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Sample records for susy so10 gut

  1. Flavor violating Z′ from SO(10 SUSY GUT in High-Scale SUSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Hisano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose an SO(10 supersymmetric grand unified theory (SUSY GUT, where the SO(10 gauge symmetry breaks down to SU(3c×SU(2L×U(1Y×U(1X at the GUT scale and U(1X is radiatively broken at the SUSY-braking scale. In order to achieve the observed Higgs mass around 126 GeV and also to satisfy constraints on flavor- and/or CP-violating processes, we assume that the SUSY-breaking scale is O(100 TeV, so that the U(1X breaking scale is also O(100 TeV. One big issue in the SO(10 GUTs is how to realize realistic Yukawa couplings. In our model, not only 16-dimensional but also 10-dimensional matter fields are introduced to predict the observed fermion masses and mixings. The Standard-Model quarks and leptons are linear combinations of the 16- and 10-dimensional fields so that the U(1X gauge interaction may be flavor-violating. We investigate the current constraints on the flavor-violating Z′ interaction from the flavor physics and discuss prospects for future experiments.

  2. Leptogenesis in a Δ(27)×SO(10) SUSY GUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björkeroth, Fredrik [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Anda, Francisco J. de [Departamento de Física, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara,Guadalajara (Mexico); Varzielas, Ivo de Medeiros; King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-17

    Although SO(10) Supersymmetric (SUSY) Grand Unification Theories (GUTs) are very attractive for neutrino mass and mixing, it is often quite difficult to achieve successful leptogenesis from the lightest right-handed neutrino N{sub 1} due to the strong relations between neutrino and up-type quark Yukawa couplings. We show that in a realistic model these constraints are relaxed, making N{sub 1} leptogenesis viable. To illustrate this, we calculate the baryon asymmetry of the Universe Y{sub B} from flavoured N{sub 1} leptogenesis in a recently proposed Δ(27)×SO(10) SUSY GUT. The flavoured Boltzmann equations are solved numerically, and comparison with the observed Y{sub B} places constraints on the allowed values of right-handed neutrino masses and neutrino Yukawa couplings. The flavoured SO(10) SUSY GUT is not only fairly complete and predictive in the lepton sector, but can also explain the BAU through leptogenesis with natural values in the lepton sector albeit with some tuning in the quark sector.

  3. Neutrino Oscillations in an SO(10) SUSY GUT with $U(2)xU(1)^{n}$ Family Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Blazek, T; Tobe, K

    2000-01-01

    In a previous paper we analyzed fermion masses (focusing on neutrino masses and mixing angles) in an SO(10) SUSY GUT with U(2)$\\timesU(1)^n$ family symmetry. The model is "natural" containing all operators in the Lagrangian consistent with the states and their charges. With minimal family symmetry breaking vevs the model is also predictive giving a unique solution to atmospheric (with maximal $\

  4. Compressed and Split Spectra in Minimal SUSY SO(10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Franz Deppisch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The non-observation of supersymmetric signatures in searches at the Large Hadron Collider strongly constrains minimal supersymmetric models like the CMSSM. We explore the consequences on the SUSY particle spectrum in a minimal SO(10 with large D-terms and non-universal gaugino masses at the GUT scale. This changes the sparticle spectrum in a testable way and for example can sufficiently split the coloured and non-coloured sectors. The splitting provided by use of the SO(10 D-terms can be exploited to obtain light first generation sleptons or third generation squarks, the latter corresponding to a compressed spectrum scenario.

  5. Lepton Flavor Violation in SUSY-SO(10) with Predictive Yukawa Texture

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Mario E.; Goldberg, Haim

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the scalar lepton mass matrices in a supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified model with soft SUSY breaking terms generated at Planck scale and a Georgi-Jarslkog Yukawa texture at GUT scale induced by higher dimensional operators. This model predicts lepton flavor violation. The predictive features of the Georgi-Jarlskog texture are used to estimate branching ratios for the radiative decays $e_{a} \\rightarrow e_{b}+\\gamma,$ and we find rates that could provide an experimental test for t...

  6. Phenomenology of the minimal $ SO (10) $ SUSY model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this talk I define what I call the minimal S O ( 10 ) SUSY model. I then discuss the phenomenological consequences of this theory, vis-a-vis gauge and Yukawa coupling unification, Higgs and super-particle masses, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, the decay B s → + − and dark matter.

  7. A split SUSY model from SUSY GUT

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, FeiDepartment of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450000, P.R. China; Wang, Wenyu(Institute of Theoretical Physics, College of Applied Science, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, P.R. China); Yang, Jin(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P.R. China)

    2015-01-01

    We propose to split the sparticle spectrum from the hierarchy between the GUT scale and the Planck scale. A split supersymmetric model, which gives non-universal gaugino masses, is built with proper high dimensional operators in the framework of SO(10) GUT. Based on a calculation of two-loop beta functions for gauge couplings (taking into account all weak scale threshold corrections), we check the gauge coupling unification and dark matter constraints (relic density and direct detections). We...

  8. Flavor physics induced by light Z{sup ′} from SO(10) GUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisano, Junji [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe,Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics,Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Muramatsu, Yu [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); School of Physics, KIAS,Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Omura, Yuji [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe,Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Shigekami, Yoshihiro [Department of Physics,Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-11-04

    In this paper, we investigate predictions of the SO(10) Grand Unified Theory (GUT), where an extra U(1){sup ′} gauge symmetry remains up to the supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale. The minimal setup of SO(10) GUT unifies quarks and leptons into a 16-representational field in each generations. The setup, however, suffers from the realization of the realistic Yukawa couplings at the electroweak scale. In order to solve this problem, we introduce 10-representational matter fields, and then the two kinds of matter fields mix with each other at the SUSY breaking scale, where the extra U(1){sup ′} gauge symmetry breaks down radiatively. One crucial prediction is that the Standard Model quarks and leptons are given by the linear combinations of the fields with two different U(1){sup ′} charges. The mixing also depends on the flavor. Consequently, the U(1){sup ′} interaction becomes flavor violating, and the flavor physics is the smoking-gun signal of our GUT model. The flavor violating Z{sup ′} couplings are related to the fermion masses and the CKM matrix, so that we can derive some explicit predictions in flavor physics. We especially discuss K-K̄ mixing, B{sub (s)}- (B{sub (s)})-bar mixing, and the (semi)leptonic decays of K and B in our model. We also study the flavor violating μ and τ decays and discuss the correlations among the physical observables in this SO(10) GUT framework.

  9. New minimal SO(10) GUT: A theory for all epochs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The supersymmetric SO(10) theory (NMSO(10)GUT) based on the 210 + 126 + 126. Higgs system proposed in 1982 has evolved into a realistic theory capable of fitting the known low energy particle physics data besides providing a dark matter candidate and embedding inflation- ary cosmology. It dynamically ...

  10. Fermion Masses and Mixing in SUSY Grand Unified Gauge Models with Extended Gut Gauge Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chih-Lung

    2005-04-05

    The authors discuss a class of supersymmetric (SUSY) grand unified gauge (GUT) models based on the GUT symmetry G x G or G x G x G, where G denotes the GUT group that has the Standard Model symmetry (SU(3){sub c} x SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y}) embedded as a subgroup. As motivated from string theory, these models are constructed without introducing any Higgs field of rani two or higher. Thus all the Higgs fields are in the fundamental representations of the extended GUT symmetry or, when G = SO(10), in the spinorial representation. These Higgs fields, when acquiring their vacuum expectation values, would break the extended GUT symmetry down to the Standard Model symmetry. In this dissertation, they argue that the features required of unified models, such as the Higgs doublet-triplet splitting, proton stability, and the hierarchy of fermion masses and mixing angles, could have natural explanations in the framework of the extended SUSY GUTs. Furthermore, they argue that the frameworks used previously to construct SO(10) GUT models using adjoint Higgs fields can naturally arise from the SO(10) x SO(10) and SO(10) x SO(10) x SO(10) models by integrating out heavy fermions. This observation thus suggests that the traditional SUSY GUT SO(10) theories can be viewed as the low energy effective theories generated by breaking the extended GUT symmetry down to the SO(10) symmetry.

  11. Predictions for Higgs and SUSY spectra from SO(10) Yukawa Unification with $\\mu > 0$

    CERN Document Server

    Blazek, T; Raby, S; CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    We use t, b, tau Yukawa unification to constrain SUSY parameter space. We find a narrow region survives for mu > 0 (suggested by b --> s gamma and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon) with A_0 \\sim - 1.9 m_{16}, m_{10} \\sim 1.4 m_{16}, m_{16} \\sim 1200 -3000 GeV and mu, M_{1/2} \\sim 100 - 500 GeV. Demanding Yukawa unification thus makes definite predictions for Higgs and sparticle masses.

  12. Predicting the sparticle spectrum from GUTs via SUSY threshold corrections with SusyTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Department of Physics, University of Basel,Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Sluka, Constantin [Department of Physics, University of Basel,Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-07-21

    Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) can feature predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at high energy, which can be tested with the increasingly precise results for the fermion masses, given at low energies. To perform such tests, the renormalization group (RG) running has to be performed with sufficient accuracy. In supersymmetric (SUSY) theories, the one-loop threshold corrections (TC) are of particular importance and, since they affect the quark-lepton mass relations, link a given GUT flavour model to the sparticle spectrum. To accurately study such predictions, we extend and generalize various formulas in the literature which are needed for a precision analysis of SUSY flavour GUT models. We introduce the new software tool SusyTC, a major extension to the Mathematica package REAP http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2005/03/024, where these formulas are implemented. SusyTC extends the functionality of REAP by a full inclusion of the (complex) MSSM SUSY sector and a careful calculation of the one-loop SUSY threshold corrections for the full down-type quark, up-type quark and charged lepton Yukawa coupling matrices in the electroweak-unbroken phase. Among other useful features, SusyTC calculates the one-loop corrected pole mass of the charged (or the CP-odd) Higgs boson as well as provides output in SLHA conventions, i.e. the necessary input for external software, e.g. for performing a two-loop Higgs mass calculation. We apply SusyTC to study the predictions for the parameters of the CMSSM (mSUGRA) SUSY scenario from the set of GUT scale Yukawa relations ((y{sub e})/(y{sub d}))=−(1/2), ((y{sub μ})/(y{sub s}))=6, and ((y{sub τ})/(y{sub b}))=−(3/2), which has been proposed recently in the context of SUSY GUT flavour models.

  13. Towards a complete Δ(27) × SO(10) GUT of flavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkeroth, Fredrik

    2017-09-01

    We propose a renormalisable model based on Δ(27) family symmetry with an SO(10) grand unified theory (GUT) leading to a novel form of spontaneous geometrical CP violation. The symmetries are broken close to the GUT breaking scale to yield the minimal supersymmetric standard model with standard R-parity. Low-scale Yukawa structure is dictated by the coupling of matter to Δ(27) antitriplets \\bar φ whose vacuum expectation values are aligned in the CSD3 directions by the superpotential. Light physical Majorana neutrinos masses emerge from the seesaw mechanism within SO(10). The model predicts a normal neutrino mass hierarchy with the best-fit lightest neutrino mass m 1 ∼ 0.3 meV, CP-violating oscillation phase δl ≈ 280° and the remaining neutrino parameters all within 1σ of their best-fit experimental values.

  14. Lepton Flavor Violation in Predictive SUSY-GUT Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, Carl H.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab; Chen, Mu-Chun; /UC, Irvine

    2008-02-01

    There have been many theoretical models constructed which aim to explain the neutrino masses and mixing patterns. While many of the models will be eliminated once more accurate determinations of the mixing parameters, especially sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13}, are obtained, charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments are able to differentiate even further among the models. In this paper, they investigate various rare LFV processes, such as {ell}{sub i} {yields} {ell}{sub j} + {gamma} and {mu} - e conversion, in five predictive SUSY SO(10) models and their allowed soft SUSY breaking parameter space in the constrained minimal SUSY standard model (CMSSM). Utilizing the WMAP dark matter constraints, they obtain lower bounds on the branching ratios of these rare processes and find that at least three of the five models they consider give rise to predictions for {mu} {yields} e + {gamma} that will be tested by the MEG collaboration at PSI. in addition, the next generation {mu} - e conversion experiment has sensitivity to the predictions of all five models, making it an even more robust way to test these models. While generic studies have emphasized the dependence of the branching ratios of these rare processes on the reactor neutrino angle, {theta}{sub 13}, and the mass of the heaviest right-handed neutrino, M{sub 3}, they find very massive M{sub 3} is more significant than large {theta}{sub 13} in leading to branching ratios near to the present upper limits.

  15. Supersymmetric grand unified theories from quarks to strings via SUSY GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Raby, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    These course-tested lectures provide a technical introduction to Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), as well as a personal view on the topic by one of the pioneers in the field. While the Standard Model of Particle Physics is incredibly successful in describing the known universe it is, nevertheless, an incomplete theory with many free parameters and open issues. An elegant solution to all of these quandaries is the proposed theory of SUSY GUTs. In a GUT, quarks and leptons are related in a simple way by the unifying symmetry and their electric charges are quantized, further the relative strength of the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces are predicted. SUSY GUTs additionally provide a framework for understanding particle masses and offer candidates for dark matter. Finally, with the extension of SUSY GUTs to string theory, a quantum-mechanically consistent unification of the four known forces (including gravity) is obtained. The book is organized in three sections: the first section contai...

  16. Squarks and sleptons between branes and bulk. Gaugino meditation and gravitino dark matter in an SO(10) orbifold GUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, J.

    2006-05-15

    We study gaugino-mediated supersymmetry breaking in a six-dimensional SO(10) orbifold GUT model where quarks and leptons are mixtures of brane and bulk fields. The couplings of bulk matter fields to the supersymmetry breaking brane field have to be suppressed in order to avoid large FCNCs. We derive bounds on the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters and calculate the superparticle mass spectrum. If the gravitino is the LSP, the {tau}{sub 1} or the {nu}{sub {tau}}{sub L} turns out to be the NLSP, with characteristic signatures at future colliders and in cosmology. (Orig.)

  17. SUSY Seesaw and FCNC

    CERN Document Server

    Masiero, A; Vives, O

    2004-01-01

    After a quarter of century of intense search for new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), two ideas stand out to naturally cope with (i) small neutrino masses and (ii) a light higgs boson : Seesaw and SUSY. The combination of these two ideas, i.e. SUSY seesaw exhibits a potentially striking signature: a strong (or even very strong) enhancement of lepton flavour violation (LFV), which on the contrary remains unobservable in the SM seesaw. Indeed, even when supersymmetry breaking is completely flavour blind, Renormalisation Group running effects are expected to generate large lepton flavour violating entries at the weak scale. In Grand Unified theories, these effects can be felt even in hadronic physics. We explicitly show that in a class of SUSY SO(10) GUTs there exist cases where LFV and CP violation in B-physics can constitute a major road in simultaneously confirming the ideas of Seesaw and low-energy SUSY.

  18. Low-energy predictions of SUSY GUT's; The minimal model versus the finite model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, D.I.; Kondrashuk, I.N. (Lab. of Theoretical Physics, Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (SU))

    1992-06-30

    This paper considers the low-energy predictions for sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub w} and {tau}{sub proton} of SUSY GUT's. Special attention is paid to the dependence on the mass spectrum of superpartners and possible heavy inhabitants of the Great desert. The minimal and finite SUSY SU(5) models with light and heavy t squark and additional higgsino are considered. It i shown that modern precise LEP data are naturally reproduced within the finite SUSY SU(5) GUT with both light and heavy t squark and light higgsino with a reasonable SU(5) splitting.

  19. Viable and testable SUSY GUTs with Yukawa unification the case of split trilinears

    CERN Document Server

    Guadagnoli, Diego; Straub, David M

    2009-01-01

    We explore general SUSY GUT models with exact third-generation Yukawa unification, but where the requirement of universal soft terms at the GUT scale is relaxed. We consider the scenario in which the breaking of universality inherits from the Yukawa couplings, i.e. is of minimal flavor violating (MFV) type. In particular, the MFV principle allows for a splitting between the up-type and the down-type soft trilinear couplings. We explore the viability of this trilinear splitting scenario by means of a fitting procedure to electroweak observables, quark masses as well as flavor-changing neutral current processes. Phenomenological viability singles out one main scenario. This scenario is characterized by a sizable splitting between the trilinear soft terms and a large mu term. Remarkably, this scenario does not invoke a partial decoupling of the sparticle spectrum, as in the case of universal soft terms, but instead it requires part of the spectrum, notably the lightest stop, the gluino and the lightest charginos...

  20. Threshold corrections to dimension-six proton decay operators in non-minimal SUSY SU(5 GUTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Bajc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the high and low scale threshold corrections to the D=6 proton decay mode in supersymmetric SU(5 grand unified theories with higher-dimensional representation Higgs multiplets. In particular, we focus on a missing-partner model in which the grand unified group is spontaneously broken by the 75-dimensional Higgs multiplet and the doublet–triplet splitting problem is solved. We find that in the missing-partner model the D=6 proton decay rate gets suppressed by about 60%, mainly due to the threshold effect at the GUT scale, while the SUSY-scale threshold corrections are found to be less prominent when sfermions are heavy.

  1. No-scale SUGRA SO(10) Inflation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ila Garg

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... Higgs fields for the inflaton. A no-scale SUGRA model of inflation based on the SU(5) GUT using the 24, 5 and. 5 Higgs in the superpotential has been constructed [14]. In the present work, we study inflation in a renormal- izable grand unified theory based on the SO(10) gauge group with no-scale SUGRA.

  2. Towards a complete A{sub 4}×SU(5) SUSY GUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björkeroth, Fredrik [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Anda, Francisco J. de [Departamento de Física, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara,Blvd. Marcelino García Barragán 1421, esq Calzada Olímpica, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 44430 (Mexico); Varzielas, Ivo de Medeiros; King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-22

    We propose a renormalisable model based on A{sub 4} family symmetry with an SU(5) grand unified theory (GUT) which leads to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with a two right-handed neutrino seesaw mechanism. Discrete ℤ{sub 9}×ℤ{sub 6} symmetry provides the fermion mass hierarchy in both the quark and lepton sectors, while ℤ{sub 4}{sup R} symmetry is broken to ℤ{sub 2}{sup R}, identified as usual R-parity. Proton decay is highly suppressed by these symmetries. The strong CP problem is solved in a similar way to the Nelson-Barr mechanism. We discuss both the A{sub 4} and SU(5) symmetry breaking sectors, including doublet-triplet splitting, Higgs mixing and the origin of the μ term. The model provides an excellent fit (better than one sigma) to all quark and lepton (including neutrino) masses and mixing with spontaneous CP violation. With the A{sub 4} vacuum alignments, (0,1,1) and (1,3,1), the model predicts the entire PMNS mixing matrix with no free parameters, up to a relative phase, selected to be 2π/3 from a choice of the nine complex roots of unity, which is identified as the leptogenesis phase. The model predicts a normal neutrino mass hierarchy with leptonic angles θ{sub 13}{sup l}≈8.7{sup ∘}, θ{sub 12}{sup l}≈34{sup ∘}, θ{sub 23}{sup l}≈46{sup ∘} and an oscillation phase δ{sup l}≈−87{sup ∘}.

  3. Decrypting SO(10-inspired leptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Di Bari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of SO(10-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that it is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry NB−Lp,i, the strong thermal (ST condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the ST-SO(10-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analytical lower bound on the effective neutrino-less double beta decay neutrino mass, mee≳8 meV, for NB−Lp,i=10−3, testable with next generation experiments. This, in combination with an upper bound on the atmospheric mixing angle, necessarily in the first octant, forces the lightest neutrino mass within a narrow range m1≃(10–30 meV (corresponding to ∑imi≃(75–125 meV. We also show why the solution could correctly predict a non-vanishing reactor neutrino mixing angle and requires the Dirac phase to be in the fourth quadrant, implying sin⁡δ (and JCP negative as hinted by current global analyses. Many of the analytical results presented (expressions for the orthogonal matrix, RH neutrino mixing matrix, masses and phases can have applications beyond leptogenesis.

  4. Should sparticle masses unify at the GUT scale?

    CERN Document Server

    Pomarol, Alex

    1995-01-01

    Gauge and Yukawa (for the third family) coupling unification seem to be the best predictions of the grand-unified theories (GUTs). In supersymmetric GUTs, one also expects that the sparticle masses unify at the GUT scale (for sparticles embedded in the same GUT multiplet). I show under what circumstances GUTs do not lead to sparticle mass unification. In particular, I give examples of SU(5) and SO(10) SUSY GUTs in which squarks and sleptons of a family have different tree-level masses at the unification scale. The models have interesting relations between Yukawa couplings. For example, I present an SO(10) GUT that allows for a large ratio of the top to bottom Yukawas, accounting for the large m_t /m_b. The splittings can also be induced in the Higgs soft masses and accommodate the electroweak breaking.

  5. Sparticle spectroscopy of the minimal SO(10 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Fukuyama

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The supersymmetric (SUSY minimal SO(10 model is a well-motivated grand unified theory, where the Standard Model (SM fermions have Yukawa couplings with only one 10-plet and one 126‾-plet Higgs fields and it is highly non-trivial if the realistic quark and lepton mass matrices can be reproduced in this context. It has been known that the best fit for all the SM fermion mass matrices is achieved by a vacuum expectation value of the 126‾-plet Higgs field being at the intermediate scale of around O(1013 GeV. Under the presence of the SO(10 symmetry breaking at the intermediate scale, the successful SM gauge coupling unification is at risk and likely to be spoiled. Recently, it has been shown that the low-energy fermion mass matrices, except for the down-quark mass predicted to be too low, are very well-fitted without the intermediate scale. In order to resolve the too-low down quark mass while keeping the other fittings intact, we consider SUSY threshold corrections to reproduce the right down quark mass. It turns out that this requires flavor-dependent soft parameters. Motivated by this fact, we calculate particle mass spectra at low energies with flavor-dependent sfermion masses at the grand unification scale. We present a benchmark particle mass spectrum which satisfies a variety of phenomenological constraints, in particular, the observed SM-like Higgs boson mass of around 125 GeV and the relic abundance of the neutralino dark matter as well as the experimental result of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. In the resultant mass spectrum, sleptons in the first and second generations, bino and winos are all light, and this scenario can be tested at the LHC Run-2 in the near future.

  6. Sneutrino inflation in GUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan; Baumann, Jochen P.; Dutta, Koushik; Kostka, Philipp M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Bastero-Gil, Mar [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Centro Andaluz de Fisica de Particulas Elementales, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); King, Steve F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    We discuss sneutrino inflation in SUSY GUTs, in particular in Pati-Salam and SO(10). Since under these gauge groups the right-handed sneutrino is no longer a singlet, several problems arise. Not being a singlet, the scalar potential of the sneutrino in general receives large D-term contributions, which would violate the slow-roll conditions. Furthermore, with a charged inflaton problematic effects at the one- and two-loop level might arise, which again threaten the flatness of the potential. Additionally the problem of the production of stable topologic defects has to be addressed. We present a simple model of sneutrino inflation in Pati-Salam and discuss the aforementioned problems in this framework. Furthermore, we discuss the prospects of embedding such a model into SO(10).

  7. Model for neutrino mixing based on SO(10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshimo, Noriyuki E-mail: oshimo@phys.ocha.ac.jp

    2003-09-22

    Assuming grand unified theory (GUT) and supersymmetry, we propose a simple model which can consistently accommodate the masses and mixings for quarks and leptons. The grand unified group is SO(10), and 10, 120, and 126-bar representations are introduced for the Higgs superfields which give masses to the quarks and leptons. The differences of masses and mixings between the quarks and the leptons are attributed to the Higgs boson structure. Below the GUT energy scale, the model is the same as the minimal supersymmetric standard model except its inclusion of dimension-5 operators for the small neutrino masses. The renormalization group equations of the independent parameters for the Higgs couplings with the quarks and leptons are given explicitly to connect the two energy scales of GUT and electroweak theory.

  8. New minimal SO (10) GUT: A theory for all epochs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-07

    Jan 7, 2016 ... Measurable or near measurable level of tensor perturbations – and thus large inflaton mass scale – may be accommodated within the NMSGUT by supersymmetric see-saw inflation based on an LHN flat direction inflaton if the Higgs component contains contributions from heavy Higgs components.

  9. Neutrino mass from M theory SO(10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, Bobby S. [Department of Physics, King’s College,WC2R 2LS, London (United Kingdom); International Centre for Theoretical Physics,I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Bożek, Krzysztof [Department of Physics, King’s College,WC2R 2LS, London (United Kingdom); Romão, Miguel Crispim; King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,SO17 1BJ, Southampton (United Kingdom); Pongkitivanichkul, Chakrit [Department of Physics, King’s College,WC2R 2LS, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-29

    We study the origin of neutrino mass from SO(10) arising from M Theory compactified on a G{sub 2}-manifold. This is linked to the problem of the breaking of the extra U(1) gauge group, in the SU(5)×U(1) subgroup of SO(10), which we show can achieved via a (generalised) Kolda-Martin mechanism. The resulting neutrino masses arise from a combination of the seesaw mechanism and induced R-parity breaking contributions. The rather complicated neutrino mass matrix is analysed for one neutrino family and it is shown how phenomenologically acceptable neutrino masses can emerge.

  10. SO(10) Yukawa unification with {mu}<0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoladze, Ilia, E-mail: ilia@bartol.udel.edu [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Shafi, Qaisar, E-mail: shafi@bartol.udel.edu [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Salih Un, Cem, E-mail: cemsalihun@bartol.udel.edu [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2011-10-13

    We consider the low energy implications including particle spectroscopy of SO(10) inspired t-b-{tau} Yukawa coupling unification with {mu}<0, where {mu} is the coefficient of the bilinear Higgs mixing term of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). We employ non-universal MSSM gaugino masses induced by SO(10) invariant dimension five operators, such that the total number of fundamental parameters is precisely the same as in Yukawa unified supersymmetric SO(10) models with universal gaugino masses and {mu}>0. We find that t-b-{tau} Yukawa unification with {mu}<0 is compatible with the current experimental bounds, including the WMAP bound on neutralino dark matter and the measured value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We present a variety of benchmark points which include relatively light squarks ({approx}TeV) of the first two families and an example in which the bottom and top squarks are lighter than the gluino. This is quite distinct from Yukawa unification with {mu}>0 and universal gaugino masses in which the gluino is the lightest colored sparticle and the squarks of the first two families have masses in the multi-TeV range.

  11. Where is SUSY?

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Recent information from the LHC experiments, the relatively low mass of the new boson and other data coming from experiments looking for dark matter worldwide are placing new constraints on the existence of supersymmetry (SUSY). However, there is a large community of scientists that still believes that SUSY particles are out there. Like lost keys at night, perhaps we have been looking for SUSY under the wrong lamp-posts…   Can you work out this rebus? Source: Caroline Duc. So far, SUSY is “just” a theoretical physics model, which could solve problems beyond the Standard Model by accounting for dark matter and other phenomena in the Universe. However, SUSY has not been spotted so far, and might be hiding because of features different from what physicists previously expected. “Currently, there is no evidence for SUSY, but neither has any experimental data ruled it out. Many searches have focused on simplified versions of the theory but, given the recen...

  12. The Reach of the Fermilab Tevatron and CERN LHC for Gaugino Mediated SUSY Breaking Models

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Howard W; Krupovnickas, T; Tata, Xerxes; Baer, Howard; Belyaev, Alexander; Krupovnickas, Tadas; Tata, Xerxes

    2002-01-01

    In supersymmetric models with gaugino mediated SUSY breaking (inoMSB), it is assumed that SUSY breaking on a hidden brane is communicated to the visible brane via gauge superfields which propagate in the bulk. This leads to GUT models where the common gaugino mass $m_{1/2}$ is the only soft SUSY breaking term to receive contributions at tree level. To obtain a viable phenomenology, it is assumed that the gaugino mass is induced at some scale $M_c$ beyond the GUT scale, and that additional renormalization group running takes place between $M_c$ and $M_{GUT}$ as in a SUSY GUT. We assume an SU(5) SUSY GUT above the GUT scale, and compute the SUSY particle spectrum expected in models with inoMSB. We use the Monte Carlo program ISAJET to simulate signals within the inoMSB model, and compute the SUSY reach including cuts and triggers approriate to Fermilab Tevatron and CERN LHC experiments. We find no reach for SUSY by the Tevatron collider in the trilepton channel. %either with or without %identified tau leptons. ...

  13. Reach of the Fermilab Tevatron and CERN LHC for gaugino mediated SUSY breaking models

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Howard W; Krupovnickas, T; Tata, Xerxes; 10.1103/PhysRevD.65.075024

    2002-01-01

    In supersymmetric models with gaugino mediated SUSY breaking (gMSB), it is assumed that SUSY breaking on a hidden brane is communicated to the visible brane via gauge superfields which propagate in the bulk. This leads to GUT models where the common gaugino mass m/sub 1/2/ is the only soft SUSY breaking term to receive contributions at the tree level. To obtain a viable phenomenology, it is assumed that the gaugino mass is induced at some scale M/sub c/ beyond the GUT scale, and that additional renormalization group running takes place between M/sub c/ and M/sub GUT/ as in a SUSY GUT. We assume an SU(5) SUSY GUT above the GUT scale, and compute the SUSY particle spectrum expected in models with gMSB. We use the Monte Carlo program ISAJET to simulate signals within the gMSB model, and compute the SUSY reach including cuts and triggers appropriate to Fermilab Tevatron and CERN LHC experiments. We find no reach for SUSY by the Tevatron collider in the trilepton channel. At the CERN LHC, values of m/sub 1/2/=1000...

  14. No-scale SUGRA SO(10) Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ila

    2017-10-01

    We show that a renormalizable theory based on gauge group SO(10) and Higgs system 10 \\oplus 210 \\oplus 126 \\oplus {\\overline{126}} with no scale supergravity can lead to a Starobinsky kind of potential for inflation. Successful inflation is possible in cases where the potential during inflation corresponds to SU(3)_C × SU(2)_{L} × SU(2)_{R} × U(1)_{B-L}, SU(5)× U(1) and flipped SU(5)× U(1) symmetries with suitable choice of superpotential parameters. The reheating in such a scenario can occur via non-perturbative decay of inflaton, i.e. through `preheating'. After the end of reheating, when Universe cools down, the finite-temperature potential can have a minimum which corresponds to MSSM.

  15. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [Cosmophysics Group, Theory Center, IPNS KEK, and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, 305-0801 (Japan); Lim, C.S. [Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Woman' s Christian University, Tokyo, 167-8585 (Japan); Lin, Chia-Min [Department of Physics, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112 (Japan); Mimura, Yukihiro, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp, E-mail: lin@chuo-u.ac.jp, E-mail: mimura@hep1.phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617 Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n{sub s} = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  16. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C. S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is ns = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  17. B-L violating proton decay modes and new baryogenesis scenario in SO(10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K S; Mohapatra, R N

    2012-08-31

    We show that grand unified theories based on SO(10) generate quite naturally baryon number violating dimension seven operators that violate B-L, and lead to novel nucleon decay modes such as n→e(-)K(+), e(-)π(+) and p→νπ(+). We find that in two-step breaking schemes of nonsupersymmetric SO(10), the partial lifetimes for these modes can be within reach of experiments. The interactions responsible for these decay modes also provide a new way to understand the origin of matter in the Universe via the decays of grand unified theory (GUT) scale scalar bosons of SO(10). Their (B-L)-violating nature guarantees that the GUT scale induced baryon asymmetry is not washed out by the electroweak sphaleron interactions. In minimal SO(10) models this asymmetry is closely tied to the masses of quarks, leptons and the neutrinos.

  18. SUSY Searches at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mamuzic, Judita; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is considered one of the best motivated extensions of the Standard Model. It postulates a fundamental symmetry between fermions and bosons, and introduces a set of new supersymmetric particles at the electroweak scale. It addresses the hierarchy and naturalness problem, gives a solution to the gauge coupling unification, and offers a cold dark matter candidate. Different aspects of SUSY searches, using strong, electroweak, third generation production, and R-parity violation and long lived particles are being studied at the LHC. An overview of most recent SUSY searches results using the 13 TeV ATLAS RUN2 data will be presented.

  19. SUSY Meets Her Twin

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Andrey; Pokorski, Stefan; Redigolo, Diego; Ziegler, Robert

    2017-01-31

    We investigate the general structure of mirror symmetry breaking in the Twin Higgs scenario. We show, using the IR effective theory, that a significant gain in fine tuning can be achieved if the symmetry is broken hardly. We emphasize that weakly coupled UV completions can naturally accommodate this scenario. We analyze SUSY UV completions and present a simple Twin SUSY model with a tuning of around 10% and colored superpartners as heavy as 2 TeV. The collider signatures of general Twin SUSY models are discussed with a focus on the extended Higgs sectors.

  20. SUSY Without Prejudice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.F.; Gainer, J.S.; Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G.

    2008-12-11

    We begin an exploration of the physics associated with the general CP-conserving MSSM with Minimal Flavor Violation, the pMSSM. The 19 soft SUSY breaking parameters in this scenario are chosen so as to satisfy all existing experimental and theoretical constraints assuming that the WIMP is a thermal relic, i.e., the lightest neutralino. We scan this parameter space twice using both flat and log priors for the soft SUSY breaking mass parameters and compare the results which yield similar conclusions. Detailed constraints from both LEP and the Tevatron searches play a particularly important role in obtaining our final model samples. We find that the pMSSM leads to a much broader set of predictions for the properties of the SUSY partners as well as for a number of experimental observables than those found in any of the conventional SUSY breaking scenarios such as mSUGRA. This set of models can easily lead to atypical expectations for SUSY signals at the LHC.

  1. On the doublet/triplet splitting and intermediate mass scales in locally supersymmetric SO(10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, João

    1985-01-01

    In the light of the doublet/triplet splitting, the possibilities for an intermediate mass scale in locally supersymmetric SO(10) are analysed. It is found that the subgroup SU(4)c × SU(2)L × SU(2)R and more generally left-right symmetric models are unlikely to survive as intermediate symmetries since they imply too large values of the weak mixing angle. An alternative model using the subgroup SU(3)c × U(1)L × U(1)R is discussed. Requirements from global SUSY preservation impose an extra constraint and predictions for the grand unification and the intermediate masses are obtained at MX ~ 6 × 1015 GeV and MI ~ 1012 GeV. Address after March 1984: Centro de Fisica da Materia Condensada, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1699 Lisbon Codex, Portugal.

  2. SUSY Search at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Da; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk gives an overview of the most recent SUSY searches in ATLAS and CMS experiments using 13 TeV ATLAS Run2 data.

  3. Natural SUSY endures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papucci, Michele; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Weiler, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    The first 1 fb-1 of LHC searches have set impressive limits on new colored particles decaying to missing energy. We address the implication of these searches for naturalness in supersymmetry (SUSY). General bottom-up considerations of natural electroweak symmetry breaking show that higgsinos, stops, and the gluino should not be too far above the weak scale. The rest of the spectrum, including the squarks of the first two generations, can be heavier and beyond the current LHC reach. We have used collider simulations to determine the limits that all of the 1 fb-1 searches pose on higgsinos, stops, and the gluino. We find that stops and the left-handed sbottom are starting to be constrained and must be heavier than about 200-300 GeV when decaying to higgsinos. The gluino must be heavier than about 600-800 GeV when it decays to stops and sbottoms. While these findings point toward scenarios with a lighter third generation split from the other squarks, we do find that moderately-tuned regions remain, where the gluino is just above 1 TeV and all the squarks are degenerate and light. Among all the searches, jets plus missing energy and same-sign dileptons often provide the most powerful probes of natural SUSY. Overall, our results indicate that natural SUSY has survived the first 1 fb-1 of data. The LHC is now on the brink of exploring the most interesting region of SUSY parameter space.

  4. Gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Balercia, Giancarlo; Barrea, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    which may be related to both the intestinal microbiological profile and patterns of gut hormones secretion. Intestinal microbiota includes trillions of microorganisms but its composition and function may be adversely affected in type 2 diabetes. The intestinal microbiota may be responsible......The gut regulates glucose and energy homeostasis; thus, the presence of ingested nutrients into the gut activates sensing mechanisms that affect both glucose homeostasis and regulate food intake. Increasing evidence suggest that gut may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes...... metabolism. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to review the current evidence on the role of the gut in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, taking into account both hormonal and microbiological aspects....

  5. SCET improved SUSY search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Mantry, Sonny; Petriello, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Supersymmetry has been one of the most popular candidates for physics beyond standard model (SM) for a long time. The fact that we haven't yet discover super particles in nowadays LHC data, pushes the SUSY production nearer and nearer to the LHC machine threshold. In the threshold limit, how well we understand the SM background is crucial for SUSY or other physics beyond SM search. In this talk, we will use the simplest case by considering photon plus two jets events to address the problem and we will talk about how we use the soft collinear effective theory to sum up potentially large logs related to threshold limit to improve our understanding of the SM background.

  6. Renormalization group running of fermion observables in an extended non-supersymmetric SO(10) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meloni, Davide [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università di Roma Tre,Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Ohlsson, Tommy; Riad, Stella [Department of Physics, School of Engineering Sciences,KTH Royal Institute of Technology - AlbaNova University Center,Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-08

    We investigate the renormalization group evolution of fermion masses, mixings and quartic scalar Higgs self-couplings in an extended non-supersymmetric SO(10) model, where the Higgs sector contains the 10{sub H}, 120{sub H}, and 126{sub H} representations. The group SO(10) is spontaneously broken at the GUT scale to the Pati-Salam group and subsequently to the Standard Model (SM) at an intermediate scale M{sub I}. We explicitly take into account the effects of the change of gauge groups in the evolution. In particular, we derive the renormalization group equations for the different Yukawa couplings. We find that the computed physical fermion observables can be successfully matched to the experimental measured values at the electroweak scale. Using the same Yukawa couplings at the GUT scale, the measured values of the fermion observables cannot be reproduced with a SM-like evolution, leading to differences in the numerical values up to around 80%. Furthermore, a similar evolution can be performed for a minimal SO(10) model, where the Higgs sector consists of the 10{sub H} and 126{sub H} representations only, showing an equally good potential to describe the low-energy fermion observables. Finally, for both the extended and the minimal SO(10) models, we present predictions for the three Dirac and Majorana CP-violating phases as well as three effective neutrino mass parameters.

  7. Natural SUSY endures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papucci, Michele; Ruderman, Joshua T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theoretical Physics Div.

    2011-10-31

    The first 1 fb{sup -1} of LHC searches have set impressive limits on new colored particles decaying to missing energy. We address the implication of these searches for naturalness in supersymmetry (SUSY). General bottom-up considerations of natural electroweak symmetry breaking show that higgsinos, stops, and the gluino should not be too far above the weak scale. The rest of the spectrum, including the squarks of the first two generations, can be heavier and beyond the current LHC reach. We have used collider simulations to determine the limits that all of the 1 fb{sup -1} searches pose on higgsinos, stops, and the gluino. We find that stops and the left-handed sbottom are starting to be constrained and must be heavier than about 200-300 GeV when decaying to higgsinos. The gluino must be heavier than about 600-800 GeV when it decays to stops and sbottoms. While these findings point toward scenarios with a lighter third generation split from the other squarks, we do find that moderately-tuned regions remain, where the gluino is just above 1 TeV and all the squarks are degenerate and light. Among all the searches, jets plus missing energy and same-sign dileptons often provide the most powerful probes of natural SUSY. Overall, our results indicate that natural SUSY has survived the first 1 fb{sup -1} of data. The LHC is now on the brink of exploring the most interesting region of SUSY parameter space. (orig.)

  8. SUSY: New Perspectives and Variants

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, C.

    2007-01-01

    Although supersymmetry (SUSY) is thirty five years old, it is still one of the most attractive theories for physics beyond the standard model. Assuming that SUSY will be discovered at the LHC, the key question is: What SUSY model do we expect to be the correct one ? After reviewing briefly the advantages and problems of SUSY, several interesting models that have been proposed in the literature will be discussed. In particular, models such as the MSSM, BRpV, NMSSM, and possible extensions. We ...

  9. Split SUSY Radiates Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgart, Matthew; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of Mini-Split Supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and WIMP dark matter. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  10. Low-Energy Predictions of SUSY GUT’S: the Minimal Model Versus the Finite Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, D. I.; Kondrashuk, I. N.

    We consider the low-energy predictions for sin2 θW and τproton of SUSY GUT’s along the lines of Ref. 1. Special attention is paid to the dependence on the mass spectrum of superpartners and possible heavy inhabitants of the Great desert. The minimal and finite SUSY SU(5) models with light and heavy t squark and additional higgsino are considered. It is shown that modern precise LEP data are naturally reproduced within the finite SUSY SU(5) GUT with both light and heavy t squark and light higgsino with a reasonable SU(5) splitting.

  11. A Layman's guide to SUSY GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    López, Jorge L; Zichichi, A

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the most straightforward evidence for the existence of the Superworld requires a guide for non-experts (especially experimental physicists) for them to make their own judgement on the value of such predictions. For this purpose we review the most basic results of Super-Grand unification in a simple and clear way. We focus the attention on two specific models and their predictions. These two models represent an example of a direct comparison between a traditional unified-theory and a string-inspired approach to the solution of the many open problems of the Standard Model. We emphasize that viable models must satisfy {\\em all} available experimental constraints and be as simple as theoretically possible. The two well defined supergravity models, $SU(5)$ and $SU(5)\\times U(1)$, can be described in terms of only a few parameters (five and three respectively) instead of the more than twenty needed in the MSSM model, \\ie, the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. A case of spe...

  12. Naturalness, SUSY heavy higgses and flavor constraints

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    I will demonstrate that supersymmetric (SUSY) higgses provide an important diagnostic for electroweak naturalness in the SUSY paradigm. I first review the naturalness problem of the Standard Model (SM) and SUSY as one of its most promising solutions. I study the masses of heavy Higgses in SUSY theories under broad assumptions, and show how they are constrained by their role in Electroweak symmetry breaking. I then show how Flavor Physics severely constrains large parts of SUSY parameter space, otherwise favored by naturalness. If SUSY Higgses are not discovered at relatively low mass during the next LHC run, this tension will further increase, disfavoring naturalness from SUSY.

  13. Surveying the SO(10) model landscape: The left-right symmetric case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppisch, Frank F.; Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Graf, Lukas

    2017-09-01

    Grand unified theories (GUTs) are a very well motivated extensions of the Standard Model (SM), but the landscape of models and possibilities is overwhelming, and different patterns can lead to rather distinct phenomenologies. In this work we present a way to automatize the model building process, by considering a top to bottom approach that constructs viable and sensible theories from a small and controllable set of inputs at the high scale. By providing a GUT scale symmetry group and the field content, possible symmetry breaking paths are generated and checked for consistency, ensuring anomaly cancellation, SM embedding and gauge coupling unification. We emphasize the usefulness of this approach for the particular case of a nonsupersymmetric SO(10) model with an intermediate left-right symmetry, and we analyze how low-energy observables such as proton decay and lepton flavor violation might affect the generated model landscape.

  14. Where is SUSY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Amitava

    2017-10-01

    The searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have so far yielded only null results and have considerably tightened the bounds on the sparticle masses. This has generated some skepticism in the literature regarding the `naturalness of SUSY' which qualitatively requires some sparticles to be relatively light. Re-examining some of the bounds from LHC searches, it is argued with specific examples that the above skepticism is a red herring because (i) a quantitative and universally accepted definition of `naturalness' is not available and (ii) even if some conventional definitions of naturalness is accepted at their face values, the alleged tension with the apparently stringent LHC bounds wither away once the strong assumptions, by no means compelling, underlying such bounds are relaxed.

  15. Built-in horizontal symmetry of SO(10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    In a renormalizable SO(10) theory, all fermion mass matrices are linear combinations of three fundamental types, M10, M126¯, and M120, whose superscripts indicate their SO(10) transformation properties. We point out that each of these fundamental mass matrices possesses a natural symmetry that can be used to generate an unbroken horizontal symmetry G, if the natural symmetry is taken to be the residual symmetry. This built-in symmetry is a Coxeter group. If it is finite, it must be one of five groups: S4, Z2×S4, Z2×A5, and two "rank-4" groups. These symmetries place constraints on the fundamental mass matrices and reduce the number of parameters in an SO(10) fit. Since they are built in and can be derived theoretically, it is hoped that they impose better constraints than those without a theoretical basis. However, that has yet to be confirmed because there is no attempt to fit the experimental data in this article, except to count the number of free parameters. To illustrate the similarities and differences of various kinds of constraints, a comparison is made with an existing S4 model and with models possessing the Fritzsch texture.

  16. Susi astus rektori kohalt tagasi / Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laev, Sigrid

    2003-01-01

    Concordia rektor Mart Susi ja prorektor Mari-Ann Susi astusid kooli juhtimisest tagasi ja kuulutasid välja Concordia Varahalduse OÜ pankroti. Concordia töötajate loodud ühing hakkas looma uut õppeasutust

  17. Natural SUSY Endures

    CERN Document Server

    Papucci, Michele; Weiler, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The first 1/fb of LHC searches have set impressive limits on new colored particles decaying to missing energy. We address the implication of these searches for naturalness in supersymmetry (SUSY). General bottom-up considerations of natural electroweak symmetry breaking show that higgsinos, stops, and the gluino should not be too far above the weak scale. The rest of the spectrum, including the squarks of the first two generations, can be heavier and beyond the current LHC reach. We have used collider simulations to determine the limits that all of the 1/fb searches pose on higgsinos, stops, and the gluino. We find that stops and the left-handed sbottom are starting to be constrained and must be heavier than about 200-300 GeV when decaying to higgsinos. The gluino must be heavier than about 600-800 GeV when it decays to stops and sbottoms. While these findings point toward scenarios with a lighter third generation split from the other squarks, we do find that moderately-tuned regions remain, where the gluino ...

  18. Diphoton resonance in F-theory inspired flipped SO(10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontaris, George K. [Ioannina University, Physics Department, Theory Division, Ioannina (Greece); Shafi, Qaisar [University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bartol Research Institute, Newark, DE (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Motivated by the di-photon excess at 750 GeV reported by the ATLAS and CMS experiments, we present an F-theory inspired flipped SO(10) model embedded in E{sub 6}. The low energy spectrum includes the three MSSM chiral families, vector-like colour triplets, several pairs of charged SU(2){sub L} singlet fields (E{sup c}, anti E{sup c}), as well as MSSM singlets, one or more of which could contribute to the di-photon resonance. A total decay width in the multi-GeV range can arise from couplings involving the singlet and MSSM fields. (orig.)

  19. Dark matter from the vector of SO(10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane M. Boucenna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available SO(10 grand unified theories can ensure the stability of new particles in terms of the gauge group structure itself, and in this respect are well suited to accommodate dark matter (DM candidates in the form of new stable massive particles. We introduce new fermions in two vector 10 representations. When SO(10 is broken into the standard model by a minimal 45+126‾+10 scalar sector with SU(3C⊗SU(2L⊗SU(2R⊗U(1B−L as intermediate symmetry group, the resulting lightest new states are two Dirac fermions corresponding to combinations of the neutral members of the SU(2L doublets in the 10s, which get split in mass by loop corrections involving WR. The resulting lighter mass eigenstate is stable, and has only non-diagonal ZL,R neutral current couplings to the heavier neutral state. Direct detection searches are evaded if the mass splitting is sufficiently large to suppress kinematically inelastic light-to-heavy scatterings. By requiring that this condition is satisfied, we obtain the upper limit MWR≲25 TeV.

  20. The toric SO(10) F-theory landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmüller, W.; Dierigl, M.; Oehlmann, P.-K.; Rühle, F.

    2017-12-01

    Supergravity theories in more than four dimensions with grand unified gauge symmetries are an important intermediate step towards the ultraviolet completion of the Standard Model in string theory. Using toric geometry, we classify and analyze six-dimensional F-theory vacua with gauge group SO(10) taking into account Mordell-Weil U(1) and discrete gauge factors. We determine the full matter spectrum of these models, including charged and neutral SO(10) singlets. Based solely on the geometry, we compute all matter multiplicities and confirm the cancellation of gauge and gravitational anomalies independent of the base space. Particular emphasis is put on symmetry enhancements at the loci of matter fields and to the frequent appearance of superconformal points. They are linked to non-toric Kähler deformations which contribute to the counting of degrees of freedom. We compute the anomaly coefficients for these theories as well by using a base-independent blow-up procedure and superconformal matter transitions. Finally, we identify six-dimensional supergravity models which can yield the Standard Model with high-scale supersymmetry by further compactification to four dimensions in an Abelian flux background.

  1. Successful type I Leptogenesis with SO(10)-inspired mass relations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that thermal leptogenesis through the decays of the lightest right-handed neutrinos encounters serious difficulties when SO(10)-inspired mass conditions are imposed on the Dirac neutrino mass matrix and light neutrino masses are generated through the type I see-saw mechanism. We show that these can be circumvented when the production from the next-to-lightest right-handed neutrinos and flavor effects are properly taken into account. Some conditions on the low energy parameters have to be satisfied in order for inverse processes involving the lightest right-handed neutrino not to wash-out the asymmetry. In particular we find m_1 \\gtrsim 0.001 eV, where m_1 is the mass of the lightest left-handed neutrino and that non-vanishing values of the mixing angle theta_13 are preferred in the case of a normal fully hierarchical spectrum of light neutrinos.

  2. A full analytic solution of SO(10)-inspired leptogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bari, Pasquale; Fiorentin, Michele Re

    2017-10-01

    Recent encouraging experimental results on neutrino mixing parameters prompt further investigation on SO(10)-inspired leptogenesis and on the associated strong thermal solution that has correctly predicted a non-vanishing reactor mixing angle, it further predicts sin δ ≲ 0, now supported by recent results at ˜ 95% C.L., normally ordered neutrino masses and atmospheric mixing angle in the first octant, best fit results in latest global analyses. Extending a recent analytical procedure, we account for the mismatch between the Yukawa basis and the weak basis, that in SO(10)-inspired models is described by a CKM-like unitary transformation V L , obtaining a full analytical solution that provides useful insight and reproduces accurately all numerical results, paving the way for future inclusion of different sources of theoretical uncertainties and for a statistical analysis of the constraints. We show how muon-dominated solutions appear for large values of the lightest neutrino mass in the range (0 .01-1) eV but also how they necessarily require a mild fine tuning in the seesaw relation. For the dominant (and untuned) tauon-dominated solutions we show analytically how, turning on V L ≃ V CKM, some of the constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters get significantly relaxed. In particular we show how the upper bound on the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle in the strong thermal solution gets relaxed from θ 23 ≲ 41° to θ 23 ≲ 44°, an important effect in the light of the most recent NO νA, T2K and IceCube results.

  3. The flavor and CP problems in SUSY

    CERN Document Server

    Masiero, A

    2004-01-01

    Although direct searches of supersymmetry (SUSY) constitute the only way we have to clearly verify the existence of a low-energy SUSY extension of the standard model, yet, in particular in our pre-LHC era, it is of utmost importance to study any possible signal where SUSY manifests itself indirectly in discrepancies with the SM expectations in rare processes. In this talk we'll consider a wide range of flavor changing neutral current and/or CP violating phenomena where, indeed, SUSY contributions are comparable to the SM ones. Such analysis provides stringent constraints on different SUSY model parameter spaces and, at the same time, it individuates possible windows for SUSY signals in spite of all the existing constraints. Our attention will focus in particular on the CP violating processes which are the most sensitive place for SUSY effects in the vast class of rare phenomena of the SM.

  4. Hitting sbottom in natural SUSY

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Min; Trott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We compare the experimental prospects of direct stop and sbottom pair production searches at the LHC. Such searches for stops are of great interest as they directly probe for states that are motivated by the SUSY solution to the hierarchy problem of the Higgs mass parameter - leading to a "Natural" SUSY spectrum. Noting that sbottom searches are less experimentally challenging and scale up in reach directly with the improvement on b-tagging algorithms, we discuss the interplay of small TeV scale custodial symmetry violation with sbottom direct pair production searches as a path to obtaining strong sub-TeV constraints on stops in a natural SUSY scenario. We argue that if a weak scale natural SUSY spectrum does not exist within the reach of LHC, then hopes for such a spectrum for large regions of parameter space should sbottom out. Conversely, the same arguments make clear that a discovery of such a spectrum is likely to proceed in a sbottom up manner.

  5. A natural S 4 × SO(10) model of flavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkeroth, Fredrik; de Anda, Francisco J.; King, Stephen F.; Perdomo, Elena

    2017-10-01

    We propose a natural S 4 × SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified theory of flavour with an auxiliary Z_4^2× Z_4^R symmetry, based on small Higgs representations (nothing larger than an adjoint) and hence a type-I seesaw mechanism. The Yukawa structure of all fermions is determined by the hierarchical vacuum expectation values of three S 4 triplet flavons, with CSD3 vacuum alignments, where up-type quarks and neutrinos couple to one Higgs 10, and the down-type quarks and charged leptons couple to a second Higgs 10. The Yukawa matrices are obtained from sums of low-rank matrices, where each matrix in the sum naturally accounts for the mass of a particular family, as in sequential dominance in the neutrino sector, which predicts a normal neutrino mass hierarchy. The model accurately fits all available quark and lepton data, with predictions for the leptonic CP phase in 95% credible intervals given by 281° Higgs doublets emerging from the two Higgs 10s without mixing, and we demonstrate how a μ term of O(TeV) can be realised, as well as doublet-triplet splitting, with Planck scale operators controlled by symmetry, leading to acceptable proton decay.

  6. Testing SO(10)-inspired leptogenesis with low energy neutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale

    2011-01-01

    We extend the results of a previous analysis of ours showing that, when both heavy and light flavour effects are taken into account, successful minimal (type I + thermal) leptogenesis with SO(10)-inspired relations is possible. Barring fine tuned choices of the parameters, these relations enforce a hierarchical RH neutrino mass spectrum that results into a final asymmetry dominantly produced by the next-to-lightest RH neutrino decays (N_2 dominated leptogenesis). We present the constraints on the whole set of low energy neutrino parameters. Allowing a small misalignment between the Dirac basis and the charged lepton basis as in the quark sector, the allowed regions enlarge and the lower bound on the reheating temperature gets relaxed to values as low as ~ 10^10 GeV. It is confirmed that for normal ordering (NO) there are two allowed ranges of values for the lightest neutrino mass: m_1 \\simeq (1-5)\\times 10^-3 eV and m_1\\simeq (0.03-0.1) eV. For m_1\\lesssim 0.01 eV the allowed region in the plane theta_13-thet...

  7. Status of SUSY searches at the LHC (including SUSY Higgs bosons)

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Zach; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We review the status of SUSY searches at the LHC, including searches for SUSY Higgs Bosons. ATLAS and CMS have both prepared a large number of search results on the full 2015+2016 dataset, pushing the bounds on SUSY further than ever before.

  8. Phenomenology of the minimal ЛЗ(10) sUsY model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let me first define the minimal SO(10) sUsY model [MsOЅјsM] [1] and then I will discuss the phenomenological consequences of this theory. In the MsOЅјsM the quarks and leptons of one family are contained in a 16 dimensional spinor representation and the two Higgs doublets of the MssM come from a single 10.

  9. Mart Susi tegevust uurib keskkriminaalpolitsei / Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laev, Sigrid

    2003-01-01

    Keskkriminaalpolitsei algatas Concordia ülikooliga seotu uurimiseks kaks kriminaalasja, millest üks käsitleb endise rektori Mart Susi ja endise prorektori Mari-Ann Susi võimalikku ametiseisundi kuritarvitamist, teise sisuks on Concordia varade ilmne varjamine

  10. SUSY with ATLAS Leptonic Signatures, Coannihilation Region

    CERN Document Server

    Comune, G

    2004-01-01

    In this work we present an initial study on how leptonic signatures can be used at ATLAS to constrain SUSY particle masses combinations for the first time in the so called "coannihilation region''. The analysis is carried out in the framework of mSUGRA constrained SUSY model using fast detector simulation and reconstruction exploiting an invariant mass endpoint technique.

  11. SO(10) × S 4 grand unified theory of flavour and leptogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Anda, Francisco J.; King, Stephen F.; Perdomo, Elena

    2017-12-01

    We propose a Grand Unified Theory of Flavour, based on SO(10) together with a non-Abelian discrete group S 4, under which the unified three quark and lepton 16-plets are unified into a single triplet 3'. The model involves a further discrete group ℤ 4 R × ℤ 4 3 which controls the Higgs and flavon symmetry breaking sectors. The CSD2 flavon vacuum alignment is discussed, along with the GUT breaking potential and the doublet-triplet splitting, and proton decay is shown to be under control. The Yukawa matrices are derived in detail, from renormalisable diagrams, and neutrino masses emerge from the type I seesaw mechanism. A full numerical fit is performed with 15 input parameters generating 19 presently constrained observables, taking into account supersymmetry threshold corrections. The model predicts a normal neutrino mass ordering with a CP oscillation phase of 260°, an atmospheric angle in the first octant and neutrinoless double beta decay with m ββ = 11 meV. We discuss N 2 leptogenesis, which fixes the second right-handed neutrino mass to be M 2 ≃ 2 × 1011 GeV, in the natural range predicted by the model.

  12. Radiative see-saw formula in nonsupersymmetric SO (10) with dark ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the absence of supersymmetry, we show how experimentally verifiable radiative see-saw formula of Ma type is realized in non-SUSY (10) while fulfilling the twin objectives: precision gauge coupling unification and dark matter. This model is expected to have a dramatic impact on neutrino physics, dark matter and all ...

  13. SUSY decays of Higgs particles

    CERN Document Server

    Djouadi, Abdelhak; Kalinowski, Jan; Zerwas, Peter M

    1996-01-01

    Among the possible decay modes of Higgs particles into supersymmetric states, neutralino and chargino decays play a prominent rôle. The experimental opportunities of observing such decay modes at LEP2 and at future $\\ee$ linear colliders are analyzed within the frame of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. For heavy Higgs particles, the chargino/neutralino decay modes can be very important, while only a small window is open for the lightest CP--even Higgs particle. If charginos/neutralinos are found at LEP2, such decay modes can be searched for in a small area of the parameter space, and invisible decays may reduce the exclusion limits of the lightest CP-even Higgs particle slightly; if charginos/neutralinos are not found at LEP2 in direct searches, the Higgs search will not be affected by the SUSY particle sector.

  14. SUSY searches at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffre, Michel; /Orsay, LAL

    2012-02-01

    The Tevatron collider has provided the CDF and D0 collaborations with large datasets as input to a rich program of physics beyond the standard model. The results presented here are from recent searches for SUSY particles using up to 6 fb{sup -1} of data. Supersymmetry (SUSY) [1] is one of the most favored theories beyond the standard model (SM). Each SM particle is associated to a sparticle whose spin differs by one half unit. This boson-fermion symmetry is obviously broken by some unknown mechanism. Even in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the SM (MSSM [2]) there are a large number of free parameters. To reduce this number one can introduce new assumptions on the symmetry breaking mechanism and build models based on minimal supergravity (as mSUGRA [3]) or on a Gauge Mediated Symmetry Breaking scenario (GMSB [4]), a top-down approach. Another possibility is to make phenomenological assumptions to reduce the number of particles accessible to the experiment while keeping some of the properties of the above models (bottom-up approach). As the sparticles are heavy, to produce them one has to make collisions at the highest center of mass energy. The Tevatron was the best place for discovery until the start of LHC. In the near term, Tevatron experiments and their large datasets remain competitive in areas like production of third generation squarks and of non-coloured sparticles. I will report on recent results from the CDF and D0 collaborations, assuming R-parity is conserved, i.e the sparticles are produced in pairs, and the lightest of them (LSP) is stable, neutral, weakly interacting, and detected as missing transverse energy, E{sub T}.

  15. SUSY Searches in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lee JR, Lawrence; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures.

  16. Inclusive SUSY searches at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sekmen, Sezen

    2014-01-01

    I summarize the status of the inclusive SUSY searches conducted by the ATLAS and CMS experiments using the 20 fb-1 of 8 TeV LHC data in the all inclusive, 0 lepton, >=1 lepton and >=2 lepton final states. Current searches show that data are consistent with the SM. The impact of this consistency was explored on a rich variety of SUSY scenarios and simplified models, examples of which I present here.

  17. Strategy for early SUSY searches at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, S

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is scheduled to commence operation in 2008 and inclusive searches for supersymmetry (SUSY) will be one of our primary tasks in the first days of LHC operation. It is certain that the final state of â€ワmultijets + missing transverse energy” will provide a superior performance in SUSY searches. As yet, well-considered strategies for the understanding of instrumental effects of detectors and the realistic estimations of the Standard Model (SM) backgrounds would not be clear: they are urgent issues for the coming data. We describe the strategy for early SUSY searches at the ATLAS experiment using the fist data corresponding to the integrated luminosity up to 1fb−1, which comprises many progresses in the data-driven technique for the SM background estimations.

  18. Strategy for early SUSY searches at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Shimpei

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is scheduled to commence operation in 2008 and inclusive searches for supersymmetry (SUSY) will be one of our primary tasks in the first days of LHC operation. It is certain that the final state of multijets plus missing transverse energy will provide a superior performance in SUSY searches. As yet, well-considered strategies for the understanding of instrumental effects of detectors and the realistic estimations of the Standard Model (SM) backgrounds would not be clear: they are urgent issues for the coming data. We describe the strategy for early SUSY searches at the ATLAS experiment using the fist data corresponding to the integrated luminosity up to 1fb^-1, which comprises many progresses in the data-driven technique for the SM background estimations.

  19. Strategy for early SUSY searches at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, S

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is scheduled to commence operation in 2008 and inclusive searches for supersymmetry (SUSY) will be one of our primary tasks in the first days of LHC operation. It is certain that the final state of multijets plus missing transverse energy will provide a superior performance in SUSY searches. As yet, well-considered strategies for the understanding of instrumental effects of detectors and the realistic estimations of the Standard Model (SM) backgrounds would not be clear: they are urgent issues for the coming data. We describe the strategy for early SUSY searches at the ATLAS experiment using the fist data corresponding to the integrated luminosity up to 1fb^-1, which includes many progresses in the data-driven technique for the SM background estimations.

  20. Neutrino Masses in SUSY theories

    CERN Document Server

    Lola, S

    1999-01-01

    We discuss aspects of neutrino masses and lepton-number violation, in the light of the observations of Super-Kamiokande. As a first step, we use the data from various experiments, in order to obtain a phenomenological understanding of neutrino mass textures. We then investigate how the required patterns of neutrino masses and mixings are related to the flavour structure of the underlying theory. In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, renormalisation group effects can have important implications: for small tanb, bottom-tau unification indicates the presence of significant muon-tau flavour mixing. The evolution of the neutrino mixing may be described by simple semi-analytic expressions, which confirm that, for large tanb, very small mixing at the GUT scale may be amplified to maximal mixing at low energies, and vice versa. Passing to specific models, we first discuss the predictions for neutrino masses in different GUT models (including superstring-embedded solutions). Imposing the requirement for ...

  1. SUSY searches with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles, with focus on those obtained using proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 13 \\TeV. Strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, as well as long-lived particle signatures.

  2. SUSY searches with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCHI Riccardo Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY particles, with focus on those obtained using proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV. Strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, as well as long-lived particle signatures.

  3. SUSY searches at LHC and Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Barberio, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric models with R-parity conservation provide an excellent can- didate for Dark Matter, the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle, which will be searched for with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Based on recent simulation studies, we present the discovery potential for Su- persymmetry (SUSY) with the first few fb−1 of ATLAS data, as well as studies of the techniques used to reconstruct decays of SUSY particles at the LHC. We further discuss how such measurements can be used to constrain the underly- ing Supersymmetric model and hence to extract information about the nature of Dark Matter.

  4. SUSY searches with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles, with focus on those obtained using proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV. Strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, as well as long-lived particle signatures.

  5. Global fits of GUT-scale SUSY models with GAMBIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athron, Peter; Balázs, Csaba; Bringmann, Torsten; Buckley, Andy; Chrząszcz, Marcin; Conrad, Jan; Cornell, Jonathan M.; Dal, Lars A.; Edsjö, Joakim; Farmer, Ben; Jackson, Paul; Krislock, Abram; Kvellestad, Anders; Mahmoudi, Farvah; Martinez, Gregory D.; Putze, Antje; Raklev, Are; Rogan, Christopher; de Austri, Roberto Ruiz; Saavedra, Aldo; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Serra, Nicola; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin

    2017-12-01

    We present the most comprehensive global fits to date of three supersymmetric models motivated by grand unification: the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM), and its Non-Universal Higgs Mass generalisations NUHM1 and NUHM2. We include likelihoods from a number of direct and indirect dark matter searches, a large collection of electroweak precision and flavour observables, direct searches for supersymmetry at LEP and Runs I and II of the LHC, and constraints from Higgs observables. Our analysis improves on existing results not only in terms of the number of included observables, but also in the level of detail with which we treat them, our sampling techniques for scanning the parameter space, and our treatment of nuisance parameters. We show that stau co-annihilation is now ruled out in the CMSSM at more than 95% confidence. Stop co-annihilation turns out to be one of the most promising mechanisms for achieving an appropriate relic density of dark matter in all three models, whilst avoiding all other constraints. We find high-likelihood regions of parameter space featuring light stops and charginos, making them potentially detectable in the near future at the LHC. We also show that tonne-scale direct detection will play a largely complementary role, probing large parts of the remaining viable parameter space, including essentially all models with multi-TeV neutralinos.

  6. Kepribadian Dan Komunikasi Susi Pudjiastuti Dalam Membentuk Personal Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The life story of Susi Pudjiastuti is admired by many people for her hard work, until becoming successful by having so much company in the field of aviation and fisheries. Susi Pudjiastuti is also well known to the public for his work in the ministry. Good performance makes Susi Pudjiastuti popular among Jokowi's working cabinet. Currently, the Brand Name in humans is personal branding which is the trend of the formation of self-image and the creation of good perception from others to us. This research will discuss about personality, communication and personal branding Susi Pudjiastuti with qualitative research method. Good personality makes Susi Pudjiastuti has the ability to communicate well and liked by the community. Personality and communication can form a personal branding Susi Pudjiastuti a natural. By exposing the personality and communication of Susi Pudjiastuti in forming personal branding, then people will realize the importance of personality and Communication in forming a natural personal branding. Kisah hidup Susi Pudjiastuti banyak dikagumi oleh banyak orang atas kerja kerasnya hingga menjadi sukses dengan memiliki banyak perusahaan di bidang penerbangan dan perikanan. Susi Pudjiastuti juga dikenal baik oleh masyarakat akan kinerjanya dalam bekerja di kementerian. Kinerja yang baik menjadikan Susi Pudjiastuti popular diantara kabinet kerja Jokowi. Saat ini, Sebutan merek pada manusia adalah personal branding yang merupakan trend dari pembentukan pencitraan diri dan penciptaan persepsi yang baik dari orang lain kepada kita. Penelitian ini akan membahas mengenai kepribadian, komunikasi serta personal branding Susi Pudjiastuti dengan metode penelitian kualitatif. Kepribadian yang baik menjadikan Susi Pudjiastuti memiliki kemampuan berkomunikasi dengan baik dan disenangi oleh masyarakat. Kepribadian dan komunikasi tersebut dapat membentuk personal branding Susi Pudjiastuti yang alami. Dengan memaparkan kepribadian dan komunikasi Susi

  7. Neutrino masses from SUSY breaking in radiative seesaw models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Antonio J.R. [University of Lisbon, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2015-03-01

    Radiatively generated neutrino masses (m{sub ν}) are proportional to supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking, as a result of the SUSY non-renormalisation theorem. In this work, we investigate the space of SUSY radiative seesaw models with regard to their dependence on SUSY breaking (SUSY). In addition to contributions from sources of SUSY that are involved in electroweak symmetry breaking (SUSY{sub EWSB} contributions), and which are manifest from left angle F{sub H}{sup †} right angle = μ left angle anti H right angle ≠ 0 and left angle D right angle = g sum {sub H} left angle H{sup †} x {sub H} H right angle ≠ 0, radiatively generated m{sub ν} can also receive contributions from SUSY sources that are unrelated to EWSB (SUSY{sub EWS} contributions). We point out that recent literature overlooks pure-SUSY{sub EWSB} contributions (∝ μ/M) that can arise at the same order of perturbation theory as the leading order contribution from SUSY{sub EWS}. We show that there exist realistic radiative seesaw models in which the leading order contribution to m{sub ν} is proportional to SUSY{sub EWS}. To our knowledge no model with such a feature exists in the literature. We give a complete description of the simplest model topologies and their leading dependence on SUSY. We show that in one-loop realisations LLHH operators are suppressed by at least μ m{sub soft}/M{sup 3} or m{sub soft}{sup 2}/M{sup 3}. We construct a model example based on a oneloop type-II seesaw. An interesting aspect of these models lies in the fact that the scale of soft-SUSY effects generating the leading order m{sub ν} can be quite small without conflicting with lower limits on the mass of new particles. (orig.)

  8. Squark and slepton masses as probes of supersymmetric SO(10) unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian Ananthanarayan; P. N. Pandita

    2003-09-01

    We carry out a detailed analysis of the non-universal supersymmetry breaking scalar masses arising in SO(10) supersymmetric unification. By considering patterns of squark and slepton masses, we show that a set of sum rules for the sfermion masses is independent of the manner in which SO(10) breaks. We discuss the reasons for this remarkable result. The phenomenology arising from such non-universality is shown to be practically unaffected by the symmetry breaking pattern.

  9. Susi lubab Concordiale investorit / Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laev, Sigrid

    2003-01-01

    Mart Susi teatas Concordia ülikoolile, et tal on kaks võimalikku investorit, kes on huvitatud kooli tegevuses osalemisest. Üks neist on Läti kõrgem ärikool Turiba, teine võimalik investor on Ameerika päritolu

  10. Concordia soovib Susi lahkumist / Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laev, Sigrid

    2003-01-01

    Concordia eraülikooli töötajad andsid 5. märtsil pärast ametiühingu koosolekut rektor Mart Susile üle ametliku palve tagasi astuda. Plaanid rektori umbusaldamiseks algasid nädala eest, kui selgus M. Susi tegevus kooli ja oma isiklike varade ühendamisel

  11. Highlights from SUSY searches with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsou, V A

    2014-01-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the most relevant scenarios of new physics searched by the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. In this write-up the principal search strategies employed by ATLAS are outlined and the most recent results for analyses targeting SUSY discovery are discussed. A wide range of signatures is covered motivated by various theoretical scenarios and topologies: strong production, third-generation fermions, long-lived particles and R-parity violation, among others. The results are based on up to ~5/fb of data recorded during 2010 - 2011 at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC.

  12. Renormalizations in softly broken SUSY gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeev, L. V.; Kazakov, D. I.; Kondrashuk, I. N.

    1998-01-01

    The supergraph technique for calculations in supersymmetric gauge theories where supersymmetry is broken in a "soft" way (without introducing quadratic divergencies) is reviewed. By introducing an external spurion field the set of Feynman rules is formulated and explicit connections between the UV counterterms of a softly broken and rigid SUSY theories are found. It is shown that the renormalization constants of softly broken SUSY gauge theory also become external superfields depending on the spurion field. Their explicit form repeats that of the constants of a rigid theory with the redefinition of the couplings. The method allows us to reproduce all known results on the renormalization of soft couplings and masses in a softly broken theory. As an example the renormalization group functions for soft couplings and masses in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model up to the three-loop level are calculated.

  13. Renormalizations in softly broken SUSY gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdeev, L.V.; Kazakov, D.I.; Kondrashuk, I.N. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    1998-01-19

    The supergraph technique for calculations in supersymmetric gauge theories where supersymmetry is broken in a ``soft`` way (without introducing quadratic divergencies) is reviewed. By introducing an external spurion field the set of Feynman rules is formulated and explicit connections between the UV counterterms of a softly broken and rigid SUSY theories are found. It is shown that the renormalization constants of softly broken SUSY gauge theory also become external superfields depending on the spurion field. Their explicit form repeats that of the constants of a rigid theory with the redefinition of the couplings. The method allows us to reproduce all known results on the renormalization of soft couplings and masses in a softly broken theory. As an example the renormalization group functions for soft couplings and masses in the minimal supersymmetric standard model up to the three-loop level are calculated. (orig.). 16 refs.

  14. Harmonic Oscillator SUSY Partners and Evolution Loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Fernández

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Supersymmetric quantum mechanics is a powerful tool for generating exactly solvable potentials departing from a given initial one. If applied to the harmonic oscillator, a family of Hamiltonians ruled by polynomial Heisenberg algebras is obtained. In this paper it will be shown that the SUSY partner Hamiltonians of the harmonic oscillator can produce evolution loops. The corresponding geometric phases will be as well studied.

  15. The SSM with Suppressed SUSY Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Dixon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Suppressed SUSY Charge, introduced in a recent Letter, is used here to assemble a new version of the SSM. This new SSM has no need for Squarks or Sleptons. It does not need spontaneous breaking of SUSY, so that the cosmological constant problem does not arise (at least at tree level. It mimics the usual non-supersymmetric Standard Model very well, and the absence of large flavour changing neutral currents is natural. There is no need for a hidden sector, or a messenger sector, or explicit ‘soft’ breaking of SUSY. Spontaneous Gauge Symmetry Breaking from SU(3×SU(2×U(1 to SU(3×U(1 in the model assembled here implies the existence of two new very heavy Higgs Bosons with mass 13.4 TeV, slightly smaller than the energy of the LHC at 14 TeV. There is also a curious set of Gauginos and Higgsinos which have exactly the same masses as the Higgs and Gauge Bosons. These do not couple to the Quarks and Leptons, except through the Higgs and Gauge Bosons. As it stands, this model probably gives rise to too many W+ decays to be consistent with experiment. The Feynman loop expansion of this theory also needs further examination.

  16. Starobinsky-Like Inflation and Neutrino Masses in a No-Scale SO(10) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2016-11-08

    Using a no-scale supergravity framework, we construct an SO(10) model that makes predictions for cosmic microwave background observables similar to those of the Starobinsky model of inflation, and incorporates a double-seesaw model for neutrino masses consistent with oscillation experiments and late-time cosmology. We pay particular attention to the behaviour of the scalar fields during inflation and the subsequent reheating.

  17. Starobinsky-like inflation and neutrino masses in a no-scale SO(10) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group,Department of Physics, King’s College London, WC2R 2LS London (United Kingdom); Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Garcia, Marcos A.G. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Rice University,6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Nagata, Natsumi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo,Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, 77843 Texas (United States); Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota,116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-11-08

    Using a no-scale supergravity framework, we construct an SO(10) model that makes predictions for cosmic microwave background observables similar to those of the Starobinsky model of inflation, and incorporates a double-seesaw model for neutrino masses consistent with oscillation experiments and late-time cosmology. We pay particular attention to the behaviour of the scalar fields during inflation and the subsequent reheating.

  18. SUSY formalism for the symmetric double well potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUSY; moving boundary condition; exactly solvable; symmetric double well; NH3 molecule. PACS Nos 02.30.Ik; 03.50. ... Various work has been done to construct the integrable potentials by SUSY Darboüx for- malism. If the boundary .... ϵj being the energy eigenvalue for the jth level. So the obtained potential [1,4,5] is.

  19. Results from GRACE/SUSY at one-loop

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the recent development on the SUSY calculations with the help of GRACE system. GRACE/SUSY/1LOOP is the computer code which can generate Feynman diagrams in the MSSM automatically and compute one-loop amplitudes in the numerical way. We present new results of various two-body decay widths ...

  20. Maksuamet võtmas Susi vara / Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laev, Sigrid

    2003-01-01

    Maksuamet võib alustada pankrotiohus Concordia ülikooli ja selle rektori Mart Susi vara realiseerimist, sest kooli omanik Concordia Varahaldus OÜ pole maksuametile lubatud ajal raha üle kandnud. Väidetavalt maksis Susi õppejõududele palka offshore-firma kaudu. AS Audentes on valmis Concordiat ostma

  1. Mari-Ann Susi õigustas ülikooli raha kasutamist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    M.-A. Susi eitas ülikooli palgaraha kasutamist isikliku mõisa ülalpidamiseks ning tahtlikult riigimaksudest kõrvalehoidmist, nende üks ideid oli Susi sõnul arendada mõis konverentsiturismi keskuseks, mis oleks majanduslikult kasu toonud ka ülikoolile

  2. On inflation, cosmological constant, and SUSY breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, Andrei [Department of Physics and SITP, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-11-02

    We consider a broad class of inflationary models of two unconstrained chiral superfields, the stabilizer S and the inflaton Φ, which can describe inflationary models with nearly arbitrary potentials. These models include, in particular, the recently introduced theories of cosmological attractors, which provide an excellent fit to the latest Planck data. We show that by adding to the superpotential of the fields S and Φ a small term depending on a nilpotent chiral superfield P one can break SUSY and introduce a small cosmological constant without affecting main predictions of the original inflationary scenario.

  3. Data driven background determination for SUSY searches with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Koutsman, AJ

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetry(SUSY) is an attractive extension of the Standard Model solving many standing issues in particle physics and cosmology. The general purpose ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is an excellent experiment to discover or exclude TeV SUSY. However discovery can only be claimed when the Standard Model backgrounds are understood and are under control. The expectations at the LHC are that Monte Carlo predictions will not be sufficient to achieve this, the backgrounds will have to determined from data itself. In this talk we will highlight some data driven methods developed to estimate backgrounds and measure a possible SUSY excess.

  4. Milline on Eesti õiguslik mõte? / Mart Susi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Susi, Mart, 1965-

    1996-01-01

    Concordia Ülikooli rektori, vandeadvokaat Mart Susi arvamus Eesti õigusliku mõtte olemusest ja arengusuundadest, sealhulgas ka Eesti Akadeemilise Õigusteaduse Seltsi ja Eesti Juristide Liidu ühisest aastakoosolekust

  5. Lauri, miks Sul lapsi ei ole? / Endel Susi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Susi, Endel-Haljand, 1940-

    2006-01-01

    Rahvaliidu Lääne Ühenduse juhatuse esimehe Endel Susi vastukaja Lauri Luige artiklile "Saagu meid palju ja elagem kaua!" 6. juuni "Lääne Elus", kus ta otsib alternatiive negatiivse iibe pidurdamiseks

  6. Concordia elas tuleviku arvelt / Mart Susi ; interv. Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Susi, Mart, 1965-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress 21. märts nr. 12 lk. 30-31. Concordia Ülikooli rektor Mart Susi räägib kooli senisest juhtimisest ning asjaoludest, mis on põhjustanud pankroti. Tabel: Concordia kronoloogia

  7. Latest news on SUSY from the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk reports the latest ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles, obtained with 13 to 18 fb-1 of 13 TeV data. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons.

  8. Decoupling of gravity on non-susy Dp branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayek, Kuntal; Roy, Shibaji [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta, 700064 (India)

    2016-03-15

    We study the graviton scattering in the background of non-susy Dp branes of type II string theories consisting of a metric, a dilaton and a (p+1) form gauge field. We show numerically that in these backgrounds graviton experiences a scattering potential which takes the form of an infinite barrier in the low energy (near brane) limit for p≤5 and therefore is never able to reach the branes. This shows, contrary to what is known in the literature, that gravity indeed decouples from the non-susy Dp branes for p≤5. For non-susy D6 brane, gravity couples as there is no such barrier for the potential. To give further credence to our claim we solve the scattering equation in some situation analytically and calculate the graviton absorption cross-sections on the non-susy branes and show that they vanish for p≤4 in the low energy limit. This shows, as in the case of BPS branes, that gravity does decouple for non-susy Dp branes for p≤4 but it does not decouple for D6 brane as the potential here is always attractive. We argue for the non-susy D5 brane that depending on one of the parameters of the solution gravity either always decouples (unlike the BPS D5 brane) or it decouples when the energy of the graviton is below certain critical value, otherwise it couples, very similar to BPS D5 brane.

  9. Constraining Proton Lifetime in SO(10) with Stabilized Doublet-Triplet Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, K.S.; /Oklahoma State U.; Pati, Jogesh C.; /SLAC; Tavartkiladze, Zurab; /Oklahoma State U. /Tbilisi, Inst. Phys.

    2011-06-28

    We present a class of realistic unified models based on supersymmetric SO(10) wherein issues related to natural doublet-triplet (DT) splitting are fully resolved. Using a minimal set of low dimensional Higgs fields which includes a single adjoint, we show that the Dimopoulos-Wilzcek mechanism for DT splitting can be made stable in the presence of all higher order operators without having pseudo-Goldstone bosons and flat directions. The {mu} term of order TeV is found to be naturally induced. A Z{sub 2}-assisted anomalous U(1){sub A} gauge symmetry plays a crucial role in achieving these results. The threshold corrections to {alpha}{sub 3}(M{sub Z}), somewhat surprisingly, are found to be controlled by only a few effective parameters. This leads to a very predictive scenario for proton decay. As a novel feature, we find an interesting correlation between the d = 6 (p {yields} e{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}) and d = 5 (p {yields} {bar {nu}}K{sup +}) decay amplitudes which allows us to derive a constrained upper limit on the inverse rate of the e{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} mode. Our results show that both modes should be observed with an improvement in the current sensitivity by about a factor of five to ten.

  10. Likelihood analysis of supersymmetric SU(5) GUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagnaschi, E.; Weiglein, G. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Costa, J.C.; Buchmueller, O.; Citron, M.; Richards, A.; De Vries, K.J. [Imperial College, High Energy Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Sakurai, K. [University of Durham, Science Laboratories, Department of Physics, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Borsato, M.; Chobanova, V.; Lucio, M.; Martinez Santos, D. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Cavanaugh, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); University of Illinois at Chicago, Physics Department, Chicago, IL (United States); Roeck, A. de [CERN, Experimental Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Antwerp University, Wilrijk (Belgium); Dolan, M.J. [University of Melbourne, ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, Parkville (Australia); Ellis, J.R. [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Flaecher, H. [University of Bristol, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom); Heinemeyer, S. [Campus of International Excellence UAM+CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Isidori, G. [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Olive, K.A. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-02-15

    We perform a likelihood analysis of the constraints from accelerator experiments and astrophysical observations on supersymmetric (SUSY) models with SU(5) boundary conditions on soft SUSY-breaking parameters at the GUT scale. The parameter space of the models studied has seven parameters: a universal gaugino mass m{sub 1/2}, distinct masses for the scalar partners of matter fermions in five- and ten-dimensional representations of SU(5), m{sub 5} and m{sub 10}, and for the 5 and anti 5 Higgs representations m{sub H{sub u}} and m{sub H{sub d}}, a universal trilinear soft SUSY-breaking parameter A{sub 0}, and the ratio of Higgs vevs tan β. In addition to previous constraints from direct sparticle searches, low-energy and flavour observables, we incorporate constraints based on preliminary results from 13 TeV LHC searches for jets + E{sub T} events and long-lived particles, as well as the latest PandaX-II and LUX searches for direct Dark Matter detection. In addition to previously identified mechanisms for bringing the supersymmetric relic density into the range allowed by cosmology, we identify a novel u{sub R}/c{sub R} - χ{sup 0}{sub 1} coannihilation mechanism that appears in the supersymmetric SU(5) GUT model and discuss the role of ν{sub τ} coannihilation. We find complementarity between the prospects for direct Dark Matter detection and SUSY searches at the LHC. (orig.)

  11. Mart ja Mari-Ann Susi taotlevad omanikena Concordia pankrotti / Andri Maimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimets, Andri, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    Concordia Ülikooli rektor Mart Susi esitas kohtule avalduse, milles taotleb ülikooli pidanud Concordia Varahalduse OÜ pankroti väljakuulutamist. Vt. samas: Mari-Ann Susi õigustas ülikooli raha kasutamist

  12. Search for SUSY trilepton events with ATLAS at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfon, C.; Kummer, C. [Ludwig-Maximilians Univ. Muenchen, Garching b. Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    One of the best motivated extension of the Standard Model is SUper-SYmmetry (SUSY). The ATLAS experiment at the pp-collider LHC will search for the new particles predicted by SUSY. In this talk, the discovery potential of the direct production of charginos and neutralinos decaying into a final state with three charged leptons is presented. In the start-up phase of the LHC an important signal of SUSY, the missing transverse energy, will need extensive calibration studies. We therefore present an analysis which does not rely on this signature. The model used for the analysis is mSUGRA. A full simulation of the ATLS detector has been used, and the most important backgrounds tt, W{sup {+-}} Z and ZZ have been taken into account. (orig.)

  13. Likelihood Analysis of Supersymmetric SU(5) GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnaschi, E.

    2017-01-01

    We perform a likelihood analysis of the constraints from accelerator experiments and astrophysical observations on supersymmetric (SUSY) models with SU(5) boundary conditions on soft SUSY-breaking parameters at the GUT scale. The parameter space of the models studied has 7 parameters: a universal gaugino mass $m_{1/2}$, distinct masses for the scalar partners of matter fermions in five- and ten-dimensional representations of SU(5), $m_5$ and $m_{10}$, and for the $\\mathbf{5}$ and $\\mathbf{\\bar 5}$ Higgs representations $m_{H_u}$ and $m_{H_d}$, a universal trilinear soft SUSY-breaking parameter $A_0$, and the ratio of Higgs vevs $\\tan \\beta$. In addition to previous constraints from direct sparticle searches, low-energy and flavour observables, we incorporate constraints based on preliminary results from 13 TeV LHC searches for jets + MET events and long-lived particles, as well as the latest PandaX-II and LUX searches for direct Dark Matter detection. In addition to previously-identified mechanisms for bringi...

  14. Overview of SUSY results from the ATLAS experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Brazzale Simone

    2014-01-01

    The search for Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model (SUSY) remains a hot topic in high energy phisycs in the light of the discovery of the Higgs boson with mass of 125 GeV. Supersymmetric particles can cancel out the quadratically-divergent loop corrections to the Higgs boson mass and can explain presence of Dark Matter in the Universe. Moreover, SUSY can unify the gauge couplings of the Standard Model at high energy scales. Under certain theoretical assumptions, some of the super-...

  15. GUTs without guts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Física Fundamental, IFF-CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.nl [NIKHEF Theory Group, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Física Fundamental, IFF-CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-06-15

    The structure of a Standard Model family is derived in a class of brane models with a U(M)×U(N) factor, from two mildly anthropic requirements: a massless photon and a universe that does not turn into a plasma of massless charged particles. If we choose M=3 and N=2, the only option is shown to be the Standard Model with an undetermined number of families. We do not assume the U(1) embedding, charge quantization, family repetition, nor the fermion representations; all of these features are derived, assuming a doublet Higgs. With a slightly stronger assumption even the Higgs representation is determined. We also consider a more general class, requiring an asymptotically free strong SU(M) (with M⩾3) interaction from the first factor and an electromagnetic U(1) embedded in both factors. We allow Higgs symmetry breaking of the U(N)×U(1) flavor group by at most one Higgs boson in any representation, combined with any allowed chiral symmetry breaking by SU(M). For M=3 there is a large number of solutions with an unbroken U(1). In all of these, “quarks” have third-integral charges and color singlets have integer charges in comparison to leptons. Hence Standard Model charge quantization holds for any N. Only for N=2 these models allow an SU(5) GUT extension, but this extension offers no advantages whatsoever for understanding the Standard Model; it only causes complications, such as the doublet–triplet splitting problem. Although all these models have a massless photon, all except the Standard Model are ruled out by the second anthropic requirement. In this class of brane models the Standard Model is realized as a GUT with its intestines removed, to keep only the good parts: a GUT without guts.

  16. Results from GRACE/SUSY at one-loop

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Seikei University, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633, Japan. 4Meiji Gakuin University, Totsuka, Yokohama 244-8539, Japan. 5The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193, Japan. ∗E-mail: yasui@tmc-ipd.ac.jp. Abstract. We report the recent development on the SUSY calculations with the help.

  17. Using Experimental Data To Test And Improve Susy Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, T

    2004-01-01

    There are several pieces of evidence that our world is described by a supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. In this thesis, I assume this is the case and study how to use experimental data to test and improve supersymmetric standard models. Several experimental signatures and their implications are covered in this thesis: the result of the branching ratio of b → sγ is used to put constraints on SUSY models; the measured time-dependent CP asymmetry in the B → &phis;KS process is used to test unification scale models; the excess of positrons from cosmic rays helps us to test the property of the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle and the Cold Dark Matter production mechanisms; the LEP higgs search results are used to classify SUSY models; SUSY signatures at the Tevatron are used to distinguish different unification scale models; by considering the μ problem, SUSY theories are improved. Due to the large unknown parameter space, all of the above inputs should be used ...

  18. DarkSUSY: Computing Supersymmetric Dark Matter Properties Numerically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondolo, P.

    2004-07-16

    The question of the nature of the dark matter in the Universe remains one of the most outstanding unsolved problems in basic science. One of the best motivated particle physics candidates is the lightest supersymmetric particle, assumed to be the lightest neutralino - a linear combination of the supersymmetric partners of the photon, the Z boson and neutral scalar Higgs particles. Here we describe DarkSUSY, a publicly-available advanced numerical package for neutralino dark matter calculations. In DarkSUSY one can compute the neutralino density in the Universe today using precision methods which include resonances, pair production thresholds and coannihilations. Masses and mixings of supersymmetric particles can be computed within DarkSUSY or with the help of external programs such as FeynHiggs, ISASUGRA and SUSPECT. Accelerator bounds can be checked to identify viable dark matter candidates. DarkSUSY also computes a large variety of astrophysical signals from neutralino dark matter, such as direct detection in low-background counting experiments and indirect detection through antiprotons, antideuterons, gamma-rays and positrons from the Galactic halo or high-energy neutrinos from the center of the Earth or of the Sun. Here we describe the physics behind the package. A detailed manual will be provided with the computer package.

  19. Post LHC7 SUSY benchmark points for ILC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Howard [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    We re-evaluate prospects for supersymmetry at the proposed International Linear e{sup +}e{sup -} Collider (ILC) in light of the first year of serious data taking at LHC with {radical}(s)=7 TeV and {proportional_to}5 fb{sup -1} of pp collisions (LHC7). Strong new limits from LHC SUSY searches, along with a hint of a Higgs boson signal around m{sub h}{proportional_to}125 GeV, suggest a paradigm shift from previously popular models to ones with new and compelling signatures. We present a variety of new ILC benchmark models, including: natural SUSY, hidden SUSY, NUHM2 with low m{sub A}, non-universal gaugino mass (NUGM) model, pMSSM, Kallosh-Linde model, Bruemmer-Buchmueller model, normal scalar mass hierarchy (NMH) plus one surviving case from mSUGRA/CMSSM in the far focus point region. While all these models at present elude the latest LHC limits, they do offer intriguing case study possibilities for ILC operating at {radical}(s){proportional_to}0.25-1 TeV, and present a view of some of the diverse SUSY phenomena which might be expected at both LHC and ILC in the post LHC7 era.

  20. Post LHC8 SUSY benchmark points for ILC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Howard [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    We re-evaluate prospects for supersymmetry at the proposed International Linear e{sup +}e{sup -} Collider (ILC) in light of the first two years of serious data taking at LHC: LHC7 with {proportional_to}5 fb{sup -1} of pp collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV and LHC8 with {proportional_to}20 fb{sup -1} at {radical}(s)=8 TeV. Strong new limits from LHC8 SUSY searches, along with the discovery of a Higgs boson with m{sub h}{approx_equal}125 GeV, suggest a paradigm shift from previously popular models to ones with new and compelling signatures. After a review of the current status of supersymmetry, we present a variety of new ILC benchmark models, including: natural SUSY, radiatively-driven natural SUSY (RNS), NUHM2 with low m{sub A}, a focus point case from mSUGRA/CMSSM, non-universal gaugino mass (NUGM) model, {tau}-coannihilation, Kallosh-Linde/spread SUSY model, mixed gauge-gravity mediation, normal scalar mass hierarchy (NMH), and one example with the recently discovered Higgs boson being the heavy CP-even state H. While all these models at present elude the latest LHC8 limits, they do offer intriguing case study possibilities for ILC operating at {radical}(s){approx_equal} 0.25-1 TeV. The benchmark points also present a view of the widely diverse SUSY phenomena which might still be expected in the post LHC8 era at both LHC and ILC.

  1. Analysis of SUSY Heavy Higgs events at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Quevillon, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of the supersymmetric neutral heavy Higgs boson production channel e+e− → H◦A◦ → bb ̄bb ̄ at √s = 3 TeV. Reconstruction of data simulated at generator level shows a significant degradation of SUSY Heavy Higgs signal caused by γγ to hadrons background at s = 3 TeV. The importance of analysis procedures such as event cuts and transversal momentum cuts during jet-clustering to reduce the impact of the hadron background is underlined. Reconstruction at both the generator level and at the level of a full detector simulation forces us to introduce cuts to improve the quality of the results. This note describes a preliminary study of SUSY Heavy Higgs at CLIC - a more detailed paper on an extended study is in preparation.

  2. Cornering natural SUSY at LHC Run II and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Feld, David; Macaluso, Sebastian; Monteux, Angelo; Shih, David

    2017-08-01

    We derive the latest constraints on various simplified models of natural SUSY with light higgsinos, stops and gluinos, using a detailed and comprehensive reinterpretation of the most recent 13 TeV ATLAS and CMS searches with ˜ 15 fb-1 of data. We discuss the implications of these constraints for fine-tuning of the electroweak scale. While the most "vanilla" version of SUSY (the MSSM with R-parity and flavor-degenerate sfermions) with 10% fine-tuning is ruled out by the current constraints, models with decoupled valence squarks or reduced missing energy can still be fully natural. However, in all of these models, the mediation scale must be extremely low ( motivated by this work.

  3. SLAM, a Mathematica interface for SUSY spectrum generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Zerf, Nikolai [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    2013-09-15

    We present and publish a Mathematica package, which can be used to automatically obtain any numerical MSSM input parameter from SUSY spectrum generators, which follow the SLHA standard, like SPheno, SOFTSUSY or Suspect. The package enables a very comfortable way of numerical evaluations within the MSSM using Mathematica. It implements easy to use predefined high scale and low scale scenarios like mSUGRA or m{sub h}{sup max} and if needed enables the user to directly specify the input required by the spectrum generators. In addition it supports an automatic saving and loading of SUSY spectra to and from a SQL data base, avoiding the rerun of a spectrum generator for a known spectrum.

  4. Non-susy exotics searches at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronko, Alexandre; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The authors present results of searches for signs of physics beyond the Standard Model. The focus of this paper is on analyses not driven by SUSY models. Most of the presented results are based on {approx} 2 fb{sup -1} of data and obtained since summer of 2007. No significant excess of data over predicted background is observed. They report kinematic distributions, data and background counts, as well as limits on some parameters of selected models of new physics.

  5. Search for compressed SUSY scenarios with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Maurer, Julien; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Scenarios where multiple SUSY states are nearly degenerate in mass produce soft decay products, and they represent an experimental challenge for ATLAS. This talk presents recent results of analyses explicitly targeting such “compressed” scenarios with a variety of experimental techniques. All results make use of proton-proton collisions collected at a centre of mass of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

  6. SLAM, a Mathematica interface for SUSY spectrum generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquard, Peter; Zerf, Nikolai

    2014-03-01

    We present and publish a Mathematica package, which can be used to automatically obtain any numerical MSSM input parameter from SUSY spectrum generators, which follow the SLHA standard, like SPheno, SOFTSUSY, SuSeFLAV or Suspect. The package enables a very comfortable way of numerical evaluations within the MSSM using Mathematica. It implements easy to use predefined high scale and low scale scenarios like mSUGRA or mhmax and if needed enables the user to directly specify the input required by the spectrum generators. In addition it supports an automatic saving and loading of SUSY spectra to and from a SQL data base, avoiding the rerun of a spectrum generator for a known spectrum. Catalogue identifier: AERX_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERX_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 37748 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: Any computer where Mathematica version 6 or higher is running providing bash and sed. Operating system: Linux. Classification: 11.1. External routines: A SUSY spectrum generator such as SPheno, SOFTSUSY, SuSeFLAV or SUSPECT Nature of problem: Interfacing published spectrum generators for automated creation, saving and loading of SUSY particle spectra. Solution method: SLAM automatically writes/reads SLHA spectrum generator input/output and is able to save/load generated data in/from a data base. Restrictions: No general restrictions, specific restrictions are given in the manuscript. Running time: A single spectrum calculation takes much less than one second on a modern PC.

  7. Search for compressed SUSY scenarios with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Maurer, Julien; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Scenarios where multiple SUSY states are nearly degenerate in mass produce soft decay products, and they represent an experimental challenge for ATLAS. This contribution presented recent results of analyses explicitly targeting such ``compressed'' scenarios with a variety of experimental techniques. All results made use of proton-proton collisions collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.

  8. Precision natural SUSY at CEPC, FCC-ee, and ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, JiJi [Department of Physics, Syracuse University,Syracuse, NY, 13210 (United States); Reece, Matthew [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Lian-Tao [Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Testing the idea of naturalness is and will continue to be one of the most important goals of high energy physics experiments. It will play a central role in the physics program of future colliders. In this paper, we present projections of the reach of natural SUSY at future lepton colliders: CEPC, FCC-ee and ILC. We focus on the observables which give the strongest reach, the electroweak precision observables (for left-handed stops), and Higgs to gluon and photon decay rates (for both left- and right-handed stops). There is a “blind spot” when the stop mixing parameter X{sub t} is approximately equal to the average stop mass. We argue that in natural scenarios, bounds on the heavy Higgs bosons from tree-level mixing effects that modify the hbb̄ coupling together with bounds from b→sγ play a complementary role in probing the blind spot region. For specific natural SUSY scenarios such as folded SUSY in which the top partners do not carry Standard Model color charges, electroweak precision observables could be the most sensitive probe. In all the scenarios discussed in this paper, the combined set of precision measurements will probe down to a few percent in fine-tuning.

  9. Higgs, Binos and Gluinos: Split Susy within Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Daniele S.M.; Izaguirre, Eder; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2012-09-14

    Recent results from the LHC for the Higgs boson with mass between 142 GeV {approx}< m{sub h{sup 0}} {approx}< 147 GeV points to PeV-scale Split Supersymmetry. This article explores the consequences of a Higgs mass in this range and possible discovery modes for Split Susy. Moderate lifetime gluinos, with decay lengths in the 25 {micro}m to 10 yr range, are its imminent smoking gun signature. The 7TeV LHC will be sensitive to the moderately lived gluinos and trilepton signatures from direct electroweakino production. Moreover, the dark matter abundance may be obtained from annihilation through an s-channel Higgs resonance, with the LSP almost purely bino and mass m{sub {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}} {approx_equal} 70 GeV. The Higgs resonance region of Split Susy has visible signatures in dark matter direct and indirect detection and electric dipole moment experiments. If the anomalies go away, the majority of Split Susy parameter space will be excluded.

  10. Early SUSY Searches at the CMS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kasieczka, Gregor

    When the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) commences operation, physicists all over the world will be eagerly awaiting data. The LHC was built as a discovery machine and the two general purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS might see evidence for new ndings with the rst year of data. Among the possible early discoveries is supersymmetry or SUSY. For SUSY events there exist irreducible backgrounds - Standard Model processes that are in principle indistinguishable from the signal. A possible search channel for SUSY are events with jets + one lepton + large missing transverse energy or 6ET . In this channel there also exists a signi cant contribution of Standard Model top anti-top production. For early data the prediction of the background overshadowing the expected supersymmetric events by computer simulations is subject to large uncertainties. It is necessary to use strategies that estimate the background in the signal region by using information from regions that are expected to be signal-free. The work examines such tec...

  11. Conciliating SUSY with the Z-peaked excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsou Vasiliki A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS experiment observed an excess at the 3σ level in the channel of Z boson, jets and high missing transverse momentum in the full 2012 dataset at 8 TeV while searching for SUSY. The question arises whether the abundance and the kinematical features of this excess are compatible with the yet unconstrained supersymmetric realm, respecting at the same time the measured Higgs boson properties and dark matter density. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos together with a heavy neutralino NLSP decaying predominantly to a Z boson plus a light gravitino could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to match the observed signal. More sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, as long as it features light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are also discussed.

  12. Flipped GUT inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih, E-mail: john.ellis@cern.ch, E-mail: tomas.gonzalo.11@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: j.harz@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: wei-chih.huang@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)×U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, A{sub s}, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, n{sub s}, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, r. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.

  13. Flipped GUT Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)$\\times$U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, $A_s$, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, $n_s$, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, $r$. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.

  14. Flipped GUT inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King’s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Theory Division, CERN, Route de Meyrin 385, 1217 Meyrin (Switzerland); Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-23

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)×U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, A{sub s}, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, n{sub s}, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, r. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.

  15. Mart ja Mari-Ann Susi taotlevad omanikena Concordia pankrotti / Andri Maimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimets, Andri

    2003-01-01

    Concordia Ülikooli rektori kohast loobunud Mart Susi ning prorektori ametikohalt lahkunud Mari-Ann Susi taotlevad neile kuuluvat ülikooli pidanud miljonivõlgades firma pankrotti. Hiljuti loodi õppejõududest, tudengitest js töötajatest mittetulundusühing Concordia Akadeemiline Ühisus (CAU), selle nõukogu esimees on Hagi Šein

  16. {{{ N}}=2} SUSY gauge theories on S4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomichi, Kazuo

    2017-11-01

    We review exact results in {{ N}}=2 supersymmetric gauge theories defined on S 4 and its deformation. We first summarize the construction of rigid SUSY theories on curved backgrounds based on off-shell supergravity, then explain how to apply the localization principle to supersymmetric path integrals. Closed formulae for partition function as well as expectation values of non-local BPS observables are presented. This is a contribution to the review issue ‘Localization techniques in quantum field theories’ (ed V Pestun and M Zabzine) which contains 17 chapters available at [1].

  17. Electroweak contributions to SUSY particle production processes at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabella, Edoardo

    2009-07-22

    In this thesis we have computed the electroweak contributions of O({alpha}{sub s}{alpha}), O({alpha}{sup 2}) and O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) to three different classes of processes leading to the hadronic production of the SUSY partners of quarks and gluons, i.e. squarks and gluinos. The theoretical framework is the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. The three processes are gluino pair production, diagonal squark-antisquark and associated squark-gluino production.

  18. Searches for SUSY in leptons+jets+MET final states

    CERN Document Server

    Hoermann, Natascha

    2009-01-01

    Session:Higgs and New Physics If supersymmetry would manifest itself at a low mass scale it might be found already in the early phase of the LHC operation. Generic signatures for supersymmetry in pp-collisions consist of high jet multiplicity, large missing transverse energy (MET) as well as leptons in the final state. The presence of charged leptons makes these signature more robust and therefore facilitates their application in early data-taking. This talk will review the CMS search strategy and prospects for a SUSY discovery in the single lepton and di-lepton final states.

  19. Overview of SUSY results from the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzale, Simone Federico

    2014-04-01

    The search for Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model (SUSY) remains a hot topic in high energy phisycs in the light of the discovery of the Higgs boson with mass of 125 GeV. Supersymmetric particles can cancel out the quadratically-divergent loop corrections to the Higgs boson mass and can explain presence of Dark Matter in the Universe. Moreover, SUSY can unify the gauge couplings of the Standard Model at high energy scales. Under certain theoretical assumptions, some of the super-symmetric particles are preferred to be lighter than one TeV and their discovery can thus be accessible at the LHC. The recent results from searches for Supersymmetry with the ATLAS experiment which utilized up to 21 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV are presented. These searches are focused on inclusive production of squarks and gluinos, on production of third generations squarks, and on electroweak production of charginos and neutralinos. Searches for long-lived particles and R-parity violation are also summarized in the document.

  20. Hangout with CERN: All about SUSY (S03E09)

    CERN Multimedia

    Kahle, Kate

    2013-01-01

    On 4th July 2012, CERN announced the discovery of a new boson later confirmed to be "a Higgs boson", but which one? Is it the Higgs boson predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics or one of the five Higgs bosons associated with "supersymmetry", a principle that attempts to fix the few remaining problems of the Standard Model?In this week's hangout we talk about supersymmetry, also known as "SUSY". What is it, why, and how does it link with the Higgs boson? Our host CMS physicist Freya Blekman is joined by SUSY theorist John Ellis, ATLAS physicist Xavier Portell Bueso and CMS physicist Josh Thompson, as well as student intern Jayendra Minakshisundar, with CMS physicist Seth Zenz monitoring social media.Find out more about supersymmetry by watching these videos by Don Lincoln from Fermilab: What is Supersymmetry? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0CeLRrBAI60 and Why Supersymmetry? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=09VbAe9JZ8YRecorded live on 20th June 20...

  1. Overview of SUSY results from the ATLAS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Brazzale Simone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model (SUSY remains a hot topic in high energy phisycs in the light of the discovery of the Higgs boson with mass of 125 GeV. Supersymmetric particles can cancel out the quadratically-divergent loop corrections to the Higgs boson mass and can explain presence of Dark Matter in the Universe. Moreover, SUSY can unify the gauge couplings of the Standard Model at high energy scales. Under certain theoretical assumptions, some of the super-symmetric particles are preferred to be lighter than one TeV and their discovery can thus be accessible at the LHC. The recent results from searches for Supersymmetry with the ATLAS experiment which utilized up to 21 fb−1 of proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV are presented. These searches are focused on inclusive production of squarks and gluinos, on production of third generations squarks, and on electroweak production of charginos and neutralinos. Searches for long-lived particles and R-parity violation are also summarized in the document.

  2. Global fits of GUT-scale SUSY models with GAMBIT arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Athron, Peter; Bringmann, Torsten; Buckley, Andy; Chrząszcz, Marcin; Conrad, Jan; Cornell, Jonathan M.; Dal, Lars A.; Edsjö, Joakim; Farmer, Ben; Jackson, Paul; Krislock, Abram; Kvellestad, Anders; Mahmoudi, Farvah; \\ Martinez, Gregory D.; Putze, Antje; Raklev, Are; Rogan, Christopher; Ruiz de Austri, Roberto; Saavedra, Aldo; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Serra, Nicola; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin

    We present the most comprehensive global fits to date of three supersymmetric models motivated by grand unification: the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM), and its Non-Universal Higgs Mass generalisations NUHM1 and NUHM2. We include likelihoods from a number of direct and indirect dark matter searches, a large collection of electroweak precision and flavour observables, direct searches for supersymmetry at LEP and Runs I and II of the LHC, and constraints from Higgs observables. Our analysis improves on existing results not only in terms of the number of included observables, but also in the level of detail with which we treat them, our sampling techniques for scanning the parameter space, and our treatment of nuisance parameters. We show that stau co-annihilation is now ruled out in the CMSSM at more than 95\\% confidence. Stop co-annihilation turns out to be one of the most promising mechanisms for achieving an appropriate relic density of dark matter in all three models, whilst avoid...

  3. SUSY see-saw and NMSO(10)GUT inflation after BICEP2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-13

    Jan 13, 2016 ... Abstract. Supersymmetric see-saw slow roll inflection point inflation occurs along a MSSM. D-flat direction associated with gauge invariant combination of Higgs, slepton and right-handed sneutrino at a scale set by the right-handed neutrino mass Mνc. ∼ 106−1013 GeV. The tensor to scalar perturbation ...

  4. SUSY see-saw and NMSO (10) GUT inflation after BICEP2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -saw slow roll inflection point inflation ... Author Affiliations. Ila Garg1 2. Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India; Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India. Dates. Early published: 13 January 2016 ...

  5. Towards a complete Δ (27 )×S O (10 ) SUSY GUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkeroth, Fredrik; de Anda, Francisco J.; de Medeiros Varzielas, Ivo; King, Stephen F.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a renormalizable model based on Δ (27 ) family symmetry with an S O (10 ) grand unified theory leading to a novel form of spontaneous geometrical C P violation. The symmetries, including Δ (27 ) and Z9×Z12×Z4R , are broken close to the grand unified theory breaking scale to yield the minimal supersymmetric standard model with the standard R parity. S O (10 ) is broken via S U (5 ) with doublet-triplet splitting achieved by a version of the Dimopoulos-Wilczek (missing vacuum expectation value) mechanism. Low-scale Yukawa structure is dictated by the coupling of matter to Δ (27 ) antitriplets ϕ ¯ of which the vacuum expectation values are aligned in the constrained sequential dominance 3 directions by the superpotential. Light physical Majorana neutrinos masses emerge from a specific implementation of the seesaw mechanism within S O (10 ). The model predicts a normal neutrino mass hierarchy with the best-fit lightest neutrino mass between 0.32 and 0.38 meV, C P -violating oscillation phase δl≈(275 - 280 )° , and the remaining neutrino parameters all within 1 σ of their best-fit experimental values.

  6. The Higgs boson mass and SUSY spectra in 10D SYM theory with magnetized extra dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Abe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the Higgs boson mass and the spectrum of supersymmetric (SUSY particles in the well-motivated particle physics model derived from a ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory compactified on three factorizable tori with magnetic fluxes. This model was proposed in a previous work, where the flavor structures of the standard model including the realistic Yukawa hierarchies are obtained from non-hierarchical input parameters on the magnetized background. Assuming moduli- and anomaly-mediated contributions dominate the soft SUSY breaking terms, we study the precise SUSY spectra and analyze the Higgs boson mass in this mode, which are compared with the latest experimental data.

  7. NMSPEC: A Fortran code for the sparticle and Higgs masses in the NMSSM with GUT scale boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellwanger, Ulrich [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Paris XI, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Hugonie, Cyril [Laboratoire Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, Universite de Montpellier II, F-34095 Montpellier (France)

    2006-12-15

    NMSPEC is a Fortran code that computes the sparticle and Higgs masses, as well as Higgs decay widths and couplings in the NMSSM, with soft susy breaking terms specified at M{sub GUT}. Exceptions are the soft singlet mass m{sub s}{sup 2} and the singlet self coupling {kappa} that are both determined in terms of the other parameters through the minimization equations of the Higgs potential. We present a first analysis of the NMSSM parameter space with universal susy breaking terms at M{sub GUT} except for m{sub s} and A{sub {kappa}} that passes present experimental constraints on sparticle and Higgs masses. We discuss in some detail a region in parameter space where a SM-like Higgs boson decays dominantly into two CP odd singlet-like Higgs states. (authors)

  8. The ATLAS discovery reach for SUSY models with early data

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The search for physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) is one of the most important goals for the general purpose detector ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. We review some of the current strategies to search for generic SUSY models with R-parity conservation in channels with jets, leptons and missing transverse energy for an integrated luminosity of L = 200 pb^-1 at a centre-of-mass energy s = $10TeV. Only a selection of the results is presented with a focus on the discovery potential for inclusive searches. The discovery reach for a centre-of-mass energy of s = 7TeV and an integrated luminosity of L = 1 fb^-1 is expected to be very similar to the one discussed in this note.

  9. Searches for SUSY with other than jets + X + MET signature with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliansky, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Searches for SUSY with other than jets + X + MET: EW production: Colored sparticles are heavy, the production is suppressed Gauginos & Sleptons assumed to be light enough to be produced Several scenarios including mainly

  10. Two-loop SUSY QCD correction to the gluino pole mass

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Youichi

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the pole mass of the gluino as a function of the running parameters in the lagrangian, to O(alpha_s^2) in SUSY QCD. The correction shifts the pole mass from the running mass by typically 1-2 %. This shift can be larger than the expected accuracy of the mass determination at future colliders, and should be taken into account for precision studies of the SUSY breaking parameters. The effects of other corrections are breifly commented.

  11. Higgs pair production with SUSY QCD correction: revisited under current experimental constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chengcheng [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academia Sinica,Beijing 100190 (China); Ji, Xuanting [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academia Sinica,Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, College of Applied Science, Beijing University of Technology,Beijing 100124 (China); Wu, Lei [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics,University of Sydney,Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Wu, Peiwen; Yang, Jin Min [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academia Sinica,Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-01

    We consider the current experimental constraints on the parameter space of the MSSM and NMSSM. Then in the allowed parameter space we examine the Higgs pair production at the 14 TeV LHC via bb-macron→hh (h is the 125 GeV SM-like Higg boson) with one-loop SUSY QCD correction and compare it with the production via gg→hh. We obtain the following observations: (i) For the MSSM the production rate of bb-macron→hh can reach 50 fb and thus can be competitive with gg→hh, while for the NMSSM bb-macron→hh has a much smaller rate than gg→hh due to the suppression of the hbb-macron coupling; (ii) The SUSY-QCD correction to bb-macron→hh is sizable, which can reach 45% for the MSSM and 15% for the NMSSM within the 1σ region of the Higgs data; (iii) In the heavy SUSY limit (all soft mass parameters become heavy), the SUSY effects decouple rather slowly from the Higgs pair production (especially the gg→hh process), which, for M{sub SUSY}=5 TeV and m{sub A}<1 TeV, can enhance the production rate by a factor of 1.5 and 1.3 for the MSSM and NMSSM, respectively. So, the Higgs pair production may be helpful for unraveling the effects of heavy SUSY.

  12. The supersymmetric flavour problem in 5D GUTs and its consequences for LHC phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Fichet, S.; Kraml, S. [CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie

    2011-09-15

    We study supersymmetric models with a GUT-sized extra dimension, where both the Higgs fields and the SUSY breaking hidden sector are localized on a 4D brane. Exponential wave function profiles of the matter fields give rise to hierarchical structures in the Yukawa couplings and soft terms. Such structures can naturally explain hierarchical fermion masses and mixings, while at the same time alleviating the supersymmetric flavour problem. We discuss two sources of supersymmetry breaking, radion mediation and brane fields, and perform a detailed numerical analysis, thoroughly taking into account the proliferation of unknown O(1) coefficients that occurs in this class of models. It turns out that additional assumptions on supersymmetry breaking are necessary to evade the stringent experimental bounds on lepton flavour violation. The favourable regions of parameter space are then examined with regards to their LHC phenomenology. They generically feature heavy gluinos and squarks beyond current bounds. Lepton flavour violation in SUSY cascade decays can give interesting signatures. (orig.)

  13. The BSM-AI project: SUSY-AI-generalizing LHC limits on supersymmetry with machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Sascha; Kim, Jong Soo; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; de Austri, Roberto Ruiz; Stienen, Bob

    2017-01-01

    A key research question at the Large Hadron Collider is the test of models of new physics. Testing if a particular parameter set of such a model is excluded by LHC data is a challenge: it requires time consuming generation of scattering events, simulation of the detector response, event reconstruction, cross section calculations and analysis code to test against several hundred signal regions defined by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. In the BSM-AI project we approach this challenge with a new idea. A machine learning tool is devised to predict within a fraction of a millisecond if a model is excluded or not directly from the model parameters. A first example is SUSY-AI, trained on the phenomenological supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM). About 300, 000 pMSSM model sets - each tested against 200 signal regions by ATLAS - have been used to train and validate SUSY-AI. The code is currently able to reproduce the ATLAS exclusion regions in 19 dimensions with an accuracy of at least [Formula: see text]. It has been validated further within the constrained MSSM and the minimal natural supersymmetric model, again showing high accuracy. SUSY-AI and its future BSM derivatives will help to solve the problem of recasting LHC results for any model of new physics. SUSY-AI can be downloaded from http://susyai.hepforge.org/. An on-line interface to the program for quick testing purposes can be found at http://www.susy-ai.org/.

  14. The BSM-AI project: SUSY-AI-generalizing LHC limits on supersymmetry with machine learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caron, Sascha [Radboud Universiteit, Institute for Mathematics, Astro- and Particle Physics IMAPP, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kim, Jong Soo [UAM/CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Rolbiecki, Krzysztof [UAM/CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Ruiz de Austri, Roberto [IFIC-UV/CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Stienen, Bob [Radboud Universiteit, Institute for Mathematics, Astro- and Particle Physics IMAPP, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    A key research question at the Large Hadron Collider is the test of models of new physics. Testing if a particular parameter set of such a model is excluded by LHC data is a challenge: it requires time consuming generation of scattering events, simulation of the detector response, event reconstruction, cross section calculations and analysis code to test against several hundred signal regions defined by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. In the BSM-AI project we approach this challenge with a new idea. A machine learning tool is devised to predict within a fraction of a millisecond if a model is excluded or not directly from the model parameters. A first example is SUSY-AI, trained on the phenomenological supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM). About 300, 000 pMSSM model sets - each tested against 200 signal regions by ATLAS - have been used to train and validate SUSY-AI. The code is currently able to reproduce the ATLAS exclusion regions in 19 dimensions with an accuracy of at least 93%. It has been validated further within the constrained MSSM and the minimal natural supersymmetric model, again showing high accuracy. SUSY-AI and its future BSM derivatives will help to solve the problem of recasting LHC results for any model of new physics. SUSY-AI can be downloaded from http://susyai.hepforge.org/. An on-line interface to the program for quick testing purposes can be found at http://www.susy-ai.org/. (orig.)

  15. The BSM-AI project: SUSY-AI-generalizing LHC limits on supersymmetry with machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Sascha; Kim, Jong Soo; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; de Austri, Roberto Ruiz; Stienen, Bob

    2017-04-01

    A key research question at the Large Hadron Collider is the test of models of new physics. Testing if a particular parameter set of such a model is excluded by LHC data is a challenge: it requires time consuming generation of scattering events, simulation of the detector response, event reconstruction, cross section calculations and analysis code to test against several hundred signal regions defined by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. In the BSM-AI project we approach this challenge with a new idea. A machine learning tool is devised to predict within a fraction of a millisecond if a model is excluded or not directly from the model parameters. A first example is SUSY-AI, trained on the phenomenological supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM). About 300, 000 pMSSM model sets - each tested against 200 signal regions by ATLAS - have been used to train and validate SUSY-AI. The code is currently able to reproduce the ATLAS exclusion regions in 19 dimensions with an accuracy of at least 93%. It has been validated further within the constrained MSSM and the minimal natural supersymmetric model, again showing high accuracy. SUSY-AI and its future BSM derivatives will help to solve the problem of recasting LHC results for any model of new physics. SUSY-AI can be downloaded from http://susyai.hepforge.org/. An on-line interface to the program for quick testing purposes can be found at http://www.susy-ai.org/.

  16. Search for SUSY in the AMSB scenario with the DELPHI detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, N.; De Min, A.; de Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Johansson, P.D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kerzel, U.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The DELPHI experiment at the LEP e+e- collider collected almost 700 pb^-1 at centre-of-mass energies above the Z0 mass pole and up to 208 GeV. Those data were used to search for SUSY in the Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking (AMSB) scenario with a flavour independent common sfermion mass parameter. The searches covered several possible signatures experimentally accessible at LEP, with either the neutralino, the sneutrino or the stau being the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP). They included: the search for nearly mass-degenerate chargino and neutralino, which is a typical feature of AMSB; the search for Standard-Model-like or invisibly decaying Higgs boson; the search for stable staus; the search for cascade decays of SUSY particles resulting in the LSP and a low multiplicity final state containing neutrinos. No evidence of a signal was found, and thus constraints were set in the space of the parameters of the model.

  17. Split-Family SUSY, U(2)^5 Flavour Symmetry and Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jones-Pérez, Joel

    2014-01-01

    In split-family SUSY, one can use a U(2)^3 symmetry to protect flavour observables in the quark sector from SUSY contributions. However, attempts to extend this procedure to the lepton sector by using an analogous U(2)^5 symmetry fail to reproduce the neutrino data without introducing some form of fine-tuning. In this work, we solve this problem by shifting the U(2)^2 symmetry acting on leptons towards the second and third generations. This allows neutrino data to be reproduced without much difficulties, as well as protecting the leptonic flavour observables from SUSY. Key signatures are a $\\mu\\to e\\gamma$ branching ratio possibly observable in the near future, as well as having selectrons as the lightest sleptons.

  18. Coupled Boltzmann computation of mixed axion neutralino dark matter in the SUSY DFSZ axion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Baer, Howard; Serce, Hasan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Lessa, Andre, E-mail: bae@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: baer@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: lessa@fma.if.usp.br, E-mail: serce@ou.edu [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo – SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    The supersymmetrized DFSZ axion model is highly motivated not only because it offers solutions to both the gauge hierarchy and strong CP problems, but also because it provides a solution to the SUSY μ-problem which naturally allows for a Little Hierarchy. We compute the expected mixed axion-neutralino dark matter abundance for the SUSY DFSZ axion model in two benchmark cases—a natural SUSY model with a standard neutralino underabundance (SUA) and an mSUGRA/CMSSM model with a standard overabundance (SOA). Our computation implements coupled Boltzmann equations which track the radiation density along with neutralino, axion, axion CO (produced via coherent oscillations), saxion, saxion CO, axino and gravitino densities. In the SUSY DFSZ model, axions, axinos and saxions go through the process of freeze-in—in contrast to freeze-out or out-of-equilibrium production as in the SUSY KSVZ model—resulting in thermal yields which are largely independent of the re-heat temperature. We find the SUA case with suppressed saxion-axion couplings (ξ=0) only admits solutions for PQ breaking scale f{sub a}∼< 6× 10{sup 12} GeV where the bulk of parameter space tends to be axion-dominated. For SUA with allowed saxion-axion couplings (ξ =1), then f{sub a} values up to ∼ 10{sup 14} GeV are allowed. For the SOA case, almost all of SUSY DFSZ parameter space is disallowed by a combination of overproduction of dark matter, overproduction of dark radiation or violation of BBN constraints. An exception occurs at very large f{sub a}∼ 10{sup 15}–10{sup 16} GeV where large entropy dilution from CO-produced saxions leads to allowed models.

  19. High scale parity invariance as a solution to the SUSY CP problem ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    anism automatic in the theory. The minimal version of this theory also provides an explanation of ... cannot be rotated away by. *This talk is based on work done in collaboration with K S Babu and B Dutta. ... ¯Г. The low energy theory in this case is MSSM, but without the SUSY CP problem and with its parameters restricted ...

  20. Searches for RPV SUSY and long-lived particles at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Minghui; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Both the ATLAS and CMS collaboration have made great effort to search for RPV SUSY and LLP. Tens of models are used to perform studies, and all the observations seem to be in good agreement with background expectation. Most stringent limits up to date are put on these new models.

  1. Lepton-Flavour-Violation in SUSY Models with and without R-parity

    CERN Document Server

    Tobe, K

    2000-01-01

    We discuss Lepton-Flavour-Violating phenomena such as $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$, $\\mu \\to eee$, and $\\mu \\to e$ conversion in nuclei in SUSY models with and without R-parity. We stress that experimental searches for all the LFV processes are important to distinguish between the different models.

  2. Decoupling limit and throat geometry of non-susy D3 brane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Nayek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently it has been shown by us that, like BPS Dp branes, bulk gravity gets decoupled from the brane even for the non-susy Dp branes of type II string theories indicating a possible extension of AdS/CFT correspondence for the non-supersymmetric case. In that work, the decoupling of gravity on the non-susy Dp branes has been shown numerically for the general case as well as analytically for some special case. Here we discuss the decoupling limit and the throat geometry of the non-susy D3 brane when the charge associated with the brane is very large. We show that in the decoupling limit the throat geometry of the non-susy D3 brane, under appropriate coordinate change, reduces to the Constable–Myers solution and thus confirming that this solution is indeed the holographic dual of a (non-gravitational gauge theory discussed there. We also show that when one of the parameters of the solution takes a specific value, it reduces, under another coordinate change, to the five-dimensional solution obtained by Csaki and Reece, again confirming its gauge theory interpretation.

  3. Decoupling limit and throat geometry of non-susy D3 brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayek, Kuntal, E-mail: kuntal.nayek@saha.ac.in; Roy, Shibaji, E-mail: shibaji.roy@saha.ac.in

    2017-03-10

    Recently it has been shown by us that, like BPS Dp branes, bulk gravity gets decoupled from the brane even for the non-susy Dp branes of type II string theories indicating a possible extension of AdS/CFT correspondence for the non-supersymmetric case. In that work, the decoupling of gravity on the non-susy Dp branes has been shown numerically for the general case as well as analytically for some special case. Here we discuss the decoupling limit and the throat geometry of the non-susy D3 brane when the charge associated with the brane is very large. We show that in the decoupling limit the throat geometry of the non-susy D3 brane, under appropriate coordinate change, reduces to the Constable–Myers solution and thus confirming that this solution is indeed the holographic dual of a (non-gravitational) gauge theory discussed there. We also show that when one of the parameters of the solution takes a specific value, it reduces, under another coordinate change, to the five-dimensional solution obtained by Csaki and Reece, again confirming its gauge theory interpretation.

  4. Kas kool vajab kõrvalpilke? / Meelis Kond, Peep Susi, Marge Lepik ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Tallinna haridusameti hariduskorralduse teenistuse direktor Meelis Kond, Lihula gümnaasiumi direktor Peep Susi, Lääne-Viru maavalitsuse haridus- ja kultuuriosakonna juhataja Marge Lepik, Oru kooli direktor Andres Kampmann ja Haapsalu Nikolai kooli direktor Aive Saadjärv

  5. sUsY dark matter-a collider physicist's perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 62; Issue 2. SUSY dark matter — a collider physicist's perspective. Mihoko M Nojiri. Volume 62 Issue 2 February 2004 pp 335-346. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/062/02/0335-0346. Keywords.

  6. Concordia ülikooli õppejõud nõuavad rektor Mart Susi lahkumist / Andri Maimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimets, Andri

    2003-01-01

    Concordia Ülikooli õppejõud ja tudengid esitasid senisele rektorile Mart Susile palve oma kohalt lahkuda, nad ei pea õigeks, et ülikooli juhib ülikooli rahaga patustanud inimene. Susi väitis üliõpilaste ees peetud pressikonverentsil, et jutud ülikooli võlgadest ja tema enda ametikoha kuritarvitustest ei vasta tõele

  7. Susi takistab Concordia ülikooli tööd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Concordia ülikooli endine rektor Mart Susi pole astunud konkreetseid samme õppetöö jätkuvuse tagamiseks ega oma volituste üleandmiseks, vaid üritab võimu taas enda kätte koondada ja on alates märtsi lõpust otsinud võimalusi pankrotiprotsessi peatamiseks

  8. Generalized Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonians by shape-invariant hierarchies and their SUSY partners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussin, V [Centre de recherches mathematiques et Departement de mathematiques et de statistique, Universite de Montreal, C P 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal (Quebec), H3C 3J7 (Canada); Kuru, S [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain); Negro, J [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2006-09-08

    A generalization of the matrix Jaynes-Cummings model in the rotating wave approximation is proposed by means of the shape-invariant hierarchies of scalar factorized Hamiltonians. A class of Darboux transformations (sometimes called SUSY transformations in this context) suitable for these generalized Jaynes-Cummings models is constructed. Finally one example is worked out using the methods developed.

  9. Möbius invariant BFKL equation for the adjoint representation in N=4 SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadin, V.S., E-mail: fadin@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of SD RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Fiore, R., E-mail: roberto.fiore@cs.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy); Lipatov, L.N., E-mail: lipatov@thd.pnpi.spb.ru [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute and St. Petersburg State University, Gatchina, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Papa, A., E-mail: alessandro.papa@cs.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy)

    2013-09-01

    It is shown that in the next-to-leading approximation of N=4 SUSY the BFKL equation for two-gluon composite states in the adjoint representation of the gauge group can be reduced to a form which is invariant under Möbius transformation in the momentum space. The corresponding similarity transformation of its integral kernel is constructed in an explicit way.

  10. The human gut resistome

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Willem

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance genes by the mobilization and transfer of resistance genes from a donor strain. The human gut contains a densely populated microbial ecosystem, termed the gut microbiota, which offers ample opportunities for the horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes. Recent technological advances allow microbiota-wide studies into the diversity and dynamics of the antibiotic resistance genes that are harboured by the gut microbiota (‘the gut resistome’). Genes conferring resistance to antibiotics are ubiquitously present among the gut microbiota of humans and most resistance genes are harboured by strictly anaerobic gut commensals. The horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes, through conjugation and transduction is a frequent event in the gut microbiota, but mostly involves non-pathogenic gut commensals as these dominate the microbiota of healthy individuals. Resistance gene transfer from commensals to gut-dwelling opportunistic pathogens appears to be a relatively rare event but may contribute to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, as is illustrated by the vancomycin resistance determinants that are shared by anaerobic gut commensals and the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium. PMID:25918444

  11. Supersymmetry searches in GUT models with non-universal scalar masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannoni, M.; Gómez, M.E. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Ellis, J. [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Physics Department, King' s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lola, S. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); De Austri, R. Ruiz, E-mail: mirco.cannoni@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: John.Ellis@cern.ch, E-mail: mario.gomez@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: magda@physics.upatras.gr, E-mail: rruiz@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, IFIC-UV/CSIC, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    We study SO(10), SU(5) and flipped SU(5) GUT models with non-universal soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses, exploring how they are constrained by LHC supersymmetry searches and cold dark matter experiments, and how they can be probed and distinguished in future experiments. We find characteristic differences between the various GUT scenarios, particularly in the coannihilation region, which is very sensitive to changes of parameters. For example, the flipped SU(5) GUT predicts the possibility of ∼t{sub 1}−χ coannihilation, which is absent in the regions of the SO(10) and SU(5) GUT parameter spaces that we study. We use the relic density predictions in different models to determine upper bounds for the neutralino masses, and we find large differences between different GUT models in the sparticle spectra for the same LSP mass, leading to direct connections of distinctive possible experimental measurements with the structure of the GUT group. We find that future LHC searches for generic missing E{sub T}, charginos and stops will be able to constrain the different GUT models in complementary ways, as will the Xenon 1 ton and Darwin dark matter scattering experiments and future FERMI or CTA γ-ray searches.

  12. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota is specific to each individual despite the existence of several bacterial species shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota in human health and disease has been revealed in the recent years. Particularly, the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant showed that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and lead to identification of several mechanisms. In humans, differences in microbiota composition, functional genes and metabolic activities are observed between obese and lean individuals suggesting a contribution of the gut microbiota to these phenotypes. Finally, the evidence linking gut bacteria to host metabolism could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity.

  13. Benchmark models, planes lines and points for future SUSY searches at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdusSalam, S.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Allanach, B.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Dreiner, H.K. [Bonn Univ. (DE). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Inst.] (and others)

    2012-03-15

    We define benchmark models for SUSY searches at the LHC, including the CMSSM, NUHM, mGMSB, mAMSB, MM-AMSB and p19MSSM, as well as models with R-parity violation and the NMSSM. Within the parameter spaces of these models, we propose benchmark subspaces, including planes, lines and points along them. The planes may be useful for presenting results of the experimental searches in different SUSY scenarios, while the specific benchmark points may serve for more detailed detector performance tests and comparisons. We also describe algorithms for defining suitable benchmark points along the proposed lines in the parameter spaces, and we define a few benchmark points motivated by recent fits to existing experimental data.

  14. An R-Parity Breaking SUSY Solution to the $R_b$ and ALEPH Anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, D; Choudhury, Debajyoti

    1996-01-01

    We discuss an optimal $R$-parity breaking SUSY solution to the $R_b$ excess as well as the ALEPH 4-jet anomaly. The latter arises from the pair production of stop via chargino decay at LEP1.5, followed by its $R$--violating decay into a light quark pair. The model satisfies top quark and $Z$--boson decay constraints along with gaugino mass unification.

  15. DarkSUSY 6 : An Advanced Tool to Compute Dark Matter Properties Numerically

    OpenAIRE

    Bringmann, Torsten; Edsjo, Joakim; Gondolo, Paolo; Ullio, Piero; Bergstrom, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The nature of dark matter remains one of the key science questions. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are among the best motivated particle physics candidates, allowing to explain the measured dark matter density by employing standard big-bang thermodynamics. Examples include the lightest supersymmetric particle, though many alternative particles have been suggested as a solution to the dark matter puzzle. We introduce here a radically new version of the widely used DarkSUSY packag...

  16. Determination of QCD Backgrounds in ATLAS: A challenge for SUSY searches

    CERN Document Server

    Meirose, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of QCD jet events in supersymmetry is one of the biggest background-determination challenges in SUSY searches. Effects such as dead material and pile-up of machine backgrounds can significantly affect the missing transverse energy. Other effects like jet punch through and cosmic ray backgrounds can also be important background sources. We discuss several QCD background sources and techniques under development in ATLAS to remove or estimate them.

  17. The hyperbolic step potential: Anti-bound states, SUSY partners and Wigner time delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadella, M. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Kuru, Ş. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Negro, J., E-mail: jnegro@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    We study the scattering produced by a one dimensional hyperbolic step potential, which is exactly solvable and shows an unusual interest because of its asymmetric character. The analytic continuation of the scattering matrix in the momentum representation has a branch cut and an infinite number of simple poles on the negative imaginary axis which are related with the so called anti-bound states. This model does not show resonances. Using the wave functions of the anti-bound states, we obtain supersymmetric (SUSY) partners which are the series of Rosen–Morse II potentials. We have computed the Wigner reflection and transmission time delays for the hyperbolic step and such SUSY partners. Our results show that the more bound states a partner Hamiltonian has the smaller is the time delay. We also have evaluated time delays for the hyperbolic step potential in the classical case and have obtained striking similitudes with the quantum case. - Highlights: • The scattering matrix of hyperbolic step potential is studied. • The scattering matrix has a branch cut and an infinite number of poles. • The poles are associated to anti-bound states. • Susy partners using antibound states are computed. • Wigner time delays for the hyperbolic step and partner potentials are compared.

  18. Gut-brain axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, Johannes A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P.; Havekes, Louis M.; Pijl, Hanno

    2008-01-01

    To summarize recent studies on the regulation and the functions of the gut-brain axis. Visual cues of food and food intake interact with the gut-brain axis at the level of the hypothalamus. However, the hypothalamic response to glucose intake is considerably altered in patients with type 2 diabetes

  19. SUSI 62 A Robust and Safe Parachute Uav with Long Flight Time and Good Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamm, H. P.

    2011-09-01

    In many research areas in the geo-sciences (erosion, land use, land cover change, etc.) or applications (e.g. forest management, mining, land management etc.) there is a demand for remote sensing images of a very high spatial and temporal resolution. Due to the high costs of classic aerial photo campaigns, the use of a UAV is a promising option for obtaining the desired remote sensed information at the time it is needed. However, the UAV must be easy to operate, safe, robust and should have a high payload and long flight time. For that purpose, the parachute UAV SUSI 62 was developed. It consists of a steel frame with a powerful 62 cm3 2- stroke engine and a parachute wing. The frame can be easily disassembled for transportation or to replace parts. On the frame there is a gimbal mounted sensor carrier where different sensors, standard SLR cameras and/or multi-spectral and thermal sensors can be mounted. Due to the design of the parachute, the SUSI 62 is very easy to control. Two different parachute sizes are available for different wind speed conditions. The SUSI 62 has a payload of up to 8 kg providing options to use different sensors at the same time or to extend flight duration. The SUSI 62 needs a runway of between 10 m and 50 m, depending on the wind conditions. The maximum flight speed is approximately 50 km/h. It can be operated in a wind speed of up to 6 m/s. The design of the system utilising a parachute UAV makes it comparatively safe as a failure of the electronics or the remote control only results in the UAV coming to the ground at a slow speed. The video signal from the camera, the GPS coordinates and other flight parameters are transmitted to the ground station in real time. An autopilot is available, which guarantees that the area of investigation is covered at the desired resolution and overlap. The robustly designed SUSI 62 has been used successfully in Europe, Africa and Australia for scientific projects and also for agricultural, forestry and

  20. SUSI 62 A ROBUST AND SAFE PARACHUTE UAV WITH LONG FLIGHT TIME AND GOOD PAYLOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Thamm

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In many research areas in the geo-sciences (erosion, land use, land cover change, etc. or applications (e.g. forest management, mining, land management etc. there is a demand for remote sensing images of a very high spatial and temporal resolution. Due to the high costs of classic aerial photo campaigns, the use of a UAV is a promising option for obtaining the desired remote sensed information at the time it is needed. However, the UAV must be easy to operate, safe, robust and should have a high payload and long flight time. For that purpose, the parachute UAV SUSI 62 was developed. It consists of a steel frame with a powerful 62 cm3 2- stroke engine and a parachute wing. The frame can be easily disassembled for transportation or to replace parts. On the frame there is a gimbal mounted sensor carrier where different sensors, standard SLR cameras and/or multi-spectral and thermal sensors can be mounted. Due to the design of the parachute, the SUSI 62 is very easy to control. Two different parachute sizes are available for different wind speed conditions. The SUSI 62 has a payload of up to 8 kg providing options to use different sensors at the same time or to extend flight duration. The SUSI 62 needs a runway of between 10 m and 50 m, depending on the wind conditions. The maximum flight speed is approximately 50 km/h. It can be operated in a wind speed of up to 6 m/s. The design of the system utilising a parachute UAV makes it comparatively safe as a failure of the electronics or the remote control only results in the UAV coming to the ground at a slow speed. The video signal from the camera, the GPS coordinates and other flight parameters are transmitted to the ground station in real time. An autopilot is available, which guarantees that the area of investigation is covered at the desired resolution and overlap. The robustly designed SUSI 62 has been used successfully in Europe, Africa and Australia for scientific projects and also for

  1. Human distal gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Julian R

    2011-12-01

    The distal gut and its associated microbiota is a new frontier in the quest to understand human biology and evolution. The renaissance in this field has been partly driven by advances in sequencing technology and also by the application of a variety of 'omic' technologies in a systems biology framework. In the initial stages of understanding what constitutes the gut, culture-independent methods, primarily inventories of 16S rRNA genes, have provided a clear view of the main taxonomic groups of Bacteria in the distal gut and we are now moving towards defining the functions that reside in the distal gut microbiome. This review will explore recent advances in the area of the distal gut and the use of a variety of omic approaches to determine what constitutes this fascinating collection of microbes. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-10-05

    To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of "gut microbiota", "gut-brain axis", and "neuroscience". All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  3. Supersymmetry Searches in GUT Models with Non-Universal Scalar Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Cannoni, M.; Gómez, M.E.; Lola, S.; Ruiz de Austri, R.

    2016-03-22

    We study SO(10), SU(5) and flipped SU(5) GUT models with non-universal soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses, exploring how they are constrained by LHC supersymmetry searches and cold dark matter experiments, and how they can be probed and distinguished in future experiments. We find characteristic differences between the various GUT scenarios, particularly in the coannihilation region, which is very sensitive to changes of parameters. For example, the flipped SU(5) GUT predict the possibility of $\\tilde{t}_1-\\chi$ coannihilation, which is absent in the regions of the SO(10) and SU(5) GUT parameter spaces that we study. We use the relic density predictions in different models to determine upper bounds for the neutralino masses, and we find large differences between different GUT models in the sparticle spectra for the same LSP mass, leading to direct connections of distinctive possible experimental measurements with the structure of the GUT group. We find that future LHC searches for generic missing $E_T$...

  4. Supergravity gauge theories strike back: there is no crisis for SUSY but a new collider may be required for discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Savoy, Mike

    2015-06-01

    More than 30 years ago, Arnowitt-Chamseddine-Nath and others established the compelling framework of supergravity gauge theories (SUGRA) as a picture for the next step in beyond the standard model physics. We review the current SUGRA scenario in light of recent data from LHC8 collider searches and the Higgs boson discovery. While many SUSY and non-SUSY scenarios are highly disfavored or even excluded by LHC, the essential SUGRA scenario remains intact and as compelling as ever. For naturalness, some non-universality between matter and Higgs sector soft terms is required along with substantial trilinear soft terms. SUSY models with radiatively-driven naturalness are found with high scale fine-tuning at a modest ˜ 10%. In this case, natural SUSY might be discovered at LHC13 but could also easily elude sparticle search endeavors. A linear {{e}+}{{e}-} collider with \\sqrt{s}\\gt 2m(higgsino) is needed to provide the definitive search for the required light higgsino states which are the hallmark of natural SUSY. In the most conservative scenario, we advocate inclusion of a Peccei-Quinn sector so that dark matter is composed of a WIMP/axion admixture i.e. two dark matter particles.

  5. New mechanism for Type-II seesaw dominance in SO(10) with low-mass Z', RH neutrinos, and verifiable LFV, LNV and proton decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Bidyut Prava; Parida, Mina Ketan [Siksha ' ' O' ' Anusandhan University, Centre of Excellence in Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India)

    2015-05-15

    The dominance of Type-II seesaw mechanism for the neutrino masses has attracted considerable attention because of a number of advantages. We show a novel approach to achieve Type-II seesaw dominance in nonsupersymmetric SO(10) grand unification where a low-mass Z' boson and specific patterns of right-handed neutrino masses are predicted within the accessible energy range of the Large Hadron Collider. In spite of the high value of the seesaw scale, M{sub Δ{sub L}} ≅ 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} GeV, the model predicts new dominant contributions to neutrino-less double beta decay in the W{sub L}-W{sub L} channel close to the current experimental limits via exchanges of heavier singlet fermions used as essential ingredients of this model even when the light active neutrino masses are normally hierarchical or invertedly hierarchical. We obtain upper bounds on the lightest sterile neutrino mass m{sub s}

  6. Should We Care that Johnny Can't Catch and Susie Can't Skip? What Should We Do about It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitall, Jill; Clark, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Physical and sport educators care that Johnny and Susie cannot move as well as their peers. They try their best to improve their skill levels because they value participation and skillfulness in sport and physical activity. However, many times there is a deeper problem as to why Johnny or Susie cannot move as well as their peers. Physical and…

  7. Impact of SUSY-QCD corrections to neutralino-squark coannihilation on the dark matter relic density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harz, Julia [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Herrmann, Bjoern [Laboratoire d' Annecy de Physique Theorique, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Klasen, Michael [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster (Germany); Kovarik, Karol [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Le Boulc' h, Quentin [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France)

    2012-07-01

    A powerful method to constrain the parameter space of theories beyond the Standard Model is to compare the predicted dark matter relic density with data from cosmological precision measurements, in particular from the WMAP satellite. On the particle physics side, the main uncertainty on the relic density arises from the (co-)annihilation cross sections of the dark matter particle. After a motivation for including higher order corrections in the prediction of the relic density, the project DM rate at NLO is presented. This software package allows one to compute the neutralino (co-)annihilation cross sections including SUSY-QCD corrections at the one-loop level and to evaluate their effect on the relic density using a link to the public codes MicrOMEGAs and DarkSUSY. Recent results of the impact of SUSY-QCD corrections on the neutralino pair annihilation cross section are discussed, and first results on neutralino-squark coannihilation are shown.

  8. Closing up a light stop window in natural SUSY at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archil Kobakhidze

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Top squark (stop plays a key role in the radiative stability of the Higgs boson mass in supersymmetry (SUSY. In this work, we use the LHC Run-1 data to determine the lower mass limit of the right-handed stop in a natural SUSY scenario, where the higgsinos χ˜1,20 and χ˜1± are light and nearly degenerate. We find that the stop mass has been excluded up to 430 GeV for mχ˜10≲250 GeV and to 540 GeV for mχ˜10≃100 GeV by the Run-1 SUSY searches for 2b+ETmiss and 1ℓ+jets+ETmiss, respectively. In a small strip of parameter space with mχ˜10≳190 GeV, the stop mass can still be as light as 210 GeV and compatible with the Higgs mass measurement and the monojet bound. The 14 TeV LHC with a luminosity of 20 fb−1 can further cover such a light stop window by monojet and 2b+ETmiss searches and push the lower bound of the stop mass to 710 GeV. We also explore the potential to use the Higgs golden ratio, Dγγ=σ(pp→h→γγ/σ(pp→h→ZZ⁎→4ℓ±, as a complementary probe for the light and compressed stop. If this golden ratio can be measured at percent level at the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC or future e+e− colliders, the light stop can be excluded for most of the currently allowed parameter region.

  9. One-loop stabilization of the fuzzy four-sphere via softly broken SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinacker, Harold C. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna,Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-12-17

    We describe a stabilization mechanism for fuzzy S{sub N}{sup 4} in the Euclidean IIB matrix model due to vacuum energy in the presence of a positive mass term. The one-loop effective potential for the radius contains an attractive contribution attributed to supergravity, while the mass term induces a repulsive contribution for small radius due to SUSY breaking. This leads to a stabilization of the radius. The mechanism should be pertinent to recent results on the genesis of 3+1-dimensional space-time in the Minkowskian IIB model.

  10. Susy-QCD corrections to neutrlino pair production in association with a jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Gavin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Greiner, Nicolas; Heinrich, Gudrun [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    We present the NLO Susy-QCD corrections to the production of a pair of the lightest neutralinos plus one jet at the LHC, appearing as a monojet signature in combination with missing energy. We fully include all non-resonant diagrams, i.e. we do not assume that production and decay factorise. We derive a parameter point based on the p19MSSM which is compatible with current experimental bounds and show distributions based on missing transverse energy and jet observables. Our results are produced with the program GoSam for automated one-loop calculations in combination with MadDipole/- MadGraph for the real radiation part.

  11. Final Report on DOE Grant DE-SC0001075 titled "Supersymmetry and Unification of Fundamental Interactions - SUSY2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Pran

    2012-09-12

    SUSY2009 brought together researchers from a very broad area of fundamental physics including elementary particle theory, astrophysics and cosmology and string theory with a focus on supersymmetry. Thus the topic covered at the SUSY2009 conference included the following: Search for the Higgs boson, search for supersymmetry, supersymmetry phenomenology, theories of dark matter and direct and indirect detection, neutrino physics, accelerator experiments, electroweak physics, supersymmetry phenomenology, string theory, string phenomenology, extra Dimensions as well as other recent theoretical and experimental developments. The conference was successful in fostering interdisciplinary interactions between theorists and experimentalists.

  12. Alzheimer's disease and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu; Wang, Tao; Jin, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a most common neurodegenerative disorder, which associates with impaired cognition. Gut microbiota can modulate host brain function and behavior via microbiota-gut-brain axis, including cognitive behavior. Germ-free animals, antibiotics, probiotics intervention and diet can induce alterations of gut microbiota and gut physiology and also host cognitive behavior, increasing or decreasing risks of AD. The increased permeability of intestine and blood-brain barrier induced by gut microbiota disturbance will increase the incidence of neurodegeneration disorders. Gut microbial metabolites and their effects on host neurochemical changes may increase or decrease the risk of AD. Pathogenic microbes infection will also increase the risk of AD, and meanwhile, the onset of AD support the "hygiene hypothesis". All the results suggest that AD may begin in the gut, and is closely related to the imbalance of gut microbiota. Modulation of gut microbiota through personalized diet or beneficial microbiota intervention will probably become a new treatment for AD.

  13. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of s...

  14. Rencontres de Moriond QCD 2012: Searches for Dark Matter, SUSY and other exotic particles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The fact that SUSY and other new physics signals do not seem to hide in “obvious” places is bringing a healthy excitement to Moriond. Yesterday’s presentations confirmed that, with the 2012 LHC data, experiments will concentrate on searches for exotic particles that might decay into yet unexplored modes. In the meantime, they are setting unprecedented boundaries to regions where new particles (not just SUSY) could exist. The limits of what particle accelerators can bring to enlighten the mystery of Dark Matter were also presented and discussed.   Each bar on the picture represents a decay channel that the ATLAS Collaboration (top) and the CMS Collaborations (bottom) have analysed.  The value indicated on the scale (or on the relevant bar) defines the maximum mass that the particle in that search cannot have. Not knowing what kind of new physics we should really expect, and given the fact that it does not seem to be hiding in any of the obvious places, e...

  15. Non-simplified SUSY. {tau}-coannihilation at LHC and ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, M.; Cakir, A.; Krueger, D.; List, J.; Lobanov, A.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.A.

    2013-07-15

    Simplified models have become a widely used and important tool to cover the more diverse phenomenology beyond constrained SUSY models. However, they come with a substantial number of caveats themselves, and great care needs to be taken when drawing conclusions from limits based on the simplified approach. To illustrate this issue with a concrete example, we examine the applicability of simplified model results to a series of full SUSY model points which all feature a small {tau} -LSP mass difference, and are compatible with electroweak and flavor precision observables as well as current LHC results. Various channels have been studied using the Snowmass Combined LHC detector implementation in the Delphes simulation package, as well as the Letter of Intent or Technical Design Report simulations of the ILD detector concept at the ILC. We investigated both the LHC and ILC capabilities for discovery, separation and identification of all parts of the spectrum. While parts of the spectrum would be discovered at the LHC, there is substantial room for further discoveries and property determination at the ILC.

  16. Low-scale SUSY breaking and the (s)goldstino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I.

    2013-01-01

    For a 4D N=1 supersymmetric model with a low SUSY breaking scale (f) and general Kahler potential K(Phi^i,Phi_j^*) and superpotential W(Phi^i) we study, in an effective theory approach, the relation of the goldstino superfield to the (Ferrara-Zumino) superconformal symmetry breaking chiral superfield X. In the presence of more sources of supersymmetry breaking, we verify the conjecture that the goldstino superfield is the (infrared) limit of X for zero-momentum and Lambda->\\infty. (Lambda is the effective cut-off scale). We then study the constraint X^2=0, which in the one-field case is known to decouple a massive sgoldstino and thus provide an effective superfield description of the Akulov-Volkov action for the goldstino. In the presence of additional fields that contribute to SUSY breaking we identify conditions for which X^2=0 remains valid, in the effective theory below a large but finite sgoldstino mass. The conditions ensure that the effective expansion (in 1/Lambda) of the initial Lagrangian is not in ...

  17. Reach of the CERN LHC for the Minimal Anomaly-Mediated SUSY Breaking Model

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Howard W; Tata, Xerxes; Baer, Howard; Tata, Xerxes

    2000-01-01

    We examine the reach of the CERN LHC pp collider for supersymmetric models where the dominant contribution to soft SUSY breaking parameters arises from the superconformal anomaly. In the simplest viable anomaly mediated SUSY breaking (AMSB) model, tachyonic slepton squared masses are made positive by adding a universal contribution m_0^2 to all scalars. We use the event generator ISAJET to generate AMSB signal events as a function of model parameter space. Assuming an integrated luminosity of 10 fb-1, the LHC can reach to values of $m_{\\tg}\\sim 2.3$ TeV for low values of $m_0$, where the dilepton plus jets plus E_T(missing) channel offers the best reach. For large $m_0$, the best signature is typically 0 or 1 isolated lepton plus jets plus E_T(missing); in this case the reach is typically diminished to values of $m_{\\tg}\\sim 1.3$ TeV. The presence of terminating tracks in a subset of signal events could serve to verify the presence of a long lived lightest chargino which is generic in the minimal AMSB model.

  18. Leptogenesis scenarios for natural SUSY with mixed axion-higgsino dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyu Jung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma,Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo,Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Baer, Howard; Serce, Hasan; Zhang, Yi-Fan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma,Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2016-01-07

    Supersymmetric models with radiatively-driven electroweak naturalness require light higgsinos of mass ∼100–300 GeV. Naturalness in the QCD sector is invoked via the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) axion leading to mixed axion-higgsino dark matter. The SUSY DFSZ axion model provides a solution to the SUSY μ problem and the Little Hierarchy μ≪m{sub 3/2} may emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between PQ and hidden sector mass scales. The traditional gravitino problem is now augmented by the axino and saxion problems, since these latter particles can also contribute to overproduction of WIMPs or dark radiation, or violation of BBN constraints. We compute regions of the T{sub R} vs. m{sub 3/2} plane allowed by BBN, dark matter and dark radiation constraints for various PQ scale choices f{sub a}. These regions are compared to the values needed for thermal leptogenesis, non-thermal leptogenesis, oscillating sneutrino leptogenesis and Affleck-Dine leptogenesis. The latter three are allowed in wide regions of parameter space for PQ scale f{sub a}∼10{sup 10}–10{sup 12} GeV which is also favored by naturalness: f{sub a}∼√(μM{sub P}/λ{sub μ})∼10{sup 10}–10{sup 12} GeV. These f{sub a} values correspond to axion masses somewhat above the projected ADMX search regions.

  19. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. Results: It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Conclusions: Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future. PMID:27647198

  20. Hierarchical suppression of radiative quark and lepton masses in supersymmetric GUTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, L.

    1982-11-01

    We show that radiatively generated quark and lepton masses in supersymmetric GUTs are hierarchically suppressed with respect to the corresponding scalar partner masses. As a consequence, in order to account for the observed fermion mass spectrum, one necessarily has to go beyond the minimal models and add new Higgs supermultiplets [45's in SU(5), 126's in SO(10)]. The minimal SO(10) model (10 + 16 + 45 Higgses) is not viable since the radiative mass of the right-handed electron-neutrino is at most mvR ~ me(α/π)2. We also comment on the possible existence of ``interlopers'' in supersymmetric GUTs. Permanent address: Departamento de Fisica Teorica C-XI, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid-34, Spain.

  1. Gut Microbiome and Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, Tadasu; Battaglia, Thomas; Ruiz, Victoria; Perez Perez, Guillermo I

    2017-12-05

    Despite that the human gastrointestinal tract is the most populated ecological niche by bacteria in the human body, much is still unknown about its characteristics. This site is highly susceptible to the effects of many external factors that may affect in the quality and the quantity of the microbiome. Specific factors such as diet, personal hygiene, pharmacological drugs and the use of antibiotics can produce a significant impact on the gut microbiota. The effect of these factors is more relevant early in life, when the gut microbiota has not yet fully established. In this review, we discussed the effect of type and doses of the antibiotics on the gut microbiota and what the major consequences in the use and abuse of these antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Villification of the gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallinen, Tuomas; Shyer, Amy E.; Tabin, Clifford J.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-03-01

    The villi of the human and chick gut are formed in similar stepwise progressions, wherein the mesenchyme and attached epithelium first fold into longitudinal ridges, then a zigzag pattern, and lastly individual villi. We combine biological manipulations and quantitative modeling to show that these steps of villification depend on the sequential differentiation of the distinct smooth muscle layers of the gut, which restrict the expansion of the growing endoderm and mesenchyme, generating compressive stresses that lead to their buckling and folding. Our computational model incorporates measured elastic properties and growth rates in the developing gut, recapitulating the morphological patterns seen during villification in a variety of species. Our study provides a mechanical basis for the genesis of these epithelial protrusions that are essential for providing sufficient surface area for nutrient absorption.

  3. Hot topics in gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Doré, Joël; Simrén, Magnus; Buttle, Lisa; Guarner, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The study of gut microbiota is a rapidly moving field of research, and the impact of gut microbial communities on human health is widely perceived as one of the most exciting advancements in biomedicine in recent years. The gut microbiota plays a key role in digestion, metabolism and immune function, and has widespread impact beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in the biodiversity of the gut microbiota are associated with far reaching consequences on host health and development. Furthe...

  4. Diet, gut microbiota and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Cicely; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar can lead to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In the human gut, the trillions of harmless microorganisms harboured in the host's gastrointestinal tract are called the 'gut microbiota'. Consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar changes the healthy microbiota composition which leads to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut, a phenomenon known as "gut dysbiosis". It has been shown that certain types of gut microbiota are linked to the pathogenesis of obesity. In addition, long-term consumption of a high fat diet is associated with cognitive decline. It has recently been proposed that the gut microbiota is part of a mechanistic link between the consumption of a high fat diet and the impaired cognition of an individual, termed "microbiota-gut-brain axis". In this complex relationship between the gut, the brain and the gut microbiota, there are several types of gut microbiota and host mechanisms involved. Most of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Therefore, this review comprehensively summarizes the current evidence from mainly in vivo (rodent and human) studies of the relationship between diet, gut microbiota and cognition. The possible mechanisms that the diet and the gut microbiota have on cognition are also presented and discussed.

  5. Determination of excited states of quantum systems by finite difference time domain method (FDTD) with supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY-QM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudiarta, I. Wayan; Angraini, Lily Maysari, E-mail: lilyangraini@unram.ac.id [Physics Study Program, University of Mataram, Jln. Majapahit 62 Mataram, NTB (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    We have applied the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method with the supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY-QM) procedure to determine excited energies of one dimensional quantum systems. The theoretical basis of FDTD, SUSY-QM, a numerical algorithm and an illustrative example for a particle in a one dimensional square-well potential were given in this paper. It was shown that the numerical results were in excellent agreement with theoretical results. Numerical errors produced by the SUSY-QM procedure was due to errors in estimations of superpotentials and supersymmetric partner potentials.

  6. Towards a new tool for the indirect detection of Dark Matter: building of a SuSy spectrum generator based on micrOMEGAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Pierre [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-vieux de Physique des Particules, CNRS/IN2P3/Univ. de Savoie, 9 Chemin de Bellevue - BP 110 F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux CEDEX (France)

    2006-03-15

    In the quest for indirect signals from dark matter annihilation, powerful computation codes are required. I report here a new code based on micrOMEGAs devoted to the analysis of such signals in term of Supersymmetry. It computes gamma rays and positrons fluxes in a general SuSy model, as well as the other charged cosmic rays and neutrinos source terms. This work aims to propose an alternative to the DarkSUSY code by providing inclusive signals from SuSy for dark matter indirect searches. Therefore it can be used for sensitivity studies and data analysis. (author)

  7. Discriminating between SUSY and non-SUSY Higgs sectors through the ratio H → b anti b/H → τ{sup +}τ{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganda, E.; Penaranda, S. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza (Spain); Guasch, J. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Universitat de Barcelona, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Hollik, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    It is still an open question whether the new scalar particle discovered at the LHC with a mass of 125 GeV is the SM Higgs boson or belongs to models of new physics with an extended Higgs sector, as the MSSM or 2HDM. The ratio of branching fractions R = BR(H → b anti b)/BR(H → τ{sup +}τ{sup -}) of Higgs-boson decays is a powerful tool in distinguishing the MSSM Higgs sector from the SM or non-supersymmetric 2HDM. This ratio receives large renormalization-scheme independent radiative corrections in supersymmetric models at large tan β, which are insensitive to the SUSY mass scale and absent in the SM or 2HDM. Making use of the current LHC data and the upcoming new results on Higgs couplings to be reported by ATLAS and CMS collaborations and in a future linear collider, we develop a detailed and updated study of this ratio R which improves previous analyses and sets the level of accuracy needed to discriminate between models. (orig.)

  8. The Human Gut Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; de Goffau, Marcus. C.; Schwiertz, A

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota in our gut performs many different essential functions that help us to stay healthy. These functions include vitamin production, regulation of lipid metabolism and short chain fatty acid production as fuel for epithelial cells and regulation of gene expression. There is a very

  9. Philosophy with Guts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Western philosophy, from Plato on, has had the tendency to separate feeling and thought, affect and cognition. This article argues that a strong philosophy (metaphorically, with "guts") utilizes both in its work. In fact, a "complete act of thought" also will include action. Feeling motivates thought, which formulates ideas,…

  10. Food and the gut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-11-09

    Nov 9, 1994 ... More women enter medicine: young doctors' family origin and career choice. Medical ... A. R. P. Walker pioneered the research into the association between food, gut function and disease patterns in ... unusual dietary and social changes is great, but there is a threshold level below which the adaptation ...

  11. Genomics: A gut prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de W.M.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial cells make up the majority of cells in the human body, and most of these reside in the intestinal tract. Researchers have long recognized that some intestinal microorganisms are associated with health, but the beneficial impact of most of the gut's microbes on human metabolism has been

  12. Food and the gut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-11-09

    Nov 9, 1994 ... saturated fat and cholesteroL' The obesity commonly seen in black women is not associated with ..... of lactose in a milk diet given over a 24-hour period.40 This brings into question the clinical relevance of adult ..... Circulating antibodies to cow's milk proteins in ulcerative colitis. Gut 1972; 13: 796-801. 45.

  13. Gut microbiota and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Matthieu; Diallo, Aldiouma; Raoult, Didier

    2017-05-01

    Malnutrition is the leading cause of death worldwide in children under the age of five, and is the focus of the first World Health Organization (WHO) Millennium Development Goal. Breastfeeding, food and water security are major protective factors against malnutrition and critical factors in the maturation of healthy gut microbiota, characterized by a transient bifidobacterial bloom before a global rise in anaerobes. Early depletion in gut Bifidobacterium longum, a typical maternal probiotic, known to inhibit pathogens, represents the first step in gut microbiota alteration associated with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Later, the absence of the Healthy Mature Anaerobic Gut Microbiota (HMAGM) leads to deficient energy harvest, vitamin biosynthesis and immune protection, and is associated with diarrhea, malabsorption and systemic invasion by microbial pathogens. A therapeutic diet and infection treatment may be unable to restore bifidobacteria and HMAGM. Besides refeeding and antibiotics, future trials including non-toxic missing microbes and nutrients necessary to restore bifidobacteria and HMAGM, including prebiotics and antioxidants, are warranted in children with severe or refractory disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. GUT FERMENTATION SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    individuals who became intoxicated after consuming carbohydrates, which became fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. These claims of intoxication without drinking alcohol, and the findings on endogenous alcohol fermentation are now called Gut. Fermentation Syndrome. This review will concentrate on understanding ...

  15. Fractures and the gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Paddy W G

    2018-01-01

    The role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory, non-AIDS comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and liver disease has become a focus of recent research. Low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture incidence in people living with HIV (PLWH) is also widely reported, however, the relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and bone disease in PLWH has not been previously reviewed. Murine models that manipulate the gut microbiome, either through breeding of 'germ-free' mice or antibiotic-depleted gut microbiome, show differences in bone mineral density and bone mass in those with altered gut microbiome. This effect is reported to be driven via changes in the gut-immune-skeletal axis, with changes favouring bone resorption. Several inflammatory conditions wherever bone loss is a prominent feature, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease, have also reported alterations in the gut microbiome, which are associated with bone loss, again through changes in the gut-immune-skeletal axis. The interplay between the gut microbiome and the immune-skeletal axis in HIV represents a complex relationship. Alterations in the gut microbiome, which induce an activated immune phenotype and inflammatory milieu are associated with non-AIDS comorbidities in PLWH and bone loss in several other conditions characterized by chronic immune activation and inflammation. It is, therefore, likely that there are comparable effects between altered gut microbiome and bone loss in HIV, however, further research is required to better define this relationship in populations of PLWH.

  16. SUSY (ATLAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Sopczak, Andre; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During the data-taking period at LHC (Run-II), several searches for supersymmetric particles were performed. The results from searches by the ATLAS collaborations are concisely reviewed. Model-independent and model-dependent limits on new particle production are set, and interpretations in supersymmetric models are given.

  17. SUSY (ATLAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Sopczak, Andre; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During the LHC Run-II data-taking period, several searches for supersymmetric particles were performed by the ATLAS collaboration. The results from these searches are concisely reviewed. Model-independent and model-dependent limits on new particle production are set, and interpretations in supersymmetric models are given.

  18. Resonances and antibound states for the Pöschl–Teller potential: Ladder operators and SUSY partners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çevik, D., E-mail: cevikdogukan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Gadella, M., E-mail: manuelgadella1@gmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Kuru, Ş., E-mail: kuru@science.ankara.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Negro, J., E-mail: jnegro@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2016-04-22

    We analyze the one dimensional scattering produced by all variations of the Pöschl–Teller potential, i.e., potential well, low and high barriers. The transmission coefficients of Pöschl–Teller well and low barrier potentials have an infinite number of simple poles corresponding to bound and antibound states. However, the Pöschl–Teller high barrier potential shows an infinite number of resonance poles. We have constructed ladder operators connecting wave functions for bound and antibound states as well as for resonance states. Finally, using wave functions of these states, we provide some examples of supersymmetric partners of the Pöschl–Teller Hamiltonian. - Highlights: • Poles of the scattering matrix of Pöschl–Teller potentials are obtained. • These poles are associated to bound, antibound and resonance states. • Ladder operators connecting these states are constructed. • Susy partners using antibound and resonance states are computed.

  19. SUSY Discovery at the LHC: Extending Reach with Modern Analysis Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmaratna, W G D; Johnson, K F; McDonald, J; Prosper, H B

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the potential for discovery of supersymmetric matter in the context of the minimal supergravity model (mSUGRA), in the focus point region, by the CMS detector at the LHC. We show that use of a Bayesian neural network discriminant would allow the extraction of a significant SUSY signal, if present, in the presence of large QCD, $t\\bar{t}$, W+jets and Z+jets backgrounds, with as little as one fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. It is possible that not all of the CMS detector will be fully operational at startup. Consequently, if there are early discoveries to be had only data from those parts of the detector that are functional at, or shortly after, startup will be available. In this paper, we investigate the potential for an early discovery using calorimetric data only, assuming such data will be available at startup.

  20. Mammalian gut immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Kumar, Manish; Baker, Mark T; Singh, Vishal; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the body and comprises cells from non-hemopoietic (epithelia, Paneth cells, goblet cells) and hemopoietic (macrophages, dendritic cells, T-cells) origin, and is also a dwelling for trillions of microbes collectively known as the microbiota. The homeostasis of this large microbial biomass is prerequisite to maintain host health by maximizing beneficial symbiotic relationships and minimizing the risks of living in such close proximity. Both microbiota and host immune system communicate with each other to mutually maintain homeostasis in what could be called a "love-hate relationship." Further, the host innate and adaptive immune arms of the immune system cooperate and compensate each other to maintain the equilibrium of a highly complex gut ecosystem in a stable and stringent fashion. Any imbalance due to innate or adaptive immune deficiency or aberrant immune response may lead to dysbiosis and low-grade to robust gut inflammation, finally resulting in metabolic diseases.

  1. Gut microbiota and liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemura, Masami; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2015-02-14

    Several studies revealed that gut microbiota are associated with various human diseases, e.g., metabolic diseases, allergies, gastroenterological diseases, and liver diseases. The liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to the entry of gut bacteria or their metabolites into the liver through the portal vein, and the liver-gut axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Moreover, gut microbiota play a significant role in the development of alcoholic liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on these previous findings, trials using probiotics have been performed for the prevention or treatment of liver diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the changes in gut microbiota associated with various liver diseases, and we describe the therapeutic trials of probiotics for those diseases.

  2. Diabetes, obesity and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D

    2013-02-01

    The gut microbiota composition has been associated with several hallmarks of metabolic syndrome (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis). Growing evidence suggests that gut microbes contribute to the onset of the low-grade inflammation characterising these metabolic disorders via mechanisms associated with gut barrier dysfunctions. Recently, enteroendocrine cells and the endocannabinoid system have been shown to control gut permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia. Moreover, targeted nutritional interventions using non-digestible carbohydrates with prebiotic properties have shown promising results in pre-clinical studies in this context, although human intervention studies warrant further investigations. Thus, in this review, we discuss putative mechanisms linking gut microbiota and type 2 diabetes. These data underline the advantage of investigating and changing the gut microbiota as a therapeutic target in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SUSY-QCD Effects in Top Quark Pair Production in Association with a Gluon at the ILC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ning

    2015-08-01

    Given the null results of searches for new physics at the LHC, we investigate the one-loop effects SUSY QCD in the process e^ + e^ - \\to t\\bar tg at the ILC in Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We find that the relative SUSY-QCD corrections to the cross section of e^ + e^ - \\to t\\bar tg can maximally reach 6.5%(3.2%) at the ILC with \\sqrt s = 1000 GeV when m\\bar t1 = 313.4 GeV and m\\bar g = 500≤ft( {1500} \\right) GeV. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC) under Grant Nos. 11305049, 11275057, and 11405047, by Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No. 20134104120002 and by the Startup Foundation for Doctors of Henan Normal University under Grant No. 11112

  4. Search for EWK production of SUSY in final states with multiple leptons at the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Heidegger, Constantin

    2017-01-01

    This poster reports on the search for the production of charginos and neutralinos in events with either two leptons of the same charge or three or more leptons using the full 2016 proton-proton collision dataset of $35.9\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s}=13\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ collected by the CMS detector. Exclusion limits at $95\\,\\%$ confidence level range between $450-1100\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$ depending on the SUSY scenario.

  5. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Yeon Hur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or insulin signaling. Several strategies have been developed to change gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, certain antidiabetic drugs or fecal microbiota transplantation, which have diverse effects on body metabolism and on the development of metabolic disorders.

  6. No-scale SUGRA SO (10) Inflation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... We show that a renormalizable theory based on gauge group S O ( 10 ) and Higgs system 10 ⊕ 210 ⊕ 126 ⊕ 126 ¯ with no scale supergravity can lead to a Starobinsky kind of potential for inflation. Successful inflation is possible in cases where the potential during inflation corresponds to S U ( 3 ) C × S U ...

  7. SUSY-QCD corrections to the (co)annihilation of neutralino dark matter within the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinecke, Moritz

    2015-06-15

    Based on experimental observations, it is nowadays assumed that a large component of the matter content in the universe is comprised of so-called cold dark matter. Furthermore, latest measurements of the temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background provided an estimation of the dark matter relic density at a measurement error of one percent (concerning the experimental 1σ-error). The lightest neutralino χ 0{sub 1}, a particle which subsumes under the phenomenologically interesting category of weakly interacting massive particles, is a viable dark matter candidate for many supersymmetric (SUSY) models whose relic density Ω{sub χ} {sub 0{sub 1}} happens to lie quite naturally within the experimentally favored ballpark of dark matter. The high experimental precision can be used to constrain the SUSY parameter space to its cosmologically favored regions and to pin down phenomenologically interesting scenarios. However, to actually benefit from this progress on the experimental side it is also mandatory to minimize the theoretical uncertainties. An important quantity within the calculation of the neutralino relic density is the thermally averaged sum over different annihilation and coannihilation cross sections of the neutralino and further supersymmetric particles. It is now assumed and also partly proven that these cross sections can be subject to large loop corrections which can even shift the associated Ω{sub χ} {sub 0{sub 1}} by a factor larger than the current experimental error. However, most of these corrections are yet unknown. In this thesis, we calculate higher-order corrections for some of the most important (co)annihilation channels both within the framework of the R-parity conserving Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and investigate their impact on the final neutralino relic density Ω{sub χ} {sub 0{sub 1}}. More precisely, this work provides the full O(α{sub s}) corrections of supersymmetric quantum chromodynamics (SUSY

  8. Comparative gut physiology symposium: The microbe-gut-brain axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Comparative Gut Physiology Symposium titled “The Microbe-Gut-Brain Axis” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science and the American Dairy Science Association on Thursday, July 21, 2016, in Salt Lake City Utah. The goal of the symposium was to present basic r...

  9. Gut Dysbiosis Is Linked to Hypertension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Tao; Santisteban, Monica M; Rodriguez, Vermali; Li, Eric; Ahmari, Niousha; Carvajal, Jessica Marulanda; Zadeh, Mojgan; Gong, Minghao; Qi, Yanfei; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Sahay, Bikash; Pepine, Carl J; Raizada, Mohan K; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    .... This study was designed to test the hypothesis that dysbiosis in gut microbiota is associated with hypertension because genetic, environmental, and dietary factors profoundly influence both gut...

  10. First Foods and Gut Microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Bahl, Martin Iain; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of the human gut microbiota in early life has been associated with later health and disease. During the 1st months after birth, the microbial composition in the gut is known to be affected by the mode of delivery, use of antibiotics, geographical location and type of feeding......(breast/formula). Consequently, the neonatal period and early infancy has attracted much attention. However, after this first period the gut microbial composition continues to develop until the age of 3 years, and these 1st years have been designated "a window of opportunity" for microbial modulation. The beginning and end......, are generally recognized to be of particular importance for the healthy development of children. While dietary changes are known to affect the adult gut microbiota, there is a gap in our knowledge on how the introduction of new dietary components into the diet of infants/young children affects the gut...

  11. Gut microbiome and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Pavan; Mowry, Ellen M

    2014-10-01

    The commensal flora that lives in the human gut is a unique ecosystem that has evolved over millennia with human beings. The importance of the microbiota in various bodily functions is gradually becoming more apparent. Besides the gut microbiome playing a role in bowel-related disorders, a role in metabolic and autoimmune disorders is becoming clearer. The gut bacteria play a role in educating the immune system and hence may be a player in the development of multiple sclerosis. We examine the different sources of information linking the gut microbiota to multiple sclerosis and examine the future avenues for utilizing the knowledge of the gut microbiome to potentially treat and prevent multiple sclerosis.

  12. The role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis: current challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; D'Souza, Roshan; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2013-06-01

    Brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are intimately connected to form a bidirectional neurohumoral communication system. The communication between gut and brain, knows as the gut-brain axis, is so well established that the functional status of gut is always related to the condition of brain. The researches on the gut-brain axis were traditionally focused on the psychological status affecting the function of the GI tract. However, recent evidences showed that gut microbiota communicates with the brain via the gut-brain axis to modulate brain development and behavioral phenotypes. These recent findings on the new role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis implicate that gut microbiota could associate with brain functions as well as neurological diseases via the gut-brain axis. To elucidate the role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis, precise identification of the composition of microbes constituting gut microbiota is an essential step. However, identification of microbes constituting gut microbiota has been the main technological challenge currently due to massive amount of intestinal microbes and the difficulties in culture of gut microbes. Current methods for identification of microbes constituting gut microbiota are dependent on omics analysis methods by using advanced high tech equipment. Here, we review the association of gut microbiota with the gut-brain axis, including the pros and cons of the current high throughput methods for identification of microbes constituting gut microbiota to elucidate the role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis.

  13. Detecting kinematic boundary surfaces in phase space and particle mass measurements in SUSY-like events

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    We critically examine the classic endpoint method for particle mass determination, focusing on difficult corners of parameter space, where some of the measurements are not independent, while others are adversely affected by the experimental resolution. In such scenarios, mass differences can be measured relatively well, but the overall mass scale remains poorly constrained. Using the example of the standard SUSY decay chain $\\tilde q\\to \\tilde\\chi^0_2\\to \\tilde \\ell \\to \\tilde \\chi^0_1$, we demonstrate that sensitivity to the remaining mass scale parameter can be recovered by measuring the two-dimensional kinematical boundary in the relevant three-dimensional phase space of invariant masses squared. We develop an algorithm for detecting this boundary, which uses the geometric properties of the Voronoi tessellation of the data, and in particular, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the volumes of the neighbors for each Voronoi cell in the tessellation. We propose a new observable, $\\bar\\Sigma$, which is ...

  14. Detecting kinematic boundary surfaces in phase space: particle mass measurements in SUSY-like events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Dipsikha; Gainer, James S.; Kilic, Can; Kim, Doojin; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Yang, Yuan-Pao

    2017-06-01

    We critically examine the classic endpoint method for particle mass determination, focusing on difficult corners of parameter space, where some of the measurements are not independent, while others are adversely affected by the experimental resolution. In such scenarios, mass differences can be measured relatively well, but the overall mass scale remains poorly constrained. Using the example of the standard SUSY decay chain \\tilde{q}\\to {\\tilde{χ}}_2^0\\to \\tilde{ℓ}\\to {\\tilde{χ}}_1^0 , we demonstrate that sensitivity to the remaining mass scale parameter can be recovered by measuring the two-dimensional kinematical boundary in the relevant three-dimensional phase space of invariant masses squared. We develop an algorithm for detecting this boundary, which uses the geometric properties of the Voronoi tessellation of the data, and in particular, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the volumes of the neighbors for each Voronoi cell in the tessellation. We propose a new observable, \\overline{Σ} , which is the average RSD per unit area, calculated over the hypothesized boundary. We show that the location of the \\overline{Σ} maximum correlates very well with the true values of the new particle masses. Our approach represents the natural extension of the one-dimensional kinematic endpoint method to the relevant three dimensions of invariant mass phase space.

  15. The fine-tuning cost of the likelihood in SUSY models

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilencea, D M

    2013-01-01

    In SUSY models, the fine tuning of the electroweak (EW) scale with respect to their parameters gamma_i={m_0, m_{1/2}, mu_0, A_0, B_0,...} and the maximal likelihood L to fit the experimental data are usually regarded as two different problems. We show that, if one regards the EW minimum conditions as constraints that fix the EW scale, this commonly held view is not correct and that the likelihood contains all the information about fine-tuning. In this case we show that the corrected likelihood is equal to the ratio L/Delta of the usual likelihood L and the traditional fine tuning measure Delta of the EW scale. A similar result is obtained for the integrated likelihood over the set {gamma_i}, that can be written as a surface integral of the ratio L/Delta, with the surface in gamma_i space determined by the EW minimum constraints. As a result, a large likelihood actually demands a large ratio L/Delta or equivalently, a small chi^2_{new}=chi^2_{old}+2*ln(Delta). This shows the fine-tuning cost to the likelihood ...

  16. Muon g - 2 through a flavor structure on soft SUSY terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Baez, F.V. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL Ciudad Universitaria, FCFM, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Gomez Bock, M. [Universidad de las Americas Puebla, UDLAP, Ex-Hacienda Sta. Catarina Martir, DAFM, Cholula, Puebla (Mexico); Mondragon, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we analyze the possibility to explain the muon anomalous magnetic moment discrepancy within theory and experiment through lepton-flavor violation processes. We propose a flavor extended MSSM by considering a hierarchical family structure for the trilinear scalar soft-supersymmetric terms of the Lagrangian, present at the SUSY breaking scale. We obtain analytical results for the rotation mass matrix, with the consequence of having non-universal slepton masses and the possibility of leptonic flavor mixing. The one-loop supersymmetric contributions to the leptonic flavor violating process τ → μγ are calculated in the physical basis, instead of using the well-known mass-insertion method. The flavor violating processes BR(l{sub i} → l{sub j}γ) are also obtained, in particular τ → μγ is well within the experimental bounds. We present the regions in parameter space where the muon g - 2 problem is either entirely solved or partially reduced through the contribution of these flavor violating processes. (orig.)

  17. Constraining SUSY models with Fittino using measurements before, with and beyond the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtle, Philip [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Desch, Klaus; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Wienemann, Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.

    2009-07-15

    We investigate the constraints on Supersymmetry (SUSY) arising from available precision measurements using a global fit approach.When interpreted within minimal supergravity (mSUGRA), the data provide significant constraints on the masses of supersymmetric particles (sparticles), which are predicted to be light enough for an early discovery at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We provide predicted mass spectra including, for the first time, full uncertainty bands. The most stringent constraint is from the measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Using the results of these fits, we investigate to which precision mSUGRA and more general MSSM parameters can be measured by the LHC experiments with three different integrated luminosities for a parameter point which approximately lies in the region preferred by current data. The impact of the already available measurements on these precisions, when combined with LHC data, is also studied. We develop a method to treat ambiguities arising from different interpretations of the data within one model and provide a way to differentiate between values of different digital parameters of a model (e. g. sign({mu}) within mSUGRA). Finally, we show how measurements at a linear collider with up to 1 TeV centre-of-mass energy will help to improve precision by an order of magnitude. (orig.)

  18. Energy Reconstruction in the Hadronic Tile Calorimeter and Early SUSY Fully Hadronic Searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Poveda, Joaquín; Ferrer, A

    2009-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is framed in the pre-operation phase of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Its first part is devoted to the energy reconstruction in the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. In particular, the Optimal Filtering energy reconstruction algorithm implementation for offline uses and its validation studies with Monte Carlo and real data are presented. This algorithm combines a simple formulation with robustness in the reconstruction of signal amplitude and timing for data affected by electronics noise. Furthermore, the performance under a minimum bias pileup environment and the impact of this kind of physics noise are also shown. The second part of the thesis contains a contribution to the ATLAS Jet/Missing Transverse Energy (MET) and SUSY groups. Cleaning methods for events with large fake MET are proposed. These methods are based on one hand in the jet energy deposition in selected parts of the calorimeter system which are related with jet leakage or dead material effects and, on the other hand, in...

  19. Top-squark in natural SUSY under current LHC run-2 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chengcheng [University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, Kashiwa (Japan); Ren, Jie [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Computer Network Information Center, Beijing (China); Wu, Lei [Nanjing Normal University, Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); The University of Sydney, ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Yang, Jin Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Zhang, Mengchao [Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Center for Theoretical Physics and Universe, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    We utilize the recent LHC-13 TeV data to study the lower mass bound on the top-squark (stop) in natural supersymmetry. We recast the LHC sparticle inclusive search of (≥1)jets + E{sub T} with α{sub T} variable, the direct stop pair search (1-lepton channel and all-hadronic channel) and the monojet analyses. We find that these searches are complementary depending on stop and higgsino masses: for a heavy stop the all-hadronic stop pair search provides the strongest bound, for an intermediate stop the inclusive SUSY analysis with α{sub T} variable is most efficient, while for a compressed stop-higgsino scenario the monojet search plays the key role. Finally, the lower mass bound on a stop is: (1) 320 GeV for compressed stop-higgsino scenario (mass splitting less than 20 GeV); (2) 765 (860) GeV for higgsinos lighter than 300 (100) GeV. (orig.)

  20. Detecting kinematic boundary surfaces in phase space: particle mass measurements in SUSY-like events

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Dipsikha; Kilic, Can; Kim, Doojin; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Yang, Yuan-Pao

    2017-06-19

    We critically examine the classic endpoint method for particle mass determination, focusing on difficult corners of parameter space, where some of the measurements are not independent, while others are adversely affected by the experimental resolution. In such scenarios, mass differences can be measured relatively well, but the overall mass scale remains poorly constrained. Using the example of the standard SUSY decay chain $\\tilde q\\to \\tilde\\chi^0_2\\to \\tilde \\ell \\to \\tilde \\chi^0_1$, we demonstrate that sensitivity to the remaining mass scale parameter can be recovered by measuring the two-dimensional kinematical boundary in the relevant three-dimensional phase space of invariant masses squared. We develop an algorithm for detecting this boundary, which uses the geometric properties of the Voronoi tessellation of the data, and in particular, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the volumes of the neighbors for each Voronoi cell in the tessellation. We propose a new observable, $\\bar\\Sigma$, which is t...

  1. Search for squark production in R-parity violating SUSY at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Stanco, L

    2001-01-01

    Searches for squarks produced via R-parity violating interactions in e /sup +/p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 300 GeV have been performed at HERA using the two detectors, H1 and ZEUS, and an integrated luminosity of 37 and 48 pb/sup -1/, respectively. Squarks produced in e/sup +/-quark fusion could decay either to e/sup +/-quark or via a supersymmetric gauge decay, resulting in many possible final states. The signal has been searched for in most of R-parity violating decays and gauge decays of the squarks. No evidence for squark production was found and limits were set on the R-parity violating coupling as a function of the squark mass and the SUSY parameters, extending to domains unexplored in other direct or indirect searches. For a fixed value of the coupling, HERA results are interpreted for the first time in terms of constraints on the parameters of the mSUGRA model.

  2. Gut microbiota and allogeneic transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weilin; Xu, Shaoyan; Ren, Zhigang; Jiang, Jianwen; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-08-23

    The latest high-throughput sequencing technologies show that there are more than 1000 types of microbiota in the human gut. These microbes are not only important to maintain human health, but also closely related to the occurrence and development of various diseases. With the development of transplantation technologies, allogeneic transplantation has become an effective therapy for a variety of end-stage diseases. However, complications after transplantation still restrict its further development. Post-transplantation complications are closely associated with a host's immune system. There is also an interaction between a person's gut microbiota and immune system. Recently, animal and human studies have shown that gut microbial populations and diversity are altered after allogeneic transplantations, such as liver transplantation (LT), small bowel transplantation (SBT), kidney transplantation (KT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HTCT). Moreover, when complications, such as infection, rejection and graft versus host disease (GVHD) occur, gut microbial populations and diversity present a significant dysbiosis. Several animal and clinical studies have demonstrated that taking probiotics and prebiotics can effectively regulate gut microbiota and reduce the incidence of complications after transplantation. However, the role of intestinal decontamination in allogeneic transplantation is controversial. This paper reviews gut microbial status after transplantation and its relationship with complications. The role of intervention methods, including antibiotics, probiotics and prebiotics, in complications after transplantation are also discussed. Further research in this new field needs to determine the definite relationship between gut microbial dysbiosis and complications after transplantation. Additionally, further research examining gut microbial intervention methods to ameliorate complications after transplantation is warranted. A better understanding of the

  3. Mammalian gut immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Chassaing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian intestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the body and comprises cells from non-hemopoietic (epithelia, Paneth cells, goblet cells and hemopoietic (macrophages, dendritic cells, T-cells origin, and is also a dwelling for trillions of microbes collectively known as the microbiota. The homeostasis of this large microbial biomass is prerequisite to maintain host health by maximizing beneficial symbiotic relationships and minimizing the risks of living in such close proximity. Both microbiota and host immune system communicate with each other to mutually maintain homeostasis in what could be called a "love-hate relationship." Further, the host innate and adaptive immune arms of the immune system cooperate and compensate each other to maintain the equilibrium of a highly complex gut ecosystem in a stable and stringent fashion. Any imbalance due to innate or adaptive immune deficiency or aberrant immune response may lead to dysbiosis and low-grade to robust gut inflammation, finally resulting in metabolic diseases.

  4. Yogurt and gut function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Oskar; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Russell, Robert M

    2004-08-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have been published on the health effects of yogurt and the bacterial cultures used in the production of yogurt. In the United States, these lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) include Lactobacillus and Streptococcus species. The benefits of yogurt and LAB on gastrointestinal health have been investigated in animal models and, occasionally, in human subjects. Some studies using yogurt, individual LAB species, or both showed promising health benefits for certain gastrointestinal conditions, including lactose intolerance, constipation, diarrheal diseases, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, Helicobacter pylori infection, and allergies. Patients with any of these conditions could possibly benefit from the consumption of yogurt. The benefits of yogurt consumption to gastrointestinal function are most likely due to effects mediated through the gut microflora, bowel transit, and enhancement of gastrointestinal innate and adaptive immune responses. Although substantial evidence currently exists to support a beneficial effect of yogurt consumption on gastrointestinal health, there is inconsistency in reported results, which may be due to differences in the strains of LAB used, in routes of administration, or in investigational procedures or to the lack of objective definition of "gut health." Further well-designed, controlled human studies of adequate duration are needed to confirm or extend these findings.

  5. Search for SUSY with two same-sign leptons or three leptons and jets at $\\sqrt{s} = 13 \\text{ TeV}$ with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is a well motivated extension of the Standard Model (SM) that postulates the existence of a superpartner for each SM particle. A search for strongly produced SUSY particles decaying to a pair of two isolated \\textbf{same-sign leptons (SS)} or \\textbf{three leptons (3L)} has been carried out using the complete data set collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2015-16 at 13 TeV ($36.5 fb^{-1}$). The analysis benefits from a low SM background and uses looser kinematic requirements compared to other beyond the SM (BSM) searches which increases its sensitivity to scenarios with small mass differences between the SUSY particles, or in which R-parity is not conserved. The results are interpreted in the context of \\textbf{R-parity conserving (RPC)} or \\textbf{R-parity violating (RPV)} simplified signal models

  6. The gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Giovanni C

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery and use of the microscope in the 17(th) century, we know that we host trillions of micro-organisms mostly in the form of bacteria indwelling the "barrier organs" skin, gut, and airways. They exert regulatory functions, are in a continuous dialogue with the intestinal epithelia, influence energy handling, produce nutrients, and may cause diabetes and obesity. The human microbiome has developed by modulating or avoiding inflammatory responses; the host senses bacterial presence through cell surface sensors (the Toll-like receptors) as well as by refining mucous barriers as passive defense mechanisms. The cell density and composition of the microbiome are variable and multifactored. The way of delivery establishes the type of initial flora; use of antibiotics is another factor; diet composition after weaning will shape the adult's microbiome composition, depending on the subject's life-style. Short-chain fatty acids participate in the favoring action exerted by microbiome in the pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes and obesity. Clinical observation has pinpointed a sharp rise of various dysimmune conditions in the last decades, including IBD and rheumatoid arthritis, changes that outweigh the input of simple heritability. It is nowadays proposed that the microbiome, incapable to keep up with the changes of our life-style and feeding sources in the past few decades might have contributed to these immune imbalances, finding itself inadequate to handle the changed gut environment. Another pathway to pathology is the rise of directly pathogenic phyla within a given microbiome: growth of adherent E. coli, of C. concisus, and of C. jejuni, might be examples of causes of local enteropathy, whereas the genus Prevotella copri is now suspected to be linked to rise of arthritic disorders. Inflammasomes are required to shape a non colitogenic flora. Treatment of IBD and infectious enteritides by the use of fecal transplant is warranted by this knowledge.

  7. Gut Chemosensing: Interactions between Gut Endocrine Cells and Visceral Afferents

    OpenAIRE

    Raybould, Helen E.

    2009-01-01

    Chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract is less well understood than many aspects of gut mechanosensitivity; however, it is important in the overall function of the GI tract and indeed the organism as a whole. Chemosensing in the gut represents a complex interplay between the function of enteroendocrine (EEC) cells and visceral (primarily vagal) afferent neurons. In this brief review, I will concentrate on new data on endocrine cells in chemosensing in the GI tract, in particular on new fi...

  8. Links between diet, gut microbiota composition and gut metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Harry J; Duncan, Sylvia H; Scott, Karen P; Louis, Petra

    2015-02-01

    The gut microbiota and its metabolic products interact with the host in many different ways, influencing gut homoeostasis and health outcomes. The species composition of the gut microbiota has been shown to respond to dietary change, determined by competition for substrates and by tolerance of gut conditions. Meanwhile, the metabolic outputs of the microbiota, such as SCFA, are influenced both by the supply of dietary components and via diet-mediated changes in microbiota composition. There has been significant progress in identifying the phylogenetic distribution of pathways responsible for formation of particular metabolites among human colonic bacteria, based on combining cultural microbiology and sequence-based approaches. Formation of butyrate and propionate from hexose sugars, for example, can be ascribed to different bacterial groups, although propionate can be formed via alternative pathways from deoxy-sugars and from lactate by a few species. Lactate, which is produced by many gut bacteria in pure culture, can also be utilised by certain Firmicutes to form butyrate, and its consumption may be important for maintaining a stable community. Predicting the impact of diet upon such a complex and interactive system as the human gut microbiota not only requires more information on the component groups involved but, increasingly, the integration of such information through modelling approaches.

  9. Gluino reach and mass extraction at the LHC in radiatively-driven natural SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Howard; Savoy, Michael; Sengupta, Dibyashree [University of Oklahoma, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Norman, OK (United States); Barger, Vernon [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Gainer, James S.; Tata, Xerxes [University of Hawaii, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Honolulu, HI (United States); Huang, Peisi [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); HEP Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Texas A and M University, Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Radiatively-driven natural SUSY (RNS) models enjoy electroweak naturalness at the 10% level while respecting LHC sparticle and Higgs mass constraints. Gluino and top-squark masses can range up to several TeV (with other squarks even heavier) but a set of light Higgsinos are required with mass not too far above m{sub h} ∝ 125 GeV. Within the RNS framework, gluinos dominantly decay via g → tt{sub 1}{sup *}, anti tt{sub 1} → t anti tZ{sub 1,2} or t anti bW{sub 1}{sup -} + c.c., where the decay products of the higgsino-like W{sub 1} and Z{sub 2} are very soft. Gluino pair production is, therefore, signaled by events with up to four hard b-jets and large E{sub T}. We devise a set of cuts to isolate a relatively pure gluino sample at the (high-luminosity) LHC and show that in the RNS model with very heavy squarks, the gluino signal will be accessible for m{sub g} < 2400 (2800) GeV for an integrated luminosity of 300 (3000) fb{sup -1}. We also show that the measurement of the rate of gluino events in the clean sample mentioned above allows for a determination of m{sub g} with a statistical precision of 2-5% (depending on the integrated luminosity and the gluino mass) over the range of gluino masses where a 5σ discovery is possible at the LHC. (orig.)

  10. Search for beyond standard model physics (non-SUSY) in final states with photons at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palencia, Jose Enrique; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of searches for non-standard model phenomena in photon final states. These searches use data from integrated luminosities of {approx} 1-4 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, collected with the CDF and D0 detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron. No significant excess in data has been observed. We report limits on the parameters of several BSM models (excluding SUSY) for events containing photons.

  11. Bound State Solution of Dirac Equation for Generalized Pöschl-Teller plus Trigomometric Pöschl-Teller Non- Central Potential Using SUSY Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bound state solution of the Dirac equation for generalized PöschlTeller and trigonometric Pöschl-Teller non-central potentials was obtained using SUSY quantum mechanics and the idea of shape invariance potential. The approximate relativistic energy spectrum was expressed in the closed form. The radial and polar wave functions were obtained using raising and lowering of radial and polar operators. The orbital quantum numbers were found from the polar Dirac equation, which was solved using SUSY quantum mechanics and the idea of shape invariance.

  12. First Foods and Gut Microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Bahl, Martin Iain; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of the human gut microbiota in early life has been associated with later health and disease. During the 1st months after birth, the microbial composition in the gut is known to be affected by the mode of delivery, use of antibiotics, geographical location and type of feeding...... of this window is currently debated, but it likely coincides with the complementary feeding period, marking the gradual transition from milk- based infant feeding to family diet usually occurring between 6 and 24 months. Furthermore, the 'first 1000 days,' i.e., the period from conception until age 2 years...... microbiota development. This perspective paper summarizes the currently very few studies addressing the effects of complementary diet on gut microbiota, and highlights the recent finding that transition to family foods greatly impacts the development of gut microbial diversity. Further, we discuss potential...

  13. Gut Microbiota: The Brain Peacekeeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota regulates intestinal and extraintestinal homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may also regulate brain function and behavior. Results from animal models indicate that disturbances in the composition and functionality of some microbiota members are associated with neurophysiological disorders, strengthening the idea of a microbiota–gut–brain axis and the role of microbiota as a “peacekeeper” in the brain health. Here, we review recent discoveries on the role of the gut microbiota in central nervous system-related diseases. We also discuss the emerging concept of the bidirectional regulation by the circadian rhythm and gut microbiota, and the potential role of the epigenetic regulation in neuronal cell function. Microbiome studies are also highlighted as crucial in the development of targeted therapies for neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27014255

  14. Gut Microbes, Diet, and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullar, Meredith A. J.; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    An expanding body of evidence supports a role for gut microbes in the etiology of cancer. Previously, the focus was on identifying individual bacterial species that directly initiate or promote gastrointestinal malignancies; however, the capacity of gut microbes to influence systemic inflammation and other downstream pathways suggests that the gut microbial community may also affect risk of cancer in tissues outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Functional contributions of the gut microbiota that may influence cancer susceptibility in the broad sense include (1) harvesting otherwise inaccessible nutrients and/or sources of energy from the diet (i.e., fermentation of dietary fibers and resistant starch); (2) metabolism of xenobiotics, both potentially beneficial or detrimental (i.e., dietary constituents, drugs, carcinogens, etc.); (3) renewal of gut epithelial cells and maintenance of mucosal integrity; and (4) affecting immune system development and activity. Understanding the complex and dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome, host immune system, and dietary exposures may help elucidate mechanisms for carcinogenesis and guide future cancer prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24114492

  15. Gut dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Adreesh; Biswas, Atanu; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-07-07

    Early involvement of gut is observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and symptoms such as constipation may precede motor symptoms. α-Synuclein pathology is extensively evident in the gut and appears to follow a rostrocaudal gradient. The gut may act as the starting point of PD pathology with spread toward the central nervous system. This spread of the synuclein pathology raises the possibility of prion-like propagation in PD pathogenesis. Recently, the role of gut microbiota in PD pathogenesis has received attention and some phenotypic correlation has also been shown. The extensive involvement of the gut in PD even in its early stages has led to the evaluation of enteric α-synuclein as a possible biomarker of early PD. The clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunction in PD include malnutrition, oral and dental disorders, sialorrhea, dysphagia, gastroparesis, constipation, and defecatory dysfunction. These conditions are quite distressing for the patients and require relevant investigations and adequate management. Treatment usually involves both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. One important aspect of gut dysfunction is its contribution to the clinical fluctuations in PD. Dysphagia and gastroparesis lead to inadequate absorption of oral anti-PD medications. These lead to response fluctuations, particularly delayed-on and no-on, and there is significant relationship between levodopa pharmacokinetics and gastric emptying in patients with PD. Therefore, in such cases, alternative routes of administration or drug delivery systems may be required.

  16. Probiotics, gut microbiota and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, M-J

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is a huge complex ecosystem where microbiota, nutrients, and host cells interact extensively, a process crucial for the gut homeostasis and host development with a real partnership. The various bacterial communities that make up the gut microbiota have many functions including metabolic, barrier effect, and trophic functions. Hence, any dysbiosis could have negative consequences in terms of health and many diseases have been associated to impairment of the gut microbiota. These close relationships between gut microbiota, health, and disease, have led to great interest in using probiotics (i.e. live micro-organisms), or prebiotics (i.e. non-digestible substrates) to positively modulate the gut microbiota to prevent or treat some diseases. This review focuses on probiotics, their mechanisms of action, safety, and major health benefits. Health benefits remain to be proven in some indications, and further studies on the best strain(s), dose, and algorithm of administration to be used are needed. Nevertheless, probiotic administration seems to have a great potential in terms of health that justifies more research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Interplay of LFV and slepton mass splittings at the LHC as a probe of the SUSY seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Abada, A; Romao, J C; Teixeira, A M

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of a type-I SUSY seesaw concerning lepton flavour violation (LFV) both at low-energies and at the LHC. The study of the di-lepton invariant mass distribution at the LHC allows to reconstruct some of the masses of the different sparticles involved in a decay chain. In particular, the combination with other observables renders feasible the reconstruction of the masses of the intermediate sleptons involved in $ \\chi_2^0\\to \\tilde \\ell \\,\\ell \\to \\ell \\,\\ell\\,\\chi_1^0$ decays. Slepton mass splittings can be either interpreted as a signal of non-universality in the SUSY soft breaking-terms (signalling a deviation from constrained scenarios as the cMSSM) or as being due to the violation of lepton flavour. In the latter case, in addition to these high-energy processes, one expects further low-energy manifestations of LFV such as radiative and three-body lepton decays. Under the assumption of a type-I seesaw as the source of neutrino masses and mixings, all these LFV observables are related. Worki...

  18. Non-universal gaugino masses and fine tuning implications for SUSY searches in the MSSM and the GNMSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminska, Anna [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Theoretical Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ross, Graham G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Theoretical Physics; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [European Lab. for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2013-08-15

    For the case of the MSSM and the most general form of the NMSSM (GNMSSM) we determine the reduction in the fine tuning that follows from allowing gaugino masses to be non-degenerate at the unification scale, taking account of the LHC8 bounds on SUSY masses, the Higgs mass bound, gauge coupling unification and the requirement of an acceptable dark matter density. We show that low-fine tuned points fall in the region of gaugino mass ratios predicted by specific unified and string models. For the case of the MSSM the minimum fine tuning is still large, approximately 1:60 allowing for a 3 GeV uncertainty in the Higgs mass (1:500 for the central value), but for the GNMSSM it is below 1:20. We find that the spectrum of SUSY states corresponding to the low-fine tuned points in the GNMSSM is often compressed, weakening the LHC bounds on coloured states. The prospect for testing the remaining low-fine-tuned regions at LHC14 is discussed.

  19. Enlarging regions of the MSSM parameter space for large tan β via SUSY decays of the heavy Higgs bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Anibal D.; Schmidt, Michael A.

    2017-08-01

    In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) searches for the heaviest CP-even and CP-odd Higgs H, A to tau-lepton pairs severely constrain the parameter region for large values of tan β and light Higgs bosons H, A. We demonstrate how the experimental constraint can be avoided by new decays to light third-generation sfermions, whose left-right couplings to H can be maximised in regions of large trilinear couplings A b , A τ for sbottoms and staus, or large supersymmetric (SUSY) Higgs mass μ for stops. Due to the tan β-enhancement in the production cross-sections via gluon-fusion and in association with bottom-quark pairs for H and A, we find that down-type sfermions, in particular, sbottoms perform a better job in allowing more parameter space than up-type sfermions such as stops, which require much larger values of μ to compensate for tan β. Vacuum stability as well as flavour observables constraints and direct searches for SUSY particles are imposed. We also associate the lightest CP-even Higgs with the observed 125 GeV SM-like Higgs and impose the experimental constraints from the LHC.

  20. Gut chemosensing: interactions between gut endocrine cells and visceral afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Helen E

    2010-02-16

    Chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract is less well understood than many aspects of gut mechanosensitivity; however, it is important in the overall function of the GI tract and indeed the organism as a whole. Chemosensing in the gut represents a complex interplay between the function of enteroendocrine (EEC) cells and visceral (primarily vagal) afferent neurons. In this brief review, I will concentrate on a new data on endocrine cells in chemosensing in the GI tract, in particular on new findings on glucose-sensing by gut EEC cells and the importance of incretin peptides and vagal afferents in glucose homeostasis, on the role of G protein coupled receptors in gut chemosensing, and on the possibility that gut endocrine cells may be involved in the detection of a luminal constituent other than nutrients, the microbiota. The role of vagal afferent pathways as a downstream target of EEC cell products will be considered and, in particular, exciting new data on the plasticity of the vagal afferent pathway with respect to expression of receptors for GI hormones and how this may play a role in energy homeostasis will also be discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Zvonimir Susić--doyen of Croatian neuropsychiatry in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepcić, Juraj; Pavlović, Eduard; Perković, Olivio; Skrobonja, Ante

    2008-01-01

    There are three distinct phases in the life of Zvonimir Susić--neurologist, psychiatrist, forensic expert, educator, teacher, translator, and erudite of general and professional knowledge--Zagreb, Rijeka and Zadar phase. In Zagreb (1926-1946) he was promoted to physician (1932), there he was a student tutor, then the assistant at the Physiology Institute of the Medical Faculty; volunteer, hospital doctor (he got the specialization in 1938), assistant and head doctor of the Hospital for Mental Diseases in Vrapce, and the assistant professor (1941) at the Neuropsychiatric Department of the Zagreb University. In Rijeka (1947-1959) he reorganized Psychiatric and established the Neurology Department of the General Hospital "Brothers Dr. Sobol" and, at first, he was the honorary professor, then assistant professor and associate professor of neurology and psychiatry at the Medical Faculty of Rijeka. In Zadar (1960-1968) he was the manager of the Ugljan Hospital. He published approximately 100 works in the field of clinical neurology, neuropathology, psychiatry, and forensic psychiatry, His works on cortical presentation of the body scheme, hallucinations, tuberous sclerosis, pregnancy and multiple sclerosis, pathohistology of demyelisation, toxic neuritis, epilepsies, nervous manifestations of Malta fever, herpetic infections, pathogenesis of convulsive syndromes, psychiatric terminology, therapies of Parkinson disease and schizophrenia, ability of making will, organization of the psychiatric service, were published in national and prestigious European journals, and often cited. He wrote chapters in psychiatric handbooks and special notes in encyclopedic editions. Together with Stanislav Zupić he was the author of the first and only psychodrama in Croatia. He was one of the pioneers of neuropathology in Croatia because he founded the Neuropathology Laboratory in Vrapce Hospital in 1936. He had a remarkable preciseness in examining the patient. He was frequent and

  2. Testing No-Scale F- SU (5): A 125 GeV Higgs boson and SUSY at the √{ s} = 8 TeV LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianjun; Maxin, James A.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W.

    2012-11-01

    We celebrate the recent Higgs discovery announcement with our experimental colleagues at the LHC and look forward to the implications that this success will bring to bear upon the continuing search for supersymmetry (SUSY). The model framework named No-Scale F- SU (5) possesses the rather unique capacity to provide a light CP-even Higgs boson mass in the favored 124-126 GeV window while simultaneously retaining a testably light SUSY spectrum that is consistent with emerging low-statistics excesses beyond the Standard Model expectation in the ATLAS and CMS multijet data. In this Letter we review the distinctive F- SU (5) mechanism that forges the physical 125 GeV Higgs boson and make a specific assessment of the ATLAS multijet SUSY search observables that may be expected for a 15 fb-1 delivery of 8 TeV data in this model context. Based on our Monte Carlo study, we anticipate that the enticing hints of a SUSY signal observed in the 7 TeV data could be amplified in the 8 TeV results. Moreover, if the existing signal is indeed legitimate, we project that the rendered gains in significance will be sufficient to conclusively rule out an alternative attribution to statistical fluctuation at that juncture.

  3. Mart Susi müüb Concordia ülikooli hüvanguks Kolu mõisa / Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laev, Sigrid

    2003-01-01

    Concordia ülikooli rektor Mart Susi pani müüki endale kuuluva Kolu mõisa, et sellest saadava rahaga katta ülikooli vajadusi. Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikool on Concordia ostmisest huvitatud. Concordia ülikooli tudengid on teinud üleskutse ühinemiseks, et kooli tuleviku suhtes kaasa rääkida

  4. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gut Microbiota and Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Giovanni; Di Biase, Anna Rita; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Ravaioli, Federico; Scaioli, Eleonora; Colecchia, Antonio; Festi, Davide

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence regarding celiac disease has increasingly shown the role of innate immunity in triggering the immune response by stimulating the adaptive immune response and by mucosal damage. The interaction between the gut microbiota and the mucosal wall is mediated by the same receptors which can activate innate immunity. Thus, changes in gut microbiota may lead to activation of this inflammatory pathway. This paper is a review of the current knowledge regarding the relationship between celiac disease and gut microbiota. In fact, patients with celiac disease have a reduction in beneficial species and an increase in those potentially pathogenic as compared to healthy subjects. This dysbiosis is reduced, but might still remain, after a gluten-free diet. Thus, gut microbiota could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, as described by studies which link dysbiosis with the inflammatory milieu in celiac patients. The use of probiotics seems to reduce the inflammatory response and restore a normal proportion of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Additional evidence is needed in order to better understand the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, and the clinical impact and therapeutic use of probiotics in this setting.

  6. Carbohydrates and the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Due to its scale and its important role in maintaining health, the gut microbiota can be considered as a 'new organ' inside the human body. Many complex carbohydrates are degraded and fermented by the human gut microbiota in the large intestine to both yield basic energy salvage and impact gut health through produced metabolites. This review will focus on the gut microbes and microbial mechanisms responsible for polysaccharides degradation and fermentation in the large intestine. Gut microbes and bacterial metabolites impact the host at many levels, including modulation of inflammation, and glucose and lipid metabolisms. A complex relationship occurs in the intestine between the human gut microbiota, diet and the host. Research on carbohydrates and gut microbiota composition and functionality is fast developing and will open opportunities for prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders through manipulation of the gut ecosystem.

  7. Gut Microbes Linked to Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matters November 25, 2013 Gut Microbes Linked to Rheumatoid Arthritis The presence of a specific type of gut bacteria correlates with rheumatoid arthritis in newly diagnosed, untreated people. The finding suggests ...

  8. Dietary effects on human gut microbiome diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Zhenjiang; Knight, Rob

    2015-01-01

    ..., revealing a considerable diversity and variability in the human gut microbiome. Of all the exogenous factors affecting gut microbiome, a long-term diet appears to have the largest effect to date...

  9. Global F-theory GUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Grimm, Thomas W.; /Bonn U.; Jurke, Benjamin; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    We construct global F-theory GUT models on del Pezzo surfaces in compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds realized as complete intersections of two hypersurface constraints. The intersections of the GUT brane and the flavour branes as well as the gauge flux are described by the spectral cover construction. We consider a split S[U(4) x U(1){sub X}] spectral cover, which allows for the phenomenologically relevant Yukawa couplings and GUT breaking to the MSSM via hypercharge flux while preventing dimension-4 proton decay. General expressions for the massless spectrum, consistency conditions and a new method for the computation of curvature-induced tadpoles are presented. We also provide a geometric toolkit for further model searches in the framework of toric geometry. Finally, an explicit global model with three chiral generations and all required Yukawa couplings is defined on a Calabi-Yau fourfold which is fibered over the del Pezzo transition of the Fano threefold P{sup 4}.

  10. The Gut Microbiome and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, George Kunnackal; Mullin, Gerard E

    2016-07-01

    The gut microbiome consists of trillions of bacteria which play an important role in human metabolism. Animal and human studies have implicated distortion of the normal microbial balance in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Bacteria causing weight gain are thought to induce the expression of genes related to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism thereby leading to greater energy harvest from the diet. There is a large body of evidence demonstrating that alteration in the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes leads to the development of obesity, but this has been recently challenged. It is likely that the influence of gut microbiome on obesity is much more complex than simply an imbalance in the proportion of these phyla of bacteria. Modulation of the gut microbiome through diet, pre- and probiotics, antibiotics, surgery, and fecal transplantation has the potential to majorly impact the obesity epidemic.

  11. Alzheimer’s disease and gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Hu; Tao Wang; Feng Jin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a most common neurodegenerative disorder, which associates with impaired cognition. Gut microbiota can modulate host brain function and behavior via microbiota-gut-brain axis, including cognitive behavior. Germ-free animals, antibiotics, probiotics intervention and diet can induce alterations of gut microbiota and gut physiology and also host cognitive behavior, increasing or decreasing risks of AD. The increased permeability of intestine and blood-brain b...

  12. Flavour and CPV in SUSYGUTs Prospects of Observability

    CERN Document Server

    Masiero, Antonio; Vives, O

    2005-01-01

    After a quarter of century of intense search for new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), two ideas stand out to naturally cope with (i) small neutrino masses and (ii) a light higgs boson : Seesaw and SUSY. The combination of these two ideas, i.e. SUSY seesaw exhibits a potentially striking signature: a strong (or even very strong) enhancement of lepton flavour violation (LFV), which on the contrary remains unobservable in the SM seesaw. Indeed, even when supersymmetry breaking is completely flavour blind, Renormalisation Group running effects are expected to generate large lepton flavour violating entries at the weak scale. In Grand Unified theories, these effects can be felt even in hadronic physics. We explicitly show that in a class of SUSY SO(10) GUTs there exist cases where LFV and CP violation in B‐physics can constitute a major road in simultaneously confirming the ideas of Seesaw and low‐energy SUSY.

  13. Amino acids and gut function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W W; Qiao, S Y; Li, D F

    2009-05-01

    The intestine is not only critical for the absorption of nutrients, but also interacts with a complex external milieu. Most foreign antigens enter the body through the digestive tract. Dietary amino acids are major fuels for the small intestinal mucosa, as well as important substrates for syntheses of intestinal proteins, nitric oxide, polyamines, and other products with enormous biological importance. Recent studies support potential therapeutic roles for specific amino acids (including glutamine, glutamate, arginine, glycine, lysine, threonine, and sulfur-containing amino acids) in gut-related diseases. Results of these new lines of work indicate trophic and cytoprotective effects of amino acids on gut integrity, growth, and health in animals and humans.

  14. The role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis: current challenges and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiao; D’Souza, Roshan; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2013-01-01

    Brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are intimately connected to form a bidirectional neurohumoral communication system. The communication between gut and brain, knows as the gut-brain axis, is so well established that the functional status of gut is always related to the condition of brain. The researches on the gut-brain axis were traditionally focused on the psychological status affecting the function of the GI tract. However, recent evidences showed that gut microbiota communicates w...

  15. Gut microbiota in 2015: Prevotella in the gut: choose carefully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Ruth E

    2016-02-01

    Gut microbial communities often contain many Bacteroides or their close relatives, Prevotella, but not both. Prevotella strains are associated with plant-rich diets but are also linked with chronic inflammatory conditions. In 2015, papers probed the genomic diversity of Prevotella strains and interactions of Prevotella copri with its host and other bacteria.

  16. Calculating the renormalisation group equations of a SUSY model with Susyno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Renato M.

    2012-10-01

    Susyno is a Mathematica package dedicated to the computation of the 2-loop renormalisation group equations of a supersymmetric model based on any gauge group (the only exception being multiple U(1) groups) and for any field content. Program summary Program title: Susyno Catalogue identifier: AEMX_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMX_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 30829 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 650170 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica 7 or higher. Computer: All systems that Mathematica 7+ is available for (PC, Mac). Operating system: Any platform supporting Mathematica 7+ (Windows, Linux, Mac OS). Classification: 4.2, 5, 11.1. Nature of problem: Calculating the renormalisation group equations of a supersymmetric model involves using long and complicated general formulae [1, 2]. In addition, to apply them it is necessary to know the Lagrangian in its full form. Building the complete Lagrangian of models with small representations of SU(2) and SU(3) might be easy but in the general case of arbitrary representations of an arbitrary gauge group, this task can be hard, lengthy and error prone. Solution method: The Susyno package uses group theoretical functions to calculate the super-potential and the soft-SUSY-breaking Lagrangian of a supersymmetric model, and calculates the two-loop RGEs of the model using the general equations of [1, 2]. Susyno works for models based on any representation(s) of any gauge group (the only exception being multiple U(1) groups). Restrictions: As the program is based on the formalism of [1, 2], it shares its limitations. Running time can also be a significant restriction, in particular for models with many fields. Unusual features

  17. Inversion induced Manihot esculenta stem tubers express key tuberization genes; Mec1, RZF, SuSy1 and PIN2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowrin, Valerie; Sutton, Fedora

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (M. esculenta) gives rise to unique underground stem tubers when stem cuttings are planted in an inverted orientation. The nutritional profile of the stem and root tubers were similar except for protein content which was higher in stem than in root tubers. RT-PCR revealed that several key genes (Mec1, RZF, SuSy1 and PIN2) involved in root tuberization were also expressed in these stem tubers. At five weeks post planting, these genes were expressed in roots and underground stems as in the mature tubers. However at 15 weeks post planting, they were expressed in both root and stem tubers but not in adventitious roots or in the non-tuberized stems. Expression of, the root auxin efflux carrier gene PIN2 in the stem tubers indicate a role for auxin in the stem tuberization process.

  18. Search for Gauge-Mediated SUSY Breaking Topologies at $\\sqrt{s}\\sim{189}$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Jézéquel, S; Lees, J P; Martin, F; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Alemany, R; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Morawitz, P; Pacheco, A; Riu, I; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Boix, G; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Ciulli, V; Davies, G; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Gianotti, F; Greening, T C; Halley, A W; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kado, M; Leroy, O; Maley, P; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Spagnolo, P; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tournefier, E; Valassi, Andrea; Wright, A E; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Dessagne, S; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Pascolo, J M; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Brient, J C; Machefert, F P; Rougé, A; Swynghedauw, M; Tanaka, R; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Chalmers, M; Kennedy, J; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Räven, B; Smith, D; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Ward, J J; Cavanaugh, R J; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Leibenguth, G; Putzer, A; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Marinelli, N; Martin, E B; Nash, J; Nowell, J; Przysiezniak, H; Sciabà, A; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Thomson, E; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Ellis, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Robertson, N A; Smizanska, M; Williams, M I; Giehl, I; Hölldorfer, F; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Kröcker, M; Müller, A S; Nürnberger, H A; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Ziegler, T; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Ealet, A; Fouchez, D; Tilquin, A; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Gilardoni, S S; Ragusa, F; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Azzurri, P; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Lefrançois, J; Serin, L; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; De Vivie de Régie, J B; Zerwas, D; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Dell'Orso, R; Ferrante, I; Giassi, A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sguazzoni, G; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Coles, J; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Hutchcroft, D E; Jones, L T; Medcalf, T; Strong, J A; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Fabbro, B; Faïf, G; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Seager, P; Trabelsi, A; Tuchming, B; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Loomis, C; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Hodgson, P N; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Hess, J; Misiejuk, A; Prange, G; Sieler, U; Borean, C; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Pütz, J; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Williams, R W; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G

    2001-01-01

    Searches for topologies characteristic of Gauge Mediated SUSY Breaking models (GMSB) are performed by analysing 173.6 pb^-1 of data collected at Ecm = 188.6~GeV with the ALEPH detector.These topologies include acoplanar photons, non-pointing single photon, acoplanar leptons, large impact parameter leptons, detached slepton decay vertices, heavy stable charged sleptons and four leptons plus missing energy final states.No evidence for these new phenomena is observed and limits on production cross sections and sparticle masses are derived. A scan of a minimal GMSB parameter space is performed and model dependent lower limits of about 45 GeV/c^2 on the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP) mass and of about 9 TeV on the mass scale parameter Lambda are derived, independently of the NLSP lifetime.

  19. Organization and function of gut microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Babič

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The human intestinal microbiota is composed of 10 to 100 trillion microbes whose metabolic activity equals to a virtual organ within an organ. Gut microflora have a crucial role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. The composition of gut microflora is changing along the gastrointestinal tract. Factors that affect colonization of newborn’s gut microbiota are delivery mode, type of feeding, illness and prematurity. Our diet has a dominant role in shaping the microbial composition of the gut over other inviromental factors. The aim of this article is to introduce up-to-date knowledge of the organization and function of gut microflora.

  20. Xenobiotic Metabolism and Gut Microbiomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Das

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to numerous xenobiotics, a majority of which are in the form of pharmaceuticals. Apart from human enzymes, recent studies have indicated the role of the gut bacterial community (microbiome in metabolizing xenobiotics. However, little is known about the contribution of the plethora of gut microbiome in xenobiotic metabolism. The present study reports the results of analyses on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in various human gut microbiomes. A total of 397 available gut metagenomes from individuals of varying age groups from 8 nationalities were analyzed. Based on the diversities and abundances of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various bacterial taxa were classified into three groups, namely, least versatile, intermediately versatile and highly versatile xenobiotic metabolizers. Most interestingly, specific relationships were observed between the overall drug consumption profile and the abundance and diversity of the xenobiotic metabolizing repertoire in various geographies. The obtained differential abundance patterns of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and bacterial genera harboring them, suggest their links to pharmacokinetic variations among individuals. Additional analyses of a few well studied classes of drug modifying enzymes (DMEs also indicate geographic as well as age specific trends.

  1. Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Arkadievich Shenderov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled the author first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low molecular weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that responsible for the mammalian genome reprogramming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance coursed by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce the different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The author substantiates the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics investigations as well as in diseases prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies.

  2. Gut Microbes Take Their Vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenburg, Erica D.; Sonnenburg, Justin L.

    2014-01-01

    The dense microbial ecosystem within the gut is connected through a complex web of metabolic interactions. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Degnan et al. (2014) establish the importance of different vitamin B12transporters that help a Bacteroides species acquire vitamins from the environment tomaintain a competitive edge.

  3. Microbes and Gut-Epithelium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 6. Microbes and Gut-Epithelium : More than ... Author Affiliations. Sarita Ahlawat1. Research Associate Malaria Group International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) Aruna Asaf Ali Marg New Delhi 110067, India.

  4. Neuroimmune modulation of gut function

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is considerable interest in the mechanisms and pathways involved in the neuro-immune regulation of gut function. The number of cell types and possible interactions is staggering and there are a number of recent reviews detailing various aspects of these interactions, many of which focus on ...

  5. [Current view on gut microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlioux, P

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota is more and more important since metagenomic research have brought new knowledge on this topic especially for human health. Firstly, gut microbiota is a key element for our organism he lives in symbiosis with. Secondly, it interacts favorably with many physiological functions of our organism. Thirdly, at the opposite, it can be an active participant in intestinal pathologies linked to a dysbiosis mainly in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis but also in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and more prudently in autism and behavioral disorders. In order to keep a good health, it is essential to protect our gut microbiota as soon as our young age and maintain it healthy. Face to a more and more important number of publications for treating certain digestive diseases with fecal microbial transplantation, it needs to be very careful and recommend further studies in order to assess risks and define standardized protocols. Gut microbiota metabolic capacities towards xenobiotics need to be developed, and we must take an interest in the modifications they induce on medicinal molecules. On the other hand, it is essential to study the potent effects of pesticides and other pollutants on microbiota functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Gut microbiome and liver diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shalimar

    2014-01-01

    ...), Chunhui Yuan(1), Wenchao Ding(1), Yuanting Chen(1), Xinjun Hu(1), Beiwen Zheng(1,2), Guirong Qian(1), Wei Xu(1), S. Dusko Ehrlich(3,4), Shusen Zheng(2,5) and Lanjuan Li(1,2) Alterations of the human gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis...

  7. The gut-liver axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschers, Ruben G. J.; Luyer, Misha D.; Schaap, Frank G.; Olde Damink, Steven W. M.; Soeters, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    The liver adaptively responds to extra-intestinal and intestinal inflammation. In recent years, the role of the autonomic nervous system, intestinal failure and gut microbiota has been investigated in the development of hepatic, intestinal and extra-intestinal disease. The autonomic nervous system

  8. Gut microbiota and pancreatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoretti, Marianna; Roggiolani, Roberta; Stornello, Caterina; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Capurso, Gabriele

    2017-12-01

    Changes in diet, lifestyle, and exposure to environmental risk factors account for the increased incidence of pancreatic disorders, including acute and chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. The role of the microbiota in the development of pancreatic disorders is increasingly acknowledged. The translocation of gut bacteria and endotoxins following gut barrier failure is a key event contributing to the severity of acute pancreatitis, while small intestine bacterial overgrowth is common in patients with chronic pancreatitis and further worsens their symptoms and malnutrition. Specific molecular mimicry link the microbiota and Helicobacter pylori with autoimmune pancreatitis. Changes in the oral microbiota typical of periodontitis seem to be associated with an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. The composition of the gut microbiota is also unbalanced in the presence of risk factors for pancreatic cancer, such as obesity, smoking and diabetes. Helicobacter pylori infection, atrophic body gastritis and related decreased gastric acid secretion also seem associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer, although this area needs further research. The link between dysbiosis, immune response and proinflammatory status is most likely the key for these associations. The present review article will discuss current available evidence on the role of gut microbiota in pancreatic disorders, highlighting potential areas for future research.

  9. Gut microbiota and GLP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D

    2014-09-01

    A large body of evidence suggests that the regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis by fermentable carbohydrates induces specific changes in the gut microbiota. Among the mechanisms, our research group and others have demonstrated that the gut microbiota fermentation (i.e., bacterial digestion of specific compounds) of specific prebiotics or other non-digestible carbohydrates is associated with the secretion of enteroendocrine peptides, such as the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), produced by L-cells. In this review, we highlight past and recent results describing how dietary manipulation of the gut microbiota, using nutrients or specific microbes, can stimulate GLP-1 secretion in rodents and humans. Furthermore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the putative mechanisms by which specific bacterial metabolites, such as short chain fatty acids, trigger GLP-1 secretion through GPR41/43-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, we conclude by discussing the molecular advance showing that the endocannabinoid system or related bioactive lipids modulated by the gut microbiota may contribute to the regulation of glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis.

  10. The gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of the gut microbiota has intensified within the past decade with the introduction of cultivation-independent methods. By investigation of the gut bacterial genes, our understanding of the compositional and functional capability of the gut microbiome has increased. It is now widely...... recognized that the gut microbiota has profound effect on host metabolism and recently changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with type 2 diabetes. Animal models and human studies have linked changes in the gut microbiota to the induction of low-grade inflammation, altered immune response......, and changes in lipid and glucose metabolism. Several factors have been identified that might affect the healthy microbiota, potentially inducing a dysbiotic microbiota associated with a disease state. This increased understanding of the gut microbiota might potentially contribute to targeted intervention...

  11. Gut Homeostasis, Microbial Dysbiosis, and Opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyuan; Roy, Sabita

    2017-01-01

    Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining animal and human health. The disruption of gut homeostasis has been shown to be associated with multiple diseases. The mutually beneficial relationship between the gut microbiota and the host has been demonstrated to maintain homeostasis of the mucosal immunity and preserve the integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. Currently, rapid progress in the understanding of the host-microbial interaction has redefined toxicological pathology of opioids and their pharmacokinetics. However, it is unclear how opioids modulate the gut microbiome and metabolome. Our study, showing opioid modulation of gut homeostasis in mice, suggests that medical interventions to ameliorate the consequences of drug use/abuse will provide potential therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for opioid-modulated intestinal infections. The study of morphine's modulation of the gut microbiome and metabolome will shed light on the toxicological pathology of opioids and its role in the susceptibility to infectious diseases.

  12. MSGUTs from Germ to Bloom towards Falsifiability and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Aulakh, Charanjit S.

    2005-01-01

    We review the development of minimal renormalizable SO(10) Susy GUTs. Using our $SO(10) \\to G_{Pati-Salam} $ label decomposition we calculated the complete GUT scale spectra and couplings and the threshold effects therefrom. The corrections to $\\alpha_G, Sin^2{\\theta}_W $ and $ M_X $ are sensitive functions of the single parameter $\\xi$ that controls symmetry breaking and slow funtions of the others. Scans of the parameter space to identify regions compatible with gauge unification are shown. The tight connection between the phenomenology of neutrino oscillations and exotic ($\\Delta B\

  13. Gut microbiome, gut function, and probiotics: Implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajela, Neerja; Ramakrishna, B S; Nair, G Balakrish; Abraham, Philip; Gopalan, Sarath; Ganguly, Nirmal K

    2015-03-01

    New insights from a rapidly developing field of research have ushered in a new era of understanding of the complexity of host-microbe interactions within the human body. The paradigm shift from culturing to metagenomics has provided an insight into the complex diversity of the microbial species that we harbor, revealing the fact that we are in fact more microbes than human cells. The largest consortium of these microbes resides in the gut and is called the gut microbiota. This new science has expanded the ability to document shifts in microbial populations to an unparalleled degree. It is now understood that signals from the microbiota provide trophic, nutritional, metabolic, and protective effects for the development and maintenance of the host digestive, immune, and neuroendocrine system. Evidence linking changes in the gut microbiota to gastrointestinal and extraintestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, and celiac disease have begun to emerge recently. Probiotics act through diverse mechanisms positively affecting the composition and/or function of the commensal microbiota and alter host immunological responses. Well-controlled intervention trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis provide convincing evidence for the benefit of probiotics in prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal as well as extraintestinal disorders.

  14. Profumo di SUSY: Suggestive Correlations in the ATLAS and CMS High Jet Multiplicity Data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Walker, Joel W

    2011-01-01

    We present persistently amassing evidence that the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations may indeed be already registering supersymmetry events at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Our analysis is performed in the context of a highly phenomenologically favorable model named No-Scale F-SU(5), which represents the unification of the F-lipped SU(5) Grand Unified Theory (GUT), two pairs of hypothetical TeV-scale vector-like supersymmetric multiplets derived out of F-Theory, and the dynamically established boundary conditions of No-Scale supergravity. We document highly suggestive correlations between the first inverse femtobarn of observations by CMS and ATLAS, where seductive excesses in multijet events, particularly those with nine or more jets, are unambiguously accounted for by a precision Monte-Carlo simulation of the F-SU(5) model space. This intimate correspondence is optimized by a unified gaugino mass in the neighborhood of M_{1/2}=518 GeV. We supplement this analysis by extrapolating for the expected data profile...

  15. Arabinoxylans, gut microbiota and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Mihiri; Leclerc, Estelle; Simsek, Senay

    2016-03-30

    Arabinoxylan (AX) is a non-starch polysaccharide found in many cereal grains and is considered as a dietary fiber. Despite their general structure, there is structural heterogeneity among AX originating from different botanical sources. Furthermore, the extraction procedure and hydrolysis by xylolytic enzymes can further render differences to theses AX. The aim of this review was to address the effects of AX on the gut bacteria and their immunomodulatory properties. Given the complex structure of AX, we also aimed to discuss how the structural heterogeneity of AX affects its role in bacterial growth and immunomodulation. The existing literature indicates the role of fine structural details of AX on its potential as polysaccharides that can impact the gut associated microbial growth and immune system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  17. SARAH goes left and right looking beyond the Standard Model and meets SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opferkuch, Toby Oliver

    2017-07-07

    Progress in the search for physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) proceeds through two main avenues. The first requires the development of models that address the host of theoretical and experimental deficiencies of the Standard Model (SM). The second avenue requires scrutinising these models against all available data as well as checks for theoretical consistency. Unfortunately there exists a large number of strongly motivated models as well as an absence of any signs illuminating the correct path nature has chosen. With the lack of a clear direction, automated tools provide an effective means to test as many models as possible. In this thesis we demonstrate how the SARAH framework can be used in this context as well as its adaptability for confronting unexpected hints of new physics, such as the diphoton excess, that have arisen at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) over the previous years. We then turn to more theoretical constraints namely, studying the stability of the electroweak vacuum in minimal supersymmetric models. Here we studied the impact of previously neglected directions when including non-standard vacuum expectation values. In the second half of this thesis we consider low-scale left-right symmetric models both with and without supersymmetry. In the non-supersymmetric case we consider constraints arising from charged lepton flavour violation. We have significantly improved existing parametrisations allowing for the new Yukawa couplings to be determined as a function of the underlying model parameters. The last scenario we consider is a model based on SO(10) unification at the high-scale. We build a complete model with TeV-scale breaking of the left-right phase studying in detail the phenomenology.

  18. Gut microbiome and liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilg, Herbert; Cani, Patrice D; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-12-01

    The gut microbiota has recently evolved as a new important player in the pathophysiology of many intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. The liver is the organ which is in closest contact with the intestinal tract, and is exposed to a substantial amount of bacterial components and metabolites. Various liver disorders such as alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic liver disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis have been associated with an altered microbiome. This dysbiosis may influence the degree of hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis through multiple interactions with the host's immune system and other cell types. Whereas few results from clinical metagenomic studies in liver disease are available, evidence is accumulating that in liver cirrhosis an oral microbiome is overrepresented in the lower intestinal tract, potentially contributing to disease process and severity. A major role for the gut microbiota in liver disorders is also supported by the accumulating evidence that several complications of severe liver disease such as hepatic encephalopathy are efficiently treated by various prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics. A better understanding of the gut microbiota and its components in liver diseases might provide a more complete picture of these complex disorders and also form the basis for novel therapies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Metagenomic Analysis of the Human Gut Microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha

    of our results changes the way we link the gut microbiome with diseases. Our results indicate that inflammatory diseases will affect the ecological system of the human gut microbiome, reducing its diversity. Classification analysis of healthy and unhealthy individuals demonstrates that unhealthy......Understanding the link between the human gut microbiome and human health is one of the biggest scientific challenges in our decade. Because 90% of our cells are bacteria, and the microbial genome contains 200 times more genes than the human genome, the study of the human microbiome has...... the potential to impact many areas of our health. This PhD thesis is the first study to generate a large amount of experimental data on the DNA and RNA of the human gut microbiome. This was made possible by our development of a human gut microbiome array capable of profiling any human gut microbiome. Analysis...

  20. Dietary effects on human gut microbiome diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenjiang; Knight, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The human gut harbours diverse and abundant microbes, forming a complex ecological system that interacts with host and environmental factors. In this article, we summarise recent advances in microbiome studies across both Western and non-Western populations, either in cross-sectional or longitudinal surveys, and over various age groups, revealing a considerable diversity and variability in the human gut microbiome. Of all the exogenous factors affecting gut microbiome, a long-term diet appears to have the largest effect to date. Recent research on the effects of dietary interventions has shown that the gut microbiome can change dramatically with diet; however, the gut microbiome is generally resilient, and short-term dietary intervention is not typically successful in treating obesity and malnutrition. Understanding the dynamics of the gut microbiome under different conditions will help us diagnose and treat many diseases that are now known to be associated with microbial communities.

  1. DM rate at NLO and the impact of SUSY-QCD-corrections to (co-)annihilation-processes on neutralino dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harz, Julia [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Herrmann, Bjoern [Laboratoire d' Annecy de Physique Theorique, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Klasen, Michael; Meinecke, Moritz; Steppeler, Patrick [Institute of Theoretical Physics Muenster (Germany); Kovarik, Karol [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Le Boulc' h, Quentin [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France)

    2013-07-01

    A powerful method to constrain the parameter space of theories beyond the Standard Model is to compare the predicted dark matter relic density with cosmological precision measurements, in particular with WMAP- and the upcoming Planck-data. On the particle physics side, the main uncertainty on the relic density arises from the (co-)annihilation cross sections of the dark matter particle. After a motivation for including higher order corrections in the prediction of the relic density, the DM rate at NLO-project will be presented, a software package that allows for the computation of the neutralino (co-)annihilation cross sections including SUSY-QCD corrections at the one-loop level and the evaluation of their effect on the relic density using a link to the public codes MicrOMEGAs and DarkSUSY. Recent results of the impact of SUSY-QCD corrections on the neutralino (co-)annihilation cross section as well as further ongoing projects in the context of the DM rate at NLO-project are discussed.

  2. Dietary effects on human gut microbiome diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhenjiang; Knight, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The human gut harbours diverse and abundant microbes, forming a complex ecological system that interacts with host and environmental factors. In this article, we summarise recent advances in microbiome studies across both Western and non-Western populations, either in cross-sectional or longitudinal surveys, and over various age groups, revealing a considerable diversity and variability in the human gut microbiome. Of all the exogenous factors affecting gut microbiome, a long-term diet appear...

  3. Gut biogeography of the bacterial microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Gregory P.; Lee, S. Melanie; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

    2016-01-01

    Animals assemble and maintain a diverse but host-specific gut microbial community. In addition to characteristic microbial compositions along the longitudinal axis of the intestines, discrete bacterial communities form in microhabitats, such as the gut lumen, colonic mucus layers and colonic crypts. In this Review, we examine how the spatial distribution of symbiotic bacteria among physical niches in the gut affects the development and maintenance of a resilient microbial ecosystem. We consid...

  4. Role of the normal gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Reddy, D Nageshwar

    2015-01-01

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual’s life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool. PMID:26269668

  5. Gut biogeography of the bacterial microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Gregory P; Lee, S Melanie; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

    2016-01-01

    Animals assemble and maintain a diverse but host-specific gut microbial community. In addition to characteristic microbial compositions along the longitudinal axis of the intestines, discrete bacterial communities form in microhabitats, such as the gut lumen, colonic mucus layers and colonic crypts. In this Review, we examine how the spatial distribution of symbiotic bacteria among physical niches in the gut affects the development and maintenance of a resilient microbial ecosystem. We consider novel hypotheses for how nutrient selection, immune activation and other mechanisms control the biogeography of bacteria in the gut, and we discuss the relevance of this spatial heterogeneity to health and disease.

  6. Pushing SUSY's boundaries Searches and prospects for strongly-produced supersymmetry at the LHC with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Besjes, Geert Jan; Caron, Sascha

    In this thesis, a search for new elementary particles predicted by a theory called supersymmetry (SUSY), which attempts to address shortcomings in our current description of particle physics, the Standard Model, is presented. No events incompatible with the Standard Model are observed, however. The results obtained in this search are also used in fits to a larger supersymmetric model, and combined with different analyses to obtain improved limits on simplified models. In addition, prospects for a similar search at the proposed high-luminosity LHC are discussed. Finally, HistFitter is presented, a program developed to perform searches in high-energy physics. Supersymmetry is searched for in a decay channel with 2 to 6 jets, missing energy, and no leptons in the final state. The coupling of squarks and gluinos to the strong force leads to a final state with many jets, in which the lightest supersymmetric particle produced in the cascade decay escapes the detector unseen. The analysis is designed using 15 signa...

  7. Q{sub 6} as the flavor symmetry in a non-minimal SUSY SU(5) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Izquierdo, J.C.; Mondragon, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Gonzalez-Canales, F. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma, Facultad de Ciencias de la Electronica, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular-CSIC/Universitat de Valencia, AHEP Group, Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    We present a non-minimal renormalizable SUSY SU(5) model, with extended Higgs sector and right-handed neutrinos, where the flavor sector exhibits a Q{sub 6} flavor symmetry. We analyzed the simplest version of this model, in which R-parity is conserved and the right-handed neutrino masses in the flavor doublet are considered with and without degeneracy. We find the generic form of the mass matrices both in the quark and lepton sectors. We reproduce, according to current data, the mixing in the CKM matrix. In the leptonic sector, in the general case where the right-handed neutrino masses are not degenerate, we find that the values for the solar, atmospheric, and reactor mixing angles are in very good agreement with the experimental data, both for a normal and an inverted hierarchy. In the particular case where the right-handed neutrinos masses are degenerate, the model predicts a strong inverted hierarchy spectrum and a sum rule among the neutrino masses. In this case the atmospheric and solar angles are in very good agreement with experimental data, and the reactor one is different from zero, albeit too small (θ{sub 13}{sup l{sup t{sup h}}}). This value constitutes a lower bound for θ{sub 13} in the general case.We also find the range of the values for the neutrino masses in each case. (orig.)

  8. Modified parton branching model for multi-particle production in hadronic collisions: Application to SUSY particle branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanyuan, Zhang

    The stochastic branching model of multi-particle productions in high energy collision has theoretical basis in perturbative QCD, and also successfully describes the experimental data for a wide energy range. However, over the years, little attention has been put on the branching model for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. In this thesis, a stochastic branching model has been built to describe the pure supersymmetric particle jets evolution. This model is a modified two-phase stochastic branching process, or more precisely a two phase Simple Birth Process plus Poisson Process. The general case that the jets contain both ordinary particle jets and supersymmetric particle jets has also been investigated. We get the multiplicity distribution of the general case, which contains a Hypergeometric function in its expression. We apply this new multiplicity distribution to the current experimental data of pp collision at center of mass energy √s = 0.9, 2.36, 7 TeV. The fitting shows the supersymmetric particles haven't participate branching at current collision energy.

  9. The brain of the gut

    OpenAIRE

    El Munshid Hassan

    2000-01-01

    One year before the close of the 19th century it was recognized that intestinal peristalsis was controlled by nerve plexuses in the wall of the gut independent of the central nervous system (CNS). This concept was developed further during the first quarter of the 20th century but was almost forgotten during the next 50 years until it was revived by the early 1970s. It is now recognized that the myenteric and submucous plexuses, referrred to as the enteric nervous system (ENS), contain as many...

  10. Differentiating neutrino models on the basis of $\\theta_{13}$ and lepton flavor violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, Carl H.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2008-03-01

    The authors show how models of neutrino masses and mixings can be differentiated on the basis of their predictions for {theta}{sub 13} and lepton flavor violation in radiative charged lepton decays and {mu} - e conversion. They illustrate the lepton flavor violation results for five predictive SO(10) SUSY GUT models and point out the relative importance of their heavy right-handed neutrino mass spectra and {theta}{sub 13} predictions.

  11. [Gut microbiota: Description, role and pathophysiologic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, C; Quévrain, E

    2016-06-01

    The human gut contains 10(14) bacteria and many other micro-organisms such as Archaea, viruses and fungi. Studying the gut microbiota showed how this entity participates to gut physiology and beyond this to human health, as a real "hidden organ". In this review, we aimed to bring information about gut microbiota, its structure, its roles and its implication in human pathology. After bacterial colonization in infant, intestinal microbial composition is unique for each individual although more than 95% can be assigned to four major phyla. The use of culture independent methods and more recently the development of high throughput sequencing allowed to depict precisely gut microbiota structure and diversity as well as its alteration in diseases. Gut microbiota is implicated in the maturation of the host immune system and in many fundamental metabolic pathways including sugars and proteins fermentation and metabolism of bile acids and xenobiotics. Imbalance of gut microbial populations or dysbiosis has important functional consequences and is implicated in many digestive diseases (inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, etc.) but also in obesity and autism. These observations have led to a surge of studies exploring therapeutics which aims to restore gut microbiota equilibrium such as probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation. But recent research also investigates biological activity of microbial products which could lead to interesting therapeutics leads. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Selected aspects of the human gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventura, Marco; O’Toole, Paul W.; Vos, de Willem M.; Sinderen, van Douwe

    2018-01-01

    The gut microbiota represents a highly complex assembly of microbes, which interact with each other and with their host. These interactions have various implications in terms of health and disease, and this multi-author review issue will address a number of selected aspects pertaining to gut

  13. GUT MICROBIOTA DYSBIOSIS IS LINKED TO HYPERTENSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Santisteban, Monica M.; Rodriguez, Vermali; Li, Eric; Ahmari, Niousha; Carvajal, Jessica Marulanda; Zadeh, Mojgan; Gong, Minghao; Qi, Yanfei; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Sahay, Bikash; Pepine, Carl J.; Raizada, Mohan K.; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota is critical in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that dysbiosis in gut microbiota is associated with hypertension since genetic, environmental, and dietary factors profoundly influence both gut microbiota and blood pressure. Bacterial DNA from fecal samples of two rat models of hypertension and a small cohort of patients was used for bacterial genomic analysis. We observed a significant decrease in microbial richness, diversity, and evenness in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, in addition to an increased Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. These changes were accompanied with decreases in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria. Additionally, the microbiota of a small cohort of human hypertension patients was found to follow a similar dysbiotic pattern, as it was less rich and diverse than that of control subjects. Similar changes in gut microbiota were observed in the chronic angiotensin II infusion rat model, most notably decreased microbial richness and an increased Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. In this model, we evaluated the efficacy of oral minocycline in restoring gut microbiota. In addition to attenuating high blood pressure, minocycline was able to rebalance the dysbiotic hypertension gut microbiota by reducing the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. These observations demonstrate that high BP is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, both in animal and human hypertension. They suggest that dietary intervention to correct gut microbiota could be an innovative nutritional therapeutic strategy for hypertension. PMID:25870193

  14. Gut dysbiosis is linked to hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Santisteban, Monica M; Rodriguez, Vermali; Li, Eric; Ahmari, Niousha; Carvajal, Jessica Marulanda; Zadeh, Mojgan; Gong, Minghao; Qi, Yanfei; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Sahay, Bikash; Pepine, Carl J; Raizada, Mohan K; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota is critical in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that dysbiosis in gut microbiota is associated with hypertension because genetic, environmental, and dietary factors profoundly influence both gut microbiota and blood pressure. Bacterial DNA from fecal samples of 2 rat models of hypertension and a small cohort of patients was used for bacterial genomic analysis. We observed a significant decrease in microbial richness, diversity, and evenness in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, in addition to an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. These changes were accompanied by decreases in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria. In addition, the microbiota of a small cohort of human hypertensive patients was found to follow a similar dysbiotic pattern, as it was less rich and diverse than that of control subjects. Similar changes in gut microbiota were observed in the chronic angiotensin II infusion rat model, most notably decreased microbial richness and an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. In this model, we evaluated the efficacy of oral minocycline in restoring gut microbiota. In addition to attenuating high blood pressure, minocycline was able to rebalance the dysbiotic hypertension gut microbiota by reducing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. These observations demonstrate that high blood pressure is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, both in animal and human hypertension. They suggest that dietary intervention to correct gut microbiota could be an innovative nutritional therapeutic strategy for hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The Gut Microbiota and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunmei; Li, Guangning; Huang, Pengru; Liu, Zhou; Zhao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota comprises a complex community of microorganism species that resides in our gastrointestinal ecosystem and whose alterations influence not only various gut disorders but also central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired cognition and cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Most notably, the microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system that is not fully understood, but includes neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways. Studies in germ-free animals and in animals exposed to pathogenic microbial infections, antibiotics, probiotics, or fecal microbiota transplantation suggest a role for the gut microbiota in host cognition or AD-related pathogenesis. The increased permeability of the gut and blood-brain barrier induced by microbiota dysbiosis may mediate or affect AD pathogenesis and other neurodegenerative disorders, especially those associated with aging. In addition, bacteria populating the gut microbiota can secrete large amounts of amyloids and lipopolysaccharides, which might contribute to the modulation of signaling pathways and the production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with the pathogenesis of AD. Moreover, imbalances in the gut microbiota can induce inflammation that is associated with the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and AD. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss the current findings that may elucidate the role of the gut microbiota in the development of AD. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may provide new insights into novel therapeutic strategies for AD.

  16. Selected aspects of the human gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventura, Marco; O’Toole, Paul W.; Vos, de Willem M.; Sinderen, van Douwe

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota represents a highly complex assembly of microbes, which interact with each other and with their host. These interactions have various implications in terms of health and disease, and this multi-author review issue will address a number of selected aspects pertaining to gut

  17. Gut-Brain Axis and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clair R; Mayer, Emeran A

    2017-01-01

    In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication. Observed dysbiotic states in depression, chronic stress, and autism may reflect altered brain signaling to the gut, while altered gut microbial signaling to the brain may play a role in reinforcing brain alterations. On the other hand, primary dysbiotic states due to Western diets may signal to the brain, altering ingestive behavior. While studies performed in patients with depression and rodent models generated by fecal microbial transfer from such patients suggest causation, evidence for an influence of acute gut microbial alterations on human behavioral and clinical parameters is lacking. Only recently has an open-label microbial transfer therapy in children with autism tentatively validated the gut microbiota as a therapeutic target. The translational potential of preclinical findings remains unclear without further clinical investigation. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Pathological States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yulan; Wang, Baohong; Wu, Junfang

    2017-01-01

    is to provide the reader with an updated overview of the importance of the gut microbiota for human health and the potential to manipulate gut microbial composition for purposes such as the treatment of antibiotic-resistant Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections. The concept of altering the gut......The human microbiota is an aggregate of microorganisms residing in the human body, mostly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Our gut microbiota evolves with us and plays a pivotal role in human health and disease. In recent years, the microbiota has gained increasing attention due to its impact...... on host metabolism, physiology, and immune system development, but also because the perturbation of the microbiota may result in a number of diseases. The gut microbiota may be linked to malignancies such as gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. It may also be linked to disorders such as nonalcoholic...

  19. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne

    (P/B), we were able to detect significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes......The human gut microbiota plays an important role for human health. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of consuming a diet following the New Nordic Diet recommendations (NND......) as opposed to Average Danish Diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio...

  20. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne

    significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes influence microbiota response to a dietary......The human gut microbiota plays an important role for the health of the host. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of a moderate diet shift from Average Danish Diet to New Nordic Diet...... on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio (P/B), we were able to detect...

  1. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha

    2015-01-01

    We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing...... laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human...... counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies....

  2. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha; Sonne, Si Brask; Xia, Zhongkui; Qiu, Xinmin; Li, Xiaoping; Long, Hua; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Dongya; Liu, Chuan; Fang, Zhiwei; Chou, Joyce; Glanville, Jacob; Hao, Qin; Kotowska, Dorota; Colding, Camilla; Licht, Tine Rask; Wu, Donghai; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu; Liang, Qiaoyi; Li, Junhua; Jia, Huijue; Lan, Zhou; Tremaroli, Valentina; Dworzynski, Piotr; Nielsen, H Bjørn; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Doré, Joël; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Lin, John C; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2015-10-01

    We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies.

  3. The gut microbiome: scourge, sentinel or spectator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Korecka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota consists of trillions of prokaryotes that reside in the intestinal mucosa. This long-established commensalism indicates that these microbes are an integral part of the eukaryotic host. Recent research findings have implicated the dynamics of microbial function in setting thresholds for many physiological parameters. Conversely, it has been convincingly argued that dysbiosis, representing microbial imbalance, may be an important underlying factor that contributes to a variety of diseases, inside and outside the gut. This review discusses the latest findings, including enterotype classification, changes brought on by dysbiosis, gut inflammation, and metabolic mediators in an attempt to underscore the importance of the gut microbiota for human health. A cautiously optimistic idea is taking hold, invoking the gut microbiota as a medium to track, target and treat a plethora of diseases.

  4. The gut microbiome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jie, Zhuye; Xia, Huihua; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. However, the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiome in relation to cardiovascular diseases have not been systematically examined. Here, we perform a metagenome-wide association study on stools from 218 individuals...... with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) and 187 healthy controls. The ACVD gut microbiome deviates from the healthy status by increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. and, functionally, in the potential for metabolism or transport of several molecules important for cardiovascular......), with liver cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Our data represent a comprehensive resource for further investigations on the role of the gut microbiome in promoting or preventing ACVD as well as other related diseases.The gut microbiota may play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the authors perform...

  5. The Gut Microbiota and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, ASD and mood disorders. Here, we review the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract (brain-gut axis and the role of the gut microbiota in the central nervous system (CNS and ASD. Microbiome-mediated therapies might be a safe and effective treatment for ASD.

  6. The gut microbiome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jie, Zhuye; Xia, Huihua; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. However, the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiome in relation to cardiovascular diseases have not been systematically examined. Here, we perform a metagenome-wide association study on stools from 218 individuals...... health. Although drug treatment represents a confounding factor, ACVD status, and not current drug use, is the major distinguishing feature in this cohort. We identify common themes by comparison with gut microbiome data associated with other cardiometabolic diseases (obesity and type 2 diabetes......), with liver cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Our data represent a comprehensive resource for further investigations on the role of the gut microbiome in promoting or preventing ACVD as well as other related diseases.The gut microbiota may play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the authors perform...

  7. Influence of gut microbiota on neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenit, María Carmen; Sanz, Yolanda; Codoñer-Franch, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a growing appreciation of the fundamental role played by an early assembly of a diverse and balanced gut microbiota and its subsequent maintenance for future health of the host. Gut microbiota is currently viewed as a key regulator of a fluent bidirectional dialogue between the gut and the brain (gut-brain axis). A number of preclinical studies have suggested that the microbiota and its genome (microbiome) may play a key role in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, alterations in the gut microbiota composition in humans have also been linked to a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depression, autism and Parkinson’s disease. However, it is not yet clear whether these changes in the microbiome are causally related to such diseases or are secondary effects thereof. In this respect, recent studies in animals have indicated that gut microbiota transplantation can transfer a behavioral phenotype, suggesting that the gut microbiota may be a modifiable factor modulating the development or pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric conditions. Further studies are warranted to establish whether or not the findings of preclinical animal experiments can be generalized to humans. Moreover, although different communication routes between the microbiota and brain have been identified, further studies must elucidate all the underlying mechanisms involved. Such research is expected to contribute to the design of strategies to modulate the gut microbiota and its functions with a view to improving mental health, and thus provide opportunities to improve the management of psychiatric diseases. Here, we review the evidence supporting a role of the gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders and the state of the art regarding the mechanisms underlying its contribution to mental illness and health. We also consider the stages of life where the gut microbiota is more susceptible to the effects of environmental stressors

  8. GUT precursors and fixed points in higher-dimensional theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the standard Higgs mechanism for break- ing a GUT symmetry, and it is characterized by the fact that the masses of the extra. GUT fields - the true signatures of the existence of the GUT - are parametrically tied to the GUT scale. The second method, by contrast, is essentially string-theoretic, and involves trun-.

  9. Microbes and the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercik, P; Collins, S M; Verdu, E F

    2012-05-01

    The 'gut-brain' or 'brain-gut axis', depending on whether we emphasize bottom-up or top-bottom pathways, is a bi-directional communication system, comprised of neural pathways, such as the enteric nervous system (ENS), vagus, sympathetic and spinal nerves, and humoral pathways, which include cytokines, hormones, and neuropeptides as signaling molecules. Recent evidence, mainly arising from animal models, supports a role of microbes as signaling components in the gut-brain axis. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge regarding the role of microbes, including commensals, probiotics and gastrointestinal pathogens, in bottom-up pathways of communication in the gut-brain axis. Although this has clear implications for psychiatric co-morbidity in functional and inflammatory conditions of the gut, the focus of this review will be to discuss the current evidence for a role of bacteria (commensals, probiotics, and pathogens) as key modulators of gut-brain communication. The strongest evidence for a role of microbes as signaling components in the gut-brain axis currently arises from animal studies and indicate that mechanisms of communication are likely to be multiple. There is need for the concepts generated in animal models to be translated to the human in the future. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Gut proteases target Yersinia invasin in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Sandra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia enterocolitica is a common cause of food borne gastrointestinal disease. After oral uptake, yersiniae invade Peyer's patches of the distal ileum. This is accomplished by the binding of the Yersinia invasin to β1 integrins on the apical surface of M cells which overlie follicle associated lymphoid tissue. The gut represents a barrier that severely limits yersiniae from reaching deeper tissues such as Peyer's patches. We wondered if gut protease attack on invasion factors could contribute to the low number of yersiniae invading Peyer's patches. Findings Here we show that invasin is rapidly degraded in vivo by gut proteases in the mouse infection model. In vivo proteolytic degradation is due to proteolysis by several gut proteases such as trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, pancreatic elastase, and pepsin. Protease treated yersiniae are shown to be less invasive in a cell culture model. YadA, another surface adhesin is cleaved by similar concentrations of gut proteases but Myf was not cleaved, showing that not all surface proteins are equally susceptible to degradation by gut proteases. Conclusions We demonstrate that gut proteases target important Yersinia virulence factors such as invasin and YadA in vivo. Since invasin is completely degraded within 2-3 h after reaching the small intestine of mice, it is no longer available to mediate invasion of Peyer's patches.

  11. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-08-08

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, we will review the latest advances of studies on the correlation between gut microorganisms and CNS functions & diseases.

  12. Soft SUSY breaking parameters and RG running of squark and slepton masses in large volume Swiss Cheese compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2010-03-01

    We consider type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss Cheese Calabi-Yau WCP[1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the “big” divisor ΣB (as opposed to the “small” divisor usually done in the literature thus far) as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. After reviewing our proposal of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology pertaining to obtaining a 10 GeV gravitino in the inflationary era and a TeV gravitino in the present era, and summarizing our results of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) on soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses, we discuss the one-loop RG running of the squark and slepton masses in mSUGRA-like models (using the running of the gaugino masses) to the EW scale in the large volume limit. Phenomenological constraints and some of the calculated soft SUSY parameters identify the D7-brane Wilson line moduli as the first two generations/families of squarks and sleptons and the D3-brane (restricted to the big divisor) position moduli as the two Higgses for MSSM-like models at TeV scale. We also discuss how the obtained open-string/matter moduli make it easier to impose FCNC constraints, as well as RG flow of off-diagonal squark mass(-squared) matrix elements.

  13. Endometriosis induces gut microbiota alterations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming; Li, Dong; Zhang, Zhe; Sun, Huihui; An, Min; Wang, Guoyun

    2018-02-15

    What happens to the gut microbiota during development of murine endometriosis? Mice with the persistence of endometrial lesions for 42 days develop a distinct composition of gut microbiota. Disorders in the immune system play fundamental roles in changing the intestinal microbiota. No study has used high-throughput DNA sequencing to show how endometriosis changes the gut microbiota, although endometriosis is accompanied by abnormal cytokine expression and immune cell dysfunction. This study includes a prospective and randomized experiment on an animal endometriosis model induced via the intraperitoneal injection of endometrial tissues. The mice were divided into endometriosis and mock groups and were sacrificed at four different time points for model confirmation and fecal sample collection. To detect gut microbiota, 16S ribosomal-RNA gene sequencing was performed. Alpha diversity was used to analyze the complexity and species diversity of the samples through six indices. Beta diversity analysis was utilized to evaluate the differences in species complexity. Principal coordinate analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering were performed to determine the clustering features. The microbial features differentiating the fecal microbiota were characterized by linear discriminant analysis effect size method. The endometriosis and mock mice shared similar diversity and richness of gut microbiota. However, different compositions of gut microbiota were detected 42 days after the modeling. Among the discriminative concrete features, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was elevated in mice with endometriosis, indicating that endometriosis may induce dysbiosis. Bifidobacterium, which is known as a commonly used probiotic, was also increased in mice with endometriosis. N/A. More control groups should be further studied to clarify the specificity of the dysbiosis induced by endometriosis. This study was performed only on mice. Thus, additional data

  14. : Le dysfonctionnement du " brain-gut "

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaz, Bruno; Sabaté, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    International audience; There is a bidirectional relation between the central nervous system and the digestive tract, i.e., the brain-gut axis. Numerous data argue for a dysfunction of the brain-gut axis in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Visceral hypersensitivity is a marker of IBS as well as of an abnormality of the brain-gut axis. This visceral hypersensitivity is peripheral and/or central in origin and may be the consequence of digestive inflammation or an anomaly o...

  15. Validation and operational measurements with SUSIE – A sar ice motion processing chain developed within promice (Programme for monitoring of Greenland ice-sheet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merryman Boncori, John Peter; Dall, Jørgen; Ahlstrøm, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the validation of an ice-motion processing chain developed for the PROMICE project – a long-term program funded by the Danish ministry of Climate and Energy to monitor the mass budget of the Greenland ice-sheet. The processor, named SUSIE, (Scripts and Utilities for SAR Ice......-motion Estimation) uses a combination of differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) and offset-tracking techniques to measure the horizontal velocity components, providing also an estimate of the corresponding measurement error standard deviations. In this performance of SUSIE’s offset-tracking chain is compared...

  16. Gut health in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pluske, J. R.; Hansen, Christian Fink; Payne, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    ' and caused enormous interest in alternative means to control diseases and conditions of the GIT. There are now available a wide array of products and strategies available to the pig industry that influence 'gut health'. The products in the market place are characterised predominately not only...... by their (claimed) different modes of action, but also by the variation in responses seen when offered to pigs, and not only in the post-weaning period. This variation is presumably a consequence of the many different conditions of management that pigs are under, that in turn influences factors such as composition...... of the microbiota and mucosal immunity. Other strategies, such as the manipulation of particle size and changing the protein content of a diet, might also be adopted to influence the expression of enteric pathogens and the expression of disease. Ultimately, the cost-benefit of adopting such practices to influence...

  17. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Xianghua Yan; Jun Hu; Yangfan Nie; Jianwei Chen; Yong Zhang; zhichang wang; qiwen fan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, acco...

  18. The Gut Hormones in Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has received much attention worldwide in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. At present, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for obesity in which long-term weight loss is achieved in patients. By contrast, pharmacological interventions for obesity are usually followed by weight regain. Although the exact mechanisms of long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery are yet to be fully elucidated, several gut hormones have been implicated. Gut hormones play a critical role in relaying signals of nutritional and energy status from the gut to the central nervous system, in order to regulate food intake. Cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin act through distinct yet synergistic mechanisms to suppress appetite, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake. Here, we discuss the role of gut hormones in the regulation of food intake and body weight.

  19. Gut microbiota and IBD: causation or correlation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Josephine; Wu, Gary D; Albenberg, Lindsey; Tomov, Vesselin T

    2017-10-01

    A general consensus exists that IBD is associated with compositional and metabolic changes in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis). However, a direct causal relationship between dysbiosis and IBD has not been definitively established in humans. Findings from animal models have revealed diverse and context-specific roles of the gut microbiota in health and disease, ranging from protective to pro-inflammatory actions. Moreover, evidence from these experimental models suggest that although gut bacteria often drive immune activation, chronic inflammation in turn shapes the gut microbiota and contributes to dysbiosis. The purpose of this Review is to summarize current associations between IBD and dysbiosis, describe the role of the gut microbiota in the context of specific animal models of colitis, and discuss the potential role of microbiota-focused interventions in the treatment of human IBD. Ultimately, more studies will be needed to define host-microbial relationships relevant to human disease and amenable to therapeutic interventions.

  20. Endurance exercise and gut microbiota: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Mach

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The present review provides a comprehensive overview of how gut microbiota may have a key role in controlling the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses as well as improving metabolism and energy expenditure during intense exercise.

  1. Gut microbiota, diet, and heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Julia M W; Esfahani, Amin; Singh, Natasha; Villa, Christopher R; Mirrahimi, Arash; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the gut microbiota is an area of growing interest, particularly for its link to improving and maintaining the systemic health of the host. It has been suggested to have potential to reduce risk factors associated with chronic diseases, such as elevated cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease (CHD). Diets of our evolutionary ancestors were largely based on plant foods, high in dietary fiber and fermentable substrate, and our gut microbiota has evolved against a background of such diets. Therapeutic diets that mimic plant-based diets from the early phases of human evolution may result in drug-like cholesterol reductions. In contrast, typical Western diets low in dietary fiber and fermentable substrate, and high in saturated and trans fatty acids, are likely contributors to the increased need for pharmacological agents for cholesterol reduction. The gut microbiota of those consuming a Western diet are likely underutilized and depleted of metabolic fuels, resulting in a less than optimal gut microbial profile. As a result, this diet is mismatched to our archaic gut microbiota and, therefore, to our genome, which has changed relatively little since humans first appeared. While the exact mechanism by which the gut microbiota may modulate cholesterol levels still remains uncertain, end products of bacterial fermentation, particularly the short chain fatty acids (i.e., propionate), have been suggested as potential candidates. While more research is required to clarify the potential link between gut microbiota and CHD risk reduction, consuming a therapeutic diet rich in plant foods, dietary fiber, and fermentable substrate would be a useful strategy for improving systemic health, possibly by altering the gut microbiota.

  2. Gut Dysbiosis in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Chihiro Morita; Hirokazu Tsuji; Tomokazu Hata; Motoharu Gondo; Shu Takakura; Keisuke Kawai; Kazufumi Yoshihara; Kiyohito Ogata; Koji Nomoto; Kouji Miyazaki; Nobuyuki Sudo

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychological illness with devastating physical consequences; however, its pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. Because numerous reports have indicated the importance of gut microbiota in the regulation of weight gain, it is reasonable to speculate that AN patients might have a microbial imbalance, i.e. dysbiosis, in their gut. In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota of female patients with AN (n = 25), including restrictive (ANR, n = 14) and binge-...

  3. Nutrient pharmacotherapy for gut mucosal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, R D; Rombeau, J L

    1998-06-01

    The use of nutrients for pharmacotherapy is a recent advance in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders or alterations of gut function and structure. Nutrients may have a direct effect on the gut, or may enhance the response to medications. Alternatively, pharmacologic agents may improve the absorption of nutrients. Potentially, pharmacotherapy may be an adjunct to the traditional approach used in the treatment of compromised patients.

  4. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Gut and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human intestinal tract has been colonized by thousands of species of bacteria during the coevolution of man and microbes. Gut-borne microbes outnumber the total number of body tissue cells by a factor of ten. Recent metagenomic analysis of the human gut microbiota has revealed the presence of some 3.3 million genes, as compared to the mere 23 thousand genes present in the cells of the tissues in the entire human body. Evidence for various beneficial roles of the intestinal microbiota in human health and disease is expanding rapidly. Perturbation of the intestinal microbiota may lead to chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases, colon cancers, gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, functional bowel diseases, and obesity. Restoration of the gut microbiota may be difficult to accomplish, but the use of probiotics has led to promising results in a large number of well-designed (clinical studies. Microbiomics has spurred a dramatic increase in scientific, industrial, and public interest in probiotics and prebiotics as possible agents for gut microbiota management and control. Genomics and bioinformatics tools may allow us to establish mechanistic relationships among gut microbiota, health status, and the effects of drugs in the individual. This will hopefully provide perspectives for personalized gut microbiota management.

  5. [Why could gut microbiota become a medication?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlioux, P; Megerlin, F; Corthier, G; Gobert, J-G; Butel, M-J

    2014-09-01

    The gut microbiota (or gut flora) is a set of bacteria living in symbiosis with the host. Strictly associated with the intestinal tract and interacting with it, the gut microbiota is not a tissue nor an organ, but a supra-organism. A disruption of dialogue between bacteria and human cells is a risk factor or a possible cause of various diseases. The restoration of this dialogue, thanks to the transfer of the gut microbiota of a healthy individual to a patient whose balance of gut flora has been broken, is a new therapeutic approach. If its exact effect still eludes scientific understanding, its clinical benefit is well established for an indication, and is recently being tested for many others. The proven contribution of gut microbiota in the human physiological balance calls for intensifying research throughout the world about the state of knowledge and technologies, as well as on the legal and ethical dimension of fecal microbiota transfer. This didactic paper updates the questions in relation with this therapeutic act. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The Gut Microbiome in the NOD Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Hu, Youjia; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2016-01-01

    The microbiome (or microbiota) are an ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms that outnumber the cells of the human body tenfold. These microorganisms are most abundant in the gut where they play an important role in health and disease. Alteration of the homeostasis of the gut microbiota can have beneficial or harmful consequences to health. There has recently been a major increase in studies on the association of the gut microbiome composition with disease phenotypes.The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is an excellent mouse model to study spontaneous type 1 diabetes development. We, and others, have reported that gut bacteria are critical modulators for type 1 diabetes development in genetically susceptible NOD mice.Here we present our standard protocol for gut microbiome analysis in NOD mice that has been routinely implemented in our research laboratory. This incorporates the following steps: (1) Isolation of total DNA from gut bacteria from mouse fecal samples or intestinal contents; (2) bacterial DNA sequencing, and (3) basic data analysis.

  7. Microbiota and the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang; Forsythe, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Changes in gut microbiota can modulate the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in altered brain functioning, and suggesting the existence of a microbiota gut-brain axis. Diet can also change the profile of gut microbiota and, thereby, behavior. Effects of bacteria on the nervous system cannot be disassociated from effects on the immune system since the two are in constant bidirectional communication. While the composition of the gut microbiota varies greatly among individuals, alterations to the balance and content of common gut microbes may affect the production of molecules such as neurotransmitters, e.g., gamma amino butyric acid, and the products of fermentation, e.g., the short chain fatty acids butyrate, propionate, and acetate. Short chain fatty acids, which are pleomorphic, especially butyrate, positively influence host metabolism by promoting glucose and energy homeostasis, regulating immune responses and epithelial cell growth, and promoting the functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the future, the composition, diversity, and function of specific probiotics, coupled with similar, more detailed knowledge about gut microbiota, will potentially help in developing more effective diet- and drug-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Seasonal variation in human gut microbiome composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Davenport

    Full Text Available The composition of the human gut microbiome is influenced by many environmental factors. Diet is thought to be one of the most important determinants, though we have limited understanding of the extent to which dietary fluctuations alter variation in the gut microbiome between individuals. In this study, we examined variation in gut microbiome composition between winter and summer over the course of one year in 60 members of a founder population, the Hutterites. Because of their communal lifestyle, Hutterite diets are similar across individuals and remarkably stable throughout the year, with the exception that fresh produce is primarily served during the summer and autumn months. Our data indicate that despite overall gut microbiome stability within individuals over time, there are consistent and significant population-wide shifts in microbiome composition across seasons. We found seasonal differences in both (i the abundance of particular taxa (false discovery rate <0.05, including highly abundant phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and (ii overall gut microbiome diversity (by Shannon diversity; P = 0.001. It is likely that the dietary fluctuations between seasons with respect to produce availability explain, at least in part, these differences in microbiome composition. For example, high levels of produce containing complex carbohydrates consumed during the summer months might explain increased abundance of Bacteroidetes, which contain complex carbohydrate digesters, and decreased levels of Actinobacteria, which have been negatively correlated to fiber content in food questionnaires. Our observations demonstrate the plastic nature of the human gut microbiome in response to variation in diet.

  9. Cosmological problems of the string axion alleviated by high scale SUSY of m3/2≃10–100 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The string axion may provide the most attractive solution to the strong CP problem in QCD. However, the axion energy density easily exceeds the dark matter density in the present universe due to a large decay constant around 1016 GeV, unless the initial value of the axion field is finely tuned. We show that this problem is alleviated if and only if the SUSY particle mass scale is 10–100 TeV, since the decay of the saxion can produce a large enough amount of entropy after the QCD phase transition, not disturbing the BBN prediction. The saxion decay also produces a large number of the lightest SUSY particles (LSPs. As a consequence, R-parity needs to be violated to avoid the overproduction of the LSPs. The saxion field can be stabilized with relatively simple Kähler potentials, not inducing a too large axion dark radiation. Despite the large entropy production, the observed baryon number is explained by the Affleck–Dine mechanism. Furthermore, the constraint from isocurvature perturbations is relaxed, and the Hubble constant during inflation can be as large as several ×1010 GeV.

  10. Hypertension-Linked Pathophysiological Alterations in the Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santisteban, Monica M; Qi, Yanfei; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Kim, Seungbum; Yang, Tao; Shenoy, Vinayak; Cole-Jeffrey, Colleen T; Lobaton, Gilberto O; Stewart, Daniel C; Rubiano, Andres; Simmons, Chelsey S; Garcia-Pereira, Fernando; Johnson, Richard D; Pepine, Carl J; Raizada, Mohan K

    2017-01-20

    Sympathetic nervous system control of inflammation plays a central role in hypertension. The gut receives significant sympathetic innervation, is densely populated with a diverse microbial ecosystem, and contains immune cells that greatly impact overall inflammatory homeostasis. Despite this uniqueness, little is known about the involvement of the gut in hypertension. Test the hypothesis that increased sympathetic drive to the gut is associated with increased gut wall permeability, increased inflammatory status, and microbial dysbiosis and that these gut pathological changes are linked to hypertension. Gut epithelial integrity and wall pathology were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rat and chronic angiotensin II infusion rat models. The increase in blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rat was associated with gut pathology that included increased intestinal permeability and decreased tight junction proteins. These changes in gut pathology in hypertension were associated with alterations in microbial communities relevant in blood pressure control. We also observed enhanced gut-neuronal communication in hypertension originating from paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and presenting as increased sympathetic drive to the gut. Finally, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (captopril) normalized blood pressure and was associated with reversal of gut pathology. A dysfunctional sympathetic-gut communication is associated with gut pathology, dysbiosis, and inflammation and plays a key role in hypertension. Thus, targeting of gut microbiota by innovative probiotics, antibiotics, and fecal transplant, in combination with the current pharmacotherapy, may be a novel strategy for hypertension treatment. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Preparing the Gut with Antibiotics Enhances Gut Microbiota Reprogramming Efficiency by Promoting Xenomicrobiota Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou K. Ji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays multiple important roles in intestinal and physiological homeostasis, and using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT to reprogram gut microbiota has demonstrated promise for redressing intestinal and physiological disorders. This study tested the alterations in reprogramming efficiency caused by different gut preparation procedures and explored the associated underlying mechanisms. We prepared the guts of mice for FMT by administering one of the three most-clinically used pretreatments [antibiotics, bowel cleansing (BC solution, or no pretreatment], and we found that preparing the gut with antibiotics induced a more efficient modification of the gut bacterial community than was induced by either of the other two pretreatment types. The increased efficiency of antibiotic treatment appeared to occur via increasing the xenomicrobiota colonization. Further analysis demonstrated that antibiotic treatment of mice induced intestinal microbiota disruption, mostly by expelling antibiotic-sensitive bacteria, while the indigenous microbiota was maintained after treatment with a BC solution or in the absence of pretreatment. The amount of antibiotic-resistant bacteria increased shortly after antibiotics usage but subsequently decreased after FMT administration. Together, these results suggest that FMT relied on the available niches in the intestinal mucosa and that preparing the gut with antibiotics facilitated xenomicrobiota colonization in the intestinal mucosa, which thus enhanced the overall gut microbiota reprogramming efficiency.

  12. Gut Microbiota and the Gut-Brain Axis : New Insights in the Pathophysiology of Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Clercq, Nicolien C.; Frissen, Myrthe N.; Groen, Albert K.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Emerging preclinical evidence has shown that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the brain, the so-called gut-brain axis, plays an important role in both host metabolism and behavior. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms of the brain-gut

  13. Gut Microbiota and the Gut-Brain Axis: New Insights in the Pathophysiology of Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Clercq, Nicolien C.; Frissen, Myrthe N.; Groen, Albert K.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Emerging preclinical evidence has shown that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the brain, the so-called gut-brain axis, plays an important role in both host metabolism and behavior. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms of the brain-gut

  14. No-go theorem for fully supersymmetric GUTs with metastable supersymmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean-François; Leboeuf, Jean-Samuel

    2017-07-01

    We introduce fully SUSic grand unified theories (SGUTs), supersymmetry (SUSY) grand unified theories that, upon symmetry breaking through the Higgs mechanism, decompose into a visible sector and an extra sector where the dynamics of the extra sector gauge group is responsible for SUSY breaking. Fully SGUTs thus have the important feature that all gauge groups of the visible sector and the extra sector unify into a simple gauge group at the SGUT scale, therefore generalizing the successful minimal SUSic Standard Model (MSSM) gauge coupling unification to all the gauge couplings of the theory. By focusing on the Intriligator, Seiberg, and Shih (ISS) SUSY-breaking mechanism in the extra sector, we show that it is impossible to reproduce the MSSM matter content when there exists a metastable ISS SUSY-breaking state.

  15. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  16. Immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F; Simon, Jakub K; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Gut bacterial microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, M; Lagier, J-C; Yahav, D; Paul, M

    2013-04-01

    Although probiotics and antibiotics have been used for decades as growth promoters in animals, attention has only recently been drawn to the association between the gut microbiota composition, its manipulation, and obesity. Studies in mice have associated the phylum Firmicutes with obesity and the phylum Bacteroidetes with weight loss. Proposed mechanisms linking the microbiota to fat content and weight include differential effects of bacteria on the efficiency of energy extraction from the diet, and changes in host metabolism of absorbed calories. The independent effect of the microbiota on fat accumulation has been demonstrated in mice, where transplantation of microbiota from obese mice or mice fed western diets to lean or germ-free mice produced fat accumulation among recipients. The microbiota can be manipulated by prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics. Probiotics affect the microbiota directly by modulating its bacterial content, and indirectly through bacteriocins produced by the probiotic bacteria. Interestingly, certain probiotics are associated with weight gain both in animals and in humans. The effects are dependent on the probiotic strain, the host, and specific host characteristics, such as age and baseline nutritional status. Attention has recently been drawn to the association between antibiotic use and weight gain in children and adults. We herein review the studies describing the associations between the microbiota composition, its manipulation, and obesity. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. Gut microbiota’s effect on mental health: The gut-brain axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Clapp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and gut microbiota, referred to as the gut-brain-axis, has been of significant interest in recent years. Increasing evidence has associated gut microbiota to both gastrointestinal and extragastrointestinal diseases. Dysbiosis and inflammation of the gut have been linked to causing several mental illnesses including anxiety and depression, which are prevalent in society today. Probiotics have the ability to restore normal microbial balance, and therefore have a potential role in the treatment and prevention of anxiety and depression. This review aims to discuss the development of the gut microbiota, the linkage of dysbiosis to anxiety and depression, and possible applications of probiotics to reduce symptoms.

  19. Gut-Brain Axis: The Role of Gut Microbiota in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Evrensel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is essential to human health, playing a major and important role in the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. There is significant evidence linking gut microbiota and metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, anxiety, depression. New studies show microbiota can activate immune system, neural pathways and central nervous system signaling systems, including commensal, probiotic and pathogenic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. This microorganisms are capable of producing and delivering neuroactive substances such as gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin, which act on the gut-brain axis. Preclinical evaluation in rodents suggests that certain probiotics possess antidepressant or anxiolytic activity. Effects may be mediated via the vagus nerve, spinal cord, immune system or neuroendocrine systems. Here we review recent literature that examines the impact of gut microbiota on the brain, behavior and psychiatric disorders.

  20. [Gut microbiome and psyche: paradigm shift in the concept of brain-gut axis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, Peter C; Zopf, Yurdagül

    2016-05-25

    The concept of the brain-gut axis describes the communication between the central and enteric nervous system. The exchange of information takes place in both directions. The great advances in molecular medicine in recent years led to the discovery of an enormous number of microorganisms in the intestine (gut microbiome), which greatly affect the function of the brain-gut axis. Overview Numerous studies indicate that the dysfunction of the brain-gut axis could lead to both inflammatory and functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, it was shown that a faulty composition of the gut microbiota in childhood influences the maturation of the central nervous system and thus may favor the development of mental disorders such as autism, depression, or other. An exact causal relationship between psyche and microbiome must be clarified by further studies in order to find new therapeutic options.

  1. SUSY searches at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with two same-sign leptons or three leptons, jets and $E_T^{miss}$ at the ATLAS detector - Background estimation and latest analysis results.

    CERN Document Server

    Tornambe, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the most studied theories to extend the Standard Model (SM) beyond the electroweak scale. If R-parity is conserved, SUSY particles are produced in pairs and the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), which is typically the lightest neutrino $\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$, is stable. In many models the LSP can be a suitable candidate for dark matter. This poster presents a search for supersymmetric phenomena in final states with two leptons (electrons or muons) of the same electric charge or three leptons, jets and missing transverse energy. While the same-sign or three leptons signature is present in many SUSY scenarios, SM processes leading to such events have very small cross-sections. Therefore, this analysis benefits from a small SM background in the signal regions leading to a good sensitivity especially in SUSY scenarios with compressed mass spectra or in which the R-parity is not conserved. Except from the prompt production of same-sign lepton pairs or three leptons, the main source...

  2. Dynamics of gut microbiota in autoimmune lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Husen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Sparks, Joshua B; Luo, Xin M

    2014-12-01

    Gut microbiota has been recognized as an important environmental factor in health, as well as in metabolic and immunological diseases, in which perturbation of the host gut microbiota is often observed in the diseased state. However, little is known on the role of gut microbiota in systemic lupus erythematosus. We investigated the effects of host genetics, sex, age, and dietary intervention on the gut microbiome in a murine lupus model. In young, female lupus-prone mice resembling women at childbearing age, a population with the highest risk for lupus, we found marked depletion of lactobacilli, and increases in Lachnospiraceae and overall diversity compared to age-matched healthy controls. The predicted metagenomic profile in lupus-prone mice showed a significant enrichment of bacterial motility- and sporulation-related pathways. Retinoic acid as a dietary intervention restored lactobacilli that were downregulated in lupus-prone mice, and this correlated with improved symptoms. The predicted metagenomes also showed that retinoic acid reversed many lupus-associated changes in microbial functions that deviated from the control. In addition, gut microbiota of lupus-prone mice were different between sexes, and an overrepresentation of Lachnospiraceae in females was associated with an earlier onset of and/or more severe lupus symptoms. Clostridiaceae and Lachnospiraceae, both harboring butyrate-producing genera, were more abundant in the gut of lupus-prone mice at specific time points during lupus progression. Together, our results demonstrate the dynamics of gut microbiota in murine lupus and provide evidence to suggest the use of probiotic lactobacilli and retinoic acid as dietary supplements to relieve inflammatory flares in lupus patients. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Gut Microbiota in Cardiovascular Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W H Wilson; Kitai, Takeshi; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-03-31

    Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases. Recent studies revealed that gut microbiota can elicit a variety of effects on the host. Indeed, the gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating bioactive metabolites, that can impact host physiology. Microbiota interact with the host through many pathways, including the trimethylamine/trimethylamine N -oxide pathway, short-chain fatty acids pathway, and primary and secondary bile acids pathways. In addition to these metabolism-dependent pathways, metabolism-independent processes are suggested to also potentially contribute to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. For example, heart failure-associated splanchnic circulation congestion, bowel wall edema, and impaired intestinal barrier function are thought to result in bacterial translocation, the presence of bacterial products in the systemic circulation and heightened inflammatory state. These are thought to also contribute to further progression of heart failure and atherosclerosis. The purpose of the current review is to highlight the complex interplay between microbiota, their metabolites, and the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We will also discuss the roles of gut microbiota in normal physiology and the potential of modulating intestinal microbial inhabitants as novel therapeutic targets. © 2017 American Heart

  4. Gut microbiota and the development of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroni Moreira, A P; Fiche Salles Teixeira, T; do C Gouveia Peluzio, M; de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, R

    2012-01-01

    Advances in tools for molecular investigations have allowed deeper understanding of how microbes can influence host physiology. A very interesting field of research that has gained attention recently is the possible role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms that explain the influence of gut microbiota on host metabolism. The gut microbiota is important for normal physiology of the host. However, differences in their composition may have different impacts on host metabolism. It has been shown that obese and lean subjects present different microbiota composition profile. These differences in microbiota composition may contribute to weight imbalance and impaired metabolism. The evidences from animal models suggest that it is possible that the microbiota of obese subjects has higher capacity to harvest energy from the diet providing substrates that can activate lipogenic pathways. In addition, microorganisms can also influence the activity of lipoprotein lipase interfering in the accumulation of triglycerides in the adipose tissue. The interaction of gut microbiota with the endocannabinoid system provides a route through which intestinal permeability can be altered. Increased intestinal permeability allows the entrance of endotoxins to the circulation, which are related to the induction of inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. The impact of the proposed mechanisms for humans still needs further investigations. However, the fact that gut microbiota can be modulated through dietary components highlights the importance to study how fatty acids, carbohydrates, micronutrients, prebiotics, and probiotics can influence gut microbiota composition and the management of obesity. Gut microbiota seems to be an important and promising target in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related metabolic disturbances in future studies and in clinical practice.

  5. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Pathological States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiota is an aggregate of microorganisms residing in the human body, mostly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Our gut microbiota evolves with us and plays a pivotal role in human health and disease. In recent years, the microbiota has gained increasing attention due to its impact on host metabolism, physiology, and immune system development, but also because the perturbation of the microbiota may result in a number of diseases. The gut microbiota may be linked to malignancies such as gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. It may also be linked to disorders such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; obesity and diabetes, which are characterized as “lifestyle diseases” of the industrialized world; coronary heart disease; and neurological disorders. Although the revolution in molecular technologies has provided us with the necessary tools to study the gut microbiota more accurately, we need to elucidate the relationships between the gut microbiota and several human pathologies more precisely, as understanding the impact that the microbiota plays in various diseases is fundamental for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide the reader with an updated overview of the importance of the gut microbiota for human health and the potential to manipulate gut microbial composition for purposes such as the treatment of antibiotic-resistant Clostridium difficile (C. difficile infections. The concept of altering the gut community by microbial intervention in an effort to improve health is currently in its infancy. However, the therapeutic implications appear to be very great. Thus, the removal of harmful organisms and the enrichment of beneficial microbes may protect our health, and such efforts will pave the way for the development of more rational treatment options in the future.

  6. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Obin, Martin S; Zhao, Liping

    2013-02-01

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. In this review we discuss molecular and cell biological mechanisms by which the microbiota participate in host functions that impact the development and maintenance of the obese state, including host ingestive behavior, energy harvest, energy expenditure and fat storage. We additionally explore the diverse signaling pathways that regulate gut permeability and bacterial translocation to the host and how these are altered in the obese state to promote the systemic inflammation ("metabolic endotoxemia") that is a hallmark of obesity and its complications. Fundamental to our discussions is the concept of "crosstalk", i.e., the biochemical exchange between host and microbiota that maintains the metabolic health of the superorganism and whose dysregulation is a hallmark of the obese state. Differences in community composition, functional genes and metabolic activities of the gut microbiota appear to distinguish lean vs obese individuals, suggesting that gut 'dysbiosis' contributes to the development of obesity and/or its complications. The current challenge is to determine the relative importance of obesity-associated compositional and functional changes in the microbiota and to identify the relevant taxa and functional gene modules that promote leanness and metabolic health. As diet appears to play a predominant role in shaping the microbiota and promoting obesity-associated dysbiosis, parallel initiatives are required to elucidate dietary patterns and diet components (e.g., prebiotics, probiotics) that promote healthy gut microbiota. How the microbiota promotes human health and disease is a rich area of investigation that is likely to generate

  7. SO(10) models for flavor with vector-like fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Shaikh

    2017-11-01

    In this work, unified models based on S O(10) symmetry is presented which provides insights into the flavor observables of charged fermions and the neutrinos. Unlike the conventional S O(10) models, the Higgs boson 10H belonging to the fundamental representation is not present in this new class of models. Instead vector-like fermions in the 16 + 16 ¯ representation is introduced to induce the flavor mixing. A variety of scenarios, both non-supersymmetric and supersymmetric, are studied involving a 126 ¯H Higgs boson. For symmetry breaking purpose, 126 ¯H Higgs is accompanied by either a 45H or a 210H of Higgs boson. Our analysis shows that this framework, by utilizing either type-I or type-II seesaw mechanism, an excellent fit to the fermion masses and mixings can be obtained with a limited number of parameters. To test and distinguish these flavor models, proton decay branching ratios are also computed.

  8. The Gut Microbiota, Tumorigenesis, and Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guishuai Lv

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, diseases concerning the gut microbiota have presented some of the most serious public health problems worldwide. The human host’s physiological status is influenced by the intestinal microbiome, thus integrating external factors, such as diet, with genetic and immune signals. The notion that chronic inflammation drives carcinogenesis has been widely established for various tissues. It is surprising that the role of the microbiota in tumorigenesis has only recently been recognized, given that the presence of bacteria at tumor sites was first described more than a century ago. Extensive epidemiological studies have revealed that there is a strong link between the gut microbiota and some common cancers. However, the exact molecular mechanisms linking the gut microbiota and cancer are not yet fully understood. Changes to the gut microbiota are instrumental in determining the occurrence and progression of hepatocarcinoma, chronic liver diseases related to alcohol, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and cirrhosis. To be specific, the gut milieu may play an important role in systemic inflammation, endotoxemia, and vasodilation, which leads to complications such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatic encephalopathy. Relevant animal studies involving gut microbiota manipulations, combined with observational studies on patients with NAFLD, have provided ample evidence pointing to the contribution of dysbiosis to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Given the poor prognosis of these clinical events, their prevention and early management are essential. Studies of the composition and function of the gut microbiota could shed some light on understanding the prognosis because the microbiota serves as an essential component of the gut milieu that can impact the aforementioned clinical events. As far as disease management is concerned, probiotics may provide a novel direction for therapeutics for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and NAFLD

  9. Introduction to the human gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursby, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbours a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which exert a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Multiple factors contribute to the establishment of the human gut microbiota during infancy. Diet is considered as one of the main drivers in shaping the gut microbiota across the life time. Intestinal bacteria play a crucial role in maintaining immune and metabolic homeostasis and protecting against pathogens. Altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis) has been associated with the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases and infections. The interpretation of these studies relies on a better understanding of inter-individual variations, heterogeneity of bacterial communities along and across the GI tract, functional redundancy and the need to distinguish cause from effect in states of dysbiosis. This review summarises our current understanding of the development and composition of the human GI microbiota, and its impact on gut integrity and host health, underlying the need for mechanistic studies focusing on host–microbe interactions. PMID:28512250

  10. Host adaptive immunity alters gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Husen; Sparks, Joshua B; Karyala, Saikumar V; Settlage, Robert; Luo, Xin M

    2015-03-01

    It has long been recognized that the mammalian gut microbiota has a role in the development and activation of the host immune system. Much less is known on how host immunity regulates the gut microbiota. Here we investigated the role of adaptive immunity on the mouse distal gut microbial composition by sequencing 16 S rRNA genes from microbiota of immunodeficient Rag1(-/-) mice, versus wild-type mice, under the same housing environment. To detect possible interactions among immunological status, age and variability from anatomical sites, we analyzed samples from the cecum, colon, colonic mucus and feces before and after weaning. High-throughput sequencing showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia dominated mouse gut bacterial communities. Rag1(-) mice had a distinct microbiota that was phylogenetically different from wild-type mice. In particular, the bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila was highly enriched in Rag1(-/-) mice compared with the wild type. This enrichment was suppressed when Rag1(-/-) mice received bone marrows from wild-type mice. The microbial community diversity increased with age, albeit the magnitude depended on Rag1 status. In addition, Rag1(-/-) mice had a higher gain in microbiota richness and evenness with increase in age compared with wild-type mice, possibly due to the lack of pressure from the adaptive immune system. Our results suggest that adaptive immunity has a pervasive role in regulating gut microbiota's composition and diversity.

  11. Introduction to the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursby, Elizabeth; Juge, Nathalie

    2017-05-16

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbours a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which exert a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Multiple factors contribute to the establishment of the human gut microbiota during infancy. Diet is considered as one of the main drivers in shaping the gut microbiota across the life time. Intestinal bacteria play a crucial role in maintaining immune and metabolic homeostasis and protecting against pathogens. Altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis) has been associated with the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases and infections. The interpretation of these studies relies on a better understanding of inter-individual variations, heterogeneity of bacterial communities along and across the GI tract, functional redundancy and the need to distinguish cause from effect in states of dysbiosis. This review summarises our current understanding of the development and composition of the human GI microbiota, and its impact on gut integrity and host health, underlying the need for mechanistic studies focusing on host-microbe interactions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  13. Constrained Sypersymmetric Flipped SU (5) GUT Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John; /CERN /King' s Coll. London; Mustafayev, Azar; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst.; Olive, Keith A.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Minnesota U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, Min, above the GUT scale, M{sub GUT}. We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino {chi} and the lighter stau {tilde {tau}}{sub 1} is sensitive to M{sub in}, as is the relationship between m{sub {chi}} and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons A,H. For these reasons, prominent features in generic (m{sub 1/2}, m{sub 0}) planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to Min, as we illustrate for several cases with tan {beta} = 10 and 55. However, these features do not necessarily disappear at large Min, unlike the case in the minimal conventional SU(5) GUT. Our results are relatively insensitive to neutrino masses.

  14. A gut (microbiome) feeling about the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Eoin; Rea, Kieran; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing realization that the microorganisms which reside within our gut form part of a complex multidirectional communication network with the brain known as the microbiome-gut-brain axis. In this review, we focus on recent findings which support a role for this axis in modulating neurodevelopment and behavior. A growing body of research is uncovering that under homeostatic conditions and in response to internal and external stressors, the bacterial commensals of our gut can signal to the brain through a variety of mechanisms to influence processes such neurotransmission, neurogenesis, microglia activation, and modulate behavior. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying the ability of stress to modulate the microbiota and also for microbiota to change the set point for stress sensitivity are being unraveled. Dysregulation of the gut microbiota composition has been identified in a number of psychiatric disorders, including depression. This has led to the concept of bacteria that have a beneficial effect upon behavior and mood (psychobiotics) being proposed for potential therapeutic interventions. Understanding the mechanisms by which the bacterial commensals of our gut are involved in brain function may lead to the development of novel microbiome-based therapies for these mood and behavioral disorders.

  15. Vertebrate bacterial gut diversity: size also matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godon, Jean-Jacques; Arulazhagan, Pugazhendi; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Hamelin, Jérôme

    2016-03-23

    One of the central issues in microbial ecology is to understand the parameters that drive diversity. Among these parameters, size has often been considered to be the main driver in many different ecosystems. Surprisingly, the influence of size on gut microbial diversity has not yet been investigated, and so far in studies reported in the literature only the influences of age, diet, phylogeny and digestive tract structures have been considered. This study explicitly challenges the underexplored relationship connecting gut volume and bacterial diversity. The bacterial diversity of 189 faeces produced by 71 vertebrate species covering a body mass range of 5.6 log. The animals comprised mammals, birds and reptiles. The diversity was evaluated based on the Simpson Diversity Index extracted from 16S rDNA gene fingerprinting patterns. Diversity presented an increase along with animal body mass following a power law with a slope z of 0.338 ± 0.027, whatever the age, phylogeny, diet or digestive tract structure. The results presented here suggest that gut volume cannot be neglected as a major driver of gut microbial diversity. The characteristics of the gut microbiota follow general principles of biogeography that arise in many ecological systems.

  16. Engineering Diagnostic and Therapeutic Gut Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Brian P; Tabor, Jeffrey J

    2017-10-01

    Genetically engineered bacteria have the potential to diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases linked to the gastrointestinal tract, or gut. Such engineered microbes will be less expensive and invasive than current diagnostics and more effective and safe than current therapeutics. Recent advances in synthetic biology have dramatically improved the reliability with which bacteria can be engineered with the sensors, genetic circuits, and output (actuator) genes necessary for diagnostic and therapeutic functions. However, to deploy such bacteria in vivo, researchers must identify appropriate gut-adapted strains and consider performance metrics such as sensor detection thresholds, circuit computation speed, growth rate effects, and the evolutionary stability of engineered genetic systems. Other recent reviews have focused on engineering bacteria to target cancer or genetically modifying the endogenous gut microbiota in situ. Here, we develop a standard approach for engineering "smart probiotics," which both diagnose and treat disease, as well as "diagnostic gut bacteria" and "drug factory probiotics," which perform only the former and latter function, respectively. We focus on the use of cutting-edge synthetic biology tools, gut-specific design considerations, and current and future engineering challenges.

  17. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Saumen Kumar Maitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  18. Gut/brain axis and the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Emeran A; Tillisch, Kirsten; Gupta, Arpana

    2015-03-02

    Tremendous progress has been made in characterizing the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract. A series of provocative preclinical studies have suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in these gut-brain interactions. Based on studies using rodents raised in a germ-free environment, the gut microbiota appears to influence the development of emotional behavior, stress- and pain-modulation systems, and brain neurotransmitter systems. Additionally, microbiota perturbations by probiotics and antibiotics exert modulatory effects on some of these measures in adult animals. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms, including endocrine and neurocrine pathways, may be involved in gut microbiota-to-brain signaling and that the brain can in turn alter microbial composition and behavior via the autonomic nervous system. Limited information is available on how these findings may translate to healthy humans or to disease states involving the brain or the gut/brain axis. Future research needs to focus on confirming that the rodent findings are translatable to human physiology and to diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, autism, anxiety, depression, and Parkinson's disease.

  19. Childhood obesity: a role for gut microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-12-23

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  20. Engineering the gut microbiota to treat hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ting-Chin David; Albenberg, Lindsey; Bittinger, Kyle; Chehoud, Christel; Chen, Ying-Yu; Judge, Colleen A; Chau, Lillian; Ni, Josephine; Sheng, Michael; Lin, Andrew; Wilkins, Benjamin J; Buza, Elizabeth L; Lewis, James D; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Nissim, Ilana; Yudkoff, Marc; Bushman, Frederic D; Wu, Gary D

    2015-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota can be altered to ameliorate or prevent disease states, and engineering the gut microbiota to therapeutically modulate host metabolism is an emerging goal of microbiome research. In the intestine, bacterial urease converts host-derived urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, contributing to hyperammonemia-associated neurotoxicity and encephalopathy in patients with liver disease. Here, we engineered murine gut microbiota to reduce urease activity. Animals were depleted of their preexisting gut microbiota and then inoculated with altered Schaedler flora (ASF), a defined consortium of 8 bacteria with minimal urease gene content. This protocol resulted in establishment of a persistent new community that promoted a long-term reduction in fecal urease activity and ammonia production. Moreover, in a murine model of hepatic injury, ASF transplantation was associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. These results provide proof of concept that inoculation of a prepared host with a defined gut microbiota can lead to durable metabolic changes with therapeutic utility.

  1. The human gut microbiota and virome: Potential therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpellini, Emidio; Ianiro, Gianluca; Attili, Fabia; Bassanelli, Chiara; De Santis, Adriano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Human gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with several functions integrated in the host organism (metabolic, immune, nutrients absorption, etc.). Human microbiota is composed by bacteria, yeasts, fungi and, last but not least, viruses, whose composition has not been completely described. According to previous evidence on pathogenic viruses, the human gut harbours plant-derived viruses, giant viruses and, only recently, abundant bacteriophages. New metagenomic methods have allowed to reconstitute entire viral genomes from the genetic material spread in the human gut, opening new perspectives on the understanding of the gut virome composition, the importance of gut microbiome, and potential clinical applications. This review reports the latest evidence on human gut "virome" composition and its function, possible future therapeutic applications in human health in the context of the gut microbiota, and attempts to clarify the role of the gut "virome" in the larger microbial ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gut Bacteria Changes After Some Weight-Loss Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165987.html Gut Bacteria Changes After Some Weight-Loss Surgeries Better diversity ... Specifically, the procedure leads to increased diversity of bacteria in the gut, and a microbial population distinct ...

  3. Gut microbiomes of Indian children of varying nutritional status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Gupta, Sourav Sen; Bhattacharya, Tanudeep; Yadav, Deepak; Barik, Anamitra; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Das, Bhabatosh; Mande, Sharmila S; Nair, G Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    .... Consequently, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in malnutrition. Metagenomics approach was adopted to investigate the gut microbiome sampled from 20 rural Indian children with varying nutritional status...

  4. Linking the Gut Microbial Ecosystem with the Environment: Does Gut Health Depend on Where We Live?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Tasnim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Global comparisons reveal a decrease in gut microbiota diversity attributed to Western diets, lifestyle practices such as caesarian section, antibiotic use and formula-feeding of infants, and sanitation of the living environment. While gut microbial diversity is decreasing, the prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, obesity, allergies and asthma is on the rise in Westernized societies. Since the immune system development is influenced by microbial components, early microbial colonization may be a key factor in determining disease susceptibility patterns later in life. Evidence indicates that the gut microbiota is vertically transmitted from the mother and this affects offspring immunity. However, the role of the external environment in gut microbiome and immune development is poorly understood. Studies show that growing up in microbe-rich environments, such as traditional farms, can have protective health effects on children. These health-effects may be ablated due to changes in the human lifestyle, diet, living environment and environmental biodiversity as a result of urbanization. Importantly, if early-life exposure to environmental microbes increases gut microbiota diversity by influencing patterns of gut microbial assembly, then soil biodiversity loss due to land-use changes such as urbanization could be a public health threat. Here, we summarize key questions in environmental health research and discuss some of the challenges that have hindered progress toward a better understanding of the role of the environment on gut microbiome development.

  5. Gut microbiota, the immune system, and diet influence the neonatal gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Michael P; Zaghouani, Habib; Niklas, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual framework for a gut-brain axis has existed for decades. The Human Microbiome Project is responsible for establishing intestinal dysbiosis as a mediator of inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. Recent advances in metagenomics implicate gut microbiota and diet as key modulators of the bidirectional signaling pathways between the gut and brain that underlie neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in adults. Evidence linking intestinal dysbiosis to neurodevelopmental disease outcomes in preterm infants is emerging. Recent clinical studies show that intestinal dysbiosis precedes late-onset neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in intensive care nurseries. Moreover, strong epidemiologic evidence links late-onset neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in long-term psychomotor disabilities of very-low-birth-weight infants. The notion of the gut-brain axis thereby supports that intestinal microbiota can indirectly harm the brain of preterm infants. In this review, we highlight the anatomy and physiology of the gut-brain axis and describe transmission of stress signals caused by immune-microbial dysfunction in the gut. These messengers initiate neurologic disease in preterm infants. Understanding neural and humoral signaling through the gut-brain axis will offer insight into therapeutic and dietary approaches that may improve the outcomes of very-low-birth-weight infants.

  6. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian H Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans.Meal tests with measurements of postprandial glucose tolerance and postprandial release of insulin and gut hormones were performed before, immediately after and 6 weeks after a 4-day, broad-spectrum, per oral antibiotic cocktail (vancomycin 500 mg, gentamycin 40 mg and meropenem 500 mg once-daily in a group of 12 lean and glucose tolerant males. Faecal samples were collected for culture-based assessment of changes in gut microbiota composition.Acute and dramatic reductions in the abundance of a representative set of gut bacteria was seen immediately following the antibiotic course, but no changes in postprandial glucose tolerance, insulin secretion or plasma lipid concentrations were found. Apart from an acute and reversible increase in peptide YY secretion, no changes were observed in postprandial gut hormone release.As evaluated by selective cultivation of gut bacteria, a broad-spectrum 4-day antibiotics course with vancomycin, gentamycin and meropenem induced shifts in gut microbiota composition that had no clinically relevant short or long-term effects on metabolic variables in healthy glucose-tolerant males.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01633762.

  7. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin I; Licht, Tine R; Jensen, Ulrich S; Rosenberg, Jacob; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens J; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests with measurements of postprandial glucose tolerance and postprandial release of insulin and gut hormones were performed before, immediately after and 6 weeks after a 4-day, broad-spectrum, per oral antibiotic cocktail (vancomycin 500 mg, gentamycin 40 mg and meropenem 500 mg once-daily) in a group of 12 lean and glucose tolerant males. Faecal samples were collected for culture-based assessment of changes in gut microbiota composition. Acute and dramatic reductions in the abundance of a representative set of gut bacteria was seen immediately following the antibiotic course, but no changes in postprandial glucose tolerance, insulin secretion or plasma lipid concentrations were found. Apart from an acute and reversible increase in peptide YY secretion, no changes were observed in postprandial gut hormone release. As evaluated by selective cultivation of gut bacteria, a broad-spectrum 4-day antibiotics course with vancomycin, gentamycin and meropenem induced shifts in gut microbiota composition that had no clinically relevant short or long-term effects on metabolic variables in healthy glucose-tolerant males. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01633762.

  8. Gut microbiota - architects of small intestinal capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandagale, Avinash; Reinhardt, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    The commensal gut microbiota is an environmental factor that exerts manifold effects on host physiology. One obvious trait is the impact of this densely colonized ecosystem on small intestinal mucosal vascularization. At present, the microbiota-triggered signaling pathways influencing small intestinal renewal, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling are largely unexplored. While the interplay of gut microbial communities with pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, in intestinal homeostasis is increasingly understood, it is unresolved how commensal microbiota affect the signaling pathways responsible for the formation of capillary networks in the intestinal mucosa. It is evident that intestinal vascular remodeling and renewal is disturbed in case of dysbiosis of this densely colonized microbial ecosystem, in particular under conditions of intestinal inflammation, but the effects of individual components of the gut microbiota are elusive. This review article provides an overview on the revealed microbiota-host interactions, influencing angiogenesis and vascular remodeling processes in the small intestine.

  9. Nutrition, the Gut and the Microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbæk, Louise

    , but an optimal diet to improve the success of weight loss maintenance has not reached consensus among worldwide expects. During the last decade, it has been observed that the gut microbiota composition is associated with obesity and obesity-associated diseases. However, a deeper understanding of how the host...... (PUFA) intakes on the gut microbiota composition was investigated by a randomised cross-over study with two 4-week diets periods and a 4-week washout period. Faecal samples and metabolic markers were collected from 30 subjects before and after each diet period. Results showed that habitual dietary...... success of weight maintenance or metabolic markers, compared to carbohydrate in individuals with a normal protein intake, despite sustained effects of appetite sensation and energy expenditure (Paper II). AXOS intake had bifidogenic effects on the gut microbiota composition, and butyrate...

  10. The gut mycobiome of elderly danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin Ahmad, Hajar Fauzan; Castro Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Kot, Witold

    Aging is associated with changes of the prokaryotic component of the gut microbiota - becoming less diverse, and increasing proinflammatory profile compared to younger adults. These changes have been linked with frailty in several studies. However, our knowledge of the influence of the gut...... was determined using ITS2 amplicon sequencing. The obtained sequences were analysed non-parametrically using the QIIME pipeline to assess fungal taxa composition and diversity based on alpha and beta diversity, respectively. ANOSIM and adonis analyses were performed to assess the significance level between...... categories associated with the clinical features among individuals.The elderly gut is home to three main phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota, with genera Penicillium, Candida, and Aspergillus being particularly common. Based on HbA1c-levels, the individuals could be clustered into 3 groups, High...

  11. Bioinformatics Approaches for Human Gut Microbiome Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiome has received much attention because many studies have reported that the human gut microbiome is associated with several diseases. The very large datasets that are produced by these kinds of studies means that bioinformatics approaches are crucial for their analysis. Here, we systematically reviewed bioinformatics tools that are commonly used in microbiome research, including a typical pipeline and software for sequence alignment, abundance profiling, enterotype determination, taxonomic diversity, identifying differentially abundant species/genes, gene cataloging, and functional analyses. We also summarized the algorithms and methods used to define metagenomic species and co-abundance gene groups to expand our understanding of unclassified and poorly understood gut microbes that are undocumented in the current genome databases. Additionally, we examined the methods used to identify metagenomic biomarkers based on the gut microbiome, which might help to expand the knowledge and approaches for disease detection and monitoring.

  12. Advancing gut microbiome research using cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten OA

    2015-01-01

    Culture-independent approaches have driven the field of microbiome research and illuminated intricate relationships between the gut microbiota and human health. However, definitively associating phenotypes to specific strains or elucidating physiological interactions is challenging for metagenomic...... approaches. Recently a number of new approaches to gut microbiota cultivation have emerged through the integration of high-throughput phylogenetic mapping and new simplified cultivation methods. These methodologies are described along with their potential use within microbiome research. Deployment of novel...... cultivation approaches should enable improved studies of xenobiotic tolerance and modification phenotypes and allow a drastic expansion of the gut microbiota reference genome catalogues. Furthermore, the new cultivation methods should facilitate systematic studies of the causal relationship between...

  13. The gut microbiota and metabolic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, T; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiota has been studied for more than a century. However, of nonculture-based techniques exploiting next-generation sequencing for analysing the microbiota, development has renewed research within the field during the past decade. The observation that the gut microbiota......-producing bacteria might be causally linked to type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery, which promotes long-term weight loss and diabetes remission, alters the gut microbiota in both mice and humans. Furthermore, by transferring the microbiota from postbariatric surgery patients to mice, it has been demonstrated......, as an environmental factor, contributes to adiposity has further increased interest in the field. The human microbiota is affected by the diet, and macronutrients serve as substrates for many microbially produced metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, that may modulate host metabolism. Obesity...

  14. Emerging Technologies for Gut Microbiome Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jason W.; Roach, Jeffrey; Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the importance of the gut microbiome on modulation of host health has become a subject of great interest for researchers across disciplines. As an intrinsically multidisciplinary field, microbiome research has been able to reap the benefits of technological advancements in systems and synthetic biology, biomaterials engineering, and traditional microbiology. Gut microbiome research has been revolutionized by high-throughput sequencing technology, permitting compositional and functional analyses that were previously an unrealistic undertaking. Emerging technologies including engineered organoids derived from human stem cells, high-throughput culturing, and microfluidics assays allowing for the introduction of novel approaches will improve the efficiency and quality of microbiome research. Here, we will discuss emerging technologies and their potential impact on gut microbiome studies. PMID:27426971

  15. Diet effects in gut microbiome and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; He, Xianzhi; Huang, Jinhai

    2014-04-01

    The 100 trillion microbes in human gut coevolve with the host and exert significant influences on human health. The gut microbial composition presents dynamic changes correlated with various factors including host genotypes, age, and external environment. Effective manipulation of the gut microbiota through diets (both long-term and short-term diet patterns), probiotics and/or prebiotics, and antibiotics has been proved being potential to prevent from metabolic disorders such as obesity in many studies. The dietary regulation exerts influences on microbial metabolism and host immune functions through several pathways, of which may include selectively bacterial fermentation of nutrients, lower intestinal barrier function, overexpression of genes associated with disorders, and disruptions to both innate and adaptive immunity. Discoveries in the interrelationship between diet, intestinal microbiome, and body immune system provide us novel perceptions to the specific action mechanisms and will promote the development of therapeutic approaches for obesity. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Gut microbiota and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Diaz-Perdigones, Cristina; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, many studies have related gut microbiome to development of highly prevalent diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Obesity itself is associated to changes in the composition of gut microbiome, with a trend to an overgrowth of microorganisms more efficiently obtaining energy from diet. There are several mechanisms that relate microbiota to the onset of insulin resistance and diabetes, including changes in bowel permeability, endotoxemia, interaction with bile acids, changes in the proportion of brown adipose tissue, and effects associated to use of drugs like metformin. Currently, use of pro and prebiotics and other new techniques such as gut microbiota transplant, or even antibiotic therapy, has been postulated to be useful tools to modulate the development of obesity and insulin resistance through the diet. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. Neural Mechanisms of Exercise: Effects on Gut Miccrobiota and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Paes,Flávia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Machado, Sergio; Sá Filho, Alberto Souza de

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota is a set of microorganisms resident in gut ecosystem that reacts to psychological stressful stimuli, and is involved in depressed or anxious status in both animals and human being. Interestingly, a series of studies have shown the effects of physical exercise on gut microbiota dynamics, suggesting that gut microbiota regulation might act as one mediator for the effects of exercise on the brain. Recent studies found that gut microbiota dynamics are also regulated by metabolism chang...

  18. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jie Zhang; Sha Li; Ren-You Gan; Tong Zhou; Dong-Ping Xu; Hua-Bin Li

    2015-01-01

    Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 microbes, ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, such as supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vitamin K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal c...

  19. Gut inflammation in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchgessner Annette

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue and a combination of accompanying symptoms the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Many CFS patients complain of gut dysfunction. In fact, patients with CFS are more likely to report a previous diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a common functional disorder of the gut, and experience IBS-related symptoms. Recently, evidence for interactions between the intestinal microbiota, mucosal barrier function, and the immune system have been shown to play a role in the disorder's pathogenesis. Studies examining the microecology of the gastrointestinal (GI tract have identified specific microorganisms whose presence appears related to disease; in CFS, a role for altered intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of the disease has recently been suggested. Mucosal barrier dysfunction promoting bacterial translocation has also been observed. Finally, an altered mucosal immune system has been associated with the disease. In this article, we discuss the interplay between these factors in CFS and how they could play a significant role in GI dysfunction by modulating the activity of the enteric nervous system, the intrinsic innervation of the gut. If an altered intestinal microbiota, mucosal barrier dysfunction, and aberrant intestinal immunity contribute to the pathogenesis of CFS, therapeutic efforts to modify gut microbiota could be a means to modulate the development and/or progression of this disorder. For example, the administration of probiotics could alter the gut microbiota, improve mucosal barrier function, decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines, and have the potential to positively influence mood in patients where both emotional symptoms and inflammatory immune signals are elevated. Probiotics also have the potential to improve gut motility, which is dysfunctional in many CFS patients.

  20. Altered gut microbiota in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Francesco; Cavalieri, Duccio; Albanese, Davide; De Felice, Claudio; Donati, Claudio; Hayek, Joussef; Jousson, Olivier; Leoncini, Silvia; Pindo, Massimo; Renzi, Daniela; Rizzetto, Lisa; Stefanini, Irene; Calabrò, Antonio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-07-30

    The human gut microbiota directly affects human health, and its alteration can lead to gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammation. Rett syndrome (RTT), a progressive neurological disorder mainly caused by mutations in MeCP2 gene, is commonly associated with gastrointestinal dysfunctions and constipation, suggesting a link between RTT's gastrointestinal abnormalities and the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of RTT subjects integrating clinical, metabolomics and metagenomics data to understand if changes in the gut microbiota of RTT subjects could be associated with gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammatory status. Our findings revealed the occurrence of an intestinal sub-inflammatory status in RTT subjects as measured by the elevated values of faecal calprotectin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. We showed that, overall, RTT subjects harbour bacterial and fungal microbiota altered in terms of relative abundances from those of healthy controls, with a reduced microbial richness and dominated by microbial taxa belonging to Bifidobacterium, several Clostridia (among which Anaerostipes, Clostridium XIVa, Clostridium XIVb) as well as Erysipelotrichaceae, Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Eggerthella, Escherichia/Shigella and the fungal genus Candida. We further observed that alterations of the gut microbiota do not depend on the constipation status of RTT subjects and that this dysbiotic microbiota produced altered short chain fatty acids profiles. We demonstrated for the first time that RTT is associated with a dysbiosis of both the bacterial and fungal component of the gut microbiota, suggesting that impairments of MeCP2 functioning favour the establishment of a microbial community adapted to the costive gastrointestinal niche of RTT subjects. The altered production of short chain fatty acids associated with this microbiota might reinforce the constipation status of RTT

  1. Lactobacillus casei Shirota Supplementation Does Not Restore Gut Microbiota Composition and Gut Barrier in Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Pilot Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Leber, Bettina; Lemesch, Sandra; Trajanoski, Slave; Bashir, Mina; Horvath, Angela; Tawdrous, Monika; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Fauler, Günter; Fickert, Peter; Högenauer, Christoph; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Stiegler, Philipp; Lamprecht, Manfred; Pieber, Thomas R; Tripolt, Norbert J; Sourij, Harald

    2015-01-01

    .... We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on gut microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, intestinal inflammation and serum bile acid profile in metabolic syndrome...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4830 - Absorbable surgical gut suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absorbable surgical gut suture. 878.4830 Section... surgical gut suture. (a) Identification. An absorbable surgical gut suture, both plain and chromic, is an... “Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Surgical Sutures; Guidance for Industry and FDA.” See § 878...

  3. Nutritional strategy affects gut wall integrity in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, J.M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Weaning is a stressful event for pigs and induces changes in the gut integrity of pigs. Feed intake is a very important determinant for gut integrity. In this thesis the effect of nutritional strategies (with regard to feed intake level and physical structure of the feed) on changes in gut

  4. Regulation of body fat mass by the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schéle, Erik; Grahnemo, Louise; Anesten, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    New insight suggests gut microbiota as a component in energy balance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota can impact metabolic regulation is unclear. A recent study from our lab shows, for the first time, a link between gut microbiota and energy balance circuitries...

  5. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  6. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clercq, Nicolien C; Groen, Albert K; Romijn, Johannes A; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-11-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been recognized as an important pathophysiologic factor in the development and sustainment of malnutrition. However, to our knowledge, the extent to which the microbiota influences malnutrition has yet to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms via which the gut microbiota may influence energy homeostasis in relation to malnutrition. In addition, we discuss potential therapeutic modalities to ameliorate obesity or undernutrition. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Albert K; Romijn, Johannes A; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been recognized as an important pathophysiologic factor in the development and sustainment of malnutrition. However, to our knowledge, the extent to which the microbiota influences malnutrition has yet to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms via which the gut microbiota may influence energy homeostasis in relation to malnutrition. In addition, we discuss potential therapeutic modalities to ameliorate obesity or undernutrition. PMID:28140325

  8. SUSY bei den Benediktinern

    CERN Multimedia

    Röthlein, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    Ratinality and Spirituality, two poles of the Thought that don't exclude each other. That's why since three years now, the "Autumn school for high energy physics" is held in the Benedictine cloister Maria Laach (3 pages)

  9. Theoretical Developments in SUSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifman, M.

    2009-01-01

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I will review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry.

  10. Theoretical developments in SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shifman, M. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2009-01-15

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry. (orig.)

  11. Where is SUSY?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitava Datta

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... First, the upper bound on an sparti- cle mass obtained from the naturalness arguments is basically an order of magnitude estimate. For exam- ple, if an sparticle has a mass ≈3 TeV, say, it is likely to be beyond the kinematic reach of the LHC but it hardly makes the above cancellations seriously unnatural.

  12. Where is SUSY?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Keywords. Supersymmetry; Large Hadron Collider; naturalness; dark matter. Abstract. The searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have so far yielded only null results and have considerably tightened the bounds on the sparticle masses. This has generated some skepticism in the ...

  13. Identification of hadronic {tau} decays and observation potentional of CP-violating effects in SUSY at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosdzik, Bjoern

    2011-03-15

    In November 2009 the ATLAS experiment started operation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector is optimized to search for the Higgs Boson and new physics at the TeV scale. Until the end of the data-taking period with proton-proton collisions on November 3rd, 2010, the ATLAS detector recorded an integrated luminosity of 45.0 pb{sup -1} at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s) = 7 TeV. In many signals of the Standard Model and new physics (e.g. SUSY and Higgs) {tau}-leptons play an important role. A cut-based approach for the identification of hadronically decaying {tau}-leptons is being used, particularly for the first data-taking period. Using Monte Carlo Data, the development of a cut-based identification method for hadronically decaying {tau}-lepton with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s) = 14 TeV is presented. The separation of signal and the large QCD jet background is a challenge to the identification of hadronically decaying {tau}-lepton. The identification is separated into two methods: the calorimeter-based method uses exclusive calorimeter information, while the calorimeter+track-based method combines calorimeter and tracking information. The cut optimization is separately accomplished for {tau} candidates with one charged decay product (1-prong) and {tau} candidates with three charged decay products (3-prong). Additionally the optimisation is split into bins of the visible transverse energy of the {tau} candidate (E{sub T}{sup vis}). First of all the optimization is presented and afterwards the performance of the cut-based identification method is discussed. The reconstruction efficiency for {tau}-leptons is determined by comparing first data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 244 nb{sup -1} and Monte Carlo simulation. The effect of systematic uncertainties is investigated. The CP violation predicted by the Standard Model is not sufficient to explain the matter

  14. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    and glucose tolerant males. Faecal samples were collected for culture-based assessment of changes in gut microbiota composition. Acute and dramatic reductions in the abundance of a representative set of gut bacteria was seen immediately following the antibiotic course, but no changes in postprandial glucose...... with vancomycin, gentamycin and meropenem induced shifts in gut microbiota composition that had no clinically relevant short or long-term effects on metabolic variables in healthy glucose-tolerant males. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01633762.......The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests...

  15. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests...... with measurements of postprandial glucose tolerance and postprandial release of insulin and gut hormones were performed before, immediately after and 6 weeks after a 4-day, broad-spectrum, per oral antibiotic cocktail (vancomycin 500 mg, gentamycin 40 mg and meropenem 500 mg once-daily) in a group of 12 lean...... and glucose tolerant males. Faecal samples were collected for culture-based assessment of changes in gut microbiota composition. Acute and dramatic reductions in the abundance of a representative set of gut bacteria was seen immediately following the antibiotic course, but no changes in postprandial glucose...

  16. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin I; Licht, Tine R; Jensen, Ulrich S; Rosenberg, Jacob; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens J; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2015-01-01

    .... Meal tests with measurements of postprandial glucose tolerance and postprandial release of insulin and gut hormones were performed before, immediately after and 6 weeks after a 4-day, broad-spectrum...

  17. The guts of obesity: progress and challenges in linking gut microbes to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A; Vangay, Pajau; Knights, Dan

    2015-02-01

    The sharp rise in prevalence of obesity in recent decades has been suggestively labeled as an "epidemic," and the lack of fully explanatory causal factors has challenged existing understandings of obesity's etiology from a purely energetic standpoint. Much recent attention has been focused on the microbial members of the human gut for insights into their role in potentially causing or promoting obesity. The human gut is home to trillions of microbes, among which hundreds of distinct species of bacteria interact to form the human gut microbiome, and numerous studies in humans and animal models have linked shifts in the gut microbiome to obesity. In this review we explore contemporary understandings of the relationship between obesity and the microbiome from a high-level ecological and functional perspective, along with a survey of recently proposed interventions. We highlight areas of consensus and areas for further study in the field.

  18. The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-03-01

    Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. Evidence is accumulating to support the view that gut microbes influence central neurochemistry and behavior. Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis that can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may have an impact on stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics, or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders, such as depression and autism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb...

  20. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  1. Interplay between gut microbiota and antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesus Bello Gonzalez, de Teresita

    2016-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively defined as the microbiota. In the gut, the microbiota has important roles in health and disease, and can serve as a host of antibiotic resistance genes. Disturbances in the ecological balance, e.g. by antibiotics, can affect

  2. Proton pump inhibitors affect the gut microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhann, Floris; Bonder, Marc Jan; Vich Vila, Arnau; Fu, Jingyuan; Mujagic, Zlatan; Vork, Lisa; Feenstra, Ettje T.; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Cenit, Maria Carmen; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Dijkstra, Gerard; Franke, Lude; Xavier, Ramnik J; Jonkers, Daisy; Wijmenga, Cisca; Weersma, Rinse K; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the top 10 most widely used drugs in the world. PPI use has been associated with an increased risk of enteric infections, most notably Clostridium difficile. The gut microbiome plays an important role in enteric infections, by resisting or

  3. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael

    2016-03-25

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed "dysbiosis", has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host-microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis.

  4. Integrative medicine and leaky gut syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-25

    Nov 25, 2009 ... as insulin resistance, bacterial flora disturbances, especially in someone who has been prescribed antibiotics repeatedly, stomach acid hyposecretion, nutritional deficiencies and metal and other toxicities that are commonly present today. Management of leaky gut. One of the classical approaches used by ...

  5. Gut satiety hormones and hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köşüş, Aydin; Köşüş, Nermin; Usluoğullari, Betül; Hizli, Deniz; Namuslu, Mehmet; Ayyildiz, Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is described as unexplained excessive nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Some gut hormones that regulate appetite may have important role in etiopathogenesis of HG and weight changes during pregnancy. In this study, levels of gut satiety hormones were evaluated in pregnant women with HG. This prospective case-control study was conducted in 30 women with HG and 30 healthy pregnant women without symptoms of HG. Fasting venous blood samples were taken from all subjects for measurement of plasma gut hormone levels; obestatin (pg/mL), peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Plasma PYY and PP levels were significantly higher in HG group. The most important parameter in diagnosis of HG was plasma PP level. Simple use of PP level led to the diagnosis 91.1 % of HG cases correctly. The single most important parameter in the prediction of HG was also PP level. Anorexigenic gut hormones might have important role in etiopathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum and weight changes during pregnancy.

  6. The super-GUT CMSSM revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Evans, Jason L. [KIAS, School of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Mustafayev, Azar; Nagata, Natsumi; Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We revisit minimal supersymmetric SU(5) grand unification (GUT) models in which the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) are universal at some input scale, M{sub in}, above the supersymmetric gauge-coupling unification scale, M{sub GUT}. As in the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), we assume that the scalar masses and gaugino masses have common values, m{sub 0} and m{sub 1/2}, respectively, at M{sub in}, as do the trilinear soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters A{sub 0}. Going beyond previous studies of such a super-GUT CMSSM scenario, we explore the constraints imposed by the lower limit on the proton lifetime and the LHC measurement of the Higgs mass, m{sub h}. We find regions of m{sub 0}, m{sub 1/2}, A{sub 0} and the parameters of the SU(5) superpotential that are compatible with these and other phenomenological constraints such as the density of cold dark matter, which we assume to be provided by the lightest neutralino. Typically, these allowed regions appear for m{sub 0} and m{sub 1/2} in the multi-TeV region, for suitable values of the unknown SU(5) GUT-scale phases and superpotential couplings, and with the ratio of supersymmetric Higgs vacuum expectation values tanβ

  7. The human gut virome: a multifaceted majority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Ann Ogilvie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we outline our current understanding of the human gut virome, in particular the phage component of this ecosystem, highlighting progress and challenges in viral discovery in this arena. We reveal how developments in high-throughput sequencing technologies and associated data analysis methodologies are helping to illuminate this abundant ‘biological dark matter’. Current evidence suggests that the human gut virome is a highly individual but temporally stable collective, dominated by phage exhibiting a temperate lifestyle. This viral community also appears to encode a surprisingly rich functional repertoire that confers a range of attributes to their bacterial hosts, ranging from bacterial virulence and pathogenesis to maintaining host-microbiome stability and community resilience. Despite the significant advances in our understanding of the gut virome in recent years, it is clear that we remain in a period of discovery and revelation, as new methods and technologies begin to provide deeper understanding of the inherent ecological characteristics of this viral ecosystem. As our understanding increases, the nature of the multi-partite interactions occurring between host and microbiome will become clearer, helping us to more rationally define the concepts and principles that will underpin approaches to using human gut virome components for medical or biotechnological applications.

  8. Effects of Dietary Mycotoxins on Gut Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kexin; Wang, Congmin; Liu, Ping; Li, Yuan; Ma, Xi

    2017-05-10

    The harmful effects of mycotoxins on intestinal health have received worldwide attention. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, and include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids. Insuring the absence or low levels of mycotoxins is critical for food and feed safety. Currently, the studies in this field have illuminated the adverse effects of mycotoxins on gut health including intestinal integrity and the gut-associated immune system. By affecting the proteins and peptides that serve vital functions in the immune system and host metabolism, mycotoxins are able to attack intestinal epithelium, which leads to poor intestinal health and integrity. This review focuses on the effects of exposure to mycotoxins on the intestinal barrier, especially the gut microbiome, intestinal local immune system, and tight junction proteins, which in return influence digestion, absorption, metabolism and transport of the nutrients in intestinal lumen. The crucial role of mycotoxins on microbial metabolism and antimicrobial properties is also assessed, which elucidates the relationship between exposure to mycotoxins and the intestinal microbiome. We hypothesize that the key small peptides and proteins regulate the causal relationship between mycotoxins and gut microbiome. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. The gut microbiota and host health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesi, Julian R.; Adams, David H.; Fava, Francesca; Hermes, Gerben D.A.; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Hold, Georgina; Quraishi, Mohammed N.; Kinross, James; Smidt, Hauke; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Thomas, Linda V.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Hart, Ailsa

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, our understanding of the composition and functions of the human gut microbiota has increased exponentially. To a large extent, this has been due to new 'omic' technologies that have facilitated large-scale analysis of the genetic and metabolic profile of this microbial

  10. The importance of intake : a gut feeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Karin G; Boer, Walther H; Joles, JA

    2015-01-01

    Limiting enteric sodium absorption is an attractive option when renal sodium excretion is disturbed. An effective approach in the gut appears to be inhibition of the electroneutral Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHE), in particular NHE3. Recently, fluid retention, blood pressure and target organ injury were

  11. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species.

  12. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Clercq, Nicolien C.; Groen, Albert K.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been

  13. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carding, Simon; Verbeke, Kristin; Vipond, Daniel T; Corfe, Bernard M; Owen, Lauren J

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with the pathogenesis of both intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders. Intestinal disorders include inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and coeliac disease, while extra-intestinal disorders include allergy, asthma, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and obesity.

  14. Gut microbiota-related complications in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hurtado, Isabel; Such, José; Sanz, Yolanda; Francés, Rubén

    2014-11-14

    Gut microbiota plays an important role in cirrhosis. The liver is constantly challenged with commensal bacteria and their products arriving through the portal vein in the so-called gut-liver axis. Bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen through the intestinal wall and to mesenteric lymph nodes is facilitated by intestinal bacterial overgrowth, impairment in the permeability of the intestinal mucosal barrier, and deficiencies in local host immune defences. Deranged clearance of endogenous bacteria from portal and systemic circulation turns the gut into the major source of bacterial-related complications. Liver function may therefore be affected by alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and a role for commensal flora has been evidenced in the pathogenesis of several complications arising in end-stage liver disease such as hepatic encephalopathy, splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The use of antibiotics is the main therapeutic pipeline in the management of these bacteria-related complications. However, other strategies aimed at preserving intestinal homeostasis through the use of pre-, pro- or symbiotic formulations are being studied in the last years. In this review, the role of intestinal microbiota in the development of the most frequent complications arising in cirrhosis and the different clinical and experimental studies conducted to prevent or improve these complications by modifying the gut microbiota composition are summarized.

  15. Gut Microbiota: A Potential Regulator of Neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognini, Paola

    2017-01-01

    During childhood, our brain is exposed to a variety of environmental inputs that can sculpt synaptic connections and neuronal circuits, with subsequent influence on behavior and learning processes. Critical periods of neurodevelopment are windows of opportunity in which the neuronal circuits are extremely plastic and can be easily subjected to remodeling in response to experience. However, the brain is also more susceptible to aberrant stimuli that might lead to altered developmental trajectories. Intriguingly, postnatal brain development is paralleled by the maturation of the gut microbiota: the ecosystem of symbionts populating our gastro-intestinal tract. Recent discoveries have started to unveil an unexpected link between the gut microbiome and neurophysiological processes. Indeed, the commensal bacteria seem to be able to influence host behavioral outcome and neurochemistry through mechanisms which remain poorly understood. Remarkably, the efficacy of the gut flora action appears to be dependent on the timing during postnatal life at which the host gut microbes' signals reaches the brain, suggesting the fascinating possibility of critical periods for this microbiota-driven shaping of host neuronal functions and behavior. Therefore, to understand the importance of the intestinal ecosystem's impact on neuronal circuits functions and plasticity during development and the discovery of the involved molecular mechanisms, will pave the way to identify new and, hopefully, powerful microbiota-based therapeutic interventions for the treatment of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases.

  16. The Gut Bacteria-Driven Obesity Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare, Debora; Rocco, Alba; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for the overall health of the host, while a perturbation in gut microbial communities can contribute to disease susceptibility. Obesity is a complex process involving genetic and environmental factors with an epidemiological burden that makes it a major public health issue. Studies of germ-free or gnotobiotic mice provided evidence that the diversity, as well as the presence and relative proportion of different microbes in the gut play active roles in energy homeostasis. Similarly, human studies showed that both the diversity of the microbiota and the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio are decreased in obese individuals. The 'obese microbiota' seems to be able to increase dietary energy harvest and favor weight gain and fat deposition. Although research in this field has just started and many of the available data are still conflicting, the results are providing exciting perspectives, and gut microbiota manipulation has already become a new target for both prevention and treatment of obesity. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Impact of human milk bacteria and oligosaccharides on neonatal gut microbiota establishment and gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Ted; Lacroix, Christophe; Braegger, Christian; Chassard, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal gut microbiota establishment represents a crucial stage for gut maturation, metabolic and immunologic programming, and consequently short- and long-term health status. Human milk beneficially influences this process due to its dynamic profile of age-adapted nutrients and bioactive components and by providing commensal maternal bacteria to the neonatal gut. These include Lactobacillus spp., as well as obligate anaerobes such as Bifidobacterium spp., which may originate from the maternal gut via an enteromammary pathway as a novel form of mother-neonate communication. Additionally, human milk harbors a broad range of oligosaccharides that promote the growth and activity of specific bacterial populations, in particular, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides spp. This review focuses on the diversity and origin of human milk bacteria, as well as on milk oligosaccharides that influence neonatal gut microbiota establishment. This knowledge can be used to develop infant formulae that more closely mimic nature's model and sustain a healthy gut microbiota. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Regulation of energy balance by a gut-brain axis and involvement of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Paige V; Hamr, Sophie C; Duca, Frank A

    2016-02-01

    Despite significant progress in understanding the homeostatic regulation of energy balance, successful therapeutic options for curbing obesity remain elusive. One potential target for the treatment of obesity is via manipulation of the gut-brain axis, a complex bidirectional communication system that is crucial in maintaining energy homeostasis. Indeed, ingested nutrients induce secretion of gut peptides that act either via paracrine signaling through vagal and non-vagal neuronal relays, or in an endocrine fashion via entry into circulation, to ultimately signal to the central nervous system where appropriate responses are generated. We review here the current hypotheses of nutrient sensing mechanisms of enteroendocrine cells, including the release of gut peptides, mainly cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY, and subsequent gut-to-brain signaling pathways promoting a reduction of food intake and an increase in energy expenditure. Furthermore, this review highlights recent research suggesting this energy regulating gut-brain axis can be influenced by gut microbiota, potentially contributing to the development of obesity.

  19. Steroids, stress and the gut microbiome-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetel, M J; de Vries, G J; Melcangi, R C; Panzica, G; O'Mahony, S M

    2018-02-01

    It is becoming well established that the gut microbiome has a profound impact on human health and disease. In this review, we explore how steroids can influence the gut microbiota and, in turn, how the gut microbiota can influence hormone levels. Within the context of the gut microbiome-brain axis, we discuss how perturbations in the gut microbiota can alter the stress axis and behaviour. In addition, human studies on the possible role of gut microbiota in depression and anxiety are examined. Finally, we present some of the challenges and important questions that need to be addressed by future research in this exciting new area at the intersection of steroids, stress, gut-brain axis and human health. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  20. Neural Mechanisms of Exercise: Effects on Gut Miccrobiota and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Paes, Flávia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Machado, Sergio; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota is a set of microorganisms resident in gut ecosystem that reacts to psychological stressful stimuli, and is involved in depressed or anxious status in both animals and human being. Interestingly, a series of studies have shown the effects of physical exercise on gut microbiota dynamics, suggesting that gut microbiota regulation might act as one mediator for the effects of exercise on the brain. Recent studies found that gut microbiota dynamics are also regulated by metabolism changes, such as through physical exercise or diet change. Interestingly, physical exercise modulates different population of gut bacteria in compared to food restriction or rich diet, and alleviates gut syndromes to toxin intake. Gut microbiota could as well contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on cognition and emotion, either directly through serotonin signaling or indirectly by modulating metabolism and exercise performance.

  1. The gut microbiota and its relationship to diet and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Siobhan F.; Murphy, Eileen F.; Nilaweera, Kanishka; Ross, Paul R.; Shanahan, Fergus; O’Toole, Paul W.; Cotter, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity develops from a prolonged imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the relatively recent discovery that the composition and function of the gut microbiota impacts on obesity has lead to an explosion of interest in what is now a distinct research field. Here, research relating to the links between the gut microbiota, diet and obesity will be reviewed under five major headings: (1) the gut microbiota of lean and obese animals, (2) the composition of the gut microbiota of lean and obese humans, (3) the impact of diet on the gut microbiota, (4) manipulating the gut microbiota and (5) the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can impact on weight gain. PMID:22572830

  2. Assessing the Human Gut Microbiota in Metabolic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Tremaroli, Valentina; Nielsen, Jens; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that the gut microbiome complements our human genome with at least 100-fold more genes. In contrast to our Homo sapiens–derived genes, the microbiome is much more plastic, and its composition changes with age and diet, among other factors. An altered gut microbiota has been associated with several diseases, including obesity and diabetes, but the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we discuss factors that affect the gut microbiome, how the gut microbiome may contribute to metabolic diseases, and how to study the gut microbiome. Next-generation sequencing and development of software packages have led to the development of large-scale sequencing efforts to catalog the human microbiome. Furthermore, the use of genetically engineered gnotobiotic mouse models may increase our understanding of mechanisms by which the gut microbiome modulates host metabolism. A combination of classical microbiology, sequencing, and animal experiments may provide further insights into how the gut microbiota affect host metabolism and physiology. PMID:24065795

  3. The Gut Microbiota: Ecology and Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willing, B.P.; Jansson, J.K.

    2010-06-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is teeming with an extremely abundant and diverse microbial community. The members of this community have coevolved along with their hosts over millennia. Until recently, the gut ecosystem was viewed as black box with little knowledge of who or what was there or their specific functions. Over the past decade, however, this ecosystem has become one of fastest growing research areas of focus in microbial ecology and human and animal physiology. This increased interest is largely in response to studies tying microbes in the gut to important diseases afflicting modern society, including obesity, allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diabetes. Although the importance of a resident community of microorganisms in health was first hypothesized by Pasteur over a century ago (Sears, 2005), the multiplicity of physiological changes induced by commensal bacteria has only recently been recognized (Hooper et al., 2001). The term 'ecological development' was recently coined to support the idea that development of the GI tract is a product of the genetics of the host and the host's interactions with resident microbes (Hooper, 2004). The search for new therapeutic targets and disease biomarkers has escalated the need to understand the identities and functions of the microorganisms inhabiting the gut. Recent studies have revealed new insights into the membership of the gut microbial community, interactions within that community, as well as mechanisms of interaction with the host. This chapter focuses on the microbial ecology of the gut, with an emphasis on information gleaned from recent molecular studies.

  4. Dietary Fiber Gap and Host Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meng; Wang, Congmin; Liu, Ping; Li, Defa; Li, Yuan; Ma, Xi

    2017-05-10

    Accumulating evidence is dramatically increasing the access to the facts that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in host metabolism and health, which revealed the possibility of a plethora of associations between gut bacteria and human diseases. Several functional roles are carried out by a major class of the host's diet, such as fiber. Fiber is the main source of microbiota-accessible carbohydrate in the diet of humans. In the modern diet, it is difficult to intake sufficient dietary fiber as recommended. The low-fiber diet in the modern life, known as fiber gap, can trigger a substantial depletion of the human gut microbiota diversity and beneficial metabolites. The short-chain fatty acids are regarded as one of the major microbial metabolites of dietary fibers, which can improve intestinal mucosal immunity, as well as to be a source of energy for the liver. Thus, the loss of microbiota diversity has a potential negative function to various aspects of host health. Actually, the real "fiber gap" for ideal health and maintaining microbial diversity might be even more serious than currently appreciated. Herein, we briefly discuss the interactions between gut microbiota and the host diet, focusing specifically on the low-fiber diet. Gut bacteria in the context of the development of host low-fiber diets, which may lead to health and disorders, particularly include metabolic syndrome and obesity-related disease, IBD liver, disease, and colorectal cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Caterpillars lack a resident gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Jaffe, Samuel P; Fierer, Noah

    2017-09-05

    Many animals are inhabited by microbial symbionts that influence their hosts' development, physiology, ecological interactions, and evolutionary diversification. However, firm evidence for the existence and functional importance of resident microbiomes in larval Lepidoptera (caterpillars) is lacking, despite the fact that these insects are enormously diverse, major agricultural pests, and dominant herbivores in many ecosystems. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR, we characterized the gut microbiomes of wild leaf-feeding caterpillars in the United States and Costa Rica, representing 124 species from 15 families. Compared with other insects and vertebrates assayed using the same methods, the microbes that we detected in caterpillar guts were unusually low-density and variable among individuals. Furthermore, the abundance and composition of leaf-associated microbes were reflected in the feces of caterpillars consuming the same plants. Thus, microbes ingested with food are present (although possibly dead or dormant) in the caterpillar gut, but host-specific, resident symbionts are largely absent. To test whether transient microbes might still contribute to feeding and development, we conducted an experiment on field-collected caterpillars of the model species Manduca sexta Antibiotic suppression of gut bacterial activity did not significantly affect caterpillar weight gain, development, or survival. The high pH, simple gut structure, and fast transit times that typify caterpillar digestive physiology may prevent microbial colonization. Moreover, host-encoded digestive and detoxification mechanisms likely render microbes unnecessary for caterpillar herbivory. Caterpillars illustrate the potential ecological and evolutionary benefits of independence from symbionts, a lifestyle that may be widespread among animals.

  6. Neuropeptides and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address four information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and four information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex). Apart from operating as neurotransmitters, many biologically active peptides also function as gut hormones. Given that neuropeptides and gut hormones target the same cell membrane receptors (typically G protein-coupled receptors), the two messenger roles often converge in the same or similar biological implications. This is exemplified by NPY and peptide YY (PYY), two members of the PP-fold peptide family. While PYY is almost exclusively expressed by enteroendocrine cells, NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The function of PYY-releasing enteroendocrine cells is directly influenced by short chain fatty acids generated by the intestinal microbiota from indigestible fibre, while NPY may control the impact of the gut microbiota on inflammatory processes, pain, brain function and behaviour. Although the impact of neuropeptides on the interaction between the gut microbiota and brain awaits to be analysed, biologically active peptides

  7. SUSY searches at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV with two same-sign leptons or three leptons, jets and $E_T^{miss}$ at the ATLAS detector - Background estimation and latest analysis results.

    CERN Document Server

    Tornambe, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This proceeding summarizes a search for supersymmetric phenomena in final states with two leptons (electrons or muons) of the same electric charge or three leptons, jets and missing transverse energy. While the same-sign or three leptons signature is present in many SUSY scenarios, SM processes leading to such events have very small cross-sections. Therefore, this analysis benefits from a small SM background in the signal regions leading to a good sensitivity especially in SUSY scenarios with compressed mass spectra or in which the R-parity is not conserved. The search was performed with the full dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector during the year 2015 and 2016 corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb$^{-1}$. No significant excess above the Standard Model expectations is observed. The results are interpreted in several simplified supersymmetric models featuring R-parity conservation or R-parity violation, extending the exclusion limits from previous searches.

  8. The gut microbiota of insects - diversity in structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Moran, Nancy A

    2013-09-01

    Insect guts present distinctive environments for microbial colonization, and bacteria in the gut potentially provide many beneficial services to their hosts. Insects display a wide range in degree of dependence on gut bacteria for basic functions. Most insect guts contain relatively few microbial species as compared to mammalian guts, but some insects harbor large gut communities of specialized bacteria. Others are colonized only opportunistically and sparsely by bacteria common in other environments. Insect digestive tracts vary extensively in morphology and physicochemical properties, factors that greatly influence microbial community structure. One obstacle to the evolution of intimate associations with gut microorganisms is the lack of dependable transmission routes between host individuals. Here, social insects, such as termites, ants, and bees, are exceptions: social interactions provide opportunities for transfer of gut bacteria, and some of the most distinctive and consistent gut communities, with specialized beneficial functions in nutrition and protection, have been found in social insect species. Still, gut bacteria of other insects have also been shown to contribute to nutrition, protection from parasites and pathogens, modulation of immune responses, and communication. The extent of these roles is still unclear and awaits further studies. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Latest analysis results and statistical interpretations for SUSY searches at √(s) = 13 TeV with two same-sign leptons, jets and E{sub T}{sup miss} at the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardillo, Fabio; Tornambe, Peter [Albert-Ludwigs Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A search for supersymmetric phenomena in final states with two leptons with the same electric charge, jets and missing transverse energy E{sub T}{sup miss} is presented. The production of same-sign lepton pairs or three leptons is only induced by rare Standard Model processes with very small cross-sections. The search thus benefits from little background and has a good exclusion potential in compressed SUSY spectra. This analysis has been performed already in Run-I of the LHC and provided powerful exclusion limits for various SUSY scenarios. In the ongoing Run-II, the search was conducted with the full dataset of pp collisions at √(s)=13 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector in 2015 corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 3.3 fb{sup -1}. The sensitivity to a big variety of supersymmetric models is illustrated by the interpretation of the results in the context of four different SUSY benchmark scenarios producing same-sign leptons signatures. The results can be used to set model-independent limits to new physics signals as well as increasing the existing limits on different supersymmetric scenarios with respect to the previous Run-I results. This talk presents the latest results of the same-sign/3L analysis published at the end of 2015. Furthermore, analysis details are addressed, and the prospects for the progressive data-taking during Run-II are shown.

  10. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases: associations and potentials for gut microbiota therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christina E; Renz, Harald; Jenmalm, Maria C; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Allen, Katrina J; Vuillermin, Peter; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity for multisystem effects. Changes in microbial composition are implicated in the increasing propensity for a broad range of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity, and associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). There are also suggestive implications for neurodevelopment and mental health. These diverse multisystem influences have sparked interest in strategies that might favorably modulate the gut microbiota to reduce the risk of many NCDs. For example, specific prebiotics promote favorable intestinal colonization, and their fermented products have anti-inflammatory properties. Specific probiotics also have immunomodulatory and metabolic effects. However, when evaluated in clinical trials, the effects are variable, preliminary, or limited in magnitude. Fecal microbiota transplantation is another emerging therapy that regulates inflammation in experimental models. In human subjects it has been successfully used in cases of Clostridium difficile infection and IBD, although controlled trials are lacking for IBD. Here we discuss relationships between gut colonization and inflammatory NCDs and gut microbiota modulation strategies for their treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physics of the gut: How polymers dynamically structure the gut environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preska Steinberg, Asher; Datta, Sujit; Bogatyrev, Said; Ismagilov, Rustem

    While the gut microbiome and biological regulation of the gut environment is being exhaustively studied by the microbiology community, little is known about the rich physics that governs the macro- and microstructure of the gut environment. The mammalian gut abounds in soft materials; ranging from soluble polymers (e.g. dietary fibers, therapeutic polymers and mucins) to colloidal matter (e.g. bacteria, viruses and nanoparticles carrying drugs). We have found experimentally that soluble polymers can dynamically re-structure the colonic mucus hydrogel by modulating its degree of swelling. We implemented a mean-field Flory-Huggins model to reveal that these polymer-mucus interactions can be captured using a simple, first principles thermodynamics model. In this model, the amount of deswelling increases with polymer concentration and size. We then used these physical principles to make predictions about how different polymer solutions affect the structure of mucus. Lastly, we explore applying this framework and similar physical principles to a variety of biological problems in the gut.

  12. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A

    2016-09-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns.

  13. Gut Microbiota and the Gut-Brain Axis: New Insights in the Pathophysiology of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clercq, Nicolien C; Frissen, Myrthe N; Groen, Albert K; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2017-10-01

    Emerging preclinical evidence has shown that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the brain, the so-called gut-brain axis, plays an important role in both host metabolism and behavior. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms of the brain-gut axis in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate GI and brain interactions. Evidence suggests reduced microbial diversity in obesity and metabolic dysregulation. However, findings of microbiota composition in obese individuals are inconsistent, and the investigation of causality between gut microbiota and energy homeostasis is complex because multiple variables contribute to the gut microbiota composition. The microbial metabolites short chain fatty acids are found to exert numerous physiologic effects, including energy homeostasis through the regulation of GI hormones such as cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine, and leptin. Preclinical studies show that modifying rodents' microbiota through fecal transplantation results in alterations of these GI hormones and subsequently an altered metabolism and behavior. However, whether and to what extent preclinical findings translate to human metabolism is unclear. One of the major limitations and challenges in this field of research is interindividual variability of the microbiome. Future research needs to combine recent insights gained into tracking the dynamics of the microbiome as well as the metabolic responses. Furthermore, advanced mapping of the human microbiome is required to investigate the metabolic implications of the gut-brain axis to develop targeted interventions for obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  14. Early Life Experience and Gut Microbiome: the Brain-Gut-Microbiota Signaling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Henderson, Wendy A.; Graf, Joerg; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past decades, advances in neonatal care have led to substantial increases in survival among preterm infants. With these gains, recent concerns have focused on increases in neurodevelopment morbidity related to the interplay between stressful early life experiences and the immature neuro-immune systems. This interplay between these complex mechanisms is often described as the brain-gut signaling system. The role of the gut microbiome and the brain-gut signaling system have been found to be remarkably related to both short and long term stress and health. Recent evidence supports that microbial species, ligands, and/or products within the developing intestine play a key role in early programming of the central nervous system and regulation of the intestinal innate immunity. Purpose The purpose of this state-of-the-science review is to explore the supporting evidence demonstrating the importance of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in regulation of early life experience. We also discuss the role of gut microbiome in modulating stress and pain responses in high-risk infants. A conceptual framework has been developed to illustrate the regulation mechanisms involved in early life experience. Conclusions The science in this area is just beginning to be uncovered; having a fundamental understanding of these relationships will be important as new discoveries continue to change our thinking; leading potentially to changes in practice and targeted interventions. PMID:26240939

  15. Feeding Systems and the Gut Microbiome: Gut-Brain Interactions With Relevance to Psychiatric Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brittany L

    2017-06-08

    Physical and mental health is dependent on the environment, and feeding is a prime example of this environmental exchange. While the hypothalamus controls both feeding behavior and the stress response, the integration of the neural control centers and the peripheral gut allows for disruption in the gastrointestinal systems and dysfunctional communication to the brain. The purpose of this review is to familiarize clinicians with the physiology controlling feeding behavior and its implications for psychiatric conditions, such as anorexia nervosa and depression. Growing understanding of how integrated bacterial life is in the body has shown that gut bacteria regulate basic physiologic processes and are implicated in various disease states and contribute to regulation of mood. Responses to stress have effects on feeding behavior and mood and the regulation of the stress response by the gut microbiota could contribute to the dysfunction seen in patients with psychiatric illnesses. Gut microbiota may contribute to dysfunction in psychiatric illnesses. New opportunities to modulate existing gut microbiota using probiotics could be novel targets for clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of gut microbiota in atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Annika Lindskog; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    describe three pathways by which microbiota might affect atherogenesis. First, local or distant infections might cause a harmful inflammatory response that aggravates plaque development or triggers plaque rupture. Second, metabolism of cholesterol and lipids by gut microbiota can affect the development...... of atherosclerotic plaques. Third, diet and specific components that are metabolized by gut microbiota can have various effects on atherosclerosis; for example, dietary fibre is beneficial, whereas the bacterial metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide is considered harmful. Although specific bacterial taxa have been......Infections have been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Findings from the past decade have identified microbial ecosystems residing in different habitats of the human body that contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular-related disorders. In this Review, we...

  17. Bacterial Impact on the Gut Metabolome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulek, Karolina; Wilcks, Andrea; Licht, Tine Rask

    During the last decade, it has become evident that the complex ecosystem of mi-crobes inhabiting the human gut plays an important role for human health. An in-creasing number of publications have shown that the composition and activity of our intestinal microbiota affects a number of different so...... the effects of dietary interventions on the presence of specific bacterial metabolites, which are anticipated to play a role for gut health. However, such data evidently provide only small parts of the complex puzzle constituting the interactions between diet, microbiota, and mammalian host. This project......-called lifestyle diseases including allergy, obesity, and colorectal cancer, as well as our susceptibility to intestinal infections and inflammation. Additionally, it has become evident that the intestinal microbiota can be modulated by intake of pre- and probiotics. A large number of studies have addressed...

  18. Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Calum J; Guinane, Caitriona M; O'Toole, Paul W; Cotter, Paul D

    2014-11-17

    The human gut microbiota comprises approximately 100 trillion microbial cells and has a significant effect on many aspects of human physiology including metabolism, nutrient absorption and immune function. Disruption of this population has been implicated in many conditions and diseases, including examples such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer that are highlighted in this review. A logical extension of these observations suggests that the manipulation of the gut microbiota can be employed to prevent or treat these conditions. Thus, here we highlight a variety of options, including the use of changes in diet (including the use of prebiotics), antimicrobial-based intervention, probiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation, and discuss their relative merits with respect to modulating the intestinal community in a beneficial way. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Raes, Jeroen; Pelletier, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previou......Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries......, highlighting the importance of a functional analysis to understand microbial communities. Although individual host properties such as body mass index, age, or gender cannot explain the observed enterotypes, data-driven marker genes or functional modules can be identified for each of these host properties...

  20. Gut microbiota in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Icaza-Chávez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is the community of live microorganisms residing in the digestive tract. There are many groups of researchers worldwide that are working at deciphering the collective genome of the human microbiota. Modern techniques for studying the microbiota have made us aware of an important number of nonculturable bacteria and of the relation between the microorganisms that live inside us and our homeostasis. The microbiota is essential for correct body growth, the development of immunity, and nutrition. Certain epidemics affecting humanity such as asthma and obesity may possibly be explained, at least partially, by alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis has been associated with a series of gastrointestinal disorders that include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The present article deals with the nomenclature, modern study techniques, and functions of gut microbiota, and its relation to health and disease.

  1. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Christina E; Renz, Harald; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity...... for multisystem effects. Changes in microbial composition are implicated in the increasing propensity for a broad range of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity, and associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). There are also suggestive implications......-inflammatory properties. Specific probiotics also have immunomodulatory and metabolic effects. However, when evaluated in clinical trials, the effects are variable, preliminary, or limited in magnitude. Fecal microbiota transplantation is another emerging therapy that regulates inflammation in experimental models...

  2. Bariatric surgery, gut morphology and enteroendocrine cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik

    Considering that obesity and diabetes are some of the most important health problems in the world today, a lot studies have investigated the powerful effects of bariatric surgery on weight loss and diabetes remission during the past decade. An increased release of gut hormones is believed...... in response to surgical interventions. The increase in the number of endocrine cells is probably a mechanism involved in the enhanced blood levels of gut hormones following bariatric surgery....... to contribute to the positive effects of bariatic surgery but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. The endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract that produce and secrete hormones are difficult to examine as they are distributed as single cells. Several types of endocrine cells together produce more than...

  3. Proton pump inhibitors affect the gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhann, Floris; Bonder, Marc Jan; Vich Vila, Arnau; Fu, Jingyuan; Mujagic, Zlatan; Vork, Lisa; Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Cenit, Maria Carmen; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Dijkstra, Gerard; Franke, Lude; Xavier, Ramnik J; Jonkers, Daisy; Wijmenga, Cisca; Weersma, Rinse K; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the top 10 most widely used drugs in the world. PPI use has been associated with an increased risk of enteric infections, most notably Clostridium difficile. The gut microbiome plays an important role in enteric infections, by resisting or promoting colonisation by pathogens. In this study, we investigated the influence of PPI use on the gut microbiome. The gut microbiome composition of 1815 individuals, spanning three cohorts, was assessed by tag sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The difference in microbiota composition in PPI users versus non-users was analysed separately in each cohort, followed by a meta-analysis. 211 of the participants were using PPIs at the moment of stool sampling. PPI use is associated with a significant decrease in Shannon's diversity and with changes in 20% of the bacterial taxa (false discovery rate microbiome of PPI-users, including the genus Rothia (p=9.8×10(-38)). In PPI users we observed a significant increase in bacteria: genera Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and the potentially pathogenic species Escherichia coli. The differences between PPI users and non-users observed in this study are consistently associated with changes towards a less healthy gut microbiome. These differences are in line with known changes that predispose to C. difficile infections and can potentially explain the increased risk of enteric infections in PPI users. On a population level, the effects of PPI are more prominent than the effects of antibiotics or other commonly used drugs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Sanchez; Shirin Panahi; Angelo Tremblay

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotic...

  5. Malrotation of the gut manifested during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardikar J

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of intestinal obstruction during pregnancy poses problems, as vomiting which is an important symptom of the obstruction can be attributed to hyperemesis of pregnancy and radiological investigation are avoided during this period. A case of intestinal obstruction due to volvulus resulting from congenital malrotation of the gut is reported here. The patient first presented during pregnancy. The case emphasises the need for thorough investigations in a case of persistent vomiting in pregnancy.

  6. Immunology. Therapeutic manipulation of gut flora.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    In developed countries as many as two individuals in every thousand suffer from inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn\\'s disease). In his Perspective, Shanahan discusses a new therapeutic approach to treating these conditions in which bacteria normally found in the gut are engineered to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and then are fed as probiotics to mice with these disorders (Steidler et al.).

  7. Vertebrate bacterial gut diversity: size also matters

    OpenAIRE

    Arulazhagan, Pugazhendi; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Hamelin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the central issues in microbial ecology is to understand the parameters that drive diversity. Among these parameters, size has often been considered to be the main driver in many different ecosystems. Surprisingly, the influence of size on gut microbial diversity has not yet been investigated, and so far in studies reported in the literature only the influences of age, diet, phylogeny and digestive tract structures have been considered. This study explicitly challenges the u...

  8. Obesity and the gut microbiome: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradlow, H Leon

    2014-01-01

    While there is a large volume of literature describing a role for obesity as a risk factor for breast cancer and many other cancers, in the main a causal relationship has not been established. If the study is limited to breast cancer risk, it has been suggested that the increase in sex steroid formation that occurs in postmenopausal women plays a role. Obesity is known to be associated with chronic low grade inflammation, but no reason for this association has been offered in the past. The gut microbiome, while known to be enormous, has not in the past been considered as a metabolic role player in the body. This is now recognized to be the case. Recent studies have found the obesity is correlated with an alteration in the gut microbiome. In obese individual there is a change in the relative proportions of the two major classes of bacteria - bacteroides and firmacutes - with the latter dominant in obesity and resulting in the formation of increased amounts of metabolic endotoxins like deoxycholic acid and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Obese individuals show a decrease in the concentration of Akkermansia muciniphila in the mucus that lines the intestinal wall, resulting in thinner mucus and a weakened intestinal lining and permitting metabolic endotoxins formed by other bacterial flora like LPS to enter the blood steam and cause the chronic inflammation associated with obesity. The change in the microbiome profile results in increases in bacterial strains that are more efficient at generating energy, leading to increased obesity. In mice, it has been shown that introducing gut bacterial flora from the cecum of obese mice into germ-free mice results in increased obesity with lesser food consumption while the reverse, introducing bacterial flora from lean mice results in a loss in weight. This raises the attractive possibility that manipulating the gut microbiome could facilitate weight loss or prevent obesity in humans.

  9. The Super-GUT CMSSM Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2016-01-01

    We revisit minimal supersymmetric SU(5) grand unification (GUT) models in which the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) are universal at some input scale, $M_{in}$, above the supersymmetric gauge coupling unification scale, $M_{GUT}$. As in the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), we assume that the scalar masses and gaugino masses have common values, $m_0$ and $m_{1/2}$ respectively, at $M_{in}$, as do the trilinear soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters $A_0$. Going beyond previous studies of such a super-GUT CMSSM scenario, we explore the constraints imposed by the lower limit on the proton lifetime and the LHC measurement of the Higgs mass, $m_h$. We find regions of $m_0$, $m_{1/2}$, $A_0$ and the parameters of the SU(5) superpotential that are compatible with these and other phenomenological constraints such as the density of cold dark matter, which we assume to be provided by the lightest neutralino. Typically, these allowed regions appear for $m_0$ and $m_{1/...

  10. Dietary fiber, gut peptides, and adipocytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, David; Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

    2012-03-01

    The consumption of dietary fiber (DF) has increased since it was related to the prevention of a range of illnesses and pathological conditions. DF can modify some gut hormones that regulate satiety and energy intake, thus also affecting lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. Among these gut hormones are ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, and cholecystokinin. Adipose tissue is known to express and secrete a variety of products known as "adipocytokines," which are also affected by DF. Some of the most relevant adipocytokines include adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. The release of adipocytokines, by either adipocytes or macrophage-infiltrated adipose tissue, leads to a chronic subinflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, therefore increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with obesity. DF modulation of these molecules could also have positive effects on obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. This review is focused on the effects of DF on the above-mentioned gut peptides and adipocytokines.

  11. GUTs on Compact Type IIB Orientifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Braun, Volker; /Dublin Inst.; Grimm, Thomas W.; /Bonn U.; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2008-12-01

    We systematically analyze globally consistent SU(5) GUT models on intersecting D7-branes in genuine Calabi-Yau orientifolds with O3- and O7-planes. Beyond the well-known tadpole and K-theory cancellation conditions there exist a number of additional subtle but quite restrictive constraints. For the realization of SU(5) GUTs with gauge symmetry breaking via U(1)Y flux we present two classes of suitable Calabi-Yau manifolds defined via del Pezzo transitions of the elliptically fibred hypersurface P{sub 1,1,1,6,9}[18] and of the Quintic P{sub 1,1,1,1,1}[5], respectively. To define an orientifold projection we classify all involutions on del Pezzo surfaces. We work out the model building prospects of these geometries and present five globally consistent string GUT models in detail, including a 3-generation SU(5) model with no exotics whatsoever. We also realize other phenomenological features such as the 10 10 5{sub H} Yukawa coupling and comment on the possibility of moduli stabilization, where we find an entire new set of so-called swiss-cheese type Calabi-Yau manifolds. It is expected that both the general constrained structure and the concrete models lift to F-theory vacua on compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds.

  12. The multilayered innate immune defense of the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Chamy, Laure; Matt, Nicolas; Ntwasa, Monde; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    In the wild, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster thrives on rotten fruit. The digestive tract maintains a powerful gut immune barrier to regulate the ingested microbiota, including entomopathogenic bacteria. This gut immune barrier includes a chitinous peritrophic matrix that isolates the gut contents from the epithelial cells. In addition, the epithelial cells are tightly sealed by septate junctions and can mount an inducible immune response. This local response can be activated by invasive bacteria, or triggered by commensal bacteria in the gut lumen. As with chronic inflammation in mammals, constitutive activation of the gut innate immune response is detrimental to the health of flies. Accordingly, the Drosophila gut innate immune response is tightly regulated to maintain the endogenous microbiota, while preventing infections by pathogenic microorganisms.

  13. Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2011-06-17

    Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Interaction between the gut microbiome and mucosal immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Na; Li, Na; Duan, Xinwang; Niu, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota, the largest symbiotic ecosystem with the host, has been shown to play important roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is caused by the imbalance between the commensal and pathogenic microbiomes. The commensal microbiome regulates the maturation of the mucosal immune system, while the pathogenic microbiome causes immunity dysfunction, resulting in disease development. The gut mucosal immune system, which consists of lymph nodes, lamina propria and epithelial cells, constitutes a protective barrier for the integrity of the intestinal tract. The composition of the gut microbiota is under the surveillance of the normal mucosal immune system. Inflammation, which is caused by abnormal immune responses, influences the balance of the gut microbiome, resulting in intestinal diseases. In this review, we briefly outlined the interaction between the gut microbiota and the immune system and provided a reference for future studies.

  15. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jie Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 microbes, ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, such as supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vitamin K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal changes in the light of the use of antibiotics, illness, stress, aging, bad dietary habits, and lifestyle. Dysbiosis of the gut bacteria communities can cause many chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, and autism. This review summarizes and discusses the roles and potential mechanisms of gut bacteria in human health and diseases.

  16. The gut is the epicentre of antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlet Jean

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The gut contains very large numbers of bacteria. Changes in the composition of the gut flora, due in particular to antibiotics, can happen silently, leading to the selection of highly resistant bacteria and Candida species. These resistant organisms may remain for months in the gut of the carrier without causing any symptoms or translocate through the gut epithelium, induce healthcare-associated infections, undergo cross-transmission to other individuals, and cause limited outbreaks. Techniques are available to prevent, detect, and treat the carriage of resistant organisms in the gut. However, evidence on these techniques is scant, the only exception being selective digestive decontamination (SDD, which has been extensively studied in neutropenic and ICU patients. After the destruction of resistant colonizing bacteria, which has been successfully obtained in several studies, the gut could be re-colonized with normal faecal flora or probiotics. Studies are warranted to evaluate this concept.

  17. Copepod guts as biogeochemical hotspots in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Kam W.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Glud, Anni

    2011-01-01

    The environmental conditions inside the gut of Calanus hyperboreus and C. glacialis were measured with microelectrodes. An acidic potential hydrogen (pH) gradient was present in the gut of C. hyperboreus, and the lowest pH recorded was 5.40. The gut pH of a starved copepod decreased by 0.53 after...... the copepod resumed feeding for a few hours, indicating the secretion of acidic digestive fluid. A copepod feeding on Thalassiosira weissflogii (diatom) had slightly lower pH than that feeding on Rhodomonas salina (cryptophyte). Oxygen was undersaturated in the gut of both C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis......, with a steep gradient from the anal opening to the metasome region. The central metasome region was completely anoxic. Food remains in the gut led to a lower oxygen level, and a diatom diet induced a stronger oxygen gradient than a cryptophyte diet. The acidic and suboxic–anoxic environments of the copepod gut...

  18. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl

    2014-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on health care and society, and impact patients' quality of life. FGIDs comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, with unclear underlying pathophysiology. They are considered to result from the interaction of altered gut physiology and psychological factors via the gut-brain axis, where brain and gut symptoms are reciprocally influencing each other's expression. Intestinal microbiota, as a part of the gut-brain axis, plays a central role in FGIDs. Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a prototype of FGIDs, display altered composition of the gut microbiota compared with healthy controls and benefit, at the gastrointestinal and psychological levels, from the use of probiotics and antibiotics. This review aims to recapitulate the available literature on FGIDs and microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  19. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Li, Sha; Gan, Ren-You; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 microbes, ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, such as supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vitamin K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal changes in the light of the use of antibiotics, illness, stress, aging, bad dietary habits, and lifestyle. Dysbiosis of the gut bacteria communities can cause many chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, and autism. This review summarizes and discusses the roles and potential mechanisms of gut bacteria in human health and diseases. PMID:25849657

  20. Gut-liver axis: gut microbiota in shaping hepatic innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xunyao; Tian, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    Gut microbiota play an essential role in shaping immune cell responses. The liver was continuously exposed to metabolic products of intestinal commensal bacterial through portal vein and alteration of gut commensal bateria was always associated with increased risk of liver inflammation and autoimmune disease. Considered as a unique immunological organ, the liver is enriched with a large number of innate immune cells. Herein, we summarize the available literature of gut microbiota in shaping the response of hepatic innate immune cells including NKT cells, NK cells, γδ T cells and Kupffer cells during health and disease. Such knowledge might help to develop novel and innovative strategies for the prevention and therapy of innate immune cell-related liver disease.

  1. Gut Inflammation and Immunity: What Is the Role of the Human Gut Virome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Focà

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human virome comprises viruses that infect host cells, virus-derived elements in our chromosomes, and viruses that infect other organisms, including bacteriophages and plant viruses. The development of high-throughput sequencing techniques has shown that the human gut microbiome is a complex community in which the virome plays a crucial role into regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis. Nevertheless, the size of the human virome is still poorly understood. Indeed the enteric virome is in a continuous and dynamic equilibrium with other components of the gut microbiome and the gut immune system, an interaction that may influence the health and disease of the host. We review recent evidence on the viruses found in the gastrointestinal tract, discussing their interactions with the resident bacterial microbiota and the host immune system, in order to explore the potential impact of the virome on human health.

  2. Early universe cosmology. In supersymmetric extensions of the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Jochen Peter

    2012-03-19

    In this thesis we investigate possible connections between cosmological inflation and leptogenesis on the one side and particle physics on the other side. We work in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. A key role is played by the right-handed sneutrino, the superpartner of the right-handed neutrino involved in the type I seesaw mechanism. We study a combined model of inflation and non-thermal leptogenesis that is a simple extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with conserved R-parity, where we add three right-handed neutrino super fields. The inflaton direction is given by the imaginary components of the corresponding scalar component fields, which are protected from the supergravity (SUGRA) {eta}-problem by a shift symmetry in the Kaehler potential. We discuss the model first in a globally supersymmetric (SUSY) and then in a supergravity context and compute the inflationary predictions of the model. We also study reheating and non-thermal leptogenesis in this model. A numerical simulation shows that shortly after the waterfall phase transition that ends inflation, the universe is dominated by right-handed sneutrinos and their out-of-equilibrium decay can produce the desired matter-antimatter asymmetry. Using a simplified time-averaged description, we derive analytical expressions for the model predictions. Combining the results from inflation and leptogenesis allows us to constrain the allowed parameter space from two different directions, with implications for low energy neutrino physics. As a second thread of investigation, we discuss a generalisation of the inflationary model discussed above to include gauge non-singlet fields as inflatons. This is motivated by the fact that in left-right symmetric, supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), like SUSY Pati-Salam unification or SUSY SO(10) GUTs, the righthanded (s)neutrino is an indispensable ingredient and does not have to be put in by hand as in the MSSM. We discuss

  3. Obesity-Related Diseases Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    strategies to reduce obesity-related morbidity and mortality are essential. It has been hypothesized that the microbes in the human gut are involved in the development of obesity-related diseases and that intake of nutrients affecting the gut microbial community in specific ways, can be a new strategy...... for prevention. The main purpose of this PhD was to explore the effect of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota on disease markers in obese individuals....

  4. Potential applications of gut microbiota to control human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umu, Ozgün Candan Onarman; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B; Svihus, Birger; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2013-11-01

    The microorganisms living in our gut have been a black box to us for a long time. However, with the recent advances in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies, it is now possible to assess virtually all microorganisms in our gut including non-culturable ones. With the use of powerful bioinformatics tools to deal with multivariate analyses of huge amounts of data from metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, we now start to gain some important insights into these tiny gut inhabitants. Our knowledge is increasing about who they are, to some extent, what they do and how they affect our health. Gut microbiota have a broad spectrum of possible effects on health, from preventing serious diseases, improving immune system and gut health to stimulating the brain centers responsible for appetite and food intake control. Further, we may be on the verge of being capable of manipulating the gut microbiota by diet control to possibly improve our health. Diets consisting of different components that are fermentable by microbiota are substrates for different kinds of microbes in the gut. Thus, diet control can be used to favor the growth of some selected gut inhabitants. Nowadays, the gut microbiota is taken into account as a separate organ in human body and their activities and metabolites in gut have many physiological and neurological effects. In this mini-review, we discuss the diversity of gut microbiota, the technologies used to assess them, factors that affect microbial composition and metabolites that affect human physiology, and their potential applications in satiety control via the gut-brain axis.

  5. [Research advances in association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Lin; Wan, Chao-Min

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, more and more studies have noted the close association between gut microbiota and the development and progression of obesity. Gut microbiota may act on obesity by increasing energy intake, affecting the secretion of intestinal hormones, inducing chronic systemic inflammation, and producing insulin resistance. This article reviews the association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota, as well as possible mechanisms, in an attempt to provide a reference for the etiology, prevention and treatment of childhood obesity.

  6. Keeping gut lining at bay: impact of emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cani, Patrice D; Everard, Amandine

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with altered gut microbiota and low-grade inflammation. Both dietary habits and food composition contribute to the onset of such diseases. Emulsifiers, compounds commonly used in a variety of foods, were shown to induce body weight gain, low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders. These dietary compounds promote gut microbiota alteration and gut barrier dysfunction leading to negative metabolic alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. Here we describe the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence...... gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively....

  8. Potential mediators linking gut bacteria to metabolic health

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Aafke W.F.; Kersten, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the bacteria present in our gut may play a role in mediating the effect of genetics and lifestyle on obesity and metabolic diseases. Most of the current literature on gut bacteria consists of cross-sectional and correlative studies, rendering it difficult to make any causal inferences as to the influence of gut bacteria on obesity and related metabolic disorders. Interventions with germ-free animals, treatment with antibiotic agents, and microbial transfer exper...

  9. The multi-tasking gut epithelium of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Hsin; Jing, Xiangfeng; Douglas, Angela E

    2015-12-01

    The insect gut epithelium plays a vital role in multiple processes, including nutrition, immunity and osmoregulation. Recent research is revealing the molecular and biochemical basis of these functions. For example, the pattern of nutrient acquisition by the gut epithelium is integrated into the overall regulation of nutrient allocation, as illustrated by evidence for systemic controls over expression of key genes coding digestive enzymes and transporters in carbohydrate acquisition; and the abundance and diversity of microorganisms in the gut lumen is regulated by multiple molecular properties of the gut epithelial cells, including the synthesis of enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species and anti-microbial peptides. These traits are underpinned by the function of the gut epithelium as a selective barrier which mediates the controlled movement of water, ions, metabolites and macromolecules between the gut lumen and insect tissues. Breakdown of the gut epithelial barrier has been implicated in muscle paralysis of insects at low temperatures (chill coma) and in aging. The key challenge for future research is to understand how the multiple functions of the insect gut epithelium are integrated by signaling interactions among epithelial cells, the gut microbiota and other insect organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota...... and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  11. The role of the gut microbiota in metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Aafke W F; Kersten, Sander

    2015-08-01

    The global prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities has increased considerably over the past decades. In addition to an increase in food consumption and a reduction in physical activity, growing evidence implicates the microorganisms in our gastrointestinal tract, referred to as the gut microbiota, in obesity and related metabolic disturbances. The composition of the gut microbiota can fluctuate markedly within an individual and between individuals. Changes in gut microbial composition may be unfavorable and predispose an individual to disease. Studies in mice that are germ free, mice that are cohoused, and mice that are treated with antibiotics have provided some evidence that changes in gut microbiota may causally contribute to metabolic disorders. Several mechanisms have been proposed and explored that may mediate the effects of the gut microbiota on metabolic disorders. In this review, we carefully analyze the literature on the connection between the gut microbiota and metabolic health, with a focus on studies demonstrating a causal relation and clarifying potential underlying mechanisms. Despite a growing appreciation for a role of the gut microbiota in metabolic health, more experimental evidence is needed to substantiate a cause-and-effect relationship. If a clear causal relationship between the gut microbiota and metabolic health can be established, dietary interventions can be targeted toward improving gut microbial composition in the prevention and perhaps even the treatment of metabolic diseases. © FASEB.

  12. Gut microbiota may predict host divergence time during Glires evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Tongtong; Yao, Minjie; Li, Jiaying; Li, Xiangzhen

    2017-03-01

    The gut microbial communities of animals play key roles in host evolution. However, the possible relationship between gut microbiota and host divergence time remains unknown. Here, we investigated the gut microbiota of eight Glires species (four lagomorph species and four rodent species) distributed throughout the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and Inner Mongolia grassland. Lagomorphs and rodents had distinct gut microbial compositions. Three out of four lagomorph species were dominated by Firmicutes, while rodents were dominated by Bacteroidetes in general. The alpha diversity values (Shannon diversity and evenness) exhibited significant differences between any two species within the lagomorphs, whereas there were no significant differences among rodents. The structure of the gut microbiota showed significant differences between lagomorphs and rodents. In addition, we calculated host phylogeny and divergence times, and used a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how the animal gut microbiota has diverged from their ancestral species. Some core bacterial genera (e.g. Prevotella and Clostridium) shared by more than nine-tenths of all the Glires individuals associated with plant polysaccharide degradation showed marked changes within lagomorphs. Differences in Glires gut microbiota (based on weighted UniFrac and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metrics) were positively correlated with host divergence time. Our results thus suggest the gut microbial composition is associated with host phylogeny, and further suggest that dissimilarity of animal gut microbiota may predict host divergence time. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Yan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of 2 genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of 4 genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  14. The gut microbiota: A treasure for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daotong; Wang, Pan; Wang, Pengpu; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2016-11-15

    The interplay between the host and host-associated gut microbiota is an area of increasing interest during the recent decade. From young infants to elderly people, from primitive tribes to modern societies, accumulating evidence has suggested the association of critical physiological roles of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of a variety of human metabolic, immunological and neurological diseases. Importantly, it appears that the relationship between the gut microbiota and disease is bidirectional, instead of causal or consequential. Personalized nutritional and therapeutic strategies targeting the gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, drugs and fecal microbiota transplantation may create a new era in the human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Nie, Yangfan; Chen, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhichang; Fan, Qiwen; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia) significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of two genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium) significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida) significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  16. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Nie, Yangfan; Chen, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhichang; Fan, Qiwen; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia) significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of two genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium) significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida) significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants. PMID:27853453

  17. Brain Gut Microbiome Interactions and Functional Bowel Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Emeran A.; Savidge, Tor; Shulman, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the bidirectional interactions between the gut and the nervous system play an important role in IBS pathophysiology and symptom generation. A body of largely preclinical evidence suggests that the gut microbiota can modulate these interactions. Characterizations of alterations of gut microbiota in unselected IBS patients, and assessment of changes in subjective symptoms associated with manipulations of the gut microbiota with prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics support a small, but poorly defined role of dybiosis in overall IBS symptoms. It remains to be determined if the observed abnormalities are a consequence of altered top down signaling from the brain to the gut and microbiota, if they are secondary to a primary perturbation of the microbiota, and if they play a role in the development of altered brain gut interactions early in life. Different mechanisms may play role in subsets of patients. Characterization of gut microbiome alterations in large cohorts of well phenotyped patients as well as evidence correlating gut metabolites with specific abnormalities in the gut brain axis are required to answer these questions. PMID:24583088

  18. Gut microeukaryotes during anorexia nervosa: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouba, Nina; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-01-13

    Few studies have focused on eukaryote community in the human gut. Here, the diversity of microeukaryotes in the gut microbiota of an anorexic patient was investigated using molecular and culture approaches. A 21-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted in an intensive care unit for severe malnutrition in anorexia nervosa. One stool specimen was collected from the anorexic patient, culture and polymerase chain reaction-based explorations yielded a restricted diversity of fungi but four microeukaryotes Tetratrichomonas sp., Aspergillus ruber, Penicillium solitum and Cladosporium bruhnei previously undescribed in the human gut. Establishing microeukaryote repertoire in gut microbiota contributes to the understanding of its role in human health.

  19. Incorporation of therapeutically modified bacteria into gut microbiota inhibits obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Zhongyi; Guo, Lilu; Zhang, Yongqin; Walzem, Rosemary L; Pendergast, Julie S; Printz, Richard L; Morris, Lindsey C; Matafonova, Elena; Stien, Xavier; Kang, Li; Coulon, Denis; McGuinness, Owen P; Niswender, Kevin D; Davies, Sean S

    2014-01-01

    ...; therefore, altering a person's microbiota may ameliorate disease. One potential microbiome-altering strategy is the incorporation of modified bacteria that express therapeutic factors into the gut microbiota...

  20. Does the Gut Microbiota Contribute to Obesity? Going beyond the Gut Feeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Marisol; Venema, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that gut microbiota is an environmental factor that plays a crucial role in obesity. However, the aetiology of obesity is rather complex and depends on different factors. Furthermore, there is a lack of consensus about the exact role that this microbial community plays in the host. The aim of this review is to present evidence about what has been characterized, compositionally and functionally, as obese gut microbiota. In addition, the different reasons explaining the so-far unclear role are discussed considering evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies. PMID:27682087