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Sample records for sustained wnt pathway

  1. Updating the Wnt pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Virshup, David M.

    2014-01-01

    In the three decades since the discovery of the Wnt1 proto-oncogene in virus-induced mouse mammary tumours, our understanding of the signalling pathways that are regulated by the Wnt proteins has progressively expanded. Wnts are involved in an complex signalling network that governs multiple biological processes and cross-talk with multiple additional signalling cascades, including the Notch, FGF (fibroblast growth factor), SHH (Sonic hedgehog), EGF (epidermal growth factor) and Hippo pathways. The Wnt signalling pathway also illustrates the link between abnormal regulation of the developmental processes and disease manifestation. Here we provide an overview of Wnt-regulated signalling cascades and highlight recent advances. We focus on new findings regarding the dedicated Wnt production and secretion pathway with potential therapeutic targets that might be beneficial for patients with Wnt-related diseases. PMID:25208913

  2. Targeting Wnt Pathways in Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Zachary F.; Moon, Randall T.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt-mediated signal transduction pathways have long been recognized for their roles in regulating embryonic development, and have more recently been linked to cancer, neurologic diseases, inflammatory diseases, and disorders of endocrine function and bone metabolism in adults. Although therapies targeting Wnt signaling are attractive in theory, in practice it has been difficult to obtain specific therapeutics because many components of Wnt signaling pathways are also involved in other cellular processes, thereby reducing the specificity of candidate therapeutics. New technologies, and advances in understanding the mechanisms of Wnt signaling, have improved our understanding of the nuances of Wnt signaling and are leading to promising new strategies to target Wnt signaling pathways. PMID:23001988

  3. Unraveling the Wnt secretion pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harterink, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt family of signaling proteins has essential functions in development and adult tissue homeostasis throughout the animal kingdom. Although signaling cascades triggered by Wnt proteins have been extensively studied, much remains to be learned about how Wnts are produced and secreted and how

  4. Wnt and the Wnt signaling pathway in bone development and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Li, Yi-Ping; Paulson, Christie; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Mengrui; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling affects both bone modeling, which occurs during development, and bone remodeling, which is a lifelong process involving tissue renewal. Wnt signals are especially known to affect the differentiation of osteoblasts. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of Wnt signaling, which is divided into two major branches: the canonical pathway and the noncanonical pathway. The canonical pathway is also called the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. There are two major noncanonical pathways: the Wnt-planar cell polarity pathway (Wnt-PCP pathway) and the Wnt-calcium pathway (Wnt-Ca2+ pathway). This review also discusses how Wnt ligands, receptors, intracellular effectors, transcription factors, and antagonists affect both the bone modeling and bone remodeling processes. We also review the role of Wnt ligands, receptors, intracellular effectors, transcription factors, and antagonists in bone as demonstrated in mouse models. Disrupted Wnt signaling is linked to several bone diseases, including osteoporosis, van Buchem disease, and sclerosteosis. Studying the mechanism of Wnt signaling and its interactions with other signaling pathways in bone will provide potential therapeutic targets to treat these bone diseases. PMID:24389191

  5. Winding through the WNT pathway during cellular development and demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F; Chong, Z Z; Maiese, K

    2006-01-01

    In slightly over a period of twenty years, our comprehension of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern the Wnt signaling pathway continue to unfold. The Wnt proteins were initially implicated in viral carcinogenesis experiments associated with mammary tumors, but since this period investigations focusing on the Wnt pathways and their transmembrane receptors termed Frizzled have been advanced to demonstrate the critical nature of Wnt for the development of a variety of cell populations as well as the potential of the Wnt pathway to avert apoptotic injury. In particular, Wnt signaling plays a significant role in both the cardiovascular and nervous systems during embryonic cell patterning, proliferation, differentiation, and orientation. Furthermore, modulation of Wnt signaling under specific cellular influences can either promote or prevent the early and late stages of apoptotic cellular injury in neurons, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes. A number of downstream signal transduction pathways can mediate the biological response of the Wnt proteins that include Dishevelled, beta-catenin, intracellular calcium, protein kinase C, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. Interestingly, these cellular cascades of the Wnt-Frizzled pathways can participate in several neurodegenerative, vascular, and cardiac disorders and may be closely integrated with the function of trophic factors. Identification of the critical elements that modulate the Wnt-Frizzled signaling pathway should continue to unlock the potential of Wnt pathway for the development of new therapeutic options against neurodegenerative and vascular diseases.

  6. Can we safely target the WNT pathway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    WNT–β-catenin signalling is involved in a multitude of developmental processes and the maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, genetic stability and apoptosis, as well as by maintaining adult stem cells in a pluripotent state. Not surprisingly, aberrant regulation of this pathway is therefore associated with a variety of diseases, including cancer, fibrosis and neurodegeneration. Despite this knowledge, therapeutic agents specifically targeting the WNT pathway have only recently entered clinical trials and none has yet been approved. This Review examines the problems and potential solutions to this vexing situation and attempts to bring them into perspective. PMID:24981364

  7. Antagonism between Hedgehog and Wnt signaling pathways regulates tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mei; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The crosstalk of multiple cellular signaling pathways is crucial in animal development and tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation may result in tumor formation and metastasis. The Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt signaling pathways are both considered to be essential regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation and oncogenesis. Recent studies have indicated that the Hh and Wnt signaling pathways are closely associated and involved in regulating embryogenesis and cellular differentiation. Hh signaling acts upstream of the Wnt signaling pathway, and negative regulates Wnt activity via secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway downregulates Hh activity through glioma-associated oncogene homolog 3 transcriptional regulation. This evidence suggests that the imbalance of Hh and Wnt regulation serves a crucial role in cancer-associated processes. The activation of SFRP1, which inhibits Wnt, has been demonstrated to be an important cross-point between the two signaling pathways. The present study reviews the complex interaction between the Hh and Wnt signaling pathways in embryogenesis and tumorigenicity, and the role of SFRP1 as an important mediator associated with the dysregulation of the Hh and Wnt signaling pathways.

  8. Probing the canonicity of the Wnt/Wingless signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Franz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling is the transcriptional induction of Wnt target genes by the beta-catenin/TCF complex. Several studies have proposed alternative interaction partners for beta-catenin or TCF, but the relevance of potential bifurcations in the distal Wnt pathway remains unclear. Here we study on a genome-wide scale the requirement for Armadillo (Arm, Drosophila beta-catenin and Pangolin (Pan, Drosophila TCF in the Wnt/Wingless(Wg-induced transcriptional response of Drosophila Kc cells. Using somatic genetics, we demonstrate that both Arm and Pan are absolutely required for mediating activation and repression of target genes. Furthermore, by means of STARR-sequencing we identified Wnt/Wg-responsive enhancer elements and found that all responsive enhancers depend on Pan. Together, our results confirm the dogma of canonical Wnt/Wg signaling and argue against the existence of distal pathway branches in this system.

  9. Wnt pathway in Dupuytren disease: connecting profibrotic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beuge, Marike M; Ten Dam, Evert-Jan P M; Werker, Paul M N; Bank, Ruud A

    2015-12-01

    A role of Wnt signaling in Dupuytren disease, a fibroproliferative disease of the hand and fingers, has not been fully elucidated. We examined a large set of Wnt pathway components and signaling targets and found significant dysregulation of 41 Wnt-related genes in tissue from the Dupuytren nodules compared with patient-matched control tissue. A large proportion of genes coding for Wnt proteins themselves was downregulated. However, both canonical Wnt targets and components of the noncanonical signaling pathway were upregulated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that protein expression of Wnt1-inducible secreted protein 1 (WISP1), a known Wnt target, was increased in nodules compared with control tissue, but knockdown of WISP1 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the Dupuytren myofibroblasts did not confirm a functional role. The protein expression of noncanonical pathway components Wnt5A and VANGL2 as well as noncanonical coreceptors Ror2 and Ryk was increased in nodules. On the contrary, the strongest downregulated genes in this study were 4 antagonists of Wnt signaling (DKK1, FRZB, SFRP1, and WIF1). Downregulation of these genes in the Dupuytren tissue was mimicked in vitro by treating normal fibroblasts with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), suggesting cross talk between different profibrotic pathways. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of these antagonists in normal fibroblasts led to increased nuclear translocation of Wnt target β-catenin in response to TGF-β1 treatment. In conclusion, we have shown extensive dysregulation of Wnt signaling in affected tissue from Dupuytren disease patients. Components of both the canonical and the noncanonical pathways are upregulated, whereas endogenous antagonists are downregulated, possibly via interaction with other profibrotic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Epigenetic regulation of the Hedgehog and Wnt pathways in cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, Leon J.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.

    2018-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) and wingless-Int1 (Wnt) pathways are important for tissue patterning in the developing embryo. In adult tissue, both pathways are typically dormant but are activated under certain conditions such as tissue damage. Aberrant activation of these pathways by mutations in key pathway

  11. Epilepsy and the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    forebrain development. The primary target is Wnt 8b, which is elevated in this period 4. Fox G1 is also genetically associated with infantile spasms 8...the Warburg effect’s role in non- cancerous tissues is largely unexplored. Second, in other diseases such as diabetes , Wnt signaling has emerged as...epilepsy and infantile spasms, we found that both mechanisms appeared to contribute. Two of the three genes came from our observation that several genes

  12. Niclosamide suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation via the Wnt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomizawa M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Tomizawa,1 Fuminobu Shinozaki,2 Yasufumi Motoyoshi,3 Takao Sugiyama,4 Shigenori Yamamoto,5 Makoto Sueishi,4 Takanobu Yoshida6 1Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Rheumatology, 5Department of Pediatrics, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital, Yotsukaido City, Chiba, Japan Background: The Wnt pathway plays an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis. We analyzed the association of the Wnt pathway with the proliferation of hepatoma cells using Wnt3a and niclosamide, a drug used to treat tapeworm infection. Methods: We performed an MTS assay to determine whether Wnt3a stimulated proliferation of Huh-6 and Hep3B human hepatoma cell lines after 72 hours of incubation with Wnt3a in serum-free medium. The cells were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL after 48 hours of incubation. RNA was isolated 48 hours after addition of Wnt3a or niclosamide, and cyclin D1 expression levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The promoter activity of T-cell factor was analyzed by luciferase assay 48 hours after transfection of TOPflash. Western blot analysis was performed with antibodies against β-catenin, dishevelled 2, and cyclin D1. Results: Cell proliferation increased with Wnt3a. Niclosamide suppressed proliferation with or without Wnt3a. Hematoxylin and eosin and TUNEL staining suggested that apoptosis occurred in cells with niclosamide. Cyclin D1 was upregulated in the presence of Wnt3a and downregulated with addition of niclosamide. The promoter activity of T-cell factor increased with Wnt3a, whereas T-cell factor promoter activity decreased with niclosamide. Western blot analysis showed that Wnt3a upregulated β-catenin, dishevelled 2, and cyclin D1, while niclosamide downregulated them. Conclusion: Niclosamide is a potential

  13. Targeting the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in cancer: Update on effectors and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Nithya; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2018-01-01

    The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is a family of proteins that is implicated in many vital cellular functions such as stem cell regeneration and organogenesis. Several intra-cellular signal transduction pathways are induced by Wnt, notably the Wnt/beta-catenin dependent pathway or canonical pathway and the non-canonical or beta-catenin-independent pathway; the latter includes the Wnt/Ca2+ and Planar Cell Polarity pathway (PCP). Wnt activation occurs at the intestinal crypt floor, and is critical to optimal maintenance of stem cells. Colorectal cancers show evidence of Wnt signaling pathway activation and this is associated with loss of function of the tumor regulator APC. Wnt activation has been observed in breast, lung, and hematopoietic malignancies and contributes to tumor recurrence. The Wnt pathway cross talks with the Notch and Sonic Hedgehog pathways, which has implications for therapeutic interventions in cancers. There are significant challenges in targeting the Wnt pathway, including finding agents that are efficacious without damaging the system of normal somatic stem cell function in cellular repair and tissue homeostasis. Here, we comprehensively review the Wnt pathway and its interactions with the Notch and Sonic Hedgehog pathways. We present the state of the field in effectors and inhibitors of Wnt signaling, including updates on clinical trials in various cancers with inhibitors of Wnt, Notch, and Sonic Hedgehog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Activation of the Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Signalling Pathway is Rare in Canine Malignant Melanoma Tissue and Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, E.; Thompson, V.; Schmid, S.; Stein, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Canine malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour associated with a poor overall survival rate due to both local disease recurrence and its highly metastatic nature. Similar to advanced melanoma in man, canine oral melanoma is poorly responsive to conventional anti-cancer therapies. The lack of sustainable disease control warrants investigation of novel therapies, preferably targeting features specific to the tumour and different from normal cells. The Wnt signalling pathway is known to contribute to melanocytic lineage development in vertebrates and perturbation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in numerous cancer types. Alterations of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are suggested to occur in a subset of human melanomas, although the precise role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in melanoma is yet to be defined. This study investigates the activation status of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway in canine malignant melanoma and its potential as a therapeutic target for treating this disease. The data indicate canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is a rare event in canine oral malignant melanoma tissue and canine malignant melanoma cell lines. PMID:22901430

  15. Metastatic tumor antigen 3 is a direct corepressor of the Wnt4 pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hao; Singh, Rajesh R.; Talukder, Amjad H.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2006-01-01

    Here we show that expression of MTA3 inhibits ductal branching in virgin and pregnant murine transgenic mammary glands. MTA3 also suppresses the Wnt4 pathway and, thus, these findings parallel phenotypic changes in Wnt4-null mice. MTA3 represses Wnt4 transcription and Wnt4 secretion, inhibiting Wnt-target genes in mammary epithelial cells. Accordingly, knockdown of endogenous MTA3 stimulates Wnt4 expression and Wnt cellular targets. The MTA3–NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase) comple...

  16. Toward a quantitative understanding of the Wnt/ β -catenin pathway through simulation and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Lloyd-Lewis, Bethan; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Dale, Trevor C.; Byrne, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Wnt signaling regulates cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation throughout development and is aberrantly regulated in cancer. The pathway is activated when Wnt ligands bind to specific receptors on the cell surface, resulting

  17. Aberrant Wnt signaling pathway in medial temporal lobe structures of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riise, Jesper; Plath, Niels; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    alterations of the intracellular Wnt pathway signaling components β-catenin, Gsk3β and Tcf7l1/Tcf3 and the phosphorylation state of β-catenin and Gsk3β in the hippocampus suggestive of a link between AD and aberrant canonical activity. Alterations in Gsk3β co-appeared with hippocampal kinase...... on isolated Wnt pathway components. Here, we provide the first comprehensive pathway-focused evaluation of the Wnt pathway in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of AD brains. Our data demonstrate altered Wnt pathway gene expression at all levels of the pathway in both medial temporal lobe regions...

  18. Genome-wide analysis of a Wnt1-regulated transcriptional network implicates neurodegenerative pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Eric M; Rosen, Ezra; Lu, Daning; Osborn, Gregory E; Martin, Elizabeth; Raybould, Helen; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2011-10-04

    Wnt proteins are critical to mammalian brain development and function. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway involves the stabilization and nuclear translocation of β-catenin; however, Wnt also signals through alternative, noncanonical pathways. To gain a systems-level, genome-wide view of Wnt signaling, we analyzed Wnt1-stimulated changes in gene expression by transcriptional microarray analysis in cultured human neural progenitor (hNP) cells at multiple time points over a 72-hour time course. We observed a widespread oscillatory-like pattern of changes in gene expression, involving components of both the canonical and the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways. A higher-order, systems-level analysis that combined independent component analysis, waveform analysis, and mutual information-based network construction revealed effects on pathways related to cell death and neurodegenerative disease. Wnt effectors were tightly clustered with presenilin1 (PSEN1) and granulin (GRN), which cause dominantly inherited forms of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), respectively. We further explored a potential link between Wnt1 and GRN and found that Wnt1 decreased GRN expression by hNPs. Conversely, GRN knockdown increased WNT1 expression, demonstrating that Wnt and GRN reciprocally regulate each other. Finally, we provided in vivo validation of the in vitro findings by analyzing gene expression data from individuals with FTD. These unbiased and genome-wide analyses provide evidence for a connection between Wnt signaling and the transcriptional regulation of neurodegenerative disease genes.

  19. Wnt3a regulates proliferation and migration of HUVEC via canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarzija, Ivana; Sini, Patrizia; Schlange, Thomas; MacDonald, Gwen; Hynes, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    Untangling the signaling pathways involved in endothelial cell biology is of central interest for the development of antiangiogenesis based therapies. Here we report that Wnt3a induces the proliferation and migration of HUVECs, but does not affect their survival. Wnt3a-induced proliferation was VEGFR signaling independent, but reduced upon CamKII inhibition. In a search for the downstream mediators of Wnt3a's effects on HUVEC biology, we found that Wnt3a treatment leads to phosphorylation of DVL3 and stabilization of β-catenin. Moreover, under the same conditions we observed an upregulation in c-MYC, TIE-2 and GJA1 mRNA transcripts. Although treatment of HUVECs with Wnt5a induced DVL3 phosphorylation, we did not observe any of the other effects seen upon Wnt3a stimulation. Taken together, our data indicate that Wnt3a induces canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling in HUVECs, and stimulates their proliferation and migration.

  20. APC Inhibits Ligand-Independent Wnt Signaling by the Clathrin Endocytic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Diaz, Kenyi; Benchabane, Hassina; Tiwari, Ajit; Tian, Ai; Li, Bin; Thompson, Joshua J; Hyde, Annastasia S; Sawyer, Leah M; Jodoin, Jeanne N; Santos, Eduardo; Lee, Laura A; Coffey, Robert J; Beauchamp, R Daniel; Williams, Christopher S; Kenworthy, Anne K; Robbins, David J; Ahmed, Yashi; Lee, Ethan

    2018-03-12

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations cause Wnt pathway activation in human cancers. Current models for APC action emphasize its role in promoting β-catenin degradation downstream of Wnt receptors. Unexpectedly, we find that blocking Wnt receptor activity in APC-deficient cells inhibits Wnt signaling independently of Wnt ligand. We also show that inducible loss of APC is rapidly followed by Wnt receptor activation and increased β-catenin levels. In contrast, APC2 loss does not promote receptor activation. We show that APC exists in a complex with clathrin and that Wnt pathway activation in APC-deficient cells requires clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Finally, we demonstrate conservation of this mechanism in Drosophila intestinal stem cells. We propose a model in which APC and APC2 function to promote β-catenin degradation, and APC also acts as a molecular "gatekeeper" to block receptor activation via the clathrin pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Wnt signaling pathway in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Scott M; Andreoli, Christopher M; Mukai, Shizuo

    2007-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is highly conserved among species and has an important role in many cell biological processes throughout the body. This signaling cascade is involved in regulating ocular growth and development, and recent findings indicate that this is particularly true in the retina. Mutations involving different aspects of the Wnt signaling pathway are being linked to several diseases of retinal development. The aim of this article is to first review the Wnt signaling pathway. We will then describe two conditions, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) and Norrie disease (ND), which have been shown to be caused in part by defects in the Wnt signaling cascade.

  2. Involvement of wnt signaling pathways in the metamorphosis of the bryozoan bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him

    2012-03-20

    In this study, we analyzed the metamorphosis of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. We observed the morphogenesis of the ancestrula. We defined three distinct pre-ancestrula stages based on the anatomy of the developing polypide and the overall morphology of pre-ancestrula. We then used an annotation based enrichment analysis tool to analyze the B. neritina transcriptome and identified over-representation of genes related to Wnt signaling pathways, suggesting its involvement in metamorphosis. Finally, we studied the temporal-spatial gene expression studies of several Wnt pathway genes. We found that one of the Wnt ligand, BnWnt10, was expressed spatially opposite to the Wnt antagonist BnsFRP within the blastemas, which is the presumptive polypide. Down-stream components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway were exclusively expressed in the blastemas. Bn?catenin and BnFz5/8 were exclusively expressed in the blastemas throughout the metamorphosis. Based on the genes expression patterns, we propose that BnWnt10 and BnsFRP may relate to the patterning of the polypide, in which the two genes served as positional signals and contributed to the polarization of the blastemas. Another Wnt ligand, BnWnt6, was expressed in the apical part of the pre-ancestrula epidermis. Overall, our findings suggest that the Wnt signaling pathway may be important to the pattern formation of polypide and the development of epidermis. © 2012 Wong et al.

  3. Involvement of wnt signaling pathways in the metamorphosis of the bryozoan bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him; Wang, Hao; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the metamorphosis of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. We observed the morphogenesis of the ancestrula. We defined three distinct pre-ancestrula stages based on the anatomy of the developing polypide and the overall morphology of pre-ancestrula. We then used an annotation based enrichment analysis tool to analyze the B. neritina transcriptome and identified over-representation of genes related to Wnt signaling pathways, suggesting its involvement in metamorphosis. Finally, we studied the temporal-spatial gene expression studies of several Wnt pathway genes. We found that one of the Wnt ligand, BnWnt10, was expressed spatially opposite to the Wnt antagonist BnsFRP within the blastemas, which is the presumptive polypide. Down-stream components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway were exclusively expressed in the blastemas. Bn?catenin and BnFz5/8 were exclusively expressed in the blastemas throughout the metamorphosis. Based on the genes expression patterns, we propose that BnWnt10 and BnsFRP may relate to the patterning of the polypide, in which the two genes served as positional signals and contributed to the polarization of the blastemas. Another Wnt ligand, BnWnt6, was expressed in the apical part of the pre-ancestrula epidermis. Overall, our findings suggest that the Wnt signaling pathway may be important to the pattern formation of polypide and the development of epidermis. © 2012 Wong et al.

  4. WNT2B2 mRNA, up-regulated in primary gastric cancer, is a positive regulator of the WNT- beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M; Kirikoshi, H; Terasaki, H; Shiokawa, K

    2001-12-21

    Genetic alterations of WNT signaling molecules lead to carcinogenesis through activation of the beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway. We have previously cloned and characterized WNT2B/WNT13 gene on human chromosome 1p13, which is homologous to proto-oncogene WNT2 on human chromosome 7q31. WNT2B1 and WNT2B2 mRNAs, generated from the WNT2B gene due to alternative splicing of the alternative promoter type, encode almost identical polypeptides with divergence in the N-terminal region. WNT2B2 mRNA rather than WNT2B1 mRNA is preferentially expressed in NT2 cells with the potential of neuronal differentiation. Here, we describe our investigations of expression of WNT2B mRNAs in various types of human primary cancer. Matched tumor/normal expression array analysis revealed that WNT2B mRNAs were significantly up-regulated in 2 of 8 cases of primary gastric cancer. WNT2B2 mRNA rather than WNT2B1 mRNA was found to be preferentially up-regulated in a case of primary gastric cancer (signet ring cell carcinoma). Function of WNT2B1 mRNA and that of WNT2B2 mRNA were investigated by using Xenopus axis duplication assay. Injection of synthetic WNT2B1 mRNA into the ventral marginal zone of fertilized Xenopus eggs at the 4-cell stage did not induce axis duplication. In contrast, ventral injection of synthetic WNT2B2 mRNA induced axis duplication in 90% of embryos (complete axis duplication, 24%). These results strongly suggest that WNT2B2 up-regulation in some cases of gastric cancer might lead to carcinogenesis through activation of the beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway.

  5. Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1 Inhibits Wnt Signaling Pathway in Vivo and in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuejiao; Wen, Libin; Sheng, Shaoyang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Qi; Qu, Meng; Hu, Yiyi; Liu, Chuanmin; He, Kongwang

    2018-01-01

    Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro . Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro , elucidated the mechanism of P1's inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.

  6. Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1 Inhibits Wnt Signaling Pathway in Vivo and in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro. Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro, elucidated the mechanism of P1’s inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.

  7. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is deregulated in cemento-ossifying fibromas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thaís Dos Santos Fontes; Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; França, Josiane Alves; Moreira, Rennan Garcias; Menezes, Grazielle Helena Ferreira de; Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira de; Castro, Wagner Henriques de; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2018-02-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of cemento ossifying fibroma (COF) is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate mutations in 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, including APC and CTNNB1, in which mutations in COF have been previously reported. In addition, we assessed the transcriptional levels of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway genes in COF. We used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction array to evaluate the transcriptional levels of 44 Wnt/β-catenin pathway genes in 6 COF samples, in comparison with 6 samples of healthy jaws. By using next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 7 COF samples, we investigated approximately 2800 mutations in 50 genes. The expression assay revealed 12 differentially expressed Wnt/β-catenin pathway genes in COF, including the upregulation of CTNNB1, TCF7, NKD1, and WNT5 A, and downregulation of CTNNBIP1, FRZB, FZD6, RHOU, SFRP4, WNT10 A, WNT3 A, and WNT4, suggesting activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. NGS revealed 5 single nucleotide variants: TP53 (rs1042522), PIK3 CA (rs2230461), MET (rs33917957), KIT (rs3822214), and APC (rs33974176), but none of them was pathogenic. Although NGS detected no oncogenic mutation, deregulation of key Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway genes appears to be relevant to the molecular pathogenesis of COF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of the evidence for the canonical Wnt pathway in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalkman Hans

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microdeletion and microduplication copy number variations are found in patients with autism spectrum disorder and in a number of cases they include genes that are involved in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway (for example, FZD9, BCL9 or CDH8. Association studies investigating WNT2, DISC1, MET, DOCK4 or AHI1 also provide evidence that the canonical Wnt pathway might be affected in autism. Prenatal medication with sodium-valproate or antidepressant drugs increases autism risk. In animal studies, it has been found that these medications promote Wnt signaling, including among others an increase in Wnt2 gene expression. Notably, the available genetic information indicates that not only canonical Wnt pathway activation, but also inhibition seems to increase autism risk. The canonical Wnt pathway plays a role in dendrite growth and suboptimal activity negatively affects the dendritic arbor. In principle, this provides a logical explanation as to why both hypo- and hyperactivity may generate a similar set of behavioral and cognitive symptoms. However, without a validated biomarker to stratify for deviant canonical Wnt pathway activity, it is probably too dangerous to treat patients with compounds that modify pathway activity.

  9. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu; Boyer, Arthur; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  10. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States); Boyer, Arthur [Department of Radiology, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, Texas (United States); Liu, Fei, E-mail: fliu@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  11. Discovery and characterization of a potent Wnt and hedgehog signaling pathways dual inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haikuo; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Fang; Zheng, Jiyue; Li, Jiajun; Zhang, Hongjian; Chen, Shuaishuai; Xing, Haimei; Luo, Lusong; Zheng, Long Tai; He, Sudan; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2018-04-10

    Embryonic stem cell pathways such as hedgehog and Wnt pathways are central to the tumorigenic properties of cancer stem cells (CSC). Since CSCs are characterized by their ability to self-renew, form differentiated progeny, and develop resistance to anticancer therapies, targeting the Wnt and hedgehog signaling pathways has been an important strategy for cancer treatment. Although molecules targeting either Wnt or hedgehog are common, to the best of our knowledge, those targeting both pathways have not been documented. Here we report a small molecule (compound 1) that inhibits both Wnt (IC 50  = 0.5 nM) and hedgehog (IC 50  = 71 nM) pathways based on reporter gene assays. We further identified that the molecular target of 1 for Wnt pathway inhibition was porcupine (a member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase family of proteins), a post-translational modification node in Wnt signaling; while the target of 1 mitigating hedgehog pathway was Smoothened, a key G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mediating hedgehog signal transduction. Preliminary analysis of structure-activity-relationship identified key functional elements for hedgehog/Wnt inhibition. In in vivo studies, compound 1 demonstrated good oral exposure and bioavailability while eliciting no overt toxicity in mice. An important consideration in cancer treatment is the potential therapeutic escape through compensatory activation of an interconnected pathway when only one signaling pathway is inhibited. Toward this end, compound 1 may not only lead to the development of new therapeutics for Wnt and hedgehog related cancers, but may also help to develop potential cancer treatment which needs to target Wnt and hedgehog signaling simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Dissecting the Wnt secretion pathway: key questions on the modification and intracellular trafficking of Wnt proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harterink, M.; Korswagen, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wnt family of signalling proteins has essential functions in development and adult tissue homoeostasis throughout the animal kingdom. Although signalling cascades triggered by Wnt proteins have been extensively studied, much remains to be learned about how Wnts are produced and secreted. Over

  13. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of Wnt signaling pathway during the development of temporomandibular condylar cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Quan, Huixin; Chen, Gang; Xiao, Di

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing body of evidence supporting the involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway in various aspects of skeletal and joint development; however, it is unclear whether it is involved in the process of temporomandibular joint development. In order to clarify this issue, we examined the spatio-temporal distribution of mRNAs and proteins of the Wnt family during the formation of the mandibular condylar cartilage at the prenatal and postnatal stages. An in situ hybridization test revealed no mRNAs of β-catenin and Axin2 during early mesenchymal condensation; the ligands surveyed in this study (including Wnt-4, 5a, and 9a) were clearly detected at various ranges of expression, mainly in the condylar blastema and later distinct cartilaginous layers. Apart from β-catenin and Axin2, the Wnt family members surveyed in this study, including Lef-1, were found to be immunopositive during early chondrogenesis in the condylar cartilage at E14.5. After distinct chondrocyte layers were identified within the cartilage at E16.5, the expression of the Wnt signaling members was different and mainly restricted to proliferating cells and mineralized hypertrophic chondrocytes. In the adult mandibular condylar cartilage, the Wnt-4 mRNA, as well as the Wnt-4 and Wnt-9a proteins, was not observed. Our findings demonstrated that the Wnt signaling pathway was associated with the development of mandibular condylar cartilage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Wnt/β-catenin pathway in tissue injury: roles in pathology and therapeutic opportunities for regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastakoty, Dikshya; Young, Pampee P.

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is an evolutionarily conserved set of signals with critical roles in embryonic and neonatal development across species. In mammals the pathway is quiescent in many organs. It is reactivated in response to injury and is reported to play complex and contrasting roles in promoting regeneration and fibrosis. We review the current understanding of the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in injury of various mammalian organs and discuss the current advances and potential of Wnt inhibitory therapeutics toward promoting tissue regeneration and reducing fibrosis.—Bastakoty, D., Young, P. P. Wnt/β-catenin pathway in tissue injury: roles in pathology and therapeutic opportunities for regeneration. PMID:27335371

  15. Wnt pathway reprogramming during human embryonal carcinoma differentiation and potential for therapeutic targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, Grace E; Kasper, Allison C; Busch, Alexander M; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Ewings, Katherine E; Bee, Thomas; Spinella, Michael J; Dmitrovsky, Ethan; Freemantle, Sarah J

    2009-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are classified as seminonas or non-seminomas of which a major subset is embryonal carcinoma (EC) that can differentiate into diverse tissues. The pluripotent nature of human ECs resembles that of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Many Wnt signalling species are regulated during differentiation of TGCT-derived EC cells. This study comprehensively investigated expression profiles of Wnt signalling components regulated during induced differentiation of EC cells and explored the role of key components in maintaining pluripotency. Human embryonal carcinoma cells were stably infected with a lentiviral construct carrying a canonical Wnt responsive reporter to assess Wnt signalling activity following induced differentiation. Cells were differentiated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA) or by targeted repression of pluripotency factor, POU5F1. A Wnt pathway real-time-PCR array was used to evaluate changes in gene expression as cells differentiated. Highlighted Wnt pathway genes were then specifically repressed using siRNA or stable shRNA and transfected EC cells were assessed for proliferation, differentiation status and levels of core pluripotency genes. Canonical Wnt signalling activity was low basally in undifferentiated EC cells, but substantially increased with induced differentiation. Wnt pathway gene expression levels were compared during induced differentiation and many components were altered including ligands (WNT2B), receptors (FZD5, FZD6, FZD10), secreted inhibitors (SFRP4, SFRP1), and other effectors of Wnt signalling (FRAT2, DAAM1, PITX2, Porcupine). Independent repression of FZD5, FZD7 and WNT5A using transient as well as stable methods of RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited cell growth of pluripotent NT2/D1 human EC cells, but did not appreciably induce differentiation or repress key pluripotency genes. Silencing of FZD7 gave the greatest growth suppression in all human EC cell lines tested including NT2/D1, NT2/D1-R1, Tera-1 and 833

  16. M2 macrophages activate WNT signaling pathway in epithelial cells: relevance in ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cosín-Roger

    Full Text Available Macrophages, which exhibit great plasticity, are important components of the inflamed tissue and constitute an essential element of regenerative responses. Epithelial Wnt signalling is involved in mechanisms of proliferation and differentiation and expression of Wnt ligands by macrophages has been reported. We aim to determine whether the macrophage phenotype determines the expression of Wnt ligands, the influence of the macrophage phenotype in epithelial activation of Wnt signalling and the relevance of this pathway in ulcerative colitis. Human monocyte-derived macrophages and U937-derived macrophages were polarized towards M1 or M2 phenotypes and the expression of Wnt1 and Wnt3a was analyzed by qPCR. The effects of macrophages and the role of Wnt1 were analyzed on the expression of β-catenin, Tcf-4, c-Myc and markers of cell differentiation in a co-culture system with Caco-2 cells. Immunohistochemical staining of CD68, CD206, CD86, Wnt1, β-catenin and c-Myc were evaluated in the damaged and non-damaged mucosa of patients with UC. We also determined the mRNA expression of Lgr5 and c-Myc by qPCR and protein levels of β-catenin by western blot. Results show that M2, and no M1, activated the Wnt signaling pathway in co-culture epithelial cells through Wnt1 which impaired enterocyte differentiation. A significant increase in the number of CD206+ macrophages was observed in the damaged mucosa of chronic vs newly diagnosed patients. CD206 immunostaining co-localized with Wnt1 in the mucosa and these cells were associated with activation of canonical Wnt signalling pathway in epithelial cells and diminution of alkaline phosphatase activity. Our results show that M2 macrophages, and not M1, activate Wnt signalling pathways and decrease enterocyte differentiation in co-cultured epithelial cells. In the mucosa of UC patients, M2 macrophages increase with chronicity and are associated with activation of epithelial Wnt signalling and diminution in

  17. The role of APC in WNT pathway activation in serrated neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Jennifer; Dumenil, Troy; Bettington, Mark; Pearson, Sally-Ann; Bond, Catherine; Fennell, Lochlan; Liu, Cheng; McKeone, Diane; Rosty, Christophe; Brown, Ian; Walker, Neal; Leggett, Barbara; Whitehall, Vicki

    2018-03-01

    Conventional adenomas are initiated by APC gene mutation that activates the WNT signal. Serrated neoplasia is commonly initiated by BRAF or KRAS mutation. WNT pathway activation may also occur, however, to what extent this is owing to APC mutation is unknown. We examined aberrant nuclear β-catenin immunolocalization as a surrogate for WNT pathway activation and analyzed the entire APC gene coding sequence in serrated and conventional pathway polyps and cancers. WNT pathway activation was a common event in conventional pathway lesions with aberrant nuclear immunolocalization of β-catenin and truncating APC mutations in 90% and 89% of conventional adenomas and 82% and 70% of BRAF wild-type cancers, respectively. WNT pathway activation was seen to a lesser extent in serrated pathway lesions. It occurred at the transition to dysplasia in serrated polyps with a significant increase in nuclear β-catenin labeling from sessile serrated adenomas (10%) to sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia (55%) and traditional serrated adenomas (9%) to traditional serrated adenomas with dysplasia (39%) (P=0.0001). However, unlike the conventional pathway, truncating APC mutations were rare in the serrated pathway lesions especially sessile serrated adenomas even when dysplastic (15%) and in the BRAF mutant cancers with microsatellite instability that arise from them (8%). In contrast, APC missense mutations that were rare in conventional pathway adenomas and cancers (3% in BRAF wild-type cancers) were more frequent in BRAF mutant cancers with microsatellite instability (32%). We conclude that increased WNT signaling is important in the transition to malignancy in the serrated pathway but that APC mutation is less common and the spectrum of mutations is different than in conventional colorectal carcinogenesis. Moderate impact APC mutations and non-APC-related causes of increased WNT signaling may have a more important role in serrated neoplasia than the truncating APC mutations

  18. Targeting Wnt signaling in colorectal cancer. A Review in the Theme: Cell Signaling: Proteins, Pathways and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellasdemunt, Laura; Antas, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Wnt signaling pathway plays essential roles during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Notably, comprehensive genetic studies in Drosophila and mice in the past decades have demonstrated the crucial role of Wnt signaling in intestinal stem cell maintenance by regulating proliferation, differentiation, and cell-fate decisions. Wnt signaling has also been implicated in a variety of cancers and other diseases. Loss of the Wnt pathway negative regulator adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is the hallmark of human colorectal cancers (CRC). Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing further reveal many novel recurrent Wnt pathway mutations in addition to the well-characterized APC and β-catenin mutations in CRC. Despite attractive strategies to develop drugs for Wnt signaling, major hurdles in therapeutic intervention of the pathway persist. Here we discuss the Wnt-activating mechanisms in CRC and review the current advances and challenges in drug discovery. PMID:26289750

  19. Toward a quantitative understanding of the Wnt/ β -catenin pathway through simulation and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Lloyd-Lewis, Bethan

    2013-03-29

    Wnt signaling regulates cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation throughout development and is aberrantly regulated in cancer. The pathway is activated when Wnt ligands bind to specific receptors on the cell surface, resulting in the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of the transcriptional co-activator β-catenin. Mathematical and computational models have been used to study the spatial and temporal regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and to investigate the functional impact of mutations in key components. Such models range in complexity, from time-dependent, ordinary differential equations that describe the biochemical interactions between key pathway components within a single cell, to complex, multiscale models that incorporate the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway target genes in tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis. This review aims to summarize recent progress in mathematical modeling of the Wnt pathway and to highlight new biological results that could form the basis for future theoretical investigations designed to increase the utility of theoretical models of Wnt signaling in the biomedical arena. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Interactions Between the Canonical WNT/Beta-Catenin Pathway and PPAR Gamma on Neuroinflammation, Demyelination, and Remyelination in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Alexandre; Vallée, Jean-Noël; Guillevin, Rémy; Lecarpentier, Yves

    2018-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is marked by neuroinflammation and demyelination with loss of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. The immune response is regulated by WNT/beta-catenin pathway in MS. Activated NF-kappaB, a major effector of neuroinflammation, and upregulated canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway positively regulate each other. Demyelinating events present an upregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway, whereas proper myelinating phases show a downregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway essential for the promotion of oligodendrocytes precursors cells proliferation and differentiation. The activation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway results in differentiation failure and impairment in remyelination. However, PI3K/Akt pathway and TCF7L2, two downstream targets of WNT/beta-catenin pathway, are upregulated and promote proper remyelination. The interactions of these signaling pathways remain unclear. PPAR gamma activation can inhibit NF-kappaB, and can also downregulate the WNT/beta-catenin pathway. PPAR gamma and canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway act in an opposite manner. PPAR gamma agonists appear as a promising treatment for the inhibition of demyelination and the promotion of proper remyelination through the control of both NF-kappaB activity and canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway.

  1. Interrelationship of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling pathways in chronic metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackers, Ian; Malgor, Ramiro

    2018-01-01

    Chronic diseases account for approximately 45% of all deaths in developed countries and are particularly prevalent in countries with the most sophisticated and robust public health systems. Chronic metabolic diseases, specifically lifestyle-related diseases pertaining to diet and exercise, continue to be difficult to treat clinically. The most prevalent of these chronic metabolic diseases include obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease and will be the focus of this review. Wnt proteins are highly conserved glycoproteins best known for their role in development and homeostasis of tissues. Given the importance of Wnt signalling in homeostasis, aberrant Wnt signalling likely regulates metabolic processes and may contribute to the development of chronic metabolic diseases. Expression of Wnt proteins and dysfunctional Wnt signalling has been reported in multiple chronic diseases. It is interesting to speculate about an interrelationship between the Wnt signalling pathways as a potential pathological mechanism in chronic metabolic diseases. The aim of this review is to summarize reported findings on the contrasting roles of Wnt signalling in lifestyle-related chronic metabolic diseases; specifically, the contribution of Wnt signalling to lipid accumulation, fibrosis and chronic low-grade inflammation.

  2. High-frequency deregulated expression of Wnt signaling pathway members in breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zahid; Arafah, Maha; Shaik, Jilani Purusottapatnam; Mahale, Alka; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud

    2018-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy and leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide including Saudi Arabia. Breast cancer in Saudi women develops at a much early age with median age of onset of 49 years compared to 62 years observed in patients from USA. Aberrations in wingless and integration site growth factor (Wnt) signaling pathway have been pathologically implicated in development of breast cancers and hence its role was examined in Saudi patients. We immunohistochemically examined various components of Wnt signaling pathway including β-catenin, tumor suppressor proteins, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and Axin, expression of naturally occurring pathway antagonists such as Dickkopf Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor 3 (DKK3), FRP2, and WIF1, as well as Wnt target cyclin D1 and c-Myc to establish if the pathway is constitutively activated in breast cancers arising in Saudi women. Cytoplasmic β-catenin, indicative of activation of the pathway, was observed in 24% of cases. Expression of APC and Axin, which are components of β-catenin destruction complex, was lost in 5% and 10% of tumors, respectively. Additionally, Wnt signaling inhibitors DKK3, FRP2, and Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) were not expressed in 8%, 14%, and 5% breast tumors, respectively. Overall, accumulation of cytoplasmic β-catenin and downregulation of other Wnt pathway proteins (APC/Axin/DKK3/FRP2/WIF1) were found in approximately half of the breast cancers (47%) in our cohort. Consistent with this, analysis of Wnt target genes demonstrated moderate-to-strong expression of c-Myc in 58% and cyclin D1 in 50% of breast cancers. Deregulation of Wnt pathway was not associated with age of onset of the disease, tumor grade, and triple-negative status of breast cancers. High level of deregulated expression of Wnt pathway proteins suggests its important role in pathogenesis of breast cancers arising in Saudi women who may benefit from development of therapeutic drugs

  3. Inhibition of Wnt Signaling Pathways Impairs Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Endometrial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, Jennifer; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Butler, Megan; Hall, Jennifer V

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent the predominant cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. As an obligate intracellular bacterium, C. trachomatis is dependent on the host cell for survival, propagation, and transmission. Thus, factors that affect the host cell, including nutrition, cell cycle, and environmental signals, have the potential to impact chlamydial development. Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling benefits C. trachomatis infections in fallopian tube epithelia. In cervical epithelial cells chlamydiae sequester β-catenin within the inclusion. These data indicate that chlamydiae interact with the Wnt signaling pathway in both the upper and lower female genital tract (FGT). However, hormonal activation of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways is an essential component of cyclic remodeling in another prominent area of the FGT, the endometrium. Given this information, we hypothesized that Wnt signaling would impact chlamydial infection in endometrial epithelial cells. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed the effect of Wnt inhibition on chlamydial inclusion development and elementary body (EB) production in two endometrial cell lines, Ishikawa (IK) and Hec-1B, in nonpolarized cell culture and in a polarized endometrial epithelial (IK)/stromal (SHT-290) cell co-culture model. Inhibition of Wnt by the small molecule inhibitor (IWP2) significantly decreased inclusion size in IK and IK/SHT-290 cultures ( p Wnt inhibition caused chlamydiae to become aberrant in morphology. EB formation was also impaired in IK, Hec-1B and IK/SHT-290 cultures regardless of whether Wnt inhibition occurred throughout, in the middle (24 hpi) or late (36 hpi) during the development cycle. Overall, these data lead us to conclude that Wnt signaling in the endometrium is a key host pathway for the proper development of C. trachomatis .

  4. Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis in kainic acid-induced epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhengyi; Su, Fang; Qi, Xueting; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Hongcai; Qiao, Zhenkui; Zhao, Hong; Zhu, Yulan

    2017-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis with massive neuronal loss and severe gliosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant neurogenesis remain unclear. The roles of Wnt signalling cascade have been well established in neurogenesis during multiple aspects. Here, we used kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy model to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the aberrant neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy. Immunostaining and western blotting results showed that the expression levels of β-catenin, Wnt3a, and cyclin D1, the key regulators in Wnt signalling pathway, were up-regulated during acute epilepsy induced by the injection of kainic acids, indicating that Wnt signalling pathway was activated in kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy. Moreover, BrdU labelling results showed that blockade of the Wnt signalling by knocking down β-catenin attenuated aberrant neurogenesis induced by kainic acids injection. Altogether, Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated hippocampal neurogenesis during epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown to involve in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, we discovered that Wnt3a/β-catenin signalling pathway serves as a link between aberrant neurogenesis and underlying remodelling in the hippocampus, leading to temporal lobe epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Emerging Role and Therapeutic Implication of Wnt Signaling Pathways in Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juan; Chi, Shuhong; Xue, Jing; Yang, Jiali; Li, Feng; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a key role in many biological aspects, such as cellular proliferation, tissue regeneration, embryonic development, and other systemic effects. Under a physiological condition, it is tightly controlled at different layers and arrays, and a dysregulated activation of this signaling has been implicated into the pathogenesis of various human disorders, including autoimmune diseases. Despite the fact that therapeutic interventions are available for ameliorating disease manifestations, there is no curative therapy currently available for autoimmune disorders. Increasing lines of evidence have suggested a crucial role of Wnt signaling during the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases; in addition, some of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules capable of transcriptionally regulating gene expression, have also recently been demonstrated to possess both physiological and pathological roles in autoimmune diseases by regulating the Wnt signaling pathway. This review summarizes currently our understanding of the pathogenic roles of Wnt signaling in several major autoimmune disorders and miRNAs, those targeting Wnt signaling in autoimmune diseases, with a focus on the implication of the Wnt signaling as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in immune diseases, as well as miRNA-mediated regulation of Wnt signaling activation in the development of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27110577

  6. Emerging Role and Therapeutic Implication of Wnt Signaling Pathways in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt signaling pathway plays a key role in many biological aspects, such as cellular proliferation, tissue regeneration, embryonic development, and other systemic effects. Under a physiological condition, it is tightly controlled at different layers and arrays, and a dysregulated activation of this signaling has been implicated into the pathogenesis of various human disorders, including autoimmune diseases. Despite the fact that therapeutic interventions are available for ameliorating disease manifestations, there is no curative therapy currently available for autoimmune disorders. Increasing lines of evidence have suggested a crucial role of Wnt signaling during the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases; in addition, some of microRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules capable of transcriptionally regulating gene expression, have also recently been demonstrated to possess both physiological and pathological roles in autoimmune diseases by regulating the Wnt signaling pathway. This review summarizes currently our understanding of the pathogenic roles of Wnt signaling in several major autoimmune disorders and miRNAs, those targeting Wnt signaling in autoimmune diseases, with a focus on the implication of the Wnt signaling as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in immune diseases, as well as miRNA-mediated regulation of Wnt signaling activation in the development of autoimmune diseases.

  7. A Biochemical Screen for Identification of Small-Molecule Regulators of the Wnt Pathway Using Xenopus Egg Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Curtis A.; Lafleur, Bonnie; Lewis, Michelle; Hanson, Alison J.; Jernigan, Kristin K.; Weaver, David C.; Huppert, Kari A.; Chen, Tony W.; Wichadiit, Chonlarat; Cselenyi, Christopher S.; Tahinci, Emilios; Meyers, Kelly C.; Waskow, Emily; Orton, Darren; Salic, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Misregulation of the Wnt pathway has been shown to be responsible for a variety of human diseases, most notably cancers. Screens for inhibitors of this pathway have been performed almost exclusively using cultured mammalian cells or with purified proteins. We have previously developed a biochemical assay using Xenopus egg extracts to recapitulate key cytoplasmic events in the Wnt pathway. Using this biochemical system, we show that a recombinant form of the Wnt coreceptor, LRP6, regulates the...

  8. R-spondin1 Controls Muscle Cell Fusion through Dual Regulation of Antagonistic Wnt Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriane Lacour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wnt-mediated signals are involved in many important steps in mammalian regeneration. In multiple cell types, the R-spondin (Rspo family of secreted proteins potently activates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Here, we identify Rspo1 as a mediator of skeletal muscle tissue repair. First, we show that deletion of Rspo1 results in global alteration of muscle regeneration kinetics following acute injury. We find that muscle progenitor cells lacking Rspo1 show delayed differentiation due to reduced activation of Wnt/β-catenin target genes. Furthermore, muscle cells lacking Rspo1 have a fusion phenotype leading to larger myotubes containing supernumerary nuclei both in vitro and in vivo. The increase in muscle fusion was dependent on downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin and upregulation of non-canonical Wnt7a/Fzd7/Rac1 signaling. We conclude that reciprocal control of antagonistic Wnt signaling pathways by Rspo1 in muscle stem cell progeny is a key step ensuring normal tissue architecture restoration following acute damage.

  9. Cellular demise and inflammatory microglial activation during beta-amyloid toxicity are governed by Wnt1 and canonical signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Zhao Zhong; Li, Faqi; Maiese, Kenneth

    2007-06-01

    Initially described as a modulator of embryogenesis for a number of organ systems, Wnt1 has recently been linked to the development of several neurodegenerative disorders, none being of greater significance than Alzheimer's disease. We therefore examined the ability of Wnt1 to oversee vital pathways responsible for cell survival during beta-amyloid (Abeta1-42) exposure. Here we show that Wnt1 is critical for protection in the SH-SY5Y neuronal cell line against genomic DNA degradation, membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, and microglial activation, since these neuroprotective attributes of Wnt1 are lost during gene silencing of Wnt1 protein expression. Intimately tied to Wnt1 protection is the presence and activation of Akt1. Pharmacological inhibition of the PI 3-K pathway or gene silencing of Akt1 expression can abrogate the protective capacity of Wnt1. Closely aligned with Wnt1 and Akt1 are the integrated canonical pathways of synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and beta-catenin. Through Akt1 dependent pathways, Wnt1 phosphorylates GSK-3beta and maintains beta-catenin integrity to insure its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus to block apoptosis. Our work outlines a highly novel role for Wnt1 and its integration with Akt1, GSK-3beta, and beta-catenin to foster neuronal cell survival and repress inflammatory microglial activation that can identify new avenues of therapy against neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates ABCB1 transcription in chronic myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrêa, Stephany; Binato, Renata; Du Rocher, Bárbara; Castelo-Branco, Morgana TL; Pizzatti, Luciana; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2012-01-01

    The advanced phases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are known to be more resistant to therapy. This resistance has been associated with the overexpression of ABCB1, which gives rise to the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon. MDR is characterized by resistance to nonrelated drugs, and P-glycoprotein (encoded by ABCB1) has been implicated as the major cause of its emergence. Wnt signaling has been demonstrated to be important in several aspects of CML. Recently, Wnt signaling was linked to ABCB1 regulation through its canonical pathway, which is mediated by β-catenin, in other types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the regulation of ABCB1 transcription in CML, as the basal promoter of ABCB1 has several β-catenin binding sites. β-catenin is the mediator of canonical Wnt signaling, which is important for CML progression. In this work we used the K562 cell line and its derived MDR-resistant cell line Lucena (K562/VCR) as CML study models. Real time PCR (RT-qPCR), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), flow cytometry (FACS), western blot, immunofluorescence, RNA knockdown (siRNA) and Luciferase reporter approaches were used. β-catenin was present in the protein complex on the basal promoter of ABCB1 in both cell lines in vitro, but its binding was more pronounced in the resistant cell line in vivo. Lucena cells also exhibited higher β-catenin levels compared to its parental cell line. Wnt1 and β-catenin depletion and overexpression of nuclear β-catenin, together with TCF binding sites activation demonstrated that ABCB1 is positively regulated by the canonical pathway of Wnt signaling. These results suggest, for the first time, that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates ABCB1 in CML

  11. LRP5 and plasma cholesterol levels modulate the canonical Wnt pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Pages, Maria; Carolina Romero, July; Badimon, Lina

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation is triggered after invasion or injury to restore homeostasis. Although the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is one of the first molecular responses to cellular damage, its role in inflammation is still unclear. It was our hypothesis that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are modulators of inflammatory mechanisms. Wild-type (WT) and LRP5(-/-) mice were fed a hypercholesterolemic (HC) diet to trigger dislipidemia and chronic inflammation. Diets were supplemented with plant sterol esters (PSEs) to induce LDL cholesterol lowering and the reduction of inflammation. HC WT mice showed increased serum cholesterol levels that correlated with increased Lrp5 and Wnt/β-catenin gene expression while in the HC LRP5(-/-) mice Wnt/β-catenin pathway was shut down. Functionally, HC induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting an inhibitory role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation. Dietary PSE administration downregulated serum cholesterol levels in WT and LRP5(-/-) mice. Furthermore, in WT mice PSE increased anti-inflammatory genes expression and inhibited Wnt/β-catenin activation. Hepatic gene expression of Vldlr, Lrp2 and Lrp6 was increased after HC feeding in WT mice but not in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting a role for these receptors in the clearance of plasmatic lipoproteins. Finally, an antiatherogenic role for LRP5 was demonstrated as HC LRP5(-/-) mice developed larger aortic atherosclerotic lesions than WT mice. Our results show an anti-inflammatory, pro-survival role for LRP5 and the Wnt signaling pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

  12. Activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway enhances monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Kun; Nathan Grantham, R.; Trachte, Aaron L.; Mannion, John D.; Wilson, Colleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium has been reported to be one of the early processes in the development of atherosclerosis. In an attempt to develop strategies to prevent or delay atherosclerosis progression, we analyzed effects of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on monocyte adhesion to various human endothelial cells. Adhesion of fluorescein-labeled monocytes to various human endothelial cells was analyzed under a fluorescent microscope. Unlike sodium chloride, lithium chloride enhanced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that inhibitors for glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β or proteosome enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Results of semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indicated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway did not change expression levels of mRNA for adhesion molecules. In conclusion, the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion without changing expression levels of adhesion molecules

  13. ERβ induces the differentiation of cultured osteoblasts by both Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xinhua [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China); Wang, Xiaoyuan [Department of Nephrology, Xi An Honghui Hospital, Xi an (China); Hu, Xiongke; Chen, Yong; Zeng, Kefeng [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China); Zhang, Hongqi, E-mail: zhq9699@126.com [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China)

    2015-07-01

    Although 17β-estradial (E2) is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. The interactions between Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways have been reported in many tissues. In this study, E2 significantly increased the expression of β-catenin by inducing phosphorylations of GSK3β at serine 9. ERβ siRNAs were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells and revealed that ERβ involved E2-induced osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The osteoblast differentiation genes (BGP, ALP and OPN) and proliferation related gene (cyclin D1) expression were significantly induced by E2-mediated ERβ. Furthermore immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 induced the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus which leads to interaction with T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that E2 promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation by inducing proliferation-related and differentiation-related gene expression via ERβ/GSK-3β-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of E2 in osteoblastogenesis. - Highlights: • 17β-estradial (E2) promotes GSK3-β phosphorylation. • E2 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interacts with estrogen signaling pathways. • E2-mediated ER induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation related genes expression.

  14. ERβ induces the differentiation of cultured osteoblasts by both Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Hu, Xiongke; Chen, Yong; Zeng, Kefeng; Zhang, Hongqi

    2015-01-01

    Although 17β-estradial (E2) is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. The interactions between Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways have been reported in many tissues. In this study, E2 significantly increased the expression of β-catenin by inducing phosphorylations of GSK3β at serine 9. ERβ siRNAs were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells and revealed that ERβ involved E2-induced osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The osteoblast differentiation genes (BGP, ALP and OPN) and proliferation related gene (cyclin D1) expression were significantly induced by E2-mediated ERβ. Furthermore immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 induced the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus which leads to interaction with T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that E2 promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation by inducing proliferation-related and differentiation-related gene expression via ERβ/GSK-3β-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of E2 in osteoblastogenesis. - Highlights: • 17β-estradial (E2) promotes GSK3-β phosphorylation. • E2 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interacts with estrogen signaling pathways. • E2-mediated ER induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation related genes expression

  15. Ethacrynic acid exhibits selective toxicity to chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desheng Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aberrant activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling promotes the development of several cancers. It has been demonstrated that the Wnt signaling pathway is activated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cells, and that uncontrolled Wnt/beta-catenin signaling may contribute to the defect in apoptosis that characterizes this malignancy. Thus, the Wnt signaling pathway is an attractive candidate for developing targeted therapies for CLL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The diuretic agent ethacrynic acid (EA was identified as a Wnt inhibitor using a cell-based Wnt reporter assay. In vitro assays further confirmed the inhibitory effect of EA on Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Cell viability assays showed that EA selectively induced cell death in primary CLL cells. Exposure of CLL cells to EA decreased the expression of Wnt/beta-catenin target genes, including LEF-1, cyclin D1 and fibronectin. Immune co-precipitation experiments demonstrated that EA could directly bind to LEF-1 protein and destabilize the LEF-1/beta-catenin complex. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, which can react with the alpha, beta-unsaturated ketone in EA, but not other anti-oxidants, prevented the drug's inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin activation and its ability to induce apoptosis in CLL cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies indicate that EA selectively suppresses CLL survival due to inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Antagonizing Wnt signaling in CLL with EA or related drugs may represent an effective treatment of this disease.

  16. MGAT1 is a novel transcriptional target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva, Izzet; Birgül Iyison, Necla

    2018-01-08

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is an evolutionary conserved pathway, which has important functions in vertebrate early development, axis formation, cellular proliferation and morphogenesis. Additionally, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is one of the most important intracellular pathways that controls cancer progression. To date most of the identified targets of this pathway are shown to harbor tumorigenic properties. We previously showed that Mannosyl glycoprotein acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (MGAT1) enzyme is among the Wnt/β-catenin signaling putative target genes in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (Huh7). MGAT1 protein levels were determined by Western Blotting from Huh7 cell lines in which Wnt/β-catenin pathway was activated by means of different approaches such as LiCl treatment and mutant β-catenin overexpression. Luciferase reporter assay was used to analyze the promoter activity of MGAT1. The mRNA levels of MGAT1 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR from Huh7 cells that were treated with either Wnt agonist or GSK-3β inhibitor. Wound healing and XTT cell proliferation assays were performed in order to determine the proliferation and migration capacities of MGAT1 overexpressing stable Huh7 cells. Finally, xenograft experiments were carried out to measure the tumor formation capacities in vivo. In this study we showed that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway culminates in the upregulation of MGAT1 enzyme both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We also showed that overexpression of the β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) increased the promoter activity of MGAT1. We applied a set of complementary approaches to elucidate the functional importance of MGAT1 as a vital target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in Huh7 cells. Our analyses related to cell proliferation and migration assays showed that in comparison to the control cells, MGAT1 expressing Huh7 cells have greater proliferative and invasive capabilities. Furthermore, the

  17. Research progress in the radioprotective effect of the canonical Wnt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin-Feng; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Qu; Huang, Guan-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Irradiation from diverse sources is ubiquitous and closely associated with human activities. Radiation therapy (RT), an important component of multiple radiation origins, is a common therapeutic modality for cancer. More importantly, RT provides significant contribution to oncotherapy by killing tumor cells. However, during the course of therapy, irradiation of normal tissues can result in a wide range of side effects, including self-limited acute toxicities, mild chronic symptoms, or severe organ dysfunction. Although numerous promising radioprotective agents have emerged, only a few have successfully entered the market because of various limitations. At present, the widely accepted hypothesis for protection against radiation-caused injury involves the Wnt canonical pathway. Activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may protect the salivary gland, oral mucosa, and gastrointestinal epithelium from radiation damage. The underlying mechanisms include inhibiting apoptosis and preserving normal tissue functions. However, aberrant Wnt signaling underlies a wide range of pathologies in humans, and its various components contribute to cancer. Moreover, studies have suggested that Wnt/β-catenin signaling may lead to radioresistance of cancer stem cell. These facts markedly complicate any definition of the exact function of the Wnt pathway

  18. Frontline Science: Wnt/β-catenin pathway promotes early engraftment of fetal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, Edward O; Hétu-Arbour, Roxann; Heinonen, Krista M

    2018-03-01

    The switch from fetal to adult hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) is associated with profound changes in several genetic programs. Although HSPC ageing corresponds to alterations in Wnt signaling, relatively little is known about the relative roles of different Wnt signaling pathways in HSPC ontogeny. We hypothesized that proliferating fetal HSPCs would be more dependent on canonical β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling when compared to quiescent adult bone marrow HSPCs. We have compared here Wnt signaling activities in murine fetal and adult HSPCs and demonstrate a shift from Wnt/β-catenin-dependent signaling in fetal liver HSPCs to more predominantly noncanonical Wnt/polarity signaling in adult HSPCs. β-Catenin was selectively required for fetal HSPC competitiveness shortly after transplant, and protected cells from oxidative stress. Our results emphasize the complexity of Wnt signaling dynamics in HSPC maintenance and function. ©2018 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  19. MENA is a transcriptional target of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Najafov

    Full Text Available Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway plays important roles in embryonic development and carcinogenesis. Overactivation of the pathway is one of the most common driving forces in major cancers such as colorectal and breast cancers. The downstream effectors of the pathway and its regulation of carcinogenesis and metastasis are still not very well understood. In this study, which was based on two genome-wide transcriptomics screens, we identify MENA (ENAH, Mammalian enabled homologue as a novel transcriptional target of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. We show that the expression of MENA is upregulated upon overexpression of degradation-resistant β-catenin. Promoters of all mammalian MENA homologues contain putative binding sites for Tcf4 transcription factor--the primary effector of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and we demonstrate functionality of these Tcf4-binding sites using luciferase reporter assays and overexpression of β-catenin, Tcf4 and dominant-negative Tcf4. In addition, lithium chloride-mediated inhibition of GSK3β also resulted in increase in MENA mRNA levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed direct interaction between β-catenin and MENA promoter in Huh7 and HEK293 cells and also in mouse brain and liver tissues. Moreover, overexpression of Wnt1 and Wnt3a ligands increased MENA mRNA levels. Additionally, knock-down of MENA ortholog in D. melanogaster eyeful and sensitized eye cancer fly models resulted in increased tumor and metastasis formations. In summary, our study identifies MENA as novel nexus for the Wnt/β-catenin and the Notch signalling cascades.

  20. MENA is a transcriptional target of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafov, Ayaz; Seker, Tuncay; Even, Ipek; Hoxhaj, Gerta; Selvi, Osman; Ozel, Duygu Esen; Koman, Ahmet; Birgül-İyison, Necla

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway plays important roles in embryonic development and carcinogenesis. Overactivation of the pathway is one of the most common driving forces in major cancers such as colorectal and breast cancers. The downstream effectors of the pathway and its regulation of carcinogenesis and metastasis are still not very well understood. In this study, which was based on two genome-wide transcriptomics screens, we identify MENA (ENAH, Mammalian enabled homologue) as a novel transcriptional target of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. We show that the expression of MENA is upregulated upon overexpression of degradation-resistant β-catenin. Promoters of all mammalian MENA homologues contain putative binding sites for Tcf4 transcription factor--the primary effector of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and we demonstrate functionality of these Tcf4-binding sites using luciferase reporter assays and overexpression of β-catenin, Tcf4 and dominant-negative Tcf4. In addition, lithium chloride-mediated inhibition of GSK3β also resulted in increase in MENA mRNA levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed direct interaction between β-catenin and MENA promoter in Huh7 and HEK293 cells and also in mouse brain and liver tissues. Moreover, overexpression of Wnt1 and Wnt3a ligands increased MENA mRNA levels. Additionally, knock-down of MENA ortholog in D. melanogaster eyeful and sensitized eye cancer fly models resulted in increased tumor and metastasis formations. In summary, our study identifies MENA as novel nexus for the Wnt/β-catenin and the Notch signalling cascades.

  1. Resveratrol augments the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in promoting osteoblastic differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Haibin; Shang, Linshan; Li, Xi; Zhang, Xiyu; Gao, Guimin; Guo, Chenhong; Chen, Bingxi; Liu, Qiji [Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, MOE, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Shandong University, 44 Wen Hua Xi Lu, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Gong, Yaoqin, E-mail: yxg8@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, MOE, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Shandong University, 44 Wen Hua Xi Lu, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Shao, Changshun, E-mail: shao@biology.rutgers.edu [Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, MOE, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Shandong University, 44 Wen Hua Xi Lu, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Resveratrol has been shown to possess many health-benefiting effects, including the promotion of bone formation. In this report we investigated the mechanism by which resveratrol promotes osteoblastic differentiation from pluripotent mesenchymal cells. Since Wnt signaling is well documented to induce osteoblastogenesis and bone formation, we characterized the factors involved in Wnt signaling in response to resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol treatment of mesenchymal cells led to an increase in stabilization and nuclear accumulation of {beta}-catenin dose-dependently and time-dependently. As a consequence of the increased nuclear accumulation of {beta}-catenin, the ability to activate transcription of {beta}-catenin-TCF/LEF target genes that are required for osteoblastic differentiation was upregulated. However, resveratrol did not affect the initial step of the Wnt signaling pathway, as resveratrol was as effective in upregulating the activity of {beta}-catenin in cells in which Lrp5 was knocked down as in control cells. In addition, while conditioned medium enriched in Wnt signaling antagonist Dkk1 was able to inhibit Wnt3a-induced {beta}-catenin upregulation, this inhibitory effect can be abolished in resveratrol-treated cells. Furthermore, we showed that the level of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), which phosphorylates and destabilizes {beta}-catenin, was reduced in response to resveratrol treatment. The phosphorylation of GSK-3{beta} requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Together, our data indicate that resveratrol promotes osteoblastogenesis and bone formation by augmenting Wnt signaling.

  2. Resveratrol augments the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in promoting osteoblastic differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Haibin; Shang, Linshan; Li, Xi; Zhang, Xiyu; Gao, Guimin; Guo, Chenhong; Chen, Bingxi; Liu, Qiji; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2009-01-01

    Resveratrol has been shown to possess many health-benefiting effects, including the promotion of bone formation. In this report we investigated the mechanism by which resveratrol promotes osteoblastic differentiation from pluripotent mesenchymal cells. Since Wnt signaling is well documented to induce osteoblastogenesis and bone formation, we characterized the factors involved in Wnt signaling in response to resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol treatment of mesenchymal cells led to an increase in stabilization and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin dose-dependently and time-dependently. As a consequence of the increased nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, the ability to activate transcription of β-catenin-TCF/LEF target genes that are required for osteoblastic differentiation was upregulated. However, resveratrol did not affect the initial step of the Wnt signaling pathway, as resveratrol was as effective in upregulating the activity of β-catenin in cells in which Lrp5 was knocked down as in control cells. In addition, while conditioned medium enriched in Wnt signaling antagonist Dkk1 was able to inhibit Wnt3a-induced β-catenin upregulation, this inhibitory effect can be abolished in resveratrol-treated cells. Furthermore, we showed that the level of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), which phosphorylates and destabilizes β-catenin, was reduced in response to resveratrol treatment. The phosphorylation of GSK-3β requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Together, our data indicate that resveratrol promotes osteoblastogenesis and bone formation by augmenting Wnt signaling.

  3. A proteomic analysis of LRRK2 binding partners reveals interactions with multiple signaling components of the WNT/PCP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salašová, Alena; Yokota, Chika; Potěšil, David; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Bryja, Vítězslav; Arenas, Ernest

    2017-07-11

    Autosomal-dominant mutations in the Park8 gene encoding Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been identified to cause up to 40% of the genetic forms of Parkinson's disease. However, the function and molecular pathways regulated by LRRK2 are largely unknown. It has been shown that LRRK2 serves as a scaffold during activation of WNT/β-catenin signaling via its interaction with the β-catenin destruction complex, DVL1-3 and LRP6. In this study, we examine whether LRRK2 also interacts with signaling components of the WNT/Planar Cell Polarity (WNT/PCP) pathway, which controls the maturation of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons, the main cell type lost in Parkinson's disease patients. Co-immunoprecipitation and tandem mass spectrometry was performed in a mouse substantia nigra cell line (SN4741) and human HEK293T cell line in order to identify novel LRRK2 binding partners. Inhibition of the WNT/β-catenin reporter, TOPFlash, was used as a read-out of WNT/PCP pathway activation. The capacity of LRRK2 to regulate WNT/PCP signaling in vivo was tested in Xenopus laevis' early development. Our proteomic analysis identified that LRRK2 interacts with proteins involved in WNT/PCP signaling such as the PDZ domain-containing protein GIPC1 and Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in dopaminergic cells in vitro and in the mouse ventral midbrain in vivo. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that LRRK2 binds to two core components of the WNT/PCP signaling pathway, PRICKLE1 and CELSR1, as well as to FLOTILLIN-2 and CULLIN-3, which regulate WNT secretion and inhibit WNT/β-catenin signaling, respectively. We also found that PRICKLE1 and LRRK2 localize in signalosomes and act as dual regulators of WNT/PCP and β-catenin signaling. Accordingly, analysis of the function of LRRK2 in vivo, in X. laevis revelaed that LRKK2 not only inhibits WNT/β-catenin pathway, but induces a classical WNT/PCP phenotype in vivo. Our study shows for the first time that LRRK2 activates the WNT

  4. NFAT5 regulates the canonical Wnt pathway and is required for cardiomyogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Atsuo; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Ogata, Takehiro; Imoto-Tsubakimoto, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ueyama, Tomomi; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NFAT5 protein expression is downregulated during cardiomyogenesis. ► Inhibition of NFAT5 function suppresses canonical Wnt signaling. ► Inhibition of NFAT5 function attenuates mesodermal induction. ► NFAT5 function is required for cardiomyogenesis. -- Abstract: While nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), a transcription factor implicated in osmotic stress response, is suggested to be involved in other processes such as migration and proliferation, its role in cardiomyogenesis is largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of NFAT5 in cardiac differentiation of P19CL6 cells, and observed that it was abundantly expressed in undifferentiated P19CL6 cells, and its protein expression was significantly downregulated by enhanced proteasomal degradation during DMSO-induced cardiomyogenesis. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of NFAT5 markedly attenuated cardiomyogenesis, which was associated with the inhibition of mesodermal differentiation. TOPflash reporter assay revealed that the transcriptional activity of canonical Wnt signaling was activated prior to mesodermal differentiation, and this activation was markedly attenuated by NFAT5 inhibition. Pharmacological activation of canonical Wnt signaling by [2′Z, 3′E]-6-bromoindirubin-3′-oxime (BIO) restored Brachyury expression in NFAT5DN-expressing cells. Inhibition of NFAT5 markedly attenuated Wnt3 and Wnt3a induction. Expression of Dkk1 and Cerberus1, which are secreted Wnt antagonists, was also inhibited by NFAT5 inhibition. Thus, endogenous NFAT5 regulates the coordinated expression of Wnt ligands and antagonists, which are essential for cardiomyogenesis through the canonical Wnt pathway. These results demonstrated a novel role of NFAT5 in cardiac differentiation of stem cells.

  5. Cross-regulation of signaling pathways: An example of nuclear hormone receptors and the canonical Wnt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beildeck, Marcy E. [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Gelmann, Edward P. [Columbia University, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Byers, Stephen W., E-mail: byerss@georgetown.edu [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Predicting the potential physiological outcome(s) of any given molecular pathway is complex because of cross-talk with other pathways. This is particularly evident in the case of the nuclear hormone receptor and canonical Wnt pathways, which regulate cell growth and proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and metastatic potential in numerous tissues. These pathways are known to intersect at many levels: in the intracellular space, at the membrane, in the cytoplasm, and within the nucleus. The outcomes of these interactions are important in the control of stem cell differentiation and maintenance, feedback loops, and regulating oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the importance of considering pathway cross-talk when predicting functional outcomes of signaling, using nuclear hormone receptor/canonical Wnt pathway cross-talk as an example.

  6. Cross-regulation of signaling pathways: An example of nuclear hormone receptors and the canonical Wnt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beildeck, Marcy E.; Gelmann, Edward P.; Byers, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Predicting the potential physiological outcome(s) of any given molecular pathway is complex because of cross-talk with other pathways. This is particularly evident in the case of the nuclear hormone receptor and canonical Wnt pathways, which regulate cell growth and proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and metastatic potential in numerous tissues. These pathways are known to intersect at many levels: in the intracellular space, at the membrane, in the cytoplasm, and within the nucleus. The outcomes of these interactions are important in the control of stem cell differentiation and maintenance, feedback loops, and regulating oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the importance of considering pathway cross-talk when predicting functional outcomes of signaling, using nuclear hormone receptor/canonical Wnt pathway cross-talk as an example.

  7. DIXDC1 activates the Wnt signaling pathway and promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cong; Qiao, Fan; Wei, Ping; Chi, Yayun; Wang, Weige; Ni, Shujuan; Wang, Qifeng; Chen, Tongzhen; Sheng, Weiqi; Du, Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    DIXDC1 (Dishevelled-Axin domain containing 1) is a DIX (Dishevelled-Axin) domain-possessing protein that promotes colon cancer cell proliferation and increases the invasion and migration ability of non-small-cell lung cancer via the PI3K pathway. As a positive regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, the biological role of DIXDC1 in human gastric cancer and the relationship between DIXDC1 and the Wnt pathway are unclear. In the current study, the upregulation of DIXDC1 was detected in gastric cancer and was associated with advanced TNM stage cancer, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. We also found that the overexpression of DIXDC1 could promote the invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells. The upregulation of MMPs and the downregulation of E-cadherin were found to be involved in the process. DIXDC1 enhanced β-catenin nuclear accumulation, which activated the Wnt pathway. Additionally, the inhibition of β-catenin in DIXDC1-overexpressing cells reversed the metastasis promotion effects of DIXDC1. These results demonstrate that the expression of DIXDC1 is associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients and that DIXDC1 promotes gastric cancer invasion and metastasis through the activation of the Wnt pathway; E-cadherin and MMPs are also involved in this process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Genetic Variants in the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway as Indicators of Bladder Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzynski, Jeanne A; Hildebrandt, Michelle A; Kamat, Ashish M; Lin, Jie; Ye, Yuanqing; Dinney, Colin P N; Wu, Xifeng

    2015-12-01

    Genetic factors that influence bladder cancer risk remain largely unknown. Previous research has suggested that there is a strong genetic component underlying the risk of bladder cancer. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a key modulator of cellular proliferation through its regulation of stem cell homeostasis. Furthermore, variants in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway have been implicated in the development of other cancers, leading us to believe that this pathway may have a vital role in bladder cancer development. A total of 230 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 40 genes in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were genotyped in 803 bladder cancer cases and 803 healthy controls. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms were nominally significant for risk. Individuals with 2 variants of LRP6: rs10743980 were associated with a decreased risk of bladder cancer in the recessive model in the initial analysis (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99, p=0.039). This was validated using the bladder genome-wide association study chip (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27-1.00, p=0.049 and for combined analysis p=0.007). Together these findings implicate variants in the Wnt/β-catenin stem cell pathway as having a role in bladder cancer etiology. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Wnt Signaling Translocates Lys48-Linked Polyubiquitinated Proteins to the Lysosomal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoon Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cellular proteins are degraded in either proteasomes or lysosomes depending on the types of ubiquitin chains that covalently modify them. It is not known whether the choice between these two pathways is physiologically regulated. The Lys48-polyubiquitin chain is the major signal directing proteins for degradation in proteasomes. Here, we report the unexpected finding that canonical Wnt signaling translocates some K48-linked polyubiquitinated proteins to the endolysosomal pathway. Proteasomal target proteins, such as β-catenin, Smad1, and Smad4, were targeted into endolysosomes in a process dependent on GSK3 activity. Relocalization was also dependent on Axin1 and the multivesicular body (MVB proteins HRS/Vps27 and Vps4. The Wnt-induced accumulation of K48-linked polyubiquitinated proteins in endolysosomal organelles was accompanied by a transient decrease in cellular levels of free mono-ubiquitin, which may contribute to Wnt-regulated stabilization of proteins (Wnt/STOP. We conclude that Wnt redirects Lys48-polyubiquitinated proteins that are normally degraded in proteasomes to endolysosomes.

  10. Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis initiation under normoxic conditions through Wnt/β-catenin pathway in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Alexandre; Guillevin, Rémy; Vallée, Jean-Noël

    2018-01-26

    The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is up-regulated in gliomas and involved in proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation correlates with malignancy. Hypoxia activates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α by inhibiting HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation, which promotes glycolytic energy metabolism, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, whereas HIF-1α is degraded by the HIF prolyl hydroxylase under normoxic conditions. We focus this review on the links between the activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the mechanisms underlying vasculogenesis and angiogenesis through HIF-1α under normoxic conditions in gliomas. Wnt-induced epidermal growth factor receptor/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling, Wnt-induced signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin target gene transduction (c-Myc) can activate HIF-1α in a hypoxia-independent manner. The PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activates HIF-1α through eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 and STAT3. The β-catenin/T-cell factor 4 complex directly binds to STAT3 and activates HIF-1α, which up-regulates the Wnt/β-catenin target genes cyclin D1 and c-Myc in a positive feedback loop. Phosphorylated STAT3 by interleukin-6 or leukemia inhibitory factor activates HIF-1α even under normoxic conditions. The activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway induces, via the Wnt target genes c-Myc and cyclin D1 or via HIF-1α, gene transactivation encoding aerobic glycolysis enzymes, such as glucose transporter, hexokinase 2, pyruvate kinase M2, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 and lactate dehydrogenase-A, leading to lactate production, as the primary alternative of ATP, at all oxygen levels, even in normoxic conditions. Lactate released by glioma cells via the monocarboxylate lactate transporter-1 up-regulated by HIF-1α and lactate anion activates HIF-1α in normoxic endothelial cells by

  11. Regorafenib inhibited gastric cancer cells growth and invasion via CXCR4 activated Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Qi; Tang, Lei; Sun, Li; Han, Ting; Wang, Li-Wei; Xiao, Xiu-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Regorafenib is an oral small-molecule multi kinase inhibitor. Recently, several clinical trials have revealed that regorafenib has an anti-tumor activity in gastric cancer. However, only part of patients benefit from regorafenib, and the mechanisms of regorafenib's anti-tumor effect need further demonstrating. In this study, we would assess the potential anti-tumor effects and the underlying mechanisms of regorafenib in gastric cancer cells, and explore novel biomarkers for patients selecting of regorafenib. The anti-tumor effects of regorafenib on gastric cancer cells were analyzed via cell proliferation and invasion. The underlying mechanisms were demonstrated using molecular biology techniques. We found that regorafenib inhibited cell proliferation and invasion at the concentration of 20μmol/L and in a dose dependent manner. The anti-tumor effects of regorafenib related to the decreased expression of CXCR4, and elevated expression and activation of CXCR4 could reverse the inhibition effect of regorafenib on gastric cancer cells. Further studies revealed that regorafenib reduced the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and led to decreased expression of Wnt pathway target genes, while overexpression and activation of CXCR4 could attenuate the inhibition effect of regorafenib on Wnt/β-Catenin pathway. Our findings demonstrated that regorafenib effectively inhibited cell proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells via decreasing the expression of CXCR4 and further reducing the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway.

  12. Hyaluronic acid enhances proliferation of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ru-Ming; Sun, Ren-Gang; Zhang, Ling-Tao; Zhang, Qing-Fang; Chen, Dai-Xiong [Guizhou Center for Translational Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, 149 Dalian Road, Zunyi 563000 (China); Zhong, Jian-Jiang, E-mail: jjzhong@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, and School of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xiao, Jian-Hui, E-mail: jhxiao@yahoo.com [Guizhou Center for Translational Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, 149 Dalian Road, Zunyi 563000 (China)

    2016-07-15

    This study investigated the pro-proliferative effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) on human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) and the underlying mechanisms. Treatment with HA increased cell population growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Analyses by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry revealed that HA did not change the cytophenotypes of hAMSCs. Additionally, the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation capabilities of these hAMSCs were retained after HA treatment. Moreover, HA increased the mRNA expressions of wnt1, wnt3a, wnt8a, cyclin D1, Ki-67, and β-catenin as well as the protein level of β-catenin and cyclin D1 in hAMSCs; and the nuclear localization of β-catenin was also enhanced. Furthermore, the pro-proliferative effect of HA and up-regulated expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway-associated proteins - wnt3a, β-catenin and cyclin D1 in hAMSCs were significantly inhibited upon pre-treatment with Wnt-C59, an inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. These results suggest that HA may positively regulate hAMSCs proliferation through regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Hyaluronic acid (HA) could promote the proliferation of hAMSCs. • HA treatment dose not affect the pluripotency of hAMSCs. • HA increases hAMSCs proliferation through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  13. The Wnt signalling pathway is upregulated in an in vitro model of acquired tamoxifen resistant breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, Yan Ni; Hedditch, Ellen L; Baker, Laura A; Jary, Eve; Ward, Robyn L; Ford, Caroline E

    2013-01-01

    Acquired resistance to Tamoxifen remains a critical problem in breast cancer patient treatment, yet the underlying causes of resistance have not been fully elucidated. Abberations in the Wnt signalling pathway have been linked to many human cancers, including breast cancer, and appear to be associated with more metastatic and aggressive types of cancer. Here, our aim was to investigate if this key pathway was involved in acquired Tamoxifen resistance, and could be targeted therapeutically. An in vitro model of acquired Tamoxifen resistance (named TamR) was generated by growing the estrogen receptor alpha (ER) positive MCF7 breast cancer cell line in increasing concentrations of Tamoxifen (up to 5 uM). Alterations in the Wnt signalling pathway and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to Tamoxifen and treatment with the Wnt inhibitor, IWP-2 were measured via quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) and TOP/FOP Wnt reporter assays. Resistance to Tamoxifen, and effects of IWP-2 treatment were determined by MTT proliferation assays. TamR cells exhibited increased Wnt signalling as measured via the TOP/FOP Wnt luciferase reporter assays. Genes associated with both the β-catenin dependent (AXIN2, MYC, CSNK1A1) and independent arms (ROR2, JUN), as well as general Wnt secretion (PORCN) of the Wnt signalling pathway were upregulated in the TamR cells compared to the parental MCF7 cell line. Treatment of the TamR cell line with human recombinant Wnt3a (rWnt3a) further increased the resistance of both MCF7 and TamR cells to the anti-proliferative effects of Tamoxifen treatment. TamR cells demonstrated increased expression of EMT markers (VIM, TWIST1, SNAI2) and decreased CDH1, which may contribute to their resistance to Tamoxifen. Treatment with the Wnt inhibitor, IWP-2 inhibited cell proliferation and markers of EMT. These data support the role of the Wnt signalling pathway in acquired resistance to Tamoxifen. Further research into the mechanism by which activated Wnt

  14. FOXQ1, a novel target of the Wnt pathway and a new marker for activation of Wnt signaling in solid tumors.

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    Jon Christensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The forkhead box transcription factor FOXQ1 has been shown to be upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC and metastatic breast cancer and involved in tumor development, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chemoresistance. Yet, its transcriptional regulation is still unknown. METHODS: FOXQ1 mRNA and protein expression were analysed in a panel of CRC cell lines, and laser micro-dissected human biopsy samples by qRT-PCR, microarray GeneChip® U133 Plus 2.0 and western blots. FOXQ1 regulation was assayed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays. RESULTS: FOXQ1 was robustly induced in CRC compared to other tumors, but had no predictive value with regards to grade, metastasis and survival in CRC. Prototype-based gene coexpression and gene set enrichment analysis showed a significant association between FOXQ1 and the Wnt pathway in tumors and cancer cell lines from different tissues. In vitro experiments confirmed, on a molecular level, FOXQ1 as a direct Wnt target. Analysis of known Wnt targets identified FOXQ1 as the most suitable marker for canonical Wnt activation across a wide panel of cell lines derived from different tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that FOXQ1 is one of the most over-expressed genes in CRC and a direct target of the canonical Wnt pathway. It is a potential new marker for detection of early CRC and Wnt activation in tumors of different origins.

  15. Inherited Variants in Wnt Pathway Genes Influence Outcomes of Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy

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    Jiun-Hung Geng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant Wnt signaling has been associated with many types of cancer. However, the association of inherited Wnt pathway variants with clinical outcomes in prostate cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT has not been determined. Here, we comprehensively studied the contribution of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Wnt pathway genes to the clinical outcomes of 465 advanced prostate cancer patients treated with ADT. Two SNPs, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC rs2707765 and rs497844, were significantly (p ≤ 0.009 and q ≤ 0.043 associated with both prostate cancer progression and all-cause mortality, even after multivariate analyses and multiple testing correction. Patients with a greater number of favorable alleles had a longer time to disease progression and better overall survival during ADT (p for trend ≤ 0.003. Additional, cDNA array and in silico analyses of prostate cancer tissue suggested that rs2707765 affects APC expression, which in turn is correlated with tumor aggressiveness and patient prognosis. This study identifies the influence of inherited variants in the Wnt pathway on the efficacy of ADT and highlights a preclinical rationale for using APC as a prognostic marker in advanced prostate cancer.

  16. Human cytomegalovirus infection dysregulates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

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    Magdalena Angelova

    Full Text Available Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that currently infects a large percentage of the world population. Although usually asymptomatic in healthy individuals, HCMV infection during pregnancy may cause spontaneous abortions, premature delivery, or permanent neurological disabilities in infants infected in utero. During infection, the virus exerts control over a multitude of host signaling pathways. Wnt/β-catenin signaling, an essential pathway involved in cell cycle control, differentiation, embryonic development, placentation and metastasis, is frequently dysregulated by viruses. How HCMV infection affects this critical pathway is not currently known. In this study, we demonstrate that HCMV dysregulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in dermal fibroblasts and human placental extravillous trophoblasts. Infection inhibits Wnt-induced transcriptional activity of β-catenin and expression of β-catenin target genes in these cells. HCMV infection leads to β-catenin protein accumulation in a discrete juxtanuclear region. Levels of β-catenin in membrane-associated and cytosolic pools, as well as nuclear β-catenin, are reduced after infection; while transcription of the β-catenin gene is unchanged, suggesting enhanced degradation. Given the critical role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cellular processes, these findings represent a novel and important mechanism whereby HCMV disrupts normal cellular function.

  17. Jagged1 is the pathological link between Wnt and Notch pathways in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Verónica; Villanueva, Alberto; Obrador-Hevia, Antonia; Robert-Moreno, Alex; Fernández-Majada, Vanessa; Grilli, Andrea; López-Bigas, Nuria; Bellora, Nicolás; Albà, M Mar; Torres, Ferran; Duñach, Mireia; Sanjuan, Xavier; Gonzalez, Sara; Gridley, Thomas; Capella, Gabriel; Bigas, Anna; Espinosa, Lluís

    2009-04-14

    Notch has been linked to beta-catenin-dependent tumorigenesis; however, the mechanisms leading to Notch activation and the contribution of the Notch pathway to colorectal cancer is not yet understood. By microarray analysis, we have identified a group of genes downstream of Wnt/beta-catenin (down-regulated when blocking Wnt/beta-catenin) that are directly regulated by Notch (repressed by gamma-secretase inhibitors and up-regulated by active Notch1 in the absence of beta-catenin signaling). We demonstrate that Notch is downstream of Wnt in colorectal cancer cells through beta-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of the Notch-ligand Jagged1. Consistently, expression of activated Notch1 partially reverts the effects of blocking Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in tumors implanted s.c. in nude mice. Crossing APC(Min/+) with Jagged1(+/Delta) mice is sufficient to significantly reduce the size of the polyps arising in the APC mutant background indicating that Notch is an essential modulator of tumorigenesis induced by nuclear beta-catenin. We show that this mechanism is operating in human tumors from Familial Adenomatous Polyposis patients. We conclude that Notch activation, accomplished by beta-catenin-mediated up-regulation of Jagged1, is required for tumorigenesis in the intestine. The Notch-specific genetic signature is sufficient to block differentiation and promote vasculogenesis in tumors whereas proliferation depends on both pathways.

  18. Rac1 Guides Porf-2 to Wnt Pathway to Mediate Neural Stem Cell Proliferation

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    Xi-Tao Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of preoptic regulator factor 2 (Porf-2 on neural stem cells (NSCs remain largely unknown. Here, we found that Porf-2 inhibits the activity of ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1 protein in hippocampus-derived rat NSCs. Reduced Rac1 activity impaired the nuclear translocation of β-catenin, ultimately causing a repression of NSCs proliferation. Porf-2 knockdown enhanced NSCs proliferation but not in the presence of small molecule inhibitors of Rac1 or Wnt. At the same time, the repression of NSCs proliferation caused by Porf-2 overexpression was counteracted by small molecule activators of Rac1 or Wnt. By using a rat optic nerve crush model, we observed that Porf-2 knockdown enhanced the recovery of visual function. In particular, optic nerve injury in rats led to increased Wnt family member 3a (Wnt3a protein expression, which we found responsible for enhancing Porf-2 knockdown-induced NSCs proliferation. These findings suggest that Porf-2 exerts its inhibitory effect on NSCs proliferation via Rac1-Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Porf-2 may therefore represent and interesting target for optic nerve injury recovery and therapy.

  19. Parameter-free methods distinguish Wnt pathway models and guide design of experiments

    KAUST Repository

    MacLean, Adam L.

    2015-02-17

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway, mediated by β-catenin, is crucially involved in development, adult stem cell tissue maintenance, and a host of diseases including cancer. We analyze existing mathematical models of Wnt and compare them to a new Wnt signaling model that targets spatial localization; our aim is to distinguish between the models and distill biological insight from them. Using Bayesian methods we infer parameters for each model from mammalian Wnt signaling data and find that all models can fit this time course. We appeal to algebraic methods (concepts from chemical reaction network theory and matroid theory) to analyze the models without recourse to specific parameter values. These approaches provide insight into aspects of Wnt regulation: the new model, via control of shuttling and degradation parameters, permits multiple stable steady states corresponding to stem-like vs. committed cell states in the differentiation hierarchy. Our analysis also identifies groups of variables that should be measured to fully characterize and discriminate between competing models, and thus serves as a guide for performing minimal experiments for model comparison.

  20. Thermodynamics in Gliomas: Interactions between the Canonical WNT/Beta-Catenin Pathway and PPAR Gamma

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    Alexandre Vallée

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas cells are the site of numerous metabolic and thermodynamics abnormalities with an increasing entropy rate which is characteristic of irreversible processes driven by changes in Gibbs energy, heat production, intracellular acidity, membrane potential gradient, and ionic conductance. We focus our review on the opposing interactions observed in glioma between the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR gamma and their metabolic and thermodynamic implications. In gliomas, WNT/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated while PPAR gamma is downregulated. Upregulation of WNT/beta-catenin signaling induces changes in key metabolic enzyme that modify their thermodynamics behavior. This leads to activation pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK-1 and monocarboxylate lactate transporter 1 (MCT-1. Consequently, phosphorylation of PDK-1 inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH. Thus, a large part of pyruvate cannot be converted into acetyl-CoA in mitochondria and in TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle. This leads to aerobic glycolysis despite the availability of oxygen, named Warburg effect. Cytoplasmic pyruvate is, in major part, converted into lactate. The WNT/beta-catenin pathway induces also the transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation, cell invasiveness, nucleotide synthesis, tumor growth, and angiogenesis, such as c-Myc, cyclin D1, PDK. In addition, in gliomas cells, PPAR gamma is downregulated, leading to a decrease in insulin sensitivity and an increase in neuroinflammation. Moreover, PPAR gamma contributes to regulate some key circadian genes. Abnormalities in the regulation of circadian rhythms and dysregulation in circadian clock genes are observed in gliomas. Circadian rhythms are dissipative structures, which play a key role in far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics through their interactions with WNT/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR gamma. In gliomas, metabolism, thermodynamics, and circadian rhythms are tightly interrelated.

  1. New advances of TMEM88 in cancer initiation and progression, with special emphasis on Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yun-Xuan; Wang, Chang-Hui; Hu, Fu-Yong; Pan, Lin-Xin; Min, Jie; Niu, Kai-Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jun; Xu, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Transmembrane protein 88 (TMEM88), a newly discovered protein localized on the cell membrane. Recent studies showed that TMEM88 was involved in the regulation of several types of cancer. TMEM88 was expressed at significantly higher levels in breast cancer (BC) cell line than in normal breast cell line with co-localized with Dishevelled (DVL) in the cytoplasm of BC cell line. TMEM88 silencing in the ovarian cancer cell line CP70 resulted in significant upregulation of Wnt downstream genes (c-Myc, cyclin-D1) and other Wnt target genes including JUN, PTIX2, CTNNB1 (β-catenin), further supporting that TMEM88 inhibits canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Wnt signaling pathway has been known to play important roles in many diseases, especially in cancer. For instance, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become one of the most common tumors harboring mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. As the inhibitor of Wnt signaling, TMEM88 has been considered to act as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor. Up-regulated TMEM88 or gene therapy approaches could be an effective therapeutic approach against tumor as TMEM88 inhibits Wnt signaling through direct interaction with DVL. Here, we review the current knowledge on the functional role and potential clinical application of TMEM88 in the control of various cancers. Highlights Wnt signaling displays an important role in several pathogenesis of cancer. Wnt signaling pathway is activated during cancer development. TMEM88 has an impact on cancer by inhibiting canonical Wnt signaling. We discuss the importance and new applications of TMEM88 in cancer therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Tumor Suppressor BCL7B Functions in the Wnt Signaling Pathway.

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    Tomoko Uehara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human BCL7 gene family consists of BCL7A, BCL7B, and BCL7C. A number of clinical studies have reported that BCL7 family is involved in cancer incidence, progression, and development. Among them, BCL7B, located on chromosome 7q11.23, is one of the deleted genes in patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome. Although several studies have suggested that malignant diseases occurring in patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome are associated with aberrations in BCL7B, little is known regarding the function of this gene at the cellular level. In this study, we focused on bcl-7, which is the only homolog of BCL7 gene family in Caenorhabditis elegans, and analyzed bcl-7 deletion mutants. As a result, we found that bcl-7 is required for the asymmetric differentiation of epithelial seam cells, which have self-renewal properties as stem cells and divide asymmetrically through the WNT pathway. Distal tip cell development, which is regulated by the WNT pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans, was also affected in bcl-7-knockout mutants. Interestingly, bcl-7 mutants exhibited nuclear enlargement, reminiscent of the anaplastic features of malignant cells. Furthermore, in KATOIII human gastric cancer cells, BCL7B knockdown induced nuclear enlargement, promoted the multinuclei phenotype and suppressed cell death. In addition, this study showed that BCL7B negatively regulates the Wnt-signaling pathway and positively regulates the apoptotic pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that BCL7B/BCL-7 has some roles in maintaining the structure of nuclei and is involved in the modulation of multiple pathways, including Wnt and apoptosis. This study may implicate a risk of malignancies with BCL7B-deficiency, such as Williams-Beuren syndrome.

  3. Tiam1 Regulates the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 Signaling Pathway and the Differentiation of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čajánek, Lukáš; Ganji, Ranjani Sri; Henriques-Oliveira, Catarina; Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Koník, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive the differentiation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons is crucial for successful development of novel therapies for Parkinson's disease, in which DA neurons progressively degenerate. However, the mechanisms underlying the differentiation-promoting effects of Wnt5a on DA precursors are poorly understood. Here, we present the molecular and functional characterization of a signaling pathway downstream of Wnt5a, the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 pathway. First, we characterize the interaction between Rac1 and Dvl and identify the N-terminal part of Dvl3 as necessary for Rac1 binding. Next, we show that Tiam1, a Rac1 guanosine exchange factor (GEF), is expressed in the ventral midbrain, interacts with Dvl, facilitates Dvl-Rac1 interaction, and is required for Dvl- or Wnt5a-induced activation of Rac1. Moreover, we show that Wnt5a promotes whereas casein kinase 1 (CK1), a negative regulator of the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 pathway, abolishes the interactions between Dvl and Tiam1. Finally, using ventral midbrain neurosphere cultures, we demonstrate that the generation of DA neurons in culture is impaired after Tiam1 knockdown, indicating that Tiam1 is required for midbrain DA differentiation. In summary, our data identify Tiam1 as a novel regulator of DA neuron development and as a Dvl-associated and Rac1-specific GEF acting in the Wnt/Dvl/Rac1 pathway. PMID:23109420

  4. Role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in gastric cancer: An in-depth literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiurillo, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most common cancers worldwide and one of the leading cause for cancer-related deaths. Gastric adenocarcinoma is a multifactorial disease that is genetically, cytologically and architecturally more heterogeneous than other gastrointestinal carcinomas. The aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the development and progression of a significant proportion of gastric cancer cases. This review focuses on the participation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in gastric cancer by offering an analysis of the relevant literature published in this field. Indeed, it is discussed the role of key factors in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and their downstream effectors regulating processes involved in tumor initiation, tumor growth, metastasis and resistance to therapy. Available data indicate that constitutive Wnt signalling resulting from Helicobacter pylori infection and inactivation of Wnt inhibitors (mainly by inactivating mutations and promoter hypermethylation) play an important role in gastric cancer. Moreover, a number of recent studies confirmed CTNNB1 and APC as driver genes in gastric cancer. The identification of specific membrane, intracellular, and extracellular components of the Wnt pathway has revealed potential targets for gastric cancer therapy. High-throughput “omics” approaches will help in the search for Wnt pathway antagonist in the near future. PMID:25992323

  5. Activation and Inhibition of The Wnt3A Signaling Pathway in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Embryonic Stem Cells: Effects of WNT3A, Bio and Dkk1

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    Mohammad Zandi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research studies the effects of activation and inhibition of Wnt3A signaling pathway in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryonic stem (ES cell-like cells. Materials and Methods: To carry on this experimental study, the effects of activation and inhibition of Wnt3A signaling in buffalo ES cell-like cells were examined using Bio (0.5 mM combined with WNT3A (200 ng/ml, as an activator, and Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1, 250 ng/ml, as an inhibitor, of the pathway. ES cells were cultured up to three weeks in ES cell medium without fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, but in the presence of Bio, WNT3A, Bio+WNT3A and Dkk1. The effects of these supplements were measured on the mean area of ES cell colonies and on the expression levels of a number of important genes related to pluripotency (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and c-Myc and the Wnt pathway (β-catenin. ES cell colonies cultured in ES cell medium that contained optimized quantities of LIF and FGF-2 were used as the control. Data were collected for week-1 and week-3 treated cultures. In addition, WNT3A-transfected ES cells were compared with the respective mock-transfected colonies, either alone or in combination with Dkk1 for expression of β-catenin and the pluripotency-related genes. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, and statistical significance was accepted at P<0.05. Results: Among various examined concentrations of Bio (0.5-5 mM, the optimum effect was observed at the 0.5 mM dose as indicated by colony area and expressions of pluripotency- related genes at both weeks-1 and -3 culture periods. At this concentration,the expressions of Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc and β-catenin genes were nonsignificantly higher compared to the controls. Expressions of these genes were highest in the Bio+WNT3A treated group, followed by the WNT3A and Bio-supplemented groups, and lowest in the Dkk1-treated group. The WNT-transfected colonies showed higher expressions compared to both mock and Dkk1

  6. Activation of non-canonical Wnt/JNK pathway by Wnt3a is associated with differentiation fate determination of human bone marrow stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Weimin; Chen, Li; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway can determine human bone marrow stromal (mesenchymal) stem cell (hMSC) differentiation fate into osteoblast or adipocyte lineages. However, its downstream targets in MSC are not well characterized. Thus, using DNA microarrays, we compared global gene expression...

  7. Interactions between TGF-β1, canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway and PPAR γ in radiation-induced fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Alexandre; Lecarpentier, Yves; Guillevin, Rémy; Vallée, Jean-Noël

    2017-10-27

    Radiation therapy induces DNA damage and inflammation leading to fibrosis. Fibrosis can occur 4 to 12 months after radiation therapy. This process worsens with time and years. Radiation-induced fibrosis is characterized by fibroblasts proliferation, myofibroblast differentiation, and synthesis of collagen, proteoglycans and extracellular matrix. Myofibroblasts are non-muscle cells that can contract and relax. Myofibroblasts evolve towards irreversible retraction during fibrosis process. In this review, we discussed the interplays between transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) in regulating the molecular mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced fibrosis, and the potential role of PPAR γ agonists. Overexpression of TGF-β and canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway stimulate fibroblasts accumulation and myofibroblast differentiation whereas PPAR γ expression decreases due to the opposite interplay of canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway. Both TGF-β1 and canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway stimulate each other through the Smad pathway and non-Smad pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine/threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) signaling. WNT/β-catenin pathway and PPAR γ interact in an opposite manner. PPAR γ agonists decrease β-catenin levels through activation of inhibitors of the WNT pathway such as Smad7, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 β) and dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1). PPAR γ agonists also stimulate phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression, which decreases both TGF-β1 and PI3K/Akt pathways. PPAR γ agonists by activating Smad7 decrease Smads pathway and then TGF-β signaling leading to decrease radiation-induced fibrosis. TGF-β1 and canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway promote radiation-induced fibrosis whereas PPAR γ agonists can prevent radiation-induced fibrosis.

  8. Three-dimensional organoid culture reveals involvement of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in proliferation of bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takahiro; Sopko, Nikolai A; Kates, Max; Liu, Xiaopu; Joice, Gregory; McConkey, David J; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2018-02-16

    There has been increasing awareness of the importance of three-dimensional culture of cancer cells. Tumor cells growing as multicellular spheroids in three-dimensional culture, alternatively called organoids, are widely believed to more closely mimic solid tumors in situ . Previous studies concluded that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for regeneration of the normal urothelium after injury and that β-catenin is upregulated in human bladder cancers, but no clear evidence has been advanced to support the idea that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is directly involved in deregulated proliferation and the other malignant characteristics of bladder cancer cells. Here we report that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator, CHIR99021, promoted proliferation of established human bladder cancer cell lines when they were grown in organoid culture but not when they were grown in conventional adherent cultures. CHIR99021 activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway in bladder cancer cell lines in organoid culture. CHIR99021 also stimulated proliferation and the Wnt/b-catenin pathway in primary human bladder cancer organoids. RNAi-mediated knockdown of β-catenin blocked growth of organoids. The effects of CHIR99021 were associated with decreased expression of the urothelial terminal differentiation marker, cytokeratin 20. Our data suggest that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for the proliferation of bladder cancer cells in three-dimensional organoid culture and provide a concrete example of why organoid culture is important for cancer research.

  9. Radiation hybrid mapping of genes in the lithium-sensitive wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, A R; Karkera, J D; Detera-Wadleigh, S D

    1999-09-01

    Lithium, an effective drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder, has been proposed to disrupt the Wnt signaling pathway. To facilitate analysis of the possible involvement of elements of the Wnt pathway in human bipolar disorder, a high resolution radiation hybrid mapping (RHM) of these genes was performed. A fine physical location has been obtained for Wnt 7A, frizzled 3, 4 and 5, dishevelled 1, 2 and 3, GSK3beta, axin, alpha-catenin, the Armadillo repeat-containing genes (delta-catenin and ARVCF), and a frizzled-like protein (frpHE) using the Stanford Human Genome Center (SHGC) G3 panel. Most of these genes were previously mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Frizzled 4, axin and frpHE did not have a previous chromosomal assignment and were linked by RHM to chromosome markers, SHGC-35131 at 11q22.1, NIB1488 at 16p13.3 and D7S2919 at 7p15.2, respectively. Interestingly, some of these genes were found to map within potential regions underlying susceptibility to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia as well as disorders of neurodevelopmental origin. This alternative approach of establishing the precise location of selected genetic components of a candidate pathway and determining if they map within previously defined susceptibility loci should help to identify plausible candidate genes that warrant further analysis through association and mutational scanning.

  10. Concise Review: Wnt Signaling Pathways in Skin Development and Epidermal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Anthony; Lang, Christopher; Lien, Wen-Hui

    2018-01-01

    Mammalian skin and its appendages constitute the integumentary system forming a barrier between the organism and its environment. During development, skin epidermal cells divide rapidly and stratify into a multilayered epithelium, as well as invaginate downward in the underlying mesenchyme to form hair follicles (HFs). In postnatal skin, the interfollicular epidermal (IFE) cells continuously proliferate and differentiate while HFs undergo cycles of regeneration. Epidermal regeneration is fueled by epidermal stem cells (SCs) located in the basal layer of the IFE and the outer layer of the bulge in the HF. Epidermal development and SC behavior are mainly regulated by various extrinsic cues, among which Wnt-dependent signaling pathways play crucial roles. This review not only summarizes the current knowledge of Wnt signaling pathways in the regulation of skin development and governance of SCs during tissue homeostasis, but also discusses the potential crosstalk of Wnt signaling with other pathways involved in these processes. Stem Cells 2018;36:22-35. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  11. The connections of Wnt pathway components with cell cycle and centrosome: side effects or a hidden logic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryja, Vítězslav; Červenka, Igor; Čajánek, Lukáš

    2017-12-01

    Wnt signaling cascade has developed together with multicellularity to orchestrate the development and homeostasis of complex structures. Wnt pathway components - such as β-catenin, Dishevelled (DVL), Lrp6, and Axin-- are often dedicated proteins that emerged in evolution together with the Wnt signaling cascade and are believed to function primarily in the Wnt cascade. It is interesting to see that in recent literature many of these proteins are connected with cellular functions that are more ancient and not limited to multicellular organisms - such as cell cycle regulation, centrosome biology, or cell division. In this review, we summarize the recent literature describing this crosstalk. Specifically, we attempt to find the answers to the following questions: Is the response to Wnt ligands regulated by the cell cycle? Is the centrosome and/or cilium required to activate the Wnt pathway? How do Wnt pathway components regulate the centrosomal cycle and cilia formation and function? We critically review the evidence that describes how these connections are regulated and how they help to integrate cell-to-cell communication with the cell and the centrosomal cycle in order to achieve a fine-tuned, physiological response.

  12. Biphasic effects of FGF2 on odontoblast differentiation involve changes in the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2014-08-01

    Odontoblast differentiation during physiological and reparative dentinogenesis is dependent upon multiple signaling molecules, including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) ligands. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that continuous exposure of primary dental pulp cultures to FGF2 exerted biphasic effects on the expression of markers of dentinogenesis. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells. Our results showed that stimulatory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis during the proliferation phase of growth were associated with increased expression of the components of the BMP (Bmp2, Dlx5, Msx2, Osx) and Wnt (Wnt10a, Wisp2) pathways, and decreased expression of an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling, Nkd2. Further addition of FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of growth resulted in decreased expression of components of the BMP signaling (Bmp2, Runx2, Osx) and increased expression of inhibitors of the Wnt signaling (Nkd2, Dkk3). This suggests that both BMP and Wnt pathways may be involved in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells.

  13. Modular and Stochastic Approaches to Molecular Pathway Models of ATM, TGF beta, and WNT Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; O'Neill, Peter; Ponomarev, Artem; Carra, Claudio; Whalen, Mary; Pluth, Janice M.

    2009-01-01

    Deterministic pathway models that describe the biochemical interactions of a group of related proteins, their complexes, activation through kinase, etc. are often the basis for many systems biology models. Low dose radiation effects present a unique set of challenges to these models including the importance of stochastic effects due to the nature of radiation tracks and small number of molecules activated, and the search for infrequent events that contribute to cancer risks. We have been studying models of the ATM, TGF -Smad and WNT signaling pathways with the goal of applying pathway models to the investigation of low dose radiation cancer risks. Modeling challenges include introduction of stochastic models of radiation tracks, their relationships to more than one substrate species that perturb pathways, and the identification of a representative set of enzymes that act on the dominant substrates. Because several pathways are activated concurrently by radiation the development of modular pathway approach is of interest.

  14. The Notch ligand Delta-like 1 integrates inputs from TGFbeta/Activin and Wnt pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordonaro, Michael, E-mail: mbordonaro@tcmedc.org; Tewari, Shruti, E-mail: stewari@tcmedc.org; Atamna, Wafa, E-mail: watamna@tcmedc.org; Lazarova, Darina L., E-mail: dlazarova@tcmedc.org

    2011-06-10

    Unlike the well-characterized nuclear function of the Notch intracellular domain, it has been difficult to identify a nuclear role for the ligands of Notch. Here we provide evidence for the nuclear function of the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 in colon cancer (CC) cells exposed to butyrate. We demonstrate that the intracellular domain of Delta-like 1 (Dll1icd) augments the activity of Wnt signaling-dependent reporters and that of the promoter of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene. Data suggest that Dll1icd upregulates CTGF promoter activity through both direct and indirect mechanisms. The direct mechanism is supported by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous Smad2/3 proteins and Dll1 and by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses that revealed the occupancy of Dll1icd on CTGF promoter sequences containing a Smad binding element. The indirect upregulation of CTGF expression by Dll1 is likely due to the ability of Dll1icd to increase Wnt signaling, a pathway that targets CTGF. CTGF expression is induced in butyrate-treated CC cells and results from clonal growth assays support a role for CTGF in the cell growth-suppressive role of butyrate. In conclusion, integration of the Notch, Wnt, and TGFbeta/Activin signaling pathways is in part mediated by the interactions of Dll1 with Smad2/3 and Tcf4.

  15. Wnt and Notch signaling pathway involved in wound healing by targeting c-Myc and Hes1 separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Shu, Bin; Yang, Ronghua; Xu, Yingbin; Xing, Bangrong; Liu, Jian; Chen, Lei; Qi, Shaohai; Liu, Xusheng; Wang, Peng; Tang, Jinming; Xie, Julin

    2015-06-16

    Wnt and Notch signaling pathways are critically involved in relative cell fate decisions within the development of cutaneous tissues. Moreover, several studies identified the above two pathways as having a significant role during wound healing. However, their biological effects during cutaneous tissues repair are unclear. We employed a self-controlled model (Sprague-Dawley rats with full-thickness skin wounds) to observe the action and effect of Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signalings in vivo. The quality of wound repair relevant to the gain/loss-of-function Wnt/β-catenin and Notch activation was estimated by hematoxylin-and-eosin and Masson staining. Immunofluorescence analysis and Western blot analysis were used to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the regulation of Wnt and Notch signaling pathways in wound healing. Meanwhile, epidermal stem cells (ESCs) were cultured in keratinocyte serum-free medium with Jaggedl or in DAPT (N-[(3,5-difluorophenyl)acetyl]-L-alanyl-2-phenyl]glycine-1,1-dimethylethyl) to investigate whether the interruption of Notch signaling contributes to the expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The results showed that in vivo the gain-of-function Wnt/β-catenin and Notch activation extended the ability to promote wound closure. We further determined that activation or inhibition of Wnt signaling and Notch signaling can affect the proliferation of ESCs, the differentiation and migration of keratinocytes, and follicle regeneration by targeting c-Myc and Hes1, which ultimately lead to enhanced or delayed wound healing. Furthermore, Western blot analysis suggested that the two pathways might interact in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that Wnt and Notch signalings play important roles in cutaneous repair by targeting c-Myc and Hes1 separately. What's more, interaction between the above two pathways might act as a vital role in regulation of wound healing.

  16. Germline genetic variants in the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway as predictors of colorectal cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Reyes, Monica E.; Lin, Moubin; He, Yonggang; Nguyen, Son V.; Hawk, Ernest T.; Wu, Xifeng

    2016-01-01

    Background The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway plays a key role in stem cell maintenance in the colorectum. Rare high penetrance genetic mutations in components of this pathway result in familial colorectal cancer, yet the impact of common, germline variants remains unknown. Methods We assessed 172 variants in 26 genes from the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in 809 CRC cases and 814 healthy controls, followed by replication of the top findings in another 691 cases and 775 controls. In silico informatic tools were used to predict functional effects of variants. Results Eighteen SNPs in the pathway were significantly associated with CRC risk (P <0.05) in the discovery phase. We observed a significant dose-response increase in CRC risk by number of risk genotypes carried (P = 4.19 × 10−8). Gene-based analysis implicated CSNK1D (P = 0.014), FZD3 (P = 0.023), and APC (P = 0.027) as significant for CRC risk. In the replication phase, FZD3:rs11775139 remained significantly associated with reduced risk with a pooled OR of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.76–0.94, P = 0.001). Although borderline significant in the replication population, APC:rs2545162 was highly significant in the pooled analysis - OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.16–1.74, P =0.00085. Functional assessment identified several potential biological mechanisms underlying these associations. Conclusions Our findings suggest that common germline variants in the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway maybe involved in CRC development. Impact These variants may be informative in CRC risk assessment to identify individuals at increased risk who would be candidates for screening. PMID:26809274

  17. Altered Expression of Wnt Signaling Pathway Components in Osteogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteoarthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero-Esteban, Pilar; Peralta-Sastre, Ascensión; Herranz, Eva; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Mucientes, Arkaitz; Abásolo, Lydia; Marco, Fernando; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Lamas, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by altered homeostasis of joint cartilage and bone, whose functional properties rely on chondrocytes and osteoblasts, belonging to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). WNT signaling acts as a hub integrating and crosstalking with other signaling pathways leading to the regulation of MSC functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of a differential signaling between Healthy and OA-MSCs during osteogenesis. MSCs of seven OA patients and six healthy controls were isolated, characterised and expanded. During in vitro osteogenesis, cells were recovered at days 1, 10 and 21. RNA and protein content was obtained. Expression of WNT pathway genes was evaluated using RT-qPCR. Functional studies were also performed to study the MSC osteogenic commitment and functional and post-traslational status of β-catenin and several receptor tyrosine kinases. Several genes were downregulated in OA-MSCs during osteogenesis in vitro. These included soluble Wnts, inhibitors, receptors, co-receptors, several kinases and transcription factors. Basal levels of β-catenin were higher in OA-MSCs, but calcium deposition and expression of osteogenic genes was similar between Healthy and OA-MSCs. Interestingly an increased phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling node was present in OA-MSCs. Our results point to the existence in OA-MSCs of alterations in expression of Wnt pathway components during in vitro osteogenesis that are partially compensated by post-translational mechanisms modulating the function of other pathways. We also point the relevance of other signaling pathways in OA pathophysiology suggesting their role in the maintenance of joint homeostasis through modulation of MSC osteogenic potential.

  18. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway promotes chondrocyte differentiation in a Sox9-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Fumiko; Kugimiya, Fumitaka; Ohba, Shinsuke; Ikeda, Toshiyuki; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ogasawara, Toru; Ogata, Naoshi; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Chung, Ung-il

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the role of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in cartilage development, we adenovirally expressed a constitutively active (Canada) or a dominant negative (dn) form of lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1), the main nuclear effector of the pathway, in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, chondrogenic cells, and primary chondrocytes, and examined the expression of markers for chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy. caLEF-1 and LiCl, an activator of the canonical pathway, promoted both chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy, whereas dnLEF-1 and the gene silencing of β-catenin suppressed LiCl-promoted effects. To investigate whether these effects were dependent on Sox9, a master regulator of cartilage development, we stimulated Sox9-deficient ES cells with the pathway. caLEF-1 and LiCl promoted both chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy in wild-type, but not in Sox9-deficient, cells. The response of Sox9-deficient cells was restored by the adenoviral expression of Sox9. Thus, the canonical Wnt signaling pathway promotes chondrocyte differentiation in a Sox9-dependent manner

  19. Thermodynamics in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Interplay Between Canonical WNT/Beta-Catenin Pathway-PPAR Gamma, Energy Metabolism and Circadian Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Alexandre; Lecarpentier, Yves; Guillevin, Rémy; Vallée, Jean-Noël

    2018-03-23

    Entropy production rate is increased by several metabolic and thermodynamics abnormalities in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Irreversible processes are quantified by changes in the entropy production rate. This review is focused on the opposing interactions observed in NDs between the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR gamma and their metabolic and thermodynamic implications. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease, WNT/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated, whereas PPAR gamma is downregulated. In Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, WNT/beta-catenin pathway is downregulated while PPAR gamma is upregulated. The dysregulation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway is responsible for the modification of thermodynamics behaviors of metabolic enzymes. Upregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway leads to aerobic glycolysis, named Warburg effect, through activated enzymes, such as glucose transporter (Glut), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK1), monocarboxylate lactate transporter 1 (MCT-1), lactic dehydrogenase kinase-A (LDH-A) and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH). Downregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway leads to oxidative stress and cell death through inactivation of Glut, PKM2, PDK1, MCT-1, LDH-A but activation of PDH. In addition, in NDs, PPAR gamma is dysregulated, whereas it contributes to the regulation of several key circadian genes. NDs show many dysregulation in the mediation of circadian clock genes and so of circadian rhythms. Thermodynamics rhythms operate far-from-equilibrium and partly regulate interactions between WNT/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR gamma. In NDs, metabolism, thermodynamics and circadian rhythms are tightly interrelated.

  20. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in pancreatic beta cells during the compensatory islet hyperplasia in prediabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschio, D.A.; Oliveira, R.B.; Santos, M.R.; Carvalho, C.P.F.; Barbosa-Sampaio, H.C.L.; Collares-Buzato, C.B.

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, also known as the canonical Wnt pathway, plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation in several tissues/organs. It has been recently described in humans a relationship between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and mutation in the gene encoding the transcription factor TCF7L2 associated to the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In the present study, we demonstrated that hyperplastic pancreatic islets from prediabetic mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 60 d displayed nuclear translocation of active β-catenin associated with significant increases in protein content and gene expression of β-catenin as well as of cyclins D1, D2 and c-Myc (target genes of the Wnt pathway) but not of Tcf7l2 (the transcription factor). Meanwhile, these alterations were not observed in pancreatic islets from 30 d HFD-fed mice, that do not display significant beta cell hyperplasia. These data suggest that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is activated in pancreatic islets during prediabetes and may play a role in the induction of the compensatory beta cell hyperplasia observed at early phase of T2DM. - Highlights: • Exposure to high-fat diet for 60 days induced prediabetes and beta cell mass expansion. • Hyperplastic pancreatic islets displayed nuclear translocation of active β-catenin. • Hyperplastic islets showed increased expression of target genes of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. • Wnt/β-catenin pathway is activated during compensatory beta cell hyperplasia in mice.

  1. L-carnitine contributes to enhancement of neurogenesis from mesenchymal stem cells through Wnt/β-catenin and PKA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Charoudeh, Hojjatollah Nozad

    2017-03-01

    The identification of factors capable of enhancing neurogenesis has great potential for cellular therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. Multiple studies have shown the neuroprotective effects of L-carnitine (LC). This study determined whether neuronal differentiation of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) can be activated by LC. In this study, protein kinase A (PKA) and Wnt/β-catenin pathways were detected to show if this activation was due to these pathways. The expression of LC-induced neurogenesis markers in ADSCs was characterized using real-time PCR. ELISA was conducted to assess the expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and PKA. The expression of β-catenin, reduced dickkopf1 (DKK1), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), Wnt1, and Wnt3a genes as Wnt/β-catenin signaling members were used to detect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. It was observed that LC could promote neurogenesis in ADSCs as well as expression of some neurogenic markers. Moreover, LC causes to increase the cAMP levels and PKA activity. Treatment of ADSCs with H-89 (dihydrochloride hydrate) as PKA inhibitor significantly inhibited the promotion of neurogenic markers, indicating that the PKA signaling pathway could be involved in neurogenesis induction. Analyses of real-time PCR data showed that the mRNA expressions of β-catenin, DKK1, LRP5c-myc, Wnt1, and Wnt3a were increased in the presence of LC. Therefore, the present study showed that LC promotes ADSCs neurogenesis and the LC-induced neurogenic markers could be due to both the PKA and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Impact statement Neural tissue has long been believed as incapable of regeneration and the identification of cell types and factors capable of neuronal differentiation has generated intense interest. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as potential targets for stem cell-based therapy. L-carnitin (LC) as an antioxidant may have neuroprotective effects in

  2. Effect of Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway protein-2 (WISP-2/CCN5), a downstream protein of Wnt signaling, on adipocyte differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadera, Hidekuni; Shimomura, Akiko; Tachibana, Shinjiro

    2009-01-01

    Wnt signaling negatively regulates adipocyte differentiation, and ectopic expression of Wnt-1 in 3T3-L1 cells induces several downstream molecules of Wnt signaling, including Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway protein (WISP)-2. In this study, we examined the role of WISP-2 in the process of adipocyte differentiation using an in vitro cell culture system. In the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, WISP-2 expression was observed in growing cells and declined thereafter. In the mitotic clonal expansion phase of adipocyte differentiation, WISP-2 expression was transiently down-regulated concurrently with up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ expression. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells in the differentiation medium with lithium, an activator of Wnt signaling, inhibited the differentiation process with concomitant induction of WISP-2. Treatment of differentiated cells with lithium induced de-differentiation as evidenced by profound reduction of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor γ expression and concomitant induction of WISP-2. However, de-differentiation of differentiated cells induced by tumor necrosis factor-α did not induce WISP-2 expression. To directly examine the effect of WISP-2 on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were infected with a retrovirus carrying WISP-2. Although forced expression of WISP-2 inhibited preadipocyte proliferation, it had no effect on adipocyte differentiation. Thus, although WISP-2 is a downstream protein of Wnt signaling, the role of WISP-2 on adipocyte differentiation may be marginal, at least in this in vitro culture model.

  3. SFRP2 enhances the osteogenic differentiation of apical papilla stem cells by antagonizing the canonical WNT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Luyuan; Cao, Yu; Yu, Guoxia; Wang, Jinsong; Lin, Xiao; Ge, Lihua; Du, Juan; Wang, Liping; Diao, Shu; Lian, Xiaomeng; Wang, Songlin; Dong, Rui; Shan, Zhaochen

    2017-01-01

    Exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying directed differentiation is helpful in the development of clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Our previous study on dental tissue-derived MSCs demonstrated that secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), a Wnt inhibitor, could enhance osteogenic differentiation in stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs). However, how SFRP2 promotes osteogenic differentiation of dental tissue-derived MSCs remains unclear. In this study, we used SCAPs to investigate the underlying mechanisms. SCAPs were isolated from the apical papilla of immature third molars. Western blot and real-time RT-PCR were applied to detect the expression of β-catenin and Wnt target genes. Alizarin Red staining, quantitative calcium analysis, transwell cultures and in vivo transplantation experiments were used to study the osteogenic differentiation potential of SCAPs. SFRP2 inhibited canonical Wnt signaling by enhancing phosphorylation and decreasing the expression of nuclear β-catenin in vitro and in vivo . In addition, the target genes of the Wnt signaling pathway, AXIN2 (axin-related protein 2) and MMP7 (matrix metalloproteinase-7), were downregulated by SFRP2 . WNT1 inhibited the osteogenic differentiation potential of SCAPs. SFRP2 could rescue this WNT1 -impaired osteogenic differentiation potential. The results suggest that SFRP2 could bind to locally present Wnt ligands and alter the balance of intracellular Wnt signaling to antagonize the canonical Wnt pathway in SCAPs. This elucidates the molecular mechanism underlying the SFRP2-mediated directed differentiation of SCAPs and indicates potential target genes for improving dental tissue regeneration.

  4. Knockdown of TC-1 enhances radiosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dapeng; Li, Lei; Yan, Wei

    2016-04-15

    Thyroid cancer 1 (TC-1, C8ofr4) is widely expressed in vertebrates and associated with many kinds of tumors. Previous studies indicated that TC-1 functions as a positive regulator in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, its exact role and regulation mechanism in radiosensitivity of NSCLC are still unclear. The expression level of TC-1 was measured by qRT-PCR and western blot in NSCLC cell lines. Proliferation and apoptosis of NSCLC cells in response to TC-1 knockdown or/and radiation were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was further examined by western blotin vitroandin vivo Compared to TC-1 siRNA or radiotherapy alone, TC-1 silencing combined with radiation inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines by inactivating of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by XAV939, a Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor, contributed to proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in NSCLC A549 cells. Combinative treatment of A549 xenografts with TC-1 siRNA and radiation caused significant tumor regression and inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway relative to TC-1 siRNA or radiotherapy alone. The results fromin vitroandin vivostudies indicated that TC-1 silencing sensitized NSCLC cell lines to radiotherapy through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. MicroRNA-200a suppresses the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by interacting with β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Juan; Zhang, Anling; Shi, Zhendong; Ma, Feifei; Pu, Peiyu; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Jie; Kang, Chunsheng; Zhang, Qingyu

    2012-04-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is crucial for human organ development and is involved in tumor progression of many cancers. Accumulating evidence suggests that the expression of β-catenin is, in part, regulated by specific microRNAs (miRNAs). The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of a recently identified epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated tumor suppressor microRNA (miR)-200a, in cancer cells. We also aimed to identify specific miR-200a target genes and to investigate the antitumor effects of miR-200a on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We employed TOP/FOP flash luciferase assays to identify the effect of miR-200a on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and we confirmed our observations using fluorescence microscopy. To determine target genes of miR-200a, a 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) luciferase assay was performed. Cell viability, invasion and wound healing assays were carried out for functional analysis after miRNA transfection. We further investigated the role of miR-200a in EMT by Western blot analysis. We found fluctuation in the expression of miR-200a that was accompanied by changes in the expression of members of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We also determined that miR-200a can directly interact with the 3' UTR of CTNNB1 (the gene that encodes β-catenin) to suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling. MiR-200a could also influence the biological activities of SGC790 and U251 cells. Our results demonstrate that miR-200a is a new tumor suppressor that can regulate the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway via two mechanisms. MiR-200a is a candidate target for tumor treatment via its regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  6. Aberrant DNA methylation of WNT pathway genes in the development and progression of CIMP-negative colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamb, Orsolya; Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Csabai, István; Bodor, András; Ribli, Dezső; Krenács, Tibor; Patai, Árpád V; Wichmann, Barnabás; Barták, Barbara Kinga; Tóth, Kinga; Valcz, Gábor; Spisák, Sándor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2016-08-02

    The WNT signaling pathway has an essential role in colorectal carcinogenesis and progression, which involves a cascade of genetic and epigenetic changes. We aimed to analyze DNA methylation affecting the WNT pathway genes in colorectal carcinogenesis in promoter and gene body regions using whole methylome analysis in 9 colorectal cancer, 15 adenoma, and 6 normal tumor adjacent tissue (NAT) samples by methyl capture sequencing. Functional methylation was confirmed on 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-treated colorectal cancer cell line datasets. In parallel with the DNA methylation analysis, mutations of WNT pathway genes (APC, β-catenin/CTNNB1) were analyzed by 454 sequencing on GS Junior platform. Most differentially methylated CpG sites were localized in gene body regions (95% of WNT pathway genes). In the promoter regions, 33 of the 160 analyzed WNT pathway genes were differentially methylated in colorectal cancer vs. normal, including hypermethylated AXIN2, CHP1, PRICKLE1, SFRP1, SFRP2, SOX17, and hypomethylated CACYBP, CTNNB1, MYC; 44 genes in adenoma vs. NAT; and 41 genes in colorectal cancer vs. adenoma comparisons. Hypermethylation of AXIN2, DKK1, VANGL1, and WNT5A gene promoters was higher, while those of SOX17, PRICKLE1, DAAM2, and MYC was lower in colon carcinoma compared to adenoma. Inverse correlation between expression and methylation was confirmed in 23 genes, including APC, CHP1, PRICKLE1, PSEN1, and SFRP1. Differential methylation affected both canonical and noncanonical WNT pathway genes in colorectal normal-adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Aberrant DNA methylation appears already in adenomas as an early event of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  7. Bilobalide induces neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells via activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Guo, Jingjing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Luyong; Pang, Tao; Liao, Hong

    2014-08-01

    Bilobalide, a natural product extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaf, is known to exhibit a number of pharmacological activities. So far, whether it could affect embryonic stem cell differentiation is still unknown. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bilobalide on P19 embryonic carcinoma cells differentiation and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that bilobalide induced P19 cells differentiation into neurons in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We also found that bilobalide promoted neuronal differentiation through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Exposure to bilobalide increased inactive GSK-3β phosphorylation, further induced the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and also up-regulated the expression of Wnt ligands Wnt1 and Wnt7a. Neuronal differentiation induced by bilobalide was totally abolished by XAV939, an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. These results revealed a novel role of bilobalide in neuronal differentiation from P19 embryonic cells acting through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which would provide a better insight into the beneficial effects of bilobalide in brain diseases.

  8. Wnt1 Neuroprotection Translates into Improved Neurological Function during Oxidant Stress and Cerebral Ischemia Through AKT1 and Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhong Chong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although essential for the development of the nervous system, Wnt1 also has been associated with neurodegenerative disease and cognitive loss during periods of oxidative stress. Here we show that endogenous expression of Wnt1 is suppressed during oxidative stress in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Loss of endogenous Wnt1 signaling directly correlates with neuronal demise and increased functional deficit, illustrating that endogenous neuronal Wnt1 offers a vital level of intrinsic cellular protection against oxidative stress. Furthermore, transient overexpression of Wnt1 or application of exogenous Wnt1 recombinant protein is necessary to preserve neurological function and rescue neurons from apoptotic membrane phosphatidylserine externalization and genomic DNA degradation, since blockade of Wnt1 signaling with a Wnt1 antibody or dickkopf related protein 1 abrogates neuronal protection by Wnt1. Wnt1 ultimately relies upon the activation of Akt1, the modulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability, and the release of cytochrome c to control the apoptotic cascade, since inhibition of Wnt1 signaling, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, or Akt1 activity abrogates the ability of Wnt1 to block these apoptotic components. Our work identifies Wnt1 and its downstream signaling as cellular targets with high clinical potential for novel treatment strategies for multiple disorders precipitated by oxidative stress.

  9. WNT signalling and haematopoiesis: a WNT-WNT situation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, F.J.T.; Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved WNT-signalling pathway has pivotal roles during the development of many organ systems, and dysregulated WNT signalling is a key factor in the initiation of various tumours. Recent studies have implicated a role for WNT signal transduction at several stages of lymphocyte

  10. Wnt-11 signaling leads to down-regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin, JNK/AP-1 and NF-κB pathways and promotes viability in the CHO-K1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railo, Antti; Nagy, Irina I.; Kilpelaeinen, Pekka; Vainio, Seppo

    2008-01-01

    The Wnt family of glycoprotein growth factors controls a number of central cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and ageing. All the Wnt proteins analyzed so far either activate or inhibit the canonical β-catenin signaling pathway that regulates transcription of the target genes. In addition, some of them activate noncanonical signaling pathways that involve components such as the JNK, heterotrimeric G proteins, protein kinase C, and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, although the precise signaling mechanisms are only just beginning to be revealed. We demonstrate here that Wnt-11 signaling is sufficient to inhibit not only the canonical β-catenin mediated Wnt signaling but also JNK/AP-1 and NF-κB signaling in the CHO cells, thus serving as a noncanonical Wnt ligand in this system. Inhibition of the JNK/AP-1 pathway is mediated in part by the MAPK kinase MKK4 and Akt. Moreover, protein kinase C is involved in the regulation of JNK/AP-1 by Wnt-11, but not of the NF-κB pathway. Consistent with the central role of Akt, JNK and NF-κB in cell survival and stress responses, Wnt-11 signaling promotes cell viability. Hence Wnt-11 is involved in coordination of key signaling pathways

  11. Wnt Signaling in Kidney Development and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongping; Zhou, Chengji J; Liu, Youhua

    2018-01-01

    Wnt signal cascade is an evolutionarily conserved, developmental pathway that regulates embryogenesis, injury repair, and pathogenesis of human diseases. It is well established that Wnt ligands transmit their signal via canonical, β-catenin-dependent and noncanonical, β-catenin-independent mechanisms. Mounting evidence has revealed that Wnt signaling plays a key role in controlling early nephrogenesis and is implicated in the development of various kidney disorders. Dysregulations of Wnt expression cause a variety of developmental abnormalities and human diseases, such as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, cystic kidney, and renal carcinoma. Multiple Wnt ligands, their receptors, and transcriptional targets are upregulated during nephron formation, which is crucial for mediating the reciprocal interaction between primordial tissues of ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme. Renal cysts are also associated with disrupted Wnt signaling. In addition, Wnt components are important players in renal tumorigenesis. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin is instrumental for tubular repair and regeneration after acute kidney injury. However, sustained activation of this signal cascade is linked to chronic kidney diseases and renal fibrosis in patients and experimental animal models. Mechanistically, Wnt signaling controls a diverse array of biologic processes, such as cell cycle progression, cell polarity and migration, cilia biology, and activation of renin-angiotensin system. In this chapter, we have reviewed recent findings that implicate Wnt signaling in kidney development and diseases. Targeting this signaling may hold promise for future treatment of kidney disorders in patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Opposite Interplay Between the Canonical WNT/β-Catenin Pathway and PPAR Gamma: A Potential Therapeutic Target in Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Alexandre; Lecarpentier, Yves; Guillevin, Rémy; Vallée, Jean-Noël

    2018-06-01

    In gliomas, the canonical Wingless/Int (WNT)/β-catenin pathway is increased while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is downregulated. The two systems act in an opposite manner. This review focuses on the interplay between WNT/β-catenin signaling and PPAR-γ and their metabolic implications as potential therapeutic target in gliomas. Activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway stimulates the transcription of genes involved in proliferation, invasion, nucleotide synthesis, tumor growth, and angiogenesis. Activation of PPAR-γ agonists inhibits various signaling pathways such as the JAK/STAT, WNT/β-catenin, and PI3K/Akt pathways, which reduces tumor growth, cell proliferation, cell invasiveness, and angiogenesis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, curcumin, antipsychotic drugs, adiponectin, and sulforaphane downregulate the WNT/β-catenin pathway through the upregulation of PPAR-γ and thus appear to provide an interesting therapeutic approach for gliomas. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an antiangiogenic agent. The downstream action of this opposite interplay may explain the TMZ-resistance often reported in gliomas.

  13. EZH2 Impairs Human Dental Pulp Cell Mineralization via the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Yu, F; Wu, F; Hui, T; A, P; Liao, X; Yin, B; Wang, C; Ye, L

    2018-05-01

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a catalytic subunit of PRC2 (polycomb repressor complex 2). It mediates gene silencing via methyltransferase activity and is involved in the determination of cell lineage. However, the function of EZH2 and the underlying mechanisms by which it affects the differentiation of human dental pulp cell (hDPC) have remained underexplored. In this research, we found that EZH2 expression decreased during the mineralization of hDPCs, with attenuated H3K27me3 (trimethylation on lysine 27 in histone H3). Overexpression of EZH2 impaired the odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs, while EZH2 without methyltransferase activity mutation (mutation of suppressed variegation of 3 to 9, enhancer of zeste and trithorax domain, EZH2ΔSET) did not display this phenotype. In addition, siRNA knockdown studies showed that EZH2 negatively modulated hDPC differentiation in vitro and inhibited mineralized nodule formation in transplanted β-tricalcium phosphate / hDPC composites. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, we explored the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in view of the fact that previous research had documented the essential role that it plays during hDPC mineralization, as well as its links to EZH2 in other cells. We demonstrated for the first time that EZH2 depletion activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and enhanced the accumulation of β-catenin in hDPCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis suggested that these effects are attributable to the level of the EZH2-regulated H3K27me3 on the β-catenin promoter. We conclude that EZH2 plays a negative role during the odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. Suppression of EZH2 could promote hDPC mineralization by epigenetically regulating the expression of β-catenin and activating the Wnt canonical signaling pathway.

  14. MicroRNA-200a suppresses the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway by interacting with ?-catenin

    OpenAIRE

    SU, JUAN; ZHANG, ANLING; SHI, ZHENDONG; MA, FEIFEI; PU, PEIYU; WANG, TAO; ZHANG, JIE; KANG, CHUNSHENG; ZHANG, QINGYU

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway is crucial for human organ development and is involved in tumor progression of many cancers. Accumulating evidence suggests that the expression of ?-catenin is, in part, regulated by specific microRNAs (miRNAs). The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of a recently identified epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated tumor suppressor microRNA (miR)-200a, in cancer cells. We also aimed to identify specific miR-200a target genes ...

  15. Mathematical and Statistical Techniques for Systems Medicine: The Wnt Signaling Pathway as a Case Study

    KAUST Repository

    MacLean, Adam L.

    2015-12-16

    The last decade has seen an explosion in models that describe phenomena in systems medicine. Such models are especially useful for studying signaling pathways, such as the Wnt pathway. In this chapter we use the Wnt pathway to showcase current mathematical and statistical techniques that enable modelers to gain insight into (models of) gene regulation and generate testable predictions. We introduce a range of modeling frameworks, but focus on ordinary differential equation (ODE) models since they remain the most widely used approach in systems biology and medicine and continue to offer great potential. We present methods for the analysis of a single model, comprising applications of standard dynamical systems approaches such as nondimensionalization, steady state, asymptotic and sensitivity analysis, and more recent statistical and algebraic approaches to compare models with data. We present parameter estimation and model comparison techniques, focusing on Bayesian analysis and coplanarity via algebraic geometry. Our intention is that this (non-exhaustive) review may serve as a useful starting point for the analysis of models in systems medicine.

  16. Cornelia de Lange Syndrome: NIPBL haploinsufficiency downregulates canonical Wnt pathway in zebrafish embryos and patients fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistocchi, A; Fazio, G; Cereda, A; Ferrari, L; Bettini, L R; Messina, G; Cotelli, F; Biondi, A; Selicorni, A; Massa, V

    2013-10-17

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome is a severe genetic disorder characterized by malformations affecting multiple systems, with a common feature of severe mental retardation. Genetic variants within four genes (NIPBL (Nipped-B-like), SMC1A, SMC3, and HDAC8) are believed to be responsible for the majority of cases; all these genes encode proteins that are part of the 'cohesin complex'. Cohesins exhibit two temporally separated major roles in cells: one controlling the cell cycle and the other involved in regulating the gene expression. The present study focuses on the role of the zebrafish nipblb paralog during neural development, examining its expression in the central nervous system, and analyzing the consequences of nipblb loss of function. Neural development was impaired by the knockdown of nipblb in zebrafish. nipblb-loss-of-function embryos presented with increased apoptosis in the developing neural tissues, downregulation of canonical Wnt pathway genes, and subsequent decreased Cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) levels. Importantly, the same pattern of canonical WNT pathway and CCND1 downregulation was observed in NIPBL-mutated patient-specific fibroblasts. Finally, chemical activation of the pathway in nipblb-loss-of-function embryos rescued the adverse phenotype and restored the physiological levels of cell death.

  17. Effect of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on apoptosis, migration, and invasion of transplanted hepatocellular carcinoma cells after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Ming; Li, Nuo

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on apoptosis, migration, and invasion of transplanted hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in rat models. A total of 80 rats were grouped into sham, TACE, Wnt-C59, and TACE + Wnt-C59 groups (n = 20). Ten days after model establishment, 10 rats in each group were executed to perform pathological examination and follow-up experiment, and the remaining 10 rats in each group were reared to observe the survival condition. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were applied to determine the expressions of Wnt1, β-catenin, cyclin D1, c-met, vimentin, E-cadherin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). ELISA was performed to measure the serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) content of rats. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate cell apoptosis rate and transwell assay to examine cell migration and invasion. Compared with the TACE group, the Wnt-C59 and TACE + Wnt-C59 groups showed increased apoptosis and survival time (the TACE + Wnt-C59 group > the Wnt-C59 group). Compared with the sham group, the TACE + Wnt-C59 groups showed decreased cancer tissue weight and expressions of Wnt1, β-catenin, cyclin D1, vimentin, c-met, and VEGF, but increased E-cadherin expression. Compared with the TACE group, the Wnt-C59 and TACE + Wnt-C59 groups showed decreased AFP level, migration, and invasion (the TACE + Wnt-C59 group Wnt-C59 group). These findings indicate inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway improves therapeutic effect on TACE via suppressing migration, invasion, and promoting apoptosis of transplanted HCC cells in rats. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A silyl andrographolide analogue suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reabroi, Somrudee; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Saeeng, Rungnapha; Kasemsuk, Teerapich; Saengsawang, Witchuda; Zhu, Weiming; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

    2018-05-01

    Hyperactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling implicated in oncogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is a potential molecular target for chemotherapy. An andrographolide analogue, 3A.1 (19-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-8, 17-epoxy andrographolide) has previously been reported to be potently cytotoxic toward cancer cells by unknown molecular mechanisms. The present study explored the anti-cancer activity of analogue 3A.1 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colon cancer cells (HT29 cells) which were more sensitive to the others (HCT116 and SW480 cells). Analogue 3A.1 inhibited viability of HT29 cells with IC 50 value of 11.1 ± 1.4 μM at 24 h, which was more potent than that of the parent andrographolide. Analogue 3A.1 also suppressed the proliferation of HT29 cells and induced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Its apoptotic activity was accompanied with increased expressions of proteins related to DNA damages; PARP-1 and γ-H2AX. In addition, analogue 3A.1 significantly inhibited T-cell factor and lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Accordingly, the expressions of Wnt target genes and β-catenin protein were suppressed. Moreover, analogue 3A.1 increased the activity of GSK-3β kinase, which is a negative regulator responsible for degradation of intracellular β-catenin. This mode of action was further supported by the absence of the effects after treatment with a GSK-3β inhibitor, and over-expression of a mutant β-catenin (S33Y). Our findings reveal, for the first time, an insight into the molecular mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of analogue 3A.1 through the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin/GSK-3β pathway and provide a therapeutic potential of the andrographolide analogue 3A.1 in CRC treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Fibulin-4 is a novel Wnt/β-Catenin pathway activator in human osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Renzeng [Department of Othopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No.1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou, 450000 Henan (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The No.3 People’s Hospital of Anyang City, Anyang 455000 (China); Wang, Limin, E-mail: gu2keo@163.com [Department of Othopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No.1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou, 450000 Henan (China)

    2016-06-10

    Fibulin-4, an extracellular glycoprotein implicated in connective tissue development and elastic fiber formation, draws increasing focuses in cancer research. However, little is known about the underlying oncogenic roles of Fibulin-4 in human osteosarcoma (OS). In this study, by immunohistochemical analysis, upregulated expression of Fibulin-4 was found in the OS clinical specimens and cell lines compared to their normal counterparts. Fibulin-4 was positively correlated with the T stage of OS patients, and the proliferation index Ki67. Based on informatics analysis and functional verification, microRNA-137 was identified as a potential upstream regulator of Fibulin-4. Knockdown of Fibulin-4 or introduction of microRNA-137 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis, and adverse effects were observed by overexpression of Fibulin-4. Furthermore, the tumor-suppressive functions of microRNA-137 were markedly abolished by restoration of Fibulin-4 expression in OS cells. Mechanistically, Fibulin-4 activated Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and promoted the expression of its downstream targets, including CCND2, c-Myc and VEGF. Taken together, Fibulin-4 plays critical neoplastic roles in tumor growth of human OS by activating Wnt/β-Catenin signaling and may represent a potential therapeutic target. -- Highlights: •Upregulated Fibulin-4 correlates tumor growth in human OS. •MicroRNA-137 is a critical regulator of Fibulin-4 expression. •Deregulated miR-137/Fibulin-4 axis promotes tumor growth of human OS. •Wnt/β-Catenin pathway is activated by Fibulin-4 stimulation.

  20. Fibulin-4 is a novel Wnt/β-Catenin pathway activator in human osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Renzeng; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Fibulin-4, an extracellular glycoprotein implicated in connective tissue development and elastic fiber formation, draws increasing focuses in cancer research. However, little is known about the underlying oncogenic roles of Fibulin-4 in human osteosarcoma (OS). In this study, by immunohistochemical analysis, upregulated expression of Fibulin-4 was found in the OS clinical specimens and cell lines compared to their normal counterparts. Fibulin-4 was positively correlated with the T stage of OS patients, and the proliferation index Ki67. Based on informatics analysis and functional verification, microRNA-137 was identified as a potential upstream regulator of Fibulin-4. Knockdown of Fibulin-4 or introduction of microRNA-137 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis, and adverse effects were observed by overexpression of Fibulin-4. Furthermore, the tumor-suppressive functions of microRNA-137 were markedly abolished by restoration of Fibulin-4 expression in OS cells. Mechanistically, Fibulin-4 activated Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and promoted the expression of its downstream targets, including CCND2, c-Myc and VEGF. Taken together, Fibulin-4 plays critical neoplastic roles in tumor growth of human OS by activating Wnt/β-Catenin signaling and may represent a potential therapeutic target. -- Highlights: •Upregulated Fibulin-4 correlates tumor growth in human OS. •MicroRNA-137 is a critical regulator of Fibulin-4 expression. •Deregulated miR-137/Fibulin-4 axis promotes tumor growth of human OS. •Wnt/β-Catenin pathway is activated by Fibulin-4 stimulation.

  1. Wnt/β-catenin pathway involvement in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of U87 glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Zhen; Zhou, Lin; Han, Na; Zhang, Mengxian; Lyu, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy has been reported to promote the invasion of glioblastoma cells; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells. U87 cells were irradiated with 3 Gy or sham irradiated in the presence or absence of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV 939. Cell invasion was determined by an xCELLigence real-time cell analyser and matrigel invasion assays. The intracellular distribution of β-catenin in U87 cells with or without irradiation was examined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting of nuclear fractions. We next investigated the effect of irradiation on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity using TOP/FOP flash luciferase assays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of β-catenin target genes. The expression levels and activities of two target genes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, were examined further by Western blotting and zymography. U87 cell invasiveness was increased significantly by ionizing radiation. Interestingly, ionizing radiation induced nuclear translocation and accumulation of β-catenin. Moreover, we found increased β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activities, followed by up-regulation of downstream genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in irradiated U87 cells. Importantly, inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by XAV 939, which promotes degradation of β-catenin, significantly abrogated the pro-invasion effects of irradiation. Mechanistically, XAV 939 suppressed ionizing radiation-triggered up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and inhibited the activities of these gelatinases. Our data demonstrate a pivotal role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells, and suggest that targeting β-catenin is a promising therapeutic approach to overcoming glioma radioresistance. (orig.) [de

  2. β-Arrestin interacts with the beta/gamma subunits of trimeric G-proteins and dishevelled in the Wnt/Ca(2+ pathway in xenopus gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Seitz

    Full Text Available β-Catenin independent, non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways play a major role in the regulation of morphogenetic movements in vertebrates. The term non-canonical Wnt signaling comprises multiple, intracellularly divergent, Wnt-activated and β-Catenin independent signaling cascades including the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity and the Wnt/Ca(2+ cascades. Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity and Wnt/Ca(2+ pathways share common effector proteins, including the Wnt ligand, Frizzled receptors and Dishevelled, with each other and with additional branches of Wnt signaling. Along with the aforementioned proteins, β-Arrestin has been identified as an essential effector protein in the Wnt/β-Catenin and the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity pathway. Our results demonstrate that β-Arrestin is required in the Wnt/Ca(2+ signaling cascade upstream of Protein Kinase C (PKC and Ca(2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II (CamKII. We have further characterized the role of β-Arrestin in this branch of non-canonical Wnt signaling by knock-down and rescue experiments in Xenopus embryo explants and analyzed protein-protein interactions in 293T cells. Functional interaction of β-Arrestin, the β subunit of trimeric G-proteins and Dishevelled is required to induce PKC activation and membrane translocation. In Xenopus gastrulation, β-Arrestin function in Wnt/Ca(2+ signaling is essential for convergent extension movements. We further show that β-Arrestin physically interacts with the β subunit of trimeric G-proteins and Dishevelled, and that the interaction between β-Arrestin and Dishevelled is promoted by the beta/gamma subunits of trimeric G-proteins, indicating the formation of a multiprotein signaling complex.

  3. Altered Wnt Signaling Pathway in Cognitive Impairment Caused by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia: Focus on Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β and β-catenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Ying Pan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway abnormalities possibly play an important role in the development of cognitive deficits among mice exposed to CIH and that LiCl might attenuate CIH-induced cognitive impairment via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  4. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, gomisins J and N inhibit the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hee Ju [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Young [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Chu Won, E-mail: cwnho@kist.re.kr [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-16

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the possible molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway and the induction of G0/G1-phase arrest by gomisins J and N, derived from the fruits of S. chinensis, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N disrupted the binding of {beta}-catenin to specific DNA sequences, TBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited the HCT116 cell proliferation through G0/G1 phase arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited the expression of Cyc D1, a Wnt/{beta}-catenin target gene. -- Abstract: Here, we report that gomisin J and gomisin N, dibenzocyclooctadiene type lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis, inhibit Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in HCT116 cells. Gomisins J and N appear to inhibit Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling by disrupting the interaction between {beta}-catenin and its specific target DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) rather than by altering the expression of the {beta}-catenin protein. Gomisins J and N inhibit HCT116 cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. The G0/G1 phase arrest induced by gomisins J and N appears to be caused by a decrease in the expression of Cyclin D1, a representative target gene of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway, as well as Cdk2, Cdk4, and E2F-1. Therefore, gomisins J and N, the novel Wnt/{beta}-catenin inhibitors discovered in this study, may serve as potential agents for the prevention and treatment of human colorectal cancers.

  5. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, gomisins J and N inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hee Ju; Kim, Chul Young; Nho, Chu Won

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the possible molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and the induction of G0/G1-phase arrest by gomisins J and N, derived from the fruits of S. chinensis, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Highlights: ► Gomisins J and N inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells. ► Gomisins J and N disrupted the binding of β-catenin to specific DNA sequences, TBE. ► Gomisins J and N inhibited the HCT116 cell proliferation through G0/G1 phase arrest. ► Gomisins J and N inhibited the expression of Cyc D1, a Wnt/β-catenin target gene. -- Abstract: Here, we report that gomisin J and gomisin N, dibenzocyclooctadiene type lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis, inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling in HCT116 cells. Gomisins J and N appear to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling by disrupting the interaction between β-catenin and its specific target DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) rather than by altering the expression of the β-catenin protein. Gomisins J and N inhibit HCT116 cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. The G0/G1 phase arrest induced by gomisins J and N appears to be caused by a decrease in the expression of Cyclin D1, a representative target gene of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, as well as Cdk2, Cdk4, and E2F-1. Therefore, gomisins J and N, the novel Wnt/β-catenin inhibitors discovered in this study, may serve as potential agents for the prevention and treatment of human colorectal cancers.

  6. Hydroxyapatite coating affects the Wnt signaling pathway during peri-implant healing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorfve, A; Lindahl, C; Xia, W; Igawa, K; Lindahl, A; Thomsen, P; Palmquist, A; Tengvall, P

    2014-03-01

    Owing to its bio- and osteoconductivity, hydroxyapatite (HA) is a widely used implant material, but its osteogenic properties are only partly evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The present study focused on bone healing adjacent to HA-coated titanium (Ti) implants, with or without incorporated lithium ions (Li(+)). Special attention was given to the Wnt signaling pathway. The implants were inserted into rat tibia for 7 or 28 days and analyzed ex vivo, mainly by histomorphometry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). HA-coated implants showed, irrespective of Li(+) content, bone-implant contact (BIC) and removal torque values significantly higher than those of reference Ti. Further, the expression of OCN, CTSK, COL1A1, LRP5/6 and WISP1 was significantly higher in implant-adherent cells of HA-coated implants, with or without Li(+). Significantly higher β-catenin expression and significantly lower COL2A1 expression were observed in peri-implant bone cells from HA with 14 ng cm(-2) released Li(+). Interestingly, Ti implants showed a significantly larger bone area (BA) in the threads than HA with 39 ng cm(-2) released Li(+), but had a lower BIC than any HA-coated implant. This study shows that HA, with or without Li(+), is a strong activator of the Wnt signaling pathway, and may to some degree explain its high bone induction capacity. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytotoxicity and activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells treated with four GSK3 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujok, Ortwin; Lentes, Jana; Diekmann, Ulf; Davenport, Claudia; Lenzen, Sigurd

    2014-04-29

    Small membrane-permeable molecules are now widely used during maintenance and differentiation of embryonic stem cells of different species. In particular the glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is an interesting target, since its chemical inhibition activates the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. In the present comparative study four GSK3 inhibitors were characterized. Cytotoxicity and potential to activate the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway were tested using the commonly used GSK3 inhibitors BIO, SB-216763, CHIR-99021, and CHIR-98014. Wnt/beta-catenin-dependent target genes were measured by quantitative PCR to confirm the Wnt-reporter assay and finally EC50-values were calculated. CHIR-99021 and SB-216763 had the lowest toxicities in mouse embryonic stem cells and CHIR-98014 and BIO the highest toxicities. Only CHIR-99021 and CHIR-98014 lead to a strong induction of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, whereas BIO and SB-216763 showed a minor or no increase in activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway over the natural ligand Wnt3a. The data from the Wnt-reporter assay were confirmed by gene expression analysis of the TCF/LEF regulated gene T. Out of the four tested GSK3 inhibitors, only CHIR-99021 and CHIR-98014 proved to be potent pharmacological activators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. But only in the case of CHIR-99021 high potency was combined with very low toxicity.

  8. Nanorod diameter modulated osteogenic activity of hierarchical micropore/nanorod-patterned coatings via a Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianhong; Zhao, Lingzhou; Li, Bo; Han, Yong

    2018-04-14

    Hierarchical micropore/nanorod-patterned strontium doped hydroxyapatite (Ca 9 Sr 1 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , Sr 1 -HA) structures (MNRs) with different nanorod diameters of about 30, 70 and 150 nm were coated on titanium, to investigate the effect of nanorod diameter on osteogenesis and the involved mechanism. Compared to micropore/nanogranule-patterned Sr 1 -HA coating (MNG), MNRs gave rise to dramatically enhanced in vitro mesenchymal stem cell functions including osteogenic differentiation in the absence of osteogenic supplements and in vivo osseointegration related to the nanorod diameter with about 70 nm displaying the best effects. MNRs activated the cellular Wnt/β-catenin pathway by increasing the expression of Wnt3a and LRP6 and decreasing the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway antagonists (sFRP1, sFRP2, Dkk1 and Dkk2). The exogenous Wnt3a significantly enhanced the β-catenin signaling activation and cell differentiation on MNG, and the exogenous Dkk1 attenuated the enhancing effect of MNRs on them. The data demonstrate that MNRs favor osseointegration via a Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in monocytes derived from chronic kidney disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heevy Abdulkareem Musa Al-Chaqmaqchi

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD have significantly increased morbidity and mortality resulting from infections and cardiovascular diseases. Since monocytes play an essential role in host immunity, this study was directed to explore the gene expression profile in order to identify differences in activated pathways in monocytes relevant to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and increased susceptibility to infections. Monocytes from CKD patients (stages 4 and 5, estimated GFR <20 ml/min/1.73 m(2 and healthy donors were collected from peripheral blood. Microarray gene expression profile was performed and data were interpreted by GeneSpring software and by PANTHER tool. Western blot was done to validate the pathway members. The results demonstrated that 600 and 272 genes were differentially up- and down regulated respectively in the patient group. Pathways involved in the inflammatory response were highly expressed and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was the most significant pathway expressed in the patient group. Since this pathway has been attributed to a variety of inflammatory manifestations, the current findings may contribute to dysfunctional monocytes in CKD patients. Strategies to interfere with this pathway may improve host immunity and prevent cardiovascular complications in CKD patients.

  10. Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway in Monocytes Derived from Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chaqmaqchi, Heevy Abdulkareem Musa; Moshfegh, Ali; Dadfar, Elham; Paulsson, Josefin; Hassan, Moustapha; Jacobson, Stefan H.; Lundahl, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have significantly increased morbidity and mortality resulting from infections and cardiovascular diseases. Since monocytes play an essential role in host immunity, this study was directed to explore the gene expression profile in order to identify differences in activated pathways in monocytes relevant to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and increased susceptibility to infections. Monocytes from CKD patients (stages 4 and 5, estimated GFR <20 ml/min/1.73 m2) and healthy donors were collected from peripheral blood. Microarray gene expression profile was performed and data were interpreted by GeneSpring software and by PANTHER tool. Western blot was done to validate the pathway members. The results demonstrated that 600 and 272 genes were differentially up- and down regulated respectively in the patient group. Pathways involved in the inflammatory response were highly expressed and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was the most significant pathway expressed in the patient group. Since this pathway has been attributed to a variety of inflammatory manifestations, the current findings may contribute to dysfunctional monocytes in CKD patients. Strategies to interfere with this pathway may improve host immunity and prevent cardiovascular complications in CKD patients. PMID:23935909

  11. Gene expression profiling demonstrates WNT/β-catenin pathway genes alteration in Mexican patients with colorectal cancer and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivonne Wence-Chavez, Laura; Palomares-Chacon, Ulises; Pablo Flores-Gutierrez, Juan; Felipe Jave-Suarez, Luis; Del Carmen Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Barros-Nunez, Patricio; Esperanza Flores-Martinez, Silvia; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Alejandra Rosales-Reynoso, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown a strong association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The fundamental mechanisms that support this association are not entirely understood; however, it is believed that hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia may be involved. Some proposed mechanisms include upregulation of mitogenic signaling pathways like MAPK, PI3K, mTOR, and WNT, which are involved in cell proliferation, growth, and cancer cell survival. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression profile and identify differently expressed genes involved in mitogenic pathways in CRC patients with and without DM. In this study, microarray analysis of gene expression followed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed in cancer tissue from CRC patients with and without DM to identify the gene expression profiles and validate the differently expressed genes. Among the study groups, some differently expressed genes were identified. However, when bioinformatics clustering tools were used, a significant modulation of genes involved in the WNT pathway was evident. Therefore, we focused on genes participating in this pathway, such as WNT3A, LRP6, TCF7L2, and FRA-1. Validation of the expression levels of those genes by qPCR showed that CRC patients without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) expressed significantly more WNT3Ay LRP6, but less TCF7L2 and FRA-1 compared to controls, while in CRC patients with DM the expression levels of WNT3A, LRP6, TCF7L2, and FRA-1 were significantly higher compared to controls. Our results suggest that WNT/β-catenin pathway is upregulated in patients with CRC and DM, demonstrating its importance and involvement in both pathologies.

  12. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  13. Epstein-Barr virus associated modulation of Wnt pathway is not dependent on latent membrane protein-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Webb

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV can modulate the Wnt pathway in virus-infected cells and this effect is mediated by EBV-encoded oncogene latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1. Here we have reassessed the role of LMP1 in regulating the expression of various mediators of the canonical Wnt cascade. Contradicting the previous finding, we found that the levels of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3ss (GSK3beta, axin and alpha-catenin were not affected by the expression of LMP1 sequences from normal B cells or nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Moreover, we also show that LMP1 expression had no detectable effect on the E-cadherin and beta-catenin interaction and did not induce transcriptional activation of beta-catenin. Taken together these studies demonstrate that EBV-mediated activation of Wnt pathway is not dependent on the expression of LMP1.

  14. H19 mediates methotrexate resistance in colorectal cancer through activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ke-feng [Guangdong Key Laboratory for Research and Development of Natural Drugs, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong (China); Liang, Wei-Cheng [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Feng, Lu [Department of Orthopaedics & Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Pang, Jian-xin [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Waye, Mary Miu-Yee [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Jin-Fang [Department of Orthopaedics & Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Fu, Wei-Ming, E-mail: fuweiming76@smu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy, most of which remain unresponsive to chemotherapy. As one of the earliest cytotoxic drugs, methotrexate (MTX) serves as an anti-metabolite and anti-folate chemotherapy for various cancers. Unfortunately, MTX resistance prevents its clinical application in cancer therapy. Thereby, overcoming the drug resistance is an alternative strategy to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of MTX in clinics. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained widespread attention in recent years. More and more emerging evidences have demonstrated that they play important regulatory roles in various biological activities and disease progression including drug resistance. In the present study, a MTX-resistant colorectal cell line HT-29 (HT-29-R) was developed, which displayed the active proliferation and shortened cell cycle. LncRNA H19 was found to be significantly upregulated in this resistant cell line. Further investigation showed that H19 knockdown sensitized the MTX resistance in HT-29-R cells while its overexpression improved the MTX resistance in the parental cells, suggesting that H19 mediate MTX resistance. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated in HT-29-R cells, and H19 knockdown suppressed this signaling in the parental cells. In conclusion, H19 mediated MTX resistance via activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which help to develop H19 as a promising therapeutic target for MTX resistant CRC. - Highlights: • A methotrexate (MTX) -resistant colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 (HT-29-R) has been developed. • H19 was upregulated in HT-29-R cells. • H19 mediated MTX resistance in colorectal cancer (CRC). • Wnt/β-catenin pathway was involved in the H19-mediated MTX resistance in CRC cells.

  15. H19 mediates methotrexate resistance in colorectal cancer through activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ke-feng; Liang, Wei-Cheng; Feng, Lu; Pang, Jian-xin; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Fu, Wei-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy, most of which remain unresponsive to chemotherapy. As one of the earliest cytotoxic drugs, methotrexate (MTX) serves as an anti-metabolite and anti-folate chemotherapy for various cancers. Unfortunately, MTX resistance prevents its clinical application in cancer therapy. Thereby, overcoming the drug resistance is an alternative strategy to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of MTX in clinics. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained widespread attention in recent years. More and more emerging evidences have demonstrated that they play important regulatory roles in various biological activities and disease progression including drug resistance. In the present study, a MTX-resistant colorectal cell line HT-29 (HT-29-R) was developed, which displayed the active proliferation and shortened cell cycle. LncRNA H19 was found to be significantly upregulated in this resistant cell line. Further investigation showed that H19 knockdown sensitized the MTX resistance in HT-29-R cells while its overexpression improved the MTX resistance in the parental cells, suggesting that H19 mediate MTX resistance. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated in HT-29-R cells, and H19 knockdown suppressed this signaling in the parental cells. In conclusion, H19 mediated MTX resistance via activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which help to develop H19 as a promising therapeutic target for MTX resistant CRC. - Highlights: • A methotrexate (MTX) -resistant colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 (HT-29-R) has been developed. • H19 was upregulated in HT-29-R cells. • H19 mediated MTX resistance in colorectal cancer (CRC). • Wnt/β-catenin pathway was involved in the H19-mediated MTX resistance in CRC cells.

  16. Cytotoxic activities of Telectadium dongnaiense and its constituents by inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Kyung; Bach, Duc-Hiep; Ryu, Hyung Won; Oh, Jedo; Park, Hyen Joo; Hong, Ji-Young; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Eum, Sangmi; Bach, Tran The; Lee, Sang Kook

    2017-10-15

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a potential target for the treatment of human colon cancer. Thus, the inhibitory effects of various plant extracts on cell proliferation and Wnt signal transduction were evaluated to discover a Wnt signaling inhibitor. The present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity involved in Wnt pathway of the MeOH extract from Telectadium dongnaiense bark (TDB) and to identify its bioactive constituents by bioassay-guided fractionation. The sulforhodamine B-based proliferation assay and the β-catenin/TCF-responsive reporter gene assay were employed as screening systems. The isolation and identification of compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Inhibitory effects on the expression levels of Wnt target genes were determined by real-time PCR and western blotting. The extract of TDB most strongly inhibited cell proliferation and TOPflash activity (IC 50 = 1.5 and 2.0 µg/ml), which was correlated with its inhibitory effects on the expression of Wnt target genes. Three major compounds were isolated from bioactive fractions and were identified as 1,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (1), quercetin 3-rutinoside (2), and periplocin (3). Only compound 3 showed anti-proliferative activity (IC 50 = 0.06 µM) and exhibited Wnt signaling inhibitory effects in HCT116 colon cancer cells. This study contributes to understanding the cytotoxic properties of TDB extract and its constituents and provides a potent strategy for its further application. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction between Wnt/β-catenin and RAS-ERK pathways and an anti-cancer strategy via degradations of β-catenin and RAS by targeting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Ro, Eun Ji; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2018-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin and RAS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways play important roles in the tumorigenesis of many different types of cancer, most notably colorectal cancer (CRC). Genes for these two pathways, such as adenomatous polyposis coli ( APC ) and KRAS are frequently mutated in human CRC, and involved in the initiation and progression of the tumorigenesis, respectively. Moreover, recent studies revealed interaction of APC and KRAS mutations in the various stages of colorectal tumorigenesis and even in metastasis accompanying activation of the cancer stem cells (CSCs). A key event in the synergistic cooperation between Wnt/β-catenin and RAS-ERK pathways is a stabilization of both β-catenin and RAS especially mutant KRAS by APC loss, and pathological significance of this was indicated by correlation of increased β-catenin and RAS levels in human CRC where APC mutations occur as high as 90% of CRC patients. Together with the notion of the protein activity reduction by lowering its level, inhibition of both β-catenin and RAS especially by degradation could be a new ideal strategy for development of anti-cancer drugs for CRC. In this review, we will discuss interaction between the Wnt/β-catenin and RAS-ERK pathways in the colorectal tumorigenesis by providing the mechanism of RAS stabilization by aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin. We will also discuss our small molecular anti-cancer approach controlling CRC by induction of specific degradations of both β-catenin and RAS via targeting Wnt/β-catenin pathway especially for the KYA1797K, a small molecule specifically binding at the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS)-domain of Axin.

  18. Plasma membrane recruitment of dephosphorylated beta-catenin upon activation of the Wnt pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Jolita; Jansen, Marnix; Brown, Carolyn M.; van der Velde, Hella; van Ham, Marco; Galjart, Niels; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Fagotto, Francois; Fornerod, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    The standard model of Wnt signaling specifies that after receipt of a Wnt ligand at the membranous receptor complex, downstream mediators inhibit a cytoplasmic destruction complex, allowing beta-catenin to accumulate in the cytosol and nucleus and co-activate Wnt target genes. Unexpectedly, shortly

  19. Calcitonin protects chondrocytes from lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis and inflammatory response through MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lai-Bo; Man, Zhen-Tao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xian-Quan; Sun, Shui

    2017-07-01

    Calcitonin (CT) is an anti-absorbent, which has long been used for treatment of osteoporosis. However, little information is available about the effects of CT on osteoarthritis (OA). This study was mainly aimed to explore the effects of CT on the treatment of OA, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Chondrocytes were isolated from immature mice and then were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CT, small interfering (si) RNA against bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and/or the inhibitors of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathway. Thereafter, cell viability, apoptosis, nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory factors productions, and expression levels of cartilage synthesis protein key factors, cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein (CDMP) 1, SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 protein (SOX9), and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors were determined. CT significantly reversed LPS-induced cell viability decrease, apoptosis increase, the inflammatory factors and NO secretion, the abnormally expression of cartilage synthesis proteins and the activation of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways (Ppathways statistically further increased the levels of CDMP1 and SOX9 (Ppathways, and could partially abolish CT-modulated the expression changes in CDMP1 and SOX9, and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors (Ppathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of rapamycin on spinal cord injury via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a crucial role in neural development, axonal guidance, neuropathic pain remission and neuronal survival. In this study, we initially examined the effect of rapamycin on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway after spinal cord injury, by intraperitoneally injecting spinal cord injured rats with rapamycin over 2 days. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expression levels of β-catenin protein, ca-spase-3 protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein, components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Rapamycin increased the levels of β-catenin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the injured spinal cord, improved the pathological morphology at the injury site, reduced the loss of motor neurons, and promoted motor functional recovery in rats after spinal cord injury. Our experimental findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of rapamycin intervention is mediated through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway after spinal cord injury.

  1. A SNX3-dependent retromer pathway mediates retrograde transport of the Wnt sorting receptor Wntless and is required for Wnt secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harterink, M.; Port, F.; Lorenowicz, M.J.; McGough, I.J.; Silhankova, M.; Betist, M.C.; van Weering, J.R.; van Heesbeen, R.G.; Middelkoop, T.C.; Basler, K.; Cullen, P.J.; Korswagen, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Wnt proteins are lipid-modified glycoproteins that play a central role in development, adult tissue homeostasis and disease. Secretion of Wnt proteins is mediated by the Wnt-binding protein Wntless (Wls), which transports Wnt from the Golgi network to the cell surface for release. It has recently

  2. The effect of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway during embryogenesis as reflected in the developing mouse eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz López-Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Embryopathies that develop as a consequence of maternal diabetes have been studied intensely in both experimental and clinical scenarios. Accordingly, hyperglycaemia has been shown to downregulate the expression of elements in the non-canonical Wnt-PCP pathway, such as the Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1 and Vangl2. Daam1 is a formin that is essential for actin polymerization and for cytoskeletal reorganization, and it is expressed strongly in certain organs during mouse development, including the eye, neural tube and heart. Daam1gt/gt and Daam1gt/+ embryos develop ocular defects (anophthalmia or microphthalmia that are similar to those detected as a result of hyperglycaemia. Indeed, studying the effects of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway demonstrated that there was strong association with the Daam1 genotype, whereby the embryopathy observed in Daam1gt/+ mutant embryos of diabetic dams was more severe. There was evidence that embryonic exposure to glucose in vitro diminishes the expression of genes in the Wnt-PCP pathway, leading to altered cytoskeletal organization, cell shape and cell polarity in the optic vesicle. Hence, the Wnt-PCP pathway appears to influence cell morphology and cell polarity, events that drive the cellular movements required for optic vesicle formation and that, in turn, are required to maintain the fate determination. Here, we demonstrate that the Wnt-PCP pathway is involved in the early stages of mouse eye development and that it is altered by diabetes, provoking the ocular phenotype observed in the affected embryos.

  3. Kirenol inhibits adipogenesis through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi-Bo [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Youngwoo; Kim, Changhee [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Kirenol inhibits the adipogenic transcription factors and lipogenic enzymes. • Kirenol stimulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway components. • Kirenol inhibits adipogenesis through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. - Abstract: Kirenol, a natural diterpenoid compound, has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-arthritic activities; however, its anti-adipogenic effect remains to be studied. The present study evaluated the effect of kirenol on anti-adipogenesis through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Kirenol prevented intracellular lipid accumulation by down-regulating key adipogenesis transcription factors [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c)] and lipid biosynthesis-related enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)], as well as adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin). Kirenol effectively activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, in which kirenol up-regulated the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 (LRP6), disheveled 2 (DVL2), β-catenin, and cyclin D1 (CCND1), while it inactivated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) by increasing its phosphorylation. Kirenol down-regulated the expression levels of PPARγ and C/EBPα, which were up-regulated by siRNA knockdown of β-catenin. Overall, kirenol is capable of inhibiting the differentiation and lipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, suggesting its potential as natural anti-obesity agent.

  4. TC-1 (c8orf4) enhances aggressive biologic behavior in lung cancer through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kai; Huang, Lijun; Li, Wenhai; Yan, Xiaolong; Li, Xiaofei; Zhang, Zhipei; Jin, Faguang; Lei, Jie; Ba, Guangzhen; Liu, Boya; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Yunjie

    2013-11-01

    The thyroid cancer-1 (TC-1) or c8orf4 gene encodes a 106-residue naturally disordered protein that has been found to be associated with thyroid, gastric, and breast cancer. A recent study has indicated that the protein functions as a positive regulator in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in human breast cancer. However, no research has been done in the area of lung cancer. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to confirm the relationship among TC-1, lung cancer, and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The expression of TC-1 was immunohistochemically examined in 147 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. TC-1-overexpressed and silenced A549 cells were infected using lentivirus and MTT cell proliferation analysis, and Matrigel invasion assays and scratch-wound assays were performed to confirm the biologic behavioral changes in different A549 cell subsets. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, key gene β-catenin, target genes of vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-7, c-myc, and survivin were tested at the mRNA and protein level. TC-1 was detected in 97 of the 147 non-small-cell lung cancer primary tumor specimens, and its expression correlated with the TNM stage and regional lymph node metastasis (P cell line. Furthermore, expression of TC-1 protein affected the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway's downstream genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-7, at the mRNA and protein level. TC-1 expression is associated with aggressive biologic behavior in lung cancer and might coordinate with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a positive upstream regulator that induces these behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Wnt/β-catenin pathway involvement in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of U87 glioblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Zhen [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Neurosurgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); Zhou, Lin [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Histoembryology, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); Han, Na; Zhang, Mengxian [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); Lyu, Xiaojuan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Oncology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to promote the invasion of glioblastoma cells; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells. U87 cells were irradiated with 3 Gy or sham irradiated in the presence or absence of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV 939. Cell invasion was determined by an xCELLigence real-time cell analyser and matrigel invasion assays. The intracellular distribution of β-catenin in U87 cells with or without irradiation was examined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting of nuclear fractions. We next investigated the effect of irradiation on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity using TOP/FOP flash luciferase assays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of β-catenin target genes. The expression levels and activities of two target genes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, were examined further by Western blotting and zymography. U87 cell invasiveness was increased significantly by ionizing radiation. Interestingly, ionizing radiation induced nuclear translocation and accumulation of β-catenin. Moreover, we found increased β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activities, followed by up-regulation of downstream genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in irradiated U87 cells. Importantly, inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by XAV 939, which promotes degradation of β-catenin, significantly abrogated the pro-invasion effects of irradiation. Mechanistically, XAV 939 suppressed ionizing radiation-triggered up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and inhibited the activities of these gelatinases. Our data demonstrate a pivotal role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells, and suggest that targeting β-catenin is a promising therapeutic approach to overcoming glioma radioresistance. (orig.) [German] Studien haben gezeigt, dass eine Strahlentherapie die Invasivitaet von

  6. SNHG16 is regulated by the Wnt pathway in colorectal cancer and affects genes involved in lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise-Lotte; True, Kirsten; Hamilton, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in cancer where they have been shown to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. RNA profiling of 314 colorectal adenomas/adenocarcinomas and 292 adjacent normal colon mucosa samples using RNA-sequencing demonstrated that the snoRNA host...... gene 16 (SNHG16) is significantly up-regulated in adenomas and all stages of CRC. SNHG16 expression was positively correlated to the expression of Wnt-regulated transcription factors, including ASCL2, ETS2, and c-Myc. In vitro abrogation of Wnt signaling in CRC cells reduced the expression of SNHG16...... indicating that SNHG16 is regulated by the Wnt pathway. Silencing of SNHG16 resulted in reduced viability, increased apoptotic cell death and impaired cell migration. The SNHG16 silencing particularly affected expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. A connection between SNHG16 and genes involved...

  7. Therapeutic effect of a novel Wnt pathway inhibitor on cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dezhong; Fu, Wenbin; Li, Liangpeng; Xia, Xuewei; Liao, Qiao; Yue, Rongchuan; Chen, Hongmei; Chen, Xiongwen; An, Songzhu; Zeng, Chunyu; Wang, Wei Eric

    2017-12-15

    After myocardial infarction (MI), the heart is difficult to repair because of great loss of cardiomyoctyes and lack of cardiac regeneration. Novel drug candidates that aim at reducing pathological remodeling and stimulating cardiac regeneration are highly desirable. In the present study, we identified if and how a novel porcupine inhibitor CGX1321 influenced MI and cardiac regeneration. Permanent ligation of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was performed in mice to induce MI injury. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography, infarct size was examined by TTC staining. Fibrosis was evaluated with Masson's trichrome staining and vimentin staining. As a result, CGX1321 administration blocked the secretion of Wnt proteins, and inhibited both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways. CGX1321 improved cardiac function, reduced myocardial infarct size, and fibrosis of post-MI hearts. CGX1321 significantly increased newly formed cardiomyocytes in infarct border zone of post-MI hearts, evidenced by the increased EdU + cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, CGX1321 increased Ki67 + and phosphohistone H3 (PH3 + ) cardiomyocytes in culture, indicating enhanced cardiomyocyte proliferation. The mRNA microarray showed that CGX1321 up-regulated cell cycle regulating genes such as Ccnb1 and Ccne1 CGX1321 did not alter YAP protein phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, porcupine inhibitor CGX1321 reduces MI injury by limiting fibrosis and promoting regeneration. It promotes cardiomyocyte proliferation by stimulating cell cycle regulating genes with a Hippo/YAP-independent pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. A pedagogical walkthrough of computational modeling and simulation of Wnt signaling pathway using static causal models in MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Shriprakash

    2016-01-01

    Simulation study in systems biology involving computational experiments dealing with Wnt signaling pathways abound in literature but often lack a pedagogical perspective that might ease the understanding of beginner students and researchers in transition, who intend to work on the modeling of the pathway. This paucity might happen due to restrictive business policies which enforce an unwanted embargo on the sharing of important scientific knowledge. A tutorial introduction to computational mo...

  9. Hsa-miR-11181 regulates Wnt signaling pathway through targeting of APC2 transcripts in SW480 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokanehiifard, Sadat; Soltani, Bahram M

    2018-01-30

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in differentiation, morphogenesis and development. This signaling pathway is highly regulated at all levels and microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs regulating Wnt signaling. Here, we intended to investigate hsa-miR-11181 (a novel miRNA located in TrkC gene) effect on Wnt signaling pathway in SW480 cell line. TOP/FOP flash assay indicated up-regulation of Wnt signaling, following the overexpression of hsa-miR-11181, verified through RT-qPCR. Bioinformatics analysis predicted APC1, APC2 and Axin1 might be targeted by hsa-miR-11181. Then, RT-qPCR analysis indicated that APC2 and Axin1 have been significantly down-regulated following the hsa-miR-11181 overexpression. However dual luciferase assay analysis supported only APC2 3'-UTR is directly targeted by this miRNA. Then, treatment of SW480 cells with Wnt-inhibitory small molecules supported the effect of hsa-miR-11181 at the inhibitory complex level containing APC2 protein. Consistently, viability of SW480 cells overexpressing hsa-miR-11181 was significantly elevated, measured through MTT assay. Overall, these results suggest that hsa-miR-11181 may play a crucial role in Wnt signaling regulation and confirmed that APC2 3'-UTR is targeted by hsa-miR-11181 and propose the presence of its recognition sites in the promoter or coding regions of Axin1 gene. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. [Effect of total glucosides of paeony on Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway expression in kidney of diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bao-Chao; Chen, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Ping; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jing

    2014-10-01

    The study is to explore the effect of total glucosides of paeony (TGP)on Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway expression in kidney of diabetic rats, and discuss the protection of TGP in diabetic nephropathy and possible mechanism. Ninety male SD rats of 8 weeks age were randomly divided into normal control group (n = 10) and model group (n = 80). Rats of the normal control group were fed with regular diet, while rats of the model group were fed with high-fat high-sugar diet and 4 weeks later were given an intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg x kg(-1) streptozotocin (STZ). The successfully induced type 2 diabetic rat models were then randomly divided into DM group, three TGP (50, 100, 200 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) treatment group and tripterygium wilfordii glycosides (8 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) control group. Rats of DM group and each treatment group were given high-fat high-sugar diet. At week 14, the levels of blood sugar, 24 hour urine protein, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were tested. The rats were then sacrificed. Renal pathological changes were examined. Renal tissue Wnt-1 and β-catenin expressions were detected by immunohistochemical assay. Wnt-1 mRNA and β-catenin mRNA expression was semi-quantified by RT-PCR. Wnt-1 protein and β-catenin protein expression was semi-quantified by Western blot. The Result show that Wnt-1 and β-catenin expression increased in kidney of high-fat high-sugar induced type 2 diabetic rats. Compared with diabetic group, the level of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, 24 h urine protein, mean glomerular area and mean glomerular volume were decreased, renal histopathology were improved, expression of Wnt-1 and β-catenin mRNA and protein was reduced in TGP group. Tripterygium wilfordii glycosides had the similar effect. In conclusion, these results showed that Wnt/β-catenin abnormal activation in kidney of type 2 diabetic rats, TGP can improve kidney damage in diabetic rats and delay the development of diabetic

  11. Regulation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway by Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7 Oncoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Omar Muñoz Bello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell signaling pathways are the mechanisms by which cells transduce external stimuli, which control the transcription of genes, to regulate diverse biological effects. In cancer, distinct signaling pathways, such as the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, have been implicated in the deregulation of critical molecular processes that affect cell proliferation and differentiation. For example, changes in β-catenin localization have been identified in Human Papillomavirus (HPV-related cancers as the lesion progresses. Specifically, β-catenin relocates from the membrane/cytoplasm to the nucleus, suggesting that this transcription regulator participates in cervical carcinogenesis. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins are responsible for the transforming activity of HPV, and some studies have implicated these viral oncoproteins in the regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Nevertheless, new interactions of HPV oncoproteins with cellular proteins are emerging, and the study of the biological effects of such interactions will help to understand HPV-related carcinogenesis. Viruses 2015, 7 4735 This review addresses the accumulated evidence of the involvement of the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins in the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  12. TGF-β prevents phosphate-induced osteogenesis through inhibition of BMP and Wnt/β-catenin pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Guerrero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β is a key cytokine during differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC. High phosphate induces a phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC into osteogenic-like cells. This study was aimed to evaluate signaling pathways involved during VSMC differentiation of MSC in presence or not of high phosphate. RESULTS: Our results showed that TGF-β induced nuclear translocation of Smad3 as well as the expression of vascular smooth muscle markers, such as smooth muscle alpha actin, SM22α, myocardin, and smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain. The addition of high phosphate to MSC promoted nuclear translocation of Smad1/5/8 and the activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin in addition to an increase in BMP-2 expression, calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. The administration of TGF-β to MSC treated with high phosphate abolished all these effects by inhibiting canonical Wnt, BMP and TGF-β pathways. A similar outcome was observed in high phosphate-treated cells after the inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with Dkk-1. Conversely, addition of both Wnt/β-catenin activators CHIR98014 and lithium chloride enhanced the effect of high phosphate on BMP-2, calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. CONCLUSIONS: Full VSMC differentiation induced by TGF-β may not be achieved when extracellular phosphate levels are high. Moreover, TGF-β prevents high phosphate-induced osteogenesis by decreasing the nuclear translocation of Smad 1/5/8 and avoiding the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  13. Use of an activated beta-catenin to identify Wnt pathway target genes in caenorhabditis elegans, including a subset of collagen genes expressed in late larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Belinda M; Abete-Luzi, Patricia; Krause, Michael W; Eisenmann, David M

    2014-04-16

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, where it regulates diverse processes, including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Activation of the beta-catenin-dependent/canonical Wnt pathway up-regulates expression of Wnt target genes to mediate a cellular response. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates several processes during larval development; however, few target genes of this pathway have been identified. To address this deficit, we used a novel approach of conditionally activated Wnt signaling during a defined stage of larval life by overexpressing an activated beta-catenin protein, then used microarray analysis to identify genes showing altered expression compared with control animals. We identified 166 differentially expressed genes, of which 104 were up-regulated. A subset of the up-regulated genes was shown to have altered expression in mutants with decreased or increased Wnt signaling; we consider these genes to be bona fide C. elegans Wnt pathway targets. Among these was a group of six genes, including the cuticular collagen genes, bli-1 col-38, col-49, and col-71. These genes show a peak of expression in the mid L4 stage during normal development, suggesting a role in adult cuticle formation. Consistent with this finding, reduction of function for several of the genes causes phenotypes suggestive of defects in cuticle function or integrity. Therefore, this work has identified a large number of putative Wnt pathway target genes during larval life, including a small subset of Wnt-regulated collagen genes that may function in synthesis of the adult cuticle.

  14. A pedagogical walkthrough of computational modeling and simulation of Wnt signaling pathway using static causal models in MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shriprakash

    2016-12-01

    Simulation study in systems biology involving computational experiments dealing with Wnt signaling pathways abound in literature but often lack a pedagogical perspective that might ease the understanding of beginner students and researchers in transition, who intend to work on the modeling of the pathway. This paucity might happen due to restrictive business policies which enforce an unwanted embargo on the sharing of important scientific knowledge. A tutorial introduction to computational modeling of Wnt signaling pathway in a human colorectal cancer dataset using static Bayesian network models is provided. The walkthrough might aid biologists/informaticians in understanding the design of computational experiments that is interleaved with exposition of the Matlab code and causal models from Bayesian network toolbox. The manuscript elucidates the coding contents of the advance article by Sinha (Integr. Biol. 6:1034-1048, 2014) and takes the reader in a step-by-step process of how (a) the collection and the transformation of the available biological information from literature is done, (b) the integration of the heterogeneous data and prior biological knowledge in the network is achieved, (c) the simulation study is designed, (d) the hypothesis regarding a biological phenomena is transformed into computational framework, and (e) results and inferences drawn using d -connectivity/separability are reported. The manuscript finally ends with a programming assignment to help the readers get hands-on experience of a perturbation project. Description of Matlab files is made available under GNU GPL v3 license at the Google code project on https://code.google.com/p/static-bn-for-wnt-signaling-pathway and https: //sites.google.com/site/shriprakashsinha/shriprakashsinha/projects/static-bn-for-wnt-signaling-pathway. Latest updates can be found in the latter website.

  15. Wnt signaling in limb organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Geetha-Loganathan, Poongodi; Nimmagadda, Suresh; Scaal, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Secreted signaling molecules of the Wnt family have been found to play a central role in controlling embryonic development of a wide range of taxa from Hydra to humans. The most extensively studied Wnt signaling pathway is the canonical Wnt pathway, which controls gene expression by stabilizing β-catenin, and regulates a multitude of developmental processes. More recently, noncanonical Wnt pathways, which are β-catenin-independent, have been found to be important developmental regulators. Und...

  16. Advanced glycosylation end product promotes forkhead box O1 and inhibits Wnt pathway to suppress capacities of epidermal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Wang, Peng; Yu, Zhimin; Lai, Wei; Cao, Yi; Huang, Pinbo; Xu, Qiaodong; Yu, Menglei; Xu, Junyao; Huang, Zitong; Zeng, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is frequently accompanied by chronic complications like delayed wound healing, which is consider to be attributed to the accumulation of advanced glycosylation end product (AGE). However, the impacts of AGE on epidermal stem cells (ESCs) are largely unknown. This study aims to address the influence and mechanism of AGE on ESCs. ESCs isolated from rats were cultured in AGE-modified bovine serum albumin and transfected with small interfering RNA to knock down AGE-specific receptor (AGER). Expression of stem cell markers integrin β1 (ITGB1) and keratin 19 (KRT19), cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined. Wnt pathway-related factors Wnt family member 1 (WNT1), WNT3A, β-catenin, v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7) were quantified. The interaction between forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) and β-catenin was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. Results indicated that AGE down-regulated ITGB1 and KRT19 expression, suppressed ESC viability and promoted apoptosis, and ROS level ( P factor 1 to interact with β-catenin, which might help to elucidate the mechanism of AGE repressing ESCs. This study helps to understand the mechanism of accumulated AGE in affecting ESC capacities, and provides potential therapeutic targets to meliorate diabetic wound healing.

  17. Methylprednisolone promotes recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury: association with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gong-biao; Niu, Fu-wen; Zhang, Ying-chun; Du, Lin; Liang, Zhi-yuan; Gao, Yuan; Yan, Ting-zhen; Nie, Zhi-kui; Gao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have indicated that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is activated following spinal cord injury, and expression levels of specific proteins, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β, are significantly altered. We hypothesized that methylprednisolone treatment contributes to functional recovery after spinal cord injury by inhibiting apoptosis and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In the current study, 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone was injected into rats with spinal cord injury immediately post-injury and at 1 and 2 days post-injury. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores showed that methylprednisolone treatment significantly promoted locomotor functional recovery between 2 and 6 weeks post-injury. The number of surviving motor neurons increased, whereas the lesion size significantly decreased following methylprednisolone treatment at 7 days post-injury. Additionally, caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bax protein expression levels and the number of apoptotic cells were reduced at 3 and 7 days post-injury, while Bcl-2 levels at 7 days post-injury were higher in methylprednisolone-treated rats compared with saline-treated rats. At 3 and 7 days post-injury, methylprednisolone up-regulated expression and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These results indicate that methylprednisolone-induced neuroprotection may correlate with activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:28123427

  18. Salinomycin repressed the epithelial–mesenchymal transition of epithelial ovarian cancer cells via downregulating Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li R

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rui Li,* Taotao Dong,* Chen Hu, Jingjing Lu, Jun Dai, Peishu Liu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is the leading cause of death among all gynecological malignancies. Most patients are diagnosed in the advanced stage and have distant metastasis ultimately. Salinomycin has been demonstrated to reduce invasive capacity of multiple tumor cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of salinomycin on EOC cells. The cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8 and Boyden chamber assays showed that salinomycin could effectively reduce the abilities of proliferation, migration and invasion in EOC cells. The western blot assay showed that salinomycin could increase the expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and Keratin while decrease the expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin in a dose-dependent manner. These results were ascertained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Besides, salinomycin could downregulate the expression of proteins associated with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and repress the nuclear translocation of β-catenin. It was also shown that salinomycin could reverse the aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt pathway induced by GSK-3β inhibitor (SB216763. Our results revealed that salinomycin could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion in EOC cells. In addition, the inhibitive effect of salinomycin on the invasive ability was mediated by repressing the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT program, which may be achieved through its inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Keywords: salinomycin, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, epithelial ovarian cancer, Wnt/β-catenin pathway

  19. VDR Activation Reduces Proteinuria and High-Glucose-Induced Injury of Kidneys and Podocytes by Regulating Wnt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major cause of end-stage renal disease and proteinuria is one of the most prominent clinical manifestations. The expression of Vitamin D receptor (VDR in patients with chronic kidney diseases was decreased, while VDR agonists could partially alleviate the proteinuria of DN in animal models. The present study was designed to determine the expression of VDR in renal tissues and its relationship with proteinuria the diabetic model db/db mice. Methods: The regulation effects of VDR on the Wnt signaling pathway were analyzed using RNA interference and VDR agonist paricalcitol. Results: With the increase in age of the db/db mice, the VDR protein and mRNA levels in renal tissues were decreased, proteinuria increased, and the protein and mRNA levels of GSK-3β of and β-catenin increased. Paricalcitol treatment resulted in the up-regulation of VDR and down-regulation of GSK-3β and β-catenin, indicating that VDR had a regulatory effect on the Wnt signaling pathway. Conclusion: VDR activation could reduce proteinuria of DN mice and alleviate high-glucose-induced injury of kidneys and podocytes by regulating the key molecules of Wnt signaling pathway.

  20. Integrin Activation Contributes to Lower Cisplatin Sensitivity in MV3 Melanoma Cells by Inducing the Wnt Signalling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B. R. Piva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: integrins have been associated with the development of chemotherapy resistant tumour cells, mostly those of hematopoietic origin, by mediating the binding to the extracellular matrix. The relevance for solid tumour cells and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Methods: using MTT assays, we detected the loss in cisplatin sensitivity of human MV3 melanoma cells upon integrin activation. Underlying cellular pathways were evaluated by flow cytometry. A crosstalk between integrin activation and the canonical wnt signalling pathway was tested by measuring β-catenin activity. Results: MV3 cells display a higher resistance against cisplatin cytotoxicity when cellular integrins were activated by manganese or collagen. Proteome profiler array showed a deregulation of the integrin expression pattern by cisplatin. Integrin activation by manganese induces the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT. The inhibition of PI3K using BEZ235 strongly increases cell sensitivity to cisplatin, blocking manganese and collagen effects. PI3K/AKT activates wnt signalling by blocking Gsk3-β, which was confirmed by β-catenin up-regulation and nuclear localization. Integrins did not affect E-cadherin expression levels, thus endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT can be excluded. Conclusion: This is the first report on an integrin/wnt signalling activation axis addressing the consequences for chemotherapy sensitiveness of melanoma cells, which thus offers novel therapeutic targets for approaches to interfere with chemoresistance.

  1. Wnt signaling in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, T; Rindtorff, N; Boutros, M

    2017-01-01

    Wnt signaling is one of the key cascades regulating development and stemness, and has also been tightly associated with cancer. The role of Wnt signaling in carcinogenesis has most prominently been described for colorectal cancer, but aberrant Wnt signaling is observed in many more cancer entities. Here, we review current insights into novel components of Wnt pathways and describe their impact on cancer development. Furthermore, we highlight expanding functions of Wnt signaling for both solid and liquid tumors. We also describe current findings how Wnt signaling affects maintenance of cancer stem cells, metastasis and immune control. Finally, we provide an overview of current strategies to antagonize Wnt signaling in cancer and challenges that are associated with such approaches. PMID:27617575

  2. Natural derivatives of curcumin attenuate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway through down-regulation of the transcriptional coactivator p300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Min-Jung; Cho, Munju; Song, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Choi, Il-Whan; Kim, Dong-Eun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Oh, Sangtaek

    2008-01-01

    Curcumin, a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been reported to suppress β-catenin response transcription (CRT), which is aberrantly activated in colorectal cancer. However, the effects of its natural analogs (demethoxycurcumin [DMC] and bisdemethoxycurcumin [BDMC]) and metabolite (tetrahydrocurcumin [THC]) on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway have not been investigated. Here, we show that DMC and BDMC suppressed CRT that was activated by Wnt3a conditioned-medium (Wnt3a-CM) without altering the level of intracellular β-catenin, and inhibited the growth of various colon cancer cells, with comparable potency to curcumin. Additionally, DMC and BDMC down-regulated p300, which is a positive regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Notably, THC also inhibited CRT and cell proliferation, but to a much lesser degree than curcumin, DMC, or BDMC, indicating that the conjugated bonds in the central seven-carbon chain of curcuminoids are essential for the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the anti-proliferative activity of curcuminoids. Thus, our findings suggest that curcumin derivatives inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by decreasing the amount of the transcriptional coactivator p300.

  3. HIV-1 gp120 Upregulates Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Expression in BV2 Cells via the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongdi; Liao, Jinxu; Tang, Shao-Jun; Shu, Jianhong; Zhang, Wenping

    2017-06-01

    HIV-1 gp120 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated pain, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study aims to determine the effect and possible mechanism of HIV-1 gp120 on BDNF expression in BV2 cells (a murine-derived microglial cell line). We observed that gp120 (10 ng/ml) activated BV2 cells in cultures and upregulated proBDNF/mBDNF. Furthermore, gp120-treated BV2 also accumulated Wnt3a and β-catenin, suggesting the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. We demonstrated that activation of the pathway by Wnt3a upregulated BDNF expression. In contrast, inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by either DKK1 or IWR-1 attenuated BDNF upregulation induced by gp120 or Wnt3a. These findings collectively suggest that gp120 stimulates BDNF expression in BV2 cells via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  4. Parameter-free methods distinguish Wnt pathway models and guide design of experiments

    KAUST Repository

    MacLean, Adam L.; Rosen, Zvi; Byrne, Helen M.; Harrington, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    models can fit this time course. We appeal to algebraic methods (concepts from chemical reaction network theory and matroid theory) to analyze the models without recourse to specific parameter values. These approaches provide insight into aspects of Wnt

  5. Paracrine Activation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway by Bone Marrow Stem Cell Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Jiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI involves damage to tubular cells via excess reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. Stem cell-based therapies have shown great promise in AKI treatment. In this study, we aimed to assess the protective effect and mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC-derived conditioned medium (CM against cisplatin-induced AKI. Methods: In vitro, NRK-52E cells were incubated with cisplatin in the presence or absence of CM, followed by the assessment of cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. Then, ICG-001 and IWR-1 were used to inhibit the wnt/β-catenin pathway. Furthermore, intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels were evaluated using DCFH-DA and MitoSOX, respectively. In vivo, after cisplatin injection, rats were intravenously injected with CM or BMSCs. Sera and kidney tissues were collected on day 3 after cisplatin injection to evaluate changes in renal function and histology. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were employed to determine the expression of wnt/β-catenin pathway-related genes and proteins. Immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate tubular β-catenin expression in kidney biopsy from AKI patients. Results: CM protected NRK-52E cells from cisplatin-induced injury by restoring the wnt4/β-catenin pathway. In response to ICG-001 and IWR-1, the protective effect of CM was attenuated, characterized by a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in cell apoptosis and intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels. Knockdown of β-catenin using siRNAs also suppressed the mitochondrial biogenesis regulators PGC-1α, TFAM and NRF-1. In the rat model, CM significantly alleviated renal function and histology associated with tubular injury and upregulated wnt4 and β-catenin. However, the renoprotective effect of CM was blocked by ICG-001, characterized by exacerbated renal function, suppressed PGC-1α expression and increased mitochondrial ROS. Clinical data

  6. Paracrine Activation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway by Bone Marrow Stem Cell Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaoyan; Cai, Jieru; Yu, Xiaofang; Ding, Xiaoqiang

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) involves damage to tubular cells via excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Stem cell-based therapies have shown great promise in AKI treatment. In this study, we aimed to assess the protective effect and mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-derived conditioned medium (CM) against cisplatin-induced AKI. In vitro, NRK-52E cells were incubated with cisplatin in the presence or absence of CM, followed by the assessment of cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. Then, ICG-001 and IWR-1 were used to inhibit the wnt/β-catenin pathway. Furthermore, intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels were evaluated using DCFH-DA and MitoSOX, respectively. In vivo, after cisplatin injection, rats were intravenously injected with CM or BMSCs. Sera and kidney tissues were collected on day 3 after cisplatin injection to evaluate changes in renal function and histology. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were employed to determine the expression of wnt/β-catenin pathway-related genes and proteins. Immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate tubular β-catenin expression in kidney biopsy from AKI patients. CM protected NRK-52E cells from cisplatin-induced injury by restoring the wnt4/β-catenin pathway. In response to ICG-001 and IWR-1, the protective effect of CM was attenuated, characterized by a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in cell apoptosis and intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels. Knockdown of β-catenin using siRNAs also suppressed the mitochondrial biogenesis regulators PGC-1α, TFAM and NRF-1. In the rat model, CM significantly alleviated renal function and histology associated with tubular injury and upregulated wnt4 and β-catenin. However, the renoprotective effect of CM was blocked by ICG-001, characterized by exacerbated renal function, suppressed PGC-1α expression and increased mitochondrial ROS. Clinical data showed that the tubular β-catenin level was lower in

  7. RhoA activation and nuclearization marks loss of chondrocyte phenotype in crosstalk with Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Ece; Despot-Slade, Evelin; Pichler, Michael; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2017-11-15

    De-differentiation comprises a major drawback for the use of autologous chondrocytes in cartilage repair. Here, we investigate the role of RhoA and canonical Wnt signaling in chondrocyte phenotype. Chondrocyte de-differentiation is accompanied by an upregulation and nuclear localization of RhoA. Effectors of canonical Wnt signaling including β-catenin and YAP/TAZ are upregulated in de-differentiating chondrocytes in a Rho-dependent manner. Inhibition of Rho activation with C3 transferase inhibits nuclear localization of RhoA, induces expression of chondrogenic markers on 2D and enhances the chondrogenic effect of 3D culturing. Upregulation of chondrogenic markers by Rho inhibition is accompanied by loss of canonical Wnt signaling markers in 3D or on 2D whereas treatment of chondrocytes with Wnt-3a abrogates this effect. However, induction of canonical Wnt signaling inhibits chondrogenic markers on 2D but enhances chondrogenic re-differentiation on 2D with C3 transferase or in 3D. These data provide insights on the context-dependent role of RhoA and Wnt signaling in de-differentiation and on mechanisms to induce chondrogenic markers for therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of Wnt Pathway Target Genes Regulating the Division and Differentiation of Larval Seam Cells and Vulval Precursor Cells in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrepati, Lakshmi; Krause, Michael W; Chen, Weiping; Brodigan, Thomas M; Correa-Mendez, Margarita; Eisenmann, David M

    2015-06-05

    The evolutionarily conserved Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, regulating numerous processes including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Wnt ligand binding leads to stabilization of the transcriptional effector β-catenin and upregulation of target gene expression to mediate a cellular response. During larval development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Wnt/β-catenin pathways act in fate specification of two hypodermal cell types, the ventral vulval precursor cells (VPCs) and the lateral seam cells. Because little is known about targets of the Wnt signaling pathways acting during larval VPC and seam cell differentiation, we sought to identify genes regulated by Wnt signaling in these two hypodermal cell types. We conditionally activated Wnt signaling in larval animals and performed cell type-specific "mRNA tagging" to enrich for VPC and seam cell-specific mRNAs, and then used microarray analysis to examine gene expression compared to control animals. Two hundred thirty-nine genes activated in response to Wnt signaling were identified, and we characterized 50 genes further. The majority of these genes are expressed in seam and/or vulval lineages during normal development, and reduction of function for nine genes caused defects in the proper division, fate specification, fate execution, or differentiation of seam cells and vulval cells. Therefore, the combination of these techniques was successful at identifying potential cell type-specific Wnt pathway target genes from a small number of cells and at increasing our knowledge of the specification and behavior of these C. elegans larval hypodermal cells. Copyright © 2015 Gorrepati et al.

  9. beta-Arrestin Interacts with the Beta/Gamma Subunits of Trimeric G-Proteins and Dishevelled in the Wnt/Ca2+ Pathway in Xenopus Gastrulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitz, K.; Dursch, V.; Harnoš, J.; Bryja, Vítězslav; Gentzel, M.; Schambony, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC204/09/J030 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA204/09/0498 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : CONVERGENT EXTENSION MOVEMENTS * WNT SIGNALING PATHWAYS * WNT/BETA-CATENIN Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  10. Inhibition of canonical WNT signaling pathway by β-catenin/CBP inhibitor ICG-001 ameliorates liver fibrosis in vivo through suppression of stromal CXCL12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcora, Büsra Öztürk; Storm, Gert; Bansal, Ruchi

    2018-03-01

    Quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), in response to liver injury, undergo characteristic morphological transformation into proliferative, contractile and ECM-producing myofibroblasts. In this study, we investigated the implication of canonical Wnt signaling pathway in HSCs and liver fibrogenesis. Canonical Wnt signaling pathway activation and inhibition using β-catenin/CBP inhibitor ICG001 was examined in-vitro in TGFβ-activated 3T3, LX2, primary human HSCs, and in-vivo in CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury mouse model. Fibroblasts-conditioned medium studies were performed to assess the Wnt-regulated paracrine factors involved in crosstalk between HSCs-macrophages and HSCs-endothelial cells. Canonical Wnt signaling pathway components were significantly up-regulated in-vitro and in-vivo. In-vitro, ICG-001 significantly inhibited fibrotic parameters, 3D-collagen contractility and wound healing. Conditioned medium induced fibroblasts-mediated macrophage and endothelial cells activation was significantly inhibited by ICG-001. In-vivo, ICG-001 significantly attenuated collagen accumulation and HSC activation. Interestingly, ICG-001 drastically inhibited macrophage infiltration, intrahepatic inflammation and angiogenesis. We further analyzed the paracrine factors involved in Wnt-mediated effects and found CXCL12 was significantly suppressed both in-vitro and in-vivo following Wnt inhibition. Wnt-regulated CXCL12 secretion from activated HSCs potentiated macrophage infiltration and activation, and angiogenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling pathway via suppression of stromal CXCL12 suggests a potential therapeutic approach targeting activated HSCs in liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A hypermorphic epithelial β-catenin mutation facilitates intestinal tumorigenesis in mice in response to compounding WNT-pathway mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buchert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway occurs in the vast majority of colorectal cancers. However, the outcome of the disease varies markedly from individual to individual, even within the same tumor stage. This heterogeneity is governed to a great extent by the genetic make-up of individual tumors and the combination of oncogenic mutations. In order to express throughout the intestinal epithelium a degradation-resistant β-catenin (Ctnnb1, which lacks the first 131 amino acids, we inserted an epitope-tagged ΔN(1-131-β-catenin-encoding cDNA as a knock-in transgene into the endogenous gpA33 gene locus in mice. The resulting gpA33ΔN-Bcat mice showed an increase in the constitutive Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation that shifts the cell fate towards the Paneth cell lineage in pre-malignant intestinal epithelium. Furthermore, 19% of all heterozygous and 37% of all homozygous gpA33ΔN-Bcat mice spontaneously developed aberrant crypt foci and adenomatous polyps, at frequencies and latencies akin to those observed in sporadic colon cancer in humans. Consistent with this, the Wnt target genes, MMP7  and Tenascin-C, which are most highly expressed in benign human adenomas and early tumor stages, were upregulated in pre-malignant tissue of gpA33ΔN-Bcat mice, but those Wnt target genes associated with excessive proliferation (i.e. Cdnn1, myc were not. We also detected diminished expression of membrane-associated α-catenin and increased intestinal permeability in gpA33ΔN-Bcat mice in challenge conditions, providing a potential explanation for the observed mild chronic intestinal inflammation and increased susceptibility to azoxymethane and mutant Apc-dependent tumorigenesis. Collectively, our data indicate that epithelial expression of ΔN(1-131-β-catenin in the intestine creates an inflammatory microenvironment and co-operates with other mutations in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway to facilitate and promote tumorigenesis.

  12. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10 is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young-Hee; Sekiya, Manami; Hirata, Michiko; Ye, Mingjuan; Yamagishi, Azumi; Lee, Sang-Mi; Kang, Man-Jong; Hosoda, Akemi; Fukumura, Tomoe; Kim, Dong-Ho; Saeki, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling pathways play fundamental roles in the differentiation, proliferation and functions of many cells as well as developmental, growth, and homeostatic processes in animals. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP) 5 and LRP6 serve as coreceptors of Wnt proteins together with Frizzled receptors, triggering activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Here, we found that LRP10, a new member of the LDLR gene family, inhibits the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) transcriptional activity in HEK293 cells was activated by transfection with Wnt3a or LRP6, which was then inhibited by co-transfection with LRP10. Deletion of the extracellular domain of LRP10 negated its inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effect of LRP10 was consistently conserved in HEK293 cells even when GSK3β phosphorylation was inhibited by incubation with lithium chloride and co-transfection with constitutively active S33Y-mutated β-catenin. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation was unaffected by LRP10. The present studies suggest that LRP10 may interfere with the formation of the β-catenin/TCF complex and/or its binding to target DNA in the nucleus, and that the extracellular domain of LRP10 is critical for inhibition of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  13. CDX2 Stimulates the Proliferation of Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Activating the mTORC1 and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-Bo; Zhai, Zhen-Ya; Li, Xiang-Guang; Gao, Chun-Qi; Yan, Hui-Chao; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Wang, Xiu-Qi

    2017-11-18

    Caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) is expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and plays a role in gut development and homeostasis by regulating cell proliferation. However, whether CDX2 cooperates with the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways to stimulate cell proliferation remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of CDX2 on the proliferation of porcine jejunum epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and the correlation between CDX2, the mTORC1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. CDX2 overexpression and knockdown cell culture models were established to explore the regulation of CDX2 on both pathways. Pathway-specific antagonists were used to verify the effects. The results showed that CDX2 overexpression increased IPEC-J2 cell proliferation and activated both the mTORC1 and Wnt/β-catenin pathways, and that CDX2 knockdown decreased cell proliferation and inhibited both pathways. Furthermore, the mTORC1 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway-specific antagonist rapamycin and XAV939 (3,5,7,8-tetrahydro-2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)]-4H -thiopyrano[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one) both suppressed the proliferation of IPEC-J2 cells overexpressing CDX2, and that the combination of rapamycin and XAV939 had an additive effect. Regardless of whether the cells were treated with rapamycin or XAV939 alone or in combination, both mTORC1 and Wnt/β-catenin pathways were down-regulated, accompanied by a decrease in CDX2 expression. Taken together, our data indicate that CDX2 stimulates porcine intestinal epithelial cell proliferation by activating the mTORC1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.

  14. Andrographolide Exerts Pro-Osteogenic Effect by Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongmeng Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorders that tortures about millions of people worldwide. Recent studies showed that Andrographolide (AP is a promising natural compound for the treatment of osteoclast-related bone diseases. However, its potential in treatment of osteoporosis has not been fully explored. Methods: In this study, the effect of AP on osteoblasts metabolism was investigated via the detection of cell proliferation, cell viability, ALP activity, the expression of osteogenic specific genes including runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, bone sialoprotein (BSP, osteocalcin (OCN, Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2 and Alkaline phosphatase(ALP for 3, 5 and 7 days respectively. Further exploration of the association of AP with WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway was performed by examination of the expression of WNT related genes and proteins. Results: Results showed that AP of 4.46 and 8.92 µM, especially 8.92 µM was beneficial to osteogenic differentiation by upregulating ALP activity and expression of osteogenic related genes (PConclusion: This study indicates that AP exerts its pro-osteogenic potential via activation of the WNT/β-catenin in osteoblasts and thus may represent a candidate of therapeutic agent for osteoporosis.

  15. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway tips the balance between apoptosis and reprograming of cell fusion hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluis, Frederic; Pedone, Elisa; Pepe, Stefano; Cosma, Maria Pia

    2010-11-01

    Cell-cell fusion contributes to cell differentiation and developmental processes. We have previously showed that activation of Wnt/β-catenin enhances somatic cell reprograming after polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated fusion. Here, we show that neural stem cells and ESCs can fuse spontaneously in cocultures, although with very low efficiency (about 2%), as the hybrids undergo apoptosis. In contrast, when Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in ESCs and leads to accumulation of low amounts of β-catenin in the nucleus, activated ESCs can reprogram somatic cells with very high efficiency after spontaneous fusion. Furthermore, we also show that different levels of β-catenin accumulation in the ESC nuclei can modulate cell proliferation, although in our experimental setting, cell proliferation does not modulate the reprograming efficiency per se. Overall, the present study provides evidence that spontaneous fusion occurs, while the survival of the reprogramed clones is strictly dependent on induction of a Wnt-mediated reprograming pathway. Copyright © 2010 AlphaMed Press.

  16. Relevance of Wnt10b and activation of β-catenin/GCMa/syncytin-1 pathway in BeWo cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Sudha Saryu; Banerjee, Priyanka; Chaudhary, Piyush; Pal, Rahul; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2017-10-01

    To study the involvement of specific Wnt(s) ligand during trophoblastic BeWo cell differentiation. BeWo cells on treatment with forskolin/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were studied for cell fusion by desmoplakin I+II staining and/or hCG secretion by ELISA. Levels of Wnt10b/β-catenin/glial cell missing a (GCMa)/syncytin-1 were studied by qPCR/Western blotting in forskolin-/hCG-treated control siRNA and Wnt10b silenced BeWo cells. BeWo cells on treatment with hCG (5 IU/mL) led to a 94-fold increase in Wnt10b transcript. Wnt10b silencing showed significant decrease in forskolin-/hCG-mediated BeWo cell fusion and/or hCG secretion. It led to down-regulation of β-catenin (nuclear and cytoplasmic), GCMa and syncytin-1 expression. Treatment of BeWo cells with H89, protein kinase A (PKA) signaling inhibitor, significantly reduced forskolin-/hCG-induced Wnt10b, β-catenin, and syncytin-1 expression, which also resulted in reduced cell fusion. Wnt10b is involved in forskolin/hCG-mediated BeWo cell fusion via β-catenin/GCMa/syncytin pathway, which may also involve activation of PKA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Meckel-Gruber syndrome protein TMEM67 controls basal body positioning and epithelial branching morphogenesis in mice via the non-canonical Wnt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia A. Abdelhamed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ciliopathies are a group of developmental disorders that manifest with multi-organ anomalies. Mutations in TMEM67 (MKS3 cause a range of human ciliopathies, including Meckel-Gruber and Joubert syndromes. In this study we describe multi-organ developmental abnormalities in the Tmem67tm1Dgen/H1 knockout mouse that closely resemble those seen in Wnt5a and Ror2 knockout mice. These include pulmonary hypoplasia, ventricular septal defects, shortening of the body longitudinal axis, limb abnormalities, and cochlear hair cell stereociliary bundle orientation and basal body/kinocilium positioning defects. The basal body/kinocilium complex was often uncoupled from the hair bundle, suggesting aberrant basal body migration, although planar cell polarity and apical planar asymmetry in the organ of Corti were normal. TMEM67 (meckelin is essential for phosphorylation of the non-canonical Wnt receptor ROR2 (receptor-tyrosine-kinase-like orphan receptor 2 upon stimulation with Wnt5a-conditioned medium. ROR2 also colocalises and interacts with TMEM67 at the ciliary transition zone. Additionally, the extracellular N-terminal domain of TMEM67 preferentially binds to Wnt5a in an in vitro binding assay. Cultured lungs of Tmem67 mutant mice failed to respond to stimulation of epithelial branching morphogenesis by Wnt5a. Wnt5a also inhibited both the Shh and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways in wild-type embryonic lung. Pulmonary hypoplasia phenotypes, including loss of correct epithelial branching morphogenesis and cell polarity, were rescued by stimulating the non-canonical Wnt pathway downstream of the Wnt5a-TMEM67-ROR2 axis by activating RhoA. We propose that TMEM67 is a receptor that has a main role in non-canonical Wnt signalling, mediated by Wnt5a and ROR2, and normally represses Shh signalling. Downstream therapeutic targeting of the Wnt5a-TMEM67-ROR2 axis might, therefore, reduce or prevent pulmonary hypoplasia in ciliopathies and other congenital

  18. Pathway Model of the Kinetics of the TGFbeta Antagonist Smad7 and Cross-Talk with the ATM and WNT Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Claudio; Wang, Minli; Huff, Janice L.; Hada, Megumi; ONeill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Signal transduction controls cellular and tissue responses to radiation. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) is an important regulator of cell growth and differentiation and tissue homeostasis, and is often dis-regulated in tumor formation. Mathematical models of signal transduction pathways can be used to elucidate how signal transduction varies with radiation quality, and dose and dose-rate. Furthermore, modeling of tissue specific responses can be considered through mechanistic based modeling. We developed a mathematical model of the negative feedback regulation by Smad7 in TGFbeta-Smad signaling and are exploring possible connections to the WNT/beta -catenin, and ATM/ATF2 signaling pathways. A pathway model of TGFbeta-Smad signaling that includes Smad7 kinetics based on data in the scientific literature is described. Kinetic terms included are TGFbeta/Smad transcriptional regulation of Smad7 through the Smad3-Smad4 complex, Smad7-Smurf1 translocation from nucleus to cytoplasm, and Smad7 negative feedback regulation of the TGFO receptor through direct binding to the TGFO receptor complex. The negative feedback controls operating in this pathway suggests non-linear responses in signal transduction, which are described mathematically. We then explored possibilities for cross-talk mediated by Smad7 between DNA damage responses mediated by ATM, and with the WNT pathway and consider the design of experiments to test model driven hypothesis. Numerical comparisons of the mathematical model to experiments and representative predictions are described.

  19. Secreted and Transmembrane Wnt Inhibitors and Activators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciat, Cristina-Maria; Niehrs, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins plays important roles in embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Wnt signaling is modulated by a number of evolutionarily conserved inhibitors and activators. Wnt inhibitors belong to small protein families, including sFRP, Dkk, WIF, Wise/SOST, Cerberus, IGFBP, Shisa, Waif1, APCDD1, and Tiki1. Their common feature is to antagonize Wnt signaling by preventing ligand–receptor interactions or Wnt receptor maturation. Conversely, the Wnt activators, R-spondin and Norrin, promote Wnt signaling by binding to Wnt receptors or releasing a Wnt-inhibitory step. With few exceptions, these antagonists and agonists are not pure Wnt modulators, but also affect additional signaling pathways, such as TGF-β and FGF signaling. Here we discuss their interactions with Wnt ligands and Wnt receptors, their role in developmental processes, as well as their implication in disease. PMID:23085770

  20. MAPK/ERK and Wnt/β-Catenin pathways are synergistically involved in proliferation of Sca-1 positive hepatic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Caixia; Samuelson, Lisa; Cui, Cai-Bin; Sun, Yangzhong; Gerber, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Activation of MAPK/ERK pathway with epidermal growth factor (EGF) significantly increased Sca-1 + HPC proliferation and colony formation. → Activation of either IL-6/STAT3 or Wnt/β-Catenin pathway did not independently support cell proliferation and colony formation of HPCs. → Wnt/β-Catenin pathway can cooperate with EGF to significantly promote HPC colony formation and maintain long-term HPCs in vitro. -- Abstract: Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) persist in adulthood and have the potential to play a major role in regenerating diseased liver. However, the signaling pathways that both directly and indirectly regulate HPCs' self-renewal and differentiation remain elusive. Previously, we identified a bipotent, stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) positive HPC population from naive adult liver tissue. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the involvement of various signaling pathways in Sca-1 + HPC proliferation. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) supplementation shows a significant increase in Sca-1 + HPC proliferation and colony formation while stimulating phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and activating the induction of Cyclin D1. There were no demonstrable effects of EGF on Akt. The MEK inhibitor, PD0325901, inhibits proliferation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation while also suppressing the expression of Cyclin D1. In addition, activation of either IL-6/STAT3 or Wnt/β-Catenin pathway did not independently support cell proliferation and colony formation of HPCs. The Wnt/β-Catenin pathway can cooperate with EGF to significantly promote HPC colony formation ratio and maintain long-term HPC in vitro. The data indicates that the MAPK/ERK pathway is both essential and critical for HPC proliferation, and the Wnt signaling pathway is not sufficient, while it works synergistically with the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway to promote HPC proliferation.

  1. MAPK/ERK and Wnt/{beta}-Catenin pathways are synergistically involved in proliferation of Sca-1 positive hepatic progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Caixia [Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States); Department of Medical Genetics and Cell Biology, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Samuelson, Lisa; Cui, Cai-Bin; Sun, Yangzhong [Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States); Gerber, David A., E-mail: david_gerber@med.unc.edu [Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States); Lineberger Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} Activation of MAPK/ERK pathway with epidermal growth factor (EGF) significantly increased Sca-1{sup +} HPC proliferation and colony formation. {yields} Activation of either IL-6/STAT3 or Wnt/{beta}-Catenin pathway did not independently support cell proliferation and colony formation of HPCs. {yields} Wnt/{beta}-Catenin pathway can cooperate with EGF to significantly promote HPC colony formation and maintain long-term HPCs in vitro. -- Abstract: Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) persist in adulthood and have the potential to play a major role in regenerating diseased liver. However, the signaling pathways that both directly and indirectly regulate HPCs' self-renewal and differentiation remain elusive. Previously, we identified a bipotent, stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) positive HPC population from naive adult liver tissue. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the involvement of various signaling pathways in Sca-1{sup +} HPC proliferation. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) supplementation shows a significant increase in Sca-1{sup +} HPC proliferation and colony formation while stimulating phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and activating the induction of Cyclin D1. There were no demonstrable effects of EGF on Akt. The MEK inhibitor, PD0325901, inhibits proliferation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation while also suppressing the expression of Cyclin D1. In addition, activation of either IL-6/STAT3 or Wnt/{beta}-Catenin pathway did not independently support cell proliferation and colony formation of HPCs. The Wnt/{beta}-Catenin pathway can cooperate with EGF to significantly promote HPC colony formation ratio and maintain long-term HPC in vitro. The data indicates that the MAPK/ERK pathway is both essential and critical for HPC proliferation, and the Wnt signaling pathway is not sufficient, while it works synergistically with the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway to promote HPC proliferation.

  2. CAETS 2015 Convocation on Pathways to Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Purnendu; Shorey, Rajeev; Tandon, Mahesh; v.1 Energy engineering; v.2 Healthcare engineering; v.3 Mobility engineering

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of CAETS 2015 Convocation on ‘Pathways to Sustainability: Energy, Mobility and Healthcare Engineering’ that was held on October 13-14, 2015 in New Delhi. This 3 volume proceedings provide an international forum for discussion and communication of engineering and technological issues of common concern. This volume talks about ‘Energy’ and includes 22 chapters on diverse topics like renewable energy, advances and applications of bio-energy and bio-refinery, energy options and scenarios, wind energy for buildings and transportation, etc. The contents of this volume will be useful to researchers, professionals, and policy makers alike.

  3. A possible role for the canonical Wnt pathway in endocrine cell development in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Anna Hauntoft; Heller, R. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Wnt signalling is involved in many developmental processes such as proliferation, differentiation, cell fate decisions, and morphogenesis. However, little is known about Wnt signalling during pancreas development. Multiple Wnt ligands and Frizzled receptors are expressed in the embryonic mouse pancreas, the surrounding mesenchyme, and have also been detected in the chicken endoderm during development. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of canonical Wnt signalling on endocrine cell development by use of the in ovo electroporation of the chicken endoderm. Overexpression with a constitutive active form of β-catenin in combination with Ngn3 resulted in reduced numbers of glucagon cells. dnLEF-1 or naked-1 did not alter endocrine cell differentiation when co-expressed with Ngn3, but dnLEF-1 appeared to have some potential for inhibiting delamination of Ngn3 cells. In addition, neuronal β-III-tubulin, which had previously been considered a specific marker for neuronal cells, was observed in the pancreas and was upregulated in the electroporated Ngn3 cells and thus may be a new endocrine marker in the chicken

  4. Sequential Activation and Inactivation of Dishevelled in the Wnt/beta-Catenin Pathway by Casein Kinases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernatík, Ondřej; Ganji, R.S.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Koník, P.; Červenka, I.; Krejčí, Pavel; Schulte, G.; Bryja, Vítězslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 286, č. 12 (2011), s. 10396-10410 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : WNT SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION * BETA-CATENIN * I-EPSILON Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.773, year: 2011

  5. Concurrent epigenetic silencing of wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor genes in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalev, Evgeny A; Pötz, Oliver; Joos, Thomas O; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Luckert, Katrin; Vorobjev, Ivan A; Mastitsky, Sergey E; Gladkikh, Aleena A; Stephan, Achim; Schrenk, Marita; Kaplanov, Kamil D; Kalashnikova, Olga B

    2012-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signalling is aberrantly activated in primary B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Epigenetic silencing of pathway inhibitor genes may be a mechanism for its activation. In this study, we investigated systematically and quantitatively the methylation status of 12 Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor genes – CDH1, DACT1, DKK1, DKK2, DKK3, DKK4, SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP3, SFRP4, SFRP5 and WIF1 – in the cell lines EHEB and MEC-1 as well as patient samples. Quantification of DNA methylation was performed by means of bisulphite pyrosequencing and confirmed by bisulphite Sanger sequencing. Gene expression was analysed by qPCR using GAPDH as internal control. E-cadherin and β-catenin protein quantification was carried out by microsphere-based immunoassays. Methylation differences observed between the patient and control groups were tested using generalised least squares models. For 10 genes, a higher methylation level was observed in tumour material. Only DKK4 exhibited similarly high methylation levels in both tumour and normal specimens, while DACT1 was always essentially unmethylated. However, also for these inhibitors, treatment of cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine resulted in an induction of their expression, as shown by quantitative PCR, suggesting an indirect epigenetic control of activity. While the degree of demethylation and its transcriptional consequences differed between the genes, there was an overall high correlation of demethylation and increased activity. Protein expression studies revealed that no constitutive Wnt/β-catenin signalling occurred in the cell lines, which is in discrepancy with results from primary CLL. However, treatment with 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine caused accumulation of β-catenin. Simultaneously, E-cadherin expression was strongly induced, leading to the formation of a complex with β-catenin and thus demonstrating its epigenetically regulated inhibition effect. The results suggest an

  6. Upregulation of Klotho potentially inhibits pulmonary vascular remodeling by blocking the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in rats with PM2.5-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lu-Hong; Du, Shi-Yu; Wu, Yi-Na; Liu, Ying; Li, Tao; Wang, Hui; Li, Gang; Duan, Jun

    2018-01-30

    We evaluated the effects of Klotho on pulmonary vascular remodeling and cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat models with PM2.5-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) via the Wnt signaling pathway. After establishing rat models of PM2.5-induced PAH, these Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into control and model groups. Cells extracted from the model rats were sub-categorized into different groups. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling transcription factor was detected by a TOPFlash/FOPFlash assay. A serial of experiment was conducted to identify the mechanism of Klotho on PHA via the Wnt signaling pathway. VEGF levels and PaCO 2 content were higher in the model group, while PaO 2, NO 2 - /NO 3 - content and Klotho level was lower compared to the control group. In comparison to the control group, the model group had decreased Klotho and Bax levels, and elevated Wnt-1, β-catenin, bcl-2, survivin, and PCNA expression, VEGF, IL-6, TNF-α, TNF-β1, and bFGF levels, as well as the percentage of pulmonary artery ring contraction. The Klotho vector, DKK-1 and DKK-1 + Klotho vector groups exhibited reduced cell proliferation, luciferase activity, and the expression of Wnt-1, β-catenin, bcl-2, survivin, and PCNA, as well as shortened S phase compared with the blank and NC groups. Compared with the Klotho vector and DKK-1 groups, the DKK-1 + Klotho vector groups had reduced cell proliferation, luciferase activity, and the expression of Wnt-1, β-catenin, bcl-2, survivin, and PCNA, as well as a shortened S phase. Conclusively, Klotho inhibits pulmonary vascular remodeling by inactivation of Wnt signaling pathway. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Gene expression profiling of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma indicates fusion protein-mediated activation of the Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyl, Joanna; Kidzinski, Lukasz; Hastie, Trevor; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Nusse, Roel; van de Rijn, Matt

    2018-05-01

    Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (LGESS) harbor chromosomal translocations that affect proteins associated with chromatin remodeling Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), including SUZ12, PHF1 and EPC1. Roughly half of LGESS also demonstrate nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, which is a hallmark of Wnt signaling activation. However, the targets affected by the fusion proteins and the role of Wnt signaling in the pathogenesis of these tumors remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a meta-analysis of three independent gene expression profiling studies on LGESS and immunohistochemical evaluation of nuclear expression of β-catenin and Lef1 in 112 uterine sarcoma specimens obtained from 20 LGESS and 89 LMS patients. Our results demonstrate that 143 out of 310 genes overexpressed in LGESS are known to be directly regulated by SUZ12. In addition, our gene expression meta-analysis shows activation of multiple genes implicated in Wnt signaling. We further emphasize the role of the Wnt signaling pathway by demonstrating concordant nuclear expression of β-catenin and Lef1 in 7/16 LGESS. Based on our findings, we suggest that LGESS-specific fusion proteins disrupt the repressive function of the PRC2 complex similar to the mechanism seen in synovial sarcoma, where the SS18-SSX fusion proteins disrupt the mSWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex. We propose that these fusion proteins in LGESS contribute to overexpression of Wnt ligands with subsequent activation of Wnt signaling pathway and formation of an active β-catenin/Lef1 transcriptional complex. These observations could lead to novel therapeutic approaches that focus on the Wnt pathway in LGESS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Huperzine A activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and enhances the nonamyloidogenic pathway in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Tao; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wang, Si-Ling; Zhao, Bao-Lu; Teng, Wei-Ping; Wang, Zhan-You

    2011-04-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a reversible and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and it has multiple targets when used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. In this study, we searched for new mechanisms by which HupA could activate Wnt signaling and reduce amyloidosis in AD brain. A nasal gel containing HupA was prepared. No obvious toxicity of intranasal administration of HupA was found in mice. HupA was administered intranasally to β-amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein and presenilin-1 double-transgenic mice for 4 months. We observed an increase in ADAM10 and a decrease in BACE1 and APP695 protein levels and, subsequently, a reduction in Aβ levels and Aβ burden were present in HupA-treated mouse brain, suggesting that HupA enhances the nonamyloidogenic APP cleavage pathway. Importantly, our results further showed that HupA inhibited GSK3α/β activity, and enhanced the β-catenin level in the transgenic mouse brain and in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing Swedish mutation APP, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of HupA is not related simply to its AChE inhibition and antioxidation, but also involves other mechanisms, including targeting of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in AD brain.

  9. LncRNAs in Secondary Hair Follicle of Cashmere Goat: Identification, Expression, and Their Regulatory Network in Wnt Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen L; Zhao, Su J; Wang, Ze Y; Zhu, Yu B; Dang, Yun L; Cong, Yu Y; Xue, Hui L; Wang, Wei; Deng, Liang; Guo, Dan; Wang, Shi Q; Zhu, Yan X; Yin, Rong H

    2018-07-03

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a novel class of eukaryotic transcripts. They are thought to act as a critical regulator of protein-coding gene expression. Herein, we identified and characterized 13 putative lncRNAs from the expressed sequence tags from secondary hair follicle of Cashmere goat. Furthermore, we investigated their transcriptional pattern in secondary hair follicle of Liaoning Cashmere goat during telogen and anagen phases. Also, we generated intracellular regulatory networks of upregulated lncRNAs at anagen in Wnt signaling pathway based on bioinformatics analysis. The relative expression of six putative lncRNAs (lncRNA-599618, -599556, -599554, -599547, -599531, and -599509) at the anagen phase is significantly higher than that at telogen. Compared with anagen, the relative expression of four putative lncRNAs (lncRNA-599528, -599518, -599511, and -599497) was found to be significantly upregulated at telogen phase. The network generated showed that a rich and complex regulatory relationship of the putative lncRNAs and related miRNAs with their target genes in Wnt signaling pathway. Our results from the present study provided a foundation for further elucidating the functional and regulatory mechanisms of these putative lncRNAs in the development of secondary hair follicle and cashmere fiber growth of Cashmere goat.

  10. Regulatory effect of evodiamine on the malignant biological behaviors and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hui Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the regulatory effect of evodiamine on the malignant biological behaviors and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29. Methods: Colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 were cultured and divided into blank control group and evodiamine group, and after different treatment, cell viability, proportion of different cell cycle as well as the contents of VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, MMP3, MMP14, Wnt and β-catenin were detected. Results: (1 Cell viability: MTT value of evodiamine group was significantly lower than that of blank control group; (2 Cell cycle: proportion of both S phase and G2/M phase of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group, and proportion of G0/ G1 phase was higher than that of blank control group; (3 VEGF and MMP contents: VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, MMP3 and MMP14 contents of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group; (4 Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway: Wnt and β-catenin contents of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group. Conclusion: Evodiamine can inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 and down-regulate the expression of VEGF and MMP, and the effect may be achieved by inhibiting the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  11. Expression of the Hippo transducer TAZ in association with WNT pathway mutations impacts survival outcomes in advanced gastric cancer patients treated with first-line chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Elisa; Casini, Beatrice; Ronchetti, Livia; Pizzuti, Laura; Sperati, Francesca; Pallocca, Matteo; De Nicola, Francesca; Goeman, Frauke; Gallo, Enzo; Amoreo, Carla Azzurra; Sergi, Domenico; Terrenato, Irene; Vici, Patrizia; Di Lauro, Luigi; Diodoro, Maria Grazia; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Barba, Maddalena; Mazzotta, Marco; Mottolese, Marcella; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; De Maria, Ruggero; Buglioni, Simonetta; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello

    2018-02-05

    An extensive crosstalk co-regulates the Hippo and Wnt pathway. Preclinical studies revealed that the Hippo transducers YAP/TAZ mediate a number of oncogenic functions in gastric cancer (GC). Moreover, comprehensive characterization of GC demonstrated that the Wnt pathway is targeted by oncogenic mutations. On this ground, we hypothesized that YAP/TAZ- and Wnt-related biomarkers may predict clinical outcomes in GC patients treated with chemotherapy. In the present study, we included 86 patients with advanced GC treated with first-line chemotherapy in prospective phase II trials or in routine clinical practice. Tissue samples were immunostained to evaluate the expression of YAP/TAZ. Mutational status of key Wnt pathway genes (CTNNB1, APC and FBXW7) was assessed by targeted DNA next-generation sequencing (NGS). Survival curves were estimated and compared by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method and the log-rank test, respectively. Variables potentially affecting progression-free survival (PFS) were verified in univariate Cox proportional hazard models. The final multivariate Cox models were obtained with variables testing significant at the univariate analysis, and by adjusting for all plausible predictors of the outcome of interest (PFS). We observed a significant association between TAZ expression and Wnt mutations (Chi-squared p = 0.008). Combined TAZ expression and Wnt mutations (TAZ pos /WNT mut ) was more frequently observed in patients with the shortest progression-free survival (negative outliers) (Fisher p = 0.021). Uni-and multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that patients whose tumors harbored the TAZ pos /WNT mut signature had an increased risk of disease progression (univariate Cox: HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.27-4.05, p = 0.006; multivariate Cox: HR 2.73, 95% CI 1.41-5.29, p = 0.003). Finally, the TAZ pos /WNT mut signature negatively impacted overall survival. Collectively, our findings indicate that the oncogenic YAP/TAZ-Wnt crosstalk may be

  12. Activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway is associated with glial proliferation in the adult spinal cord of ALS transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yanchun [Department of Histology and Embryology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong (China); Department of Histology and Embryology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong (China); Guan, Yingjun, E-mail: guanyj@wfmc.edu.cn [Department of Histology and Embryology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong (China); Department of Histology and Embryology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong (China); Liu, Huancai [Department of Orthopedic, Affiliated Hospital, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong (China); Wu, Xin; Yu, Li; Wang, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyan; Du, Hongmei [Department of Histology and Embryology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: xwang@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 were upregulated in the spinal cord of the ALS mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus in the ALS mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin and Cyclin D1 co-localized for astrocytes were all increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BrdU/Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of ALS mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. -- Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive and fatal loss of motor neurons. In ALS, there is a significant cell proliferation in response to neurodegeneration; however, the exact molecular mechanisms of cell proliferation and differentiation are unclear. The Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in neurodegenerative processes. Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin, and Cyclin D1 are three key signaling molecules of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway. We determined the expression of Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin, and Cyclin D1 in the adult spinal cord of SOD1{sup G93A} ALS transgenic mice at different stages by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence labeling techniques. We found that the mRNA and protein of Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 in the spinal cord of the ALS mice were upregulated compared to those in wild-type mice. In addition, {beta}-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus and subsequently activated transcription of the target gene, Cyclin D1. BrdU and Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of these mice. Moreover, Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin, and Cyclin D1 were also expressed in both neurons and astrocytes. The expression of Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin or Cyclin D1 in mature GFAP{sup +} astrocytes increased. Moreover, BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. Our findings suggest that

  13. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is associated with glial proliferation in the adult spinal cord of ALS transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanchun; Guan, Yingjun; Liu, Huancai; Wu, Xin; Yu, Li; Wang, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyan; Du, Hongmei; Wang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 were upregulated in the spinal cord of the ALS mice. ► β-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus in the ALS mice. ► Wnt3a, β-catenin and Cyclin D1 co-localized for astrocytes were all increased. ► BrdU/Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of ALS mice. ► BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. -- Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive and fatal loss of motor neurons. In ALS, there is a significant cell proliferation in response to neurodegeneration; however, the exact molecular mechanisms of cell proliferation and differentiation are unclear. The Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in neurodegenerative processes. Wnt3a, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 are three key signaling molecules of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We determined the expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 in the adult spinal cord of SOD1 G93A ALS transgenic mice at different stages by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence labeling techniques. We found that the mRNA and protein of Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 in the spinal cord of the ALS mice were upregulated compared to those in wild-type mice. In addition, β-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus and subsequently activated transcription of the target gene, Cyclin D1. BrdU and Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of these mice. Moreover, Wnt3a, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 were also expressed in both neurons and astrocytes. The expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin or Cyclin D1 in mature GFAP + astrocytes increased. Moreover, BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. Our findings suggest that neurodegeneration activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which is associated with glial proliferation in the adult spinal cord of ALS transgenic mice. This

  14. Wnt/β-catenin and LIF-Stat3 signaling pathways converge on Sp5 to promote mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shoudong; Zhang, Dongming; Cheng, Fei; Wilson, Daniel; Mackay, Jeffrey; He, Kan; Ban, Qian; Lv, Feng; Huang, Saifei; Liu, Dahai; Ying, Qi-Long

    2016-01-15

    Activation of leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF)-Stat3 or Wnt/β-catenin signaling promotes mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) self-renewal. A myriad of downstream targets have been identified in the individual signal pathways, but their common targets remain largely elusive. In this study, we found that the LIF-Stat3 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways converge on Sp5 to promote mESC self-renewal. Forced Sp5 expression can reproduce partial effects of Wnt/β-catenin signaling but mimics most features of LIF-Stat3 signaling to maintain undifferentiated mESCs. Moreover, Sp5 is able to convert mouse epiblast stem cells into a naïve pluripotent state. Thus, Sp5 is an important component of the regulatory network governing mESC naïve pluripotency. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Wnt signaling pathway involvement in genotypic and phenotypic variations in Waardenburg syndrome type 2 with MITF mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Ping; Liu, Ya-Lan; Mei, Ling-Yun; He, Chu-Feng; Niu, Zhi-Jie; Sun, Jie; Zhao, Yu-Lin; Feng, Yong; Zhang, Hua

    2018-05-01

    Mutation in the gene encoding microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) lead to Waardenburg syndrome 2 (WS2), an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome with auditory-pigmentary abnormalities, which is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Haploinsufficiency may be the underlying mechanism for WS2. However, the mechanisms explaining the genotypic and phenotypic variations in WS2 caused by MITF mutations are unclear. A previous study revealed that MITF interacts with LEF-1, an important factor in the Wnt signaling pathway, to regulate its own transcription through LEF-1-binding sites on the MITF promoter. In this study, four different WS2-associated MITF mutations (p.R217I, p.R217G, p.R255X, p.R217del) that are associated with highly variable clinical features were chosen. According to the results, LEF-1 can activate the expression of MITF on its own, but MITF proteins inhibited the activation. This inhibition weakens when the dosage of MITF is reduced. Except for p.R217I, p.R255X, p.R217G, and p.R217del lose the ability to activate TYR completely and do not inhibit the LEF-1-mediated activation of the MITF-M promoter, and the haploinsufficiency created by mutant MITF can be overcome; correspondingly, the mutants' associated phenotypes are less severe than that of p.R217I. The dominant negative of p.R217del made it have a second-most severe phenotype. This study's data imply that MITF has a negative feedback loop of regulation to stabilize MITF gene dosage that involves the Wnt signaling pathway and that the interaction of MITF mutants with this pathway drives the genotypic and phenotypic differences observed in Waardenburg syndrome type 2 associated with MITF mutations.

  16. B-cell translocation gene 3 overexpression inhibits proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer SW480 cells via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D; Qiao, L; Lu, H; Feng, Y

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences have shown that B-cell translocation gene 3 (BTG3) inhibits metastasis of multiple cancer cells. However, the role of BTG3 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its possible mechanism have not yet been reported. In our study, we evaluated BTG3 expression in several CRC cell lines. Then, pcDNA3.1-BTG3 was transfected into SW480 cells. We found that BTG3 was upregulated in SW480 cells after overexpression plasmid transfection. BTG3 overexpression significantly inhibited cell growth and decreased PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and Ki67 levels. BTG3 overexpression markedly downregulated Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E1 levels, whereas elevated p27. Overexpression of BTG3 arrested the cell cycle at G1 phase, which was abrogated by p27 silencing. Furthermore, migration, invasion and EMT of SW480 cells were significantly suppressed by BTG3 overexpression. Further investigations showed the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We then used GSK3β specific inhibitor SB-216763 to activate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We found that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation reversed the effect of BTG3 overexpression on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, invasion and EMT. In conclusion, BTG3 overexpression inhibited cell growth, induced cell cycle arrest and suppressed the metastasis of SW480 cells via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. BTG3 may be considered as a therapeutic target in CRC treatment.

  17. Melatonin Inhibits Neural Cell Apoptosis and Promotes Locomotor Recovery via Activation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhaoliang; Zhou, Zipeng; Gao, Shuang; Guo, Yue; Gao, Kai; Wang, Haoyu; Dang, Xiaoqian

    2017-08-01

    The spinal cord is highly sensitive to spinal cord injury (SCI) by external mechanical damage, resulting in irreversible neurological damage. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway can effectively reduce apoptosis and protect against SCI. Melatonin, an indoleamine originally isolated from bovine pineal tissue, exerts neuroprotective effects after SCI through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin exhibited neuroprotective effects on neuronal apoptosis and supported functional recovery in a rat SCI model by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We found that melatonin administration after SCI significantly upregulated the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 phosphorylation (p-LRP-6), lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1) and β-catenin protein in the spinal cord. Melatonin enhanced motor neuronal survival in the spinal cord ventral horn and improved the locomotor functions of rats after SCI. Melatonin administration after SCI also reduced the expression levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in the spinal cord and the proportion of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells, but increased the expression level of Bcl-2. These results suggest that melatonin attenuated SCI by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  18. Effect of Huayu Tongluo Herbs on Reduction of Proteinuria via Inhibition of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in diabetic rats and the intervention effect of Huayu Tongluo herbs (HTH. Ten rats were randomly selected as control group and the remaining rats were established as diabetic models. The diabetic rats were randomly divided into model group and HTH treatment group. The intervention was intragastric administration in all rats for 20 weeks. At the end of every 4 weeks, fasting blood glucose and 24 h urinary total protein quantitatively were measured. At the end of the 20th week, biochemical parameters and body weight were tested. The kidney tissues were observed under light microscope and transmission electron microscopy. We examined Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway key proteins and renal interstitial fibrosis related molecular markers expression. The results showed that HTH could reduce urinary protein excretion and relieve renal pathological damage. Wnt4, p-GSK3β (S9, and β-catenin expression were decreased in the signaling pathway, but GSK3β level was not changed by HTH in diabetic rats. Furthermore, the expressions of TGF-β1 and ILK were decreased, but the level of E-cadherin was increased in diabetic rats after treatment with HTH. This study demonstrated that HTH could inhibit the high expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in kidney of diabetic rats. The effect might be one of the main ways to reduce urinary protein excretion.

  19. Hovenia dulcis Thunb extract and its ingredient methyl vanillate activate Wnt/β-catenin pathway and increase bone mass in growing or ovariectomized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu-Hyeon Cha

    Full Text Available The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a potential target for development of anabolic agents to treat osteoporosis because of its role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, there is no clinically available anti-osteoporosis drug that targets this Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In this study, we screened a library of aqueous extracts of 350 plants and identified Hovenia dulcis Thunb (HDT extract as a Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator. HDT extract induced osteogenic differentiation of calvarial osteoblasts without cytotoxicity. In addition, HDT extract increased femoral bone mass without inducing significant weight changes in normal mice. In addition, thickness and area of femoral cortical bone were also significantly increased by the HDT extract. Methyl vanillate (MV, one of the ingredients in HDT, also activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induced osteoblast differentiation in vitro. MV rescued trabecular or cortical femoral bone loss in the ovariectomized mice without inducing any significant weight changes or abnormality in liver tissue when administrated orally. Thus, natural HDT extract and its ingredient MV are potential anabolic agents for treating osteoporosis.

  20. [Wnt/β-catenin pathway involved in the regulation of rat mesangial cell proliferation by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Mengying; Li, Xueqin; Lu, Jinming; Xu, Liang

    2016-11-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) on glomerular mesangial cell proliferation via Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Methods The rat glomerular mesangial cells (HBZY-1) were incubated in conditioned ADSC medium. Cell cycle was analyzed with flow cytometry; the proliferation rate of HBZY-1 and the expression levels of relative genes and proteins of Wnt signaling pathway were measured using RNA interference, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results HBZY-1 proliferation was significantly inhibited under the action of conditioned ADSC medium, whereas dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1 (DKK1) mRNA level was up-regulated. Fibronectin and TGF-β1 mRNA expression as well as β-catenin and Bcl-2 protein levels of HBZY-1 were significantly down-regulated. DKK1 gene expression level in ADSCs was significantly higher than that of HBZY-1. After RNA interference, DKK1 expression level in ADSCs was markedly inhibited, yet the β-catenin protein level was notably elevated. The β-catenin and Bcl-2 protein levels of HBZY-1 were also significantly raised in HBZY-1 after cultured with conditioned medium containing ADSCs treated with RNA interference. Conclusion Wnt/β-catenin may be a potential signaling pathway involved in the regulative effect of ADSCs on glomerular mesangial cell proliferation.

  1. MicroRNA-1297 inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion by targeting the AEG-1/Wnt signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xuan; Li, Hecheng; Fu, Delai; Chong, Tie; Wang, Ziming; Li, Zhaolun

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been known to be implicated in tumorigenic programs. miR-1297 has been reported to be dysregulated and involved in cancer progression in many types of human cancers. However, the expression level and the role of miR-1297 in prostate cancer remain unclear. Herein, we aimed to investigate the potential role and molecular mechanism of miR-1297 in prostate cancer progression. We found that miR-1297 was significantly downregulated in human prostate cancer specimens as well as in several prostate cancer cell lines. In addition, functional experiments demonstrated that overexpression of miR-1297 remarkably inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion whereas miR-1297 suppression significantly promoted prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1), a well-known oncogene, is a predicted target of miR-1297. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-1297 was able to directly target the 3’-untranslated region of AEG-1. In addition, RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis showed that miR-1297 regulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of AEG-1. We also showed that miR-1297 was able to regulate the Wnt signaling pathway. Moreover, rescue assays indicated that AEG-1 contributed to miR-1297-endowed effects on cell proliferation and invasion as well as Wnt signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-1297 inhibits prostate cancer proliferation and invasion by targeting AEG-1, thereby providing novel insight into understanding the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Thus, miR-1297 may be a novel potential therapeutic candidate to treat prostate cancer. - Highlights: • miR-1297 is decreased in prostate cancer. • miR-1297 inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • miR-1297 targets and inhibits AEG-1. • miR-1297 regulates AEG-1/Wnt signaling pathway.

  2. Role of LncRNA TUG1 in intervertebral disc degeneration and nucleus pulposus cells via regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Jia, Yu-Song; Liu, Gen-Zhe; Sun, Qi; Zhang, Fan; Ma, Sheng; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2017-09-23

    To investigate the role of TUG1 in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) and human nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) via regulating Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The study collected nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue samples from 30 patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) (Case group) and 18 patients with lumbar spine trauma (Control group). NPCs induced by TNF-α in vitro were divided into Blank, Vector, TUG1, TUG1-siRNA, XAV-939, TUG1 + XAV-939 groups. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of TUG1 and ECM-related genes, Western blot to determine the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway and apoptosis-related proteins, and ELISA to measure the expression of ECM-related proteins. The apoptosis was detected by TUNEL and Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining. The proliferation and senescence were tested by CCK-8 and SA-β-gal staining respectively. TUG1 was upregulated in patients with IDD, which was positively related to Wnt and β-catenin. Besides, TUG1, Wnt1 and β-catenin were greatly increased in the NPCs after TNF-α induction. Compared with the Blank group, TUG1-siRNA and XAV-939 can appreciably down-regulate the expressions of Wnt1, β-catenin, Caspase-3, Bax, MMP3 and ADAMTS5, up-regulate the expression of Bcl-2, Aggrecan and COL2A1, inhibit the apoptosis and senescence, and promote cell proliferation; however, the TUG1 group had the completely opposite results. Silencing TUG1 may not only protect human NPCs from TNF-α-induced apoptosis and senescence, but also promote cell proliferation by blocking Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which provides a theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of IDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Aberrant Wnt Signaling in Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. T. Staal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt signaling pathway is essential in the development and homeostasis of blood and immune cells, but its exact role is still controversial and is the subject of intense research. The malignant counterpart of normal hematopoietic cells, leukemic (stem cells, have hijacked the Wnt pathway for their self-renewal and proliferation. Here we review the multiple ways dysregulated Wnt signaling can contribute to leukemogenesis, both cell autonomously as well as by changes in the microenvironment.

  4. Beta-arrestins - scaffolds and signalling elements essential for WNT/Frizzled signalling pathways?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schulte, G.; Schambony, A.; Bryja, Vítězslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 5 (2010), s. 1051-1058 ISSN 0007-1188 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC204/09/J030 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA204/09/0498; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB501630801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : beta-arrestin * Wnt signaling * dishevelled Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.925, year: 2010

  5. Circadian rhythms, Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR alpha/gamma profiles in diseases with primary or secondary cardiac dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves eLecarpentier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clock mechanisms are far-from-equilibrium dissipative structures. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR alpha, beta/delta and gamma play a key role in metabolic regulatory processes, particularly in heart muscle. Links between circadian rhythms (CRs and PPARs have been established. Mammalian CRs involve at least two critical transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1 (Gekakis et al., 1998; Hogenesch et al., 1998. PPAR gamma plays a major role in both glucose and lipid metabolisms and presents circadian properties which coordinate the interplay between metabolism and CRs. PPAR gamma is a major component of the vascular clock. Vascular PPAR gamma is a peripheral regulator of cardiovascular rhythms controlling circadian variations in blood pressure and heart rate through BMAL1. We focused our review on diseases with abnormalities of CRs and with primary or secondary cardiac dysfunction. Moreover, these diseases presented changes in the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and PPARs, according to two opposed profiles. Profile 1 was defined as follows: inactivation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway with increased expression of PPAR gamma. Profile 2 was defined as follows: activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway with decreased expression of PPAR gamma. A typical profile 1 disease is arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a genetic cardiac disease which presents mutations of the desmosomal proteins and is mainly characterized by fatty acid accumulation in adult cardiomyocytes mainly in the right ventricle. The link between PPAR gamma dysfunction and desmosomal genetic mutations occurs via inactivation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway presenting oscillatory properties. A typical profile 2 disease is type 2 diabetes, with activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and decreased expression of PPAR gamma. CRs abnormalities are present in numerous pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases, sympathetic/parasympathetic dysfunction

  6. Different effection of p.1125Val>Ala and rs11954856 in APC on Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Feng; Zhao, Zhi-Xun; Yan, Peng; Wang, Song; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Qiong; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Sun, Chang-Hao; Wang, Xi-Shan; Wang, Gui-Yu; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2017-09-19

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common and fatal forms of solid tumors worldwide and more than two thirds of CRC and adenomas patients have APC gene mutations. APC is a key regulator in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway but its roles in CRC remains to be elucidated. In this study, we compared APC genes between CRC patients and controls to determine possible associations of nucleotide changes in the APC gene with the pathways involved in CRC pathogenesis. All participants received physical and enteroscopic examinations. The APC gene was sequenced for 300 Chinese Han CRC patients and 411 normal controls, and the expression levels of genes in the signaling pathway were analyzed using Western Blotting. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS (version 19.0) software. We found that rs11954856 in the APC gene was associated with colorectal cancer and could increase the expression levels of APC , β-catenin , TCF7L1 , TCF7L2 and LEF1 genes in the pathway in the CRC patients, demonstrating the involvement of APC in the pathological processes leading to CRC.

  7. Shizukaol D, a Dimeric Sesquiterpene Isolated from Chloranthus serratus, Represses the Growth of Human Liver Cancer Cells by Modulating Wnt Signalling Pathway.

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    Lisha Tang

    Full Text Available Natural products have become sources of developing new drugs for the treatment of cancer. To seek candidate compounds that inhibit the growth of liver cancer, components of Chloranthus serratus were tested. Here, we report that shizukaol D, a dimeric sesquiterpene from Chloranthus serratus, exerted a growth inhibition effect on liver cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We demonstrated that shizukaol D induced cells to undergo apoptosis. More importantly, shizukaol D attenuated Wnt signalling and reduced the expression of endogenous Wnt target genes, which resulted in decreased expression of β-catenin. Collectively, this study demonstrated that shizukaol D inhibited the growth of liver cancer cells by modulating Wnt pathway.

  8. Hydrostatic Pressure Regulates MicroRNA Expression Levels in Osteoarthritic Chondrocyte Cultures via the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway

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    Sara Cheleschi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical loading and hydrostatic pressure (HP regulate chondrocytes’ metabolism; however, how mechanical stimulation acts remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in cartilage homeostasis, mechanotransduction, and in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA. This study investigated the effects of a cyclic HP (1–5 MPa, in both normal and OA human chondrocytes, on the expression of miR-27a/b, miR-140, miR-146a/b, and miR-365, and of their target genes (MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, IGFBP-5, and HDAC-4. Furthermore, we assessed the possible involvement of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in response to HP. Chondrocytes were exposed to HP for 3h and the evaluations were performed immediately after pressurization, and following 12, 24, and 48 h. Total RNA was extracted and used for real-time PCR. β-catenin was detected by Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence. In OA chondrocytes, HP induced a significant increase (p < 0.01 of the expression levels of miR-27a/b, miR-140, and miR-146a, and a significant reduction (p < 0.01 of miR-365 at all analyzed time points. MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, and HDAC-4 were significantly downregulated following HP, while no significant modification was found for IGFBP-5. β-catenin levels were significantly increased (p < 0.001 in OA chondrocytes at basal conditions and significantly reduced (p < 0.01 by HP. Pressurization did not cause any significant modification in normal cells. In conclusion, in OA chondrocytes, HP restores the expression levels of some miRNAs, downregulates MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, and HDAC-4, and modulates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation.

  9. Mutations in the LRRK2 Roc-COR tandem domain link Parkinson's disease to Wnt signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Rosa M; Law, Bernard M H; Harvey, Kirsten

    2009-10-15

    Mutations in PARK8, encoding LRRK2, are the most common known cause of Parkinson's disease. The LRRK2 Roc-COR tandem domain exhibits GTPase activity controlling LRRK2 kinase activity via an intramolecular process. We report the interaction of LRRK2 with the dishevelled family of phosphoproteins (DVL1-3), key regulators of Wnt (Wingless/Int) signalling pathways important for axon guidance, synapse formation and neuronal maintenance. Interestingly, DVLs can interact with and mediate the activation of small GTPases with structural similarity to the LRRK2 Roc domain. The LRRK2 Roc-COR domain and the DVL1 DEP domain were necessary and sufficient for LRRK2-DVL1 interaction. Co-expression of DVL1 increased LRRK2 steady-state protein levels, an effect that was dependent on the DEP domain. Strikingly, LRRK2-DVL1-3 interactions were disrupted by the familial PARK8 mutation Y1699C, whereas pathogenic mutations at residues R1441 and R1728 strengthened LRRK2-DVL1 interactions. Co-expression of DVL1 with LRRK2 in mammalian cells resulted in the redistribution of LRRK2 to typical cytoplasmic DVL1 aggregates in HEK293 and SH-SY5Y cells and co-localization in neurites and growth cones of differentiated dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. This is the first report of the modulation of a key LRRK2-accessory protein interaction by PARK8 Roc-COR domain mutations segregating with Parkinson's disease. Since the DVL1 DEP domain is known to be involved in the regulation of small GTPases, we propose that: (i) DVLs may influence LRRK2 GTPase activity, and (ii) Roc-COR domain mutations modulating LRRK2-DVL interactions indirectly influence kinase activity. Our findings also link LRRK2 to Wnt signalling pathways, suggesting novel pathogenic mechanisms and new targets for genetic analysis in Parkinson's disease.

  10. Chondrocytes damage induced by T-2 toxin via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of an endemic osteochondropathy, Kashin-Beck disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Ning, Yujie; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Lei; Wang, Yingting; Guo, Xiong

    2017-12-01

    Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteochondropathy, is characterized by cartilage degeneration which is caused by abnormal catabolism in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we investigated the expression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in KBD pathogenesis. Among the proteins involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, WNT-3A, FZD1, SOX9, and β-catenin were up-regulated, while FRZB was down-regulated in KBD cartilage. C28/I2 cells were evaluated for cell viability using the MTT assay after exposure to T-2 toxin, a suspicious environmental pathogenic factors of KBD. C28/I2 cells were treated with different intervening concentrations (0.001μg/mL,0.005μg/mL and 0.01μg/mL) of T-2 toxin for 24h. The expression of FZD1 and CTNNB1 (i.e.,β-catenin) was significantly reduced and SOX9 expression was significantly increased in chondrocytes after treatment with different intervening concentrations of T-2 toxin. Our results indicate that alterations in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in articular cartilage play an important role in the onset and pathogenesis of KBD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electroacupuncture at Dazhui (GV14 and Mingmen (GV4 protects against spinal cord injury: the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

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    Xin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture at Dazhui (GV14 and Mingmen (GV4 on the Governor Vessel has been shown to exhibit curative effects on spinal cord injury; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we established rat models of spinal cord injury using a modified Allen's weight-drop method. Ninety-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three equal groups: sham (only laminectomy, SCI (induction of spinal cord injury at T10, and EA (induction of spinal cord injury at T10 and electroacupuncture intervention at GV14 and GV4 for 20 minutes once a day. Rats in the SCI and EA groups were further randomly divided into the following subgroups: 1-day (n = 11, 7-day (n = 11, and 14-day (n = 11. At 1, 7, and 14 days after electroacupuncture treatment, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale showed obvious improvement in rat hind limb locomotor function, hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the histological change of injured spinal cord tissue was obviously alleviated, and immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis showed that Wnt1, Wnt3a, β-catenin immunoreactivity and protein expression in the injured spinal cord tissue were greatly increased compared with the sham and SCI groups. These findings suggest that electroacupuncture at GV14 and GV4 upregulates Wnt1, Wnt3a, and β-catenin expression in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, exhibiting neuroprotective effects against spinal cord injury.

  12. ROLE OF PI3K-AKT-mTOR AND Wnt SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN G1-S TRANSITION OF CELL CYCLE IN CANCER CELLS

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    LAKSHMIPATHI eVADLAKONDA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The PI3K–Akt pathway together with one of its downstream targets, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR is a highly deregulated pathway in cancers. There is a reciprocal relation between the Akt phosphorylation and mTOR complexes. Akt phosphorylated at T308 activates mTORC1 by inhibition of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC1/2, where as mTORC2 is recognized as the kinase that phosphorylates Akt at S473. Recent developments in the research on regulatory mechanisms of autophagy places mTORC1 mediated inhibition of autophagy at the central position in activation of proliferation and survival pathways in cells. Autophagy is a negative regulator of Wnt signaling pathway and the downstream effectors of Wnt signaling pathway, cyclin D1 and the c-Myc, are the key players in initiation of cell cycle and regulation of the G1-S transition in cancer cells. Production of reaction oxygen species (ROS, a common feature of a cancer cell metabolism, activates several downstream targets like the transcription factors FoxO, which play key roles in promoting the progression of cell cycle. A model is presented on the role of PI3K -Akt - mTOR and Wnt pathways in regulation of the progression of cell cycle through Go-G1-and S phases.

  13. ET-1 Promotes Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells into Osteoblasts through ETR, MAPK, and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways under Inflammatory Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Nan; Yu, Jifeng; Liu, Hongchen

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a kind of chronic inflammatory disease that affects the tooth-supporting tissues. ET-1 is related to periodontitis and involved in the regulation of cytokines, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate how ET-1 affects proinflammatory cytokine expression and differentiation in human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). PDLSCs were isolated from the periodontal ligament tissues of periodontitis patients and then treated with ET-1 (1, 10, or 100 nM) for 12 h, 24 h, or 72 h. The osteogenic potential of PDLSCs was tested using ALP staining. TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels were evaluated by ELISA and western blot. Runx2, OCN, and COL1 mRNA and western levels were detected by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. To examine the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in ET-1-mediated cytokine expression and osteogenic differentiation, ETR pathway, MAPKs pathway, Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and Wnt/Ca2+ pathway were detected by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. ET-1 promoted differentiation of PDLSCs into osteoblasts by increasing secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ET-1 also increased expression of Runx2, OCN, and COL1. ET-1 promotes differentiation of PDLSCs into osteoblasts through ETR, MAPK, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways under inflammatory microenvironment. PMID:26884650

  14. ET-1 Promotes Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells into Osteoblasts through ETR, MAPK, and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways under Inflammatory Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a kind of chronic inflammatory disease that affects the tooth-supporting tissues. ET-1 is related to periodontitis and involved in the regulation of cytokines, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate how ET-1 affects proinflammatory cytokine expression and differentiation in human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs. PDLSCs were isolated from the periodontal ligament tissues of periodontitis patients and then treated with ET-1 (1, 10, or 100 nM for 12 h, 24 h, or 72 h. The osteogenic potential of PDLSCs was tested using ALP staining. TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels were evaluated by ELISA and western blot. Runx2, OCN, and COL1 mRNA and western levels were detected by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. To examine the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in ET-1-mediated cytokine expression and osteogenic differentiation, ETR pathway, MAPKs pathway, Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and Wnt/Ca2+ pathway were detected by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. ET-1 promoted differentiation of PDLSCs into osteoblasts by increasing secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ET-1 also increased expression of Runx2, OCN, and COL1. ET-1 promotes differentiation of PDLSCs into osteoblasts through ETR, MAPK, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways under inflammatory microenvironment.

  15. ENU mutagenesis reveals that Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila affects Cdkn1a and several members of the Wnt pathway during murine pre-implantation development

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    Lossie Amy C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our interests lie in determining the genes and genetic pathways that are important for establishing and maintaining maternal-fetal interactions during pregnancy. Mutation analysis targeted to a 34 Mb domain flanked by Trp53 and Wnt3 demonstrates that this region of mouse chromosome 11 contains a large number of essential genes. Two mutant alleles (l11Jus1 and l11Jus4, which fall into the same complementation group, survive through implantation but fail prior to gastrulation. Results Through a positional cloning strategy, we discovered that these homozygous mutant alleles contain non-conservative missense mutations in the Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila (Nle1 gene. NLE1 is a member of the large WD40-repeat protein family, and is thought to signal via the canonical NOTCH pathway in vertebrates. However, the phenotype of the Nle1 mutant mice is much more severe than single Notch receptor mutations or even in animals in which NOTCH signaling is blocked. To test the hypothesis that NLE1 functions in multiple signaling pathways during pre-implantation development, we examined expression of multiple Notch downstream target genes, as well as select members of the Wnt pathway in wild-type and mutant embryos. We did not detect altered expression of any primary members of the Notch pathway or in Notch downstream target genes. However, our data reveal that Cdkn1a, a NOTCH target, was upregulated in Nle1 mutants, while several members of the Wnt pathway are downregulated. In addition, we found that Nle1 mutant embryos undergo caspase-mediated apoptosis as hatched blastocysts, but not as morulae or blastocysts. Conclusions Taken together, these results uncover potential novel functions for NLE1 in the WNT and CDKN1A pathways during embryonic development in mammals.

  16. Osteoporosis and obesity: Role of Wnt pathway in human and murine models.

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    Colaianni, Graziana; Brunetti, Giacomina; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Colucci, Silvia; Grano, Maria

    2014-07-18

    Studies concerning the pathophysiological connection between obesity and osteoporosis are currently an intriguing area of research. Although the onset of these two diseases can occur in a different way, recent studies have shown that obesity and osteoporosis share common genetic and environmental factors. Despite being a risk factor for health, obesity has traditionally been considered positive to bone because of beneficial effect of mechanical loading, exerted by high body mass, on bone formation. However, contrasting studies have not achieved a clear consensus, suggesting instead that excessive fat mass derived from obesity condition may not protect against osteoporosis or, even worse, could be rather detrimental to bone. On the other hand, it is hitherto better established that, since adipocytes and osteoblasts are derived from a common mesenchymal stem cell precursor, molecules that lead to osteoblastogenesis inhibit adipogenesis and vice versa. Here we will discuss the role of the key molecules regulating adipocytes and osteoblasts differentiation, which are peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-γ and Wnts, respectively. In particular, we will focus on the role of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling, involved in mesenchymal cell fate regulation. Moreover, at present there are no experimental data that relate any influence of the Wnt inhibitor Sclerostin to adipogenesis, although it is well known its role on bone metabolism. In addition, the most common pathological condition in which there is a simultaneous increase of adiposity and decrease of bone mass is menopause. Given that postmenopausal women have high Sclerostin level inversely associated with circulating estradiol level and since the sex hormone replacement therapy has proved to be effective in attenuating bone loss and reversing menopause-related obesity, we hypothesize that Sclerostin contribution in adipogenesis could be an active focus of research in the coming years.

  17. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a new role of a WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway as negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses.

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    Baril, Martin; Es-Saad, Salwa; Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Fink, Karin; Pham, Tram; Raymond, Valérie-Ann; Audette, Karine; Guenier, Anne-Sophie; Duchaine, Jean; Servant, Marc; Bilodeau, Marc; Cohen, Eric; Grandvaux, Nathalie; Lamarre, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To identify new regulators of antiviral innate immunity, we completed the first genome-wide gene silencing screen assessing the transcriptional response at the interferon-β (IFNB1) promoter following Sendai virus (SeV) infection. We now report a novel link between WNT signaling pathway and the modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR)-dependent innate immune responses. Here we show that secretion of WNT2B and WNT9B and stabilization of β-catenin (CTNNB1) upon virus infection negatively regulate expression of representative inducible genes IFNB1, IFIT1 and TNF in a CTNNB1-dependent effector mechanism. The antiviral response is drastically reduced by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitors but restored in CTNNB1 knockdown cells. The findings confirm a novel regulation of antiviral innate immunity by a canonical-like WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway. The study identifies novel avenues for broad-spectrum antiviral targets and preventing immune-mediated diseases upon viral infection.

  18. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a new role of a WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway as negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses.

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    Martin Baril

    Full Text Available To identify new regulators of antiviral innate immunity, we completed the first genome-wide gene silencing screen assessing the transcriptional response at the interferon-β (IFNB1 promoter following Sendai virus (SeV infection. We now report a novel link between WNT signaling pathway and the modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I-like receptor (RLR-dependent innate immune responses. Here we show that secretion of WNT2B and WNT9B and stabilization of β-catenin (CTNNB1 upon virus infection negatively regulate expression of representative inducible genes IFNB1, IFIT1 and TNF in a CTNNB1-dependent effector mechanism. The antiviral response is drastically reduced by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 inhibitors but restored in CTNNB1 knockdown cells. The findings confirm a novel regulation of antiviral innate immunity by a canonical-like WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway. The study identifies novel avenues for broad-spectrum antiviral targets and preventing immune-mediated diseases upon viral infection.

  19. Pathways to a more sustainable transport infrastructure

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    Dravitzki, V., Email: Vince.Dravitzki@Opus.co.nz; Lester, T.; Cenek, P. [Opus International Consultants, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2010-07-01

    The two phenomena of Peak Oil and Human-induced Climate Change both together and individually create an imperative for early action, with the need to address Climate Change limiting the range of options that can be used to address peak oil. Peak oil is often portrayed as a market phenomenon, as a period when demand will exceed supply. The imperative to respond to the issues resulting from Peak Oil and Climate Change requires that New Zealand must move from its current high energy use, high resource use, high cost, petroleum dependent, transport infrastructure, to a sustainable one. Because a country's energy profile will increasingly define its economic success, New Zealand needs also to move to a lower energy society to remain competitive with other countries. What will be New Zealand's successful transport energy of the future and how it may be best used are key considerations of our future sustainable transport system. Low energy, low material use and consequently low cost, will be the main criteria. This paper first identifies our current transport energy usage, and some of the risks of being slow to respond to change. The paper then questions the central tenants of the current New Zealand Land Transport Strategy (2008) that we move to bio-fuels and electric cars because this is not a low energy, low cost pathway. We advocate that instead of just coping with change, New Zealand uses the necessity to change as an opportunity to recast our transport infrastructure to greatly improve the economic success and liveability of our settlements to New Zealand's benefit. The second part of the paper outlines a transport infrastructure based around electricity, with a heavy emphasis on public transport use, but also with freight much more dependent on electrified rail. This second part discusses: the advantages that NZ has that will facilitate this transition, such as favourable urban forms; the energy needs and energy availability; the benefits and

  20. Rational design of DKK3 structure-based small peptides as antagonists of Wnt signaling pathway and in silico evaluation of their efficiency.

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    Mansour Poorebrahim

    Full Text Available Dysregulated Wnt signaling pathway is highly associated with the pathogenesis of several human cancers. Dickkopf proteins (DKKs are thought to inhibit Wnt signaling pathway through binding to lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP 5/6. In this study, based on the 3-dimensional (3D structure of DKK3 Cys-rich domain 2 (CRD2, we have designed and developed several peptide inhibitors of Wnt signaling pathway. Modeller 9.15 package was used to predict 3D structure of CRD2 based on the Homology modeling (HM protocol. After refinement and minimization with GalaxyRefine and NOMAD-REF servers, the quality of selected models was evaluated utilizing VADAR, SAVES and ProSA servers. Molecular docking studies as well as literature-based information revealed two distinct boxes located at CRD2 which are actively involved in the DKK3-LRP5/6 interaction. A peptide library was constructed conducting the backrub sequence tolerance scanning protocol in Rosetta3.5 according to the DKK3-LRP5/6 binding sites. Seven tolerated peptides were chosen and their binding affinity and stability were improved by some logical amino acid substitutions. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations of peptide-LRP5/6 complexes were carried out using GROMACS package. After evaluation of binding free energies, stability, electrostatic potential and some physicochemical properties utilizing computational approaches, three peptides (PEP-I1, PEP-I3 and PEP-II2 demonstrated desirable features. However, all seven improved peptides could sufficiently block the Wnt-binding site of LRP6 in silico. In conclusion, we have designed and improved several small peptides based on the LRP6-binding site of CRD2 of DKK3. These peptides are highly capable of binding to LRP6 in silico, and may prevent the formation of active Wnt-LRP6-Fz complex.

  1. TIPE2 Inhibits the Expression of Asthma-Related Inflammatory Factors in Hyperstretched Bronchial Epithelial Cells Through the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

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    Sun, Xinrong; Chen, Lu; Yan, Wen

    2017-06-01

    Childhood asthma, an airway inflammatory disease, is a serious threat to the child's quality of life. Recently, TIPE2 expression was reported to be decreased in children with asthma. Therefore, additional studies focusing on TIPE2 might provide an approach for treating childhood asthma. In this study, we found that TIPE2 was poorly expressed in hyperstretched human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). TIPE2 overexpression also significantly suppressed the stretch-induced secretion of asthma-related inflammatory factors (TNF-α, TSLP, MMP-9, and VEGF). In contrast, TIPE2 inhibition significantly promoted the secretion of TNF-α, TSLP, MMP-9, and VEGF. Furthermore, overexpression of TIPE2 remarkably inhibited the activation of Wnt/β-catenin in hyperstretched BEAS-2B cells, while siTIPE2 activated Wnt/β-catenin in hyperstretched BEAS-2B cells. Further analysis showed that the Wnt/β-catenin signal inhibitor Dkk-1 could further enhance the TIPE2-induced suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which also suppressed the siTIPE2-induced secretion of TNF-α, TSLP, MMP-9, and VEGF in hyperstretched BEAS-2B cells. Dkk-1 reversed the effects of siRNA-TIPE2 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and inflammatory cytokines. In summary, we have exhibited that TIPE2 inhibited the expression of asthma-related inflammatory factors in hyperstretched BEAS-2B cells by suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. TIPE2 may be involved in airway inflammation during asthma attack, and it may be used as a potential therapeutic target for bronchial epithelial inflammation in childhood asthma.

  2. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by mechanical ventilation is associated with ventilator-induced pulmonary fibrosis in healthy lungs.

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    Jesús Villar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation (MV with high tidal volumes (V(T can cause or aggravate lung damage, so-called ventilator induced lung injury (VILI. The relationship between specific mechanical events in the lung and the cellular responses that result in VILI remains incomplete. Since activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been suggested to be central to mechanisms of lung healing and fibrosis, we hypothesized that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a role during VILI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study using adult, healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals (n = 6/group were randomized to spontaneous breathing or two strategies of MV for 4 hours: low tidal volume (V(T (6 mL/kg or high V(T (20 mL/kg. Histological evaluation of lung tissue, measurements of WNT5A, total β-catenin, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41 β-catenin, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7, cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2 protein levels by Western blot, and WNT5A, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41 β-catenin, MMP-7, and AXIN2 immunohistochemical localization in the lungs were analyzed. High-V(T MV caused lung inflammation and perivascular edema with cellular infiltrates and collagen deposition. Protein levels of WNT5A, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41 β-catenin, MMP-7, cyclin D1, VEGF, and AXIN2 in the lungs were increased in all ventilated animals although high-V(T MV was associated with significantly higher levels of WNT5A, non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41 β-catenin, MMP-7, cyclin D1, VEGF, and AXIN2 levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is modulated very early by MV in lungs without preexistent lung disease, suggesting that activation of this pathway could play an important role in both VILI and lung repair. Modulation of this pathway might represent a therapeutic option for prevention and/or management of VILI.

  3. Treadmill exercise ameliorates Alzheimer disease-associated memory loss through the Wnt signaling pathway in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young; Kim, Kijeong; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is considered as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility whether treadmill exercise ameliorates Alzheimer disease-associated memory loss in the diabetes mellitus. For this study, the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory and spatial learning ability in relation with Wnt signaling pathway were evaluated using the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Step-down avoidance task and 8-arm radial maze test were performed for the memory function. Immunohistochemistry for 5-bro-mo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU) and doublecortin (DCX) and Western blot for Wnt3 and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were conducted. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on the treadmill for 30 min per one day, 5 times a week, during 12 weeks. In the present results, short-term memory and spatial learning ability were deteriorated by induction of diabetes. Treadmill exercise improved short-term memory and spatial learning ability in the diabetic rats. The numbers of BrdU-positive and DCX-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by induction of diabetes. Treadmill exercise increased these numbers in the diabetic rats. Wnt3 expression in the hippocampus was decreased and GSK-3β expression in the hippocampus was increased by induction of diabetes. Treadmill exercise increased Wnt3 expression and suppressed GSK-3β expression in the diabetic rats. The present study suggests that treadmill exercise alleviates Alzheimer disease-associated memory loss by increasing neurogenesis through activating Wnt signaling pathway in the diabetic rats.

  4. Wnt5a attenuates Wnt3a-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in dental follicle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakisaka, Yukihiko; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Nemoto, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Wnt signaling regulates multiple cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathways. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling can promote the differentiation of dental follicle cells, putative progenitor cells for cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament cells, toward a cementoblast/osteoblast phenotype during root formation, but little is known about the biological significance of noncanonical Wnt signaling in this process. We identified the expression of Wnt5a, a representative noncanonical Wnt ligand, in tooth root lining cells (i.e. precementoblasts/cementoblasts) and dental follicle cells during mouse tooth root development, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Silencing expression of the Wnt5a gene in a dental follicle cell line resulted in enhancement of the Wnt3a (a representative canonical Wnt ligand)-mediated increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. Conversely, treatment with recombinant Wnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression, suggesting that Wnt5a signaling functions as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. Wnt5a did not affect the nuclear translocation of β-catenin as well as β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of T-cell factor (Tcf) triggered by Wnt3a, suggesting that Wnt5a inhibits the downstream part of the β-catenin-Tcf pathway. These findings suggest the existence of a feedback mechanism between canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling during the differentiation of dental follicle cells. - Highlights: • Dental follicle cells express Wnt5a during tooth root development. • Silencing of Wnt5a enhances Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. • Conversely, treatment with rWnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression. • Wnt5a functions as a negative regulator of Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression

  5. Wnt5a attenuates Wnt3a-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in dental follicle cells

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    Sakisaka, Yukihiko [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Masahiro [Department of Oral Diagnosis, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tohoku Fukushi University, Sendai 989-3201 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Liason Center for Innovative Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tamura, Masato [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Shimauchi, Hidetoshi [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nemoto, Eiji, E-mail: e-nemoto@dent.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2015-08-01

    Wnt signaling regulates multiple cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathways. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling can promote the differentiation of dental follicle cells, putative progenitor cells for cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament cells, toward a cementoblast/osteoblast phenotype during root formation, but little is known about the biological significance of noncanonical Wnt signaling in this process. We identified the expression of Wnt5a, a representative noncanonical Wnt ligand, in tooth root lining cells (i.e. precementoblasts/cementoblasts) and dental follicle cells during mouse tooth root development, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Silencing expression of the Wnt5a gene in a dental follicle cell line resulted in enhancement of the Wnt3a (a representative canonical Wnt ligand)-mediated increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. Conversely, treatment with recombinant Wnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression, suggesting that Wnt5a signaling functions as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. Wnt5a did not affect the nuclear translocation of β-catenin as well as β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of T-cell factor (Tcf) triggered by Wnt3a, suggesting that Wnt5a inhibits the downstream part of the β-catenin-Tcf pathway. These findings suggest the existence of a feedback mechanism between canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling during the differentiation of dental follicle cells. - Highlights: • Dental follicle cells express Wnt5a during tooth root development. • Silencing of Wnt5a enhances Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. • Conversely, treatment with rWnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression. • Wnt5a functions as a negative regulator of Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression.

  6. Results of a phase I pilot clinical trial examining the effect of plant-derived resveratrol and grape powder on Wnt pathway target gene expression in colonic mucosa and colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Anthony V; Martinez, Micaela; Stamos, Michael J; Moyer, Mary P; Planutis, Kestutis; Hope, Christopher; Holcombe, Randall F

    2009-01-01

    Resveratrol exhibits colon cancer prevention activity in animal models; it is purported to have this activity in humans and inhibit a key signaling pathway involved in colon cancer initiation, the Wnt pathway, in vitro. A phase I pilot study in patients with colon cancer was performed to evaluate the effects of a low dose of plant-derived resveratrol formulation and resveratrol-containing freeze-dried grape powder (GP) on Wnt signaling in the colon. Eight patients were enrolled and normal colonic mucosa and colon cancer tissue were evaluated by Wnt pathway-specific microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) pre- and post-exposure to resveratrol/GP. Based on the expression of a panel of Wnt target genes, resveratrol/GP did not inhibit the Wnt pathway in colon cancer but had significant (p < 0.03) activity in inhibiting Wnt target gene expression in normal colonic mucosa. The greatest effect on Wnt target gene expression was seen following ingestion of 80 g of GP per day (p < 0.001). These results were confirmed with qRT-PCR of cyclinD1 and axinII. The inhibitory effect of GP on Wnt signal throughput was confirmed in vitro with a normal colonic mucosa-derived cell line. These data suggest that GP, which contains low dosages of resveratrol in combination with other bioactive components, can inhibit the Wnt pathway in vivo and that this effect is confined to the normal colonic mucosa. Further study of dietary supplementation with resveratrol-containing foods such as whole grapes or GP as a potential colon cancer preventive strategy is warranted. NCT00256334

  7. WNT signaling pathway gene polymorphisms and risk of hepatic fibrosis and inflammation in HCV-infected patients.

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    Yanhong Liu

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C infection is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, a highly lethal malignancy with rapidly increasing prevalence in the United States. Little is known about genetic variations and HCC risk. This study aimed to determine if genetic variation in Wnt signaling pathway genes are associated with advanced hepatic fibrosis and inflammation risk in a hepatitis C virus (HCV infected population.We performed a genetic association cross-sectional study evaluating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 58 candidate genes and risk of FibroSURE-Acti Test determined advanced fibrosis (F3/F4-F4 advanced cases vs. F0-F3 mild controls and inflammation (A2/A3-A3 advanced cases vs. A0-A2 mild controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs employing multivariate logistic regression. Haplotypes were inferred by the HAPLO.STAT program, interactions were evaluated using multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR analysis.Among 425 chronically HCV-infected male veterans, 155 (37% had advanced fibrosis and 180 (42% had advanced inflammation. Of 3016 SNPs evaluated, eight were significantly associated with fibrosis risk (e.g., SFRP2 rs11937424: OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.48-3.23, P = 0.00004, and seven were significantly associated with inflammation risk (e.g., SFRP1 rs16890282: OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.39-3.16, P = 0.0004. MDR analysis identified overweight/obese, SOST rs1405952, SFRP2 rs11937424, and FZD4 rs11234870 as the best interaction model for predicting risk of fibrosis; whereas race/ethnicity, FZD1 rs1346665, and TBX3 rs1520177 as the best interaction model for predicting risk of inflammation.Polymorphisms in several genes involved in the Wnt signaling pathway were associated with hepatic fibrosis or inflammation risk in HCV-infected males. Additional studies in other multi-ethnic HCV cohorts are needed to validate our findings in males and to assess if similar associations exist in chronically HCV

  8. A deep investigation into the adipogenesis mechanism: Profile of microRNAs regulating adipogenesis by modulating the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

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    Li Jing

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a large class of tiny non-coding RNAs (~22-24 nt that regulate diverse biological processes at the posttranscriptional level by controlling mRNA stability or translation. As a molecular switch, the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway should be suppressed during the adipogenesis; However, activation of this pathway leads to the inhibition of lipid depots formation. The aim of our studies was to identify miRNAs that might be involved in adipogenesis by modulating WNT signaling pathway. Here we established two types of cell model, activation and repression of WNT signaling, and investigated the expression profile of microRNAs using microarray assay. Results The high throughput microarray data revealed 18 miRNAs that might promote adipogenesis by repressing WNT signaling: miR-210, miR-148a, miR-194, miR-322 etc. Meanwhile, we also identified 29 miRNAs that might have negative effect on adipogenesis by activating WNT signaling: miR-344, miR-27 and miR-181 etc. The targets of these miRNAs were also analysed by bioinformatics. To validate the predicted targets and the potential functions of these identified miRNAs, the mimics of miR-210 were transfected into 3T3-L1 cells and enlarged cells with distinct lipid droplets were observed; Meanwhile, transfection with the inhibitor of miR-210 could markedly decrease differentiation-specific factors at the transcription level, which suggested the specific role of miR-210 in promoting adipogenesis. Tcf7l2, the predicted target of miR-210, is a transcription factor triggering the downstream responsive genes of WNT signaling, was blocked at transcription level. Furthermore, the activity of luciferase reporter bearing Tcf7l2 mRNA 3' UTR was decreased after co-transfection with miR-210 in HEK-293FT cells. Last but not least, the protein expression level of β-catenin was increased in the lithium (LiCl treated 3T3-L1 cells after transfection with miR-210. These

  9. Yi Qi Qing Re Gao-containing serum inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced rat mesangial cell proliferation by suppressing the Wnt pathway and TGF-β1 expression.

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    Yang, Liping; Sun, Xueyan; Zhan, Yongli; Liu, Huijie; Wen, Yumin; Mao, Huimin; Dong, X I; Li, Ping

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Yi Qi Qing Re Gao-containing serum (YQ-S) on rat mesangial cell (MC) proliferation and to investigate the underlying mechanism. MCs were divided into the control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated, YQ-S and fosinopril-containing serum (For-S) groups, and cultured for 48 h. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation of MCs. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were conducted to detect the expression levels of Wnt4, β-catenin and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in MCs. The results indicated that YQ-S inhibited LPS-induced MC proliferation. The Wnt4 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression levels were reduced in the YQ-S group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Furthermore, the Wnt4, β-catenin and TGF-β1 protein expression levels were suppressed in the YQ-S group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Therefore, YQ-S appears to inhibit MC proliferation, and its mechanism may involve the inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway and downregulation of TGF-β1 expression.

  10. Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents Suppress Cell Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in an Experimental Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Role of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

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    Deepak Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and chemoprevention represents a viable approach in lowering the mortality of this disease. Pomegranate fruit, an abundant source of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, is gaining tremendous attention for its wide-spectrum health benefits. We previously reported that a characterized pomegranate emulsion (PE prevents diethylnitrosamine (DENA-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis though inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB. Since NF-κB concurrently induces Wnt/β-catenin signaling implicated in cell proliferation, cell survival, and apoptosis evasion, we examined antiproliferative, apoptosis-inducing and Wnt/β-catenin signaling-modulatory mechanisms of PE during DENA rat hepatocarcinogenesis. PE (1 or 10 g/kg was administered 4 weeks before and 18 weeks following DENA exposure. There was a significant increase in hepatic proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen and alteration in cell cycle progression (cyclin D1 due to DENA treatment, and PE dose dependently reversed these effects. PE substantially induced apoptosis by upregulating proapoptotic protein Bax and downregulating antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. PE dose dependently reduced hepatic β-catenin and augmented glycogen synthase kinase-3β expression. Our study provides evidence that pomegranate phytochemicals exert chemoprevention of hepatic cancer through antiproliferative and proapoptotic mechanisms by modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PE, thus, targets two interconnected molecular circuits (canonical NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin pathways to exert chemoprevention of HCC.

  11. Pentazocine Protects SN4741 Cells Against MPP+-Induced Cell Damage via Up-Regulation of the Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

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    Jiancai Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been linked to many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD. A glycoprotein named Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1 can combine with the receptor complex on cell membrane to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Opioids, a series of compounds including morphine, fentanyl and pentazocine, have been reported to contribute to the up-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Naloxone is an antagonist that has been used as an antidote to opioids through mu-opioid receptor. 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+, which serves as a selective toxin for dopaminergic neurons, has been used to create experimental models of PD. In our study, we examined the protective effects of pentazocine against MPP+-induced cell death in the nigral dopaminergic cell line, SN4741 and tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying such protective effects. The data showed that pretreatment with pentazocine significantly rescued the SN4741 cell against MPP+. Moreover, the MPP+-exposed SN4741 cells exhibited a down-regulation of β-catenin, which could be restored by treatment with pentazocine. However, Dkk1 but not naloxonewas associated with the abrogation of protective effect of pentazocine. These results suggest that pentazocine alleviates MPP+-induced SN4741 cells apoptosis via the up-regulation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  12. Overexpression of miR‑21 promotes neural stem cell proliferation and neural differentiation via the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway in vitro.

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    Zhang, Wei-Min; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Xi-Tao; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Gao, Yan-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effects of microRNA‑21 (miR‑21) on the proliferation and differentiation of rat primary neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. miR‑21 was overexpressed in NSCs by transfection with a miR‑21 mimic. The effects of miR‑21 overexpression on NSC proliferation were revealed by Cell Counting kit 8 and 5‑ethynyl‑2'‑deoxyuridine incorporation assay, and miR‑21 overexpression was revealed to increase NSC proliferation. miR‑21 overexpression was confirmed using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). mRNA and protein expression levels of key molecules (β‑catenin, cyclin D1, p21 and miR‑21) in the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway were studied by RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis. RT‑qPCR and western blot analyses revealed that miR‑21 overexpression increased β‑catenin and cyclin D1 expression, and decreased p21 expression. These results suggested that miR‑21‑induced increase in proliferation was mediated by activation of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway, since overexpression of miR‑21 increased β‑catenin and cyclin D1 expression and reduced p21 expression. Furthermore, inhibition of the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway with FH535 attenuated the influence of miR‑21 overexpression on NSC proliferation, indicating that the factors activated by miR‑21 overexpression were inhibited by FH535 treatment. Furthermore, overexpression of miR‑21 enhanced the differentiation of NSCs into neurons and inhibited their differentiation into astrocytes. The present study indicated that in primary rat NSCs, overexpression of miR‑21 may promote proliferation and differentiation into neurons via the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway in vitro.

  13. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways promote the invasion of hypoxic gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Lan; Liu, Dang; Ding, Guang-Rong; Liao, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Jun-Wen

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to examine the association between hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in a hypoxic environment. The study also aimed to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the invasion of hypoxic gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The pcDNA™ 6.2‑GW/EmGFP‑miR‑β‑catenin plasmid was transfected into SGC‑7901 gastric cancer cells, resulting in cells with stable suppression of β‑catenin expression. The biological characteristics of the control, liposome, negative control, β‑catenin knockdown, hypoxia and hypoxia β‑catenin knockdown groups were tested using an invasion assay. The differences in the invasive capacity of the control, negative control and liposome groups were not statistically significant. However, the hypoxia group demonstrated a significantly enhanced invasive capacity, as compared with that in the control group (Phypoxic and control cells was high alongside increased HIF‑1α, β‑catenin, uPA and MMP‑7 levels according to western blot and immunohistochemical analyses, while growth and protein levels of tumors from hypoxic β‑catenin knockdown cells were significantly lower and those of β‑catenin knockdown cells were lowest. In conclusion, these results suggested that HIF‑1α activation was able to regulate the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway, and that HIF‑1α may be controlled by the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway. A potential mechanism underlying SGC‑7901 tumorigenicity is the activation of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway, which activates uPA and MMP‑7 expression and contributes to the enhanced invasion of hypoxic cancer cells.

  14. Long non-coding RNA MEG3 inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma by regulating the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongxiang; Wu, Cui; Xie, Nina; Wang, Penglai

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate how long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) inhibits the growth and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by regulating WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in order to explore the antitumor effect of MEG3 and to provide a potential molecular target for the treatment of OSCC. The RT-qPCR technique was used to quantitatively analyze the expression of MEG3 in cancer and adjacent tissues collected from the patients after surgery. Using the Lipofectamine method, the MEG3 overexpression vector and the siRNA interference vector were constructed and transfected into SCC15 and Cal27 cells, respectively, followed by cell proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis analyses. The semi-quantitative analysis of the expression of the β-catenin protein in transfected cells was performed by the western blot analysis, and the activity of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway was analyzed using the TOP/FOP flash reporters. In addition, the cells were treated with decitabine to investigate the correlation between the MEG3 expression and the DNA methylation. Results showed that the expression level of MEG3 was significantly decreased in OSCC (psuppressor by inhibiting the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. In addition, the expression of the MEG3 was significantly affected by the degree of DNA methylation. It was concluded that the lncRNA MEG3 can inhibit the growth and metastasis of OSCC by negatively regulating the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  15. Decreased expression of MEG3 contributes to retinoblastoma progression and affects retinoblastoma cell growth by regulating the activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yali; Lu, Xiaohe

    2016-02-01

    The aberrant expression of MEG3 has been found in some types of cancers; however, little is known concerning the function of MEG3 in retinoblastoma. To elucidate the roles of MEG3 in retinoblastoma, MEG3 expression was quantified in 63 retinoblastoma samples and corresponding nontumor tissues in this work. Moreover, retinoblastoma cell lines were transfected with pcDNA3.1-MEG3 or si-MEG3, after which proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of β-catenin were assayed. TOP-Flash reporter assay was also used to investigate the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results showed that MEG3 was downregulated in retinoblastoma tissues, and the level of MEG3 was negatively associated with IIRC stages and nodal or distant metastasis. More importantly, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that patients with low MEG3 expression had poorer survival and multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that MEG3 was an independent prognostic factor in retinoblastoma patients. We also observed that MEG3 expression can be modulated by DNA methylation by using 5-aza-CdR treatment. In addition, overexpression of MEG3 suppressed proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and influences the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in retinoblastoma cell lines. Furthermore, we found that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator rescued the anticancer effect of MEG3 in retinoblastoma. In conclusion, our study for the first time demonstrated that MEG3 was a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the progression of retinoblastoma and might serve as a prognostic biomarker and molecular therapeutic target.

  16. Knockdown of long non-coding RNA Taurine Up-Regulated 1 inhibited doxorubicin resistance of bladder urothelial carcinoma via Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dalong; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Xuanhao; Shang, Chao

    2017-10-24

    In genitourinary system, bladder cancer (BC) is the most common and lethal malignant tumor, which most common type is bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC). Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Taurine Up-Regulated 1 (TUG1) gene is high-expressed in several malignant tumors, including BC. In this study, over-expression of TUG1 was found in BUC tissues and cell line resistant to doxorubicin (Dox). Knockdown of TUG1 inhibited the Dox resistance and promoted the cytotoxicity induced by Dox in T24/Dox cells. TUG1 knockdown also depressed the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and the activation the Wnt/β-catenin pathway partly reversed the inhibitory effects of TUG1 knockdown on Dox resistance in T24/Dox cells. In conclusion, up-regulation of lncRNA TUG1 was related with the poor response of BUC patients to Dox chemotherapy, knockdown of TUG1 inhibited the Dox resistance of BUC cells via Wnt/β-catenin pathway. These findings might assist in the discovery of novel potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for BUC, thereby improve the effects of clinical treatment in patients.

  17. Wnt Signaling in Cancer Stem Cell Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Vermeulen, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a common theme seen across many tumor types. Decades of research have unraveled the epigenetic and genetic alterations that result in elevated Wnt pathway activity. More recently, it has become apparent that Wnt signaling levels identify stem-like tumor cells

  18. Education for Sustainability: Assessing Pathways to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, John

    2014-01-01

    In this paper John Huckle reflects on the outlook of environmental education based on conferences in 1972 and 1992 regarding the lack of sustainable development being realized. Huckle points "education for sustainability" along a pathway provided by critical theory and pedagogy and uses theory to examine the nature of ecological crisis,…

  19. Degraded iota-carrageenan can induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe; Han, Ya-Xin; Han, Xiao-Rui

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a high-grade malignant bone tumor. Therefore, using both in vitro and in vivo assays, the effects of degraded iota-Carrageenan (ι-CGN) on a human osteosarcoma cell line, HOS, were examined. Degraded ι-CGN was observed to induce apoptosis and G(1) phase arrest in HOS cells. Moreover, degraded ι-CGN suppressed tumor growth in established xenograft tumor models. Accordingly, the survival rate of these mice was significantly higher than that of mice bearing tumors treated with native ι-CGN or PBS. In addition, the formation of intratumoral microvessels was inhibited following treatment with degraded ι-CGN. In Western blot assays, degraded ι-CGN was found to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Overall, these studies demonstrate the antitumor activity of degraded ι-CGN toward the OS cell line, HOS. Moreover, valuable insight into the mechanisms mediated by degraded ι-CGN was obtained, potentially leading to the identification of novel treatments for OS. However, additional studies are needed to confirm these results in other cell types, particularly in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  20. [HSP90 Inhibitor 17-AAG Inhibits Multiple Myeloma Cell Proliferation by Down-regulating Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan-Kan; He, Zheng-Mei; Ding, Bang-He; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Li-Juan; Yu, Liang; Gao, Jian

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of HSP90 inhibitory 17-AAG on proliferation of multiple myeloma cells and its main mechanism. The multiple myeloma cells U266 were treated with 17-AAG of different concentrations (200, 400, 600 and 800 nmol/L) for 24, 48, and 72 hours respectively, then the proliferation rate, expression levels of β-catenin and C-MYC protein, as well as cell cycle of U266 cells were treated with 17-AAG and were detected by MTT method, Western blot and flow cytometry, respectively. The 17-AAG showed inhibitory effect on the proliferation of U266 cells in dose- and time-depetent manners (r = -0.518, P AAG displayed no inhibitory effect on proliferation of U266 cells (P > 0.05). The result of culturing U266 cells for 72 hours by 17-AAG of different concentrations showed that the more high of 17-AAG concentration, the more low level of β-catenin and C-MYC proteins (P AAG concentration, the more high of cell ratio in G1 phase (P AAG, the more long time of culture, the more high of cell ratio in G1 phase (P AAG can inhibit the proliferation of multiple myeloma cells, the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inhibition of HSP90 expression may be the main mechnisms of 17-AAG effect.

  1. Maternal Chromium Restriction Leads to Glucose Metabolism Imbalance in Mice Offspring through Insulin Signaling and Wnt Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    An adverse intrauterine environment, induced by a chromium-restricted diet, is a potential cause of metabolic disease in adult life. Up to now, the relative mechanism has not been clear. C57BL female mice were time-mated and fed either a control diet (CD), or a chromium-restricted diet (CR) throughout pregnancy and the lactation period. After weaning, some offspring continued the diet diagram (CD-CD or CR-CR), while other offspring were transferred to another diet diagram (CD-CR or CR-CD). At 32 weeks of age, glucose metabolism parameters were measured, and the liver from CR-CD group and CD-CD group was analyzed using a gene array. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot were used to verify the result of the gene array. A maternal chromium-restricted diet resulted in obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased area under the curve (AUC) of glucose in oral glucose tolerance testing and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). There were 463 genes that differed significantly (>1.5-fold change, p chromium deficiency influences glucose metabolism in pups through the regulation of insulin signaling and Wnt signaling pathways. PMID:27782077

  2. Acceleration of bone development and regeneration through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in mice heterozygously deficient for GSK-3β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arioka, Masaki; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi; Sasaki, Masanori; Yoshihara, Tatsuya; Morimoto, Sachio; Takashima, Akihiko; Mori, Yoshihide; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was activated in GSK-3β +/− mice. •The cortical and trabecular bone volumes were increased in GSK-3β +/− mice. •Regeneration of a partial bone defect was accelerated in GSK-3β +/− mice. -- Abstract: Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β plays an important role in osteoblastogenesis by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, we investigated whether GSK-3β deficiency affects bone development and regeneration using mice heterozygously deficient for GSK-3β (GSK-3β +/− ). The amounts of β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1, and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) in the bone marrow cells of GSK-3β +/− mice were significantly increased compared with those of wild-type mice, indicating that Wnt/β-catenin signals were enhanced in GSK-3β +/− mice. Microcomputed tomography of the distal femoral metaphyses demonstrated that the volumes of both the cortical and trabecular bones were increased in GSK-3β +/− mice compared with those in wild-type mice. Subsequently, to investigate the effect of GSK-3β deficiency on bone regeneration, we established a partial bone defect in the femur and observed new bone at 14 days after surgery. The volume and mineral density of the new bone were significantly higher in GSK-3β +/− mice than those in wild-type mice. These results suggest that bone formation and regeneration in vivo are accelerated by inhibition of GSK-3β, probably through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

  3. Wogonin induced G1 cell cycle arrest by regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inactivating CDK8 in human colorectal cancer carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Licheng; Lu, Na; Dai, Qinsheng; Zhao, Yue; Zhao, Li; Wang, Hu; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Wogonin inhibited HCT116 cells growth and arrested at G1 phase of the cell cycle. • Wogonin down-regulated the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • Wogonin interfered in the combination of β-catenin and TCF/Lef. • Wogonin limited the kinase activity of CDK8. - Abstract: Wogonin, a naturally occurring mono-flavonoid, has been reported to have tumor therapeutic potential and good selectivity both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we investigated the anti-proliferation effects and associated mechanisms of wogonin in human colorectal cancer in vitro. The flow-cytometric analysis showed that wogonin induced a G1 phase cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the cell cycle-related proteins, such as cyclin A, E, D1, and CDK2, 4 were down-regulated in wogonin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we showed that the anti-proliferation and G1 arrest effect of wogonin on HCT116 cells was associated with deregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Wogonin-treated cells showed decreased intracellular levels of Wnt proteins, and activated degradation complex to phosphorylated and targeted β-catenin for proteasomal degradation. Wogonin inhibited β-catenin-mediated transcription by interfering in the transcriptional activity of TCF/Lef, and repressing the kinase activity of CDK8 which has been considered as an oncogene involving in the development of colorectal cancers. Moreover, CDK8 siRNA-transfected HCT116 cells showed similar results to wogonin treated cells. Thus, our data suggested that wogonin induced anti-proliferation and G1 arrest via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and it can be developed as a therapeutic agent against human colorectal cancer

  4. Acceleration of bone development and regeneration through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in mice heterozygously deficient for GSK-3β

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arioka, Masaki [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi, E-mail: yanaga@clipharm.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Global Medical Science Education Unit, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sasaki, Masanori [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshihara, Tatsuya; Morimoto, Sachio [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Takashima, Akihiko [Department of Aging Neurobiology, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Oobu (Japan); Mori, Yoshihide [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sasaguri, Toshiyuki [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was activated in GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice. •The cortical and trabecular bone volumes were increased in GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice. •Regeneration of a partial bone defect was accelerated in GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice. -- Abstract: Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β plays an important role in osteoblastogenesis by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, we investigated whether GSK-3β deficiency affects bone development and regeneration using mice heterozygously deficient for GSK-3β (GSK-3β{sup +/−}). The amounts of β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1, and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) in the bone marrow cells of GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice were significantly increased compared with those of wild-type mice, indicating that Wnt/β-catenin signals were enhanced in GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice. Microcomputed tomography of the distal femoral metaphyses demonstrated that the volumes of both the cortical and trabecular bones were increased in GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice compared with those in wild-type mice. Subsequently, to investigate the effect of GSK-3β deficiency on bone regeneration, we established a partial bone defect in the femur and observed new bone at 14 days after surgery. The volume and mineral density of the new bone were significantly higher in GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice than those in wild-type mice. These results suggest that bone formation and regeneration in vivo are accelerated by inhibition of GSK-3β, probably through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  5. Non-Canonical Hedgehog Signaling Is a Positive Regulator of the WNT Pathway and Is Required for the Survival of Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Regan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Colon cancer is a heterogeneous tumor driven by a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs. To study CSCs in colon cancer, we used limiting dilution spheroid and serial xenotransplantation assays to functionally define the frequency of CSCs in a panel of patient-derived cancer organoids. These studies demonstrated cancer organoids to be enriched for CSCs, which varied in frequency between tumors. Whole-transcriptome analysis identified WNT and Hedgehog signaling components to be enhanced in CSC-enriched tumors and in aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-positive CSCs. Canonical GLI-dependent Hedgehog signaling is a negative regulator of WNT signaling in normal intestine and intestinal tumors. Here, we show that Hedgehog signaling in colon CSCs is autocrine SHH-dependent, non-canonical PTCH1 dependent, and GLI independent. In addition, using small-molecule inhibitors and RNAi against SHH-palmitoylating Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT, we demonstrate that non-canonical Hedgehog signaling is a positive regulator of WNT signaling and required for colon CSC survival. : Colon cancer is a heterogeneous tumor driven by a subpopulation(s of therapy-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs. Regan et al. use 3D culture models to demonstrate that CSC survival is regulated by non-canonical, SHH-dependent, PTCH1-dependent Hedgehog signaling, which acts as a positive regulator of WNT signaling to block CSC differentiation. Keywords: WNT pathway, non-canonical Hedgehog signaling, cancer stem cell, colon cancer, cancer organoid, PTCH1, HHAT, SHH

  6. Wedelolactone enhances osteoblastogenesis by regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway but suppresses osteoclastogenesis by NF-κB/c-fos/NFATc1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Qiu; Hong, Zhi-Lai; Zhan, Li-Bin; Chu, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Zhe; Li, Guo-Hui

    2016-08-25

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by formation and destruction of bone, which are two processes tightly coupled and controlled. Targeting both stimulation on bone formation and suppression on bone resorption becomes a promising strategy for treating osteoporosis. In this study, we examined the effect of wedelolactone, a natural product from Ecliptae herba, on osteoblastogenesis as well as osteoclastogenesis. In mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC), wedelolactone stimulated osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization. At the molecular level, wedelolactone directly inhibited GSK3β activity and enhanced the phosphorylation of GSK3β, thereafter stimulated the nuclear translocation of β-catenin and runx2. The expression of osteoblastogenesis-related marker gene including osteorix, osteocalcin and runx2 increased. At the same concentration range, wedelolactone inhibited RANKL-induced preosteoclastic RAW264.7 actin-ring formation and bone resorption pits. Further, wedelolactone blocked NF-kB/p65 phosphorylation and abrogated the NFATc1 nuclear translocation. As a result, osteoclastogenesis-related marker gene expression decreased, including c-src, c-fos, and cathepsin K. In ovariectomized mice, administration of wedelolactone prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss by enhancing osteoblast activity and inhibiting osteoclast activity. Together, these data demonstrated that wedelolactone facilitated osteoblastogenesis through Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway and suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through NF-κB/c-fos/NFATc1 pathway. These results suggested that wedelolacone could be a novel dual functional therapeutic agent for osteoporosis.

  7. The ENU-3 protein family members function in the Wnt pathway parallel to UNC-6/Netrin to promote motor neuron axon outgrowth in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florica, Roxana Oriana; Hipolito, Victoria; Bautista, Stephen; Anvari, Homa; Rapp, Chloe; El-Rass, Suzan; Asgharian, Alimohammad; Antonescu, Costin N; Killeen, Marie T

    2017-10-01

    The axons of the DA and DB classes of motor neurons fail to reach the dorsal cord in the absence of the guidance cue UNC-6/Netrin or its receptor UNC-5 in C. elegans. However, the axonal processes usually exit their cell bodies in the ventral cord in the absence of both molecules. Strains lacking functional versions of UNC-6 or UNC-5 have a low level of DA and DB motor neuron axon outgrowth defects. We found that mutations in the genes for all six of the ENU-3 proteins function to enhance the outgrowth defects of the DA and DB axons in strains lacking either UNC-6 or UNC-5. A mutation in the gene for the MIG-14/Wntless protein also enhances defects in a strain lacking either UNC-5 or UNC-6, suggesting that the ENU-3 and Wnt pathways function parallel to the Netrin pathway in directing motor neuron axon outgrowth. Our evidence suggests that the ENU-3 proteins are novel members of the Wnt pathway in nematodes. Five of the six members of the ENU-3 family are predicted to be single-pass trans-membrane proteins. The expression pattern of ENU-3.1 was consistent with plasma membrane localization. One family member, ENU-3.6, lacks the predicted signal peptide and the membrane-spanning domain. In HeLa cells ENU-3.6 had a cytoplasmic localization and caused actin dependent processes to appear. We conclude that the ENU-3 family proteins function in a pathway parallel to the UNC-6/Netrin pathway for motor neuron axon outgrowth, most likely in the Wnt pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Wnt Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Development and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Francesco; Le Grand, Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Wnt is a family of signaling molecules involved in embryogenesis, adult tissue repair, and cancer. They activate canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling cascades in target cells. Several studies, within the last decades, showed that several Wnt ligands are involved in myogenesis and both canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways regulate muscle formation and the maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the roles of Wnt signaling during muscle development and an updated description of Wnt functions during muscle repair. Lastly, we discuss the crosstalk between Wnt and TGFβ signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Loss of Mel-18 enhances breast cancer stem cell activity and tumorigenicity through activating Notch signaling mediated by the Wnt/TCF pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Shin, Dong-Hui; Park, Ji-Hye; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Kong, Gu

    2012-12-01

    Mel-18 has been proposed as a negative regulator of Bmi-1, a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker, but it is still unclear whether Mel-18 is involved in CSC regulation. Here, we examined the effect of Mel-18 on the stemness of human breast CSCs. In Mel-18 small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-transduced MCF-7 cells, side population (SP) cells and breast CSC surface marker (CD44(+)/CD24(-)/ESA(+))-expressing cells, which imply a CSC population, were enriched. Moreover, the self-renewal of CSCs was enhanced by Mel-18 knockdown, as measured by the ability for tumorsphere formation in vitro and tumor-initiating capacity in vivo. Similarly, Mel-18 overexpression inhibited the number and self-renewal activity of breast CSCs in SK-BR-3 cells. Furthermore, our data showed that Mel-18 blockade up-regulated the expression of the Wnt/TCF target Jagged-1, a Notch ligand, and consequently activated the Notch pathway. Pharmacologic inhibition of the Notch and Wnt pathways abrogated Mel-18 knockdown-mediated tumorsphere formation ability. Taken together, our findings suggest that Mel-18 is a novel negative regulator of breast CSCs that inhibits the stem cell population and in vitro and in vivo self-renewal through the inactivation of Wnt-mediated Notch signaling.

  10. Involvement of CDX2 in the cross talk between TNF-α and Wnt signaling pathway in the colon cancer cell line Caco-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Olsen, Anders Krüger; Bzorek, Michael

    2014-01-01

    buddings in areas with TNF-α expression in the surrounding inflammatory cells. In vitro studies revealed that TNF-α treatment showed a dose-dependent decrease of CDX2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in Caco-2 cells. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB or p38 pathways showed...... targets were significantly elevated in TNF-α-treated Caco-2 cells. These findings were associated with reduced binding of CDX2 to promoter or enhancer regions of APC, AXIN2 and GSK3β. In conclusion, it was found that TNF-α induces the expression of Wnt signaling components through a downregulation......Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is highly upregulated in inflammation and reduces the expression of the intestinal transcription factor, Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2). Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for intestinal cell proliferation, but a decreased CDX2 expression has...

  11. Expression of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway and Its Regulatory Role in Type I Collagen with TGF-β1 in Scleral Fibroblasts from an Experimentally Induced Myopia Guinea Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway expression and its regulation of type I collagen by TGF-β1 in scleral fibroblasts from form-deprivation myopia (FDM guinea pig model. Methods. Wnt isoforms were examined using genome microarrays. Scleral fibroblasts from FDM group and self-control (SC group were cultured. Wnt isoforms, β-catenin, TGF-β1, and type I collagen expression levels were examined in the two groups with or without DKK-1 or TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody. Results. For genome microarrays, the expression of Wnt3 in FDM group was significantly greater as confirmed in retinal and scleral tissue. The expression of Wnt3 and β-catenin significantly increased in FDM group and decreased significantly with DKK-1. TGF-β1 expression level decreased significantly in FDM group and increased significantly with DKK-1. Along with morphological misalignment inside and outside cells, the amount of type I collagen decreased in FDM group. Furthermore, type I collagen increased and became regular in DKK-1 intervention group, whereas it decreased and rearranged more disorder in TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody intervention group. Conclusions. The activation of Wnt3/β-catenin signaling pathway was demonstrated in primary scleral fibroblasts in FDM. This pathway further reduced the expression of type I collagen by TGF-β1, which ultimately played a role in scleral remodeling during myopia development.

  12. Inhibition of the WNT/β-catenin pathway by fine particulate matter in haze: Roles of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Yun; Cao, Jun-Ji; Lee, Chii-Hong; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Yeh, Chi-Tai; Huynh, Thanh-Tuan; Han, Yong-Ming; Li, Xiang-Dong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-05-01

    Air pollution might have a great impact on pulmonary health, but biological evidence in response to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in size (PM2.5) has been lacking. Physicochemical characterization of haze PM2.5 collected from Beijing, Xian and Hong Kong was performed. Biological pathways were identified by proteomic profiling in mouse lungs, suggesting that WNT/β-catenin is important in the response to haze PM2.5. Suppression of β-catenin levels, activation of caspase-3 and alveolar destruction, as well as IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ production, were observed in the lungs. The inhibition of β-catenin, TCF4 and cyclin D1 was observed in vitro in response to haze PM2.5. The inhibition of WNT/β-catenin signaling, apoptosis-related results (caspase-3 and alveolar destruction), and inflammation, particularly including caspase-3 and alveolar destruction, were more highly associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in haze PM2.5. In conclusion, decreased WNT/β-catenin expression modulated by haze PM2.5 could be involved in alveolar destruction and inflammation during haze episodes.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dibutyl phthalate disrupt dorsal-ventral axis determination via the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, Elise A., E-mail: efairbairn@ucdavis.edu [University of California Davis, Bodega Marine Laboratory, P.O. Box 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Bonthius, Jessica, E-mail: jessica.bonthius@gmail.com [University of California Davis, Bodega Marine Laboratory, P.O. Box 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Cherr, Gary N., E-mail: gncherr@ucdavis.edu [University of California Davis, Bodega Marine Laboratory, P.O. Box 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Nutrition, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway is critical during early teleost development for establishing the dorsal-ventral axis. Within this pathway, GSK-3{beta}, a key regulatory kinase in the Wnt pathway, regulates {beta}-catenin degradation and thus the ability of {beta}-catenin to enter nuclei, where it can activate expression of genes that have been linked to the specification of the dorsal-ventral axis. In this study, we describe the morphological abnormalities that resulted in zebrafish embryos when axis determination was disrupted by environmental contaminants. These abnormalities were linked to abnormal nuclear accumulation of {beta}-catenin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the developmental abnormalities and altered nuclear {beta}-catenin accumulation occurred when embryos were exposed to commercial GSK-3{beta} inhibitors. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to commercially available GSK-3 inhibitors (GSK-3 Inhibitor IX and 1-azakenpaullone), or common environmental contaminants (dibutyl phthalate or the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons phenanthrene and fluorene) from the 2 to 8-cell stage through the mid-blastula transition (MBT). These embryos displayed morphological abnormalities at 12.5 h post-fertilization (hpf) that were comparable to embryos exposed to lithium chloride (LiCl) (300 mM LiCl for 10 min, prior to the MBT), a classic disruptor of embryonic axis determination. Whole-mount immunolabeling and laser scanning confocal microscopy were used to localize {beta}-catenin. The commercial GSK-3 Inhibitors as well as LiCl, dibutyl phthalate, fluorene and phenanthrene all induced an increase in the levels of nuclear {beta}-catenin throughout the embryo, indicating that the morphological abnormalities were a result of disruption of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling during dorsal-ventral axis specification. The ability of environmental chemicals to directly or indirectly target GSK-3{beta} was assessed. Using Western blot analysis, the ability of these

  14. Canonical Wnt signaling in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Ma, Jian-Xing

    2017-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common eye complication of diabetes, and the pathogenic mechanism of DR is still under investigation. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays fundamental roles in embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Wnt signaling regulates expression of multiple genes that control retinal development and eye organogenesis, and dysregulated Wnt signaling plays pathophysiological roles in many ocular diseases, including DR. This review highlights recent progress in studies of Wnt signaling in DR. We discuss Wnt signaling regulation in the retina and dysregulation of Wnt signaling associated with ocular diseases with an emphasis on DR. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of modulating Wnt signaling in DR. Continued studies in this field will advance our current understanding on DR and contribute to the development of new treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fresh WNT into the regulation of mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Ailine; Bastians, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling triggering β-catenin-dependent gene expression contributes to cell cycle progression, in particular at the G1/S transition. Recently, however, it became clear that the cell cycle can also feed back on Wnt signaling at the G2/M transition. This is illustrated by the fact that mitosis-specific cyclin-dependent kinases can phosphorylate the Wnt co-receptor LRP6 to prime the pathway for incoming Wnt signals when cells enter mitosis. In addition, there is accumulating evidence that various Wnt pathway components might exert additional, Wnt-independent functions that are important for proper regulation of mitosis. The importance of Wnt pathways during mitosis was most recently enforced by the discovery of Wnt signaling contributing to the stabilization of proteins other than β-catenin, specifically at G2/M and during mitosis. This Wnt-mediated stabilization of proteins, now referred to as Wnt/STOP, might on one hand contribute to maintaining a critical cell size required for cell division and, on the other hand, for the faithful execution of mitosis itself. In fact, most recently we have shown that Wnt/STOP is required for ensuring proper microtubule dynamics within mitotic spindles, which is pivotal for accurate chromosome segregation and for the maintenance of euploidy.

  16. Synergistic role of 5-azacytidine and ascorbic acid in directing cardiosphere derived cells to cardiomyocytes in vitro by downregulating Wnt signaling pathway via phosphorylation of β-catenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sailaja Mundre

    Full Text Available Cardiosphere derived cells (CDCs represent a valuable source in stem cell based therapy for cardiovascular diseases, yet poor differentiation rate hinders the transplantation efficiency. The aim of this study is to check the ability of 5-Azacytidine (Aza alone and in combination with ascorbic acid (Aza+AA in delineating CDCs to cardiomyogenesis and the underlying Wnt signaling mechanism in induced differentiation.CDCs were treated with Aza and Aza+AA for a period of 14 days to examine the expression of cardiac specific markers and Wnt downstream regulators by immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot.Results revealed that Aza+AA induced efficient commitment of CDCs to cardiomyogenic lineage. Immunofluorescence analysis showed significant augment for Nkx 2.5, GATA 4 and α-Sarcomeric actinin markers in Aza+AA group than control group (p = 0.0118, p = 0.009 and p = 0.0091, respectively. Relative upregulation of cardiac markers, Nkx 2.5 (p = 0.0156, GATA 4 (p = 0.0087 and down regulation of Wnt markers, β-catenin (p = 0.0107 and Cyclin D1 (p = 0. 0116 in Aza+AA group was revealed by RNA expression analysis. Moreover, the Aza+AA induced prominent expression of GATA 4, α-Sarcomeric actinin and phospho β-catenin while non phospho β-catenin and Cyclin D1 expression was significantly suppressed as displayed in protein expression analysis. Generation of spontaneous beating in Aza+AA treated CDCs further reinforced that Aza+AA accelerates the cardiomyogenic potential of CDCs.Combined treatment of Aza along with AA implicit in inducing cardiomyogenic potential of CDCs and is associated with down regulating Wnt signaling pathway. Altogether, CDCs represent a valuable tool for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.

  17. MiR-129-5p Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion of Chondrosarcoma Cells by Regulating SOX4/Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Jifeng; Song, Yuze; Wang, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Recently, microRNAs (miRNA) have been identified as novel regulators in Chondrosarcoma (CHS). This study was aimed to identify the roles of miR-129-5p-5p in regulation of SOX4 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, as well as cell proliferation and apoptosis in chondrosarcomas. Tissue samples were obtained from chondrosarcoma patients. Immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis were performed to detect the expressions of miR-129-5p and SOX4. Luciferase assay was conducted to confirm that miR-129-5p directly targeted SOX4 mRNA. Manipulations of miR-129-5p and SOX4 expression were achieved through cell transfection. Cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis were evaluated by CCK-8 assay, colony forming assay, wound healing assay and flow cytometry in vitro. For in vivo experiment, the tumor xenograft model was established to evaluate the effects of miR-129-5p and SOX4 on chondrosarcomas. The expression of miR-129-5p was significantly down-regulated in chondrosarcoma tissues as well as cells in comparison with normal ones, while SOX4 was over-activated. Further studies suggested that miR-129-5p suppressed cell proliferation, migration and promoted apoptosis by inhibiting SOX4 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway. MiR-129-5p inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting SOX4 and further suppresses cell proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in chondrosarcomas. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Helicobacter pylori promotes angiogenesis depending on Wnt/beta-catenin-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor via the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ningning; Zhou, Ning; Chai, Ni; Liu, Xuan; Jiang, Haili; Wu, Qiong; Li, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogenic factor in gastric carcinogenesis. Angiogenesis (i.e., the growth of new blood vessels) is closely associated with the incidence and development of gastric cancer. Our previous study found that COX-2 stimulates gastric cancer cells to induce expression of the angiogenic growth factor VEGF through an unknown mechanism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the role of angiogenesis in H. pylori-induced gastric cancer development. To clarify the relationship between H. pylori infection and angiogenesis, we first investigated H. pylori colonization, COX-2, VEGF, beta-catenin expression, and microvessel density (MVD) in gastric cancer tissues from 106 patients. In addition, COX-2, phospho-beta-catenin, and beta-catenin expression were measured by western blotting, and VEGF expression was measured by ELISA in H. pylori-infected SGC7901 and MKN45 human gastric cancer cells. H. pylori colonization occurred in 36.8 % of gastric carcinoma samples. Furthermore, COX-2, beta-catenin, and VEGF expression, and MVD were significantly higher in H. pylori-positive gastric cancer tissues than in H. pylori-negative gastric cancer tissues (P < 0.01). H. pylori infection was not related to sex or age in gastric cancer patients, but correlated with the depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and tumor–node–metastasis stage (P < 0.05) and correlated with the COX-2 expression and beta-catenin expression(P < 0.01). Further cell experiments confirmed that H. pylori infection upregulated VEGF in vitro. Further analysis revealed that H. pylori-induced VEGF expression was mediated by COX-2 via activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. The COX-2/Wnt/beta-catenin/VEGF pathway plays an important role in H. pylori-associated gastric cancer development. The COX-2/Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is therefore a novel therapeutic target for H. pylori-associated gastric cancers

  19. Leukemia-associated gene MLAA-34 reduces arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengyu; Zhao, Xuan; Zhang, Wenjuan; He, Aili; Lei, Bo; Zhang, Wanggang; Chen, Yinxia

    2017-01-01

    Our laboratory previously used the SEREX method in U937 cells and identified a novel leukemia-associated gene MLAA-34, a novel splice variant of CAB39L associated with acute monocytic leukemia, that exhibited anti-apoptotic activities in U937 cells. Whether MLAA-34 has an anti-apoptotic role in other tumor cells has not yet been reported. We explored whether MLAA-34 exhibited anti-apoptotic effects in HeLa cervical cancer cells and the possible mechanism of action. We generated a HeLa cell line stably expressing MLAA-34 and found that MLAA-34 overexpression had no effect on the growth, apoptosis and cell cycle of HeLa cells. However, upon treatment with arsenic trioxide (ATO) to induce apoptosis, the cell viability and colony formation ability of ATO-treated MLAA-34 stable HeLa cells were significantly higher than that of ATO-treated controls, and the apoptosis rate and proportion of G2/M cells also decreased. We found that ATO treatment of HeLa cells resulted in significant decreases in the expression of β-catenin mRNA and protein and the downstream target factors c-Myc, cyclin B1, and cyclin D1 in the Wnt signaling pathway. Notably, ATO-treated MLAA-34 stable HeLa cells showed a significant reduction in the ATO-mediated downregulation of these factors. In addition, MLAA-34 overexpression significantly increased the expression of nuclear β-catenin protein in ATO-treated cells compared with HeLa cells treated only with ATO. Thus, here we have found that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in ATO-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. MLAA-34 reduces ATO-induced apoptosis and G2/M arrest, and the anti-apoptotic effect may be achieved by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HeLa cells.

  20. WNT Signaling Is Required for Peritoneal Membrane Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padwal, Manreet Kaur; Cheng, Genyang; Liu, Limin; Boivin, Felix J; Gangji, Azim; Brimble, Kenneth Scott; Bridgewater, Darren; Margetts, Peter J

    2018-01-24

    The WNT signaling pathway is involved in wound healing and fibrosis. We evaluated the WNT signaling pathway in peritoneal membrane injury. We assessed WNT1 protein expression in the peritoneal effluents of 54 stable peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and WNT-related gene expression in ex vivo mesothelial cell cultures from 21 PD patients. In a transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) mediated animal model of peritoneal fibrosis, we evaluated regulation of the WNT pathway and the effect of WNT inhibition on peritoneal fibrosis and angiogenesis. WNT1 and WNT2 gene expression were positively correlated with peritoneal membrane solute transport in PD patients. In the mouse peritoneum, TGFΒ-induced peritoneal fibrosis was associated with increased expression of WNT2 and WNT4. Peritoneal b-catenin protein was significantly upregulated after infection with AdTGFB along with elements of the WNT signaling pathway. Treatment with a b-catenin inhibitor (ICG-001) in mice with AdTGFB-induced peritoneal fibrosis resulted in attenuation of peritoneal angiogenesis and reduced vascular endothelial growth factor. Similar results were also observed with the WNT antagonist Dickkopf related protein (DKK) 1. In addition to this, DKK-1 blocked epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased levels of the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin. We provide evidence that WNT signaling is active in the setting of experimental peritoneal fibrosis and WNT1 correlates with patient peritoneal membrane solute transport in PD patients. Intervention in this pathway is a possible therapy for peritoneal membrane injury.

  1. Xenopus Zic3 controls notochord and organizer development through suppression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimi, Takahiko J; Hatayama, Minoru; Aruga, Jun

    2012-01-15

    Zic3 controls neuroectodermal differentiation and left-right patterning in Xenopus laevis embryos. Here we demonstrate that Zic3 can suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling and control development of the notochord and Spemann's organizer. When we overexpressed Zic3 by injecting its RNA into the dorsal marginal zone of 2-cell-stage embryos, the embryos lost mesodermal dorsal midline structures and showed reduced expression of organizer markers (Siamois and Goosecoid) and a notochord marker (Xnot). Co-injection of Siamois RNA partially rescued the reduction of Xnot expression caused by Zic3 overexpression. Because the expression of Siamois in the organizer region is controlled by Wnt/β-catenin signaling, we subsequently examined the functional interaction between Zic3 and Wnt signaling. Co-injection of Xenopus Zic RNAs and β-catenin RNA with a reporter responsive to the Wnt/β-catenin cascade indicated that Zic1, Zic2, Zic3, Zic4, and Zic5 can all suppress β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation. In addition, co-injection of Zic3 RNA inhibited the secondary axis formation caused by ventral-side injection of β-catenin RNA in Xenopus embryos. Zic3-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signal suppression required the nuclear localization of Zic3, and involved the reduction of β-catenin nuclear transport and enhancement of β-catenin degradation. Furthermore, Zic3 co-precipitated with Tcf1 (a β-catenin co-factor) and XIC (I-mfa domain containing factor required for dorsoanterior development). The findings in this report produce a novel system for fine-tuning of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Long non-coding RNA MEG3 inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma by regulating the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zongxiang; Wu, Cui; Xie, Nina; Wang, Penglai

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) inhibits the growth and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by regulating WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in order to explore the antitumor effect of MEG3 and to provide a potential molecular target for the treatment of OSCC. The RT-qPCR technique was used to quantitatively analyze the expression of MEG3 in cancer and adjacent tissues collected from the patients after surgery. Usi...

  3. Regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway (or Wnt/β-catenin pathway) plays a pivotal role in embryonic development and adult homeostasis; deregulation of the Wnt pathway contributes to the initiation and progression of human diseases including cancer. Despite its importance in human biology and disease, how regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is achieved remains largely undefined. Increasing evidence suggests that post-translational modifications (PTMs) of Wnt pathway components are essential for the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PTMs create a highly dynamic relay system that responds to Wnt stimulation without requiring de novo protein synthesis and offer a platform for non-Wnt pathway components to be involved in the regulation of Wnt signaling, hence providing alternative opportunities for targeting the Wnt pathway. This review highlights the current status of PTM-mediated regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway with a focus on factors involved in Wnt-mediated stabilization of β-catenin. PMID:24594309

  4. The Learning Festival: Pathway to Sustainable Learning Cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter; Lane, Yvonne; Neylon, Tina; Osborne, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cork and Limerick have conducted Lifelong Learning Festivals, Cork for ten years and Limerick for the past three years. This paper reviews aspects of this experience and considers the question of whether successful Lifelong Learning Festivals can be seen as a pathway to building sustainable learning cities. Discussed in the context of an…

  5. Ecosystem services for meeting sustainable development goals: Challenges and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huq Nazmul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes four presentations of the session “Environment and Wellbeing: The Role of Ecosystems for Sustainable Development” at the international conference “Sustainability in the Water- Energy-Food Nexus” held on 19-20th May 2014 in Bonn, Germany. The aim of the session was to present current stresses on ecosystem services imposed by global development trajectory, potential impacts on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and pathways to achieve SDGs. All four presentations agreed that global ecosystem services are under increasing pressure from degradation and may not be able to meet the growing Water-Energy- Food (WEF demands especially for the developing world. Three examples from Tanzania, Cambodia and Niger made attempt to understand how governance policies attributed to natural resource depletion such as forestry and common grazing. The examples showed that governance policies favoring economic development are heavily contributing to clearing up natural resource bases. As a result, there were increasing conflicts among different resource user groups. Two other presentations introduce conceptual pathways to achieve the targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs under current resource stressed regime. The pathways suggested global technologies, decentralized solutions and consumption changes as the major means of achieving global sustainability and poverty eradication without any major trade-offs.

  6. Ecosystem services for meeting sustainable development goals: Challenges and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huq Nazmul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes four presentations of the session “Environment and Wellbeing: The Role of Ecosystems for Sustainable Development” at the international conference “Sustainability in the Water- Energy-Food Nexus” held on 19-20th May 2014 in Bonn, Germany. The aim of the session was to present current stresses on ecosystem services imposed by global development trajectory, potential impacts on future Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and pathways to achieve SDGs. All four presentations agreed that global ecosystem services are under increasing pressure from degradation and may not be able to meet the growing Water-Energy-Food (WEF demands especially for the developing world. Three examples from Tanzania, Cambodia and Niger made attempt to understand how government policies attributed to natural resource depletion such as forestry and common grazing. The examples showed that institutional policies favoring economic development contributing heavily to clearing up natural resource bases. As a result, there were increasing conflicts among different resource user groups. Two other presentations introduce conceptual pathways to achieve the targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs under current resource stressed regime. The pathways suggested global technologies, decentralized solutions and consumption changes as the major means of achieving global sustainability and poverty eradication without any major trade-offs.

  7. Angled Growth of the Dental Lamina Is Accompanied by Asymmetrical Expression of the WNT Pathway Receptor Frizzled 6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Putnová, Iveta; Dosedělová, Hana; Bryja, V.; Landová, Marie; Buchtová, Marcela; Štembírek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 29. ISSN 1664-042X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-29273P Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : FZD6 * successional dental lamina * WNT signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2016

  8. Activating the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway for the Treatment of Melanoma--Application of LY2090314, a Novel Selective Inhibitor of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Atkinson

    Full Text Available It has previously been observed that a loss of β-catenin expression occurs with melanoma progression and that nuclear β-catenin levels are inversely proportional to cellular proliferation, suggesting that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway may provide benefit for melanoma patients. In order to further probe this concept we tested LY2090314, a potent and selective small-molecule inhibitor with activity against GSK3α and GSK3β isoforms. In a panel of melanoma cell lines, nM concentrations of LY2090314 stimulated TCF/LEF TOPFlash reporter activity, stabilized β-catenin and elevated the expression of Axin2, a Wnt responsive gene and marker of pathway activation. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that melanoma cell lines are very sensitive to LY2090314 in vitro (IC50 ~10 nM after 72hr of treatment in contrast to other solid tumor cell lines (IC50 >10 uM as evidenced by caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Cell lines harboring mutant B-RAF or N-RAS were equally sensitive to LY2090314 as were those with acquired resistance to the BRAF inhibitor Vemurafenib. shRNA studies demonstrated that β-catenin stabilization is required for apoptosis following treatment with the GSK3 inhibitor since the sensitivity of melanoma cell lines to LY290314 could be overcome by β-catenin knockdown. We further demonstrate that in vivo, LY2090314 elevates Axin2 gene expression after a single dose and produces tumor growth delay in A375 melanoma xenografts with repeat dosing. The activity of LY2090314 in preclinical models suggests that the role of Wnt activators for the treatment of melanoma should be further explored.

  9. Wnt ligands signal in a cooperative manner to promote foregut organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mayumi F.; Cohen, Ethan David; Baggs, Julie E.; Lu, Min Min; Hogenesch, John B.; Morrisey, Edward E.

    2012-01-01

    Endoderm-mesenchyme cross-talk is a central process in the development of foregut-derived organs. How signaling pathways integrate the activity of multiple ligands to guide organ development is poorly understood. We show that two Wnt ligands, Wnt2 and Wnt7b, cooperatively induce Wnt signaling without affecting the stabilization of the Wnt canonical effector β-catenin despite it being necessary for Wnt2–Wnt7b cooperativity. Wnt2–Wnt7b cooperation is specific for mesenchymal cell lineages and t...

  10. Computational Biophysical, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Signature of Human R-Spondin Family Proteins, the Member of Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Ranjan Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In human, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a significant role in cell growth, cell development, and disease pathogenesis. Four human (Rspos are known to activate canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Presently, (Rspos serve as therapeutic target for several human diseases. Henceforth, basic understanding about the molecular properties of (Rspos is essential. We approached this issue by interpreting the biochemical and biophysical properties along with molecular evolution of (Rspos thorough computational algorithm methods. Our analysis shows that signal peptide length is roughly similar in (Rspos family along with similarity in aa distribution pattern. In Rspo3, four N-glycosylation sites were noted. All members are hydrophilic in nature and showed alike GRAVY values, approximately. Conversely, Rspo3 contains the maximum positively charged residues while Rspo4 includes the lowest. Four highly aligned blocks were recorded through Gblocks. Phylogenetic analysis shows Rspo4 is being rooted with Rspo2 and similarly Rspo3 and Rspo1 have the common point of origin. Through phylogenomics study, we developed a phylogenetic tree of sixty proteins (n=60 with the orthologs and paralogs seed sequences. Protein-protein network was also illustrated. Results demonstrated in our study may help the future researchers to unfold significant physiological and therapeutic properties of (Rspos in various disease models.

  11. Ilexonin A Promotes Neuronal Proliferation and Regeneration via Activation of the Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway after Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Qin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Ilexonin A (IA, a component of the Chinese medicine Ilex pubescens, has been shown to be neuroprotective during ischemic injury. However, the specific mechanism underlying this neuroprotective effect remains unclear. Methods. In this study, we employed a combination of immunofluorescence staining, western blotting, RT-PCR, and behavioral tests, to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in IA regulation of neuronal proliferation and regeneration after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rodents. Results. Increases in β-catenin protein and LEF1 mRNA and decreases in GSK3β protein and Axin mRNA observed in IA-treated compared to control rodents implicated the canonical Wnt pathway as a key signaling mechanism activated by IA treatment. Furthermore, rodents in the IA treatment group showed less neurologic impairment and a corresponding increase in the number of Brdu/nestin and Brdu/NeuN double positive neurons in the parenchymal ischemia tissue following middle cerebral artery occlusion compared to matched controls. Conclusion. Altogether, our data indicate that IA can significantly diminish neurological deficits associated with cerebral ischemia reperfusion in rats as a result of increased neuronal survival via modulation of the canonical Wnt pathway.

  12. [Effect of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway and DKK-1 and FrpHe gene expressions in hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songqi; Cheng, Yang; Zhu, Yun; Fan, Qin; Sun, Haitao; Jia, Wenyan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt signal pathway and its inhibitory gene (DKK-1 and FrpHe) expressions and explore the mechanism underlying the action of Biejiajian Pills to suppress the invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma. Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomized equally into 3 groups for gavage of normal saline and Biejiajian Pills at 20- and 10-fold clinical doses for 3 days. Blood samples were then collected from the rats, and the serum was separated and added in HepG2 cell cultures. After 48 h of culture, the cells were collected to determine the cellular content of β-catenin protein using flow cytometry and detect DKK-1 and FrpHe mRNA expressions using qRT-PCR. HepG2 cells cultured in the presence of sera from rats fed with Biejiajian Pills showed significantly lowered β-catenin protein expression and obvious down-regulation of DKK-1 mRNA expression, and the effect was correlated with the doses of the drug administered. The expression of FrpHe mRNA showed no significant differences between the 3 groups. Biejiajian Pills can effectively inhibit the invasiveness and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, which is closely related to decreased expressions of β-catenin and DKK-1 to cause block of the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway.

  13. Dact gene expression profiles suggest a role for this gene family in integrating Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways during chicken limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensiate, Lucimara Aparecida; Sobreira, Débora R; Da Veiga, Fernanda Cristina; Peterlini, Denner Jefferson; Pedrosa, Angelica Vasconcelos; Rirsch, Thaís; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Schubert, Frank R; Collares-Buzato, Carla Beatriz; Xavier-Neto, José; Dietrich, Susanne; Alvares, Lúcia Elvira

    2014-03-01

    Dact gene family encodes multifunctional proteins that are important modulators of Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways. Given that these pathways coordinate multiple steps of limb development, we investigated the expression pattern of the two chicken Dact genes (Dact1 and Dact2) from early limb bud up to stages when several tissues are differentiating. During early limb development (HH24-HH30) Dact1 and Dact2 were mainly expressed in the cartilaginous rudiments of the appendicular skeleton and perichondrium, presenting expression profiles related, but distinct. At later stages of development (HH31-HH35), the main sites of Dact1 and Dact2 expression were the developing synovial joints. In this context, Dact1 expression was shown to co-localize with regions enriched in the nuclear β-catenin protein, such as developing joint capsule and interzone. In contrast, Dact2 expression was restricted to the interzone surrounding the domains of bmpR-1b expression, a TGF-β receptor with crucial roles during digit morphogenesis. Additional sites of Dact expression were the developing tendons and digit blastemas. Our data indicate that Dact genes are good candidates to modulate and, possibly, integrate Wnt and TGF-β signaling during limb development, bringing new and interesting perspectives about the roles of Dact molecules in limb birth defects and human diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Wnt5a Signaling in Cancer

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    Marwa S. Asem

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wnt5a is involved in activating several non-canonical WNT signaling pathways, through binding to different members of the Frizzled- and Ror-family receptors. Wnt5a signaling is critical for regulating normal developmental processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, adhesion and polarity. However, the aberrant activation or inhibition of Wnt5a signaling is emerging as an important event in cancer progression, exerting both oncogenic and tumor suppressive effects. Recent studies show the involvement of Wnt5a in regulating cancer cell invasion, metastasis, metabolism and inflammation. In this article, we review findings regarding the molecular mechanisms and roles of Wnt5a signaling in various cancer types, and highlight Wnt5a in ovarian cancer.

  15. Celecoxib Ameliorates Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Type 2 Diabetic Rats via Suppression of the Non-Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Zhang, Ya Jie; Li, Yu; Xie, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to test whether pharmacological inhibition of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) reverses non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats via suppression of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway expression. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed to two groups and were fed with a high fat and sucrose (HF-HS) diet or a normal chow diet, respectively. After four weeks, rats fed with a HF-HS diet were made diabetic with low-dose streptozotocin. At the 9th week the diabetic rats fed with a HF-HS diet or the non-diabetic rats fed with a normal chow diet were further divided into two subgroups treated with vehicle or celecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor, 10 mg/Kg/day, gavage) for the last 4 weeks, respectively. At the end of the 12th week, rats were anesthetized. NASH was assessed by histology. Related cytokine expression was measured at both the protein and gene levels through immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot and real-time PCR. T2DM rats fed with a HF-HS diet developed steatohepatitis and insulin resistance associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), insulin levels and the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score (NAS). The expression of Wnt5a, JNK1, NF-κB p65, and COX-2 were all significantly increased in the T2DM-NASH group compared with the control and control-cele group. Hepatic injury was improved by celecoxib in T2DM-NASH-Cele group indicated by reduced serum ALT and AST levels and hepatic inflammation was reduced by celecoxib showed by histology and the NAFLD activity score (NAS). Serum related metabolic parameters, HOMA-IR and insulin sensitivity index were all improved by celecoxib. The expression of Wnt5a, JNK1, NF-κB p65, and COX-2 expression were all suppressed by celecoxib in T2DM-NASH-Cele group. The results of the present study indicated that celecoxib ameliorated NASH in T2DM rats via suppression of the non-canonical Wnt

  16. Role of GSK-3β in Regulation of Canonical Wnt/β-catenin Signaling and PI3-K/Akt Oncogenic Pathway in Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shelly; Ghanghas, Preety; Rana, Chandan; Sanyal, S N

    2017-08-09

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are emerging as novel chemopreventive agents because of their ability in blocking cellular proliferation, and thereby tumor development, and also by promoting apoptosis. GSK-3β, a serine threonine kinase and a negative regulator of the oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, plays a critical role in the regulation of oncogenesis. Celecoxib and etoricoxib, the two cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective NSAIDs, and Diclofenac, a preferential COX-2 inhibitory NSAID, had shown uniformly the chemopreventive and anti-neoplastic effects in the early stage of colon cancer by promoting apoptosis as well as an over-expression of GSK-3β while down-regulating the PI3-K/Akt oncogenic pathway.

  17. WNT-mediated Modulation of Bone Metabolism: Implications for WNT Targeting to Treat Extraskeletal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Whitney A; Robling, Alexander G

    2017-10-01

    The WNT-signaling pathway is involved in cellular and tissue functions that control such diverse processes as body axis patterning, cellular proliferation, differentiation, and life span. The long list of molecules that can participate or modify WNT signaling makes this pathway one of the most complex in cell biology. In bone tissues, WNT signaling is required for proper skeletal development, and human mutations in various components of the cascade revealed insights into pharmacologic targeting that can be harnessed to improve skeletal health. In particular, mutations in genes that code for the WNT-signaling inhibitor sclerostin or the WNT coreceptor lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 have highlighted the potential therapeutic value of recapitulating those effects in patients with low bone mass. A constant challenge in this area is selectively modifying WNT components in the tissue of interest, as WNT has manifold effects in nearly every tissue.

  18. Introduction of hsa-miR-103a and hsa-miR-1827 and hsa-miR-137 as new regulators of Wnt signaling pathway and their relation to colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasihi, Ali; M Soltani, Bahram; Atashi, Amir; Nasiri, Shirzad

    2018-07-01

    Wnt signaling is hyper-activated in most of human cancers including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Therefore, the introduction of new regulators for Wnt pathway possesses promising diagnostic and therapeutic applications in cancer medicine. Bioinformatics analysis introduced hsa-miR-103a, hsa-miR-1827, and hsa-miR-137 as potential regulators of Wnt signaling pathway. Here, we intended to examine the effect of these human miRNAs on Wnt signaling pathway components, on the cell cycle progression in CRC originated cell lines and their expression in CRC tissues. RT-qPCR results indicated upregulation of hsa-miR-103a, hsa-miR-1827, and downregulation of hsa-miR-137 in CRC tissues. Overexpression of hsa-miR-103a and hsa-miR-1827 in SW480 cells resulted in elevated Wnt activity, detected by both Top/Flash assay and RT-qPCR analysis. Inhibition of Wnt signaling by using PNU-74654 or IWP-2 small molecules suggested that these miRNAs exerts their effect at the β-catenin degradation complex level. Then, RT-qPCR, dual luciferase assay, and western blotting analysis indicated that APC and APC2 transcripts were targeted by hsa-miR-103a, hsa-miR-1827 while, Wnt3a and β-catenin genes were upregulated. However, hsa-miR-137 downregulated Wnt3a and β-catenin genes. Further, hsa-miR-103a and hsa-miR-1827 overexpression resulted in cell cycle progression and reduced apoptotic rate in SW480 cells, unlike hsa-miR-137 overexpression which resulted in cell cycle suppression, detected by flowcytometry and Anexin analysis. Overall, our data introduced hsa-miR-103a, hsa-miR-1827 as onco-miRNAs and hsa-miR-137 as tumor suppressor which exert their effect through regulation of Wnt signaling pathway in CRC and introduced them as potential target for therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Activation of the canonical Wnt pathway leads to loss of hematopoietic stem cell repopulation and multilineage differentiation block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstetter, Peggy; Anderson, Kristina; Porse, Bo T

    2006-01-01

    Wnt signaling increases hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and is activated in both myeloid and lymphoid malignancies, indicating involvement in both normal and malignant hematopoiesis. We report here activated canonical Wnt signaling in the hematopoietic system through conditional expression...... of hematopoietic stem cell function was associated with decreased expression of Cdkn1a (encoding the cell cycle inhibitor p21(cdk)), Sfpi1, Hoxb4 and Bmi1 (encoding the transcription factors PU.1, HoxB4 and Bmi-1, respectively) and altered integrin expression in Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+) cells, whereas PU.1...... of a stable form of beta-catenin. This enforced expression led to hematopoietic failure associated with loss of myeloid lineage commitment at the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor stage; blocked erythrocyte differentiation; disruption of lymphoid development; and loss of repopulating stem cell activity. Loss...

  20. Disruption of kif3a results in defective osteoblastic differentiation in dental mesenchymal stem/precursor cells via the Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sicong; Chen, Guoqing; Feng, Lian; Jiang, Zongting; Yu, Mei; Bao, Jinku; Tian, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    The anterograde intraflagellar transport motor protein, kif3a, regulates the integrity of primary cilia and various cellular functions, however, the role of kif3a in dental mesenchymal stem/precursor cell differentiation remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the expression of kif3a was knocked down in human dental follicle cells (hDFCs) and human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) using short hairpin RNA. The results of subsequent immunofluorescence revealed that knocking down kif3a resulted in the loss of primary cilia, which led to impairment of substantial mineralization and expression of the differentiation‑associated markers, including alkaline phosphatase, Runt‑related transcription factor 2, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein in the hDFCs and hDPCs. The results of reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses showed that the expression levels of Wnt3a‑mediated active β‑catenin and lymphoid enhancer‑binding factor 1 were attenuated, whereas the expression of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β was enhanced, in the kif3a‑knockdown cells. In addition, exogenous Wnt3a partially rescued osteoblastic differentiation in the hDFCs and hDPCs. These results demonstrated that inhibition of kif3a in the hDFCs and hDPCs disrupted primary cilia formation and/or function, and indicated that kif3a is important in the differentiation of hDFCs and hDPCs through the Wnt pathway. These findings not only enhance current understanding of tooth development and diseases of tooth mineralization, but also indicate possible strategies to regulate mineralization during tooth repair and regeneration.

  1. Murrayafoline A attenuates the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway by promoting the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyuk; Gwak, Jungsug; Cho, Munju; Ryu, Min-Jung [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gye Won [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Konyang University, Nonsan 320-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Mi-Young [Department of Beauty Health Care, Daejeon University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Cuong, Nguyen Manh [Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu-Yong, E-mail: gysong@cnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Molecular lesions in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling and subsequent up-regulation of {beta}-catenin response transcription (CRT) occur frequently during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that suppress CRT, we screened natural compounds in a cell-based assay for detection of TOPFalsh reporter activity. Murrayafoline A, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Glycosmis stenocarpa, antagonized CRT that was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) or LiCl, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin without altering its N-terminal phosphorylation at the Ser33/37 residues, marking it for proteasomal degradation, or the expression of Siah-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Murrayafoline A repressed the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is known {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes and thus inhibited the proliferation of various colon cancer cells. These findings indicate that murrayafoline A may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the treatment of colon cancer.

  2. IL-1β-induced, matrix metalloproteinase-3-regulated proliferation of embryonic stem cell-derived odontoblastic cells is mediated by the Wnt5 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Hiyama, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Kawai, Rie [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan); Kondo, Ayami [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan); Nakata, Kazuhiko [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan); Mogi, Makio, E-mail: makio@dpc.agu.ac.jp [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    We previously established a method for differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells into α2 integrin-positive odontoblast-like cells. We also reported that interleukin (IL)-1β induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3-regulated cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in these cells, suggesting that MMP-3 plays a potentially unique physiological role in the regeneration of odontoblast-like cells. Here, we examined whether up-regulation of MMP-3 activity by IL-1β was mediated by Wnt signaling and led to increased proliferation of odontoblast-like cells. IL-1β increased mRNA and protein levels of Wnt5a, Wnt5b and the Wnt receptor Lrp5. Exogenous Wnt5a and Wnt5b were found to increase MMP-3 mRNA, protein and activity, and interestingly the rate of proliferation in these cells. Treatment with siRNAs against Wnt5a, Wnt5b and Lrp5 suppressed the IL-1β-induced increase in MMP-3 expression and suppressed cell proliferation, an effect rescued by application of exogenous Wnt5. These results demonstrate the sequential involvement of Wnt5, Lrp5 and MMP-3 in effecting IL-1β-induced proliferation of ES cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • IL-1β induces Wnt5, Lrp5/Fzd9 and MMP-3 in ES cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. • IL-1β-induced Wnt5 expression results in increased cell proliferation. • Exogenous Wnt5 increases MMP-3 activity and cell proliferation. • Exogenous Wnt5 rescues IL-1β-driven proliferation with anti-Wnt5 siRNA suppression. • IL-1β-induced cell proliferation involves Wnt5, Lrp5, and MMP-3 sequentially.

  3. IL-1β-induced, matrix metalloproteinase-3-regulated proliferation of embryonic stem cell-derived odontoblastic cells is mediated by the Wnt5 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Hiyama, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Kawai, Rie; Kondo, Ayami; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Mogi, Makio

    2014-01-01

    We previously established a method for differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells into α2 integrin-positive odontoblast-like cells. We also reported that interleukin (IL)-1β induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3-regulated cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in these cells, suggesting that MMP-3 plays a potentially unique physiological role in the regeneration of odontoblast-like cells. Here, we examined whether up-regulation of MMP-3 activity by IL-1β was mediated by Wnt signaling and led to increased proliferation of odontoblast-like cells. IL-1β increased mRNA and protein levels of Wnt5a, Wnt5b and the Wnt receptor Lrp5. Exogenous Wnt5a and Wnt5b were found to increase MMP-3 mRNA, protein and activity, and interestingly the rate of proliferation in these cells. Treatment with siRNAs against Wnt5a, Wnt5b and Lrp5 suppressed the IL-1β-induced increase in MMP-3 expression and suppressed cell proliferation, an effect rescued by application of exogenous Wnt5. These results demonstrate the sequential involvement of Wnt5, Lrp5 and MMP-3 in effecting IL-1β-induced proliferation of ES cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • IL-1β induces Wnt5, Lrp5/Fzd9 and MMP-3 in ES cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. • IL-1β-induced Wnt5 expression results in increased cell proliferation. • Exogenous Wnt5 increases MMP-3 activity and cell proliferation. • Exogenous Wnt5 rescues IL-1β-driven proliferation with anti-Wnt5 siRNA suppression. • IL-1β-induced cell proliferation involves Wnt5, Lrp5, and MMP-3 sequentially

  4. A paraptosis-like cell death induced by δ-tocotrienol in human colon carcinoma SW620 cells is associated with the suppression of the Wnt signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing-Shu; Li, Da-Ming; He, Ning; Liu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Chun-Hua; Jiang, Shu-Qing; Chen, Bing-Qing; Liu, Jia-Ren

    2011-01-01

    Tocotrienol is considered a beneficial effect agent on inhibition of tumor development. In this study, we focused on the effects of δ-tocotrienol and its possible mechanism on induction of death in human colon cancer SW620 cells. δ-Tocotrienol inhibited proliferation of SW620 cell in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings showed that δ-tocotrienol effectively induced paraptosis-like death in SW620 cells, correlated with the vacuolation that may be from welling and fusion of mitochondria and/or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as caspase-3 nonactivated. However, there were no changes in apoptosis based on flow cytometry analysis. Of being noted, δ-tocotrienol reduced the expression of β-catenin and wnt-1 proteins by about 50% at the highest dose (20 μmol/L). δ-Tocotrienol also decreased cyclin D1, c-jun and MMP-7 protein levels in SW620 cells. Altogether, these data indicate that δ-tocotrienol induces paraptosis-like cell death, which is associated with the suppression of the Wnt signaling pathway. Thus, our findings may provide a novel application in treatment of human colon carcinoma.

  5. Impaired Wnt Signaling in the Prefrontal Cortex of Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Jonas; Pakkenberg, Bente; Brudek, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Wnt pathway is involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival, and alterations in Wnt signaling have previously been reported both in aging and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study sought to evaluate Wnt signaling pathway interplay integrity across......, in addition to downstream effects associated with disease progression and cognitive decline. This study is the first that comprehensively evaluates Wnt signaling pathway in the prefrontal cortical lobe structures of AD brains, in relation to age-related coordinated Wnt signaling changes. Our findings further...

  6. The Wnt Signaling Pathway Is Differentially Expressed during the Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency-Reactivation Cycle: Evidence That Two Protein Kinases Associated with Neuronal Survival, Akt3 and BMPR2, Are Expressed at Higher Levels during Latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Aspen; Zhu, Liqian; Keel, Brittney N; Smith, Timothy P L; Jones, Clinton

    2018-04-01

    Sensory neurons in trigeminal ganglia (TG) of calves latently infected with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) abundantly express latency-related (LR) gene products, including a protein (ORF2) and two micro-RNAs. Recent studies in mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro-2A) demonstrated ORF2 interacts with β-catenin and a β-catenin coactivator, high-mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) protein, which correlates with increased β-catenin-dependent transcription and cell survival. β-Catenin and HMGA1 are readily detected in a subset of latently infected TG neurons but not TG neurons from uninfected calves or reactivation from latency. Consequently, we hypothesized that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is differentially expressed during the latency and reactivation cycle and an active Wnt pathway promotes latency. RNA-sequencing studies revealed that 102 genes associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were differentially expressed in TG during the latency-reactivation cycle in calves. Wnt agonists were generally expressed at higher levels during latency, but these levels decreased during dexamethasone-induced reactivation. The Wnt agonist bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) was intriguing because it encodes a serine/threonine receptor kinase that promotes neuronal differentiation and inhibits cell death. Another differentially expressed gene encodes a protein kinase (Akt3), which is significant because Akt activity enhances cell survival and is linked to herpes simplex virus 1 latency and neuronal survival. Additional studies demonstrated ORF2 increased Akt3 steady-state protein levels and interacted with Akt3 in transfected Neuro-2A cells, which correlated with Akt3 activation. Conversely, expression of Wnt antagonists increased during reactivation from latency. Collectively, these studies suggest Wnt signaling cooperates with LR gene products, in particular ORF2, to promote latency. IMPORTANCE Lifelong BoHV-1 latency primarily occurs in sensory neurons

  7. Salidroside Protection Against Oxidative Stress Injury Through the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Rats with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease, and recent studies suggested that oxidative stress (OS contributes to the cascade that leads to dopamine cell degeneration in PD. In this study, we hypothesized that salidroside (SDS offers protection against OS injury in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA unilaterally lesioned rats as well as the underlying mechanism. Methods: SDS and LiCl (activators of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway administration alone and in combination with 6-OHDA injection in rats was performed 3 days before modeling for 17 consecutive days to verify the regulatory mechanism by which SDS affects the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway as well as to evaluate the protective effect of SDS on PD in relation to OS in vivo. In addition, pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12 cells were incubated with 10 µmol/L SDS or LiCl alone or with both in combination for 1 h followed by a 24-h incubation with 100 µmol/L 6-OHDA to obtain in vitro data. Results: In vivo the administration of LiCl was found to ameliorate behavioral deficits and dopaminergic neuron loss; increase superoxide dismutase (SOA activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px levels, and glycogen synthase kinase 3β phosphorylation (GSK-3β-Ser9; reduce malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation in the striatum and the GSK-3β mRNA level; as well as elevate β-catenin and cyclinD1 mRNA and protein levels in 6-OHDA-injected rats. This SDS treatment regimen was found to strengthen the beneficial effect of LiCl on 6-OHDA-injected rats. In vitro LiCl treatment decreased the toxicity of 6-OHDA on PC12 cells and prevented apoptosis. Additionally, LiCl treatment increased SOA activity, GSH-Px levels, and GSK-3β-Ser9 phosphorylation; decreased MDA accumulation in the striatum and GSK-3β mRNA levels; as well as increased β-catenin and cyclinD1 mRNA and protein levels in 6-OHDA-treated PC12 cells. Additionally, SDS treatment increased

  8. Resveratrol ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behavior: involvement of the HPA axis, inflammatory markers, BDNF, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Xin-Hua Yang,1 Su-Qi Song,2 Yun Xu3 1Department of Pharmacy, Hefei Eighth People’s Hospital, Hefei, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chaohu Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China Abstract: Classic antidepressant drugs are modestly effective across the population and most are associated with intolerable side effects. Recently, numerous lines of evidence suggest that resveratrol (RES, a natural polyphenol, possesses beneficial therapeutic activity for depression. The aim of the present study was to explore whether RES exhibits an antidepressant-like effect in a depression model and to explore the possible mechanism. A depression model was established via chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, after which the model rats in the RES and fluoxetine groups received a daily injection of RES or fluoxetine, respectively. The sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test were used to explore the antidepressant-like effects of RES. The activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis was evaluated by detecting the plasma corticosterone concentration and hypothalamic mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hippocampal protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that RES relieved depression-like behavior of CUMS rats, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobile time. Rats that received RES treatment exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by RES. Moreover, after RES treatment, the rats exhibited increased

  9. Liposomal packaging generates Wnt protein with in vivo biological activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan T Morrell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signals exercise strong cell-biological and regenerative effects of considerable therapeutic value. There are, however, no specific Wnt agonists and no method for in vivo delivery of purified Wnt proteins. Wnts contain lipid adducts that are required for activity and we exploited this lipophilicity by packaging purified Wnt3a protein into lipid vesicles. Rather than being encapsulated, Wnts are tethered to the liposomal surface, where they enhance and sustain Wnt signaling in vitro. Molecules that effectively antagonize soluble Wnt3a protein but are ineffective against the Wnt3a signal presented by a cell in a paracrine or autocrine manner are also unable to block liposomal Wnt3a activity, suggesting that liposomal packaging mimics the biological state of active Wnts. When delivered subcutaneously, Wnt3a liposomes induce hair follicle neogenesis, demonstrating their robust biological activity in a regenerative context.

  10. Enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells by zinc sulphate under electromagnetic field via the PKA, ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzatollah Fathi

    Full Text Available Zinc ion as an essential trace element and electromagnetic fields (EMFs has been reported to be involved in the regulation of bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs in the presence of EMF as a strategy in osteoporosis therapy. Alkaline phophatase (ALP activity measurement, calcium assay and expression of several osteoblastic marker genes were examined to assess the effect of ZnSO4 on the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs under EMF. The expression of cAMP and PKA was evaluated by ELISA. The expression of β-catenin, Wnt1, Wnt3a, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5 and reduced dickkopf1 (DKK1 genes were used to detect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. It was found that ZnSO4, in the presence of EMF, resulted in an increase in the expression of osteogenic genes, ALP activity and calcium levels. EMF, in the presence of ZnSO4, increased the cAMP level and protein kinase A (PKA activity. Treatment of ADSCs with (MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2 inhibitor, or PKA inhibitor, significantly inhibited the promotion of osteogenic markers, indicating that the induction of osteogenesis was dependent on the ERK and PKA signaling pathways. Real-time PCR analysis showed that ZnSO4, in the presence of EMF, increased the mRNA expressions of β-catenin, Wnt1, Wnt3a, LRP5 and DKK1. In this study, it was shown that 0.432 μg/ml ZnSO4, in the presence of 50 Hz, 20 mT EMF, induced the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs via PKA, ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.

  11. Notch and Wnt signaling in the emergence of hematopoietic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigas, Anna; Guiu, Jordi; Gama-Norton, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which reside in the marrow of adult mammals and sustain hematopoiesis for the lifetime of the organism, are specified and generated during embryonic development. We are just beginning to understand how HSC develop from more primitive cells and the complexity of the...... of the signaling pathways involved. In this work, we review the role of two crucial pathways, Notch and Wnt, in the specification and development of HSC and their nascent microenvironment, the arterial vessels....

  12. Huperzine A Activates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling and Enhances the Nonamyloidogenic Pathway in an Alzheimer Transgenic Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Tao; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wang, Si-Ling; Zhao, Bao-Lu; Teng, Wei-Ping; Wang, Zhan-You

    2011-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a reversible and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and it has multiple targets when used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. In this study, we searched for new mechanisms by which HupA could activate Wnt signaling and reduce amyloidosis in AD brain. A nasal gel containing HupA was prepared. No obvious toxicity of intranasal administration of HupA was found in mice. HupA was administered intranasally to β-amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein and presenilin-1...

  13. Identification of N-[3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]-2-hydroxybenzamide (CGK-101) as a Small Molecule Inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seoyoung; Oh, Sangtaek [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeehyun; Lee, Jung Sook; Song, Gyuyong [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    We identified CGK-101 as an antiproliferative agent that acts against HCT116 colon cancer cells. CGK-101 induced the degradation of intracellular β-catenin, thereby suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Therefore, CGK-101 can be developed as a preventive or therapeutic agent against various cancers that involve abnormal β-catenin accumulation. Colorectal cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortalities in Western countries. Current therapies for colorectal cancer rely on surgical resection, which is rarely curative in advanced disease, and traditional cytotoxic agents exhibit limited effects. Therefore, it is crucial to develop new therapeutic strategies that are based on defined molecular lesions.

  14. Finding pathways to national-scale land-sector sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Bryan, Brett A.

    2017-04-01

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets under Agenda 2030 of the United Nations map a coherent global sustainability ambition at a level of detail general enough to garner consensus amongst nations. However, achieving the global agenda will depend heavily on successful national-scale implementation, which requires the development of effective science-driven targets tailored to specific national contexts and supported by strong national governance. Here we assess the feasibility of achieving multiple SDG targets at the national scale for the Australian land-sector. We scaled targets to three levels of ambition and two timeframes, then quantitatively explored the option space for target achievement under 648 plausible future environmental, socio-economic, technological and policy pathways using the Land-Use Trade-Offs (LUTO) integrated land systems model. We show that target achievement is very sensitive to global efforts to abate emissions, domestic land-use policy, productivity growth rate, and land-use change adoption behaviour and capacity constraints. Weaker target-setting ambition resulted in higher achievement but poorer sustainability outcomes. Accelerating land-use dynamics after 2030 changed the targets achieved by 2050, warranting a longer-term view and greater flexibility in sustainability implementation. Simultaneous achievement of multiple targets is rare owing to the complexity of sustainability target implementation and the pervasive trade-offs in resource-constrained land systems. Given that hard choices are needed, the land-sector must first address the essential food/fibre production, biodiversity and land degradation components of sustainability via specific policy pathways. It may also contribute to emissions abatement, water and energy targets by capitalizing on co-benefits. However, achieving targets relevant to the land-sector will also require substantial contributions from other sectors such as clean energy, food systems

  15. Silencing of long non-coding RNA CCAT2 depressed malignancy of oral squamous cell carcinoma via Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuji; Hu, Xuanhao; Shang, Chao; Zhong, Ming; Guo, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a common and lethal malignancy affecting the head and neck region. CCAT2 (colon cancer-associated transcript 2) gene is affiliated with long non-coding RNAs, which are often found to have important regulatory roles in cancers. This study aims to assess the expression and clinical significance of CCAT2 gene, identify its malignant biological behaviors, and explore the possible mechanisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CCAT2 expression was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and its relationship with clinical factors was assayed using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve. The biological behaviors of CCAT2 and its potential mechanisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma were explored by the combined use of CCAT2 knockdown technology and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway agonist lithium chloride (LiCl). Our results showed that CCAT2 functioning as a potential oncogene was upregulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CCAT2 with high expression level was correlated with poor differentiation, higher T stage, and clinical stage, which made CCAT2 to be a prognostic biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma. LiCl-activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway could partly restore the CCAT2-mediated malignant biological behaviors of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by suppressing β-catenin, CCND1, and MYC and activating glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta expression. These findings might assist in the discovery of novel potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for oral squamous cell carcinoma, thereby improve the effects of clinical treatment in patients.

  16. Presence of HLA-B27 is associated with changes of serum levels of mediators of the Wnt and hedgehog pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschermann, Sarah; Englbrecht, Matthias; Bergua, Antonio; Spriewald, Bernd M; Said-Nahal, Rhula; Breban, Maxime; Schett, Georg; Rech, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    HLA-B27 is present in 5% of the Caucasian population and is strongly associated with the development of spondyloarthritis (SpA), a disease characterized by inflammation and substantial bone changes. We hypothesized that the presence of HLA-B27 in itself is associated with alterations of key regulatory of bone homeostasis. Sera of 241 individuals were assessed for the serum levels of Wnt pathway regulators, sclerostin and dickkopf (Dkk)-1 as well as Indian hedgehog (IHH) and collagen type I cleavage products (CTX1). Of the 151 HLA-B27+ subjects, 31 had SpA, 30 had anterior uveitis, 30 were healthy individuals and 60 healthy siblings of patients with SpA. Sclerostin levels were significantly (P<0.001) lower in HLA-B27+ subjects (314±21pg/mL) compared to HLA-B27 negative controls (mean±SEM: 492±30pg/mL), no matter if subjects were either healthy, or affected by SpA or uveitis. Similar results were found for Dkk-1. No differences between the groups with respect to the bone resorption marker CTX1 were found. In contrast, IHH levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in the carriers of HLA-B27 than in the negative controls. Changes in key regulators of the Wnt pathway as well as IHH, a molecule regulating endochondral ossification, are found in HLA-B27 carriers, independent if they were healthy or affected by uveitis or SpA. Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. GSK-3β inhibitor TWS119 attenuates rtPA-induced hemorrhagic transformation and activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway after acute ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Yuefei; Li, Qian; Deng, Gang; Wan, Jieru; Yang, Qingwu; Chen, Qianxue; Wang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a devastating complication for patients with acute ischemic stroke who are treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). It is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but no effective treatments are currently available to reduce HT risk. Therefore, methods to prevent HT are urgently needed. In this study, we used TWS119, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), to evaluate the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in recombinant tPA (rtPA)-induced HT. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke and then were administered rtPA, rtPA combined with TWS119, or vehicle at 4 h. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after infarct induction. Rats treated with rtPA showed evident HT, had more severe neurologic deficit, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier breakdown, and had larger infarction volume than did the vehicle group. Rats treated with TWS119 had significantly improved outcomes compared with those of rats treated with rtPA alone. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that TWS119 increased the protein expression of β-catenin, claudin-3, and ZO-1 while suppressing the expression of GSK-3β. These results suggest that TWS119 reduces rtPA-induced HT and attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption, possibly through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This study provides a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent tPA-induced HT after acute ischemic stroke.

  18. Wnt signaling and polarity in freshwater sponges.

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    Windsor Reid, Pamela J; Matveev, Eugueni; McClymont, Alexandra; Posfai, Dora; Hill, April L; Leys, Sally P

    2018-02-02

    The Wnt signaling pathway is uniquely metazoan and used in many processes during development, including the formation of polarity and body axes. In sponges, one of the earliest diverging animal groups, Wnt pathway genes have diverse expression patterns in different groups including along the anterior-posterior axis of two sponge larvae, and in the osculum and ostia of others. We studied the function of Wnt signaling and body polarity formation through expression, knockdown, and larval manipulation in several freshwater sponge species. Sponge Wnts fall into sponge-specific and sponge-class specific subfamilies of Wnt proteins. Notably Wnt genes were not found in transcriptomes of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes vastus. Wnt and its signaling genes were expressed in archaeocytes of the mesohyl throughout developing freshwater sponges. Osculum formation was enhanced by GSK3 knockdown, and Wnt antagonists inhibited both osculum development and regeneration. Using dye tracking we found that the posterior poles of freshwater sponge larvae give rise to tissue that will form the osculum following metamorphosis. Together the data indicate that while components of canonical Wnt signaling may be used in development and maintenance of osculum tissue, it is likely that Wnt signaling itself occurs between individual cells rather than whole tissues or structures in freshwater sponges.

  19. Resveratrol suppresses IGF-1 induced human colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis via suppression of IGF-1R/Wnt and activation of p53 signaling pathways

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    Radhakrishnan Sridhar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a global phenomenon and is associated with various types of cancer, including colon cancer. There is a growing interest for safe and effective bioactive compounds that suppress the risk for obesity-promoted colon cancer. Resveratrol (trans-3, 4', 5,-trihydroxystilbene, a stilbenoid found in the skin of red grapes and peanuts suppresses many types of cancers by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis through a variety of mechanisms, however, resveratrol effects on obesity-promoted colon cancer are not clearly established. Methods We investigated the anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol on HT-29 and SW480 human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; elevated during obesity and elucidated the mechanisms of action using IGF-1R siRNA in HT-29 cells which represents advanced colon carcinogenesis. Results Resveratrol (100-150 μM exhibited anti-proliferative properties in HT-29 cells even after IGF-1 exposure by arresting G0/G1-S phase cell cycle progression through p27 stimulation and cyclin D1 suppression. Treatment with resveratrol suppressed IGF-1R protein levels and concurrently attenuated the downstream Akt/Wnt signaling pathways that play a critical role in cell proliferation. Targeted suppression of IGF-1R using IGF-1R siRNA also affected these signaling pathways in a similar manner. Resveratrol treatment induced apoptosis by activating tumor suppressor p53 protein, whereas IGF-1R siRNA treatment did not affect apoptosis. Our data suggests that resveratrol not only suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGF-1R and its downstream signaling pathways similar to that of IGF-1R siRNA but also enhances apoptosis via activation of the p53 pathway. Conclusions For the first time, we report that resveratrol suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis even in the presence of IGF-1 via suppression of IGF-1R/Akt/Wnt signaling pathways and

  20. Resveratrol suppresses IGF-1 induced human colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis via suppression of IGF-1R/Wnt and activation of p53 signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanamala, Jairam; Reddivari, Lavanya; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Tarver, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a global phenomenon and is associated with various types of cancer, including colon cancer. There is a growing interest for safe and effective bioactive compounds that suppress the risk for obesity-promoted colon cancer. Resveratrol (trans-3, 4', 5,-trihydroxystilbene), a stilbenoid found in the skin of red grapes and peanuts suppresses many types of cancers by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis through a variety of mechanisms, however, resveratrol effects on obesity-promoted colon cancer are not clearly established. We investigated the anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol on HT-29 and SW480 human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; elevated during obesity) and elucidated the mechanisms of action using IGF-1R siRNA in HT-29 cells which represents advanced colon carcinogenesis. Resveratrol (100-150 μM) exhibited anti-proliferative properties in HT-29 cells even after IGF-1 exposure by arresting G 0 /G 1 -S phase cell cycle progression through p27 stimulation and cyclin D1 suppression. Treatment with resveratrol suppressed IGF-1R protein levels and concurrently attenuated the downstream Akt/Wnt signaling pathways that play a critical role in cell proliferation. Targeted suppression of IGF-1R using IGF-1R siRNA also affected these signaling pathways in a similar manner. Resveratrol treatment induced apoptosis by activating tumor suppressor p53 protein, whereas IGF-1R siRNA treatment did not affect apoptosis. Our data suggests that resveratrol not only suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGF-1R and its downstream signaling pathways similar to that of IGF-1R siRNA but also enhances apoptosis via activation of the p53 pathway. For the first time, we report that resveratrol suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis even in the presence of IGF-1 via suppression of IGF-1R/Akt/Wnt signaling pathways and activation of p53, suggesting its potential role as a

  1. Selenomethionine promoted hippocampal neurogenesis via the PI3K-Akt-GSK3β-Wnt pathway in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

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    Zheng, Rui; Zhang, Zhong-Hao; Chen, Chen; Chen, Yao; Jia, Shi-Zheng; Liu, Qiong; Ni, Jia-Zuan; Song, Guo-Li

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of neural system integrity and function is the ultimate goal for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurogenesis plays an integral role in the maintenance of neural and cognitive functions, and its dysfunction is regarded as a major cause of cognitive impairment in AD. Moreover, the induction of neurogenesis by targeting endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) is considered as one of the most promising treatment strategies. Our previous studies demonstrated that selenomethionine (Se-Met) was able to reduce β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) deposition, decrease Tau protein hyperphosphorylation and markedly improve cognitive functions in triple transgenic (3xTg) AD mice. In this study, we reported that the therapeutic effect of Se-Met on AD could also be due to neurogenesis modulation. By using the cultured hippocampal NSCs from 3xTg AD mice, we discovered that Se-Met (1–10 μM) with low concentration could promote NSC proliferation, while the one with a high concentration (50,100 μM) inhibiting proliferation. In subsequent studies, we also found that Se-Met activated the signaling pathway of PI3K/Akt, and thereby inhibited the GSK3β activity, which would further activated the β-catenin/Cyclin-D signaling pathway and promote NSC proliferation. Besides, after the induction of Se-Met, the number of neurons differentiated from NSCs significantly increased, and the number of astrocytes decreased. After a 90-day treatment with Se-Met (6 μg/mL), the number of hippocampal neurons in 4-month-old AD mice increased significantly, while the one of astrocyte saw a sharp drop. Thus, Se-Met treatment promoted NSCs differentiation into neurons, and subsequently repaired damaged neural systems in AD mice. Being consistent with our in vitro studies, Se-Met acts through the PI3K-Akt- GSK3β-Wnt signaling pathway in vivo. This study provides an unparalleled evidence that selenium (Se) compounds are, to some extent, effective

  2. RAC1 GTP-ase signals Wnt-beta-catenin pathway mediated integrin-directed metastasis-associated tumor cell phenotypes in triple negative breast cancers.

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    De, Pradip; Carlson, Jennifer H; Jepperson, Tyler; Willis, Scooter; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Dey, Nandini

    2017-01-10

    The acquisition of integrin-directed metastasis-associated (ID-MA) phenotypes by Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells is caused by an upregulation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway (WP). We reported that WP is one of the salient genetic features of TNBC. RAC-GTPases, small G-proteins which transduce signals from cell surface proteins including integrins, have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis by their role in essential cellular functions like motility. The collective percentage of alteration(s) in RAC1 in ER+ve BC was lower as compared to ER-ve BC (35% vs 57%) (brca/tcga/pub2015). High expression of RAC1 was associated with poor outcome for RFS with HR=1.48 [CI: 1.15-1.9] p=0.0019 in the Hungarian ER-veBC cohort. Here we examined how WP signals are transduced via RAC1 in the context of ID-MA phenotypes in TNBC. Using pharmacological agents (sulindac sulfide), genetic tools (beta-catenin siRNA), WP modulators (Wnt-C59, XAV939), RAC1 inhibitors (NSC23766, W56) and WP stimulations (LWnt3ACM, Wnt3A recombinant) in a panel of 6-7 TNBC cell lines, we studied fibronectin-directed (1) migration, (2) matrigel invasion, (3) RAC1 and Cdc42 activation, (4) actin dynamics (confocal microscopy) and (5) podia-parameters. An attenuation of WP, which (a) decreased cellular levels of beta-catenin, as well as its nuclear active-form, (b) decreased fibronectin-induced migration, (c) decreased invasion, (d) altered actin dynamics and (e) decreased podia-parameters was successful in blocking fibronectin-mediated RAC1/Cdc42 activity. Both Wnt-antagonists and RAC1 inhibitors blocked fibronectin-induced RAC1 activation and inhibited the fibronectin-induced ID-MA phenotypes following specific WP stimulation by LWnt3ACM as well as Wnt3A recombinant protein. To test a direct involvement of RAC1-activation in WP-mediated ID-MA phenotypes, we stimulated brain-metastasis specific MDA-MB231BR cells with LWnt3ACM. LWnt3ACM-stimulated fibronectin-directed migration was blocked by

  3. Wise retained in the endoplasmic reticulum inhibits Wnt signaling by reducing cell surface LRP6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidato, Sonia; Itasaki, Nobue

    2007-10-15

    The Wnt signaling pathway is tightly regulated by extracellular and intracellular modulators. Wise was isolated as a secreted protein capable of interacting with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6. Studies in Xenopus embryos revealed that Wise either enhances or inhibits the Wnt pathway depending on the cellular context. Here we show that the cellular localization of Wise has distinct effects on the Wnt pathway readout. While secreted Wise either synergizes or inhibits the Wnt signals depending on the partner ligand, ER-retained Wise consistently blocks the Wnt pathway. ER-retained Wise reduces LRP6 on the cell surface, making cells less susceptible to the Wnt signal. This study provides a cellular mechanism for the action of Wise and introduces the modulation of cellular susceptibility to Wnt signals as a novel mechanism of the regulation of the Wnt pathway.

  4. Celecoxib sensitizes imatinib-resistant K562 cells to imatinib by inhibiting MRP1-5, ABCA2 and ABCG2 transporters via Wnt and Ras signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmapuri, Gangappa; Doneti, Ravinder; Philip, Gundala Harold; Kalle, Arunasree M

    2015-07-01

    Imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is very effective in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, development of resistance to imatinib therapy is also a very common mechanism observed with long-term administration of the drug. Our previous studies have highlighted the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in regulating the expression of multidrug resistant protein-1 (MDR1), P-gp, in imatinib-resistant K562 cells (IR-K562) via PGE2-cAMP-PKC-NF-κB pathway and inhibition of COX-2 by celecoxib, a COX-2 specific inhibitor, inhibits this pathway and reverses the drug resistance. Studies have identified that not only MDR1 but other ATP-binding cassette transport proteins (ABC transporters) are involved in the development of imatinib resistance. Here, we tried to study the role of COX-2 in the regulation of other ABC transporters such as MRP1, MRP2, MRP3, ABCA2 and ABCG2 that have been already implicated in imatinib resistance development. The results of the study clearly indicated that overexpression of COX-2 lead to upregulation of MRP family proteins in IR-K562 cells and celecoxib down-regulated the ABC transporters through Wnt and MEK signaling pathways. The study signifies that celecoxib in combination with the imatinib can be a good alternate treatment strategy for the reversal of imatinib resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genomic Profiling on an Unselected Solid Tumor Population Reveals a Highly Mutated Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Associated with Oncogenic EGFR Mutations

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    Jingrui Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs can recruit key effectors in diverse cellular processes to propagate oncogenic signals. Targeted and combinational therapeutic strategies have been successfully applied for treating EGFR-driven cancers. However, a main challenge in EGFR therapies is drug resistance due to mutations, oncogenic shift, alternative signaling, and other potential mechanisms. To further understand the genetic alterations associated with oncogenic EGFRs and to provide further insight into optimal and personalized therapeutic strategies, we applied a proprietary comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS-based assay of 435 genes to systematically study the genomic profiles of 1565 unselected solid cancer patient samples. We found that activating EGFR mutations were predominantly detected in lung cancer, particularly in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The mutational landscape of EGFR-driven tumors covered most key signaling pathways and biological processes. Strikingly, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway was highly mutated (48 variants detected in 46% of the EGFR-driven tumors, and its variant number topped that in the TP53/apoptosis and PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways. Furthermore, an analysis of mutation distribution revealed a differential association pattern of gene mutations between EGFR exon 19del and EGFR L858R. Our results confirm the aggressive nature of the oncogenic EGFR-driven tumors and reassure that a combinational strategy should have advantages over an EGFR-targeted monotherapy and holds great promise for overcoming drug resistance.

  6. Effect of micro-nano-hybrid structured hydroxyapatite bioceramics on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell via Wnt signaling pathway

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    Mao LX

    2015-11-01

    -related protein 5 (LRP5 and β-catenin, which are the key genes of canonical Wnt signaling. Moreover, the stimulatory effect on ALP activity and osteogenic and cementogenic gene expression, including that of ALP, OCN, CAP, CEMP, and Runx2 of mnHA bioceramics could be repressed by canonical Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf1 (Dkk1. The results suggested that the HA bioceramics with mnHA could act as promising grafts for periodontal tissue regeneration.Keywords: surface topography, periodontal ligament stem cells, Wnt signaling pathway, bioceramics, periodontal reconstruction

  7. IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 promotes the malignant phenotype of invasive ductal breast carcinoma via canonical Wnt pathway.

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    Zhao, Huan-Yu; Han, Yang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Lian-He; Zheng, Xiao-Ying; Du, Jiang; Wu, Guang-Ping; Wang, En-Hua

    2017-06-01

    IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 is a scaffolding protein with multidomain which plays a role in modulating dishevelled (Dvl) nuclear translocation in canonical Wnt pathway. However, the biological function and mechanism of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) remain unknown. In this study, we found that IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 expression was elevated in invasive ductal carcinoma, which was positively correlated with tumor grade, lymphatic metastasis, and poor prognosis. Coexpression of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 and Dvl in the nucleus and cytoplasm of invasive ductal carcinoma was significantly correlated but not in the membrane. Postoperative survival in the patients with their coexpression in the nucleus and cytoplasm was obviously lower than that without coexpression. The positive expression rates of c-myc and cyclin D1 were significantly higher in the patients with nuclear coexpression of Dvl and IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 than that with cytoplasmic coexpression, correlating with poor prognosis. IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 significantly enhanced cell proliferation and invasion in invasive ductal carcinoma cell lines by interacting with Dvl in cytoplasm to promote Dvl nuclear translocation so as to upregulate the expression of c-myc and cyclin D1. Collectively, our data suggest that IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 may promote the malignant phenotype of invasive ductal carcinoma via canonical Wnt signaling, and it could be used as a potential prognostic biomarker for breast cancer patients.

  8. The way Wnt works: Components and mechanism

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    SAITO-DIAZ, KENYI; CHEN, TONY W.; WANG, XIAOXI; THORNE, CURTIS A.; WALLACE, HEATHER A.; PAGE-MCCAW, ANDREA; LEE, ETHAN

    2013-01-01

    The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is an ancient and evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that is required for the proper development of all metazoans, from the basal demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica to humans. Misregulation of Wnt signaling is implicated in many human diseases, making this pathway an intense area of research in industry as well as academia. In this review, we explore our current understanding of the molecular steps involved in the transduction of a Wnt signal. We will focus on how the critical Wnt pathway component, β-catenin, is in a “futile cycle” of constant synthesis and degradation and how this cycle is disrupted upon pathway activation. We describe the role of the Wnt pathway in major human cancers and in the control of stem cell self-renewal in the developing organism and in adults. Finally, we describe well-accepted criteria that have been proposed as evidence for the involvement of a molecule in regulating the canonical Wnt pathway. PMID:23256519

  9. A Wnt/beta-catenin pathway antagonist Chibby binds Cenexin at the distal end of mother centrioles and functions in primary cilia formation.

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    Nathan Steere

    Full Text Available The mother centriole of the centrosome is distinguished from immature daughter centrioles by the presence of accessory structures (distal and subdistal appendages, which play an important role in the organization of the primary cilium in quiescent cells. Primary cilia serve as sensory organelles, thus have been implicated in mediating intracellular signal transduction pathways. Here we report that Chibby (Cby, a highly conserved antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is a centriolar component specifically located at the distal end of the mother centriole and essential for assembly of the primary cilium. Cby appeared as a discrete dot in the middle of a ring-like structure revealed by staining with a distal appendage component of Cep164. Cby interacted with one of the appendage components, Cenexin (Cnx, which thereby abrogated the inhibitory effect of Cby on β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation in a dose-dependent manner. Cby and Cnx did not precisely align, as Cby was detected at a more distal position than Cnx. Cnx emerged earlier than Cby during the cell cycle and was required for recruitment of Cby to the mother centriole. However, Cby was dispensable for Cnx localization to the centriole. During massive centriogenesis in in vitro cultured mouse tracheal epithelial cells, Cby and Cnx were expressed in a similar pattern, which was coincident with the expression of Foxj1. Our results suggest that Cby plays an important role in organization of both primary and motile cilia in collaboration with Cnx.

  10. A Wnt/beta-catenin pathway antagonist Chibby binds Cenexin at the distal end of mother centrioles and functions in primary cilia formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steere, Nathan; Chae, Vanessa; Burke, Michael; Li, Feng-Qian; Takemaru, Ken-ichi; Kuriyama, Ryoko

    2012-01-01

    The mother centriole of the centrosome is distinguished from immature daughter centrioles by the presence of accessory structures (distal and subdistal appendages), which play an important role in the organization of the primary cilium in quiescent cells. Primary cilia serve as sensory organelles, thus have been implicated in mediating intracellular signal transduction pathways. Here we report that Chibby (Cby), a highly conserved antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is a centriolar component specifically located at the distal end of the mother centriole and essential for assembly of the primary cilium. Cby appeared as a discrete dot in the middle of a ring-like structure revealed by staining with a distal appendage component of Cep164. Cby interacted with one of the appendage components, Cenexin (Cnx), which thereby abrogated the inhibitory effect of Cby on β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation in a dose-dependent manner. Cby and Cnx did not precisely align, as Cby was detected at a more distal position than Cnx. Cnx emerged earlier than Cby during the cell cycle and was required for recruitment of Cby to the mother centriole. However, Cby was dispensable for Cnx localization to the centriole. During massive centriogenesis in in vitro cultured mouse tracheal epithelial cells, Cby and Cnx were expressed in a similar pattern, which was coincident with the expression of Foxj1. Our results suggest that Cby plays an important role in organization of both primary and motile cilia in collaboration with Cnx.

  11. Knockdown of Uba2 inhibits colorectal cancer cell invasion and migration through downregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongjing; Sun, Xun; Li, Ji; He, Ping; Liu, Wanqi; Meng, Xiangwei

    2018-05-10

    Colorectal cancer is a serious threat to human health, and has a high mortality rate. There is currently no effective therapy for end-stage colorectal cancer. In recent years, molecular targeted therapy has received increasing attention for cancer treatment. In particular, the role of Uba2, a vital component of SUMO-activating enzyme, has been highlighted, which plays important roles in the progression of certain cancers; however, its role in colorectal cancer remains unclear. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Uba2 and colorectal cancer. Uba2 expression was knocked down in two colorectal cancer cell lines, and gene microarray analysis was conducted, followed by proliferation, migration, and invasion assays. Uba2 knockdown influenced the expression of several genes, and significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells. To determine the underlying mechanism, the expression of related signaling pathways and molecules was evaluated in the knockdown cell lines. Overall, the results suggest that Uba2 participates in the progression, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal cancer, and the possible mechanism is via regulating the Wnt signaling pathway and enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition behaviors of colorectal cancer cells. Therefore, Uba2 is expected to be an important oncoprotein and potential therapeutic target in colorectal cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. MeCP2 Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression Through Regulating FOXF1/Wnt5a/β-Catenin and MYOD1/Caspase-3 Signaling Pathways

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    Lingyu Zhao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 has recently been characterized as an oncogene frequently amplified in several types of cancer. However, its precise role in gastric cancer (GC and the molecular mechanism of MeCP2 regulation are still largely unknown. Here we report that MeCP2 is highly expressed in primary GC tissues and the expression level is correlated with the clinicopathologic features of GC. In our experiments, knockdown of MeCP2 inhibited tumor growth. Molecular mechanism of MeCP2 regulation was investigated using an integrated approach with combination of microarray analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq. The results suggest that MeCP2 binds to the methylated CpG islands of FOXF1 and MYOD1 promoters and inhibits their expression at the transcription level. Furthermore, we show that MeCP2 promotes GC cell proliferation via FOXF1-mediated Wnt5a/β-Catenin signaling pathway and suppresses apoptosis through MYOD1-mediated Caspase-3 signaling pathway. Due to its high expression level in GC and its critical function in driving GC progression, MeCP2 represents a promising therapeutic target for GC treatment.

  13. Gold nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

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    Choi SY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seon Young Choi,1 Min Seok Song,1 Pan Dong Ryu,1 Anh Thu Ngoc Lam,2 Sang-Woo Joo,2 So Yeong Lee1 1Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 2Department of Chemistry, Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs are attractive materials for use in biomedicine due to their physical properties. Increasing evidence suggests that several nanoparticles induce the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts and adipocytes. In this study, we hypothesized that chitosan-conjugated AuNPs promote the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. For the evaluation of osteogenic differentiation, alizarin red staining, an alamarBlue® assay, and a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed. In order to examine specific signaling pathways, immunofluorescence and a western blotting assay were performed. Our results demonstrate that chitosan-conjugated AuNPs increase the deposition of calcium content and the expression of marker genes related to osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells at nontoxic concentrations. These results indicate that chitosan-conjugated AuNPs promote osteogenesis through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, chitosan-conjugated AuNPs can be used as a reagent for promoting bone formation. Keywords: chitosan-conjugated gold nanoparticle, mineralization, nonphosphorylated beta-catenin

  14. MicroRNA-24 Attenuates Neointimal Hyperplasia in the Diabetic Rat Carotid Artery Injury Model by Inhibiting Wnt4 Signaling Pathway

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    Jian Yang

    2016-05-01

    RNA and protein levels was opposite after a balloon injury. However, over-expression of miR-24 after gene delivery increased the mRNA and protein levels of p21. We conclude that over-expression of miR-24 could attenuate VSMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injuries in diabetic rats. This result is possibly related to the regulation of the expression of Cyclin D1 and p21 through the Wnt4/Dvl-1/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  15. A Wnt1 regulated Frizzled-1/β-Catenin signaling pathway as a candidate regulatory circuit controlling mesencephalic dopaminergic neuron-astrocyte crosstalk: Therapeutical relevance for neuron survival and neuroprotection

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    Pluchino Stefano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine-synthesizing (dopaminergic, DA neurons in the ventral midbrain (VM constitute a pivotal neuronal population controlling motor behaviors, cognitive and affective brain functions, which generation critically relies on the activation of Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt/β-catenin pathway in their progenitors. In Parkinson's disease, DA cell bodies within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc progressively degenerate, with causes and mechanisms poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that Wnt signaling via Frizzled (Fzd receptors may play a role in different degenerative states, but little is known about Wnt signaling in the adult midbrain. Using in vitro and in vivo model systems of DA degeneration, along with functional studies in both intact and SN lesioned mice, we herein highlight an intrinsic Wnt1/Fzd-1/β-catenin tone critically contributing to the survival and protection of adult midbrain DA neurons. Results In vitro experiments identifie Fzd-1 receptor expression at a mRNA and protein levels in dopamine transporter (DAT expressing neurons, and demonstrate the ability of exogenous Wnt1 to exert robust neuroprotective effects against Caspase-3 activation, the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+ neurons and [3H] dopamine uptake induced by different DA-specific insults, including serum and growth factor deprivation, 6-hydroxydopamine and MPTP/MPP+. Co-culture of DA neurons with midbrain astrocytes phenocopies Wnt1 neuroprotective effects, whereas RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Wnt1 in midbrain astrocytes markedly reduces astrocyte-induced TH+ neuroprotection. Likewise, silencing β-catenin mRNA or knocking down Fzd-1 receptor expression in mesencephalic neurons counteract astrocyte-induced TH+ neuroprotection. In vivo experiments document Fzd-1 co-localization with TH+ neurons within the intact SNpc and blockade of Fzd/β-catenin signaling by unilateral infusion of a Fzd

  16. Regulation of Wnt signaling by nociceptive input in animal models

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    Shi Yuqiang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central sensitization-associated synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH critically contributes to the development of chronic pain, but understanding of the underlying molecular pathways is still incomplete. Emerging evidence suggests that Wnt signaling plays a crucial role in regulation of synaptic plasticity. Little is known about the potential function of the Wnt signaling cascades in chronic pain development. Results Fluorescent immunostaining results indicate that β-catenin, an essential protein in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is expressed in the superficial layers of the mouse SCDH with enrichment at synapses in lamina II. In addition, Wnt3a, a prototypic Wnt ligand that activates the canonical pathway, is also enriched in the superficial layers. Immunoblotting analysis indicates that both Wnt3a a β-catenin are up-regulated in the SCDH of various mouse pain models created by hind-paw injection of capsaicin, intrathecal (i.t. injection of HIV-gp120 protein or spinal nerve ligation (SNL. Furthermore, Wnt5a, a prototypic Wnt ligand for non-canonical pathways, and its receptor Ror2 are also up-regulated in the SCDH of these models. Conclusion Our results suggest that Wnt signaling pathways are regulated by nociceptive input. The activation of Wnt signaling may regulate the expression of spinal central sensitization during the development of acute and chronic pain.

  17. Andrographolide Promotes Neural Differentiation of Rat Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells through Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

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    Yan Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs are a high-yield source of pluripotent stem cells for use in cell-based therapies. We explored the effect of andrographolide (ANDRO, one of the ingredients of the medicinal herb extract on the neural differentiation of rat ADSCs and associated molecular mechanisms. We observed that rat ADSCs were small and spindle-shaped and expressed multiple stem cell markers including nestin. They were multipotent as evidenced by adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and neural differentiation under appropriate conditions. The proportion of cells exhibiting neural-like morphology was higher, and neurites developed faster in the ANDRO group than in the control group in the same neural differentiation medium. Expression levels of the neural lineage markers MAP2, tau, GFAP, and β-tubulin III were higher in the ANDRO group. ANDRO induced a concentration-dependent increase in Wnt/β-catenin signaling as evidenced by the enhanced expression of nuclear β-catenin and the inhibited form of GSK-3β (pSer9. Thus, this study shows for the first time how by enhancing the neural differentiation of ADSCs we expect that ANDRO pretreatment may increase the efficacy of adult stem cell transplantation in nervous system diseases, but more exploration is needed.

  18. Sailing with the Wnt: charting the Wnt processing and secretion route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenowicz, M.J.; Korswagen, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    Wnt proteins are members of a highly conserved family of signalling molecules that play a central role in development and disease. During the past years, the different signalling pathways that are triggered by Wnt proteins have been studied in detail, but it is still largely unknown how a functional

  19. [Effects of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt signal pathway signal molecules β-catenin/TCF4 complex activities and downstream proteins cyclin D1 and MMP-2 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin; Sun, Haitao; He, Songqi; Cheng, Yang; Jia, Wenyan; Fan, Eryan; Pang, Jie

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt signal pathway and the mechanisms underlying its action to suppress the invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma. HepG2 cells cultured in the serum of rats fed with Biejiajian Pills for 48 h were examined for β-catenin expression using immunofluorescence, β-catenin/TCF4 complex activity with luciferase, and expressions of the downstream proteins cyclin D1 and MMP-2 using qRT-PCR. Biejiajian Pills-treated sera significantly reduced the expressions of cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin protein, cyclin D1 and MMP-2 proteins and lowered the activities of β-catenin/TCF4 complex. Biejiajian Pills may serve as a potential anti-tumor agent, whose effect might be mediated by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  20. miR-124 suppresses proliferation and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting Capn4

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    Hu H

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Haili Hu,1,* Guanghui Wang,1,* Congying Li2 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Huaihe Hospital of Henan University, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Kaifeng University, Kaifeng, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNA 124 (miR-124 acts as a tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC; however, the exact molecular mechanism by which miR-124 exerts tumor suppression has not been well elucidated.Materials and methods: We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to measure the expression of metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1, miR-124, and calpain small subunit 1 (Capn4 mRNAs in NPC cell lines. We also performed western blot analysis to detect the levels of Capn4. Furthermore, we performed MTT assay and transwell invasion assay to determine the proliferation and invasion ability of two NPC cell lines, namely, HONE1 and CNE2 cells, respectively. The verification of targets of miR-124 was performed using prediction softwares and luciferase reporter analysis.Results: According to our results, the expression of Capn4 was found to be elevated, whereas the expression of miR-124 was lowered in NPC cell lines compared with normal nasopharyngeal cells. When we preformed overexpression of miR-124, it suppressed the proliferation and invasion of NPC cells. Moreover, miR-124 suppressed the expression of Capn4 by targeting Capn4 in HONE1 and CNE2 cells. When we preformed overexpression of Capn4, it reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-124 on the proliferation and invasion of NPC cells. Furthermore, miR-124–Capn4 axis decreased the levels of β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc, the components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.Conclusion: The suppression of proliferation and invasion of NPC cells by miR-124 were achieved by the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting Capn4. The results of

  1. Resveratrol ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behavior: involvement of the HPA axis, inflammatory markers, BDNF, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in rats.

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    Yang, Xin-Hua; Song, Su-Qi; Xu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Classic antidepressant drugs are modestly effective across the population and most are associated with intolerable side effects. Recently, numerous lines of evidence suggest that resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol, possesses beneficial therapeutic activity for depression. The aim of the present study was to explore whether RES exhibits an antidepressant-like effect in a depression model and to explore the possible mechanism. A depression model was established via chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), after which the model rats in the RES and fluoxetine groups received a daily injection of RES or fluoxetine, respectively. The sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test were used to explore the antidepressant-like effects of RES. The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the plasma corticosterone concentration and hypothalamic mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hippocampal protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that RES relieved depression-like behavior of CUMS rats, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobile time. Rats that received RES treatment exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by RES. Moreover, after RES treatment, the rats exhibited increased plasma IL-6, CRP, and TNF-α concentrations. Furthermore, RES treatment upregulated the hippocampal protein levels of BDNF and the relative ratio of p-β-catenin/β-catenin while downregulating the relative ratio of p-GSK-3β/GSK-3β. Our findings suggest that RES improved

  2. EXPRESSION OF E-CADHERIN AND WNT PATHWAY PROTEINS BETACATENIN, APC, TCF-4 AND SURVIVIN IN GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA: CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL IMPLICATION.

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    Lins, Rodrigo Rego; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Oliveira, Levindo Alves de; Silva, Marcelo Souza; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antonio; Waisberg, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.It has been reported that Wnt/ betacatenin pathway is activated in 30-50% of these tumors. However,the deregulation of this pathway has not been fully elucidated. To determine the expression of E-cadherin, betacatenin, APC, TCF-4 and survivin proteins in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and correlate with clinical and pathological parameters. Seventy-one patients with gastric adenocarcinoma undergoing gastrectomy were enrolled. The expression of E-cadherin, betacatenin, APC, TCF-4 and survivin proteins was detected by immunohistochemistryand related to the clinical and pathological parameters. The expression rates of E-cadherin in the membrane was 3%; betacatenin in the cytoplasm and nucleus were 23,4% and 3,1% respectively; APC in the cytoplasm was 94,6%; TCF-4 in the nucleus was 19,4%; and survivin in the nucleus 93,9%. The expression rate of E-cadherin was correlated with older patients (p=0,007), while betacatenin with tumors citoplasma e 3,1% no núcleo; APC em 94,6% no citoplasma; TCF-4 em19,4% no núcleo; e survivina em 93,9% no núcleo. Houve relação entre expressão da proteína E-caderina com a idade mais avançada (p=0,007); betacatenina com tumores <5 cm de diâmetro (p=0,041);APC com tumores proximais (p=0,047); e TCF-4 com tipo difuso da classificação de Lauren (p=0,017) e com o grau de penetração tumoral (p=0,002). A via Wnt/betacatenina não está envolvida na carcinogênese gástrica. Porém, a frequência elevada de survivina permite sugerir que outras vias sinalizadoras devam estar envolvidas na transformação do tecido gástrico.

  3. Deubiquitinase inhibitor b-AP15 activates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits Wnt/Notch1 signaling pathway leading to the reduction of cell survival in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

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    Ding, Youming; Chen, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bin; Yu, Bin; Ge, Jianhui

    2018-04-15

    b-AP15, a potent and selective inhibitor of the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 14 (USP14), displays in vitro and in vivo antitumor abilities on some types of cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its action is not well elucidated. The purposes of the present study are to observe the potential impacts of b-AP15 on cell survival of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and to investigate whether and how this compound inhibits some survival-promoting signaling pathways. We found that b-AP15 significantly decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, along with the perturbation of cell cycle and the decreased expressions of cell cycle-related proteins. We also demonstrated that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) were enhanced by b-AP15 supplementation. The inhibition of ER stress/UPR only partly attenuated the cytotoxicity of b-AP15 on hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In addition, b-AP15 treatment inhibited Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 signaling pathways, and suppressed phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and Erk1/2, which were not restored by the inhibition of ER stress/UPR. Furthermore, the expression levels of signaling molecules in Notch1 were reduced by specific inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Notably, either Wnt or Notch1 signaling inhibitor mitigated phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and Erk1/2, and mimicked the cytotoxicity of b-AP15 on hepatocellular carcinoma cells. These results clearly indicate that b-AP15 induced cytotoxic response to hepatocellular carcinoma cells by augmenting ER stress/UPR and inhibiting Wnt/Notch1 signaling pathways. This new finding provides a novel mechanism by which b-AP15 produces its antitumor therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Indirect effects of Wnt3a/β-catenin signalling support mouse spermatogonial stem cells in vitro.

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    Jonathan R Yeh

    Full Text Available Proper regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs is crucial for sustaining steady-state spermatogenesis. Previous work has identified several paracrine factors involved in this regulation, in particular, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and fibroblast growth factor 2, which promote long-term SSC self-renewal. Using a SSC culture system, we have recently reported that Wnt5a promotes SSC self-renewal through a β-catenin-independent Wnt mechanism whereas the β-catenin-dependent Wnt pathway is not active in SSCs. In contrast, another study has reported that Wnt3a promotes SSC self-renewal through the β-catenin-dependent pathway, as it can stimulate the proliferation of a spermatogonia cell line. To reconcile these two contradictory reports, we assessed Wnt3a effects on SSCs and progenitor cells, rather than a cell line, in vitro. We observed that Wnt3a induced β-catenin-dependent signalling in a large subset of germ cells and increased SSC numbers. However, further investigation revealed that cell populations with greater β-catenin-signalling activity contained fewer SSCs. The increased maintenance of SSCs by Wnt3a coincided with more active cell cycling and the formation of germ cell aggregates, or communities, under feeder-free conditions. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that Wnt3a selectively stimulates proliferation of progenitors that are committed to differentiation or are in the process of exiting the SSC state, leading to enhanced formation of germ cell communities, which indirectly support SSCs and act as an in vitro niche.

  5. WNT4 signaling in female gonadal development.

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    Pellegrino, Miriam; Maiorino, Raffaella; Schonauer, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    WNT4 signaling pathways represent an important step in the multi-faceted process of mammalian gonadal differentiation and the development of internal genitalia. WNT4 protein controls the cytoplasmatic stability of specific transcriptional coactivator beta catenin during both embriogenesis and adult homeostasis. The biological significance of WNT4 consists in determining the final female reproductive system, inhibiting Wolff ducts' differentiation, male steroidogenesis and vascular cell migration. An overview of WNT4 cellular mechanisms is given in order to understand its critical role in the genesis of various human diseases such as congenital malformations and gynecological disorders like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The final discussion focusses on several possible therapeutic uses of Wnt4 both during pregnancy in order to correct the genetic loss of function of the protein and during adulthood in order to normalize fertility in PCOS-affected females planning pregnancy.

  6. Ascorbic Acid-Induced Cardiac Differentiation of Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells: Transcriptional Profiling and Effect of a Small Molecule Synergist of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

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    Dina Ivanyuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproducible and efficient differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs to cardiomyocytes (CMs is essential for their use in regenerative medicine, drug testing and disease modeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some previously reported cardiogenic substances on cardiac differentiation of mouse PSCs. Methods: Differentiation was performed by embryoid body (EB-based method using three different murine PSC lines. The differentiation efficiency was monitored by RT-qPCR, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, and the effect mechanistically evaluated by transcriptome analysis of treated EBs. Results: Among the five tested compounds (ascorbic acid, dorsomorphin, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, cardiogenol C, cyclosporin A only ascorbic acid (AA exerted a strong and reproducible cardiogenic effect in CGR8 cells which was less consistent in other two PSC lines. AA induced only minor changes in transcriptome of CGR8 cells after administration during the initial two days of differentiation. Cardiospecific genes and transcripts involved in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis and hematopoiesis were up-regulated on day 5 but not on days 2 or 3 of differentiation. The cardiac differentiation efficiency was improved when QS11, a small-molecule synergist of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, was added to cultures after AA-treatment. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that only minor transcriptional changes are sufficient for enhancement of cardiogenesis of murine PSCs by AA and that AA and QS11 exhibit synergistic effects and enhance the efficiency of CM differentiation of murine PSCs.

  7. Polymeric black tea polyphenols inhibit 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colorectal carcinogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation via Wnt/β-catenin pathway

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    Patel, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish B.

    2008-01-01

    Tea polyphenols like epigallocatechin gallate and theaflavins are established chemopreventive agents for colorectal carcinogenesis. However, studies on evaluating similar chemopreventive properties of thearubigins or polymeric black tea polyphenols (PBPs), the most abundant polyphenols in black tea, are limited. Hence, in the present study we aim to investigate chemopreventive effects along with probable mechanisms of action of PBP extract employing 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats as experimental model. The present study suggests that PBPs, like other tea polyphenols, also inhibit DMH-induced colorectal tumorigenesis by decreasing tumor volume and multiplicity. This study also shows that although the pretreatment with PBP extract could induce detoxifying enzymes in hepatic and colorectal tissue, it did not show any additional chemopreventive effects when compared to treatments with PBP extract after initiation with DMH. Mechanistically, PBP extract may inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis by decreasing DMH-induced cell proliferation via Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Treatments with PBP extract showed decreased levels of COX-2, c-MYC and cyclin D1 proteins which aid cell proliferation probably by regulating β-catenin by maintaining expression of APC and decreasing inactivation of GSK3β. DMH-induced activation of MAP kinases such as ERK and JNK was also found to be inhibited by treatments with PBP extract. In conclusion, the protective effects of PBP extract could be attributed to inhibition of DMH-induced cellular proliferation probably through β-catenin regulation

  8. Lanatoside C inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through attenuating Wnt/β-catenin/c-Myc signaling pathway in human gastric cancer cell.

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    Hu, Yudong; Yu, Kaikai; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Depeng; Shi, Chaoji; Ding, Yunhe; Hong, Duo; Zhang, Dan; He, Huiqiong; Sun, Lei; Zheng, Jun-Nian; Sun, Shuyang; Qian, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Gastric cancer is the third common cause of cancer mortality in the world with poor prognosis and high recurrence due to lack of effective medicines. Our studies revealed that lanatoside C, a FDA-approved cardiac glycoside, had an anti-proliferation effect on different human cancer cell lines (MKN-45; SGC-7901; HN4; MCF-7; HepG2) and gastric cell lines MKN-45 and SGC-7901 were the most sensitive cell lines to lanatoside C. MKN-45 cells treated with lanatoside C showed cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and inhibition of cell migration. Meanwhile, upregulation of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP and downregulation of Bcl-xl were accompanied with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lanatoside C inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling with downregulation of c-Myc, while overexpression of c-Myc reversed the anti-tumor effect of lanatoside C, confirming that c-Myc is a key drug target of lanatoside C. Furthermore, we discovered that lanatoside C prompted c-Myc degradation in proteasome-ubiquitin pathway with attenuating the binding of USP28 to c-Myc. These findings indicate that lanatoside C targeted c-Myc ubiquitination to inhibit MKN-45 proliferation and support the potential value of lanatoside C as a chemotherapeutic candidate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebrovascular defects in Foxc1 mutants correlate with aberrant WNT and VEGF-A pathways downstream of retinoic acid from the meninges.

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    Mishra, Swati; Choe, Youngshik; Pleasure, Samuel J; Siegenthaler, Julie A

    2016-12-01

    Growth and maturation of the cerebrovasculature is a vital event in neocortical development however mechanisms that control cerebrovascular development remain poorly understood. Mutations in or deletions that include the FOXC1 gene are associated with congenital cerebrovascular anomalies and increased stroke risk in patients. Foxc1 mutant mice display severe cerebrovascular hemorrhage at late gestational ages. While these data demonstrate Foxc1 is required for cerebrovascular development, its broad expression in the brain vasculature combined with Foxc1 mutant's complex developmental defects have made it difficult to pinpoint its function(s). Using global and conditional Foxc1 mutants, we find 1) significant cerebrovascular growth defects precede cerebral hemorrhage and 2) expression of Foxc1 in neural crest-derived meninges and brain pericytes, though not endothelial cells, is required for normal cerebrovascular development. We provide evidence that reduced levels of meninges-derived retinoic acid (RA), caused by defects in meninges formation in Foxc1 mutants, is a major contributing factor to the cerebrovascular growth defects in Foxc1 mutants. We provide data that suggests that meninges-derived RA ensures adequate growth of the neocortical vasculature via regulating expression of WNT pathway proteins and neural progenitor derived-VEGF-A. Our findings offer the first evidence for a role of the meninges in brain vascular development and provide new insight into potential causes of cerebrovascular defects in patients with FOXC1 mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. WNT-er is coming’: WNT signalling in chronic lung diseases

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    Baarsma, H A

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases represent a major public health problem with only limited therapeutic options. An important unmet need is to identify compounds and drugs that target key molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases. Over the last decade, there has been extensive interest in investigating Wingless/integrase-1 (WNT) signalling pathways; and WNT signal alterations have been linked to pulmonary disease pathogenesis and progression. Here, we comprehensively review the cumulative evidence for WNT pathway alterations in chronic lung pathologies, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, asthma and COPD. While many studies have focused on the canonical WNT/β-catenin signalling pathway, recent reports highlight that non-canonical WNT signalling may also significantly contribute to chronic lung pathologies; these studies will be particularly featured in this review. We further discuss recent advances uncovering the role of WNT signalling early in life, the potential of pharmaceutically modulating WNT signalling pathways and highlight (pre)clinical studies describing promising new therapies for chronic lung diseases. PMID:28416592

  11. Long noncoding RNA CASC2 predicts the prognosis of glioma patients and functions as a suppressor for gliomas by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

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    Wang R

    2017-07-01

    /β-catenin signaling pathway. Conclusion: This study suggested that CASC2 may potentially serve as a valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for glioma patients. Keywords: glioma, lncRNA, CASC2, biomarker, Wnt/β-catenin

  12. Resveratrol ameliorates the anxiety- and depression-like behavior of subclinical hypothyroidism rat: possible involvement of the HPT axis, HPA axis, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway

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    Jinfang eGe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disease subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH is closely associated with depression-like behavior both in human and animal studies, and our previous studies have identified the antidepressant effect of resveratrol (RES in stressed rat model. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RES would manifest an antidepressant effect in SCH rat model and explore the possible mechanism. A SCH rat model was induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization, after which the model rats in the RES and LT4 groups received a daily intragastric injection of RES at the dose of 15 mg/kg or LT4 at the dose of 60 μg/kg for 16 days, respectively. The rats’ plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones were measured. Behavioral performance and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity were evaluated. The protein expression levels of the Wnt/β-catenin in the hippocampus were detected by western blot. The results showed that RES treatment down-regulated the elevated plasma thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentration and the hypothalamic mRNA expression of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH in the SCH rats. RES-treated rats showed increased rearing frequency and distance in the OFT, increased sucrose preference in the SPT, and decreased immobility in the FST compared with SCH rats. The ratio of the adrenal gland weight to body weight, the plasma corticosterone levels and the hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression were reduced in the RES-treated rats. Moreover, RES treatment up-regulated the relative ratio of phosphorylated-GSK3β (p-GSK3β/GSK3β and protein levels of p-GSK3β, cyclinD1 and c-myc, while down-regulating the relative ratio of phosphorylated-β-catenin (p-β-catenin/β-catenin and expression of GSK3β in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that RES exerts anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effect in SCH rats by down-regulating hyperactivity of the HPA axis and regulating both the HPT axis and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  13. Common activation of canonical Wnt signaling in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

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    Marina Pasca di Magliano

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is an extremely aggressive malignancy, which carries a dismal prognosis. Activating mutations of the Kras gene are common to the vast majority of human PDA. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that embryonic signaling pathway such as Hedgehog and Notch are inappropriately upregulated in this disease. The role of another embryonic signaling pathway, namely the canonical Wnt cascade, is still controversial. Here, we use gene array analysis as a platform to demonstrate general activation of the canonical arm of the Wnt pathway in human PDA. Furthermore, we provide evidence for Wnt activation in mouse models of pancreatic cancer. Our results also indicate that Wnt signaling might be activated downstream of Hedgehog signaling, which is an early event in PDA evolution. Wnt inhibition blocked proliferation and induced apoptosis of cultured adenocarcinoma cells, thereby providing evidence to support the development of novel therapeutical strategies for Wnt inhibition in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  14. Long-Lasting WNT-TCF Response Blocking and Epigenetic Modifying Activities of Withanolide F in Human Cancer Cells.

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    Chandan Seth

    Full Text Available The WNT-TCF signaling pathway participates in adult tissue homeostasis and repair, and is hyperactive in a number of human diseases including cancers of the colon. Whereas to date there are no antagonists approved for patient use, a potential problem for their sustained use is the blockade of WNT signaling in healthy tissues, thus provoking potentially serious co-lateral damage. Here we have screened a library of plant and microorganism small molecules for novel WNT signaling antagonists and describe withanolide F as a potent WNT-TCF response blocker. This steroidal lactone inhibits TCF-dependent colon cancer xenograft growth and mimics the effects of genetic blockade of TCF and of ivermectin, a previously reported WNT-TCF blocker. However, withanolide F is unique in that it imposes a long-lasting repression of tumor growth, WNT-TCF targets and cancer stem cell clonogenicity after drug treatment. These findings are paralleled by its modulation of chromatin regulators and its alteration of overall H3K4me1 levels. Our results open up the possibility to permanently repress essential signaling responses in cancer cells through limited treatments with small molecules.

  15. Electro-acupuncture exerts beneficial effects against cerebral ischemia and promotes the proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the cortical peri-infarct area through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

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    CHEN, BIN; TAO, JING; LIN, YUKUN; LIN, RUHUI; LIU, WEILIN; CHEN, LIDIAN

    2015-01-01

    Electro-acupuncture (EA) is a novel therapy based on combining traditional acupuncture with modern electrotherapy, and it is currently being investigated as a treatment for ischemic stroke. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms through which EA regulates the proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the cortical peri-infarct area after stroke. The neuroprotective effects of EA on ischemic rats were evaluated by determining the neurological deficit scores and cerebral infarct volumes. The proliferation of the NPCs and the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the cortical peri-infarct area were examined. Our results revealed that EA significantly alleviated neurological deficits, reduced the infarct volume and enhanced NPC proliferation [nestin/glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-double positive] in the cortex of rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Moreover, the Wnt1 and β-catenin mRNA and protein levels were increased, while glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) transcription was suppressed by EA. These results suggest that the upregulatory effects of EA on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may promote NPC proliferation in the cortical peri-infarct area after stroke, consequently providing a therapeutic effect against cerebral ischemia. PMID:26329606

  16. Wnt signaling inhibits CTL memory programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhengguo; Sun, Zhifeng; Smyth, Kendra; Li, Lei

    2013-12-01

    Induction of functional CTLs is one of the major goals for vaccine development and cancer therapy. Inflammatory cytokines are critical for memory CTL generation. Wnt signaling is important for CTL priming and memory formation, but its role in cytokine-driven memory CTL programming is unclear. We found that wnt signaling inhibited IL-12-driven CTL activation and memory programming. This impaired memory CTL programming was attributed to up-regulation of eomes and down-regulation of T-bet. Wnt signaling suppressed the mTOR pathway during CTL activation, which was different to its effects on other cell types. Interestingly, the impaired memory CTL programming by wnt was partially rescued by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. In conclusion, we found that crosstalk between wnt and the IL-12 signaling inhibits T-bet and mTOR pathways and impairs memory programming which can be recovered in part by rapamycin. In addition, direct inhibition of wnt signaling during CTL activation does not affect CTL memory programming. Therefore, wnt signaling may serve as a new tool for CTL manipulation in autoimmune diseases and immune therapy for certain cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long noncoding RNA AK126698 inhibits proliferation and migration of non-small cell lung cancer cells by targeting Frizzled-8 and suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

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    Fu X

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Fu,1 Hui Li,1 Chunxiao Liu,2 Bin Hu,1 Tong Li,1 Yang Wang1 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Background: Recent studies indicate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs play a key role in the control of cellular processes such as proliferation, metastasis, and differentiation. The lncRNA dysregulation has been identified in all types of cancer. We previously found that lncRNA AK126698 suppresses cisplatin resistance in A549 cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. However, the clinical significance of lncRNA AK126698 and the molecular mechanisms through which it regulates cancer cell proliferation and migration are largely unknown. Methods: We examined the expression of lncRNA AK126698 in 56 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tissue samples and three NSCLC cell lines using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gain and loss of function approaches were used to evaluate the biological function of AK126698 in NSCLC cells. The effects of lncRNA AK126698 on cell proliferation were investigated using cell counting kit-8 and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine assays, and apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Protein levels of AK126698 targets were evaluated by Western blotting. Results: Our results showed that lncRNA AK126698 was significantly downregulated in NSCLC tissues, compared with paired adjacent nontumor tissue samples. Furthermore, lower AK126698 expression was associated with larger tumor size and advanced tumor stage. Ectopic AK126698 expression inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. Conversely, decreased AK126698 expression promoted cell proliferation and migration and inhibited cell apoptosis. Importantly, we demonstrated that Frizzled-8, a receptor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, was a target of AK126698. Furthermore

  18. Selenomethionine promoted hippocampal neurogenesis via the PI3K-Akt-GSK3β-Wnt pathway in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Zhang, Zhong-Hao; Chen, Chen; Chen, Yao; Jia, Shi-Zheng; Liu, Qiong; Ni, Jia-Zuan; Song, Guo-Li

    2017-03-25

    The maintenance of neural system integrity and function is the ultimate goal for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurogenesis plays an integral role in the maintenance of neural and cognitive functions, and its dysfunction is regarded as a major cause of cognitive impairment in AD. Moreover, the induction of neurogenesis by targeting endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) is considered as one of the most promising treatment strategies. Our previous studies demonstrated that selenomethionine (Se-Met) was able to reduce β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) deposition, decrease Tau protein hyperphosphorylation and markedly improve cognitive functions in triple transgenic (3xTg) AD mice. In this study, we reported that the therapeutic effect of Se-Met on AD could also be due to neurogenesis modulation. By using the cultured hippocampal NSCs from 3xTg AD mice, we discovered that Se-Met (1-10 μM) with low concentration could promote NSC proliferation, while the one with a high concentration (50,100 μM) inhibiting proliferation. In subsequent studies, we also found that Se-Met activated the signaling pathway of PI3K/Akt, and thereby inhibited the GSK3β activity, which would further activated the β-catenin/Cyclin-D signaling pathway and promote NSC proliferation. Besides, after the induction of Se-Met, the number of neurons differentiated from NSCs significantly increased, and the number of astrocytes decreased. After a 90-day treatment with Se-Met (6 μg/mL), the number of hippocampal neurons in 4-month-old AD mice increased significantly, while the one of astrocyte saw a sharp drop. Thus, Se-Met treatment promoted NSCs differentiation into neurons, and subsequently repaired damaged neural systems in AD mice. Being consistent with our in vitro studies, Se-Met acts through the PI3K-Akt- GSK3β-Wnt signaling pathway in vivo. This study provides an unparalleled evidence that selenium (Se) compounds are, to some extent, effective in

  19. Moringin activates Wnt canonical pathway by inhibiting GSK3β in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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    Giacoppo S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sabrina Giacoppo,1 Thangavelu Soundara Rajan,1 Gina Rosalinda De Nicola,2 Renato Iori,2 Placido Bramanti,1 Emanuela Mazzon1 1IRCCS Centre Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo”, Messina, Italy; 2Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Centre for Industrial Crops (CREA-CIN, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Aberrant canonical Wnt–β-catenin signaling has been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS, although the results are controversial. The present study aimed to examine the role of the Wnt–β-catenin pathway in experimental MS and also to test moringin (4-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy]-benzyl isothiocyanate, resulting from exogenous myrosinase hydrolysis of the natural phytochemical glucomoringin 4(α-L-rhamnosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolate as a modulator of neuroinflammation via the β-catenin–PPARγ axis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the most common model of MS, was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with MOG35–55. Released moringin (10 mg/kg glucomoringin +5 µL myrosinase/mouse was administered daily for 1 week before EAE induction and continued until mice were killed on day 28 after EAE induction. Our results clearly showed that the Wnt–β-catenin pathway was downregulated in the EAE model, whereas moringin pretreatment was able to avert this. Moringin pretreatment normalizes the aberrant Wnt–β-catenin pathway, resulting in GSK3β inhibition and β-catenin upregulation, which regulates T-cell activation (CD4 and FoxP3, suppresses the main inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, and COX2, through activation of PPARγ. In addition, moringin attenuates apoptosis by reducing the expression of the Fas ligand and cleaved caspase 9, and in parallel increases antioxidant Nrf2 expression in EAE mice. Taken together, our results provide an interesting discovery in identifying moringin as a modulator of the Wnt–β-catenin signaling cascade and as a new potential therapeutic target for MS treatment. Keywords: Wnt

  20. The Wnt Transcriptional Switch: TLE Removal or Inactivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Aravinda-Bharathi; Sinha, Abhishek; Fan, Vinson B; Cadigan, Ken M

    2018-02-01

    Many targets of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway are regulated by TCF transcription factors, which play important roles in animal development, stem cell biology, and oncogenesis. TCFs can regulate Wnt targets through a "transcriptional switch," repressing gene expression in unstimulated cells and promoting transcription upon Wnt signaling. However, it is not clear whether this switch mechanism is a general feature of Wnt gene regulation or limited to a subset of Wnt targets. Co-repressors of the TLE family are known to contribute to the repression of Wnt targets in the absence of signaling, but how they are inactivated or displaced by Wnt signaling is poorly understood. In this mini-review, we discuss several recent reports that address the prevalence and molecular mechanisms of the Wnt transcription switch, including the finding of Wnt-dependent ubiquitination/inactivation of TLEs. Together, these findings highlight the growing complexity of the regulation of gene expression by the Wnt pathway. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Smad, PI3K/Akt, and Wnt-dependent signaling pathways are involved in BMP-4-induced ESC self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Lim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Hun; Han, Ho Jae

    2009-08-01

    It is known that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) has a diverse effect on ESCs. However, its precise mechanism in mouse ESCs is not fully understood. We evaluated the effect of BMP-4 on ESC proliferation and its related signal cascades in this study. BMP-4 significantly increased the level of [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation in time- (> or =8 hours) and dose- (> or =10 ng/ml) dependent manners. Additionally, BMP-4 increased cyclin D1 and decreased p27(kip1) expression values in a time-dependent manner. The increases in BMP-4-induced [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and cyclin D1 expression were inhibited by the BMP-4 receptor antagonist noggin. BMP-4 increased Wnt1 expression. Wnt1 expression was attenuated by Smad4 small interfering RNA (siRNA), and BMP-4-induced cyclin D1 expression was inhibited by Smad4 and Wnt1 siRNAs. BMP-4 also activated beta-catenin, which was blocked by Smad4 and Wnt1 siRNAs. In addition, BMP-4 induced Akt phosphorylation. BMP-4-induced beta-catenin activation and cyclin D1 expression were attenuated by phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) siRNA and Akt inhibitor. Additionally, downregulation of Smad4, Wnt1, and PI3K expression by siRNA decreased the levels of pluripotency marker mRNAs of ESCs, including Oct4, Sox2, and FoxD3. Our results suggested that BMP-4-induced [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation was significantly attenuated by Smad4, Wnt1, and PI3K knockdown. In conclusion, BMP-4 contributed to the maintenance of cell proliferation and the pluripotent state by Smad, PI3K/Akt, and Wnt1/beta-catenin in mouse ESCs.

  2. Mechanisms of Wnt signaling and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Stephanie; Willert, Karl

    2018-03-30

    The Wnt signaling pathway is a highly conserved system that regulates complex biological processes across all metazoan species. At the cellular level, secreted Wnt proteins serve to break symmetry and provide cells with positional information that is critical to the patterning of the entire body plan. At the organismal level, Wnt signals are employed to orchestrate fundamental developmental processes, including the specification of the anterior-posterior body axis, induction of the primitive streak and ensuing gastrulation movements, and the generation of cell and tissue diversity. Wnt functions extend into adulthood where they regulate stem cell behavior, tissue homeostasis, and damage repair. Disruption of Wnt signaling activity during embryonic development or in adults results in a spectrum of abnormalities and diseases, including cancer. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the myriad of Wnt-regulated biological effects have been the subject of intense research for over three decades. This review is intended to summarize our current understanding of how Wnt signals are generated and interpreted. This article is categorized under: Biological Mechanisms > Cell Signaling Developmental Biology > Stem Cell Biology and Regeneration. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The function of endocytosis in Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Lucy; Scholpp, Steffen

    2018-03-01

    Wnt growth factors regulate one of the most important signaling networks during development, tissue homeostasis and disease. Despite the biological importance of Wnt signaling, the mechanism of endocytosis during this process is ill described. Wnt molecules can act as paracrine signals, which are secreted from the producing cells and transported through neighboring tissue to activate signaling in target cells. Endocytosis of the ligand is important at several stages of action: One central function of endocytic trafficking in the Wnt pathway occurs in the source cell. Furthermore, the β-catenin-dependent Wnt ligands require endocytosis for signal activation and to regulate gene transcription in the responding cells. Alternatively, Wnt/β-catenin-independent signaling regulates endocytosis of cell adherence plaques to control cell migration. In this comparative review, we elucidate these three fundamental interconnected functions, which together regulate cellular fate and cellular behavior. Based on established hypotheses and recent findings, we develop a revised picture for the complex function of endocytosis in the Wnt signaling network.

  4. Wnts and wing: Wnt signaling in vertebrate limb development and musculoskeletal morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingzi

    2003-11-01

    In the past twenty years, secreted signaling molecules of the Wnt family have been found to play a central role in controlling embryonic development from hydra to human. In the developing vertebrate limb, Wnt signaling is required for limb bud initiation, early limb patterning (which is governed by several well-characterized signaling centers), and, finally, late limb morphogenesis events. Wnt ligands are unique, in that they can activate several different receptor-mediated signal transduction pathways. The most extensively studied Wnt pathway is the canonical Wnt pathway, which controls gene expression by stabilizing beta-catenin in regulating a diverse array of biological processes. Recently, more attention has been given to the noncanonical Wnt pathway, which is beta-catenin-independent. The noncanonical Wnt pathway signals through activating Ca(2+) flux, JNK activation, and both small and heterotrimeric G proteins, to induce changes in gene expression, cell adhesion, migration, and polarity. Abnormal Wnt signaling leads to developmental defects and human diseases affecting either tissue development or homeostasis. Further understanding of the biological function and signaling mechanism of Wnt signaling is essential for the development of novel preventive and therapeutic approaches of human diseases. This review provides a critical perspective on how Wnt signaling regulates different developmental processes. As Wnt signaling in tumor formation has been reviewed extensively elsewhere, this part is not included in the review of the clinical significance of Wnt signaling.

  5. Overexpression of LncRNA AC067945.2 Down-Regulates Collagen Expression in Skin Fibroblasts and Possibly Correlates with the VEGF and Wnt Signalling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Li, Jingyun; Li, Qian; Li, Xue; Gao, Yanli; Hua, Xiangdong; Zhou, Bei; Li, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are thought to play crucial roles in human diseases. However, the function of lncRNAs in hypertrophic scar formation remains poorly understood. Utilizing qRT-PCR, we explored the expression changes of AC067945.2. Overexpression of AC067945.2 in normal skin fibroblasts was performed by transient plasmid transfection. Western blot was used to check the proteins' expression changes. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and Annexin V/7-AAD staining were used to examine cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. mRNA-seq was applied to dissect the differentially expressed mRNAs in AC067945.2 overexpressed cells. We also performed ELISA to detect the VEGF secretion. AC067945.2 was down-regulated in hypertrophic scar tissues. Overexpression of AC067945.2 did not affect cell proliferation, but it mildly promoted early apoptosis in normal skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, AC067945.2 overexpression inhibited the expression of COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1 and α-SMA proteins. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) could inhibit the expression of AC067945.2. Based on mRNA-seq data, compared with mRNAs in the control group, 138 mRNAs were differentially expressed, including 14 up-regulated and 124 down-regulated transcripts, in the AC067945.2 overexpression group. Gene ontology and pathway analyses revealed that AC067945.2 overexpression was correlated with developmental processes, binding, extracellular region, and the vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and Wnt signalling pathways. ELISA confirmed that AC067945.2 overexpression could repress VEGF secretion. Taken together, our data uncovered the functions of a novel lncRNA AC067945.2, which might help us understand the mechanisms regulated by AC067945.2 in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar formation. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. [Intervention effects of Zuoguiwan containing serum on osteoblast through ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in models with kidney-Yang-deficiency, kidney-Yin-deficiency osteoporosis syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Xin, Jing; Fan, Lian-Xia; Yin, Hua

    2017-10-01

    To clarify the effects of Zuoguiwan containing serum on osteoblast proliferation and alkaline phosphatase(ALP) expression and its effects on the expression of β-catenin, ERK1, ERK2 mRNA and protein of osteoblast through ERK1/2, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in models with osteoporosis(OP) kidney-Yang-deficiency, osteoporosis(OP) kidney-Yin-deficiency syndrome. Rat osteoporosis models were established by ovariectomy surgery, and 10 weeks after surgery, hydrocortisone was injected and thyroxine was administered by intragastric administration to establish OP kidney-Yang-deficiency rat model, and OP kidney-Yin-deficiency rat model. Osteoblasts were obtained from 24 h newborn rat skull and were identified by alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red staining. Zuoguiwan containing serum of OP, OP kidney-Yang-deficiency, and OP kidney-Yin-deficiency, as well as the blank serum were used to intervene the osteoblast, and the cells proliferation was detected by MTS. ELISA assay was used to detect ALP expression. RT-PCR assay was used to detect the mRNA expression of ERK1, ERK2, β-catenin and protein expression levels were detected by Western blot. The results showed that Zuoguiwan containing serum in OP kidney-Yin-deficiency model had stronger effect than OP kidney-Yang-deficiency in promoting osteoblast proliferation, ALP expression, osteoblast ERK1/2, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway related factors β-catenin, ERK1, ERK2 mRNA and protein expression levels. This was consistent with the TCM theory of "Zuoguiwan nourishes kidney Yin", providing a scientific basis for the clinical and dialectical treatment of osteoporosis. Zuoguiwan could regulate the proliferation and differentiation of bone cells by ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which may be one of the mechanisms of Zuoguiwan for the prevention of osteoporosis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Expression of WNT genes in cervical cancer-derived cells: Implication of WNT7A in cell proliferation and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Solano, Moisés; Meza-Canales, Ivan D.; Torres-Reyes, Luis A.; Alvarez-Zavala, Monserrat

    2015-01-01

    According to the multifactorial model of cervical cancer (CC) causation, it is now recognized that other modifications, in addition to Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, are necessary for the development of this neoplasia. Among these, it has been proposed that a dysregulation of the WNT pathway might favor malignant progression of HPV-immortalized keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to identify components of the WNT pathway differentially expressed in CC vs. non-tumorigenic, but immortalized human keratinocytes. Interestingly, WNT7A expression was found strongly downregulated in cell lines and biopsies derived from CC. Restoration of WNT7A in CC-derived cell lines using a lentiviral gene delivery system or after adding a recombinant human protein decreases cell proliferation. Likewise, WNT7A silencing in non-tumorigenic cells markedly accelerates proliferation. Decreased WNT7A expression was due to hypermethylation at particular CpG sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting reduced WNT7A levels in CC-derived cells and that ectopic WNT7A restoration negatively affects cell proliferation and migration. - Highlights: • WNT7A is expressed in normal keratinocytes or cervical cells without lesion. • WNT7A is significantly reduced in cervical cancer-derived cells. • Restoration of WNT7A expression in HeLa decreases proliferation and cell migration. • Silencing of WNT7A in HaCaT induces an increased proliferation and migration rate. • Decreased WNT7A expression in this model is due to hypermethylation

  8. Expression of WNT genes in cervical cancer-derived cells: Implication of WNT7A in cell proliferation and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Solano, Moisés, E-mail: mrsolano84@gmail.com [División de Inmunología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente (CIBO)-Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédica, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud (CUCS), Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Meza-Canales, Ivan D., E-mail: imezacanales@ice.mpg.de [Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Torres-Reyes, Luis A., E-mail: torres_reyes_88@hotmail.com [División de Inmunología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente (CIBO)-Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédica, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud (CUCS), Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Alvarez-Zavala, Monserrat, E-mail: monse_belan@hotmail.com [División de Inmunología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente (CIBO)-Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédica, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud (CUCS), Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); and others

    2015-07-01

    According to the multifactorial model of cervical cancer (CC) causation, it is now recognized that other modifications, in addition to Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, are necessary for the development of this neoplasia. Among these, it has been proposed that a dysregulation of the WNT pathway might favor malignant progression of HPV-immortalized keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to identify components of the WNT pathway differentially expressed in CC vs. non-tumorigenic, but immortalized human keratinocytes. Interestingly, WNT7A expression was found strongly downregulated in cell lines and biopsies derived from CC. Restoration of WNT7A in CC-derived cell lines using a lentiviral gene delivery system or after adding a recombinant human protein decreases cell proliferation. Likewise, WNT7A silencing in non-tumorigenic cells markedly accelerates proliferation. Decreased WNT7A expression was due to hypermethylation at particular CpG sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting reduced WNT7A levels in CC-derived cells and that ectopic WNT7A restoration negatively affects cell proliferation and migration. - Highlights: • WNT7A is expressed in normal keratinocytes or cervical cells without lesion. • WNT7A is significantly reduced in cervical cancer-derived cells. • Restoration of WNT7A expression in HeLa decreases proliferation and cell migration. • Silencing of WNT7A in HaCaT induces an increased proliferation and migration rate. • Decreased WNT7A expression in this model is due to hypermethylation.

  9. Wnt signaling in the intestinal epithelium: from endoderm to cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregorieff, A.; Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Wnt pathway controls cell fate during embryonic development. It also persists as a key regulator of homeostasis in adult self-renewing tissues. In these tissues, mutational deregulation of the Wnt cascade is closely associated with malignant transformation. The intestinal epithelium represents

  10. Diet- and genetically-induced obesity produces alterations in the microbiome, inflammation and Wnt pathway in the intestine of Apc+/1638N mice: comparisons and contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Our previous study indicated that obesity increases activity of the pro-tumorigenic Wnt-signaling. Presently, we sought to further advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which obesity promotes CRC by examining associations be...

  11. Ethanolic Extract of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Gamboge Inhibits Colon Cancer via the Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Pathway in an Orthotopic Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Youran; Chen, Yiqi; Chen, Hongjin; Zhu, Ping; Xu, Minmin; Wang, Hao; Wu, Minna; Yang, Zhijian; Hoffman, Robert M; Gu, Yunfei

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of an ethanolic extract of gamboge (EEG), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), both in vitro on colon cancer cells and in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model of human colon cancer. The in vitro cytotoxicity of EEG on colon cancer cells was determined with the CCK8 proliferation assay and the Annexin V-PE/7-AAD apoptosis assay. Efficacy of EEG in vivo was evaluated in an orthotopic mouse model of human colon cancer implated with the green fluorescent protein-expressing human colon cancer cell line SW480-GFP. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with vehicle (0.2 ml/dose normal saline, po, daily), irinotecan (50 mg/kg/dose, ip, twice a week), 5-FU (15 mg/kg/dose, ip, every other day) as positive controls or EEG at doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg/dose, po, daily. Real-time fluorescence imaging was performed to determine tumor inhibition in each treated group compared to the untreated controls. The protein expression of β-catenin, MMP-7, cyclin D1 and E-cadherin in the tumors was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. EEG significantly induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of SW480 colon cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Tumor growth in the colon-cancer orthotopic model was significantly inhibited by irinotecan, 5-FU and all three doses of EEG. The efficacy of EEG was comparable to irinotecan and 5-FU. Irinotecan, 5-FU and 50 mg/kg EEG significantly decreased the protein expression of β-catenin and MMP-7. Cyclin D1 expression was decreased and E-cadherin expression was increased by irinotecan, 5-FU and all three doses of EEG. The present study demonstrates anti-tumor efficacy of EEG on colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo through inducing proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of SW480 colon cancer cells and inhibiting tumor growth, respectively. EEG exerts anti-tumor activity at least partly via down-regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Copyright© 2018, International

  12. [Effect of ginseng polysaccharide-induced wnt/beta-catenin signal transduction pathway on apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal cancer cells CNE-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jia-Ming; Liu, Ze-Hong; Li, Jing; Wang, Ya-Ping; Yang, Lv-Yuan; Huang, Jiang-Ju

    2013-10-01

    proliferation of CNE-2 cells and promote thier apoptosis. The obstruction of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway may be an important mechanism for GPS to induce the apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal cancer cells CNE-2.

  13. wnt3a but not wnt11 supports self-renewal of embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singla, Dinender K.; Schneider, David J.; LeWinter, Martin M.; Sobel, Burton E.

    2006-01-01

    wnt proteins (wnts) promote both differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic cells and self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be maintained and self-renew on mouse feeder cell layers or in media containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). However, the effects of wnts on ES cells self-renewal and differentiation are not clearly understood. In the present study, we found that conditioned medium prepared from L cells expressing wnt3a can replace feeder cell layers and medium containing LIF in maintaining ES cells in the proliferation without differentiation (self-renewal) state. By contrast, conditioned medium from NIH3T3 cells expressing wnt11 did not. Alkaline phosphatase staining and compact colony formation were used as criteria of cells being in the undifferentiated state. ES cells maintained in medium conditioned by Wnt3a expressing cells underwent freezing and thawing while maintaining properties seen with LIF maintained ES cells. Purified wnt3a did not maintain self-renewal of ES cells for prolonged intervals. Thus, other factors in the medium conditioned by wnt3a expressing cells may have contributed to maintenance of ES cells in a self-renewal state. Pluripotency of ES cells was determined with the use of embryoid bodies in vitro. PD98059, a MEK specific inhibitor, promoted the growth of undifferentiated ES cells maintained in conditioned medium from wnt3a expressing cells. By contrast, the P38 MAPK inhibitor SB230580 did not, suggesting a role for the MEK pathway in self-renewal and differentiation of ES cells maintained in the wnt3a cell conditioned medium. Thus, our results show that conditioned medium from wnt3a but not wnt11 expressing cells can maintain ES cells in self-renewal and in a pluripotent state

  14. Wnt Signaling Cascades and the Roles of Syndecan Proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pataki, Csilla A; Couchman, John R; Brábek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    /planar cell polarity and Wnt/calcium signaling. Syndecans are type I transmembrane proteoglycans with a long evolutionary history, being expressed in all Bilateria and in almost all cell types. Both Wnt pathways have been extensively studied over the past 30 years and shown to have roles during development...... and in a multitude of diseases. Although the first evidence for interactions between syndecans and Wnts dates back to 1997, the number of studies connecting these pathways is low, and many open questions remained unanswered. In this review, syndecan's involvement in Wnt signaling pathways as well as some...

  15. Breast cancer-specific mutations in CK1epsilon inhibit Wnt/beta-catenin and activate the Wnt/Rac1/JNK and NFAT pathways to decrease cell adhesion and promote cell migration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foldynová-Trantírková, Silvie; Sekyrová, Petra; Tmejová, Kateřina; Brumovská, E.; Bernatik, O.; Blankenfeldt, W.; Krejčí, Pavel; Kozubík, Alois; Doležal, Tomáš; Trantírek, Lukáš; Bryja, Vítězslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 3 (2010), R30 ISSN 1465-5411 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/07/0814; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H058 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA204/09/0498; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/09/0587; GA ČR(CZ) KJB501630801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : casein kinase 1 epsilon * Wnt signaling cascade * kinase activity * autophosphorylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.785, year: 2010

  16. Wnt and lithium: a common destiny in the therapy of nervous system pathologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffre, Delphine; Grenier, Julien; Bernard, Sophie; Courtin, Françoise; Dudev, Todor; Shackleford, Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu; Jafarian-Tehrani, Mehrnaz; Massaad, Charbel

    2014-04-01

    Wnt signaling is required for neurogenesis, the fate of neural progenitors, the formation of neuronal circuits during development, neuron positioning and polarization, axon and dendrite development and finally for synaptogenesis. This signaling pathway is also implicated in the generation and differentiation of glial cells. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of action of Wnt signaling pathways and their implication in the development and correct functioning of the nervous system. We also illustrate how a dysregulated Wnt pathway could lead to psychiatric, neurodegenerative and demyelinating pathologies. Lithium, used for the treatment of bipolar disease, inhibits GSK3β, a central enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Thus, lithium could, to some extent, mimic Wnt pathway. We highlight the possible dialogue between lithium therapy and modulation of Wnt pathway in the treatment of the diseases of the nervous system.

  17. [Effect of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt signal pathway molecules β-catenin and GSK-3β and the target genes CD44v6 and VEGF in hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haitao; He, Songqi; Wen, Bin; Jia, Wenyan; Fan, Eryan; Zheng, Yan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of Biejiajian Pills on the expressions of the signal molecules and target genes of Wnt signal pathway in HepG2 cells and explore the mechanisms by which Biejiajian pills suppress the invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma. HepG2 cells were cultured for 48 h in the presence of serum collected from rats fed with Biejiajian Pills. The expressions of β-catenin, GSK-3β and P-GSK-3β in the cultured cells were assessed by Western blotting and the expressions of CD44v6 and VEGF were detected using immunohistochemistry. HepG2 cells cultured with the serum of rats fed with Biejiajian Pills showed lowered expressions of β-catenin protein both in the cytoplasm and the nuclei with also inhibition of phosphorylation of GSK-3β and reduced expression of CD44v6 and VEGF. Biejiajian Pills can significantly reduce the expression of β-catenin by decreasing the phosphorylation of GSK-3β and blocking the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway to cause down-regulation of the target genes CD44v6 and VEGF, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms by which Biejiajian Pills suppress the proliferation and invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Inhibition of H3K9me2 Reduces Hair Cell Regeneration after Hair Cell Loss in the Zebrafish Lateral Line by Down-Regulating the Wnt and Fgf Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dongmei; Lin, Qin; He, Yingzi; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    The activation of neuromast (NM) supporting cell (SC) proliferation leads to hair cell (HC) regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. Epigenetic mechanisms have been reported that regulate HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line, but the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration after HC loss remains poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration following neomycin-induced HC loss. To investigate the effects of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration, we took advantage of the G9a/GLP-specific inhibitor BIX01294 that significantly reduces the dimethylation of H3K9. We found that BIX01294 significantly reduced HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss in the zebrafish lateral line. BIX01294 also significantly reduced the proliferation of NM cells and led to fewer SCs in the lateral line. In situ hybridization showed that BIX01294 significantly down-regulated the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways, which resulted in reduced SC proliferation and HC regeneration in the NMs of the lateral line. Altogether, our results suggest that down-regulation of H3K9me2 significantly decreases HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus H3K9me2 plays a critical role in HC regeneration. PMID:27303264

  19. Inhibition of H3K9me2 Reduces Hair Cell Regeneration after Hair Cell Loss in the Zebrafish Lateral Line by Down-Regulating the Wnt and Fgf Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei eTang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The activation of neuromast supporting cell (SC proliferation leads to hair cell (HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. Epigenetic mechanisms have been reported that regulate HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line, but the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration after HC loss remains poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration following neomycin-induced HC loss. To investigate the effects of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration, we took advantage of the G9a/GLP-specific inhibitor BIX01294 that significantly reduces the dimethylation of H3K9. We found that BIX01294 significantly reduced HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss in the zebrafish lateral line. BIX01294 also significantly reduced the proliferation of neuromast cells and led to fewer SCs in the lateral line. In situ hybridization showed that BIX01294 significantly down-regulated the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways, which resulted in reduced SC proliferation and HC regeneration in the neuromasts of the lateral line. Altogether, our results suggest that down-regulation of H3K9me2 significantly decreases HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus H3K9me2 plays a critical role in HC regeneration.

  20. Amazonian Dark Earths: pathways to sustainable development in tropical rainforests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Schmidt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertile dark anthrosols associated with pre-Columbian settlement across the Amazon Basin have sparked wide interest for their potential contribution to sustainable use and management of tropical soils and ecosystems. In the Upper Xingu region of the southern Amazon, research on archaeological settlements and among contemporary descendant populations provides critical new data on the formation and use of anthrosols. These findings provide a basis for describing the variability of soil modifications that result from diverse human activities and a general model for the formation of Amazonian anthrosols. They underscore the potential for indigenous systems of knowledge and resource management to inform efforts for conservation and sustainable development of Amazonian ecosystems.

  1. Wnt Signaling Is Required for Long-Term Memory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult nervous system, suggesting a potential role in behavioral processes. Here, we probed the requirement for Wnt signaling during olfactory memory formation in Drosophila using an inducible RNAi approach. Interfering with β-catenin expression in adult mushroom body neurons specifically impaired long-term memory (LTM without altering short-term memory. The impairment was reversible, being rescued by expression of a wild-type β-catenin transgene, and correlated with disruption of a cellular LTM trace. Inhibition of wingless, a Wnt ligand, and arrow, a Wnt coreceptor, also impaired LTM. Wingless expression in wild-type flies was transiently elevated in the brain after LTM conditioning. Thus, inhibiting three key components of the Wnt signaling pathway in adult mushroom bodies impairs LTM, indicating that this pathway mechanistically underlies this specific form of memory.

  2. A Study of LGK974 in Patients With Malignancies Dependent on Wnt Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-22

    Pancreatic Cancer; BRAF Mutant Colorectal Cancer; Other Tumor Types With Documented Genetic Alterations Upstream in the Wnt Signaling Pathway; Melanoma; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer

  3. TRIB3 mediates the expression of Wnt5a and activation of nuclear factor-κB in Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide-treated osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Qiu, L; Guo, J; Yang, D; Qu, L; Yu, J; Zhan, F; Xue, M; Zhong, M

    2015-08-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered to be correlated with the progression of bone resorption in periodontal and periapical diseases. Wnt5a has recently been implicated in inflammatory processes, but its role is unclear as a P. endodontalis LPS-induced mediator in osteoblasts. Tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) encodes a pseudokinase and has been linked to inflammation in certain situations. Here, we found that P. endodontalis LPS induced Wnt5a expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and it also upregulated translocation, phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in MC3T3-E1 cells. Bay 11-7082 blocked the translocation of NF-κB and Wnt5a expression induced by P. endodontalis LPS. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay further established that induction of Wnt5a by P. endodontalis LPS was mediated through the NF-κB p65 subunit. Additionally, P. endodontalis LPS increased expression of TRIB3 in osteoblasts after 10 h simulated time. Overexpression of TRIB3 enhanced NF-κB phosphorylation and Wnt5a induction, whereas knockdown of TRIB3 inhibited NF-κB phosphorylation and Wnt5a expression in P. endodontalis LPS-stimulated osteoblasts. These results suggest that P. endodontalis LPS has the ability to promote the expression of Wnt5a in mouse osteoblasts, and this induction is mainly mediated by NF-κB pathway. TRIB3 seems to modulate the sustained expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts stimulated by P. endodontalis LPS, as well as regulating NF-κB phosphorylation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sustainable BECCS pathways evaluated by an integrated assessment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.

    2017-12-01

    Negative emissions technologies, particularly Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS), are key components of mitigation strategies in ambitious future socioeconomic scenarios analysed by integrated assessment models. Generally, scenarios aiming to keep mean global temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial would require net negative carbon emissions in the end of the 21st century. Also, in the context of Paris agreement which acknowledges "a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century", RD&D for the negative emissions technologies in this decade has a crucial role for the possibility of early deployment of the technology. Because of the requirement of potentially extensive use of land and water for producing the bioenergy feedstock to get the anticipated level of gross negative emissions, researches on how to develop sustainable scenarios of BECCS is needed. Here, we present BECCS deployment scenarios that consider economically viable flow of bioenergy system including power generation and conversion process to liquid and gaseous fuels for transportation and heat with consideration of sustainable global biomass use. In the modelling process, detailed bioenergy representations, i.e. various feedstock and conversion technologies with and without CCS, are implemented in an integrated assessment (IA) model GRAPE (Global Relationship Assessment to Protect the Environment). Also, to overcome a general discrepancy about assumed future agricultural yield between 'top-down' IA models and 'bottom-up' estimates, which would crucially affect the land-use pattern, we applied yields change of food and energy crops consistent with process-based biophysical crop models in consideration of changing climate conditions. Using the framework, economically viable strategy for implementing sustainable bioenergy and BECCS flow are evaluated in the scenarios targeting to keep global average

  5. Development of a synthetic pathway for a sustainable plasticizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle

    monooleate originating from sunflower oil. Sunflower oil is less expensive and more accessible compared to castor oil and the SNS-A has been tested to have the same plasticizing effect and non-toxic effects as SNS. However, a sustainable and cheap way of synthesizing SNS-A has not been developed. The aim...... and three different catalysts, known to be efficient in CTH reactions. However, no satisfying results were obtained using CTH as a hydrogenation method. Using molecular hydrogen gas for hydrogenation also resulted in problems. The hydrogenation of the epoxide obtained from epoxidation with peracetic acid...

  6. Functional Wnt signaling is increased in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Königshoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a fatal lung disease, characterized by distorted lung architecture and loss of respiratory function. Alveolar epithelial cell injury and hyperplasia, enhanced extracellular matrix deposition, and (myofibroblast activation are features of IPF. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been shown to determine epithelial cell fate during development. As aberrant reactivation of developmental signaling pathways has been suggested to contribute to IPF pathogenesis, we hypothesized that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated in epithelial cells in IPF. Thus, we quantified and localized the expression and activity of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in IPF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of Wnt1, 3a, 7b, and 10b, the Wnt receptors Fzd1-4, Lrp5-6, as well as the intracellular signal transducers Gsk-3beta, beta-catenin, Tcf1, 3, 4, and Lef1 was analyzed in IPF and transplant donor lungs by quantitative real-time (qRT-PCR. Wnt1, 7b and 10b, Fzd2 and 3, beta-catenin, and Lef1 expression was significantly increased in IPF. Immunohistochemical analysis localized Wnt1, Wnt3a, beta-catenin, and Gsk-3beta expression largely to alveolar and bronchial epithelium. This was confirmed by qRT-PCR of primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII cells, demonstrating a significant increase of Wnt signaling in ATII cells derived from IPF patients. In addition, Western blot analysis of phospho-Gsk-3beta, phospho-Lrp6, and beta-catenin, and qRT-PCR of the Wnt target genes cyclin D1, Mmp 7, or Fibronectin 1 demonstrated increased functional Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in IPF compared with controls. Functional in vitro studies further revealed that Wnt ligands induced lung epithelial cell proliferation and (myofibroblast activation and collagen synthesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrates that the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is expressed and operative in adult lung epithelium. Increased Wnt/beta-catenin signaling

  7. A pathway to a more sustainable water sector: sustainability-based asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, D R; Beale, D J; Burn, S

    2010-01-01

    The water sectors of many countries are faced with the need to address simultaneously two overarching challenges; the need to undertake effective asset management coupled with the broader need to evolve business processes so as to embrace sustainability principles. Research has thus been undertaken into the role sustainability principles play in asset management. As part of this research, a series of 25 in-depth interviews were undertaken with water sector professionals from around Australia. Drawing on the results of these interviews, this paper outlines the conceptual relationship between asset management and sustainability along with a synthesis of the relevant opinions voiced in the interviews. The interviews indicated that the participating water authorities have made a strong commitment to sustainability, but there is a need to facilitate change processes to embed sustainability principles into business as usual practices. Interviewees also noted that asset management and sustainability are interlinked from a number of perspectives, especially in the way decision making is undertaken with respect to assets and service provision. The interviews also provided insights into the research needed to develop a holistic sustainability-based asset management framework.

  8. Nuclear hydrogen - cogeneration and the transitional pathway to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbin, G.M.; Talbot, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the next phase of the Bruce Energy Centre, in cooperation with Ontario Hydro, will see the introduction of a series of integrated energy processes whose end products will have environmental value added. Cogenerated nuclear steam and electricity were selected on the basis of economics, sustainability and carbon emissions. The introduction of hydrogen to combine with CO 2 from alcohol fermentation provided synthetic methanol as a feedstock to refine into ether for the rapidly expanding gasoline fuel additive market, large volumes of O 2 will enhance combustion processes and improve closed-looping of the systems. In the implementation of the commercial development, the first stage will require simultaneous electrolysis, methanol synthesis and additional fermentation capacity. Electricity and steam pricing will be key to viability and an 80-MV 'backup' fossil-fuelled, back pressure turbine cogeneration facility could be introduced in a compatible matter. Successful demonstration of transitional and integrating elements necessary to achieve sustainable development can serve as a model for electric utilities throughout the world. 11 ref., 1 tab., 4 figs

  9. Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans; the role of Wnt signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezzerini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a universal biological process, broadly characterized by the gradual decline of a multitude of physiological functions, ultimately resulting in organismal death. Wnt signaling is a major and highly conserved developmental pathway that guides many important events during organismal

  10. A Monoclonal Antibody against Wnt-1 Induces Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao He

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of the Wingless-type (Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is associated with a variety of human cancers. Little is known regarding the role that Wnt ligands play in human carcinogenesis. To test whether a Wnt-1 signal is a survival factor in human cancer cells and thus may serve as a potential cancer therapeutic target, we investigated the effect of inhibition of Wnt-1 signaling in a variety of human cancer cell lines, including non small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, mesothelioma, and sarcoma. Both monoclonal antibody and RNA interference (RNAi were used to inhibit Wnt-1 signaling. We found that incubation of a monoclonal anti-Wnt-1 antibody induced apoptosis and caused downstream protein changes in cancer cells overexpressing Wnt-1. In contrast, apoptosis was not detected in cells lacking or having minimal Wnt-1 expression after the antibody incubation. RNAi targeting of Wnt-1 in cancer cells overexpressing Wnt-1 demonstrated similar downstream protein changes and induction of apoptosis. The antibody also suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Our results indicate that both monoclonal anti-Wnt-1 antibody and Wnt-1 siRNA inhibit Wnt-1 signaling and can induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. These findings hold promise as a novel therapeutic strategy for cancer.

  11. Distinctive Roles of Canonical and Noncanonical Wnt Signaling in Human Embryonic Cardiomyocyte Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mazzotta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling is a key regulator of vertebrate heart development; however, specific roles for human cardiomyocyte development remain uncertain. Here we use human embryonic stem cells (hESCs to analyze systematically in human cardiomyocyte development the expression of endogenous Wnt signaling components, monitor pathway activity, and dissect stage-specific requirements for canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling mechanisms using small-molecule inhibitors. Our analysis suggests that WNT3 and WNT8A, via FZD7 and canonical signaling, regulate BRACHYURY expression and mesoderm induction; that WNT5A/5B, via ROR2 and noncanonical signaling, regulate MESP1 expression and cardiovascular development; and that later in development WNT2, WNT5A/5B, and WNT11, via FZD4 and FZD6, regulate functional cardiomyocyte differentiation via noncanonical Wnt signaling. Our findings confirm in human development previously proposed roles for canonical Wnt signaling in sequential stages of vertebrate cardiomyogenesis, and identify more precise roles for noncanonical signaling and for individual Wnt signal and Wnt receptor genes in human cardiomyocyte development.

  12. Industrial transformation and shrimp aquaculture in Thailand and Vietnam: pathways to ecological, social, and economic sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Louis; Tri, Nguyen Hoang; Saengnoree, Amnuay; Pasong, Suparb; Buatama, Urasa; Thoa, Le Kim

    2002-06-01

    Shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam is in the process of being transformed into a major industry around the intensification of the production system. The experiences of other countries in the region, especially in Thailand where high input production systems dominate, suggests that now is a critical time for intervention to redirect industry into pathways that are more sustainable ecologically, socially, and economically. In Thailand, years of experience with intensified systems and a complex industrial organization has not led to sustainable solutions. The challenge here is for society to regain control and then to redirect the transformation along more efficient and benign pathways. Our analyses suggest that current pathways in both countries are unlikely to lead to a sustainable industry. A complete transformation of the way shrimp are grown, fed, processed, distributed, and regulated is needed.

  13. ERAD-dependent control of the Wnt secretory factor Evi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Kathrin; Urban, Manuela; Fenech, Emma; Voloshanenko, Oksana; Kranz, Dominique; Lari, Federica; Christianson, John C; Boutros, Michael

    2018-02-15

    Active regulation of protein abundance is an essential strategy to modulate cellular signaling pathways. Within the Wnt signaling cascade, regulated degradation of β-catenin by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) affects the outcome of canonical Wnt signaling. Here, we found that abundance of the Wnt cargo receptor Evi (Wls/GPR177), which is required for Wnt protein secretion, is also regulated by the UPS through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). In the absence of Wnt ligands, Evi is ubiquitinated and targeted for ERAD in a VCP-dependent manner. Ubiquitination of Evi involves the E2-conjugating enzyme UBE2J2 and the E3-ligase CGRRF1. Furthermore, we show that a triaging complex of Porcn and VCP determines whether Evi enters the secretory or the ERAD pathway. In this way, ERAD-dependent control of Evi availability impacts the scale of Wnt protein secretion by adjusting the amount of Evi to meet the requirement of Wnt protein export. As Wnt and Evi protein levels are often dysregulated in cancer, targeting regulatory ERAD components might be a useful approach for therapeutic interventions. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  14. Canonical Wnt signaling transiently stimulates proliferation and enhances neurogenesis in neonatal neural progenitor cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Cordula; Campano, Louise M.; Woehrle, Simon; Hecht, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling triggers the formation of heterodimeric transcription factor complexes consisting of β-catenin and T cell factors, and thereby controls the execution of specific genetic programs. During the expansion and neurogenic phases of embryonic neural development canonical Wnt signaling initially controls proliferation of neural progenitor cells, and later neuronal differentiation. Whether Wnt growth factors affect neural progenitor cells postnatally is not known. Therefore, we have analyzed the impact of Wnt signaling on neural progenitors isolated from cerebral cortices of newborn mice. Expression profiling of pathway components revealed that these cells are fully equipped to respond to Wnt signals. However, Wnt pathway activation affected only a subset of neonatal progenitors and elicited a limited increase in proliferation and neuronal differentiation in distinct subsets of cells. Moreover, Wnt pathway activation only transiently stimulated S-phase entry but did not support long-term proliferation of progenitor cultures. The dampened nature of the Wnt response correlates with the predominant expression of inhibitory pathway components and the rapid actuation of negative feedback mechanisms. Interestingly, in differentiating cell cultures activation of canonical Wnt signaling reduced Hes1 and Hes5 expression suggesting that during postnatal neural development, Wnt/β-catenin signaling enhances neurogenesis from progenitor cells by interfering with Notch pathway activity

  15. Both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling independently promote stem cell growth in mammospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Many

    Full Text Available The characterization of mammary stem cells, and signals that regulate their behavior, is of central importance in understanding developmental changes in the mammary gland and possibly for targeting stem-like cells in breast cancer. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a signaling mechanism associated with maintenance of self-renewing stem cells in many tissues, including mammary epithelium, and can be oncogenic when deregulated. Wnt1 and Wnt3a are examples of ligands that activate the canonical pathway. Other Wnt ligands, such as Wnt5a, typically signal via non-canonical, β-catenin-independent, pathways that in some cases can antagonize canonical signaling. Since the role of non-canonical Wnt signaling in stem cell regulation is not well characterized, we set out to investigate this using mammosphere formation assays that reflect and quantify stem cell properties. Ex vivo mammosphere cultures were established from both wild-type and Wnt1 transgenic mice and were analyzed in response to manipulation of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. An increased level of mammosphere formation was observed in cultures derived from MMTV-Wnt1 versus wild-type animals, and this was blocked by treatment with Dkk1, a selective inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling. Consistent with this, we found that a single dose of recombinant Wnt3a was sufficient to increase mammosphere formation in wild-type cultures. Surprisingly, we found that Wnt5a also increased mammosphere formation in these assays. We confirmed that this was not caused by an increase in canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling but was instead mediated by non-canonical Wnt signals requiring the receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 and activity of the Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK. We conclude that both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signals have positive effects promoting stem cell activity in mammosphere assays and that they do so via independent signaling mechanisms.

  16. Activation of Wnt Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling promotes growth plate column formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Rachel M; Shao, Yvonne Y; Wang, Lai; Ballock, R Tracy

    2012-12-01

    Disrupting the Wnt Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling pathway in vivo results in loss of columnar growth plate architecture, but it is unknown whether activation of this pathway in vitro is sufficient to promote column formation. We hypothesized that activation of the Wnt PCP pathway in growth plate chondrocyte cell pellets would promote columnar organization in these cells that are normally oriented randomly in culture. Rat growth plate chondrocytes were transfected with plasmids encoding the Fzd7 cell-surface Wnt receptor, a Fzd7 deletion mutant lacking the Wnt-binding domain, or Wnt receptor-associated proteins Ror2 or Vangl2, and then cultured as three-dimensional cell pellets in the presence of recombinant Wnt5a or Wnt5b for 21 days. Cellular morphology was evaluated using histomorphometric measurements. Activation of Wnt PCP signaling components promoted the initiation of columnar morphogenesis in the chondrocyte pellet culture model, as measured by histomorphometric analysis of the column index (ANOVA p = 0.01). Activation of noncanonical Wnt signaling through overexpression of both the cell-surface Wnt receptor Fzd7 and receptor-associated protein Ror2 with addition of recombinant Wnt5a promotes the initiation of columnar architecture of growth plate chondrocytes in vitro, representing an important step toward growth plate regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  17. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Erin Searcy; Kara Cafferty; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Johnson; Zhichao Wang; Michael Wang; Mary Biddy; Abhijit Dutta; Daniel Inman; Eric Tan; Sue Jones; Lesley Snowden-Swan

    2013-11-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) collaborates with industrial, agricultural, and non-profit partners to develop and deploy biofuels and other biologically-derived products. As part of this effort, BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels as part state of technology (SOT) analyses. An SOT assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available. Overall assessments of biofuel pathways begin with feedstock production and the logistics of transporting the feedstock from the farm or plantation to the conversion facility or biorefinery. The conversion process itself is modeled in detail as part of the SOT analysis. The teams then develop an estimate of the biofuel minimum selling price (MSP) and assess the cost competitiveness of the biofuel with conventional fuels such as gasoline.

  18. Wnt/β-catenin signaling: new (and old) players and new insights

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, He; He, Xi

    2008-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling has central roles in embryogenesis and human diseases including cancer. A central scheme of the Wnt pathway is to stabilize the transcription coactivator β-catenin by preventing its phosphorylation-dependent degradation. Significant progress has been made towards the understanding of this critical regulatory pathway, including the protein complex that promotes β-catenin phosphorylation-degradation, and the mechanism by which the extracellular Wnt ligand engages cell su...

  19. WNT7b mediates macrophage-induced programmed cell death in patterning of the vasculature

    OpenAIRE

    Lobov, Ivan B.; Rao, Sujata; Carroll, Thomas J.; Vallance, Jefferson E.; Ito, Masataka; Ondr, Jennifer K.; Kurup, Savita; Glass, Donald A.; Patel, Millan S.; Shu, Weiguo; Morrisey, Edward E.; McMahon, Andrew P.; Karsenty, Gerard; Lang, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Macrophages have a critical role in inflammatory and immune responses through their ability to recognize and engulf apoptotic cells1. Here we show that macrophages initiate a cell-death programme in target cells by activating the canonical WNT pathway. We show in mice that macrophage WNT7b is a short-range paracrine signal required for WNT-pathway responses and programmed cell death in the vascular endothelial cells of the temporary hyaloid vessels of the developing eye. These findings indica...

  20. The nuclear receptor NHR-25 cooperates with the Wnt/ .beta.-catenin asymmetry pathway to control differentiation of the T seam cell in C. elegans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajdušková, Martina; Jindra, Marek; Herman, M. A.; Asahina, Masako

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 17 (2009), s. 3051-3060 ISSN 0021-9533 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/0948; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H058; GA MŠk 2B06129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : nuclear receptor * Wnt /.beta.-catenin signaling * Caenorhabditis elegans Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.144, year: 2009

  1. Wnt/β-catenin signaling activates nephronectin expression in osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, Mikiko; Yamada, Atsushi; Morimura, Naoko; Itose, Masakatsu; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Shirota, Tatsuo; Chikazu, Daichi; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2017-01-01

    Nephronectin (Npnt), an extracellular matrix protein, is considered to play critical roles as an adhesion molecule in the development and functions of various organs and tissues, such as the kidneys and bone. In the present study, we found that Wnt3a strongly enhanced Npnt mRNA expression in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, while it also induced an increase in Npnt gene expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These results suggest novel mechanisms for Wnt3a-induced osteoblast proliferation and cell survival via Npnt gene expression. - Highlights: • Wnt3a enhances nephronectin gene expression. • Nephronectin gene induction by Wnt3a is occurred by time- and dose-dependent manner. • Expression of nephronectin is regulated via β-catenin activation.

  2. Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten der nicht-kanonischen Wnt-Liganden Wnt5a und Wnt11

    OpenAIRE

    Wallkamm, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Die nicht-kanonischen Zweige des Wnt-Signalnetzwerkes sind Regulatoren der konvergenten Extension während der Xenopus Gastrulation. Dabei übernehmen die nicht-kanonischen Wnt-Liganden Wnt5a und Wnt11 nicht-redundante Aufgaben.

  3. Wnt5a regulates midbrain dopaminergic axon growth and guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brette D Blakely

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During development, precise temporal and spatial gradients are responsible for guiding axons to their appropriate targets. Within the developing ventral midbrain (VM the cues that guide dopaminergic (DA axons to their forebrain targets remain to be fully elucidated. Wnts are morphogens that have been identified as axon guidance molecules. Several Wnts are expressed in the VM where they regulate the birth of DA neurons. Here, we describe that a precise temporo-spatial expression of Wnt5a accompanies the development of nigrostriatal projections by VM DA neurons. In mice at E11.5, Wnt5a is expressed in the VM where it was found to promote DA neurite and axonal growth in VM primary cultures. By E14.5, when DA axons are approaching their striatal target, Wnt5a causes DA neurite retraction in primary cultures. Co-culture of VM explants with Wnt5a-overexpressing cell aggregates revealed that Wnt5a is capable of repelling DA neurites. Antagonism experiments revealed that the effects of Wnt5a are mediated by the Frizzled receptors and by the small GTPase, Rac1 (a component of the non-canonical Wnt planar cell polarity pathway. Moreover, the effects were specific as they could be blocked by Wnt5a antibody, sFRPs and RYK-Fc. The importance of Wnt5a in DA axon morphogenesis was further verified in Wnt5a-/- mice, where fasciculation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB as well as the density of DA neurites in the MFB and striatal terminals were disrupted. Thus, our results identify a novel role of Wnt5a in DA axon growth and guidance.

  4. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β exerts anti-cancer effects through inducing ER stress in human glioma U87 cells: Involvement of CHOP–Wnt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Lei; Lei, Hui; Chang, Ming-Ze; Liu, Zhi-Qin [Department of Neurological Disease, Xi' an Central Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710000 (China); Bie, Xiao-Hua, E-mail: biexiaohua_xjtu@126.com [Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Xi' an Red Cross Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China)

    2015-07-10

    We previously identified 14-3-3β as a tumor-specific isoform of 14-3-3 protein in astrocytoma, but its functional role in glioma cells and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 14-3-3β inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results showed that 14-3-3β is highly expressed in U87 cells but not in normal astrocyte SVGp12 cells. Knockdown of 14-3-3β by Si-14-3-3β transfection significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a time-dependent fashion in U87 cells, and these effects were accompanied with G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, 14-3-3β knockdown induced ER stress in U87 cells, as evidenced by ER calcium release, increased expression of XBP1S mRNA and induction of ER related pro-apoptotic factors. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β significantly decreased the nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibited Topflash activity, which was shown to be reversely correlated with CHOP. Furthermore, Si-CHOP and sFRP were used to inhibit CHOP and Wnt, respectively. The results showed that the anti-cancer effects of 14-3-3β knockdown in U87 cells were mediated by increased expression of CHOP and followed inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In summary, the remarkable efficiency of 14-3-3β knockdown to induce apoptotic cell death in U87 cells may find therapeutic application for the treatment of glioma patients. - Highlights: • Knockdown of 14-3-3β leads to cytotoxicity in human glioma U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β results in ER stress in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway via CHOP activation.

  5. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β exerts anti-cancer effects through inducing ER stress in human glioma U87 cells: Involvement of CHOP–Wnt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Lei; Lei, Hui; Chang, Ming-Ze; Liu, Zhi-Qin; Bie, Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified 14-3-3β as a tumor-specific isoform of 14-3-3 protein in astrocytoma, but its functional role in glioma cells and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 14-3-3β inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results showed that 14-3-3β is highly expressed in U87 cells but not in normal astrocyte SVGp12 cells. Knockdown of 14-3-3β by Si-14-3-3β transfection significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a time-dependent fashion in U87 cells, and these effects were accompanied with G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, 14-3-3β knockdown induced ER stress in U87 cells, as evidenced by ER calcium release, increased expression of XBP1S mRNA and induction of ER related pro-apoptotic factors. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β significantly decreased the nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibited Topflash activity, which was shown to be reversely correlated with CHOP. Furthermore, Si-CHOP and sFRP were used to inhibit CHOP and Wnt, respectively. The results showed that the anti-cancer effects of 14-3-3β knockdown in U87 cells were mediated by increased expression of CHOP and followed inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In summary, the remarkable efficiency of 14-3-3β knockdown to induce apoptotic cell death in U87 cells may find therapeutic application for the treatment of glioma patients. - Highlights: • Knockdown of 14-3-3β leads to cytotoxicity in human glioma U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β results in ER stress in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway via CHOP activation

  6. Expression of WNT5A in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Its Control by TGF-β and WNT7B in Human Lung Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Donna R; Sills, W Shane; Hanrahan, Katherine; Ziegler, Amanda; Tidd, Kathleen McGinnis; Cook, Elizabeth; Sannes, Philip L

    2016-02-01

    The wingless (Wnt) family of signaling ligands contributes significantly to lung development and is highly expressed in patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). We sought to define the cellular distribution of Wnt5A in the lung tissue of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and the signaling ligands that control its expression in human lung fibroblasts and IPF myofibroblasts. Tissue sections from 40 patients diagnosed with IPF or UIP were probed for the immunolocalization of Wnt5A. Further, isolated lung fibroblasts from normal or IPF human lungs, adenovirally transduced for the overexpression or silencing of Wnt7B or treated with TGF-β1 or its inhibitor, were analyzed for Wnt5A protein expression. Wnt5A was expressed in IPF lungs by airway and alveolar epithelium, smooth muscle cells, endothelium, and myofibroblasts of fibroblastic foci and throughout the interstitium. Forced overexpression of Wnt7B with or without TGF-β1 treatment significantly increased Wnt5A protein expression in normal human smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts but not in IPF myofibroblasts where Wnt5A was already highly expressed. The results demonstrate a wide distribution of Wnt5A expression in cells of the IPF lung and reveal that it is significantly increased by Wnt7B and TGF-β1, which, in combination, could represent key signaling pathways that modulate the pathogenesis of IPF. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  7. Effect of micro-nano-hybrid structured hydroxyapatite bioceramics on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell via Wnt signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lixia; Liu, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Jinglei; Chang, Jiang; Xia, Lunguo; Jiang, Lingyong; Wang, Xiuhui; Lin, Kaili; Fang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The surface structure of bioceramic scaffolds is crucial for its bioactivity and osteoinductive ability, and in recent years, human periodontal ligament stem cells have been certified to possess high osteogenic and cementogenic differential ability. In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics with micro-nano-hybrid surface (mnHA [the hybrid of nanorods and microrods]) were fabricated via hydrothermal reaction of the α-tricalcium phosphate granules as precursors in aqueous solution, and the effects of mnHA on the attachment, proliferation, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiations of human periodontal ligament stem cells as well as the related mechanisms were systematically investigated. The results showed that mnHA bioceramics could promote cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and expression of osteogenic/cementogenic-related markers including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), cementum attachment protein (CAP), and cementum protein (CEMP) as compared to the HA bioceramics with flat and dense surface. Moreover, mnHA bioceramics stimulated gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and β-catenin, which are the key genes of canonical Wnt signaling. Moreover, the stimulatory effect on ALP activity and osteogenic and cementogenic gene expression, including that of ALP, OCN, CAP, CEMP, and Runx2 of mnHA bioceramics could be repressed by canonical Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf1 (Dkk1). The results suggested that the HA bioceramics with mnHA could act as promising grafts for periodontal tissue regeneration. PMID:26648716

  8. Crossroads of Wnt and Hippo in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernascone, Ilenia; Martin-Belmonte, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial tissues undergo constant growth and differentiation during embryonic development and to replace damaged tissue in adult organs. These processes are governed by different signaling pathways that ultimately control the expression of genes associated with cell proliferation, patterning, and death. One essential pathway is Wnt, which controls tubulogenesis in several epithelial organs. Recently, Wnt has been closely linked to other signaling pathways, such as Hippo, that orchestrate proliferation and apoptosis to control organ size. There is evidence that epithelial cell junctions may sequester the transcription factors that act downstream of these signaling pathways, which would represent an important aspect of their functional regulation and their influence on cell behavior. Here, we review the transcriptional control exerted by the Wnt and Hippo signaling pathways during epithelial growth, patterning, and differentiation and recent advances in understanding of the regulation and crosstalk of these pathways in epithelial tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Noncanonical Wnt signaling promotes osteoclast differentiation and is facilitated by the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Francisco; Oguma, Junya; Brown, Anthony M.C.; Laurence, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First demonstration of direct role for noncanonical Wnt in osteoclast differentiation. ► Demonstration of Ryk as a Wnt5a/b receptor in inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling. ► Modulation of noncanonical Wnt signaling by a clinically important drug, ritonavir. ► Establishes a mechanism for an important clinical problem: HIV-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Wnt proteins that signal via the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway directly regulate osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, most studies of Wnt-related effects on osteoclasts involve indirect changes. While investigating bone mineral density loss in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment with the protease inhibitor ritonavir (RTV), we observed that RTV decreased nuclear localization of β-catenin, critical to canonical Wnt signaling, in primary human and murine osteoclast precursors. This occurred in parallel with upregulation of Wnt5a and Wnt5b transcripts. These Wnts typically stimulate noncanonical Wnt signaling, and this can antagonize the canonical Wnt pathway in many cell types, dependent upon Wnt receptor usage. We now document RTV-mediated upregulation of Wnt5a/b protein in osteoclast precursors. Recombinant Wnt5b and retrovirus-mediated expression of Wnt5a enhanced osteoclast differentiation from human and murine monocytic precursors, processes facilitated by RTV. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling mediated by Wnt3a suppressed osteoclastogenesis. Both RTV and Wnt5b inhibited canonical, β-catenin/T cell factor-based Wnt reporter activation in osteoclast precursors. RTV- and Wnt5-induced osteoclast differentiation were dependent upon the receptor-like tyrosine kinase Ryk, suggesting that Ryk may act as a Wnt5a/b receptor in this context. This is the first demonstration of a direct role for Wnt signaling pathways and Ryk in regulation of osteoclast differentiation, and its modulation by a clinically important drug, ritonavir. These studies

  10. Wise, a context-dependent activator and inhibitor of Wnt signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itasaki, Nobue; Jones, C Michael; Mercurio, Sara; Rowe, Alison; Domingos, Pedro M; Smith, James C; Krumlauf, Robb

    2003-09-01

    We have isolated a novel secreted molecule, Wise, by a functional screen for activities that alter the anteroposterior character of neuralised Xenopus animal caps. Wise encodes a secreted protein capable of inducing posterior neural markers at a distance. Phenotypes arising from ectopic expression or depletion of Wise resemble those obtained when Wnt signalling is altered. In animal cap assays, posterior neural markers can be induced by Wnt family members, and induction of these markers by Wise requires components of the canonical Wnt pathway. This indicates that in this context Wise activates the Wnt signalling cascade by mimicking some of the effects of Wnt ligands. Activation of the pathway was further confirmed by nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin driven by Wise. By contrast, in an assay for secondary axis induction, extracellularly Wise antagonises the axis-inducing ability of Wnt8. Thus, Wise can activate or inhibit Wnt signalling in a context-dependent manner. The Wise protein physically interacts with the Wnt co-receptor, lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), and is able to compete with Wnt8 for binding to LRP6. These activities of Wise provide a new mechanism for integrating inputs through the Wnt coreceptor complex to modulate the balance of Wnt signalling.

  11. Non-conventional Frizzled ligands and Wnt receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Marijke; Leyns, Luc

    2008-05-01

    The Wnt family of secreted signaling factors plays numerous roles in embryonic development and in stem cell biology. In the adult, Wnt signaling is involved in tissue homeostasis and mutations that lead to the overexpression of Wnt can be linked to cancer. Wnt signaling is transduced intracellularly by the Frizzled (Fzd) family of receptors. In the canonical pathway, accumulation of beta-catenin and the subsequent formation of a complex with T cell factors (TCF) or lymphoid enhancing factors (Lef) lead to target gene activation. The identification of Ryk as an alternative Wnt receptor and the discovery of the novel Fzd ligands Norrie disease protein (NDP) and R-Spondin, changed the traditional view of Wnts binding to Fzd receptors. Mouse R-Spondin cooperates with Wnt signaling and Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor related protein (LRP) to activate beta-catenin dependent gene expression and is involved in processes such as limb and placental development in the mouse. NDP is the product of the Norrie disease gene and controls vascular development in the retina, inner ear and in the female reproductive system during pregnancy. In this review a functional overview of the interactions of the different Wnt and non-Wnt ligands with the Fzd receptors is given as well as a survey of Wnts binding to Ryk and we discuss the biological significance of these interactions.

  12. The Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1, as a target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caraci, Filippo; Busceti, Carla; Biagioni, Francesca; Aronica, Eleonora; Mastroiacovo, Federica; Cappuccio, Irene; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bruno, Valeria; Caricasole, Andrea; Copani, Agata; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2008-01-01

    The canonical Wnt pathway contributes to the regulation of neuronal survival and homeostasis in the CNS. Recent evidence suggests that an increased expression of Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), a secreted protein that negatively modulates the canonical Wnt pathway, is causally related to processes of

  13. Inhibition of canonical WNT signaling attenuates human leiomyoma cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masanori; Yin, Ping; Navarro, Antonia; Moravek, Molly B.; Coon, John S.; Druschitz, Stacy A.; Gottardi, Cara J.; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dysregulation of WNT signaling plays a central role in tumor cell growth and progression. Our goal was to assess the effect of three WNT/β-catenin pathway inhibitors, Inhibitor of β-Catenin And TCF4 (ICAT), niclosamide, and XAV939 on the proliferation of primary cultures of human uterine leiomyoma cells. Design Prospective study of human leiomyoma cells obtained from myomectomy or hysterectomy. Setting University research laboratory. Patient(s) Women (n=38) aged 27–53 years undergoing surgery. Intervention(s) Adenoviral ICAT overexpression or treatment with varying concentrations of niclosamide or XAV939. Main Outcome Measure(s) Cell proliferation, cell death, WNT/β-catenin target gene expression or reporter gene regulation, β-catenin levels and cellular localization. Result(s) ICAT, niclosamide, or XAV939 inhibit WNT/β-catenin pathway activation and exert anti-proliferative effects in primary cultures of human leiomyoma cells. Conclusion(s) Three WNT/β-catenin pathway inhibitors specifically block human leiomyoma growth and proliferation, suggesting that the canonical WNT pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of uterine leiomyoma. Our findings provide rationale for further preclinical and clinical evaluation of ICAT, niclosamide, and XAV939 as candidate anti-tumor agents for uterine leiomyoma. PMID:24534281

  14. Secreted Wnt antagonists in leukemia: A road yet to be paved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Melek; Çalışkan, Ceyda; Yüce, Zeynep; Sercan, Hakki Ogun

    2018-03-28

    Wnt signaling has been a topic of research for many years for its diverse and fundamental functions in physiological (such as embryogenesis, organogenesis, proliferation, tissue repair and cellular differentiation) and pathological (carcinogenesis, congenital/genetic diseases, and tissue degeneration) processes. Wnt signaling pathway aberrations are associated with both solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Unregulated Wnt signaling observed in malignancies may be due to a wide spectrum of abnormalities, from mutations in the genes of key players to epigenetic modifications of Wnt antagonists. Of these, Wnt antagonists are gaining significant attention for their potential of being targets for treatment and inhibition of Wnt signaling. In this review, we discuss and summarize the significance of Wnt signaling antagonists in the pathogenesis and treatment of hematological malignancies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wnt-10b promotes differentiation of skin epithelial cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouji, Yukiteru; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Shiroi, Akira; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the role of Wnt-10b in epithelial differentiation, we investigated the effects of Wnt-10b on adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC). Recombinant Wnt-10b protein (rWnt-10b) was prepared using a gene engineering technique and MPSEC were cultured in its presence, which resulted in morphological changes from cuboidal to spindle-shaped and inhibited their proliferation. Further, involvement of the canonical Wnt signal pathway was also observed. MPSEC treated with rWnt-10b showed characteristics of the hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle, in results of Ayoub Shklar staining and immunocytochemistry. Further, the cells expressed mRNA for differentiated epithelial cells, including keratin 1, keratin 2, loricrin, mHa5, and mHb5, in association with a decreased expression of the basal cell marker keratin 5. These results suggest that Wnt-10b promotes the differentiation of MPSEC

  16. Frizzled-8 receptor is activated by the Wnt-2 ligand in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, Dawn T; Yang, Yi-Lin; Kuchenbecker, Kristopher; Hung, Ming-Szu; Xu, Zhidong; Jablons, David M; You, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Wnt-2 plays an oncogenic role in cancer, but which Frizzled receptor(s) mediates the Wnt-2 signaling pathway in lung cancer remains unclear. We sought to (1) identify and evaluate the activation of Wnt-2 signaling through Frizzled-8 in non-small cell lung cancer, and (2) test whether a novel expression construct dominant negative Wnt-2 (dnhWnt-2) reduces tumor growth in a colony formation assay and in a xenograft mouse model. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to identify the expression of Wnt-2 and Frizzled-8 in 50 lung cancer tissues from patients. The TCF reporter assay (TOP/FOP) was used to detect the activation of the Wnt canonical pathway in vitro. A novel dnhWnt-2 construct was designed and used to inhibit activation of Wnt-2 signaling through Frizzled-8 in 293T, 293, A549 and A427 cells and in a xenograft mouse model. Statistical comparisons were made using Student’s t-test. Among the 50 lung cancer samples, we identified a 91% correlation between the transcriptional increase of Wnt-2 and Frizzled-8 (p<0.05). The Wnt canonical pathway was activated when both Wnt-2 and Frizzled-8 were co-expressed in 293T, 293, A549 and A427 cells. The dnhWnt-2 construct we used inhibited the activation of Wnt-2 signaling in 293T, 293, A549 and A427 cells, and reduced the colony formation of NSCLC cells when β-catenin was present (p<0.05). Inhibition of Wnt-2 activation by the dnhWnt-2 construct further reduced the size and mass of tumors in the xenograft mouse model (p<0.05). The inhibition also decreased the expression of target genes of Wnt signaling in these tumors. We demonstrated an activation of Wnt-2 signaling via the Frizzled-8 receptor in NSCLC cells. A novel dnhWnt-2 construct significantly inhibits Wnt-2 signaling, reduces colony formation of NSCLC cells in vitro and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. The dnhWnt-2 construct may provide a new therapeutic avenue for targeting the Wnt pathway in lung cancer

  17. WNT4 mediates estrogen receptor signaling and endocrine resistance in invasive lobular carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Matthew J; Jacobsen, Britta M; Levine, Kevin; Chen, Jian; Davidson, Nancy E; Lee, Adrian V; Alexander, Caroline M; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2016-09-20

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast typically presents with clinical biomarkers consistent with a favorable response to endocrine therapies, and over 90 % of ILC cases express the estrogen receptor (ER). However, a subset of ILC cases may be resistant to endocrine therapies, suggesting that ER biology is unique in ILC. Using ILC cell lines, we previously demonstrated that ER regulates a distinct gene expression program in ILC cells, and we hypothesized that these ER-driven pathways modulate the endocrine response in ILC. One potential novel pathway is via the Wnt ligand WNT4, a critical signaling molecule in mammary gland development regulated by the progesterone receptor. The ILC cell lines MDA-MB-134-VI, SUM44PE, and BCK4 were used to assess WNT4 gene expression and regulation, as well as the role of WNT4 in estrogen-regulated proliferation. To assess these mechanisms in the context of endocrine resistance, we developed novel ILC endocrine-resistant long-term estrogen-deprived (ILC-LTED) models. ILC and ILC-LTED cell lines were used to identify upstream regulators and downstream signaling effectors of WNT4 signaling. ILC cells co-opted WNT4 signaling by placing it under direct ER control. We observed that ER regulation of WNT4 correlated with use of an ER binding site at the WNT4 locus, specifically in ILC cells. Further, WNT4 was required for endocrine response in ILC cells, as WNT4 knockdown blocked estrogen-induced proliferation. ILC-LTED cells remained dependent on WNT4 for proliferation, by either maintaining ER function and WNT4 regulation or uncoupling WNT4 from ER and upregulating WNT4 expression. In the latter case, WNT4 expression was driven by activated nuclear factor kappa-B signaling in ILC-LTED cells. In ILC and ILC-LTED cells, WNT4 led to suppression of CDKN1A/p21, which is critical for ILC cell proliferation. CDKN1A knockdown partially reversed the effects of WNT4 knockdown. WNT4 drives a novel signaling pathway in ILC cells, with a

  18. New regulatory pathways and incentives for sustainable antibiotics: Recent European & US Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    ) and the COMBACTE and TRANSLOCATION projects under NewDrugs4BadBugs program, involving the EU Commission and the pharma industry. But also national initiatives, such as the successful Danish ban and regulations on antibiotic use in animal production, as well as educational efforts (the European Antibiotic Awareness......New regulatory pathways and incentives for sustainable antibiotics: Recent European & US Initiatives Posted on March 19, 2014 by Timo Minssen Please find attached a ppt presentation on “New regulatory pathways and incentives for sustainable antibiotics: Recent European & US Initiatives” given...... on March 7, 2014 at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. The presentation was followed by a discussion moderated by US patent attorney Melissa Hunter-Ensor, Partner at Saul Ewing, Boston I started out by emphasizing increasing problems of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) on a global level, providing new...

  19. Wnt Signaling in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC accounts for 90% of all kidney cancers. Due to poor diagnosis, high resistance to the systemic therapies and the fact that most RCC cases occur sporadically, current research switched its focus on studying the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC. The aim is the discovery of new effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs and novel diagnostic markers. Besides the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met and VHL/hypoxia cellular signaling pathways, the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RCC is commonly studied. Wnt signaling and its targeted genes are known to actively participate in different biological processes during embryonic development and renal cancer. Recently, studies have shown that targeting this pathway by alternating/inhibiting its intracellular signal transduction can reduce cancer cells viability and inhibit their growth. The targets and drugs identified show promising potential to serve as novel RCC therapeutics and prognostic markers. This review aims to summarize the current status quo regarding recent research on RCC focusing on the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and how its understanding could facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, new drugs and diagnostic biomarkers.

  20. Wnt5a regulates hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and repopulation through the Ryk receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Benjamin J; Nemeth, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Proper regulation of the balance between hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation is necessary to maintain hematopoiesis throughout life. The Wnt family of ligands has been implicated as critical regulators of these processes through a network of signaling pathways. Previously, we have demonstrated that the Wnt5a ligand can induce HSC quiescence through a noncanonical Wnt pathway, resulting in an increased ability to reconstitute hematopoiesis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the Ryk protein, a Wnt ligand receptor that can bind the Wnt5a ligand, regulated the response of HSCs to Wnt5a. We observed that inhibiting Ryk blocked the ability of Wnt5a to induce HSC quiescence and enhance short-term and long-term hematopoietic repopulation. We found that Wnt5a suppressed production of reactive oxygen species, a known inducer of HSC proliferation. The ability of Wnt5a to inhibit ROS production was also regulated by Ryk. From these data, we propose that Wnt5a regulates HSC quiescence and hematopoietic repopulation through the Ryk receptor and that this process is mediated by suppression of reactive oxygen species. © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  1. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an ever-expanding role in stem cell self-renewal, tumorigenesis and cancer chemoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Maryam K.; Shao, Connie; Wang, Jing; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Xin; Collier, Zachary; Tang, Shengli; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Fugui; Huang, Jiayi; Guo, Dan; Lu, Minpeng; Liu, Feng; Liu, Jianxiang; Ma, Chao; Shi, Lewis L.; Athiviraham, Aravind; He, Tong-Chuan; Lee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Wnt signaling transduces evolutionarily conserved pathways which play important roles in initiating and regulating a diverse range of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, calcium homeostasis, and cell polarity. The role of Wnt signaling in control of cell proliferation and stem cell self-renewal is primarily carried out through the canonical pathway, which is the best characterized among the multiple Wnt signaling branches. The past 10 years has seen a rapid expansion in our understanding of the complexity of this pathway, as many new components of Wnt signaling have been identified and linked to signaling regulation, stem cell functions, and adult tissue homeostasis. Additionally, a substantial body of evidence links Wnt signaling to tumorigenesis of many cancer types and implicates it in the development of cancer drug resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms by which dysregulation of Wnt signaling precedes the development and progression of human cancer may hasten the development of pathway inhibitors to augment current therapy. This review summarizes and synthesizes our current knowledge of the canonical Wnt pathway in development and disease. We begin with an overview of the components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and delve into the role this pathway has been shown to play in stemness, tumorigenesis, and cancer drug resistance. Ultimately, we hope to present an organized collection of evidence implicating Wnt signaling in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance to facilitate the pursuit of Wnt pathway modulators that may improve outcomes of cancers in which Wnt signaling contributes to aggressive disease and/or treatment resistance. PMID:27077077

  2. Wnt/β-catenin signaling changes C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation by inducing Id3 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long; Shi, Songting; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Fangfang; Dijke, Peter ten

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expression of Id3 but not Id1 is induced by Wnt3a stimulation in C2C12 cells. ► Wnt3a induces Id3 expression via canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. ► Wnt3a-induced Id3 expression does not depend on BMP signaling activation. ► Induction of Id3 expression is critical determinant in Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and differentiation. -- Abstract: Canonical Wnt signaling plays important roles in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we report that inhibitor of differentiation (Id)3 is a Wnt-inducible gene in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Wnt3a induced Id3 expression in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) also potently induced Id3 expression. However, Wnt-induced Id3 expression occurred independent of the BMP/Smad pathway. Functional studies showed that Id3 depletion in C2C12 cells impaired Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity, an early marker of osteoblast cells. Id3 depletion elevated myogenin induction during myogenic differentiation and partially impaired Wnt3a suppressed myogenin expression in C2C12 cells. These results suggest that Id3 is an important Wnt/β-catenin induced gene in myoblast cell fate determination.

  3. Aneuploidy-Dependent Massive Deregulation of the Cellular Transcriptome and Apparent Divergence of the Wnt/β-catenin Signaling Pathway in Human Rectal Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Marian; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Varma, Sudhir; Simon, Richard; Wangsa, Danny; Barenboim-Stapleton, Linda; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Ried, Thomas; Difilippantonio, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    To identify genetic alterations underlying rectal carcinogenesis, we used global gene expression profiling of a series of 17 locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas and 20 normal rectal mucosa biopsies on oligonucleotide arrays. A total of 351 genes were differentially expressed (P 5-fold difference, and 85 genes always had at least a 2-fold change in all of the matched samples. Twelve genes satisfied all three of these criteria. Altered expression of genes such as PTGS2 (COX-2), WNT1, TGFB1, VEGF, and MYC was confirmed, whereas our data for other genes, like PPARD and LEF1, were inconsistent with previous reports. In addition, we found deregulated expression of many genes whose involvement in rectal carcinogenesis has not been reported. By mapping the genomic imbalances in the tumors using comparative genomic hybridization, we could show that DNA copy number gains of recurrently aneuploid chromosome arms 7p, 8q, 13q, 18q, 20p, and 20q correlated significantly with their average chromosome arm expression profile. Taken together, our results show that both the high-level, significant transcriptional deregulation of specific genes and general modification of the average transcriptional activity of genes residing on aneuploid chromosomes coexist in rectal adenocarcinomas. PMID:16397240

  4. Wnt5 is required for notochord cell intercalation in the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwano, Tomoko; Takatori, Naohito; Kumano, Gaku; Nishida, Hiroki

    2009-08-25

    In the embryos of various animals, the body elongates after gastrulation by morphogenetic movements involving convergent extension. The Wnt/PCP (planar cell polarity) pathway plays roles in this process, particularly mediolateral polarization and intercalation of the embryonic cells. In ascidians, several factors in this pathway, including Wnt5, have been identified and found to be involved in the intercalation process of notochord cells. In the present study, the role of the Wnt5 genes, Hr-Wnt5alpha (Halocynthia roretzi Wnt5alpha) and Hr-Wnt5beta, in convergent extension was investigated in the ascidian H. roretzi by injecting antisense oligonucleotides and mRNAs into single precursor blastomeres of various tissues, including notochord, at the 64-cell stage. Hr-Wnt5alpha is expressed in developing notochord and was essential for notochord morphogenesis. Precise quantitative control of its expression level was crucial for proper cell intercalation. Overexpression of Wnt5 proteins in notochord and other tissues that surround the notochord indicated that Wnt5alpha plays a role within the notochord, and is unlikely to be the source of polarizing cues arising outside the notochord. Detailed mosaic analysis of the behaviour of individual notochord cells overexpressing Wnt5alpha indicated that a Wnt5alpha-manipulated cell does not affect the behaviour of neighbouring notochord cells, suggesting that Wnt5alpha works in a cell-autonomous manner. This is further supported by comparison of the results of Wnt5alpha and Dsh (Dishevelled) knockdown experiments. In addition, our results suggest that the Wnt/PCP pathway is also involved in mediolateral intercalation of cells of the ventral row of the nerve cord (floor plate) and the endodermal strand. The present study highlights the role of the Wnt5alpha signal in notochord convergent extension movements in ascidian embryos. Our results raise the novel possibility that Wnt5alpha functions in a cell-autonomous manner in

  5. Effect of oxygen on cardiac differentiation in mouse iPS cells: role of hypoxia inducible factor-1 and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya L Medley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disturbances in oxygen levels have been found to impair cardiac organogenesis. It is known that stem cells and differentiating cells may respond variably to hypoxic conditions, whereby hypoxia may enhance stem cell pluripotency, while differentiation of multiple cell types can be restricted or enhanced under hypoxia. Here we examined whether HIF-1alpha modulated Wnt signaling affected differentiation of iPS cells into beating cardiomyocytes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether transient and sustained hypoxia affects differentiation of cardiomyocytes derived from murine induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, assessed the involvement of HIF-1alpha (hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and the canonical Wnt pathway in this process. METHODS: Embryoid bodies (EBs derived from iPS cells were differentiated into cardiomyocytes and were exposed either to 24 h normoxia or transient hypoxia followed by a further 13 days of normoxic culture. RESULTS: At 14 days of differentiation, 59 ± 2% of normoxic EBs were beating, whilst transient hypoxia abolished beating at 14 days and EBs appeared immature. Hypoxia induced a significant increase in Brachyury and islet-1 mRNA expression, together with reduced troponin C expression. Collectively, these data suggest that transient and sustained hypoxia inhibits maturation of differentiating cardiomyocytes. Compared to normoxia, hypoxia increased HIF-1alpha, Wnt target and ligand genes in EBs, as well as accumulation of HIF-1alpha and beta-catenin in nuclear protein extracts, suggesting involvement of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia impairs cardiomyocyte differentiation and activates Wnt signaling in undifferentiated iPS cells. Taken together the study suggests that oxygenation levels play a critical role in cardiomyocyte differentiation and suggest that hypoxia may play a role in early cardiogenesis.

  6. Neural Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Involves Activation of the Wnt5a/JNK Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeong Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are a powerful resource for cell-based transplantation therapies, but understanding of stem cell differentiation at the molecular level is not clear yet. We hypothesized that the Wnt pathway controls stem cell maintenance and neural differentiation. We have characterized the transcriptional expression of Wnt during the neural differentiation of hADSCs. After neural induction, the expressions of Wnt2, Wnt4, and Wnt11 were decreased, but the expression of Wnt5a was increased compared with primary hADSCs in RT-PCR analysis. In addition, the expression levels of most Fzds and LRP5/6 ligand were decreased, but not Fzd3 and Fzd5. Furthermore, Dvl1 and RYK expression levels were downregulated in NI-hADSCs. There were no changes in the expression of ß-catenin and GSK3ß. Interestingly, Wnt5a expression was highly increased in NI-hADSCs by real time RT-PCR analysis and western blot. Wnt5a level was upregulated after neural differentiation and Wnt3, Dvl2, and Naked1 levels were downregulated. Finally, we found that the JNK expression was increased after neural induction and ERK level was decreased. Thus, this study shows for the first time how a single Wnt5a ligand can activate the neural differentiation pathway through the activation of Wnt5a/JNK pathway by binding Fzd3 and Fzd5 and directing Axin/GSK-3ß in hADSCs.

  7. Pathways to Sustainability: 8-year follow-up from the PROSPER Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Janet A.; Chilenski, Sarah M.; Johnson, Lesley; Greenberg, Mark T.; Spoth, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The large-scale dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is often hindered by problems with sustaining initiatives past a period of initial grant funding. Communities often have difficulty generating resources needed to sustain and grow their initiatives, resulting in limited public health impact. The PROSPER project, initiated in 2001, provided community coalitions with intensive technical assistance around marketing, communications, and revenue generating strategies. Past reports from PROSPER have indicated that these coalitions were successful with sustaining their programming, and that sustainability could be predicted by early aspects of team functioning and leadership. The current study examines financial sustainability eight years following the discontinuation of grant funding, with an emphasis on sources of revenue and the relationships between revenue generation, team functioning, and EBP participation. This study used four waves of data related to resource generation collected between 2004-2010 by PROSPER teams in Iowa and Pennsylvania. Teams reported annually on the amount and sources of funding procured, as well as annual reports of team functioning and leadership and annual reports of EBP participation by youth and parents. Data revealed that teams' overall revenue generation increased over time. There was significant variation in success with revenue generation at both the community level and across the two states. Teams accessed a variety of sources. Cash revenue generation was positively and predictively associated with EBP participation, but relationships with team functioning and leadership ratings varied significantly by state. State level differences in in-kind support were also apparent. The results indicated that there are different pathways to sustainability, and that no one method works for all teams. The presence of state level infrastructures available to support prevention appeared to account for significant differences in

  8. Mammary Development and Breast Cancer: A Wnt Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing Cissy; Verheyen, Esther M.; Zeng, Yi Arial

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt pathway has emerged as a key signaling cascade participating in mammary organogenesis and breast oncogenesis. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of how the pathway regulates stem cells and normal development of the mammary gland, and discuss how its various components contribute to breast carcinoma pathology. PMID:27420097

  9. Inflammation Intensity-dependent Expression of Osteoinductive Wnt Proteins is Critical for Ectopic New Bone Formation in Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Jianru; Zhan, Zhongping; Li, Sibei; Zheng, Zhaomin; Wang, Taiping; Zhang, Kuibo; Pan, Hehai; Li, Zemin; Zhang, Nu; Liu, Hui

    2018-02-26

    To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the inflammation- related ectopic new bone formation in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Spinal tissues and sera were collected from patients or normal volunteers to detect the expression of Wnt proteins. An in vitro cell culture system mimicking the local inflammatory microenvironment of bone-forming sites was established to study the relationship between inflammation and Wnt expression, the regulatory mechanism of inflammation-induced Wnt expression and the role of Wnt signaling in new bone formation. A modified collagen-induced arthritis (mCIA) and a proteoglycan -induced spondylitis (PGIS) animal model were used to confirm the key findings in vivo. The levels of osteoinductive Wnt proteins were obviously increased in the sera and spinal ligament tissues of patients with AS. Only constitutive low-intensity TNF-α stimulation, but not short-term or high-intensity TNF-α stimulation, induced persistent expression of osteoinductive Wnt proteins and subsequent bone formation through NF-κB (p65) and JNK/AP-1 (c-Jun) signaling pathways. Furthermore, inhibition of either Wnt/β-catenin or Wnt/PKCδ pathway significantly suppressed new bone formation. The increased expression of Wnt proteins was confirmed in both mCIA and PGIS models. A kyphotic and ankylosing phenotype of the spine was observed during long-term observation in mCIA model. Inhibition of either Wnt/β-catenin or Wnt/PKCδ signaling pathway significantly reduced the incidence and severity of this phenotype. Inflammation intensity-dependent expression of osteoinductive Wnt proteins is a key link between inflammation and ectopic new bone formation in AS. Activation of both canonical Wnt/β-catenin and noncanonical Wnt/PKCδ pathways is required for inflammation-induced new bone formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of Melanogenesis by Gallic Acid: Possible Involvement of the PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways in B16F10 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tzu-Rong; Lin, Jen-Jie; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Huang, Tsu-Kei; Yang, Zih-Yan; Wu, Ming-O; Zheng, Yu-Qing; Su, Ching-Chyuan; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is one of the major flavonoids found in plants. It acts as an antioxidant, and seems to have anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of gallic acid on melanogenesis, including the activation of melanogenesis signaling pathways. Gallic acid significantly inhibited both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and decreased the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase (Dct). In addition, gallic acid also acts by phosphorylating and activating melanogenesis inhibitory proteins such as Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Using inhibitors against PI3K/Akt (LY294002) or MEK/ERK-specific (PD98059), the hypopigmentation effect was suppressed, and the gallic acid-initiated activation of MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt was also revoked. Gallic acid also increased GSK3β and p-β-catenin expression but down-regulated p-GSK3β. Moreover, GSK3β-specific inhibitor (SB216763) restored gallic acid-induced melanin reduction. These results suggest that activation of the MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, and inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways is involved in the melanogenesis signaling cascade, and that activation by gallic acid reduces melanin synthesis via down-regulation of MITF and its downstream signaling pathway. In conclusion, gallic acid may be a potentially agent for the treatment of certain skin conditions. PMID:24129178

  11. Inhibition of Melanogenesis by Gallic Acid: Possible Involvement of the PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways in B16F10 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Wu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gallic acid is one of the major flavonoids found in plants. It acts as an antioxidant, and seems to have anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of gallic acid on melanogenesis, including the activation of melanogenesis signaling pathways. Gallic acid significantly inhibited both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and decreased the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP1, and dopachrome tautomerase (Dct. In addition, gallic acid also acts by phosphorylating and activating melanogenesis inhibitory proteins such as Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK. Using inhibitors against PI3K/Akt (LY294002 or MEK/ERK-specific (PD98059, the hypopigmentation effect was suppressed, and the gallic acid-initiated activation of MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt was also revoked. Gallic acid also increased GSK3β and p-β-catenin expression but down-regulated p-GSK3β. Moreover, GSK3β-specific inhibitor (SB216763 restored gallic acid-induced melanin reduction. These results suggest that activation of the MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, and inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways is involved in the melanogenesis signaling cascade, and that activation by gallic acid reduces melanin synthesis via down-regulation of MITF and its downstream signaling pathway. In conclusion, gallic acid may be a potentially agent for the treatment of certain skin conditions.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of Wnt3a-treated triple-negative breast cancer cells.

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    Sylvie Maubant

    Full Text Available The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is activated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC. The activation of this pathway leads to the expression of specific target genes depending on the cell/tissue context. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome of two different TNBC cell lines to define a comprehensive list of Wnt target genes. The treatment of cells with Wnt3a for 6h up-regulated the expression (fold change > 1.3 of 59 genes in MDA-MB-468 cells and 241 genes in HCC38 cells. Thirty genes were common to both cell lines. Beta-catenin may also be a transcriptional repressor and we found that 18 and 166 genes were down-regulated in response to Wnt3a treatment for 6h in MDA-MB-468 and HCC38 cells, respectively, of which six were common to both cell lines. Only half of the activated and the repressed transcripts have been previously described as Wnt target genes. Therefore, our study reveals 137 novel genes that may be positively regulated by Wnt3a and 104 novel genes that may be negatively regulated by Wnt3a. These genes are involved in the Wnt pathway itself, and also in TGFβ, p53 and Hedgehog pathways. Thorough characterization of these novel potential Wnt target genes may reveal new regulators of the canonical Wnt pathway. The comparison of our list of Wnt target genes with those published in other cellular contexts confirms the notion that Wnt target genes are tissue-, cell line- and treatment-specific. Genes up-regulated in Wnt3a-stimulated cell lines were more strongly expressed in TNBC than in luminal A breast cancer samples. These genes were also overexpressed, but to a much lesser extent, in HER2+ and luminal B tumors. We identified 72 Wnt target genes higher expressed in TNBCs (17 with a fold change >1.3 which may reflect the chronic activation of the canonical Wnt pathway that occurs in TNBC tumors.

  13. Variant allele frequency enrichment analysis in vitro reveals sonic hedgehog pathway to impede sustained temozolomide response in GBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Nidhan K; Chandra, Vikas; Sarkar-Roy, Neeta; Das, Tapojyoti; Bhattacharya, Rabindra N; Tripathy, Laxmi N; Basu, Sunandan K; Kumar, Shantanu; Das, Subrata; Chatterjee, Ankita; Mukherjee, Ankur; Basu, Pryiadarshi; Maitra, Arindam; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman; Basu, Analabha; Dhara, Surajit

    2015-01-21

    Neoplastic cells of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) may or may not show sustained response to temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. We hypothesize that TMZ chemotherapy response in GBM is predetermined in its neoplastic clones via a specific set of mutations that alter relevant pathways. We describe exome-wide enrichment of variant allele frequencies (VAFs) in neurospheres displaying contrasting phenotypes of sustained versus reversible TMZ-responses in vitro. Enrichment of VAFs was found on genes ST5, RP6KA1 and PRKDC in cells showing sustained TMZ-effect whereas on genes FREM2, AASDH and STK36, in cells showing reversible TMZ-effect. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) revealed that these genes alter cell-cycle, G2/M-checkpoint-regulation and NHEJ pathways in sustained TMZ-effect cells whereas the lysine-II&V/phenylalanine degradation and sonic hedgehog (Hh) pathways in reversible TMZ-effect cells. Next, we validated the likely involvement of the Hh-pathway in TMZ-response on additional GBM neurospheres as well as on GBM patients, by extracting RNA-sequencing-based gene expression data from the TCGA-GBM database. Finally, we demonstrated TMZ-sensitization of a TMZ non-responder neurosphere in vitro by treating them with the FDA-approved pharmacological Hh-pathway inhibitor vismodegib. Altogether, our results indicate that the Hh-pathway impedes sustained TMZ-response in GBM and could be a potential therapeutic target to enhance TMZ-response in this malignancy.

  14. WNT5A inhibits human dental papilla cell proliferation and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, L.; Ye, L.; Dong, G.; Ren, L.B.; Wang, C.L.; Xu, P.; Zhou, X.D.

    2009-01-01

    WNT proteins are a large family of cysteine-rich secreted molecules that are linked to both canonical and non-canonical signal pathways, and have been implicated in oncogenesis and tissue development. Canonical WNT proteins have been proven to play critical roles in tooth development, while little is known about the role of non-canonical WNT proteins such as WNT5A. In this study, WNT5A was localized to human dental papilla tissue and human dental papilla cells (HDPCs) cultured in vitro, using immunochemistry and RT-PCR. Recombinant adenovirus encoding full-length Wnt5a cDNA was constructed to investigate the biological role of WNT5A on HDPCs. The BrdU incorporation assay, the MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis showed that over-expression of Wnt5a strongly inhibited the proliferation of HDPCs in vitro. Wound healing and transwell migration assays indicated that over-expression of WNT5A reduced migration of HDPCs. In conclusion, our results showed that WNT5A negatively regulates both proliferation and migration of HDPCs, suggesting its important role in odontogenesis via controlling the HDPCs.

  15. Indian Hedgehog is an antagonist of Wnt signaling in colonic epithelial cell differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Gijs R.; Bleuming, Sylvia A.; Hardwick, James C. H.; Schepman, Berber L.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Keller, Josbert J.; Nielsen, Corinne; Gaffield, William; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; Roberts, Drucilla J.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2004-01-01

    Wnt signaling defines the colonic epithelial progenitor cell phenotype(1), and mutations in the gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) that activate the Wnt pathway cause the familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP) syndrome and most sporadic colon cancers(2). The mechanisms that regulate the

  16. NRAGE induces β-catenin/Arm O-GlcNAcylation and negatively regulates Wnt signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuxin; Jin, Lei; Xue, Bin; Jin, Dong; Sun, Fenyong; Wen, Chuanjun

    2017-01-01

    The Wnt pathway is crucial for animal development, as well as tumor formation. Understanding the regulation of Wnt signaling will help to elucidate the mechanism of the cell cycle, cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. It is generally accepted that in response to Wnt signals, β-catenin accumulates in the cytoplasm and is imported into the nucleus where it recruits LEF/TCF transcription factors to activate the expression of target genes. In this study, we report that human NRAGE, a neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR) binding protein, markedly suppresses the expression of genes activated by the Wnt pathway. Consistent with this finding, loss of function of NRAGE by RNA interference (RNAi) activates the Wnt pathway. Moreover, NRAGE suppresses the induction of axis duplication by microinjected β-catenin in Xenopus embryos. To our surprise, NRAGE induces nuclear localization of β-catenin and increases its DNA binding ability. Further studies reveal that NRAGE leads to the modification of β-catenin/Arm with O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), and failure of the association between β-catenin/Arm and pygopus(pygo) protein, which is required for transcriptional activation of Wnt target genes. Therefore, our findings suggest a novel mechanism for regulating Wnt signaling. - Highlights: • NRAGE suppresses the expressions of Wnt pathway downstream genes. • NRAGE induces nuclear localization of β-catenin and increases its DNA binding ability. • NRAGE activity leads to the O-GlcNAcylation of β-catenin.

  17. Wnt-5a/Frizzled9 Receptor Signaling through the Gαo-Gβγ Complex Regulates Dendritic Spine Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Valerie T.; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Henríquez, Juan Pablo; Lorenzo, Alfredo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2016-01-01

    Wnt ligands play crucial roles in the development and regulation of synapse structure and function. Specifically, Wnt-5a acts as a secreted growth factor that regulates dendritic spine formation in rodent hippocampal neurons, resulting in postsynaptic development that promotes the clustering of the PSD-95 (postsynaptic density protein 95). Here, we focused on the early events occurring after the interaction between Wnt-5a and its Frizzled receptor at the neuronal cell surface. Additionally, we studied the role of heterotrimeric G proteins in Wnt-5a-dependent synaptic development. We report that FZD9 (Frizzled9), a Wnt receptor related to Williams syndrome, is localized in the postsynaptic region, where it interacts with Wnt-5a. Functionally, FZD9 is required for the Wnt-5a-mediated increase in dendritic spine density. FZD9 forms a precoupled complex with Gαo under basal conditions that dissociates after Wnt-5a stimulation. Accordingly, we found that G protein inhibition abrogates the Wnt-5a-dependent pathway in hippocampal neurons. In particular, the activation of Gαo appears to be a key factor controlling the Wnt-5a-induced dendritic spine density. In addition, we found that Gβγ is required for the Wnt-5a-mediated increase in cytosolic calcium levels and spinogenesis. Our findings reveal that FZD9 and heterotrimeric G proteins regulate Wnt-5a signaling and dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons. PMID:27402827

  18. Avoiding, transforming, transitioning: pathways to sustainable low carbon passenger transport in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Fulton, Lewis; Tiwari, Geetam

    2013-01-01

    This review examines conditions affecting road passenger transport in developing countries that can be instrumental to building a pathway for reducing carbon emissions while concurrently meeting sustainable development goals. By contrasting present and future status of these conditions a vision...... in motorized travel are also necessary from OECD countries; the focus there is given to what level of pricing and regulatory interventions could change behavior. The articulation of detailed visions can help clarify and prioritize areas where policy efforts can have great impact. Strong actions are necessary...

  19. Activation of Wnt Signaling in Cortical Neurons Enhances Glucose Utilization through Glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, Pedro; Salazar, Paulina; Silva-Álvarez, Carmen; Barros, L Felipe; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-12-09

    The Wnt signaling pathway is critical for a number of functions in the central nervous system, including regulation of the synaptic cleft structure and neuroprotection against injury. Deregulation of Wnt signaling has been associated with several brain pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease. In recent years, it has been suggested that the Wnt pathway might act as a central integrator of metabolic signals from peripheral organs to the brain, which would represent a new role for Wnt signaling in cell metabolism. Energy metabolism is critical for normal neuronal function, which mainly depends on glucose utilization. Brain energy metabolism is important in almost all neurological disorders, to which a decrease in the capacity of the brain to utilize glucose has been linked. However, little is known about the relationship between Wnt signaling and neuronal glucose metabolism in the cellular context. In the present study, we found that acute treatment with the Wnt3a ligand induced a large increase in glucose uptake, without changes in the expression or localization of glucose transporter type 3. In addition, we observed that Wnt3a treatment increased the activation of the metabolic sensor Akt. Moreover, we observed an increase in the activity of hexokinase and in the glycolytic rate, and both processes were dependent on activation of the Akt pathway. Furthermore, we did not observe changes in the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase or in the pentose phosphate pathway. The effect of Wnt3a was independent of both the transcription of Wnt target genes and synaptic effects of Wnt3a. Together, our results suggest that Wnt signaling stimulates glucose utilization in cortical neurons through glycolysis to satisfy the high energy demand of these cells. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Secreted Frizzled-related protein-2 (sFRP2) augments canonical Wnt3a-induced signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschall, Zofia von [Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases Branch, NIDCR, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States); Fisher, Larry W., E-mail: lfisher@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases Branch, NIDCR, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} sFRP2 enhances the Wnt3a-induced {beta}-catenin stabilization and its nuclear translocation. {yields} sFRP2 enhances LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt3a/{beta}-catenin transcriptional reporter activity. {yields} Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) fully antagonizes both Wnt3a/sFRP2-induced LRP6 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity. {yields} sFRP2 enhances expression of genes known to be regulated by Wnt3a signaling. -- Abstract: Secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRP) are involved in embryonic development as well as pathological conditions including bone and myocardial disorders and cancer. Because of their sequence homology with the Wnt-binding domain of Frizzled, they have generally been considered antagonists of canonical Wnt signaling. However, additional activities of various sFRPs including both synergism and mimicry of Wnt signaling as well as functions other than modulation of Wnt signaling have been reported. Using human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293A), we found that sFRP2 enhanced Wnt3a-dependent phosphorylation of LRP6 as well as both cytosolic {beta}-catenin levels and its nuclear translocation. While addition of recombinant sFRP2 had no activity by itself, Top/Fop luciferase reporter assays showed a dose-dependent increase of Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional activity. sFRP2 enhancement of Wnt3a signaling was abolished by treatment with the Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). Wnt-signaling pathway qPCR arrays showed that sFRP2 enhanced the Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional up-regulation of several genes regulated by Wnt3a including its antagonists, DKK1, and Naked cuticle-1 homolog (NKD1). These results support sFRP2's role as an enhancer of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling, a result with biological impact for both normal development and diverse pathologies such as tumorigenesis.

  1. Secreted Frizzled-related protein-2 (sFRP2) augments canonical Wnt3a-induced signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschall, Zofia von; Fisher, Larry W.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → sFRP2 enhances the Wnt3a-induced β-catenin stabilization and its nuclear translocation. → sFRP2 enhances LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt3a/β-catenin transcriptional reporter activity. → Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) fully antagonizes both Wnt3a/sFRP2-induced LRP6 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity. → sFRP2 enhances expression of genes known to be regulated by Wnt3a signaling. -- Abstract: Secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRP) are involved in embryonic development as well as pathological conditions including bone and myocardial disorders and cancer. Because of their sequence homology with the Wnt-binding domain of Frizzled, they have generally been considered antagonists of canonical Wnt signaling. However, additional activities of various sFRPs including both synergism and mimicry of Wnt signaling as well as functions other than modulation of Wnt signaling have been reported. Using human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293A), we found that sFRP2 enhanced Wnt3a-dependent phosphorylation of LRP6 as well as both cytosolic β-catenin levels and its nuclear translocation. While addition of recombinant sFRP2 had no activity by itself, Top/Fop luciferase reporter assays showed a dose-dependent increase of Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional activity. sFRP2 enhancement of Wnt3a signaling was abolished by treatment with the Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). Wnt-signaling pathway qPCR arrays showed that sFRP2 enhanced the Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional up-regulation of several genes regulated by Wnt3a including its antagonists, DKK1, and Naked cuticle-1 homolog (NKD1). These results support sFRP2's role as an enhancer of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a result with biological impact for both normal development and diverse pathologies such as tumorigenesis.

  2. Identification and expression characterization of WntA during intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoni; Sun, Lina; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhang, Libin; Miao, Ting; Xing, Lili; Huo, Da

    2017-08-01

    Wnt genes encode secreted glycoproteins that act as signaling molecules; these molecules direct cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival during animal development, maintenance of homeostasis and regeneration. At present, although the regeneration mechanism in Apostichopus japonicus has been studied, there is a little research on the Wnt signaling pathway in A. japonicus. To understand the potential role of the Wnt signaling pathway in A. japonicus, we cloned and sequenced the WntA gene in A. japonicus. Protein localization analysis showed that WntA protein was ubiquitously expressed in epidermal cells, the muscle and submucosa of the intestinal tissue. After stimulation and evisceration, the dynamic changes in expression of the WntA gene and protein showed that WntA was constitutively expressed during different stages of intestine regeneration in A. japonicus, with higher levels during the early wound healing stage and late lumen formation in the residual and nascent intestinal tissues, indicating its response to intestinal regeneration. Simultaneously, cell proliferation and apoptosis analysis showed that the patterns of cell proliferation were similar to the patterns of WntA protein expression during different intestinal regeneration stages in this organism. Taken together, these results suggested that WntA might participate in intestinal regeneration and may be connected with cell proliferation, apoptosis in different intestinal layers. This research could establish a basis for further examination of WntA functions in A. japonicus and Wnt genes in other echinoderms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endocardial to myocardial notch-wnt-bmp axis regulates early heart valve development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Wang

    Full Text Available Endocardial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT is a fundamental cellular process required for heart valve formation. Notch, Wnt and Bmp pathways are known to regulate this process. To further address how these pathways coordinate in the process, we specifically disrupted Notch1 or Jagged1 in the endocardium of mouse embryonic hearts and showed that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in the endocardium is essential for EMT and early valvular cushion formation. qPCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays reveal that endocardial Jagged1-Notch1 signaling regulates Wnt4 expression in the atrioventricular canal (AVC endocardium and Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium. Whole embryo cultures treated with Wnt4 or Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1 show that Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium is dependent on Wnt activity; Wnt4 also reinstates Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium of endocardial Notch1 null embryos. Furthermore, while both Wnt4 and Bmp2 rescue the defective EMT resulting from Notch inhibition, Wnt4 requires Bmp for its action. These results demonstrate that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in endocardial cells induces the expression of Wnt4, which subsequently acts as a paracrine factor to upregulate Bmp2 expression in the adjacent AVC myocardium to signal EMT.

  4. Mapping of Wnt-Frizzled interactions by multiplex CRISPR targeting of receptor gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshanenko, Oksana; Gmach, Philipp; Winter, Jan; Kranz, Dominique; Boutros, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Signaling pathway modules are often encoded by several closely related paralogous genes that can have redundant roles and are therefore difficult to analyze by loss-of-function analysis. A typical example is the Wnt signaling pathway, which in mammals is mediated by 19 Wnt ligands that can bind to 10 Frizzled (FZD) receptors. Although significant progress in understanding Wnt-FZD receptor interactions has been made in recent years, tools to generate systematic interaction maps have been largely lacking. Here we generated cell lines with multiplex mutant alleles of FZD1 , FZD2 , and FZD7 and demonstrate that these cells are unresponsive to canonical Wnt ligands. Subsequently, we performed genetic rescue experiments with combinations of FZDs and canonical Wnts to create a functional ligand-receptor interaction map. These experiments showed that whereas several Wnt ligands, such as Wnt3a, induce signaling through a broad spectrum of FZD receptors, others, such as Wnt8a, act through a restricted set of FZD genes. Together, our results map functional interactions of FZDs and 10 Wnt ligands and demonstrate how multiplex targeting by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 can be used to systematically elucidate the functions of multigene families.-Voloshanenko, O., Gmach, P., Winter, J., Kranz, D., Boutros, M. Mapping of Wnt-Frizzled interactions by multiplex CRISPR targeting of receptor gene families. © The Author(s).

  5. Wnt Ligands as a Part of the Stem Cell Niche in the Intestine and the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmenci, Bahar; Hausmann, George; Valenta, Tomas; Basler, Konrad

    2018-01-01

    The term "Wnt signaling" does not refer to one uniform signal transduction cascade. Instead, it describes the multiple discrete signals elicited by Wnt ligands following their interaction with distinct receptor complexes. The interaction of stem cells with niche cells is coordinated by the involvement of different signaling pathways, including Wnt signaling. The stem cell populations are highly sensitive to modulation of Wnt pathway activity. Wnt signaling is of paramount importance for stem cell self-renewal, survival, proliferation, differentiation, movement, and cell polarity. Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is associated with the pathology of many types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Importantly, although often initiated by mutation(s) downstream of the Wnt-receptor complex, the progression of colorectal cancer still seems to be augmented by Wnt ligand-mediated signaling. This chapter focuses on the role of Wnt ligands in the intestine and the liver during homeostasis and cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by a soluble collagen-derived frizzled domain interacting with Wnt3a and the receptors frizzled 1 and 8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaïl Hendaoui

    Full Text Available The Wnt/β-catenin pathway controls cell proliferation, death and differentiation. Several families of extracellular proteins can antagonize Wnt/β-catenin signaling, including the decoy receptors known as secreted frizzled related proteins (SFRPs, which have a cysteine-rich domain (CRD structurally similar to the extracellular Wnt-binding domain of the frizzled receptors. SFRPs inhibit Wnt signaling by sequestering Wnts through the CRD or by forming inactive complexes with the frizzled receptors. Other endogenous molecules carrying frizzled CRDs inhibit Wnt signaling, such as V3Nter, which is proteolytically derived from the cell surface component collagen XVIII and contains a biologically active frizzled domain (FZC18 inhibiting in vivo cell proliferation and tumor growth in mice. We recently showed that FZC18 expressing cells deliver short-range signals to neighboring cells, decreasing their proliferation in vitro and in vivo through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Here, using low concentrations of soluble FZC18 and Wnt3a, we show that they physically interact in a cell-free system. In addition, soluble FZC18 binds the frizzled 1 and 8 receptors' CRDs, reducing cell sensitivity to Wnt3a. Conversely, inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling was partially rescued by the expression of full-length frizzled 1 and 8 receptors, but enhanced by the expression of a chimeric cell-membrane-tethered frizzled 8 CRD. Moreover, soluble, partially purified recombinant FZC18_CRD inhibited Wnt3a-induced β-catenin activation. Taken together, the data indicate that collagen XVIII-derived frizzled CRD shifts Wnt sensitivity of normal cells to a lower pitch and controls their growth.

  7. WNT5A inhibits metastasis and alters splicing of Cd44 in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jiang

    Full Text Available Wnt5a is a non-canonical signaling Wnt. Low expression of WNT5A is correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The highly invasive breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and 4T1, express very low levels of WNT5A. To determine if enhanced expression of WNT5A would affect metastatic behavior, we generated WNT5A expressing cells from the 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 parental cell lines. WNT5A expressing cells demonstrated cobblestone morphology and reduced in vitro migration relative to controls. Cell growth was not altered. Metastasis to the lung via tail vein injection was reduced in the 4T1-WNT5A expressing cells relative to 4T1-vector controls. To determine the mechanism of WNT5A action on metastasis, we performed microarray and whole-transcriptome sequence analysis (RNA-seq to compare gene expression in 4T1-WNT5A and 4T1-vector cells. Analysis indicated highly significant alterations in expression of genes associated with cellular movement. Down-regulation of a subset of these genes, Mmp13, Nos2, Il1a, Cxcl2, and Lamb3, in WNT5A expressing cells was verified by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Significant differences in transcript splicing were also detected in cell movement associated genes including Cd44. Cd44 is an adhesion molecule with a complex genome structure. Variable exon usage is associated with metastatic phenotype. Alternative spicing of Cd44 in WNT5A expressing cells was confirmed using RT-PCR. We conclude that WNT5A inhibits metastasis through down-regulation of multiple cell movement pathways by regulating transcript levels and splicing of key genes like Cd44.

  8. Diphtheria Toxin-Induced Cell Death Triggers Wnt-Dependent Hair Cell Regeneration in Neonatal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lingxiang; Lu, Jingrong; Chiang, Hao; Wu, Hao; Edge, Albert S B; Shi, Fuxin

    2016-09-07

    Cochlear hair cells (HCs), the sensory cells that respond to sound, do not regenerate after damage in adult mammals, and their loss is a major cause of deafness. Here we show that HC regeneration in newborn mouse ears occurred spontaneously when the original cells were ablated by treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) in ears that had been engineered to overexpress the DT receptor, but was not detectable when HCs were ablated in vivo by the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. A variety of Wnts (Wnt1, Wnt2, Wnt2b, Wnt4, Wnt5a, Wnt7b, Wnt9a, Wnt9b, and Wnt11) and Wnt pathway component Krm2 were upregulated after DT damage. Nuclear β-catenin was upregulated in HCs and supporting cells of the DT-damaged cochlea. Pharmacological inhibition of Wnt decreased spontaneous regeneration, confirming a role of Wnt signaling in HC regeneration. Inhibition of Notch signaling further potentiated