0/94 (0%, 95% CI = 0-3.9%) provided templates with all linguistic variables at or below the grade eight level. Relaxing the standard to a grade 12 level did not increase this proportion. Further, only 2/22 (9.1%, 95% CI = 2.5-27.8) REBs met their own readability standard. The country of origin (DF = 20, 177.5, F = 1.97, p = 0.01), but not the presence of an REB-specific standard (DF = 5, 84, F = 0.73, p = 0.60), influenced the linguistic variables. Inappropriate language in templates is an international problem. Templates use words that are long, abstract, and unfamiliar. This could undermine the validity of participant informed consent. REBs should set a policy of screening templates with linguistic software.

  12. Swearing, euphemisms, and linguistic relativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Bowers

    Full Text Available Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context.

  13. Swearing, euphemisms, and linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context.

  14. Swearing, Euphemisms, and Linguistic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context. PMID:21799832

  15. Titles of Scientific Letters and Research Papers in Astrophysics: A Comparative Study of Some Linguistic Aspects and Their Relationship with Collaboration Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, David I.; Alcaraz, M. Ángeles

    2017-01-01

    In this study we compare the titles of scientific letters and those of research papers published in the field of astrophysics in order to identify the possible differences and/or similarities between both genres in terms of several linguistic and extra-linguistic variables (length, lexical density, number of prepositions, number of compound…

  16. Improving Climate Communication through Comprehensive Linguistic Analyses Using Computational Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, T. M.; Matlock, T.

    2014-12-01

    An important lesson on climate communication research is that there is no single way to reach out and inform the public. Different groups conceptualize climate issues in different ways and different groups have different values and assumptions. This variability makes it extremely difficult to effectively and objectively communicate climate information. One of the main challenges is the following: How do we acquire a better understanding of how values and assumptions vary across groups, including political groups? A necessary starting point is to pay close attention to the linguistic content of messages used across current popular media sources. Careful analyses of that information—including how it is realized in language for conservative and progressive media—may ultimately help climate scientists, government agency officials, journalists and others develop more effective messages. Past research has looked at partisan media coverage of climate change, but little attention has been given to the fine-grained linguistic content of such media. And when researchers have done detailed linguistic analyses, they have relied primarily on hand-coding, an approach that is costly, labor intensive, and time-consuming. Our project, building on recent work on partisan news media (Gann & Matlock, 2014; under review) uses high dimensional semantic analyses and other methods of automated classification techniques from the field of natural language processing to quantify how climate issues are characterized in media sources that differ according to political orientation. In addition to discussing varied linguistic patterns, we share new methods for improving climate communication for varied stakeholders, and for developing better assessments of their effectiveness.

  17. Linguistic Stereotyping in Older Adults' Perceptions of Health Care Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Donald; Coles, Valerie Berenice; Barnett, Joshua Trey

    2016-07-01

    The cultural and linguistic diversity of the U.S. health care provider workforce is expanding. Diversity among health care personnel such as paraprofessional health care assistants (HCAs)-many of whom are immigrants-means that intimate, high-stakes cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contact characterizes many health interactions. In particular, nonmainstream HCAs may face negative patient expectations because of patients' language stereotypes. In other contexts, reverse linguistic stereotyping has been shown to result in negative speaker evaluations and even reduced listening comprehension quite independently of the actual language performance of the speaker. The present study extends the language and attitude paradigm to older adults' perceptions of HCAs. Listeners heard the identical speaker of Standard American English as they watched interactions between an HCA and an older patient. Ethnolinguistic identities-either an Anglo native speaker of English or a Mexican nonnative speaker-were ascribed to HCAs by means of fabricated personnel files. Dependent variables included measures of perceived HCA language proficiency, personal characteristics, and professional competence, as well as listeners' comprehension of a health message delivered by the putative HCA. For most of these outcomes, moderate effect sizes were found such that the HCA with an ascribed Anglo identity-relative to the Mexican guise-was judged more proficient in English, socially superior, interpersonally more attractive, more dynamic, and a more satisfactory home health aide. No difference in listening comprehension emerged, but the Anglo guise tended to engender a more compliant listening mind set. Results of this study can inform both provider-directed and patient-directed efforts to improve health care services for members of all linguistic and cultural groups.

  18. Applied linguistics - a science of culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benke, Gertraud

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the status of applied linguistics as discipline is questioned and problems of establishing it - and other newly formed scientific enterprises like cultural science - as disciplines are discussed. This discussion is contextualized using the author's own experience as applied linguist working in (the institutional structure of Austria. Secondly, applied linguistics is presented as complementing cultural science, with both exploring at times the same phenomena albeit under different perspectives and focussing on different levels of experience. Two examples of research involving such a joint interest with different foci are discussed.

  19. LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE NUCLEOPROTEIN GENE OF INFLUENZA A VIRUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. SKOURIKHINE; T. BURR

    2000-05-01

    We applied linguistic analysis approach, specifically N-grams, to classify nucleotide and amino acids sequences of nucleoprotein (NP) gene of the Influenza A virus isolated from a range of hosts and geographic regions. We considered letter frequency (1-grams), letter pairs frequency (2-grams) and triplets' frequency (3-grams). Classification trees based on 1,2,3-grams variables were constructed for the same NP nucleotide and amino acids strains and their classification efficiency were compared with the clustering obtained using phylogenetic analysis. The results have shown that disregarding positional information for a NP gene can provide the same level of recognition accuracy like alternative more complex classification techniques.

  20. The Problem of Translating English Linguistic Terminology into Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Antar Solhy

    2003-01-01

    Arabic Linguistics has been a full-fledged descriptive science for a long time. However modern Linguistics, as a distinct empirical science, entailed that Arab linguists review their methods of dealing with the linguistic phenomenon. One of the major challenges for this new approach was to create equivalent genuine Arabic terms in modern…

  1. Farabi's Logico-Linguistic Ideas in Comparison with Theories and Principles in Contemporary Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    MORADIAN, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This research is an attempt to make a comparison and contrast between Farabi's logico-linguistic ideas, as an Iranian scientist, philosopher, and logician, with the contemporary linguistic theories and principles. To make this comparison and contrast possible, we would review the most relevant and outstanding contemporary linguistic theories and then compare them with those of Farabi. To our astonishment, we made it clear that Farabi introduced the science of language to the learned...

  2. Knowledge Cycle among Theoretical Linguistics, Psycho-linguistics, and Foreign-language Learning: Its Theoretical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; ヤマダ, トシユキ

    2017-01-01

    In linguistic research, theoretical linguistics, psycho-linguistics, and foreign-language learning have beenstudied in their own ways. To establish their organic relationship, I will propose a model of knowledgecycle. A driving force for the cycle is sentences containing grammatical errors made by foreign-languagelearners (e.g., *John like apples). The ungrammaticalness of each sentence can be tested by psycho-linguisticexperiments such as acceptability judgments, reaction-time tasks. Atteste...

  3. Igor Burkhanov. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    development of semantics is unravelled from the field theory of the early 20th ... Generally speaking, applied disciplines (for example in mathematics, the- .... small scale. .... guistic systematization but to improve their linguistic competence.

  4. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic Analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Igor Burkhanov. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic Analysis and Ideographic Dictionaries. 1999, 388pp. ISBN 83 87288 98 5. Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Pedagogicznej. Price: 16 PLN ...

  5. Secure information management using linguistic threshold approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R

    2013-01-01

    This book details linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. It examines the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution.

  6. Disentangling Linguistic Modality Effects in Semantic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Mara; Nunes, Maria Vânia

    2017-04-01

    Sensory systems are essential for perceiving and conceptualizing our semantic knowledge about the world and the way we interact with it. Despite studies reporting neural changes to compensate for the absence of a given sensory modality, studies focusing on the assessment of semantic processing reveal poor performances by deaf individuals when compared with hearing individuals. However, the majority of those studies were not performed in the linguistic modality considered the most adequate to their sensory capabilities (i.e., sign language). Therefore, this exploratory study was developed focusing on linguistic modality effects during semantic retrieval in deaf individuals in comparison with their hearing peers through a category fluency task. Results show a difference in performance between the two linguistic modalities by deaf individuals as well as in the type of linguistic clusters most chosen by participants, suggesting a complex clustering tendency by deaf individuals.

  7. Linguistic characteristics of SLI in Afrikaans | Southwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 37 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Linguistic Diversity in Blue‐Collar Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte; Kraft, Kamilla

    In this paper we examine the management of linguistic diversity in blue‐collar workplaces and its implications. The blue‐collar context is somewhat neglected in studies of globalisation and its consequences for the workplace. Hence, our focus here is on blue‐collar workplaces in the context...... for establishing stable linguistic practices.This study is based on data from two ethnographic studies of blue‐collar workplaces in Denmark and Norway, and it includes observational data, ethnographic interviews as well as interactional data. The latter has been analysed using conversation analysis.Our data...... these situations include drawing pictures, gesturing, referring to signs, and even speaking Danish/Norwegian regardless of the fact that interlocutors do not understand the language. Through the use of these linguistic and other semiotic resources, the barriers posed by linguistic diversity are usually overcome...

  9. Ling An: Linguistic analysis of NPP instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L. (Helsingfors Univ., Institutionen foer allmaen spraakvetenskap (Finland)); Wahlstroem, B. (VTT (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  10. Automated Linguistic Personality Description and Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylyuk Illya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of our research, above all, is theoretically motivated by the development of extraordinary scientific and practical interest in the possibilities of language processing of huge amount of data generated by people in everyday professional and personal life in the electronic forms of communication (e-mail, sms, voice, audio and video blogs, social networks, etc.. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to describe the theoretical and practical framework of the project "Communicative-pragmatic and discourse-grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling". The description of key techniques is given, such as machine learning for language modeling, speech synthesis, handwriting simulation. Results: Lingvopersonology developed some great theoretical foundations, its methods, tools, and significant achievements let us predict that the newest promising trend is a linguistic identity modeling by means of information technology, including language. We see three aspects of the modeling: 1 modeling the semantic level of linguistic identity – by means of the use of corpus linguistics; 2 sound level formal modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of speech synthesis; 3 formal graphic level modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of image synthesis (handwriting. For the first case, we suppose to use machine learning technics and vector-space (word2vec algorithm for textual speech modeling. Hybrid CUTE method for personality speech modeling will be applied to the second case. Finally, trained with the person handwriting images neural network can be an instrument for the last case. Discussion: The project "Communicative-pragmatic, discourse, and grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling", which is implementing by the Department of General and Applied Linguistics and Slavonic philology, selected a task to model Yuriy Shevelyov (Sherekh

  11. Scientific literacy: A systemic functional linguistics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihui

    2005-03-01

    Scientific writing contains unique linguistic features that construe special realms of scientific knowledge, values, and beliefs. An understanding of the functionality of these features is critical to the development of literacy in science. This article describes some of the key linguistic features of scientific writing, discusses the challenges these features present to comprehension and composition of science texts in school, and argues for greater attention to the specialized language of science in teaching and learning.

  12. Linguistic geometry for technologies procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Umanskiy, Oleg; Boyd, Ron

    2005-05-01

    In the modern world of rapidly rising prices of new military hardware, the importance of Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) is hard to overestimate. With SAB, DOD would be able to test, develop CONOPS for, debug, and evaluate new conceptual military equipment before actually building the expensive hardware. However, only recently powerful tools for real SBA have been developed. Linguistic Geometry (LG) permits full-scale modeling and evaluation of new military technologies, combinations of hardware systems and concepts of their application. Using LG tools, the analysts can create a gaming environment populated with the Blue forces armed with the new conceptual hardware as well as with appropriate existing weapons and equipment. This environment will also contain the intelligent enemy with appropriate weaponry and, if desired, with a conceptual counters to the new Blue weapons. Within such LG gaming environment, the analyst can run various what-ifs with the LG tools providing the simulated combatants with strategies and tactics solving their goals with minimal resources spent.

  13. 41 Pragmatics: The Cornerstone of Linguistic Exploration in the 21st ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... variables in a bit to arrive at a comprehensive and communicative meaning of linguistic units. Key Words: ... if we abstract from the user of the language and analyze only the expressions and their designata, .... In subscribing to complementarism, Leech argues that “grammar (the abstract formal system of ...

  14. The Relationship between Language Skills and Writing Outcomes for Linguistically Diverse Students in Upper Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Rebecca D.; Coker, David; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey; Piantedosi, Kelly W.; Hartranft, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between language variables and writing outcomes with linguistically diverse students in grades 3-5. The participants were 197 children from three schools in one district in the mid-Atlantic United States. We assessed students' vocabulary knowledge and morphological and syntactical skill as…

  15. Understanding School Choice: Location as a Determinant of Charter School Racial, Economic, and Linguistic Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The author analyzes the revealed school preferences of parents in the Washington, D.C., and asks, "What is the main determinant of charter school choice and how does it create racial, economic, and linguistic segregation?" The author first establishes a theory of choice, which incorporates past research and adds an additional variable to…

  16. Legal Linguistics as a Mutual Arena for Cooperation: Recent Developments in the Field of Applied Linguistics and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on some of the recent projects and individual works in the field of Legal Linguistics as examples of cooperation between Applied Linguistics and law. The article starts by discussing relevant prototypical concepts of Legal Linguistics. Legal Linguistics scrutinizes interactions between human beings in the framework of legal…

  17. Papers in African Linguistics. Current Inquiry into Language and Linguistics I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chin-Wu, Ed.; Stahlke, Herbert, Ed.

    This volume, a collection of selected papers from the Conference on African Languages and Linguistics organized by the Department of Linguistics of the University of Illinois and held at Urbana-Champaign on April 24-25, 1970, contains: W. E. Welmers, "The Typology of the Proto-Niger-Kordofanian Noun Class System"; D. Dalby, "A…

  18. A Survey on the Exchange of Linguistic Resources: Publishing Linguistic Linked Open Data on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Roa-Valverde, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the principal formats and frameworks that have been used in the last 20 years to exchange linguistic resources. It aims to give special attention to the most recent approaches to publishing linguistic linked open data on the Web. Design/methodology/approach: Research papers…

  19. The Problem of Data in the Cognitive Linguistic Research on Metonymy: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar-Szabo, Rita; Brdar, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The general goal of the present paper is to demonstrate how cross-linguistic (contrastive) data can broaden the perspective in cognitive linguistic research on metonymy, which may raise a host of questions calling for a revision of some widely accepted views. A more specific, methodological goal is to show how the introspection-driven research and…

  20. The Judge as Linguist: Linguistic Principles as a Rule of Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solan, Lawrence

    The role of court judges as linguists is discussed. Linguistic issues arise in courts when lawyers attempt to convince a court that a statute, insurance policy, or contract should be interpreted as favoring their own client's interests, with respect to resolving a dispute that depends on the proper construal of a particular document. An…

  1. Dissociating Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Gesture Processing: Electrophysiological Evidence from American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvald, Michael; Gutierrez, Eva; Hafer, Sarah; Corina, David

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental advance in our understanding of human language would come from a detailed account of how non-linguistic and linguistic manual actions are differentiated in real time by language users. To explore this issue, we targeted the N400, an ERP component known to be sensitive to semantic context. Deaf signers saw 120 American Sign Language…

  2. The Linguistic and Social Aspects of the Bedouin Dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud El Salman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a sociolinguistic study that tries to investigate the peculiarity of the Bedouin dialect regardless of the place where it is used. Some variants that are used in their dialect are used wherever they are from. Two sounds in particular were chosen to carry out this study. These are the /ʤ/ variant of the (Q variable, and the /ts/ variant of the (K variable. The study shows that some sounds that are known to be exclusively used by Bedouins, are still used by the old Bedouins wherever they live. For example, Old informants from Jordan used the /ts/ variant within the tribe domains, and the old informants from other tribes living in Saudi Arabia used it as well. This is also seen with regard to the /ʤ/ sound.  The /ʤ/ is used also in relatively high percentage in the speech of the old in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. This shows that belonging to the Bedouin group per se, is what matters in determining the sound used regardless of the region to which one belongs. Unlike the rural people who might use the different alternates of the (Q variable depending on the region to which they belong, for example, [k] is used in some parts of Palestine while [q] is used in other parts like Tirat Haifa village in the northern part of Palestine. Bedouins are consistent in using the [g] variant or the /ʤ/ of the (Q variable regardless of the area where they live. In other words, the two sounds appear in the dialects of the Bedouins whether they live in Jordan or Saudi Arabia.  This raises the possibility that their sharing the same culture (being Bedouins leads to their sharing these linguistic features. Part of their culture is belonging to their tribes as they are traditionally divided into tribes. The dialect of the tribe remains important where ever they are. Keywords. Linguistic variation, variant

  3. Pre-linguistic children with cleft palate: growth of gesture, vocalization, and word use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Nancy J; Boyce, Sarah; Martin, Gerri

    2013-12-01

    Children with cleft lip and/or palate show early delays in speech and vocabulary development that may have an impact on later communication and social development. While delays in the complexity of babbling may put children at risk for later delays in speech and language development, there is considerable variability in development. This study focused on the rate of children's communication acts, canonical vocalizations, and word use as they made the transition from the pre-linguistic to linguistic development. The study included 15 children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate who were seen at three time points between 17-34 months age. Communication rates were calculated from parent-child language samples collected during play activities. Assignment to linguistic stages was based on the children's expressive vocabulary, as reported on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences. From the pre-linguistic to linguistic level, the children's average rate per minute of: communicative acts overall increased significantly from 1.49 to 3.07 per minute; canonical vocalizations from 0.21 to 0.90 per minute; and word use from 0.16 to 3.61 per minute. Rates of communicative acts were associated with later word use. It appears that children with clefts rely on non-verbal communicative acts when verbal development is delayed.

  4. LINGUISTIC AND POLITICAL ANALYSIS: COMPARATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Alpatov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article analyses the book on political systems and processes in the East prepared by MGIMO-University authors and edited by Alexei D. Voskressenski in order to show the differences in approach and methods used in linguistics and political science. The author shows two significant differences in present-day stressing that linguistics of the XIX century was closer to the present-day political science? As he believes. The first difference includes monism of political science approach, since the book reveals monistic scale from totalitarianism to democracy, while linguistic has abandoned the monistic view on typology. The second difference is the value-addedness of the political science approach. The value-free norm in linguistics presupposes setting up of a single standard for all speakers in order to reach full mutual understanding. In political science subjective criteria are decisive for evaluation. The article gives examples from the book to prove that political science, compared to linguistics, is not aimed at overcoming contradictions, distinguishing between the terms, avoiding unproved statements and subjective evaluations.

  5. On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borissov Pericliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.

  6. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2000-05-01

    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the

  7. [An essay about science and linguistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugini, P

    2011-01-01

    Both the methodology and epistemology of science provided the criteria by which the scientific research can describe and interpret data and results of its observational or experimental studies. When the scientist approaches the conclusive inference, it is mandatory to think that both the knowledge and truth imply the use of words semantically and etymologically (semiologically) appropriate, especially if neologisms are required. Lacking a vocabulary, there will be the need of popularizing the inference to the linguistics of the context to which the message is addressed. This could imply a discrepancy among science, knowledge, truth and linguistics, that can be defined "semiologic bias". To avoid this linguistic error, the scientist must feel the responsibility to provide the scientific community with the new words that are semantically and etymologically coherent with what it has been scientifically discovered.

  8. Sentence processing and grammaticality in functional linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    The dissertation presents a functional linguistic model of grammaticality and investigates methods for applying this notion in empirical work. The use of the notion of grammaticality in generative grammar has been criticized by functionalists (Harder, 1996; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999), but attempts...... to constructively define what it then means that a sentence is grammatical from a functional linguistics perspective have been limited. The notion of grammaticality that will be put forward here is based on Langacker’s (2000) dynamical usage-based model. Langacker’s model is extended to accommodate the general...... grammaticality. It is concluded that the intuitions of linguists should in principle be considered hypotheses of grammaticality, and that such hypotheses need to be tested with independent data. Such data can for example take the form of corpus data or acceptability judgment experiments. It is furthermore argued...

  9. Linguistically debatable or just plain wrong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plank, Barbara; Hovy, Dirk; Søgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In linguistic annotation projects, we typically develop annotation guidelines to maximize inter-annotator agreement and learnability. However, in this position paper we question whether we should actually limit the disagreements between annotators, rather than embrace them. We present an empirica...... to linguistically debatable cases, rather than to actual annotation errors. Specifically, we show that even in the absence of annotation guidelines, only 2% of annotator choices are linguistically unmotivated....... analysis of part-of-speech annotated data sets that suggests that certain disagreements are systematic across domains and languages. This points to an underlying ambiguity rather than random errors. Moreover, a quantitative analysis of disagreements reveals that the majority of them are due...

  10. Linguistic variation and change: Middle English infinitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In Middle English the old inflected infinitive lost its supine function and gradually replaced the uninflected infinitive in all positions, except in the complementation of moal and a limited number of other verbs. According to most linguists, the choice between the to infinitive and the bare infinitive was either lexically or structurally conditioned. The theory of linguistic change as the assertion of weaker or stronger linguistic variants postulates the affinity of stronger variants for more complex, i. e. functionally marked grammaticall environment. The author tests the validity of the theory against the assertion of the English to infinitive at the expanse of the bare infinitive after the Norman Conquest. The results confirm the initial hypothesist that the degree of formal marked­ ness of the infinitive concurred with the degree of the functional markedness of grammatical pa­ rameters.

  11. Linguistic fire and human cognitive powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To view language as a cultural tool challenges much of what claims to be linguistic science while opening up a new people-centred linguistics. On this view, how we speak, think and act depends on, not just brains (or minds), but also cultural traditions. Yet, Everett is conservative: like others...... trained in distributional analysis, he reifies ‘words’. Though rejecting inner languages and grammatical universals, he ascribes mental reality to a lexicon. Reliant as he is on transcriptions, he takes the cognitivist view that brains represent word-forms. By contrast, in radical embodied cognitive...... theory, bodily dynamics themselves act as cues to meaning. Linguistic exostructures resemble tools that constrain how people concert acting-perceiving bodies. The result is unending renewal of verbal structures: like artefacts and institutions, they function to sustain a species-specific cultural ecology...

  12. The Relationship between Toponymy and Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana- Maria Poenaru (Girigan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through this article I tried to point out that the toponymy of a region can be differently studied, given the concerns of the one conducting the research, thus the concern for toponymy must preocupy the geographer and historian but olso the linguist which aims to discover the origin of some names on purely linguistic criteria (of phonetic, semantic, onomasiologic nature and so on. The linguistic material (exemplified toponyms obtained from field surveys (Upper Bistriţa basin and the study of specialised historical and geographical documents aims to capture relatively new concepts such as polarization and differentiation, presenting the meaning, etymology and changes occurring over time in the process of denomination of a reality. I also tried to capture the fact that common names and place names do not exclude each other, but are in a reciprocity relationship, despite some semantic, derivational and grammatical particularities.

  13. ENCYCLOPEDIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY TYPE "THE BRITISH QUEEN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article clarifies the concept of the encyclopedic zone as a semantic component of a linguistic and cultural concept and methodology of its study. The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized in everyday, mass-media, encyclopedic types of discourse. The relevance of the problem is evidenced by the need to study the most important concepts in the British culture, including both their universal characteristics and cultural peculiarities, which will undoubtedly contribute to a better understanding of the concepts that are most important for external cultures and optimize cross-cultural communication in general. The study is based on the theory of linguistic personality types, which is being developed at present at the junction of linguistics, linguistic conceptology, linguistic personology, semiotics and axiological linguistics. We used methods of linguistic research (conceptual, definitional, contextual, interpretive types of analysis, the method of quantitative analysis, the method of questionnaire, and the scientific methods (hypothetical-deductive analysis, data integration and classification, introspection. The most general paradigmatic components of “the British Queen” concept have been revealed, demarcating the semantic component of the linguistic personality type “the British Queen” from other concepts. The results can be used for scientific research in the field of linguistics and related sciences, in particular, for the further development of the theory of linguistic personality types as one of the areas of linguistics, as well as in teaching (in university courses of linguistics, intercultural communication, country specific studies (focusing on Britain, the theory of linguistic personality types, linguistic personality and studies,  linguistic conceptology, semiotics, axiological

  14. A modest proposal: Linguistics and literary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Furlong

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linguistics should make significant contributions to literary and critical theory, but has failed to do so. This paper investigates the reasons for the failure and suggests an approach based in Relevance Theory for a working relationship between literary studies and pragmatics. Literary critics have misappropriated linguistic terminology and theories, because their model of language is outdated, and because they blur the distinction between scientific theories and interpretive frameworks—contexts in which assumptions are highly salient. Following an outline of Relevance Theory, an application of relevance stylistics demonstrates the distinctions between theories and interpretive frameworks, and how they can reinforce one another.

  15. Children's Language and Experiences: Some Considerations for Linguists. Linguistic Communications: Working Papers of the Linguistic Society of Australia, No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Julia

    This paper examines a didactic model of teaching-learning which underlies the approach of many teachers and linguists, and proposes an organic interaction model, which recognizes children's individual needs and characteristics, instead. Problems in interpreting test results in areas of primary or oral language and in the secondary language skills…

  16. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus - Vol 29 (1996)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Putting some Linguistics into Applied Linguistics: a sociolinguistic study of left dislocation in South African Black EngUsh · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Mesthrie, 260-283 ...

  17. The picture of the linguistic brain: how sharp can it be? Reply to Fedorenko & Kanwisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzinsky, Yosef

    2010-08-01

    What is the best way to learn how the brain analyzes linguistic input? Two popular methods have attempted to segregate and localize linguistic processes: analyses of language deficits subsequent to (mostly focal) brain disease, and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in health. A recent Compass article by Fedorenko and Kanwisher (FK, 2009) observes that these methods group together data from many individuals through methods that rely on variable anatomical landmarks, and that results in a murky picture of how language is represented in the brain. To get around the variability problem, FK propose to import into neurolinguistics a method that has been successfully used in vision research - one that locates functional Regions Of Interest (fROIs) in each individual brain.In this note, I propose an alternative perspective. I first take issue with FK's reading of the literature. I point out that, when the neurolinguistic landscape is examined with the right linguistic spectacles, the emerging picture - while intriguingly complex - is not murky, but rather, stable and clear, parsing the linguistic brain into functionally and anatomically coherent pieces. I then examine the potential value of the method that FK propose, in light of important micro-anatomical differences between language and high-level vision areas, and conclude that as things stand the method they propose is not very likely to bear much fruit in neurolinguistic research.

  18. The picture of the linguistic brain: how sharp can it be? Reply to Fedorenko & Kanwisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzinsky, Yosef

    2010-01-01

    What is the best way to learn how the brain analyzes linguistic input? Two popular methods have attempted to segregate and localize linguistic processes: analyses of language deficits subsequent to (mostly focal) brain disease, and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in health. A recent Compass article by Fedorenko and Kanwisher (FK, 2009) observes that these methods group together data from many individuals through methods that rely on variable anatomical landmarks, and that results in a murky picture of how language is represented in the brain. To get around the variability problem, FK propose to import into neurolinguistics a method that has been successfully used in vision research – one that locates functional Regions Of Interest (fROIs) in each individual brain. In this note, I propose an alternative perspective. I first take issue with FK’s reading of the literature. I point out that, when the neurolinguistic landscape is examined with the right linguistic spectacles, the emerging picture – while intriguingly complex – is not murky, but rather, stable and clear, parsing the linguistic brain into functionally and anatomically coherent pieces. I then examine the potential value of the method that FK propose, in light of important micro-anatomical differences between language and high-level vision areas, and conclude that as things stand the method they propose is not very likely to bear much fruit in neurolinguistic research. PMID:20976129

  19. Disadvantages of Linguistic Origin – Evidence from Immigrant Literacy Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Isphording, Ingo Eduard

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies the disadvantage in the formation of literacy skills of immigrants that arises from the linguistic distance between mother tongue and host country language. Combining unique cross-country data on literacy scores with information on the linguistic distance between languages, gaps in literacy test scores are estimated. Linguistically distant immigrants face significant initial disadvantages of linguistic origin that exceed existing differentials across wage distributions a...

  20. A Glossary of Grammar and Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeish, Andrew

    A guide to linguistic analysis and to the three co-existing grammars--conventional, structural, and transformational--this glossary, which is directed to the beginning student, provides descriptions of terms and topics as they are used in their most frequent and familiar senses. Encyclopedic descriptions and information about the referent are…

  1. Some thoughts on economy within linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URIAGEREKA Juan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the cornerstones of Chomsky's Minimalist Program is the role played by economy. This paper discusses different ways in which Chomsky's notion of economy in linguistics can be understood, given current views on dynamic systems and, in particular, on evolution in biological systems.

  2. Preface | Bekker | Southern African Linguistics and Applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  3. Editorial | Bekker | Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 52 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial. Ian Bekker. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  4. Editorial | Bekker | Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 48 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial. Ian Bekker. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  5. Cognitive Linguistics and the Second Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Randal

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive Linguistics (CL) makes the functional assumption that form is motivated by meaning. CL also analyses form-meaning pairings as products of how cognition structures perception. CL thus helps teachers to fit language to the nature of the cognition that learns whilst devising modes of instruction that are better attuned to the nature of the…

  6. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity | Moon | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Conventionally, dictionaries present information about institutionalized words, phrases, and senses of words; more creative formations and usages are generally ignored. Yet text and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordinary linguistic behaviour and indeed ...

  7. Educational language planning and linguistic identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Peter

    1991-03-01

    There are cases in which a "high" form of a language is taught and used in formal situations, but linguistic variation is also caused by geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic class. Certain variants are regarded as inferior and restricted in expressive capacity, and are disadvantageous. The paper suggests that it is possible to map each person's linguistic identity in two dimensions: the number of languages spoken, and the situation-specific variants of each language. Further, it is argued that the distance between a "low" variant and a "high" standard form of a language may present to the "low" learner of a standardized mother tongue a barrier just as great as that posed by the learning of a related foreign language to a speaker of the high variant. It is proposed that greater tolerance be exercised in acceptance of variation and in recognition of linguistic identity, so that this can be built on in the necessary and desirable expansion of linguistic competence, rather than being devalued. The relevance of the communicative approach to language teaching is touched on.

  8. Breaking Into and Out of Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuy, Roger W.

    As a result of its isolative pattern of development, linguistics is now beginning to suffer from not having a natural apprenticeship domain, making it difficult for new graduates to find work. The field has been lacking in entrepreneurial tendencies and unimaginative in developing either a potential clientele or a repertoire of uses. Linguistics…

  9. Ideology in Applied Linguistics for Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alan

    2009-01-01

    It is contended that much of present-day applied linguistics for language teaching (ALLT) fails to mediate effectively, primarily because an ideological construction, emanating from a critical theory perspective, is too often imposed on everyday pedagogical practices. This has resulted in an exaggerated level of concern about the power imbalances…

  10. Political Economy in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2017-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review is based on the fundamental idea that political economy should be adopted as a frame for research and discussion in applied linguistics as part of a general social turn which has taken hold in the field over the past three decades. It starts with Susan Gal's (1989) early call for such a move in sociolinguistics and…

  11. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  12. Applied Linguistics and Primary School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sue, Ed.; McCartney, Elspeth, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Modern primary teachers must adapt literacy programmes and ensure efficient learning for all. They must also support children with language and literacy difficulties, children learning English as an additional language and possibly teach a modern foreign language. To do this effectively, they need to understand the applied linguistics research…

  13. Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington DC, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Julie; Fee, Molly; Donovan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a private, nonprofit organization with over 50 years' experience in the application of research on language and culture to educational and societal concerns. CAL carries out its mission to improve communication through better understanding of language and culture by engaging in a variety of projects in…

  14. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  15. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality. Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  16. Bridges Over Troubled Waters: Theoretical Linguistics And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical linguistics and those of multilingualism and code-switching (CS) research. It argues that the primary special point of interaction between these fields lies in the question of potential equivalence between elements or categories, bridging across ...

  17. Igor Burkhanov. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    In his book, Igor Burkhanov assumes that cognitive semantics, as developed mainly in the United States of America from about 1980, is a linguistic innova- tion which lends itself to a thorough renovation of pedagogical dictionaries. In order to show this convincingly, he discusses lexicography as an applied disci- pline of ...

  18. The Language Organ: Linguistics as Cognitive Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen R.; Lightfoot, David W.

    This book treats human language as the manifestation of a faculty of the mind, a mental organ whose nature is determined by human biology, suggesting that its functional properties should be explored just as physiology explores the functional properties of physical organs. The book asserts that linguistics investigates cognition, taking as its…

  19. LINGUISTIC REALITIES IN KENYA: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amitabh@1234

    language policies, and linguistic attitudes of the people from the elite backgrounds. The earliest missionaries-cum-educationalists, e.g. Rev. Krapf, Bishop Steere, and. Father Sacleux in United Missionary Conference in 1909 recommended biased bilingual education policies in the nation where English was adopted from.

  20. Multiple Uses of Applied Linguistics Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanave, Christine Pearson

    2003-01-01

    Discusses ways that applied linguistics literature can be used in a multidisciplinary graduate-level English for academic purposes class. Focuses on three main uses: (1) providing students with information about issues in academic and professional writing; (2) helping them make comparisons of form and style with academic articles in their own…

  1. Linguistic and Cultural Strategies in ELT Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrius, Montse; Pujol, Didac

    2010-01-01

    There are three main types of ELT dictionaries: monolingual, bilingual, and bilingualized. Each type of dictionary, while having its own advantages, also hinders the learning of English as a foreign language and culture in so far as it is written from a homogenizing (linguistic- and culture-centric) perspective. This paper presents a new type of…

  2. Linguistic Competence in English and Exposure Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Marisol

    2008-01-01

    This study examines Linguistic Competence in English Language (LCE) as a general indicator of Communicative Competence. A test and a questionnaire were administered to 1838 undergraduate freshmen from five major institutes of higher education in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The results of the test are analysed in their association with main features of…

  3. SOCIO CUM LINGUISTIC INTERPLAY IN LANGUAGE CHOICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sir George

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... and of course his linguistic ability. Therefore, Winkler (2007:211) asserts: “Most of the world‟s people live in bi- and multilin- gual communities, a result of which is that many peo- ple have communicative competence in at least two languages. Sometimes in these communities, the two languages co-exist.

  4. Linguistic Resources and Strategies Used In Multilingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper gives a description of multilingual practices in two HIV-care centres in Lesotho on the basis of interviews with both health care providers and some patients who make use of the services of these centres. It considers the importance of effective linguistic communication in HIV-care and the hazards posed to such ...

  5. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    1988-01-01

    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  6. Linguistic Justice, van Parijs, and Esperanto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbo, F.

    2016-01-01

    In the European and world-wide scenario of linguistic justice offered by van Parijs (2011), it is argued that we need one lingua franca only and that the only suitable candidate is English. In order to sustain his argument, the author has to reject three known alternatives against the English-only

  7. The text as a linguistic object lesson

    OpenAIRE

    Zhazheva Saida; Zhazheva Dariet

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the question of the text as a linguistic object lesson. Given the ways of the organization of thetext, the main purpose of the text is reduced to the solution of the most various tasks, and to create a variety of meanings setup by the author of the text.

  8. Applied Linguists and Institutions of Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Public opinion research is not an area that has received much attention from applied linguists. But language lies at the heart of the procedures used to define, elicit, and report opinions, whether through such methods as polling, interviews, and focus groups, or through the less obvious channels of vox pop interviews, letters to the editor, radio…

  9. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ASSESSMENT ... 32. The best example of a direct relationship is the application of Structuralism to language teaching. The Structuralist approach to language was coupled with ... should precede the provision of opportunities for practice in language teaching.

  10. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics - Vol 47 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cognitive linguistic exploration of metaphors within the WATER frame in Swami Vivekananda's Complete Works: A corpus-driven study in light of conceptual metaphor theory · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Suren Naicker, 115-132 ...

  11. Conference Reports | Authors | Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Conference Reports. Conference Authors. Abstract.

  12. Linguistic Policy in Post-revolutionary Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, James

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the influence of language on economic, social, and political change in postrevolutionary Cuba. One of Cuba's primary postrevolutionary objectives was the eradication of illiteracy. Linguistic policies with respect to both Spanish and foreign languages were seen as a means to build human value and to establish a strong base for future…

  13. A linguistic or a pedagogic intervention?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although it was difficult to establish the real motivation prior to the language policy, this study indicates that both English mother-tongue and English additional language students use the dictionary in examinations for assistance that may be considered to be broadly pedagogic rather than purely linguistic. This then invites ...

  14. Teaching Linguistics and Lexicography with Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battenburg, John D.; Lant, Kathleen Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Describes the use of the California Central Coast Online Dictionary, a database-supported Web site, in teaching an introductory class on linguistics and lexicography. The project allowed consideration of several models for teaching in the information age: teaching as modeling, teaching as negotiation, and teaching as defamiliarization or…

  15. Blind Linguistic Steganalysis against Translation Based Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhili; Huang, Liusheng; Meng, Peng; Yang, Wei; Miao, Haibo

    Translation based steganography (TBS) is a kind of relatively new and secure linguistic steganography. It takes advantage of the "noise" created by automatic translation of natural language text to encode the secret information. Up to date, there is little research on the steganalysis against this kind of linguistic steganography. In this paper, a blind steganalytic method, which is named natural frequency zoned word distribution analysis (NFZ-WDA), is presented. This method has improved on a previously proposed linguistic steganalysis method based on word distribution which is targeted for the detection of linguistic steganography like nicetext and texto. The new method aims to detect the application of TBS and uses none of the related information about TBS, its only used resource is a word frequency dictionary obtained from a large corpus, or a so called natural frequency dictionary, so it is totally blind. To verify the effectiveness of NFZ-WDA, two experiments with two-class and multi-class SVM classifiers respectively are carried out. The experimental results show that the steganalytic method is pretty promising.

  16. Novice Teachers and Linguistics: Foregrounding the Functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Phil; Moore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This forum article describes a postgraduate certificate teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) program with a strong linguistics orientation and argues that such a program provides novice language teachers with knowledge and skills superior to those of programs which focus more on methodology and practicum experience and less on…

  17. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus, Vol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Keywords: sex work, corpus linguistics, critical discourse analysis, South African media. 1. Introduction ... The Sowetan (TS) positions itself as “a fearless advocate of political truth and national development, but also ... the M&G Online more accessible to people outside the target market: 58% of online users accessed the site ...

  18. Conceptualising linguistic access to knowledge as interdisciplinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conceptualising linguistic access to knowledge as interdisciplinary collaboration. ... Journal for Language Teaching ... We draw on a number of case studies to show how reconceptualising the work of communication lecturers can enhance collaboration between communication and content lectures in science, engineering ...

  19. A Market Failure Approach to Linguistic Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper will consider language management from the perspective of efficiency, and will set the grounds for a new approach to linguistic justice: a market failure approach. The principle of efficiency emphasises the need to satisfy individuals' preferences in an optimal way. Applying this principle with regard to language would justify language…

  20. Linguistic Imitation in Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    Linguistic imitation by 48 children with Down's syndrome was compared to that of 57 children without mental retardation. The children with Down's syndrome imitated slightly less. This difference was related to language level and the source of the imitation, suggesting that children with Down's syndrome develop differently with respect to…

  1. The Temporal Dimension of Linguistic Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Wing Yee

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores how predictions about upcoming language inputs are computed during real-time language comprehension. Previous research has demonstrated humans' ability to use rich contextual information to compute linguistic prediction during real-time language comprehension, and it has been widely assumed that contextual information can…

  2. Color Word Acquisition: Conceptual or Linguistic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study investigated children's difficulty in learning color words and attempted to determine whether the difficulty was perceptual, conceptual, or linguistic. The subjects were 24 two-year-olds, half with knowledge of color words and half without, and a similar control group. The experimental subjects were given conceptual and comprehension tasks…

  3. On the Linguistic Covariants of Cultural Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'sou, Benjamin K.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses diverse sociolinguistic concepts such as borrowing, code-switching, bilingualism, and interference, and proposes a hypothesis concerning the progression of these linguistic developments in a contact situation and concerning the correlation of these developments with distinct phases of cultural assimilation. (Author/CLK)

  4. The Influence of Bloomfield's Linguistics on Skinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Maria de Lourdes R. da F.; Matos, Maria Amelia

    2007-01-01

    Bloomfield's "Linguistics as a Science" (1930/1970), "Language" (1933/1961), and "Language or Ideas?" (1936a/1970), and Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) and "Science and Human Behavior" (1953) were analyzed in regard to their respective perspectives on science and scientific method, the verbal episode, meaning, and subject matter. Similarities…

  5. Indeterminacy, linguistic semantics and fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, V. [Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we discuss the indeterminacy phenomenon which has two distinguished faces, namely uncertainty modeled especially by the probability theory and vagueness, modeled by fuzzy logic. Other important mathematical model of vagueness is provided by the Alternative Set Theory. We focus on some of the basic concepts of these theories in connection with mathematical modeling of the linguistic semantics.

  6. Linguistic Features of Pidgin Arabic in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds the light on Asian pidgin Arabic, particularly linguistic features of pidgin Arabic in Kuwait. The phonology, syntax and lexicon of the language are described on the basis of interviews conducted with forty Asian informants. The data are discussed in its relation to other studies. Also, the researcher discussed the implication of…

  7. The Linguistic Functions of Some Nonverbal Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the linguistic concerns of the rhetorical “polylogic” approach to the exploration of the stylistic aspects of language, which include paralinguistic communication devices, such as waving of hands, blinking of eyes, etc. These paralinguistic elements (proxemics for example) usually occur together with ...

  8. Linguistic Cultural Capital and Basic Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Uses student essays to illustrate the linguistic variations that many basic writing students bring to the academy and then offers some insights from second language acquisition and literacy studies that may help writing specialists enhance pedagogical practice to better serve these students. (SG)

  9. Public Sphere, Linguistic Sphericules and Discourse Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We intend to show that the discursive practices and, more generally, the complex dynamics that characterize public debate in this context are determined by sociolinguistic factors such as 'elite closure', linguistic repertoire, as well as by social exclusion (Scotton 1993). Elite closure, considered as social exclusion based on ...

  10. Linguistic Ability: Some Myths and Some Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gail L.

    "Linguistic ability" is a widely misused term in foreign language literature. This confusion prompted an investigation into language aptitude testing, the specific goals of which included determining: the distribution of language aptitude across ability range; the validity of Pimsleur's suggestions of combined verbal and auditory scores;…

  11. Linguistic Imperialism, Cultural Integrity, and EIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, Marko

    2001-01-01

    Argues that while linguistic imperialism is real and needs to be addressed, one way for the language instructor to come to terms with the cultural imposition of English language teaching is to define English as an international language. Suggests promoting "prestige varieties" positions the practitioner as purveyor of Anglo-American hegemony and…

  12. Linguistic Research with PaQU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, J.E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I illustrate the use of the PaQu (Parse and Query) application for carrying out linguistic research. The major findings of this paper are: (1) PaQu is very useful for aiding researchers in effcient manual verification of hypotheses; (2) PaQu can even be used for automatic verification

  13. Recent trends in Brazilian Historical Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Rosa Virgínia Mattos e

    1999-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the new directions taken by Historical Linguistics in Brazil, which gives special attention to Brazilian Portuguese, studying dialectal and sociolinguistic aspects. A special reference is made to projects that bring together researchers from several universities in the country.

  14. Linguistic Difference and Cultural Translatability: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Azade

    2002-01-01

    Suggests current scholarship has paid little attention to issues of linguistic differences and cultural translatability and points out the need for language departments offering courses in cultural, ethnic, and Diaspora studies to require proficiency in another language and to cultivate responsiveness to language politics at both the local and…

  15. Informal pragmatics and linguistic creativity | Collier | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examples of successful linguistic communication give rise to two important insights: (1) it should be understood most fundamentally in terms of the pragmatic success of each individual utterance, and (2) linguistic conventions need to be understood as on a par with the non-linguistic regularities that competent language ...

  16. in the History of Linguistics in Nigeria Chinedu Uchechukwu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    paper uses some issues in the history of linguistics in Nigeria to argue that the term “democratic choice” has not really been realized in linguistic theory in the country. The conclusion is that different linguistic theories should be allowed to offer what they can to the development and uplift of Nigerian languages. Introduction.

  17. Citation Analysis and Authorship Patterns of Two Linguistics Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, Ifeanyi J.; Asogwa, Brendan E.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sources cited in articles published in two linguistics journals, "Applied Linguistics and Journal of Linguistics," from 2001 to 2010. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted using bibliometric indicators, such as types of cited sources, timeliness of cited sources, authorship patterns, rank lists of the…

  18. Protein linguistics - a grammar for modular protein assembly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimona, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The correspondence between biology and linguistics at the level of sequence and lexical inventories, and of structure and syntax, has fuelled attempts to describe genome structure by the rules of formal linguistics. But how can we define protein linguistic rules? And how could compositional semantics improve our understanding of protein organization and functional plasticity?

  19. What Does Corpus Linguistics Have to Offer to Language Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, continuing advances in technology have increased the capacity to automate the extraction of a range of linguistic features of texts and thus have provided the impetus for the substantial growth of corpus linguistics. While corpus linguistic tools and methods have been used extensively in second language learning research, they…

  20. A phylogenetic and cognitive perspective on linguistic complexity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years a growing interest in the nature of linguistic complexity has emerged in linguistic circles. A striking feature of this interest is that linguistic complexity is taken to be a phenomenon in its own right. In fact, an extreme construal of the inherent complexity of language is represented in the notion of universal ...

  1. CHARTING THE ANATOMY PF LINGUISTIC REALITY R.P. Botha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHARTING. THE ANATOMY PF LINGUISTIC. REALITY. R.P. Botha. Department of Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Living dangerously. (Ql I represents the kind of question that should be addressed in the opening paper of a conference with the theme. 'Linguis- tics for the language professions'. (Ql I. Has linguistics.

  2. Forschungsregister I: Angewandte Sprachwissenschaft (Directory of Research I: Applied Linguistics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebicke, Detlev, Ed.

    This document lists over 50 research projects on various topics related to linguistics and language. The topics covered are foreign- and native-language instruction, relevant bibliographies, research in contemporary language, communication, textbooks, lexicology, lexicography, linguistics, computational linguistics, machine analysis of language,…

  3. Forschungsregister II: Angewandte Sprachwissenschaft (Directory of Research II: Applied Linguistics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebicke, Detlev, Ed.

    This document lists over 100 research projects on various topics related to linguistics and language. The topics covered are foreign- and native-language instruction, relevant bibliographies, research in contemporary language, communication, textbooks, lexicology, lexicography, linguistics, computational linguistics, machine analysis of language,…

  4. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  5. Undergraduate Courses in Linguistics at Universities of Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komochkova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The concept of linguistics as a branch of science has been considered. Key abilities linguists possess have been defined. The need to apply to foreign experience, in particular, British one, has been justified. Relevant information sources, namely, Benchmark Statement for Linguistics (2007), data on Education UK, the official website for…

  6. Linguistic inequality in Cameroon: The case of advertising in Douala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the vast research conducted on linguistic hegemony, linguistic inequality, multilingualism and multiculturalism in Cameroon, very little has been done in advertising as it reflects language representation. Much of the research has focused on the linguistic hegemony and privileging of French and English in ...

  7. Concept Quebecois in the linguistic consciousness of Quebecers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Зульфия Ахатовна Усманова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The linguistic situation existing in Quebec (a Canadian province at present calls for the need to study the Quebecois linguistic personality. This article examines the concept Québécois in the linguistic consciousness of French-speaking Quebecers. The paper provides the results and conclusions of the conducted experiments and research.

  8. Is translation a linguistic or a cultural process? Is translation a linguistic or a cultural process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Vermeer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The English term "linguistic" has a general and a special meaning. In ordinary or standard language "Gemeinsprache" linguistic means "of language", "belonging to language" ("sprachlich", language taken in its everyday meaning, as in English language, German language etc. Thus, an expression like a linguistic sign may be paraphrased by a sign of language or, in more technical language, a verbal sign ("ein sprachliches Zeichen", something one says or writes. Language has another, broader, almost metaphorical meaning when one speaks, for instance, of the language of animals or the language of nature. Language in such cases means any system of signs. The English term "linguistic" has a general and a special meaning. In ordinary or standard language "Gemeinsprache" linguistic means "of language", "belonging to language" ("sprachlich", language taken in its everyday meaning, as in English language, German language etc. Thus, an expression like a linguistic sign may be paraphrased by a sign of language or, in more technical language, a verbal sign ("ein sprachliches Zeichen", something one says or writes. Language has another, broader, almost metaphorical meaning when one speaks, for instance, of the language of animals or the language of nature. Language in such cases means any system of signs.

  9. Cross-Linguistic Differences in a Picture-Description Task Between Korean- and English-Speaking Individuals With Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jee Eun; DeDe, Gayle; Lee, Soo Eun

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine cross-linguistic differences in a picture-description task between Korean- and English-speaking individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia to determine whether a variation exists in the use of verbs and nouns across the language and aphasia groups. Forty-eight individuals (male = 29; female = 19) participated in the study (n = 28 for aphasic group and n = 20 healthy controls). Data for English speakers were obtained from the Aphasia Bank Project. We used the picture-description task to obtain connected speech samples and analyzed noun- and verb-related linguistic variables. Korean speakers with aphasia produced more verbs per utterance and a lower noun-to-verb ratio than English speakers with aphasia, whereas English speakers produced more nouns than Korean speakers. The Korean anomic group produced more verbs than Korean speakers with Broca's aphasia, whereas no effects were significant for English speakers with aphasia depending on the type of aphasia. Aphasia symptoms vary as a function of linguistic features of languages that individuals with aphasia used premorbidly. Furthermore, the linguistic characteristics of the individual's language influenced aphasia symptoms more strongly than the type of aphasia. It is theoretically and clinically important that this cross-linguistic study provides different perspectives, and that noun-verb deficits may vary depending on linguistic features.

  10. LINGUISTIC REPRESENTATION OF THE CONCEPT «MARRIAGE» IN THE METRIC BOOKS: THE OFFICIAL LIST ANALYSIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Evgenyevna Belkova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Object: This article identifies the characteristics of metric books of the Tyumen Clerical Board dated back to the XIX century understanding them as official texts belonging to a particular genre; it also describes the lexical units representing the concept of marriage from the subtexts of metric books.Method / methodology of work. Methodological approaches in the present article are coherent with the methods of official text analysis elaborated by V.Y.Deryaginum (1980 (units of lingvotextological analysis are word combinations, sentence models with more or less settled lexical composition; O.V.Barakova (2003 (considers official texts as polysubtextual structures, provides the analysis of the style-forming lexical-and-phraseological means suitable for reconstruction of the linguistic worldview.Results. The linguistic worldview fragments constituting the marriage concept of the linguistic worldview are not voluntary within the framework of the the metric records. They function as a part of certain subtexts (formulas. The linguistic worldview fragments form lexemes and clichéd combinations accompanying concepts reflecting typical life situations. Variability of the registration forms in many respects depended on the competence of the clerk.Scope of the results application. Practical significance of the research is that its results find application in the University practice: when designing courses on the history of Russian literary language, special courses and seminars on onomastics, historical stylistics, linguistic source studies, linguistic study of local lore.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-36

  11. Individual differences in top-down restoration of interrupted speech: links to linguistic and cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Michel Ruben; Mensink, Jorien Susanne; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-02-01

    Top-down restoration mechanisms can enhance perception of degraded speech. Even in normal hearing, however, a large variability has been observed in how effectively individuals can benefit from these mechanisms. To investigate if this variability is partially caused by individuals' linguistic and cognitive skills, normal-hearing participants of varying ages were assessed for receptive vocabulary (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; PPVT-III-NL), for full-scale intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; WAIS-IV-NL), and for top-down restoration of interrupted speech (with silent or noise-filled gaps). Receptive vocabulary was significantly correlated with the other measures, suggesting linguistic skills to be highly involved in restoration of degraded speech.

  12. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing complex linguistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lücking, Andy; Banisch, Sven; Blanchard, Philippe; Job, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this book is to advocate and promote network models of linguistic systems that are both based on thorough mathematical models and substantiated in terms of linguistics. In this way, the book contributes first steps towards establishing a statistical network theory as a theoretical basis of linguistic network analysis the boarder of the natural sciences and the humanities.This book addresses researchers who want to get familiar with theoretical developments, computational models and their empirical evaluation in the field of complex linguistic networks. It is intended to all those who are interested in statisticalmodels of linguistic systems from the point of view of network research. This includes all relevant areas of linguistics ranging from phonological, morphological and lexical networks on the one hand and syntactic, semantic and pragmatic networks on the other. In this sense, the volume concerns readers from many disciplines such as physics, linguistics, computer science and information scien...

  13. Songs to syntax: the linguistics of birdsong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo; Beckers, Gabriel J L; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2011-03-01

    Unlike our primate cousins, many species of bird share with humans a capacity for vocal learning, a crucial factor in speech acquisition. There are striking behavioural, neural and genetic similarities between auditory-vocal learning in birds and human infants. Recently, the linguistic parallels between birdsong and spoken language have begun to be investigated. Although both birdsong and human language are hierarchically organized according to particular syntactic constraints, birdsong structure is best characterized as 'phonological syntax', resembling aspects of human sound structure. Crucially, birdsong lacks semantics and words. Formal language and linguistic analysis remains essential for the proper characterization of birdsong as a model system for human speech and language, and for the study of the brain and cognition evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A linguistic model of informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, J

    1996-02-01

    The current disclosure model of informed consent ignores the linguistic complexity of any act of communication, and the increased risk of difficulties in the special circumstances of informed consent. This article explores, through linguistic analysis, the specificity of informed consent as a speech act, a communication act, and a form of dialogue, following on the theories of J.L. Austin, Roman Jakobson, and Mikhail Bakhtin, respectively. In the proposed model, informed consent is a performative speech act resulting from a series of communication acts which together constitute a dialogic, polyphonic, heteroglossial discourse. It is an act of speech that results in action being taken after a conversation has happened where distinct individuals, multiple voices, and multiple perspectives have been respected, and convention observed and recognized. It is more meaningful and more ethical for both patient and physician, in all their human facets including their interconnectedness.

  15. Constructing an XML database of linguistics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J H Kroeze

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A language-oriented, multi-dimensional database of the linguistic characteristics of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament can enable researchers to do ad hoc queries. XML is a suitable technology to transform free text into a database. A clause’s word order can be kept intact while other features such as syntactic and semantic functions can be marked as elements or attributes. The elements or attributes from the XML “database” can be accessed and proces sed by a 4th generation programming language, such as Visual Basic. XML is explored as an option to build an exploitable database of linguistic data by representing inherently multi-dimensional data, including syntactic and semantic analyses of free text.

  16. On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Kouteva/Kuteva

    2014-04-01

    The present paper compares the two modes of processing proposed by Van Lancker Sidtis (2009 in her dual process model and the two domains of discourse organization distinguished in the framework of Discourse Grammar (Heine et al. 2013; Kaltenböck et al. 2011. These two frameworks were developed on different kinds of data. In the dual process model it is observations on patients with left or right hemisphere damage that marked the starting point of analysis. Central to the dual process model is the distinction between novel speech (or novel language, or newly created language, or propositional speech and formulaic speech (or formulaic expressions or automatic speech. Easily identified instances of formulaic speech are swear words, interjections, pause fillers, discourse elements, non-literal lexical meanings for idioms, proverbs. Unlike the dual process model, in the Discourse Grammar model it is linguistic discontinuities that provided the basis of analysis. Discourse grammar in this model is understood as all the linguistic resources that are available for constructing spoken and written (and signed texts. We argue that Discourse Grammar can be divided into two distinct domains, namely Sentence Grammar and Thetical Grammar. Whereas Sentence Grammar has been at the centre of interest in mainstream linguistics, Thetical Grammar encompasses linguistic phenomena – such as formulae of social exchange, imperatives, vocatives, interjections, including hesitation markers and pause fillers and what is traditionally known as “parenthetical” constructions – that pose a problem to orthodox grammatical analysis. We show that the findings made within the two frameworks are largely compatible with one another: both models converge on claiming that there is a significant correlation between linguistic categorization and hemisphere-based brain activity. In the dual process model it is hypothesized that there is a significant correlation between certain kinds of speech

  17. Linguistic Ethnography, Literacy Teaching and Teacher Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Grete; Nielsen, Henrik Balle

    and text in the literacy classroom. A linguistic ethnographic analysis strives to look closely and locally at language as social action, but at the same time place these observations within broader relations of power dynamics in and outside the literacy classroom. We approach data with the rigorous...... in current attempts to research-base teacher education. Lefstein, A. & J. Snell. 2014. Better than best practice. Developing teaching and learning through dialogue. London: Routledge. Keywords: literacy teaching classroom dialogue teacher feedback linguistic ethnography research-based teacher education...... and are reflected in their oral and written text productions. The purpose of the case study is to develop insight in how the dialogue in literacy classrooms can scaffold pupils’ language and literacy learning and their understanding of text genres such as graphic novels and reader’s theater scripts. The data...

  18. TYPICAL LINGUISTIC AND EXTRALINGUISTIC EXERCISES OF GEOGRAPHY

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    VIORICA BLÎNDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the present research was to analyze and exemplify some of the exercises in the Geography textbooks in use, both from a linguistic and geographical perspective. The specific objectives of the present research are the following: to analyze some types of exercises; to identify and analyze a sample exercise of each particular type submitted to theoretical analysis. In order to achieve these objectives, we studied several papers of textual linguistics, semiotics, using a corpus of study in various Geography textbooks in current use in Romanian schools, at the pre-university level of education. We analyzed and included in the present paper exercises of scientific geographical analysis, description exercises, exercises for arguing and giving reasons, exercises of providing explanations. These exercises are based on the theory of encyclopedic referencing, on specialised dictionaries of geographical terms, on contextual meaning effects, on schematization of the geographical reality

  19. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Harry

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice. It is argued that we can resolve this problem if we (1) note that language evolution is the outcome of an evolutionary transition, and (2) observe that the use of words evolves during ontogenesis out of babbling. It is discussed that language evolved as the result of an expansion of the vocalizing powers of our ancestors. This involved an increase in the volitional control of our speech apparatus (leading to the ability to produce new combinations of vowels and consonants), but also the evolution of socially guided learning. It resulted in unique human abilities, namely doing things with words and later reasoning and giving reasons.

  20. What can literature do for linguistics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2007-01-01

      Through analyses of selected passages from James Joyce's Ulysses, this article demonstrates how the challenging of the boundaries between linguistics and literary studies can be more than a one-way process aimed at uncovering linguistic patterns of literary texts. The theoretical basis...... of the article is Halliday & Hasan's concept of cohesion as presented in Cohesion in English (1976). While demonstrating the usefulness of Halliday & Hasan's approach in literary analysis by uncovering aspects of Joyce's extensive use of cohesion as a meaning-making resource, the application of their approach...... longer passages than those typically considered in analyses of cohesion. While arguing for certain extensions of Halliday & Hasan's cohesive categories, the article simultaneously acknowledges and discusses methodological problems involved in such extensions and furthermore considers the upper and lower...

  1. A New Decision-Making Method for Stock Portfolio Selection Based on Computing with Linguistic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Tung Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of stock portfolio selection is how to allocate the capital to a large number of stocks in order to bring a most profitable return for investors. In most of past literatures, experts considered the portfolio of selection problem only based on past crisp or quantitative data. However, many qualitative and quantitative factors will influence the stock portfolio selection in real investment situation. It is very important for experts or decision-makers to use their experience or knowledge to predict the performance of each stock and make a stock portfolio. Because of the knowledge, experience, and background of each expert are different and vague, different types of 2-tuple linguistic variable are suitable used to express experts' opinions for the performance evaluation of each stock with respect to criteria. According to the linguistic evaluations of experts, the linguistic TOPSIS and linguistic ELECTRE methods are combined to present a new decision-making method for dealing with stock selection problems in this paper. Once the investment set has been determined, the risk preferences of investor are considered to calculate the investment ratio of each stock in the investment set. Finally, an example is implemented to demonstrate the practicability of the proposed method.

  2. The brain dynamics of linguistic computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    Neural oscillations at distinct frequencies are increasingly being related to a number of basic and higher cognitive faculties. Oscillations enable the construction of coherently organized neuronal assemblies through establishing transitory temporal correlations. By exploring the elementary operations of the language faculty-labeling, concatenation, cyclic transfer-alongside neural dynamics, a new model of linguistic computation is proposed. It is argued that the universality of language, and the true biological source of Universal Grammar, is not to be found purely in the genome as has long been suggested, but more specifically within the extraordinarily preserved nature of mammalian brain rhythms employed in the computation of linguistic structures. Computational-representational theories are used as a guide in investigating the neurobiological foundations of the human "cognome"-the set of computations performed by the nervous system-and new directions are suggested for how the dynamics of the brain (the "dynome") operate and execute linguistic operations. The extent to which brain rhythms are the suitable neuronal processes which can capture the computational properties of the human language faculty is considered against a backdrop of existing cartographic research into the localization of linguistic interpretation. Particular focus is placed on labeling, the operation elsewhere argued to be species-specific. A Basic Label model of the human cognome-dynome is proposed, leading to clear, causally-addressable empirical predictions, to be investigated by a suggested research program, Dynamic Cognomics. In addition, a distinction between minimal and maximal degrees of explanation is introduced to differentiate between the depth of analysis provided by cartographic, rhythmic, neurochemical, and other approaches to computation.

  3. Gesture for Linguists: A Handy Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Abner, Natasha; Cooperrider, Kensy; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Humans communicate using language, but they also communicate using gesture – spontaneous movements of the hands and body that universally accompany speech. Gestures can be distinguished from other movements, segmented, and assigned meaning based on their forms and functions. Moreover, gestures systematically integrate with language at all levels of linguistic structure, as evidenced in both production and perception. Viewed typologically, gesture is universal, but nevertheless exhibits constr...

  4. Precedent Phenomena in Quebecois Linguistic World View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ксения Эдуардовна Болотина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the linguocultural analysis of precedent phenomena as parts of Quebecois’ cognitive base. Precedent phenomena being cultural facts are one of the key issues in modern linguistic and cognitive studies. By precedent phenomena we mean, according to Y.E. Prohorov, such entities when verbalized in discourse that refer to a certain cultural fact behind them. In the article the precedent phenomena such as precedent text, precedent situation, precedent utterance, and precedent name are analyzed. The main theses of the precedence theory given in the article (Y.N. Karaulov, Y.E. Prohorov, V.V. Krasnyh, D.B. Gudkov are at the heart of precedence studies on the basis of different languages. However, a complex analysis of precedent phenomena in the Quebec national variant of French is new to Russian linguistics. The study of precedent phenomena enables us to elicit features of their functioning in ethnospecific discourse and determine cultural dominants existing in Quebecois’ linguistic world view. Given the fact that the size of the article is limited, we undertooke the analysis of eight phenomena precedent of the bearers of Quebec linguoculture. The choice of phenomena is determined by the frequency of their use in discourse. The facts analyzed are of national character, i.e. known to all members of the linguocultural community. A certain cultural fact is at the very core of each precedent phenomenon given in the article. To get the whole picture we analysed historic, political, and cultural context connected to the precedent phenomena in question. The study enables us to elicit distinctive features that are at the core of each phenomenon. The results are backed with the supportive material drawn from analysis of different types of discourse. The analysis of precedent phenomena undertaken in this article allows us to reconstruct, to a certain extent, Quebec cultural space and is a stepping stone to the reconstruction of the

  5. "Linguistic Geography of Breton and Sociocultural Motivations"

    OpenAIRE

    Costaouec, Denis

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper I discuss various issues directly related to the study of Breton dialects, and to the practice of linguistic geography. Some of the questions that will be considered are: Where does the border pass between two contiguous dialectal areas? How can the geographical distribution of the varieties of a language be explained? What factors (social, economic, cultural, religious, political, etc) can be correlated with this geographic distribution?

  6. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2014-12-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spanish sign language interpreter for mexican linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Barragán, Francisco Javier; Pérez Grana, José Arturo; Cervantes, Francisco; Schwarzblat y Katz, Morris; Olide Márquez, María Guadalupe; Pérez Sánchez, Ana Paola

    2013-01-01

    We present here the first visual interface for a Mexican Spanish Sign Language translator on its first development stage: sign-writing recognition. The software was developed for the unique characteristics of Mexican linguistics and was designed in order to use sentences or a sequence of signs in sign-writing system which are decoded by the program and converted into a series of images with movement that correspond to the Mexican sign language system. Using a lexical, syntactic and semantic...

  8. The Brain Dynamics of Linguistic Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot eMurphy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural oscillations at distinct frequencies are increasingly being related to a number of basic and higher cognitive faculties. Oscillations enable the construction of coherently organised neuronal assemblies through establishing transitory temporal correlations. By exploring the elementary operations of the language faculty – labeling, concatenation, cyclic transfer – alongside neural dynamics, a new model of linguistic computation is proposed. It is argued that the universality of language, and the true biological source of Universal Grammar, is not to be found purely in the genome as has long been suggested, but more specifically within the extraordinarily preserved nature of mammalian brain rhythms employed in the computation of linguistic structures. Computational-representational theories are used as a guide in investigating the neurobiological foundations of the human ‘cognome’ – the set of computations performed by the nervous system – and new directions are suggested for how the dynamics of brain (the ‘dynome’ operates and execute linguistic operations. The extent to which brain rhythms are the suitable neuronal processes which can capture the computational properties of the human language faculty is considered against a backdrop of existing cartographic research into the localisation of linguistic interpretation. Particular focus is placed on labeling, the operation elsewhere argued to be species-specific. A Basic Label model of the human cognome-dynome is proposed, leading to clear, causally-addressable empirical predictions, to be investigated by a suggested research program, Dynamic Cognomics. In addition, a distinction between minimal and maximal degrees of explanation is introduced to differentiate between the depth of analysis provided by cartographic, rhythmic, neurochemical and other approaches to computation.

  9. Automatically Modeling Linguistic Categories in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luise, M. D. López; Hisgen, D.; Soffer, M.

    This paper presents an approach to process Spanish linguistic categories automatically. The approach is based in a module of a prototype named WIH (Word Intelligent Handler), which is a project to develop a conversational bot. It basically learns category usage sequence in a sentence. It extracts a weighting metric to discriminate most common structures in real dialogs. Such a metric is important to define the preferred organization to be used by the robot to build an answer.

  10. M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic/literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by philologist V.V. Vinogrado

    OpenAIRE

    Larisa N. Kuznetsova

    2011-01-01

    The article considers M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic / literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by Great Russian scientist-philologist and linguist, Academician V.V. Vinogradov.

  11. M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic/literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by philologist V.V. Vinogrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa N. Kuznetsova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic / literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by Great Russian scientist-philologist and linguist, Academician V.V. Vinogradov.

  12. ESCOL '91. Proceedings of the Eastern States Conference on Linguistics (8th, Baltimore, MD, October 11-13, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, German F., Ed.; And Others

    Papers delivered at the conference on linguistics include: "On the Metrical Unity of Latinate Affixes"; "Epistemic Small Clauses and Null Subjects"; "Scrambling as Non-Operator A'-Movement: Variable vs. Null Epithet"; "Polarity, Inversion, and Focus in English"; "Phrasal Input to Derivational Morphology…

  13. Attitudes and Motivation versus Language Achievement in Cross-Linguistic Settings. What Is Cause and What Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Angel

    2006-01-01

    In the bilingual contexts of two regions of Spain, Asturias (Asturian/Spanish) and Eastern Aragon (Catalan/Spanish), and given the relationship between language attitudes and linguistic proficiency, our study has two objectives. Firstly, the attitudes to the two contact languages are described. Secondly, the variables that can explain such…

  14. The Notion of Culture in Linguistic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Busch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works on intercultural communication from the field of linguistics share the assumption that influences of culture on social interaction will manifest in communicative exchanges—and conversely, that an academic's look at these exchanges will be a sufficient basis for an adequate description of what intercultural communication is supposed to be about. Linguistic theory itself lacking of places to integrate culture as a factor into its concepts, urges scholars to borrow operationalizations of culture from neighboring disciplines like e.g. different strands of psychology, sociology or anthropology. Approaches resulting from this transdisciplinary orientation as a consequence share very divergent assumptions on how, at what moment in a communicative process and with what effects culture influences social interaction. While many surveys on similar behalf distinguish between primordial and constructionist approaches, a closer look at different strands of empirical linguistic research may reveal even more precise and detailed distinctions on how culture may be captured and framed. This article will present and analyze a selection of approaches from the mentioned field, e.g. from intercultural and contrastive pragmatics, interactional sociolinguistics, ethnography of communication, ethnomethodology as well as discourse analysis. In each case, the underlying notions of culture will be revealed and put into contrast. Additionally, this exemplary analysis may show that most of the empirical schools mentioned follow and adopt changing notions of culture from social theory over time. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901508

  15. The interaction between specificity and linguistic contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kuniko

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies have shown listeners' ability to remember fine phonetic details [e.g., Mullennix et al., 1989], providing support for the episodic view of speech perception. The imitation paradigm [Goldinger, 1998, Shockley et al., 2004], in which subjects' speech is compared before and after they are exposed to target speech (= study phase) has shown that subjects shift their production in the direction of the target. Our earlier results [Nielsen, 2005] showed that the imitation effect for extended VOT was generalized to new stimuli as well as to a new segment, suggesting that the locus of the imitation effect can be smaller than individual words or segments. The current study aims to further investigate how experienced speech input interacts with linguistic representations, by testing whether the imitation effect is observed when the modeled stimuli have reduced VOT (which could introduce linguistic ambiguity). In other words, do speakers imitate and generalize shorter VOT even if the change might impair linguistic contrasts? To address this question, the study phase includes words with initial /p/ with reduced VOT, while the pre- and post-study production list includes (1) the modeled words, (2) the modeled segments /p/ in new words, and (3) the new segment /k/.

  16. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  17. GEOLINGUISTICS: THE LINGUISTIC ATLAS OF PARANÁ

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    Rosa Evangelina de Santana BELLI RODRIGUES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the methodology adopted by the Linguistic Atlas of Paraná – APLR (AGUILERA, 1990 and to describe its results in relation to other Brazilian atlas. To meet this objective, we first present the modifications, mainly methodological, under gone by Geolinguistics towards a more complete and in depth description of linguistic variation. The Pluridimensional Geolinguistics and Contractual model of Harald Thun (1998 and the Linguistics Atlas of Brazil – ALiB (CARDOSO et all, 2014, published in October, 2014, are presented. It was also necessary to describe, although briefly, the most traditional Geolinguistics research method, characteristic of the ALPR, before referring the text back to Aguilera’s Atlas. After discussing the criteria on which the ALPR was constructed, from choice of informers to the Geolinguistics charts that compose it, as well as its complementation by the ALPR II (ALTINO, 2007, it was possible to analyze the results and relate them to the hypotheses posed by the thesis which gave origin to it.

  18. Linguistic threat activates the human amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, N.; Silbersweig, D.; Engelien, A.; Emmerich, S.; Malavade, K.; Beattie, B.; Leon, A. C.; Stern, E.

    1999-01-01

    Studies in animals demonstrate a crucial role for the amygdala in emotional and social behavior, especially as related to fear and aggression. Whereas lesion and functional-imaging studies in humans indicate the amygdala’s participation in assessing the significance of nonverbal as well as paralinguistic cues, direct evidence for its role in the emotional processing of linguistic cues is lacking. In this study, we use a modified Stroop task along with a high-sensitivity neuroimaging technique to target the neural substrate engaged specifically when processing linguistic threat. Healthy volunteer subjects were instructed to name the color of words of either threat or neutral valence, presented in different color fonts, while neural activity was measured by using H215O positron-emission tomography. Bilateral amygdalar activation was significantly greater during color naming of threat words than during color naming of neutral words. Associated activations were also noted in sensory-evaluative and motor-planning areas of the brain. Thus, our results demonstrate the amygdala’s role in the processing of danger elicited by language. In addition, the results reinforce the amygdala’s role in the modulation of the perception of, and response to, emotionally salient stimuli. The current study further suggests conservation of phylogenetically older mechanisms of emotional evaluation in the context of more recently evolved linguistic function. PMID:10468630

  19. LINGUISTIC EXPERTISE AS A LANGUAGE POLICY TOOL

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    E. S. Kara-Мurzа

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In sociolinguistic terms, certain aspects of academician Grot’s activity can be seen as language policy. Therefore a discussion of the new conflictological direction of sociolinguistics (along with status and corpus directions is of current importance. Its object is delinquent communicative situations: 1 speech crimes against non-proprietary rights of people and organizations (deffamation and libel, against societal and governmental rights to normal functioning (speech extremism; 2 discussions of mass media deontology violations. Its objectives are identification and resolution of conflicts in communication, as well as punishment and prevention of speech crimes. Within its framework, the decision of a court or a deontological authority is a direct act of language policy, whereas a linguistic expertise is its consecutive act and simultaneously its tool. A linguistic expertise as a procedure of search for an evidential base of a speech crime is performed in governmental and independent centers. This correlates with a governmental and public direction of speech policy, revealing their inherent contradictions. As an illustration the author uses a lawsuit on protection of honor and dignity of a «United Russia» party member V. Svirid versus a well-known political figure of the opposition field, A. Navalny, in which the court verdict didn't take into consideration the professional opinions of linguistical experts from a regional university.

  20. The double identity of linguistic doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Iris; Bat-El, Outi; Brentari, Diane; Dupuis, Amanda; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

    2016-11-29

    Does knowledge of language consist of abstract principles, or is it fully embodied in the sensorimotor system? To address this question, we investigate the double identity of doubling (e.g., slaflaf, or generally, XX; where X stands for a phonological constituent). Across languages, doubling is known to elicit conflicting preferences at different levels of linguistic analysis (phonology vs. morphology). Here, we show that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, and they are demonstrably distinct from sensorimotor pressures. We first demonstrate that doubling in novel English words elicits divergent percepts: Viewed as meaningless (phonological) forms, doubling is disliked (e.g., slaflaf Language, and their capacity to do so depends on the structure of their spoken language (English vs. Hebrew). These results demonstrate that linguistic preferences doubly dissociate from sensorimotor demands: A single stimulus can elicit diverse percepts, yet these percepts are invariant across stimulus modality--for speech and signs. These conclusions are in line with the possibility that some linguistic principles are abstract, and they apply broadly across language modality.

  1. Operative and nonoperative linguistic outcomes in brain injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzade; Kapourchali, Sara Ramezani; Saberi, Alia; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra

    2012-06-15

    Linguistic function is one of vulnerable aspects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) which may have destructive effects on patients' communicative activities and daily life, years following trauma. This paper attempts to answer the controversy whether surgery affects increase and decrease of linguistic impairment or not. Two hundred forty-one TBI patients aged 18-65 with abnormal CT findings and at least 20 minute post-trauma amnesia (PTA), who were conscious at discharge, participated in this study. Based on operative intervention, the samples were divided into two groups: operative and nonoperative. Cognitive and aphasic deficits were inspected formally and pragmatic disorder was informally appraised at discharge. The groups had no significant differences in aphasia incidence and language pragmatic impairment, though they were significantly distinctive in aphasia subcategories and cognitive deficit after trauma. Fluent aphasia was more common in both groups alike. In aphasia subcategories, however, transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA) in operative and anomia in nonoperative group were the most prevalent. Several variables appeared strikingly related to higher aphasia in operative groups as follows: moderate to severe injury, 18-35 and over 50 years of age, more than 1 week PTA, intracranial surgery of multiple lesions in left or bilateral hemisphere fronto-temporal cortex plus post-trauma cognitive and pragmatic impairments, and diffuse axonal injuries. Almost certainly, meaningful drop of cognitive function post surgery roots back in significant loss of initial consciousness level. Related factors to postoperative aphasia suggest taking policies through surgery intervention. Discerning the indispensable contributions of neurosurgeons, neurolinguists, and neuroscientists, results inspire more clinical future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Linguistic Syncretism as the Development of Common Linguistic Ideas of Evolution and Systematic and Structural Language Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria A. Beresneva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents categorical description of the phenomenon of language syncretism, called by the author as linguistic syncretism on the material of time forms in the German language for the first time in linguistics. Application of the famous epistemological admission to the interpretation of linguistic facts allowed to implement the linguistic syncretism in the general theory of the unity of the world and describe it as a phenomenon if integrative linguathinking human activity. The term «linguistic syncretism», based on the close connection between being and knowledge, is interpreted by the author in two ways: as a syncretism of language forms and a linguistic interpretation of the phenomenon of syncretism. Interpretation of linguistic syncretism as a dual linguistic category led ultimately to the characterization of linguistic syncretism as the embodiment and reflection of the world unity. It is given the methodology and the main results of the categorical analysis of the problem of linguistic syncretism. Due to the categorical scientific and linguistic research syncretism involving data philosophy and psychology about the patterns of being and thinking was able to recreate a complete picture of the ontological and logical syncretism as well as the mechanism of linguistic syncretism, reveal the inner logic of formation and development of the phenomenon of syncretism. The study contributes to the development of the theory of syncretism, as well as specified in the title of the article as general linguistic ideas in the direction of the in-depth study and understanding of the relationship and interaction of elements of the system and the results of their interaction.

  3. LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL STUDIES: THE QUEST FOR NEW IDEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Kononenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the principles of researching into text from the interdisciplinary linguistic and cultural perspective. Cognitological analysis of linguistic and extralinguistic cultural meanings reveals that there exist of specific linguistic and aesthetic formations best presented through the ‘language – culture – identity’ triad. One of the components of literary discourse is monocultural layer, which secures the continuity of national cultural tradition; researching into it, one should take into account mental and historical, psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic and other factors. Linguistic and aesthetic analysis helps to establish the system of linguistic and cultural means (metaphorization, imagery, verbal symbols, linguistic conceptualization, connotative meanings, which reveals its potential in literary texts. The lingual identity as a general notional category shows its nationally-oriented characteristics through the dichotomies of ‘addresser-addressee’ , ‘author-reader’, ‘narrator-narratee’ and is presented in the author’s idiolect.

  4. Redefining functional models of basal ganglia organization: role for the posteroventral pallidum in linguistic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Murdoch, Bruce E; Theodoros, Deborah G; Darnell, Ross; Silburn, Peter; Hall, Bruce

    2004-11-01

    Traditionally the basal ganglia have been implicated in motor behavior, as they are involved in both the execution of automatic actions and the modification of ongoing actions in novel contexts. Corresponding to cognition, the role of the basal ganglia has not been defined as explicitly. Relative to linguistic processes, contemporary theories of subcortical participation in language have endorsed a role for the globus pallidus internus (GPi) in the control of lexical-semantic operations. However, attempts to empirically validate these postulates have been largely limited to neuropsychological investigations of verbal fluency abilities subsequent to pallidotomy. We evaluated the impact of bilateral posteroventral pallidotomy (BPVP) on language function across a range of general and high-level linguistic abilities, and validated/extended working theories of pallidal participation in language. Comprehensive linguistic profiles were compiled up to 1 month before and 3 months after BPVP in 6 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD). Commensurate linguistic profiles were also gathered over a 3-month period for a nonsurgical control cohort of 16 subjects with PD and a group of 16 non-neurologically impaired controls (NC). Nonparametric between-groups comparisons were conducted and reliable change indices calculated, relative to baseline/3-month follow-up difference scores. Group-wise statistical comparisons between the three groups failed to reveal significant postoperative changes in language performance. Case-by-case data analysis relative to clinically consequential change indices revealed reliable alterations in performance across several language variables as a consequence of BPVP. These findings lend support to models of subcortical participation in language, which promote a role for the GPi in lexical-semantic manipulation mechanisms. Concomitant improvements and decrements in postoperative performance were interpreted within the context of additive and subtractive

  5. Searching for linguistic phenomena in literary digital libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Martínez, Felipe; Forcada, Mikel L.; Carrasco, Rafael C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a set of tools and Java classes that allow the Lucene text search engine to use morphological information to index and search; in particular, it describes the use of the linguistic resources developed for the Apertium open-source machine translation platform to extract morphological information while indexing. We describe which linguistic information is automatically obtained, how to use it when indexing new documents with Lucene, and how linguistic attributes can be used...

  6. COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AT ENGLISH DEPARTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vladan Pavlović

    2010-01-01

    The paper first shortly presents the basic postulates of cognitive linguistics, including A. Goldberg's construction grammar, as an important theory developing within the cognitive linguistic approach to the grammatical level of language structure.Then it moves on to examine the ways the various theoretical insights of cognitive linguistics can practically be applied to language teaching at English departments, with the focus being primarily on the syntactic and the lexical levels. Apart from...

  7. Autochthonous Linguistic Minorities in the Italian Alps:

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    Ernst Steinicke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available More than any other area in Western Europe, the Alps, especially the Italian Alps, are home to great ethno-cultural diversity: there, no less than seven autochthonous linguistic minorities coexist side by side with the respective official majority. Now being considered an important cultural heritage by the state as well as by the regions, new legislation offers protection to all ‘linguistic-historic minorities’ in Italy. Our study shows, however, that it is quite difficult to maintain such groups, since it is largely unknown where exactly the minority areas are situated. Based on that, local actor groups in various communities take advantage of this lack of knowledge and declare themselves minority territories although they show no linguistic varieties. An important objective of this project is therefore to present a cartographic representation of this linguistic diversity. Subsequently, the contribution discusses case studies of distinct ethno-linguistic self-awareness. Even though with Law No. 482 a first important step was taken to preserve the linguistic minorities, their progressive decline by territorial and numerical criteria cannot be denied. Today, besides unfavorable bio-demographic factors and “diffuse ethnicity,” other causes are current demographic processes. In this framework the amenity migrants, those new immigrants who have discovered the mountains as a new, desirable settlement space, play a decisive role by reinforcing the assimilation process.Les Alpes, plus précisément les Alpes italiennes, plus que toute autre région d'Europe Occidentale, sont un lieu de grande diversité ethnoculturelle : pas moins de sept minorités linguistiques autochtones y coexistent, côte à côte avec la majorité officielle correspondante. Maintenant considérées comme un héritage culturel important par les états ainsi que par les régions, une nouvelle législation offre une protection à toutes les « minorités linguistiques

  8. Linguistically motivated statistical machine translation models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Deyi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a wide variety of algorithms and models to integrate linguistic knowledge into Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). It helps advance conventional SMT to linguistically motivated SMT by enhancing the following three essential components: translation, reordering and bracketing models. It also serves the purpose of promoting the in-depth study of the impacts of linguistic knowledge on machine translation. Finally it provides a systematic introduction of Bracketing Transduction Grammar (BTG) based SMT, one of the state-of-the-art SMT formalisms, as well as a case study of linguistically motivated SMT on a BTG-based platform.

  9. A Bayesian approach to simultaneously quantify assignments and linguistic uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Gregory M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [BOOKER SCIENTIFIC FREDERICKSBURG; Ross, Timothy J [UNM

    2010-10-07

    Subject matter expert assessments can include both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. This paper examines assessments containing linguistic uncertainty associated with a qualitative description of a specific state of interest and the assignment uncertainty associated with assigning a qualitative value to that state. A Bayesian approach is examined to simultaneously quantify both assignment and linguistic uncertainty in the posterior probability. The approach is applied to a simplified damage assessment model involving both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. The utility of the approach and the conditions under which the approach is feasible are examined and identified.

  10. The role of reduced humanity in producing linguistic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarello, Flavia; Rubini, Monica

    2015-02-01

    This article addresses the role of perceived (reduced) humanity and group membership of others in producing linguistic discrimination. Study 1 assessed the effects of these factors on a subtle measure of linguistic discrimination, namely, linguistic abstraction. Study 2 considered the explicit level of verbal abuse. Results highlighted that target's reduced humanity led to enhanced linguistic discrimination toward the target, while group membership moderated this effect in specific conditions. Overall, the evidence of this set of studies sheds light on the role of humanity and its interplay with social categorization on discrimination outcomes. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Psychological and Linguistic Portrait of Criminals. Introduction to Discussion

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    Jadwiga Stawnicka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns one aspect of forensic linguistics, which concerns determination by the challenged statements. This is done in collaboration with linguist – creating a profile linguistic songwriter – and a psychologist – that creates a psychological profile. The cooperation of specialists can be used at the level of assessment, which is used for the purposes of investigation and legal proceedings. Expertise in the field of forensic linguistics (forensic linguistics, German. Forensische Linguistik include setting by/performance of speech based on the content of spoken or written (eg. The farewell letters, threatening letters, ransom demands; the possibility of setting texts by anonymous on the Internet, to determine the characteristics of linguistic stalkers and cyberstalkerów that can identify the sender of the message sender identification of the origin country, constructing linguistic profile anonymous author, the linguistic profile of the author of the well-known text. It should be added that the analysis of the content in content-language document contains emotional component, which is related to our knowledge about the determinants of language to express emotions, both negative and positive. An important element of the text is a matter of psychological portrait of the sender (author and / or performer of the text based on the identified linguistic features.

  12. Scientific terminology as a factor of linguistic competence formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ірина Іванівна Вакулик

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the components of technique of linguistic competence formation (correct use of phonological components, knowledge of vocabulary, grammatical categories and paradigms, syntax rules) is given...

  13. Extension of the TODIM Method to Intuitionistic Linguistic Multiple Attribute Decision Making

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    Shuwei Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical decision situations are becoming increasingly complicated. It is common for a person to select or rank alternatives with respect to multiple attributes, and the TODIM (an acronym in Portuguese of interactive and multiple attribute decision making method, which is one of the first multiple attribute decision making (MADM methods based on prospect theory, has received more attention due to its great performance in considering the bounded rationality of decision makers (DMs. However, the classical TODIM method can only handle the MADM problems with crisp numbers. In this paper, considering that intuitionistic linguistic variables are convenient to describe uncertain or imprecise information, we propose the intuitionistic linguistic TODIM (IL-TODIM method and intuitionistic uncertain linguistic TODIM (IUL-TODIM method to solve uncertain MADM problems with IL and IUL variables, respectively. Additionally, a novel distance measure for IUL numbers is developed, based on which we can obtain the corresponding dominance degree of one alternative over another. Finally, examples are provided to show the validity of the proposed methods, and we also conduct a comparison of the results between the IL-TODIM method and the existing intuitionistic fuzzy MADM methods to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods.

  14. The bit in the middle and why it's important: a computational analysis of the linguistic features of body paragraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John C; McCarthy, Philip M; Duran, Nicholas D; McNamara, Danielle S

    2011-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between the linguistic characteristics of body paragraphs of student essays and the total number of paragraphs in the essays. Results indicate a significant relationship between the total number of paragraphs and a variety of linguistic characteristics known to affect student essay scores. These linguistic characteristics (e.g., semantic overlap, syntactic complexity) contribute to two underlying factors (i.e., textual cohesion and difficulty) that are used as dependent variables in mixed-effect models. Results suggest that student essays with 5-8 paragraphs tend to be more linguistically consistent than student essays with 3, 4, and 9 paragraphs. Essays with totals of 5-8 paragraphs, considered by many educators to contain an optimal number of paragraphs, may include functionally and structurally similar paragraphs. These findings could aid writing researchers and educators in obtaining a clearer view of the relationship between the total number of paragraphs comprising an essay and the linguistic characteristics that affect essay evaluation. Consequently, writing interventions may become better equipped to pinpoint student difficulties and facilitate student writing skills by providing more detailed and informed feedback.

  15. Gesture for Linguists: A Handy Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abner, Natasha; Cooperrider, Kensy; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Humans communicate using language, but they also communicate using gesture – spontaneous movements of the hands and body that universally accompany speech. Gestures can be distinguished from other movements, segmented, and assigned meaning based on their forms and functions. Moreover, gestures systematically integrate with language at all levels of linguistic structure, as evidenced in both production and perception. Viewed typologically, gesture is universal, but nevertheless exhibits constrained variation across language communities (as does language itself ). Finally, gesture has rich cognitive dimensions in addition to its communicative dimensions. In overviewing these and other topics, we show that the study of language is incomplete without the study of its communicative partner, gesture. PMID:26807141

  16. Gesture for Linguists: A Handy Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abner, Natasha; Cooperrider, Kensy; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Humans communicate using language, but they also communicate using gesture - spontaneous movements of the hands and body that universally accompany speech. Gestures can be distinguished from other movements, segmented, and assigned meaning based on their forms and functions. Moreover, gestures systematically integrate with language at all levels of linguistic structure, as evidenced in both production and perception. Viewed typologically, gesture is universal, but nevertheless exhibits constrained variation across language communities (as does language itself ). Finally, gesture has rich cognitive dimensions in addition to its communicative dimensions. In overviewing these and other topics, we show that the study of language is incomplete without the study of its communicative partner, gesture.

  17. Linguistics: Modelling the dynamics of language death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel M.; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2003-08-01

    Thousands of the world's languages are vanishing at an alarming rate, with 90% of them being expected to disappear with the current generation. Here we develop a simple model of language competition that explains historical data on the decline of Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Quechua (the most common surviving indigenous language in the Americas) and other endangered languages. A linguistic parameter that quantifies the threat of language extinction can be derived from the model and may be useful in the design and evaluation of language-preservation programmes.

  18. MODERN MEDIA LANGUAGE: CATEGORICAL LINGUISTIC FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrova, I.B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the categorical features of modern media language. It is interactive, dialogical (dialogizated and potentially hypertextual, and has a stylistic diversity. Contemporary journalists’ speech, depending on the social orientation of the publication, differs in its cultural and linguistic features. It has some special characteristics such as polyphony, polycodeness, visualization. Media speech is anthropocentric, reflects the author's worldview, interpretation of events and phenomena, it is directed not to average citizen, but to representatives at least of a particular stratum, the individual. Modern discourse is narrative: a journalist creates his own picture of the world, tells his story about life, which reflects his cognitive, axiological, creative preferences.

  19. The computational linguistics of biological sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searls, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. Protein sequences are analogous in many respects, particularly their folding behavior. Proteins have a much richer variety of interactions, but in theory the same linguistic principles could come to bear in describing dependencies between distant residues that arise by virtue of three-dimensional structure. This tutorial will concentrate on nucleic acid sequences.

  20. Youth slang is the linguistic interesting phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Barannyk, E.; Vereshchak, A.; Malyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Raising of problem. That such the Ukrainian youth slang? He is named now the interesting linguistic phenomenon existence of that limit not only by certain age–old scopes, as it clear from his name, but also by social, temporal, spatial scopes. He exists mainly in the environment of young people, that studies, but is clear for other.Analysis of previous researches. The problem of youth slang plenty of scientific works is sanctified to: to research of Ukrainian–language slangy and substandard v...

  1. Assigning Numerical Scores to Linguistic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Campión

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study different methods of scoring linguistic expressions defined on a finite set, in the search for a linear order that ranks all those possible expressions. Among them, particular attention is paid to the canonical extension, and its representability through distances in a graph plus some suitable penalization of imprecision. The relationship between this setting and the classical problems of numerical representability of orderings, as well as extension of orderings from a set to a superset is also explored. Finally, aggregation procedures of qualitative rankings and scorings are also analyzed.

  2. Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Semantic Processing in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L.; Chernenok, Mariya; Gordon, Barry; Ledoux, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience difficulties with language, particularly higher-level functions like semantic integration. Yet some studies indicate that semantic processing of non-linguistic stimuli is not impaired, suggesting a language-specific deficit in semantic processing. Using a semantic priming task, we…

  3. Research Article Abstracts in Two Related Disciplines: Rhetorical Variation between Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntara, Watinee; Usaha, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and…

  4. Studies in Romance Linguistics. Proceedings of the Fifth Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Michio Peter, Ed.

    This volume consists of the following papers delivered at the Fifth Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages: (1) "The Heuristics of Substratum," by Dieter Wanner; (2) "The Auxiliary in Romance," by Frederick B. Agard; (3) "Lusitanian Portuguese," by Wayne J. Redenbarger; (4) "Paradigmatic Evolution of Diphthongs: Marsian Italian and Chicano…

  5. Working Papers in Linguistics. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopen, Tim, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography, compiled in an effort to improve the dissemination of linguistic information, provides information about 53 working papers series. It is the result of responses to questionnaires sent out during the past year. Most of the inquiries were made at institutions within the United States, but a few entries from other…

  6. Variations in reading and spelling acquisition in Portuguese, French and Spanish: A cross-linguistic comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Serrano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study undertakes a cross-linguistic comparison of reading and spelling acquisition in French, Portuguese and Spanish languages. It aims to examine several explanatory factors for the well-documented effect of language on the speed of reading and spelling development: differences in orthographic depth and complexity of syllabic structures. A longitudinal study was carried out with first graders in the three languages and with a common assessment procedure. Children were tested in October, February and May on letter knowledge, familiar word and simple pseudoword reading and spelling. Results show that all children were accurate in reading and spelling at the end of the first school year. Differences between languages are highlighted when rate of acquisition and linguistic variables such as lexicality, items length, or complexity of grapheme-phoneme correspondences and of the syllabic structure are considered. These differences will be discussed in the light of the explanatory factors mentioned.

  7. Linguistic uncertainty in qualitative risk analysis and how to minimize it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Janet M; Burgman, Mark A

    2008-04-01

    Most risk assessments assume uncertainty may be decomposed into variability and incertitude. Language is often overlooked as a source of uncertainty, but linguistic uncertainty may be pervasive in workshops, committees, and other face-to-face language-based settings where it can result in misunderstanding and arbitrary disagreement. Here we present examples of linguistic uncertainty drawn from qualitative risk analysis undertaken in stakeholder workshops and describe how the uncertainties were treated. We used a process of iterative re-assessment of likelihoods and consequences, interspersed with facilitated discussion, to assist in the reduction of language-based uncertainty. The effects of this process were evident as changes in the level of agreement among groups of assessors in the ranking of hazards.

  8. Variation in the normal hearing threshold predicts childhood IQ, linguistic, and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David; Dawes, Patrick J D

    2007-06-01

    Childhood hearing level varies considerably within the range considered normal. Four classes of outcome were investigated for associations with hearing thresholds in this range: ability to identify speech in noise, neurocognitive ability, linguistic ability, and behavior. The research was conducted in a general population cohort of 711 children with mean hearing threshold of 15 dB HL or better. Some outcomes: speech in noise, intelligence, and certain linguistic abilities, were predicted in both boys and girls; effects were stronger in girls. In girls only, poorer hearing predicted worse behavior. These effects remained after statistical control for childhood socioeconomic status and otitis media. Variability in normal hearing, due to causes other than otitis media, is associated with the listening, language, and neurocognitive abilities of children, and the behavior of girls. We suggest that these effects may be present for three reasons, cochlear insults, neurodevelopmental factors, and psychological factors. We discuss how these may interact to produce the effects observed.

  9. PRAGMATIC AND AESTHETIC VALUE OF «MASS LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Remchukova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a common trend in linguistic creativity in modern Russian language and its widespread and common character determined by a number of linguistic and extra-linguistic reasons. The author highlights the linguistic creativity of the Internet, media texts, and commercial naming, analyzes specific lexical and grammatical creative linguistic mechanisms (potential derivation, actualized polysemy, graphic hybridization, etc. as well as aesthetic and pragmatic value of «the widespread linguistic creativity». This term implies an ability of a native speaker of Russian to create in language not necessary bound by a literary text. This article suggests that it is not the aesthetic function of a text that is important; it is the actualization of the communicative and voluntary function that comes to the fore. Pragmatics then is more important than aesthetics in linguistic creativity. To prove her thesis, the author analyzes the language of advertising from the point of view of the correlation between pragmatics and aesthetics. These ads, or «mini texts» demonstrate innovations, which function in the context of “syntactic minimalism.” These innovations are determined by the addresser’s pragmatic choice of a specific, non-conventional expression mode. In some cases, these innovations become valuable from an aesthetic point of view. This study also deals with certain trends in linguistic creativity in the sphere of commercial naming, e.g.in naming of restaurants, cafes, shops. These trends are determined not only by the addresser’s perception of linguistic creativity as an attention-getting mechanism but also by the possibilities inherent in the linguistic system of the Russian language. This article suggests that the aesthetic value of commercial names could be determined by combining verbal and non-verbal devices, because the latter play an important role in the sphere of the widespread linguistic creativity. 

  10. Les linguistes et les questions de langue au Quebec: points de vue (Linguists and Language Questions in Quebec: Points of View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshaies, Denise, Ed.; Ouellon, Conrad, Ed.

    Papers, all in French, address four issues concerning linguistics and language in Quebec: language quality and linguistic reality; linguistic politics and the future of French in Quebec; the linguist's role in modern society; and dictionaries. Each section includes an untitled, substantive introduction and several papers. Papers include:…

  11. Towards psychoanalytic contribution to linguistic metaphor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Tair

    2017-07-05

    This paper lays out a formulation of the psychoanalytical contribution to linguistic metaphor theory. The author's main argument is that psychoanalysis can help enrich and shed light on linguistic metaphor theories, since these have focused on the cognitive aspect, to the exclusion of the role played by affect. Based on the tight link between metaphor and symbol - both configurations of figurative language - the author shall apply ideas sourced from some of the key psychoanalytic symbolization theories, focusing in particular on Klein, Winnicott, and Ogden. The course of exploration will serve to trace the unconscious emotional aspects that participate in the metaphor's mechanism, just as they participate in the symbol's workings. The study leads to the main conclusion that the intersubjective transitional space is of substantial importance to metaphor's constitution, particularly in regard to novel metaphors. Expanding the understanding of metaphor's modus operandi has important implications in conceptual clarification and for an in-depth analytical work, and is of immense significance when it comes to analytical work with patients who suffer impairment of their metaphoric ability. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  12. Linguistic Markers of Inference Generation While Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia; Carlson, Sarah E; Seipel, Ben

    2016-06-01

    Words can be informative linguistic markers of psychological constructs. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between word use and the process of making meaningful connections to a text while reading (i.e., inference generation). To achieve this purpose, think-aloud data from third-fifth grade students ([Formula: see text]) reading narrative texts were hand-coded for inferences. These data were also processed with a computer text analysis tool, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, for percentages of word use in the following categories: cognitive mechanism words, nonfluencies, and nine types of function words. Findings indicate that cognitive mechanisms were an independent, positive predictor of connections to background knowledge (i.e., elaborative inference generation) and nonfluencies were an independent, negative predictor of connections within the text (i.e., bridging inference generation). Function words did not provide unique variance towards predicting inference generation. These findings are discussed in the context of a cognitive reflection model and the differences between bridging and elaborative inference generation. In addition, potential practical implications for intelligent tutoring systems and computer-based methods of inference identification are presented.

  13. Mixed-effects regression models in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Heylen, Kris; Geeraerts, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    When data consist of grouped observations or clusters, and there is a risk that measurements within the same group are not independent, group-specific random effects can be added to a regression model in order to account for such within-group associations. Regression models that contain such group-specific random effects are called mixed-effects regression models, or simply mixed models. Mixed models are a versatile tool that can handle both balanced and unbalanced datasets and that can also be applied when several layers of grouping are present in the data; these layers can either be nested or crossed.  In linguistics, as in many other fields, the use of mixed models has gained ground rapidly over the last decade. This methodological evolution enables us to build more sophisticated and arguably more realistic models, but, due to its technical complexity, also introduces new challenges. This volume brings together a number of promising new evolutions in the use of mixed models in linguistics, but also addres...

  14. Improving Students' Vocabulary Mastery Using Linguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Warta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is taken for granted that students' vocabulary can be developed to a certain degree and its development can be done through a number of ways. This study investigated the effectiveness of linguistic approach in developing EFL learners' vocabulary. 50 participants were involved in the study. They were divided into experimental and controlled groups, consisting of 25 students. The experimental group was taught using linguistic method while the controlled was instructed with a conventional method. The experiment was carried out in the classroom setting and lasted for one semester. The two groups were evaluated by means of pre-and post-test. The results show that the experimental group performed better than the controlled. The value of t-test is bigger than the value of t-table, and assessment of student' performance level, by the help of two native speakers, shows significant development; it developed from marginal to modest or between modest and competent, or from basic level to intermediate with the mean difference of 1.76.

  15. Linguistic and pragmatic constraints on utterance interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkelman, Elizabeth A.

    1990-05-01

    In order to model how people understand language, it is necessary to understand not only grammar and logic but also how people use language to affect their environment. This area of study is known as natural language pragmatics. Speech acts, for instance, are the offers, promises, announcements, etc., that people make by talking. The same expression may be different acts in different contexts, and yet not every expression performs every act. We want to understand how people are able to recognize other's intentions and implications in saying something. Previous plan-based theories of speech act interpretation do not account for the conventional aspect of speech acts. They can, however, be made sensitive to both linguistic and propositional information. This dissertation presents a method of speech act interpretation which uses patterns of linguistic features (e.g., mood, verb form, sentence adverbials, thematic roles) to identify a range of speech act interpretations for the utterance. These are then filtered and elaborated by inferences about agents' goals and plans. In many cases the plan reasoning consists of short, local inference chains (that are in fact conversational implicatures) and, extended reasoning is necessary only for the most difficult cases. The method is able to accommodate a wide range of cases, from those which seem very idiomatic to those which must be analyzed using knowledge about the world and human behavior. It explains how, Can you pass the salt, can be a request while, Are you able to pass the salt, is not.

  16. What Is Un-Cartesian Linguistics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Hinzen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Un-Cartesian linguistics is a research program with the aim of rethinking the nature of grammar as a domain of scientific inquiry, raising new questions about the constitutive role of grammar in the organization of our (rational minds and selves. It reformulates the ‘Cartesian’ foundations of the modern Universal Grammar project, shifting emphasis away from the study of a domain-specific ‘innate’ module separate from thought, to the study of a sapiens-specific mode of cognition conditioned by both grammatical and lexical organization, and thus a particular cognitive phenotype, which is uniquely also a linguistic one. The purpose of this position paper is to introduce and motivate this new concept in its various dimensions and in accessible terms, and to define the ‘Un-Cartesian Hypothesis’: that the grammaticalization of the hominin brain in the evolutionary transition to our species uniquely explains why our cognitive mode involves a capacity for thought in a propositional format.

  17. Advertising books: a linguistic analysis of blurbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Lluïsa Gea Valor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a preliminary approach to the study of blurbs, brief texts traditionally displayed on bookcovers, and nowadays also on the Internet, which provide information about a book to potential readers. This study focuses on four of the most widelyknown publishing and bookselling companies in the English-speaking world: Penguin, Ballantine, Routledge, and Barnes & Noble, and analyses more than 60 blurbs displayed on their web sites. The study indicates that blurbs may constitute a genre characterised by a definite communicative purpose and by the use of specific linguistic and discourse conventions. Blurbs perform an informative function based on the description of the contents of a book. But this function is secondary to their persuasive purpose, characteristic of advertising discourse, because blurbs recommend the book by means of review extracts from various sources in an attempt to persuade the prospective reader to buy the "product." In order to achieve their communicative purpose, blurbs make use of a wide range of linguistic and discourse conventions typical of advertising discourse: complimenting, elliptical syntactic patterns, the imperative, the address form "you," and what I have called "curiosity arousers," usually in the form of rhetorical questions and excerpts from the book.

  18. Linguistic intergroup bias in political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anolli, Luigi; Zurloni, Valentino; Riva, Giuseppe

    2006-07-01

    The Linguistic Intergroup Bias (LIB) illustrates the disposition to communicate positive in-group and negative out-group behaviors more abstractly than negative in-group and positive out-group behaviors. The present research examined the function of language in reinforcing this bias in political communication. To illustrate the LIB, the Linguistic Category Model (LCM) was used, including a nouns category. Because social stereotypes are usually conveyed by nominal terms, the aim was to observe the relationship between stereotypes and language in political communication. Moreover, we were interested in analyzing the psychological processes that drive the LIB. Therefore, we verified whether the LIB is more related to language abstractness than to agent-patient causality. Several political debates and interviews, which took place before the latest Italian provincial elections, were analyzed. Results suggested that the language politicians use in communicating about political groups are conceptualized as stereotypes rather than as trait-based categories. Moreover, it seems that the LIB could not be explained only at a lexical level. Social implications of the present findings in interpersonal relations and causal attribution were discussed.

  19. Statistical and linguistic features of DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Mantegna, R. N.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing noncoding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, base pairs thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene. We resolve the problem of the "non-stationary" feature of the sequence of base pairs by applying a new algorithm called Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). We address the claim of Voss that there is no difference in the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions of DNA by systematically applying the DFA algorithm, as well as standard FFT analysis, to all eukaryotic DNA sequences (33 301 coding and 29 453 noncoding) in the entire GenBank database. We describe a simple model to account for the presence of long-range power-law correlations which is based upon a generalization of the classic Levy walk. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work showing that the noncoding sequences have certain statistical features in common with natural languages. Specifically, we adapt to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts, and the Shannon approach to quantifying the "redundancy" of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function. We suggest that noncoding regions in plants and invertebrates may display a smaller entropy and larger redundancy than coding regions, further supporting the possibility that noncoding regions of DNA may carry biological information.

  20. Mindful attention reduces linguistic intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincher, Moses M; Lebois, Lauren A M; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2016-04-01

    A brief mindfulness intervention diminished bias in favor of one's in-group and against one's out-group. In the linguistic intergroup bias (LIB), individuals expect in-group members to behave positively, and out-group members to behave negatively. Consequently, individuals choose abstract language beset with character inferences to describe these expected behaviors, and in contrast, choose concrete, objective language to describe unexpected behaviors. Eighty-four participants received either mindful attention instructions (observe their thoughts as fleeting mental states) or immersion instructions (become absorbed in the vivid details of thoughts). After instruction, participants viewed visual depictions of an imagined in-group or out-group member's positive or negative behavior, selecting the best linguistic description from a set of four descriptions that varied in abstractness. Immersion groups demonstrated a robust LIB. Mindful attention groups, however, exhibited a markedly tempered LIB, suggesting that even a brief mindfulness-related instruction can implicitly reduce the propensity to perpetuate stereotypical thinking through language. These results contribute to understanding the mechanisms that facilitate unprejudiced thinking.

  1. A linguistic Analysis of Husseini Slogans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besma Khalid Inghaish

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the linguistic phenomenon of slogans which is deep-rooted in the values, traditions, beliefs and conventions of any society. It investigates the slogans uttered by Imam Hussein Bin Ali Bin Abi Talib (Peace be upon them in his revolution against the crookedness and deviations of the evil rule of Yazid or those uttered by his followers and adherents have been collected from Al-Qarashi (2011, Al-Yaasiry (2009, Al-Jaraadi (2010 and At-Tublaani (2012. The paper aims to investigate the linguistic features of slogans (on the phonological, lexical and syntactic levels and show the macro-strategies used to achieve these religious slogans. The conclusions can be summarized as the following: The analysis has shown that Hosu and Pavelea’s model of slogans fits at the phonological and lexical levels but it lacks some devices on the syntactic level namely: negation, comparison and vocative. In the light of this, the researcher proposes a modified model to include these devices.

  2. LINGUISTIC VARIATION AND WRITING AND READING PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aira Suzana Ribeiro Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A student, when starting their studies at an education institution, is already a skilled user of their native language. The role of the school is to start the language teaching process based on the knowledge already acquired by the student. This procedure will make the learner’s communication resources be progressively widened, resulting in their ability to use the language in a proper manner, during the various daily situations, in both verbal and written modalities. In order to reach this purpose, it is advisable that the teacher search for strategies to show the student that linguistic variation is an important factor for the richness of a language. Thus, we believe that reading texts belonging to genders that use a more colloquial language is an efficient way to start the work of raising the individual’s awareness about the heterogeneous nature of the language and the importance of each of its registers. The understanding provided by Soares (2011 about literacy shows that learning a language is a continuous process, and that the richness offered by reading and writing experiences will greatly help shaping and improving the student’s communication and expression ability. Based on readings on literacy, language teaching, and reading practices, our text is intended to show ways to work with reading and writing, with aims to get to know and value the various forms of expression, considering the linguistic variation.

  3. Female fertility affects men's linguistic choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Coyle

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.

  4. Perceptual effects of linguistic category priming : The Stapel and Semin paradigm revisited in twelve experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, H.; Regenberg, N.; Saddlemeyer, J.; Koole, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic category priming is a novel paradigm to examine automatic influences of language on cognition (Semin, 2008). An initial article reported that priming abstract linguistic categories (adjectives) led to more global perceptual processing, whereas priming concrete linguistic categories

  5. Changes in the style and content of Australian election campaign speeches from 1901 to 2016: A computational linguistic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvean Michael

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been significant social and political changes in Australian society since federation in 1901. The issues that are considered politically salient have also changed significantly. The purpose of this article is to examine changes in the style and content of election campaign speeches over the period 1901-2016. The corpus consists of 88 election campaign speeches delivered by the Prime Minister and Opposition leader for the 45 elections from 1901 to 2016. I use natural language processing to extract from the speeches a number of linguistic variables which serve as independent variables and use the year of delivery as the dependent variable. I then use machine learning to develop a regression model which explains 77 per cent of the variance in the dependent variable. Examination of the salient independent variables shows that there have been significant linguistic changes in the style and content of election speeches over the study period. In particular speeches have become less linguistically complex, less introspective, more focused on work and the home, and contain more visual and social references. I discuss these changes in the context of changes in Australian society over the study period.

  6. Ghana Journal of Linguistics - Vol 6, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Editors welcome reports on research in progress and brief notices of research findings, as well as news of general interest to linguists. The Editors also welcome books from authors and publishers for review in the Ghana Journal of Linguistics. They may be sent to Dr. Ọbádélé Kambon, Editor-in-Chief, Ghana Journal of ...

  7. Linguistic Hegemony Today: Recommendations for Eradicating Language Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lakia M.; Venegas, Elena M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues of contemporary language conflict in educational contexts. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper which examines current educational practices and policies through the lens of linguistic hegemony. Findings: The authors identify three primary areas in which linguistic hegemony…

  8. The redefinition of applied linguistics: modernist and postmodernist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lack of debate about what constitutes applied linguistics brings with it an uncritical acceptance of views that deserve to be contested. Moreover, it leads to an ignorance of the historical influence of such views, which directly affects the basis of applied linguistics research and the training of professionals in the field.

  9. Inside Front Cover | Chief | Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a double-blind peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year (not including special issues), published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at https://gjl.laghana.org and ...

  10. WHY LANGUAGE TEACHERS NEED LINGUISTICS Vivian de Klerk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WHY LANGUAGE TEACHERS NEED LINGUISTICS. Vivian de Klerk. Rhodes University. In 1967 Paul Roberts wrote "It is probably fair to say that. Linguistics is the hottest topic on the English Teacher's agenda at the present time. It is the one topic almost certain to be on the program wherever English teachers come ...

  11. Ghana Journal of Linguistics - Vol 6, No 3 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The papers of this issue are a testament to the wide variety of theoretical approaches and diverse research areas pertaining to linguistics found in Africa. In this vein, GJL continues to serve as a hub of scholarship, providing an avenue for the publication of double-blind peer-reviewed studies on language, linguistics and all ...

  12. Building "Applied Linguistic Historiography": Rationale, Scope, and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article I argue for the establishment of "Applied Linguistic Historiography" (ALH), that is, a new domain of enquiry within applied linguistics involving a rigorous, scholarly, and self-reflexive approach to historical research. Considering issues of rationale, scope, and methods in turn, I provide reasons why ALH is needed and…

  13. Evidence and Formal Models in the Linguistic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Carlos Gray

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation contains a collection of essays centered on the relationship between theoretical model-building and empirical evidence-gathering in linguistics and related language sciences. The first chapter sets the stage by demonstrating that the subject matter of linguistics is manifold, and contending that discussion of relationships…

  14. The Linguistic Culture of African Union: Implications to Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Linguistic Culture of African Union: Implications to Regional Unity, Identity and Development. ... is that AU should go back to the drawing board and be linguistically liberated and independent so as to foster real unity, to have real identity which will ignite reasonable technological, scientific and manpower development.

  15. Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…

  16. Voicing Solidarity: Linguistic Hospitality and Poststructuralism in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Structuralism has dominated the field of applied linguistics, which has consequences for the positioning of applied linguistics "vis-a-vis" policy makers, educational practice, and also theoretical and methodological innovations. These consequences pertain to how the field advocates, takes sides, balances its descriptive modes with its discursive…

  17. Native-Speakerism, Stereotyping and the Collusion of Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabel, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Although, in recent years there have been several advances in critical applied linguistics which have attempted to problematize the ideological underpinnings of language practices, there have in parallel been resistances mounted on the part of traditional applied linguistics that adamantly oppose any form of coming to terms with the political and…

  18. Bootstrapping in Applied Linguistics: Assessing Its Potential Using Shared Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsky, Luke; Egbert, Jesse; Laflair, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Parametric analyses such as t tests and ANOVAs are the norm--if not the default--statistical tests found in quantitative applied linguistics research (Gass 2009). Applied statisticians and one applied linguist (Larson-Hall 2010, 2012; Larson-Hall and Herrington 2010), however, have argued that this approach may not be appropriate for small samples…

  19. Statistical Literacy among Applied Linguists and Second Language Acquisition Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Shawn; Lavolette, Elizabeth; Spino, Le Anne; Papi, Mostafa; Schmidtke, Jens; Sterling, Scott; Wolff, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The importance of statistical knowledge in applied linguistics and second language acquisition (SLA) research has been emphasized in recent publications. However, the last investigation of the statistical literacy of applied linguists occurred more than 25 years ago (Lazaraton, Riggenbach, & Ediger, 1987). The current study undertook a partial…

  20. Sobre prestamos y clasificaciones linguisticas (Regarding Borrowing and Linguistic Classification).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Mary Ritchie

    1988-01-01

    This article explores the traditionally accepted etymologies of several lexical borrowings in the indigenous languages of the Americas within the framework of comparative linguistics and linguistic classification. The first section presents a general discussion of the problem of tracing lexical borrowings in this context. The section features a…

  1. Knowing linguistic conventions | Robinson | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are three standard accounts of the epistemic status of linguistic conventions, which all play into the first camp: (1) knowledge by intuition, (2) inferential a priori knowledge and (3) a posteriori knowledge. I give reasons why these accounts should be rejected. I then argue that linguistic conventions, if conceived of as ...

  2. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    OpenAIRE

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characteriz...

  3. Linguistic – Stylistic Technique and the Effective Teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    between the achievement of male and female students in poetry taught with linguistic-stylistic technique. ..... Hence, it is intrinsically motivating and enhances retention. This is in line with the findings of Ebam and Ada (1998) that ... Carefully reading the poems that are to be taught in the classroom. •. Extracting the linguistic ...

  4. Questioning Linguistic Instrumentalism: English, Neoliberalism, and Language Tests in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Ryuko

    2011-01-01

    Linguistic instrumentalism, which underscores the importance of English skills for work and for achieving individual economic success, has influenced language education policies and proliferated the language teaching and testing industry in Japan. Linguistic instrumentalism is linked to the notion of human capital (i.e., skills deemed necessary…

  5. Linguistic Error Analysis on Students' Thesis Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescante-Malimas, Mary Ann; Samson, Sonrisa C.

    2017-01-01

    This study identified and analyzed the common linguistic errors encountered by Linguistics, Literature, and Advertising Arts majors in their Thesis Proposal classes in the First Semester 2016-2017. The data were the drafts of the thesis proposals of the students from the three different programs. A total of 32 manuscripts were analyzed which was…

  6. Linguistic Choices and Gender Roles in New Nigerian Literature: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Linguistic Choices and Gender Roles in New. Nigerian Literature: An Examination of Alpha ... linguistics, the study of literature remains a series of personal preferences. It examines how power is invested along ..... finds that Mary Rose is not the beautiful, elegant, petit girl he had imagined. He would not even permit her to ...

  7. LINGUISTIC STUDIES FOR CHINESE TO ENGLISH MACHINE TRANSLATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, THERESA; AND OTHERS

    A LINGUISTIC PROCESSING SYSTEM, WHICH HAS BEEN DEVELOPED FOR CHINESE TO ENGLISH MACHINE TRANSLATION, UTILIZING THE CONTEXTUAL ASSOCIATIVE METHOD WAS DESCRIBED. THE REPORT INCLUDES (1) AN EXPLANATION OF THE LINGUISTIC PROCESSING SYSTEM, (2) MORPHOLOGICAL AND SYNTACTIC ANALYSES, AND (3) AN ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH INFLECTION. MACHINE APPLICABILITY WAS…

  8. Charting the anatomy of linguistic reality | Botha | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Charting the anatomy of linguistic reality. RP Botha. Abstract. No Abstract.

  9. Linguistic Terminology as a Source of Verbal Fictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Leo

    1976-01-01

    A random sampling of linguistic terms, idioms, phrases--drawn mostly from the current linguistic literature in English--is examined to determine what kinds of unrealistic or confusing assumptions about language may be subtly embedded in such expressions. (Author/RM)

  10. Does Linguistic Comprehension Support the Decoding Skills of Struggling Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, Michele; Nicholson, Tom; Chapman, James; Berman, Jeanette

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of linguistic comprehension to the decoding skills of struggling readers. Participants were 36 children aged between eight and 12 years, all below average in decoding but differing in linguistic comprehension. The children read passages from the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability and their first 25 miscues…

  11. Linguistic and Pragmatic Skills in Toddlers with Cochlear Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Pasquale; Baruffaldi, Francesca; Burdo, Sandro; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of deaf children received cochlear implants (CI) in the first years of life, but no study has focused on linguistic and pragmatic skills in children with CI younger than 3 years of age. Aims: To estimate the percentage of children who had received a CI before 2 years of age whose linguistic skills were within the…

  12. Students' Perceptions of Blog Use in an Undergraduate Linguistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Didem Koban; Koç, Serdar Engin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the perceptions of learners' blog use in a Linguistics course offered in an English Language Teaching program at one of the largest government universities in Turkey. A total of 71 students participated in the study. The students were asked to respond to several blog questions about the linguistics lectures…

  13. What have Eastern Kalahari Khoe languages lost linguistically?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    “San” is not used in its linguistic sense to denote a particular linguistic grouping; rather, it is used in this paper .... As mentioned earlier, a comparative word list of 150 items taken from the three languages and checked against ..... nominative) pronominal elements of the three languages – Kua, Cua and Tsua – are presented ...

  14. Corpus Linguistics and Language Testing: Navigating Uncharted Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The use of corpora and corpus linguistic methods in language testing research is increasing at an accelerated pace. The growing body of language testing research that uses corpus linguistic data is a testament to their utility in test development and validation. Although there are many reasons to be optimistic about the future of using corpus data…

  15. Call For Papers | Editor | Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Papers in the core areas of linguistics are also encouraged: Phonetics; Phonology; Morphology; Syntax; Semantics; Pragmatics; Discourse analysis; Sociolinguistics; Corpus Linguistics. Abstracts should not be more than 250 words and can be written in English or French. Submissions are restricted to one single-authored ...

  16. The History of Linguistics in Europe from Plato to 1600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Vivien

    This book examines the history of western linguistics over a 2,000-year timespan, from its origins in ancient Greece up to the crucial moments of change in the Renaissance that lay the foundations of modern linguistics. The book explores how ideas about language over the centuries have changed to reflect changing modes of thinking. Twelve chapters…

  17. TOWARDS A RE-ORIENTATION OF LINGUISTIC STUDY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    description of the indigenous languages at all levels, the contributions and findings ... group languages. The foregoing, notwithstanding, the study of linguistics in Nigeria still leaves much to be desired. It has been observed that linguistics in Nigeria ..... treatment given to people with language and speech disorders namely: ...

  18. Multilingualism in Cyberspace: Conceptualising the Virtual Linguistic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivkovic, Dejan; Lotherington, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The linguistic landscape (LL) is a sociolinguistic concept that captures power relations and identity marking in the linguistic rendering of urban space: the city read as text. As such, LL is embedded in the physical geography of the cityscape. However, with the increasing scope of multilingual capabilities in digital communications, multilingual…

  19. Linguistica matematica, statistica linguistica e linguistica applicata. Una nota storica sui lessici di frequenza e l'educazione linguistica (Mathematical Linguistics, Linguistic Statistics, and Applied Linguistics. An Historical Note on Word Frequencies and Linguistic Education)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Annibale

    1977-01-01

    This article traces the history of several themes in applied linguistics and to show the relationships between linguistic theory and the sciences concerned with the learning and teaching of languages. Interest in word frequency statistics is discussed in particular. (Text is in Italian.) (CFM)

  20. Improving English Instruction through Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, David Jay

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the background information and numerous applications of neuro-linguistic programming as it applies to improving English instruction. In addition, the N.L.P. modalities of eye movement, the use of predicates, and posturing are discussed. Neuro-linguistic programming presents all students of English an opportunity to reach their…

  1. Rhetorical and Linguistic Analysis of Bush's Second Inaugural Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameer, Imad Hayif

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to analyze Bush's second inaugural speech. It aims at investigating the use of linguistic strategies in it. It resorts to two models which are Aristotle's model while the second is that of Atkinson's (1984) to draw the attention towards linguistic strategies. The analysis shows that Bush's second inaugural speech is successful…

  2. Effects of Methods with Linguistic Package on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effects of methods with a package of linguistic inputs on the achievements of students' in essay writing. The package of linguistic input is a package designed to enhance students' ability to write correct sentences especially in areas of concord, that is agreement of pronoun with a compound ...

  3. Donnees linguistiques, communication et aphasie (Linguistic Assumptions, Communication and Aphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand-Gelber, Regine

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses communication as a subject of psycholinguistic study, with reference to amnesiacal aphasia. The aphasic's problem is presented as a rupture of the communicative act, on the linguistic as well as on the extra-linguistic level. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  4. Learning concepts, language, and literacy in hybrid linguistic codes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning concepts, language, and literacy in hybrid linguistic codes: The multilingual maze of urban grade 1 classrooms in South Africa. ... From the field of developmental psycholinguistics and from conceptual development theory there is evidence that excessive linguistic 'code-switching' in early school education may ...

  5. Analysis of Idiom Variation in the Framework of Linguistic Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyuan

    2012-01-01

    Idiom variation is a ubiquitous linguistic phenomenon which has raised a lot of research questions. The past approach was either formal or functional. Both of them did not pay much attention to cognitive factors of language users. By putting idiom variation in the framework of linguistic subjectivity, we have offered a new perspective in the…

  6. The Functions of Paralinguistic Means in Linguistic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolsankij, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    The article discusses the process of uniting inherently-linguistic and extra-linguistic factors in communication, examining the reasons for paralinguistic phenomena, their nature and tasks both in oral and written communication, and the ways in which they affect the entire system of the language. (CLK)

  7. Linguistic complexity and frequency in agrammatic speech production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Bouma, Gosse; Post, Wendy

    There is a long standing debate between aphasiologists on the essential factor that constitutes the behavioral patterns of loss and preservation in agrammatic Broca's aphasia. It has been suggested that linguistic complexity plays a crucial role: linguistically complex structures are more difficult

  8. Across language families: Genome diversity mirrors linguistic variation within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Giuseppe; Ghirotto, Silvia; Guardiano, Cristina; Tassi, Francesca; Benazzo, Andrea; Ceolin, Andrea; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-08-01

    The notion that patterns of linguistic and biological variation may cast light on each other and on population histories dates back to Darwin's times; yet, turning this intuition into a proper research program has met with serious methodological difficulties, especially affecting language comparisons. This article takes advantage of two new tools of comparative linguistics: a refined list of Indo-European cognate words, and a novel method of language comparison estimating linguistic diversity from a universal inventory of grammatical polymorphisms, and hence enabling comparison even across different families. We corroborated the method and used it to compare patterns of linguistic and genomic variation in Europe. Two sets of linguistic distances, lexical and syntactic, were inferred from these data and compared with measures of geographic and genomic distance through a series of matrix correlation tests. Linguistic and genomic trees were also estimated and compared. A method (Treemix) was used to infer migration episodes after the main population splits. We observed significant correlations between genomic and linguistic diversity, the latter inferred from data on both Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages. Contrary to previous observations, on the European scale, language proved a better predictor of genomic differences than geography. Inferred episodes of genetic admixture following the main population splits found convincing correlates also in the linguistic realm. These results pave the ground for previously unfeasible cross-disciplinary analyses at the worldwide scale, encompassing populations of distant language families. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Linguistic Theory in Practical Lexicography of African Languages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mev. R.B. Ruthven

    Abstract: In this article, we look at the relationship between linguistics and lexicography. We specifically look at the relevance of data derived from theoretical linguistic investigations to the compilation of dictionaries in African languages. Our point of departure is that since it is language description that lies at the core of both ...

  10. Vanessa Pupavac: Language Rights. From Free Speech to Linguistic Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: Vanessa Pupavac: Language Rights. From Free Speech to Linguistic Governance. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2012, x + 317 pp.......Book review of: Vanessa Pupavac: Language Rights. From Free Speech to Linguistic Governance. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2012, x + 317 pp....

  11. Violation of Linguistic and Patient's Rights in Kenya Nyongesa Ben ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kangethe Iraki

    also need to enlighten the public and patients in particular on the patients' rights and enact ... The focus on the importance of health communication especially health ... language. Ibid, (2001) coins the expression: Linguistic Citizenship instead. In Linguistic citizenship, speakers of a language exercise control over their ...

  12. Cross-linguistic emotion recognition : Dutch, Korean and American English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, J.P.; Broersma, M.; Goudbeek, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the occurrence of asymmetries in cross-linguistic recognition of emotion in speech. Theories on emotion recognition do not consider asymmetries in the cross-linguistic recognition of emotion. To study perceptual asymmetries, a fully crossed design was used, with speakers and

  13. Test Item Linguistic Complexity and Assessments for Deaf Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Linguistic complexity of test items is one test format element that has been studied in the context of struggling readers and their participation in paper-and-pencil tests. The present article presents findings from an exploratory study on the potential relationship between linguistic complexity and test performance for deaf readers. A total of 64…

  14. Linguistic theory in the practical lexicography of the African languages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We specifically look at the relevance of data derived from theoretical linguistic investigations to the compilation of dictionaries in African languages. Our point of departure is that since it is language description that lies at the core of both lexicography and linguistic theory, lexicographers can improve their work by using ...

  15. Breaking Classroom Silences: A View from Linguistic Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampton, Ben; Charalambous, Constadina

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses potentially problematic classroom episodes in which someone foregrounds a social division that is normally taken for granted. It illustrates the way in which linguistic ethnography can unpack the layered processes that collide in the breaking of silence, showing how linguistic form and practice, individual positioning, local…

  16. The role of linguistic context in children's interpretation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research findings have shown that linguistic context helps young children to infer the figurative meaning of an idiom and learn the meaning. In this study, the role of linguistic context in children's interpretation and acquisition of idioms was tested in 20 Cicewa-speaking children aged 4, 6, 9, 12 and 14 years in three ...

  17. Interpretations of linguistic identity in contemporary social and humanitarian knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Liakhovich

    2015-03-01

    Despite the existence of a plurality of options interpreting linguistic identity, the symbolic, real and imagined projection of categories on language problems can be an innovative approach to the study of linguistic phenomena, as it allows to shift the emphasis from standardized methods to reflective identifying meanings and codes of the phenomenon or process.

  18. On Research Methodology in Applied Linguistics in 2002-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynychev, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the status of data-based research in applied linguistics through an analysis of published research studies in nine peer-reviewed applied linguistics journals ("Applied Language Learning, The Canadian Modern Language Review / La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, Current Issues in Language Planning, Dialog on Language…

  19. Linguistic Stress Judgments of Language Learning Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highnam, Cliff; Morris, Valerie

    1987-01-01

    The ability of 10 language learning disabled (LD) children (age 9-12) and 10 sex/age matched normals to judge correctness of linguistic stress and semantic appropriateness was examined. Results indicated more difficulty on the linguistic stress task than the semantic interpretation task for LD children and better performance by normals on both…

  20. Role of linguistic skills in fifth-grade mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.A.J.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and indirect relations between basic linguistic skills (i.e., phonological skills and grammatical ability) and advanced linguistic skills (i.e., academic vocabulary and verbal reasoning), on the one hand, and fifth-grade mathematics (i.e., arithmetic,

  1. Theoretical Interpretation of Linguistics and Glotoeducology Research Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Sklizmantaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of linguistics and methodical research techniques with indication of their general and specific characteristics. The authors underline the influence of the scientific research techniques over the science evolution and accent the importance of these techniques, when analyzing the scientific justification of teaching the foreign languages. The element of linguistics, according to the authors, is particularly important for scientific justification of lingua-didactic science. The examination of the scientific literature, supervision of the educative process, summarizing of data and linguistic statistics are the most important linguistic and methodical research techniques. In the authors’ opinion, without the scientific research techniques the science progress is impossible, since the linguists and supervisors must be researchers of the subject they teach.

  2. The Perilous Life of a Linguistic Genre Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchmann, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The primary, theoretical aim of the article is to present a linguistic text analysis that differs from standard text linguistic approaches by being informative with regard to the linguistic choices and textual organisation that characterise a text as a social act. The analysis is exemplified......, and that the prevent an informative analysis of texts as social acts. Alternatively, it is suggested that linguistic choices and textual organisation are guided by social motives (Miller 1984), and that social motives, themselves, are the result of a mulititude of factors, among others: constitutional, political......, governmental, ideological, educational, professional, ethical, technological, economical, and commercial. These dependency relations appear as linguistic and organisational regularities in naturally occuring social social acts constituted by the same social motives. Consequently, the regulalities should...

  3. Literacy from a linguistic and a sociolinguistic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kahtany, Abdallah Hady

    1996-11-01

    This paper examines the impact of two major approaches to literacy programs — the linguistic and the sociolinguistic. The principal difference between the two perspectives is that the linguistic negates the importance of sociological and ethnographic factors in a person's attaining literacy, while the sociolinguistic magnifies these influences. From one viewpoint, literacy is seen as cracking a linguistic code, while from the other, in Freire's (1987) phrasing, "reading the world" is necessary before "reading the word". Academic/cultural literacy and functional literacy are examined as types affiliated with the linguistic perspective. Types of ethnographic literacy programs are analyzed to show their sociolinguistic orientation. The last section of the paper examines the language planning consequences of which perspective a country adopts and focuses on some recent literacy programs in Peru which incorporate elements of both the linguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives.

  4. Automatic modeling of the linguistic values for database fuzzy querying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana STEFANESCU

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate vague queries, each linguistic term is considered according to its fuzzy model. Usually, the linguistic terms are defined as fuzzy sets, during a classical knowledge acquisition off-line process. But they can also be automatically extracted from the actual content of the database, by an online process. In at least two situations, automatically modeling the linguistic values would be very useful: first, to simplify the knowledge engineer’s task by extracting the definitions from the database content; and second, where mandatory, to dynamically define the linguistic values in complex criteria queries evaluation. Procedures to automatically extract the fuzzy model of the linguistic values from the existing data are presented in this paper.

  5. Role of linguistic skills in fifth-grade mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemans, Tijs; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-03-01

    The current study investigated the direct and indirect relations between basic linguistic skills (i.e., phonological skills and grammatical ability) and advanced linguistic skills (i.e., academic vocabulary and verbal reasoning), on the one hand, and fifth-grade mathematics (i.e., arithmetic, geometry, and fractions), on the other, taking working memory and general intelligence into account and controlling for socioeconomic status, age, and gender. The results showed the basic linguistic representations of 167 fifth graders to be indirectly related to their geometric and fraction skills via arithmetic. Furthermore, advanced linguistic skills were found to be directly related to geometry and fractions after controlling for arithmetic. It can be concluded that linguistic skills directly and indirectly relate to mathematical ability in the upper grades of primary education, which highlights the importance of paying attention to such skills in the school curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Right Lateral Cerebellum Represents Linguistic Predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Elise; Hansen, Peter C; Miall, R Chris

    2017-06-28

    Mounting evidence indicates that posterolateral portions of the cerebellum (right Crus I/II) contribute to language processing, but the nature of this role remains unclear. Based on a well-supported theory of cerebellar motor function, which ascribes to the cerebellum a role in short-term prediction through internal modeling, we hypothesize that right cerebellar Crus I/II supports prediction of upcoming sentence content. We tested this hypothesis using event-related fMRI in male and female human subjects by manipulating the predictability of written sentences. Our design controlled for motor planning and execution, as well as for linguistic features and working memory load; it also allowed separation of the prediction interval from the presentation of the final sentence item. In addition, three further fMRI tasks captured semantic, phonological, and orthographic processing to shed light on the nature of the information processed. As hypothesized, activity in right posterolateral cerebellum correlated with the predictability of the upcoming target word. This cerebellar region also responded to prediction error during the outcome of the trial. Further, this region was engaged in phonological, but not semantic or orthographic, processing. This is the first imaging study to demonstrate a right cerebellar contribution in language comprehension independently from motor, cognitive, and linguistic confounds. These results complement our work using other methodologies showing cerebellar engagement in linguistic prediction and suggest that internal modeling of phonological representations aids language production and comprehension.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The cerebellum is traditionally seen as a motor structure that allows for smooth movement by predicting upcoming signals. However, the cerebellum is also consistently implicated in nonmotor functions such as language and working memory. Using fMRI, we identify a cerebellar area that is active when words are predicted and when

  7. Professional Training of Computational Linguists at the University of Stuttgart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmoroz Halyna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the aspects of professional training of specialists in computational linguistics by the example of the University of Stuttgart. First of all, we have attempted to define the essence of the terms “applied linguistics” and “computational linguistics” based on the views of Ukrainian and foreign scholars. We have found out that there is an obvious inconsistency in using these terms as Ukrainian scholars view it as a science related to practical application of linguistic achievements with the use of the latest technologies, whereas abroad they believe that computational linguistics is aimed at developing strategies for researches on natural languages. However, applied linguistics is related to language teaching methodology. We have concluded that German scholars view computational linguistics as a cognitive science that attempts to most successfully apply the achievements of linguistics in practice. Based on the view, German universities develop curricula that encompass theoretical and practical aspects of computational linguistics to prepare modern specialists able to comprehend the complexity of the field and be willing to adapt to challenges of a globalized world. Consequently, we have described the peculiarities of the programmes of a Bachelor of Science in Machine Language Programming and a Master of Science in Computational Linguistics. We have defined that duration of the programmes is traditional - three and two years respectively. Their structure comprises obligatory and elective courses, including Computer Science, Mathematics and Linguistics. In addition, future specialists may develop key professional competences attending seminars and colloquiums, participating in research projects, etc. It has been indicated that the list of electives involves those subjects aimed at enhancing future specialists’ skills in linguistics as well as computer science, yet they are entitled to suggest what they are interested in

  8. Formalizing Linguistic Conventions for Conceptual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jörg; Delfmann, Patrick; Herwig, Sebastian; Lis, Łukasz; Stein, Armin

    A precondition for the appropriate analysis of conceptual models is not only their syntactic correctness but also their semantic comparability. Assuring comparability is challenging especially when models are developed by different persons. Empirical studies show that such models can vary heavily, especially in model element naming, even if they express the same issue. In contrast to most ontology-driven approaches proposing the resolution of these differences ex-post, we introduce an approach that avoids naming differences in conceptual models already during modeling. Therefore we formalize naming conventions combining domain thesauri and phrase structures based on a lin-guistic grammar. This allows for guiding modelers automatically during the modeling process using standardized labels for model elements. Our approach is generic, making it applicable for any modeling language.

  9. [Definition ofashipoint from the view of linguistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Zhao, Jingsheng

    2017-01-12

    The definition of ashi point has not been unified yet till now. Likewise, the precise explanation on its connotation has always been an elusive question in acupuncture theory. By collecting diverse definitions on ashi point in the textbooks of Acupuncture and Moxibustion , dictionaries and term standards, several rational elements in definitions with consensus were screened. With the assistance of two important theories of cognitive linguistics, such as figure-ground theory and distance iconicity theory, the concept of ashi point was newly defined. Additiona-lly, on the base of the understanding on several similar terms such as "taking the painful site as acupoint", "responding point" and "reactive point", the semanteme analytic method was used to distinguish the difference among them so that the more profound explorations on acupuncture therapy are expounded.

  10. Linguistic reflections on the generic feminine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier San Julián Solana

    2017-12-01

    After comparing the underlying assumptions of the feminists’ position with some linguistic principles, we analyze the conditions under which the generic interpretations of feminine forms take place in ordinary language. We then present the problems that the generalization of the phenomenon can give rise to: limitation of «displacement» capacity (Hockett, 1960, poor processing effort / cognitive effect ratio, and difficulty in accomplishing the communicative function of language. This brings us to the point that the generic feminine is most unlikely to become established in general uses of Spanish; it also seem not to be feasible to achieve a free alternation of masculine and feminine forms as a means of expressing gender neutralization. However, the occasional use of the feminine with extensive value could be made habitual —considering the social function of language— in political discourse, where it would function as a badge that shows membership of (or solidarity with a social group.

  11. Questions of Logic, Philosophy, and Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Chaves-Tannús

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There were in the past, just as there are in the present, several diverse attempts to establish a unique theory capable of identifying in all natural languages a similar, invariable basic structure of a logical nature. If such a theory exists, then there must be principles that rule the functioning of these languages and they must have a logical origin. Based on a work by the French linguist, Oswald Ducrot, entitled D’un mauvais usage de la logique, this paper aims to present in a concise manner two of the above mentioned attempts. They were elaborated in diverse epochs and different arguments were put forward to support them. The first attempt was in XVII century France and its theoretic basis was the renowned ‘Port-Royal Logic’. The second attempt is recent and its theoretic support comes from Contemporary Logic.

  12. The Biological Origin of Linguistic Diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Christiansen, Morten H; 10.1371/journal.pone.0048029

    2013-01-01

    In contrast with animal communication systems, diversity is characteristic of almost every aspect of human language. Languages variously employ tones, clicks, or manual signs to signal differences in meaning; some languages lack the noun-verb distinction (e.g., Straits Salish), whereas others have a proliferation of fine-grained syntactic categories (e.g., Tzeltal); and some languages do without morphology (e.g., Mandarin), while others pack a whole sentence into a single word (e.g., Cayuga). A challenge for evolutionary biology is to reconcile the diversity of languages with the high degree of biological uniformity of their speakers. Here, we model processes of language change and geographical dispersion and find a consistent pressure for flexible learning, irrespective of the language being spoken. This pressure arises because flexible learners can best cope with the observed high rates of linguistic change associated with divergent cultural evolution following human migration. Thus, rather than genetic ada...

  13. Emergence of linguistic laws in human voice

    CERN Document Server

    Torre, Ivan Gonzalez; Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Jordi; Hernandez-Fernandez, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Linguistic laws constitute one of the quantitative cornerstones of modern cognitive sciences and have been routinely investigated in written corpora, or in the equivalent transcription of oral corpora. This means that inferences of statistical patterns of language in acoustics are biased by the arbitrary, language-dependent segmentation of the signal, and virtually precludes the possibility of making comparative studies between human voice and other animal communication systems. Here we bridge this gap by proposing a method that allows to measure such patterns in acoustic signals of arbitrary origin, without needs to have access to the language corpus underneath. The method has been applied to six different human languages, recovering successfully some well-known laws of human communication at timescales even below the phoneme and finding yet another link between complexity and criticality in a biological system. These methods further pave the way for new comparative studies in animal communication or the ana...

  14. Visual displays and Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); VanHoozer, W.R. [Tranceformations Unlimited, Rigby, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Advancement of computer technology is forthcoming at such a rapid pace that the research concerning the interplay of humans and computer technology is lagging far behind. One area of particular concern is the design of visual displays that are pragmatic, ``user friendly,`` and ``user assisting.`` When engineers design visual displays, they generally do so methodically and logically, but only from within their own individual perspective or ``model of the world.`` They select the human aspects which make sense to them and not necessarily to non-engineers, operators, and others. The model design is what the engineer chooses to relate, based on his or her perspective of reality. These choices limit the model design thereby excluding the users` perspective. A set of techniques which can be used to assist the designers in expanding their choices and include the users` model is Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP).

  15. Emergence of linguistic laws in human voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Iván González; Luque, Bartolo; Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Jordi; Hernández-Fernández, Antoni

    2017-03-01

    Linguistic laws constitute one of the quantitative cornerstones of modern cognitive sciences and have been routinely investigated in written corpora, or in the equivalent transcription of oral corpora. This means that inferences of statistical patterns of language in acoustics are biased by the arbitrary, language-dependent segmentation of the signal, and virtually precludes the possibility of making comparative studies between human voice and other animal communication systems. Here we bridge this gap by proposing a method that allows to measure such patterns in acoustic signals of arbitrary origin, without needs to have access to the language corpus underneath. The method has been applied to sixteen different human languages, recovering successfully some well-known laws of human communication at timescales even below the phoneme and finding yet another link between complexity and criticality in a biological system. These methods further pave the way for new comparative studies in animal communication or the analysis of signals of unknown code.

  16. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a ‘grand synthesis’ is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where some degree of inter-societal diffusion will almost inevitably be superimposed on any deeper signal of a historical branching process. The disciplines represented include the three most purely ‘cultural’ fields from the four-field model of anthropology (cultural anthropology, archaeology and linguistic anthropology). In this short introduction, some context is provided from the history of anthropology, and key issues raised by the papers are highlighted. PMID:21041203

  17. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-12-12

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a 'grand synthesis' is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where some degree of inter-societal diffusion will almost inevitably be superimposed on any deeper signal of a historical branching process. The disciplines represented include the three most purely 'cultural' fields from the four-field model of anthropology (cultural anthropology, archaeology and linguistic anthropology). In this short introduction, some context is provided from the history of anthropology, and key issues raised by the papers are highlighted.

  18. Bacterial linguistic communication and social intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jacob, Eshel; Becker, Israela; Shapira, Yoash; Levine, Herbert

    2004-08-01

    Bacteria have developed intricate communication capabilities (e.g. quorum-sensing, chemotactic signaling and plasmid exchange) to cooperatively self-organize into highly structured colonies with elevated environmental adaptability. We propose that bacteria use their intracellular flexibility, involving signal transduction networks and genomic plasticity, to collectively maintain linguistic communication: self and shared interpretations of chemical cues, exchange of chemical messages (semantic) and dialogues (pragmatic). Meaning-based communication permits colonial identity, intentional behavior (e.g. pheromone-based courtship for mating), purposeful alteration of colony structure (e.g. formation of fruiting bodies), decision-making (e.g. to sporulate) and the recognition and identification of other colonies - features we might begin to associate with a bacterial social intelligence. Such a social intelligence, should it exist, would require going beyond communication to encompass unknown additional intracellular processes to generate inheritable colonial memory and commonly shared genomic context.

  19. A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: universal ontology and linguistic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, M; Gentner, D

    1997-02-01

    This research concerns how children learn the distinction between substance names and object names. Quine (1969) proposed that children learn the distinction through learning the syntactic distinctions inherent in count/mass grammar. However, Soja et al. (1991) found that English-speaking 2-year-olds, who did not seem to have acquired count/mass grammar, distinguished objects from substances in a word extension task, suggesting a pre-linguistic ontological distinction. To test whether the distinction between object names and substance names is conceptually or linguistically driven, we repeated Soja et al.'s study with English- and Japanese-speaking 2-, 2.5-, and 4-year-olds and adults. Japanese does not make a count-mass grammatical distinction: all inanimate nouns are treated alike. Thus if young Japanese children made the object-substance distinction in word meaning, this would support the early ontology position over the linguistic influence position. We used three types of standards: substances (e.g., sand in an S-shape), simple objects (e.g., a kidney-shaped piece of paraffin) and complex objects (e.g., a wood whisk). The subjects learned novel nouns in neutral syntax denoting each standard entity. They were then asked which of the two alternatives--one matching in shape but not material and the other matching in material but not shape--would also be named by the same label. The results suggest the universal use of ontological knowledge in early word learning. Children in both languages showed differentiation between (complex) objects and substances as early as 2 years of age. However, there were also early cross-linguistic differences. American and Japanese children generalized the simple object instances and the substance instances differently. We speculate that children universally make a distinction between individuals and non-individuals in word learning but that the nature of the categories and the boundary between them is influenced by language.

  20. The linguistic analogy: motivations, results, and speculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Susan; Huebner, Bryce; Hauser, Marc D

    2010-07-01

    Inspired by the success of generative linguistics and transformational grammar, proponents of the linguistic analogy (LA) in moral psychology hypothesize that careful attention to folk-moral judgments is likely to reveal a small set of implicit rules and structures responsible for the ubiquitous and apparently unbounded capacity for making moral judgments. As a theoretical hypothesis, LA thus requires a rich description of the computational structures that underlie mature moral judgments, an account of the acquisition and development of these structures, and an analysis of those components of the moral system that are uniquely human and uniquely moral. In this paper we present the theoretical motivations for adopting LA in the study of moral cognition: (a) the distinction between competence and performance, (b) poverty of stimulus considerations, and (c) adopting the computational level as the proper level of analysis for the empirical study of moral judgment. With these motivations in hand, we review recent empirical findings that have been inspired by LA and which provide evidence for at least two predictions of LA: (a) the computational processes responsible for folk-moral judgment operate over structured representations of actions and events, as well as coding for features of agency and outcomes; and (b) folk-moral judgments are the output of a dedicated moral faculty and are largely immune to the effects of context. In addition, we highlight the complexity of the interfaces between the moral faculty and other cognitive systems external to it (e.g., number systems). We conclude by reviewing the potential utility of the theoretical and empirical tools of LA for future research in moral psychology. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. The linguistic roots of natural pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Otávio; Hinzen, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Natural pedagogy is a human-specific capacity that allows us to acquire cultural information from communication even before the emergence of the first words, encompassing three core elements: (i) a sensitivity to ostensive signals like eye contact that indicate to infants that they are being addressed through communication, (ii) a subsequent referential expectation (satisfied by the use of declarative gestures) and (iii) a biased interpretation of ostensive-referential communication as conveying relevant information about the referent's kind (Csibra and Gergely, 2006, 2009, 2011). Remarkably, the link between natural pedagogy and another human-specific capacity, namely language, has rarely been investigated in detail. We here argue that children's production and comprehension of declarative gestures around 10 months of age are in fact expressions of an evolving faculty of language. Through both declarative gestures and ostensive signals, infants can assign the roles of third, second, and first person, building the 'deictic space' that grounds both natural pedagogy and language use. Secondly, we argue that the emergence of two kinds of linguistic structures (i.e., proto-determiner phrases and proto-sentences) in the one-word period sheds light on the different kinds of information that children can acquire or convey at different stages of development (namely, generic knowledge about kinds and knowledge about particular events/actions/state of affairs, respectively). Furthermore, the development of nominal and temporal reference in speech allows children to cognize information in terms of spatial and temporal relations. In this way, natural pedagogy transpires as an inherent aspect of our faculty of language, rather than as an independent adaptation that pre-dates language in evolution or development (Csibra and Gergely, 2006). This hypothesis is further testable through predictions it makes on the different linguistic profiles of toddlers with developmental

  2. Forests: the cross-linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Burenhult

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Do all humans perceive, think, and talk about tree cover (forests in more or less the same way? International forestry programs frequently seem to operate on the assumption that they do. However, recent advances in the language sciences show that languages vary greatly as to how the landscape domain is lexicalized and grammaticalized. Different languages segment and label the large-scale environment and its features according to astonishingly different semantic principles, often in tandem with highly culture-specific practices and ideologies. Presumed basic concepts like mountain, valley, and river cannot in fact be straightforwardly translated across languages. In this paper we describe, compare, and evaluate some of the semantic diversity observed in relation to forests. We do so on the basis of first-hand linguistic field data from a global sample of indigenous categorization systems as they are manifested in the following languages: Avatime (Ghana, Duna (Papua New Guinea, Jahai (Malay Peninsula, Lokono (the Guianas, Makalero (East Timor, and Umpila/Kuuku Ya'u (Cape York Peninsula. We show that basic linguistic categories relating to tree cover vary considerably in their principles of semantic encoding across languages, and that forest is a challenging category from the point of view of intercultural translatability. This has consequences for current global policies and programs aimed at standardizing forest definitions and measurements. It calls for greater attention to categorial diversity in designing and implementing such agendas, and for receptiveness to and understanding of local indigenous classification systems in communicating those agendas on the ground.

  3. Listening to patients' voices: linguistic indicators related to diabetes self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Ulla; Anton, Marta; Goering, Elizabeth; Lauten, Kathryn; Hayat, Amir; Roach, Paris; Balunda, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research in health care has examined a wide range of variables to better understand the degree to which patients follow the advice of medical professionals in managing their health, known as adherence. This paper explains the development of the linguistic systems to describe and evaluate two psychosocial constructs (i.e. control orientation and agency) that have been found to be related to adherence in previous research for subjects with diabetes (Trento et al. 2007; Wangberg 2007; O'Hea et al. 2009). The present data came from 43 semi-structured in-depth interviews of subjects with Type 2 diabetes. One-on-one interviews with open-ended questions elicited subjects' 'stories' about living with diabetes, and the transcribed interviews were analyzed to develop the linguistic systems of control orientation and agency. The resultant systems were applied to the 43 interviews by raters with high inter-rater reliability. The results showed demarcations of clearly identified codings of patient types. The paper presents the linguistic coding systems developed in the study, the results of their application to the patient interview data, and recommendations for improved communication with patients.

  4. New patterns in human biogeography revealed by networks of contacts between linguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán, José A; Bock Axelsen, Jacob; Manrubia, Susanna

    2015-03-07

    Human languages differ broadly in abundance and are distributed highly unevenly on the Earth. In many qualitative and quantitative aspects, they strongly resemble biodiversity distributions. An intriguing and previously unexplored issue is the architecture of the neighbouring relationships between human linguistic groups. Here we construct and characterize these networks of contacts and show that they represent a new kind of spatial network with uncommon structural properties. Remarkably, language networks share a meaningful property with food webs: both are quasi-interval graphs. In food webs, intervality is linked to the existence of a niche space of low dimensionality; in language networks, we show that the unique relevant variable is the area occupied by the speakers of a language. By means of a range model analogous to niche models in ecology, we show that a geometric restriction of perimeter covering by neighbouring linguistic domains explains the structural patterns observed. Our findings may be of interest in the development of models for language dynamics or regarding the propagation of cultural innovations. In relation to species distribution, they pose the question of whether the spatial features of species ranges share architecture, and eventually generating mechanism, with the distribution of human linguistic groups. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of the right hemisphere in the production of linguistic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, S J

    1988-01-01

    Recent research has proposed a general prosodic disturbance associated with right hemisphere damage (RHD), one encompassing both affective and linguistic functions. The present study attempted to explore whether the ability to produce linguistic prosody was impaired in this patient population. Productions of phonemic stress tokens (e.g., Re'dcoat vs. red coa't) as well as examples of contrastive stress, or sentential emphasis (e.g., Sam hated the movie), were elicited from eight male speakers with unilateral right hemisphere CVAs and seven male control subjects. Two types of analyses were conducted on these utterances. Acoustic analysis focused on the correlates associated with word stress, namely changes in amplitude, duration, and fundamental frequency. The perceptual saliency of emerging cues to stress was also examined by presentation of test tokens to phonetically trained listeners for identification of stress placement. The patients as a group produced fewer acoustic cues to stress compared to the normal subjects, but no statistical differences were found between groups for either stress at the phrase level or at the sentence level. In the perceptual analysis, stress produced by the patient group was judged to be less salient than that for the normal group, although a high degree of variability was evident in both populations. The data suggest a spared processing mechanism for linguistic prosody in RHD speakers, thus mitigating against the view of a general dysprosody tied to RHD.

  6. [Subtypes of specific language impairment in Spanish-speaking children: a cluster analysis of linguistic features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Eguilaz, N; Narbona, J

    2006-10-10

    Specific language impairment (SLI) can be viewed as a continuum with different subtypes depending on the combination of deficits and strengths in each of the components of linguistic behavior. AIM. To analyze the phenomenological profiles in a correlative series of Spanish children in order to facilitate their endophenotypic differentiation and the choice of strategies of intervention. 86 referred children, aged 4 to 9 years, with a mean non-verbal intelligence quotient of 93 (range 72-114) and accomplishing clinical criteria of SLI. Apart from clinical interview and neurological examination, a protocol of questionnaires and tests was used in all subjects in order to measure their formal (phonological, syntactic, lexical) and functional (semantic and pragmatic) linguistic abilities. A cluster analysis of variables was used in order to investigate SLI subtypes. In the total sample, a 24% of whole series have a pure phonological expressive disorder. 55% of subjects have mixed receptive/expressive disorders; from these, the most pervasive subtype is due to verbal agnosia (11%), but more frequently observed subtypes affect syntax reception and expression combined to difficulties in phonological programming (36%) or in lexical retrieval (8%). Furthermore, 21% of the total sample present with difficulties in pragmatic use of language even if their formal linguistic abilities and non-verbal behavior are normal. Our empirical approach confirms that the admitted SLI subtypes in international literature applies to Spanish-speaking children for endophenotyping and intervention-planning purposes.

  7. Implicit learning of non-linguistic and linguistic regularities in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Luciana; Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Simpson, Ian C; Defior, Sylvia

    2016-07-01

    One of the hallmarks of dyslexia is the failure to automatise written patterns despite repeated exposure to print. Although many explanations have been proposed to explain this problem, researchers have recently begun to explore the possibility that an underlying implicit learning deficit may play a role in dyslexia. This hypothesis has been investigated through non-linguistic tasks exploring implicit learning in a general domain. In this study, we examined the abilities of children with dyslexia to implicitly acquire positional regularities embedded in both non-linguistic and linguistic stimuli. In experiment 1, 42 children (21 with dyslexia and 21 typically developing) were exposed to rule-governed shape sequences; whereas in experiment 2, a new group of 42 children were exposed to rule-governed letter strings. Implicit learning was assessed in both experiments via a forced-choice task. Experiments 1 and 2 showed a similar pattern of results. ANOVA analyses revealed no significant differences between the dyslexic and the typically developing group, indicating that children with dyslexia are not impaired in the acquisition of simple positional regularities, regardless of the nature of the stimuli. However, within group t-tests suggested that children from the dyslexic group could not transfer the underlying positional rules to novel instances as efficiently as typically developing children.

  8. Dissociating linguistic and non-linguistic gesture processing: electrophysiological evidence from American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvald, Michael; Gutierrez, Eva; Hafer, Sarah; Corina, David

    2012-04-01

    A fundamental advance in our understanding of human language would come from a detailed account of how non-linguistic and linguistic manual actions are differentiated in real time by language users. To explore this issue, we targeted the N400, an ERP component known to be sensitive to semantic context. Deaf signers saw 120 American Sign Language sentences, each consisting of a "frame" (a sentence without the last word; e.g. BOY SLEEP IN HIS) followed by a "last item" belonging to one of four categories: a high-close-probability sign (a "semantically reasonable" completion to the sentence; e.g. BED), a low-close-probability sign (a real sign that is nonetheless a "semantically odd" completion to the sentence; e.g. LEMON), a pseudo-sign (phonologically legal but non-lexical form), or a non-linguistic grooming gesture (e.g. the performer scratching her face). We found significant N400-like responses in the incongruent and pseudo-sign contexts, while the gestures elicited a large positivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Motor, linguistic, personal and social aspects of children with Down syndrome

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    Amanda Tragueta FERREIRA-VASQUES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA global developmental delay is expected from Down syndrome, affecting motor, cognitive, linguistic and personal-social skills. However, not always these delays are proportional; different conditions occur due to several intrinsic and extrinsic variables that must be controlled to form groups of greater homogeneity.Objective To enhance personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, gross motor and linguistic skills among children with Down syndrome and compare them with typically developing children, matched for gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, while controlling some variables that interfere with the global development.Methods The ethical aspects were fulfilled (Case No. 040/2009. The following inclusion criteria were considered: participants without a history of prematurity, very low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, significant hearing and vision problems, and signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder. After the inclusion criteria were considered, 40 children participated in the study, of which 20 had Down syndrome (experimental group - EG, these being of both genders and with chronological ages ranging from 38 to 63 months, and the other 20 being typically developing children (control group - CG, matching the EG in terms of gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, with this age ranging from 13 to 50 months. The evaluation consisted in applying the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, a test that assesses areas such as personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, linguistic and gross motor development. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using Student’s t-test.Results A statistically significant difference was verified between the groups for the language and fine motor-adaptive areas.Conclusion Children with Down syndrome showed lower performance in language and fine motor skills when compared with typically developing children. There was no statistically significant difference in gross motor and personal

  10. Motor, linguistic, personal and social aspects of children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Vasques, Amanda Tragueta; Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin

    2015-01-01

    A global developmental delay is expected from Down syndrome, affecting motor, cognitive, linguistic and personal-social skills. However, not always these delays are proportional; different conditions occur due to several intrinsic and extrinsic variables that must be controlled to form groups of greater homogeneity.Objective To enhance personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, gross motor and linguistic skills among children with Down syndrome and compare them with typically developing children, matched for gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, while controlling some variables that interfere with the global development.Methods The ethical aspects were fulfilled (Case No. 040/2009). The following inclusion criteria were considered: participants without a history of prematurity, very low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, significant hearing and vision problems, and signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder. After the inclusion criteria were considered, 40 children participated in the study, of which 20 had Down syndrome (experimental group - EG), these being of both genders and with chronological ages ranging from 38 to 63 months, and the other 20 being typically developing children (control group - CG), matching the EG in terms of gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, with this age ranging from 13 to 50 months. The evaluation consisted in applying the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, a test that assesses areas such as personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, linguistic and gross motor development. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using Student's t-test.Results A statistically significant difference was verified between the groups for the language and fine motor-adaptive areas.Conclusion Children with Down syndrome showed lower performance in language and fine motor skills when compared with typically developing children. There was no statistically significant difference in gross motor and personal-social areas. It is worth mentioning

  11. Text genres and registers the computation of linguistic features

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Chengyu Alex

    2015-01-01

    This book is a description of some of the most recent advances in text classification as part of a concerted effort to achieve computer understanding of human language. In particular, it addresses state-of-the-art developments in the computation of higher-level linguistic features, ranging from etymology to grammar and syntax for the practical task of text classification according to genres, registers and subject domains. Serving as a bridge between computational methods and sophisticated linguistic analysis, this book will be of particular interest to academics and students of computational linguistics as well as professionals in natural language engineering.

  12. A linguist's view of the Bellman-Goldberg thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M R

    1984-06-01

    From a linguistic perspective, the Bellman-Goldberg thesis of a necessary relationship between the abilities of organisms to move and communicate is very interesting. Since several concepts and terms are represented in both the thesis and contemporary linguistic literature, these items are discussed in further detail. Questions of the implicit assumptions of the homology of the motor and linguistic systems are also raised here. Finally, there are requests for further clarification on issues of evolution in this test of the strength of the thesis.

  13. A bibliometric analysis of linguistics in web of science

    OpenAIRE

    Engin Arik

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the bibliometric characteristics of linguistics as represented in Web of Science (WoS), focusing on the number of linguistics publications between 1900 and 2013 in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) and between 1975 and 2013 in the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI). Results showed that between 1975 and 2013, SSCI covered a total of 54,263 (0.86% of all SSCI) publications in the language linguistics category, 99,502 (1.61% of all SSCI) publications...

  14. Linguistic abilities and its cognitive determinants: contemporary research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilova E.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents contemporary studies of linguistic abilities in psychology. The different approaches to the linguistic abilities structure are discussed in relation to empirical results on peculiarities of the second language mastering. The special attention is paid to the cognitive determinants of linguistic abilities. So the empirical data concerning the interaction between language-aptitude test scores and different abilities, e.g. verbal intelligence and working memory, are analyzed in more details. In the conclusion the research perspectives in different cognitive processes which determine the efficiency of the second language mastery are discussed

  15. Thresholds of visibility for masked lexical, non-lexical, and non-linguistic items in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoAnn P Silkes

    2015-04-01

    Data collected to date demonstrate a clear difference between individuals with and without aphasia in their ability to perceive masked real words, but there appears to be no difference between groups for non-words and non-linguistic stimuli, although a trend is seen for these groups. Given the high variability for the NW and NL conditions, these analyses may be underpowered; therefore, data collection is ongoing and a clearer picture should be available by the time of presentation. Regardless of the eventual outcome, this poster will discuss the theoretical motivation for the study, and will discuss the possible implications for understanding the nature of underlying deficits in aphasia.

  16. An analysis of linguistic styles by inferred age in tv dramas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang H; Park, Jongmin; Seo, Young Seok

    2006-10-01

    A language analysis program, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), was successful in identifying various psychological variables. This study investigated the relationship between spoken language and age inferred from drama scripts of 162 characters, analyzed by the Korean-LIWC across 4 age categories (10-19, 20-39, 40-59, and 60-79 years). Analysis indicated that younger characters use fewer phrases, morphemes, nouns, auxiliary words, and adverbs than older characters, suggesting less cognitive development of younger characters. In addition, younger characters used less positive words for emotion and achievement than older characters. These data appear contrary to the negative stereotypes of aging people.

  17. Reading span task performance, linguistic experience, and the processing of unexpected syntactic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas A; Fine, Alex B; Misyak, Jennifer B; Christiansen, Morten H

    2017-03-01

    Accounts of individual differences in online language processing ability often focus on the explanatory utility of verbal working memory, as measured by reading span tasks. Although variability in reading span task performance likely reflects individual differences in multiple underlying traits, skills, and processes, accumulating evidence suggests that reading span scores also reflect variability in the linguistic experiences of an individual. Here, through an individual differences approach, we first demonstrate that reading span scores correlate significantly with measures of the amount of experience an individual has had with written language (gauged by measures that provide "proxy estimates" of print exposure). We then explore the relationship between reading span scores and online language processing ability. Individuals with higher reading spans demonstrated greater sensitivity to violations of statistical regularities found in natural language-as evinced by higher reading times (RTs) on the disambiguating region of garden-path sentences-relative to their lower span counterparts. This result held after statistically controlling for individual differences in a non-linguistic operation span task. Taken together, these results suggest that accounts of individual differences in sentence processing can benefit from a stronger focus on experiential factors, especially when considered in relation to variability in perceptual and learning abilities that influence the amount of benefit gleaned from such experience.

  18. The Extension of Quality Function Deployment Based on 2-Tuple Linguistic Representation Model for Product Design under Multigranularity Linguistic Environment

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    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality function deployment (QFD is a customer-driven approach for product design and development. A QFD analysis process includes a series of subprocesses, such as determination of the importance of customer requirements (CRs, the correlation among engineering characteristics (ECs, and the relationship between CRs and ECs. Usually more than group of one decision makers are involved in the subprocesses to make the decision. In most decision making problems, they often provide their evaluation information in the linguistic form. Moreover, because of different knowledge, background, and discrimination ability, decision makers may express their linguistic preferences in multigranularity linguistic information. Therefore, an effective approach to deal with the multi-granularity linguistic information in QFD analysis process is highly needed. In this study, the QFD methodology is extended with 2-tuple linguistic representation model under multi-granularity linguistic environment. The extended QFD methodology can cope with multi-granularity linguistic evaluation information and avoid the loss of information. The applicability of the proposed approach is demonstrated with a numerical example.

  19. Proximal and distal. Rethinking linguistic form and use for clinical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sacristán, Carlos; Rosell-Clari, Vicent; Macdonald, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    With clinical purposes in mind, a review of the proximal/distal opposition is carried out in order to define a universal parameter of variability in semiotic procedures. By taking into consideration different-although notionally inter-related-senses of the proximal/distal opposition, a cluster of semiotic properties is proposed, which initially permits one to characterize dimensions of variability in the form and use of gestures. The subsequent and central aim of this paper is, however, to demonstrate that the same, or homologous, properties can also serve to characterize variability in the use of language, by assuming a basic connection between gesturing and linguistic behaviour. The main focus of interest and the starting point for reflections are communicative impairments as manifested in apraxia and aphasia.

  20. The influence of the assimilation operator, speech rate and linguistic boundary on the production of /z/ in Croatian

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    Damir Horga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that invariant and discrete phonological units at the linguistic level are transformed into variable and continuous movements of speech organs, which in turn results in equally continuous acoustical results. The variability of phonemic units depends on neighbouring phonetic units, but also on the various linguistic, communicational and pragmatic contexts of a particular speech act. The influence of phonetic units upon each other results in adaptations, coarticulations and assimilations. By means of assimilation at least one distinctive feature of a phoneme is changed, so the observed phoneme becomes similar to its neighbouring sound – the assimilation operator. This paper is aimed at analysing the influence of speech rate on assimilation processes in the voiced fricative /z/, when it is preceded by sounds /s, z, ʃ, ʒ / in four different types of articulatory joint: sentence, clausal, lexemic and proclitical. The articulatory joint refers to the production of two phonemes separated by different types of linguistic boundaries. Twenty female native speakers of Croatian with no history of speech or hearing impairments read a text at both natural and fast speech rates. The acoustical recording was performed in a sound-treated room. The Praat software was used to analyse six variables in all occurrences of the sound /z/: duration, spectrum centre of gravity, standard deviation of the centre of gravity, spectral skewness, spectral kurtosis, and harmonic to noise ratio. The results showed that various linguistic boundaries, speech rates and sounds as assimilation operators influence the degree of assimilation of the phoneme /z/, as measured by the acoustic variables.