WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained therapeutic effect

  1. Therapeutic effect of an injectable sustained-release sinomenine hydrochloride and sodium hyaluronate compound in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Guang; Ling, Pei-Xue; Lin, Xiu-Kun; Chen, Jian-Ying; Wang, Shao-Jin; Li, Peng; Wu, Xiao-Juan; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Liu, Sheng-Hou

    2012-07-01

    While intra-articular injection of sinomenine hydrochloride has a therapeutic effect on osteoarthritis, it has a short half-life, and is thermolabile and photolabile. The aim of this research was to evaluate the sustained-release of sinomenine hydrochloride from an injectable sinomenine hydrochloride and sodium hyaluronate compound (CSSSI) and its therapeutic effect in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis following intra-articular injection. An injectable compound consisting of 1% sodium hyaluronate and 2.5% sinomenine hydrochloride was prepared and kept as the experiment group, and 2.5% sinomenine hydrochloride was prepared and kept as the control group. The cumulative mass release was measured at different time points in each group in vitro. Sixty-five male Zelanian rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: 15 (30 knees) each for the control, sodium hyaluronate, sinomenine hydrochloride, and CSSSI groups respectively, and five (10 knees) for the modeling group. Papain was injected into both knees of each rabbit for model establishment. Subsequently, 0.2 ml of the corresponding drugs was injected into the articular cavities of the remaining experiment groups, while the control group was treated with 0.2 ml normal saline. All groups were treated once a week for 4 weeks. Seven days after the last treatment, knees were anatomized to perform pathological observations and Mankin's evaluation of the synovium. Four groups were compared using the SPSS 13.0 software package. In the in vitro sustained-release experiments, 90% of the drug was released in the experiment group 360 minutes following the injection. Comparison of the Mankin's evaluations of the four groups illustrated statistical discrepancies (P hyaluronate/sinomenine hydrochloride groups, statistical significance was uniformly obtained. Moreover, sodium hyaluronate and sinomenine hydrochloride treatments showed significant improvement over the modeling control (P hyaluronate vs. sinomenine hydrochloride

  2. [Therapeutic effects and related mechanisms of erythropoietin sustained-release gelatin hydrogel microspheres on a murine model of hindlimb ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J W; Li, L H; Hong, B Z; Xiao, J Q; Wei, D M; Jin, Z

    2016-06-24

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of erythropoietin sustained-release gelatin hydrogel microspheres (EPO-GHM) on a murine model of hindlimb ischemia and related mechanisms. Fifty two ten weeks old male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to 5 groups: sham-operated group (the right femoral artery suture was passed through the right femoral artery but not tied, n=8); saline group (right femoral artery ligation and intramuscular injection of saline at a dose of 4 ml/kg into the right hind limb, n=12); EPO group(right femoral artery ligation and intramuscular injection of EPO at a dose of 5 000 IU/kg into the right hind limb, n=12), empty GHM group (right femoral artery ligation and intramuscular injection of empty GHM at a dose of 4 ml/kg into the right hind limb, n=8); EPO-GHM group(right femoral artery ligation and intramuscular injection of EPO-GHM at a dose of 5 000 IU/kg into the right hind limb, n=12). The blood flow ratio of ischemic limb (right)/nonischemic limb (left) was measured using a laser Doppler perfusion imager. After 8 weeks, immunohistochemical analysis were used to evaluate the vessel density (vessel density of CD31 positive), arteriole density(vessel density of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) positive) and muscle area(HHF35 positive area). The proliferating index of vessels was evaluated by double immunofluorescent labeling to evaluate effect of EPO-GHM on angiogenesis of ischemia limb. Western blot was used to evaluate the protein expression of EPO receptor, protein kinase B(AKT), p-AKT, endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS), p-eNOS and matrix metalloproteinase 2(MMP-2). (1) Eight weeks later, the blood flow ratio of ischemic limb/nonischemic limb was significantly higher in the EPO-GHM group compared with other groups(0.810±0.080, 0.563±0.051, 0.570±0.056 and 0.561±0.052 respectively, all P0.05). (4)The proliferating index of vessels was higher in the EPO-GHM group compared with other groups(P0.05). RESULTS from present study suggest EPO

  3. Therapeutic effects of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín HIDALGO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reading is an act that requires isolation and loneliness, which allows rewriting the narratives through the identification between the reader and the character, the involvement in the fact narrated and singular recreation by every single reader. The act of reading allows stepping aside from reality. The reading as well as the writing perform the therapeutic effect of helping to understand the illness and to know experiences of others patients that can be useful for the accompaniment, overcoming and/or making decisions. There is not a concrete literary that could be universally recommend to every patient, but all the genre can be useful to some patient. However, poetry, novel and autobiographies are frequently referred as the manuscripts that provide help and consolation.

  4. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-07-01

    Psilocybin and other 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist classic psychedelics have been used for centuries as sacraments within indigenous cultures. In the mid-twentieth century they were a focus within psychiatry as both probes of brain function and experimental therapeutics. By the late 1960s and early 1970s these scientific inquires fell out of favor because classic psychedelics were being used outside of medical research and in association with the emerging counter culture. However, in the twenty-first century, scientific interest in classic psychedelics has returned and grown as a result of several promising studies, validating earlier research. Here, we review therapeutic research on psilocybin, the classic psychedelic that has been the focus of most recent research. For mood and anxiety disorders, three controlled trials have suggested that psilocybin may decrease symptoms of depression and anxiety in the context of cancer-related psychiatric distress for at least 6 months following a single acute administration. A small, open-label study in patients with treatment-resistant depression showed reductions in depression and anxiety symptoms 3 months after two acute doses. For addiction, small, open-label pilot studies have shown promising success rates for both tobacco and alcohol addiction. Safety data from these various trials, which involve careful screening, preparation, monitoring, and follow-up, indicate the absence of severe drug-related adverse reactions. Modest drug-related adverse effects at the time of medication administration are readily managed. US federal funding has yet to support therapeutic psilocybin research, although such support will be important to thoroughly investigate efficacy, safety, and therapeutic mechanisms.

  5. Sustained inhibition of oxidized low-density lipoprotein is involved in the long-term therapeutic effects of apheresis in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi-Ikeya, Yuko; Tamura, Kouichi; Azuma, Koichi; Mitsuhashi, Hiroshi; Wakui, Hiromichi; Nakazawa, Ichiro; Sugano, Teruyasu; Mochida, Yasuyuki; Ebina, Toshiaki; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Uchino, Kazuaki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2010-05-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is a potential therapy for conventional therapy-resistant peripheral artery disease. In the present study, we examined the chronic effects of LDL apheresis on clinical parameters in vivo and endothelial cell functions in vitro in hemodialysis patients who had the complication of peripheral artery disease. Twenty-five patients were enrolled, and the responses of 19 patients to LDL apheresis were analyzed. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to change in ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) after treatment: patients with improved ABI (responders, n=10) and patients with worsened ABI (nonresponders, n=9). In the responders, apheresis resulted in a long-term reduction of circulating levels of oxidized LDL, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the serum from the responders increased expression of activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein and proliferative activity. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between ABI and activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein level in HUVECs treated with responder serum (R=0.427, Phemodialysis patients.

  6. Exposure to intermittent hypoxia and sustained hypercapnia reduces therapeutic CPAP in participants with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chami, Mohamad; Sudan, Sukhesh; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mateika, Jason H

    2017-07-06

    To determine if exposure to mild intermittent hypoxia leads to a reduction in the therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure required to eliminate breathing events. Ten male participants were treated with twelve 2-minute episodes of hypoxia (PETO2 ≈ 50 mmHg) separated by 2-minute intervals of normoxia in the presence of PETCO2 that was sustained 3 mmHg above baseline. During recovery from the last episode the positive airway pressure was reduced in a step-wise fashion until flow limitation was evident. The participants also completed a sham protocol under normocapnic conditions, which mimicked the timeframe of the intermittent hypoxia protocol. After exposure to intermittent hypoxia the therapeutic pressure was significantly reduced (i.e. 5 cmH2O) without evidence of flow limitation (103.4 ± 6.3 % of baseline, P = 0.5) or increases in upper airway resistance (95.6 ± 15.0 % of baseline, P = 0.6). In contrast, a similar decrease in pressure was accompanied by flow limitation (77.0 ± 1.8 % of baseline, P = 0.001) and an increase in upper airway resistance (167.2 ± 17.5 % of baseline, P = 0.01) after the sham protocol. Consistent with the initiation of long-term facilitation of upper airway muscle activity exposure to intermittent hypoxia reduced the therapeutic pressure required to eliminate apneic events which could improve treatment compliance. This possibility coupled with the potential beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia on co-morbidities linked to sleep apnea suggests that mild intermittent hypoxia may have a multipronged therapeutic effect on sleep apnea. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  7. Proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance: The mediating effect of sustainability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethilake, Chaminda

    2017-07-01

    This study examines to what extent corporations use sustainability control systems (SCS) to translate proactive sustainability strategy into corporate sustainability performance. The study investigates the mediating effect of SCS on the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Survey data were collected from top managers in 175 multinational and local corporations operating in Sri Lanka and analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SCS were observed to only partially mediate the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. The mediating effect of SCS is further examined under three sustainability strategies; environmental and social strategies reveal a partial mediation, while the economic strategy exhibits no mediation. The study also finds that (i) a proactive sustainability strategy is positively associated with SCS and corporate sustainability performance and (ii) SCS are positively associated with corporate sustainability performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tailor-Made Pentablock Copolymer Based Formulation for Sustained Ocular Delivery of Protein Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulabh P. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research article is to report the synthesis and evaluation of novel pentablock copolymers for controlled delivery of macromolecules in the treatment of posterior segment diseases. Novel biodegradable PB copolymers were synthesized by sequential ring-opening polymerization. Various ratios and molecular weights of each block (polyglycolic acid, polyethylene glycol, polylactic acid, and polycaprolactone were selected for synthesis and to optimize release profile of FITC-BSA, IgG, and bevacizumab from nanoparticles (NPs and thermosensitive gel. NPs were characterized for particle size, polydispersity, entrapment efficiency, and drug loading. In vitro release study of proteins from NPs alone and composite formulation (NPs suspended in thermosensitive gel was performed. Composite formulations demonstrated no or negligible burst release with continuous near zero-order release in contrast to NPs alone. Hydrodynamic diameter of protein therapeutics and hydrophobicity of PB copolymer exhibited significant effect on entrapment efficiency and in vitro release profile. CD spectroscopy confirmed retention of structural conformation of released protein. Biological activity of released bevacizumab was confirmed by in vitro cell proliferation and cell migration assays. It can be concluded that novel PB polymers can serve a platform for sustained delivery of therapeutic proteins.

  9. Photic effects on sustained performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.; Whitmore, J.; Hannon, P. J.; Brainard, G.; Schiflett, S.

    1992-01-01

    Research is described which evaluates manipulating environmental light intensity as a means to attenuate fatigue. A counter balanced, within-subjects design was used to compare nine male subjects exposed to dim (100 lux) and bright (3000 lux) light conditions. Oral temperature values were greater for the bright light group over the dim light condition. Melatonin levels were suppressed by bright light treatment. Also, the frequency of eye blink rate was less for subjects during bright over dim light exposure. Light exposure was without effect on subjective fatigue. However, irrespective of light condition, significant effects on confusion, fatigue, and vigor mood dimensions were found as a result of 30 hour sleep deprivation. The findings suggest that bright lights may be used to help sustain nocturnal activity otherwise susceptible to fatigue. Such findings may have implications for the lighting arrangements on space flights during the subjective night for astronauts.

  10. Effect of therapeutic ultrasound on endochondral ossification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiltink, A.; Nijweide, P.J.; Oosterbaan, W.A.; Hekkenberg, R.T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of therapeutic doses of ultrasound was tested on endochondral ossification of in vitro developing metatarsal long bone rudiments of 16- and 17-day-old fetal mice. Bone growth, calcification and resorption following exposure to several doses of pulse-wave (PW) or continuous-wave (CW)

  11. Lyophilized Silk Fibroin Hydrogels for the Sustained Local Delivery of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziewicz, Nicholas; Best, Annie; Perez-Ramirez, Bernardo; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The development of sustained delivery systems compatible with protein therapeutics continues to be a significant unmet need. A lyophilized silk fibroin hydrogel matrix (lyogel) for the sustained release of pharmaceutically relevant monoclonal antibodies is described. Sonication of silk fibroin prior to antibody incorporation avoids exposing the antibody to the sol-gel transition inducing shear stress. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed no change in silk structural composition between hydrogel and lyogel or with increasing silk fibroin concentration. Antibody release from hydrogels occurred rapidly over 10 days regardless of silk concentration. Upon lyophilization, sustained antibody release was observed over 38 days from lyogels containing 6.2% (w/w) silk fibroin and above. In 3.2% (w/w) silk lyogels, antibody release was comparable to hydrogels. Swelling properties of lyogels followed a similar threshold behavior. Lyogels at 3.2% (w/w) silk recovered approximately 90% of their fluid mass upon rehydration, while approximately 50% fluid recovery was observed at 6.2% (w/w) silk and above. Antibody release was primarily governed by hydrophobic/hydrophilic silk-antibody interactions and secondarily altered by the hydration resistance of the lyogel. Hydration resistance was controlled by altering β-sheet (crystalline) density of the matrix. The antibody released from lyogels maintained biological activity. Silk lyogels offer an advantage as a delivery matrix over other hydrogel materials for the slow release of the loaded protein, making lyogels suitable for long-term sustained release applications. PMID:21216004

  12. [Eye contact effects: A therapeutic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, M; Conty, L

    2016-12-01

    The perception of a direct gaze - that is, of another individual's gaze directed at the observer that leads to eye contact - is known to influence a wide range of cognitive processes and behaviors. We stress that these effects mainly reflect positive impacts on human cognition and may thus be used as relevant tools for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we aim (1) to provide an exhaustive review of eye contact effects while discussing the limits of the dominant models used to explain these effects, (2) to illustrate the therapeutic potential of eye contact by targeting those pathologies that show both preserved gaze processing and deficits in one or several functions that are targeted by the eye contact effects, and (3) to propose concrete ways in which eye contact could be employed as a therapeutic tool. (1) We regroup the variety of eye contact effects into four categories, including memory effects, activation of prosocial behavior, positive appraisals of self and others and the enhancement of self-awareness. We emphasize that the models proposed to account for these effects have a poor predictive value and that further descriptions of these effects is needed. (2) We then emphasize that people with pathologies that affect memory, social behavior, and self and/or other appraisal, and self-awareness could benefit from eye contact effects. We focus on depression, autism and Alzheimer's disease to illustrate our proposal. To our knowledge, no anomaly of eye contact has been reported in depression. Patients suffering from Alzheimer disease, at the early and moderate stage, have been shown to maintain a normal amount of eye contact with their interlocutor. We take into account that autism is controversial regarding whether gaze processing is preserved or altered. In the first view, individuals are thought to elude or omit gazing at another's eyes while in the second, individuals are considered to not be able to process the gaze of others. We adopt the first stance

  13. The Effect of Incentives on Sustainable Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how children respond to different treatments aimed to fostersustainable behavior in a productive (firm like) setting. We conduct a field experiment using teams of children (aged 11 or 12) that are participating in an entrepreneurship education program in the last grade...... of primary school in the Netherlands. Schools participating in this program are randomly assigned to one of three treatments: the first is purely financially oriented, the second promotes sustainable behavior and the third also induces sustainability by (monetary) incentives. Comparing the first twogroups we...... find that solely promoting sustainability does not lead to a change in sustainable behavior. However, once the monetary reward is linked to sustainable outcome measures, we find a significant positive effect on sustainable behavior. Inour specificsetting, the choice to behave more sustainable comes...

  14. Sustained release of adipose-derived stem cells by thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin hydrogel for therapeutic angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nai-Chen; Lin, Wei-Jhih; Ling, Thai-Yen; Young, Tai-Horng

    2017-03-15

    developed a thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin hydrogel that not only enhances the viability of the encapsulated ASCs, the gradual degradation of gelatin also result in a more porous architecture, leading to sustained release of ASCs from the hydrogel. ASC-encapsulated hydrogel enhanced in vitro wound healing of fibroblasts and tube formation of endothelial cells. It also promoted in vivo angiogenesis in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay and a mice wound model. Therefore, chitosan/gelatin hydrogel represents an effective delivery system that allows for controlled release of viable ASCs for therapeutic angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms and therapeutic effectiveness of lactobacilli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino; Aponte, Maria; Morales-Medina, Julio Cesar; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiome is not a silent ecosystem but exerts several physiological and immunological functions. For many decades, lactobacilli have been used as an effective therapy for treatment of several pathological conditions displaying an overall positive safety profile. This review summarises the mechanisms and clinical evidence supporting therapeutic efficacy of lactobacilli. We searched Pubmed/Medline using the keyword ‘Lactobacillus’. Selected papers from 1950 to 2015 were chosen on the basis of their content. Relevant clinical and experimental articles using lactobacilli as therapeutic agents have been included. Applications of lactobacilli include kidney support for renal insufficiency, pancreas health, management of metabolic imbalance, and cancer treatment and prevention. In vitro and in vivo investigations have shown that prolonged lactobacilli administration induces qualitative and quantitative modifications in the human gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem with encouraging perspectives in counteracting pathology-associated physiological and immunological changes. Few studies have highlighted the risk of translocation with subsequent sepsis and bacteraemia following probiotic administration but there is still a lack of investigations on the dose effect of these compounds. Great care is thus required in the choice of the proper Lactobacillus species, their genetic stability and the translocation risk, mainly related to inflammatory disease-induced gut mucosa enhanced permeability. Finally, we need to determine the adequate amount of bacteria to be delivered in order to achieve the best clinical efficacy decreasing the risk of side effects. PMID:26578541

  16. Therapeutic effects of low radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, K.R. (Dept. of Radiation Biology, St. Bartholomew' s Medical College, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    This editorial explores the scientific basis of radiotherapy with doses of < 1 Gy for various non-malignant conditions, in particular dose-effect relationships, risk-benefit considerations and biological mechanisms. A review of the literature, particularly clinical and experimental reports published more than 50 years ago was conducted to clarify the following problems. 1. The dose-response relationships for the therapeutic effects on three groups of conditions: non-malignant skin disease, arthrosis and other painful degenerative joint disorders and anti-inflammatory radiotherapy; 2. risks after radiotherapy and after the best alternative treatments; 3. the biological mechanisms of the different therapeutic effects. Radiotherapy is very effective in all three groups of disease. Few dose-finding studies have been performed, all demonstrating that the optimal doses are considerable lower than the generally recommended doses. In different conditions, risk-benefit analysis of radiotherapy versus the best alternative treatment yields very different results: whereas radiotherapy for acute postpartum mastitis may not be justified any more, the risk-benefit ratio of radiotherapy of other conditions and particularly so in dermatology and some anti-inflammatory radiotherapy appears to be more favourable than the risk-benefit ratio of the best alternative treatments. Radiotherapy can be very effective treatment for various non-malignant conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, periarthritis humeroscapularis, epicondylitis, knee arthrosis, hydradenitis, parotitis and panaritium and probably be associated with less acute and long-term side effects than similarly effective other treatments. Randomized clinical studies are required to find the optimal dosage which, at present, may be unnecessarily high.

  17. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  18. Potential and effective meaning in therapeutic ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, J L

    1979-03-01

    Anthropologists who accept the functionalist dogma that everything in a culture is related to everything else can easily demonstrate from their own point of view that any ritual is richly meaningful. If, then, the healing power of therapeutic ritual depends on making illness meaningful, any ritual, if seen from this perspective, should be efficacious. We must distinguish, however, between potential and effective meaning, i.e. what a ritual might mean and what it does mean to participants in it who generally lack an anthropologist's global view of their culture. Effective meaning can be assessed by examining a ritual's relevance to the situation in which it occurs and factors which facilitate or hinder communication of what it might mean to particular persons. This argument is illustrated by analyzing the meaning of a Chinese healing ritual in two different situations in which it occurs.

  19. The effects of therapeutic touch on pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Carolyn Magdalen

    2009-06-01

    To better understand how Therapeutic Touch can be used in today's health care arena, this integrative literature review will examine current research that will help answer the question, Does Therapeutic Touch reduce pain? An extensive search was conducted of the online databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsychLIT, and PubMed to retrieve research articles published from 1997 to 2007. Seven studies that were conducted between 1997 and 2004 were found and only five of the seven were included as pertinent evidence to answer the question. All of the research that was reviewed to answer whether Therapeutic Touch could significantly reduce pain revealed a majority of statistically significant positive results for implementing this intervention. Because there are no identified risks to Therapeutic Touch as a pain relief measure, it is safe to recommend despite the limitations of current research. Therapeutic Touch should be considered among the many possible nursing interventions for the treatment of pain.

  20. Effective Assessment Framework: Sustainability of Post Amnesty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To proffer solution, Federal government came up with post-amnesty program. Based on this, the study sought; (i) To determine the level of effectiveness of the implementation of the Post Amnesty Programme since its inception in 2009, (ii) determine how effective evaluation method can sustain Post Amnesty programme ...

  1. Polycaprolactone scaffold engineered for sustained release of resveratrol: therapeutic enhancement in bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Manjunath Srinivas; Ahmed, Shiek SSJ; Dhanasekaran, M; Santosh, S Winkins

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials-based three-dimensional scaffolds are being extensively investigated in bone tissue engineering. A potential scaffold should be osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic for enhanced bone formation. In this study, a three-dimensional porous polycapro-lactone (PCL) scaffold was engineered for prolonged release of resveratrol. Resveratrol-loaded albumin nanoparticles (RNP) were synthesized and entrapped into a PCL scaffold to form PCL-RNP by a solvent casting and leaching method. An X-ray diffraction study of RNP and PCL-RNP showed that resveratrol underwent amorphization, which is highly desired in drug delivery. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates that resveratrol was not chemically modified during the entrapment process. Release of resveratrol from PCL-RNP was sustained, with a cumulative release of 64% at the end of day 12. The scaffold was evaluated for its bone-forming potential in vitro using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for 16 days. Alkaline phosphatase activity assayed on days 8 and 12 showed a significant increase in activity (1.6-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively) induced by PCL-RNP compared with the PCL scaffold (the positive control). Moreover, von Kossa staining for calcium deposits on day 16 showed increased mineralization in PCL-RNP. These results suggest PCL-RNP significantly improves mineralization due to its controlled and prolonged release of resveratrol, thereby increasing the therapeutic potential in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24399875

  2. Effective and Sustainable Health Research Partnerships : a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Effective and Sustainable Health Research Partnerships : a Collaborative Canada-South Project. IDRC frequently supports collaborative Canada-South research on subjects of vital interest to developing countries, such as health. This project is concerned with learning how to structure and manage Canada-South research ...

  3. Effective Strategies for Sustaining Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Patricia R.

    2010-01-01

    Professional Learning Communities (PLCs), in which educators work collaboratively to improve learning for students, need effective strategies to sustain them. PLCs promote continuous improvement in student learning and build academic success with increased teacher expertise. Grounded in organizational systems theory, participative leadership…

  4. Therapeutic effect of Lianbeijuqin (a Chinese herbal cocktail) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effect of Lianbeijuqin (LBJQ) decoction on periodontitis in rats in vivo and ... Conclusion: LBJQ exerts therapeutic activity against periodontitis in rats via inhibition of the release of ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African.

  5. Therapeutic effects of rapamycin on alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xilin; Wang, Chao; Ru, Xiaoxue; Jing, Lili; Zhou, Lijun; Jing, Ling

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether rapamycin has therapeutic potential as a treatment for alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Rats were divided into eight groups (n=7 in each group): The control group; the alcohol group; abstinence in the first week; abstinence in the third week; abstinence in the fourth week; abstinent+rapamycin (AB-RAP) until the first week (AB-RAP 1); AB-RAP until the third week (AB-RAP 3); and AB-RAP until the fourth week (AB-RAP 4). Subsequently, echocardiography, and hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's staining were performed, followed by electron microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. Finally, expression levels of B cell lymphoma-2, Beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The levels of left ventricular end-diastolic dimension in AB-RAP 3 (7.00±0.41) and AB-RAP 4 (6.33±0.68) groups were significantly lower when compared with the alcohol group (8.01±0.30; P<0.05). Compared with the alcohol group, the apoptosis rate of left ventricular myocardial tissue in the AB+RAP 3 (37.68±2.15) and AB+RAP 4 (26.97±2.11) groups was significantly reduced (P<0.05). To conclude, rapamycin may be considered as a therapeutic tool to attenuate alcoholic cardiomyopathy and improve cardiac function through increasing autophagy and reducing apoptosis.

  6. Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver cancer induced by dimethylnitrosamine in mice. NAEM Hussein, MAEF El-Toukhy, AH Kazem, MES Ali, MAER Ahmad, HMR Ghazy, AMG El-Din ...

  7. LINK BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS IN REGIONAL GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAN ZÁVODNÝ POSPÍŠIL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes relationship between sustainable development and regional government efficiency. Author defines first sustainable development, its principles and relationship to the public administration area. With usage of systematic review is later defined efficiency in public administration. Based on this information is analyzed relationship between sustainable development and the effectiveness of the management system of regional government.

  8. LINK BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS IN REGIONAL GOVERNMENT

    OpenAIRE

    JAN ZÁVODNÝ POSPÍŠIL

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes relationship between sustainable development and regional government efficiency. Author defines first sustainable development, its principles and relationship to the public administration area. With usage of systematic review is later defined efficiency in public administration. Based on this information is analyzed relationship between sustainable development and the effectiveness of the management system of regional government.

  9. Therapeutic suggestion has no effect on postoperative morphine requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van der Laan (W.); B.L. van Leeuwen (B.); P.S. Sebel (P.); E. Winograd (E.); P. Baumann (P.); B. Bonke (Benno)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting

  10. Therapeutic effects of Laser and L-carnitine against amiodarone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic effects of Laser and L-carnitine against amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity in adult male rats. ... Conclusion: These results indicate that AM induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. However, AM withdrawal and treatment by LC and/or exposure to laser exerted mitigating effects against the AMinduced fibrosis.

  11. Effect of a therapeutic dose of pseudoephedrine on swimmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of a therapeutic dose of pseudoephedrine on swimmers' performance. ... The potential performance-enhancement effect of pseudoephedrine (PSE) use has led to its prohibition in competition sports (urine concentrations >150 μg/ml). Data are, however ... Method. A double-blinded cross-over study design was used.

  12. [Therapeutic education in primary cardiovascular prevention: 4 years sustained interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, M; Daugareil, C

    2017-05-12

    Our patient therapeutic education program yields improvements in health after one year. But what can we see after 4 years, when the patient alone is responsible for following the program? Two hundred and ninety-one patients participated in the first part of our study and were followed during one year. Four years into the ongoing study, we reviewed the progress of the first 200 patients. We compared the already published Risk Factors and Eating Habits scores between the beginning of the study (T0), one year later (T1) and after 4 years (T4). The Risk Factor score at T0 is 9.5±7.8, moving to 7±7.5 at T1, and then to 6.8±7.8 at T4 (Ptherapeutic education program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Alginate hydrogels allow for bioactive and sustained release of VEGF-C and VEGF-D for lymphangiogenic therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kevin T; Hadley, Dustin J; Kukis, David L; Silva, Eduardo A

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatic dysfunction is associated with the progression of many cardiovascular disorders due to their role in maintaining tissue fluid homeostasis. Promoting new lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis) is a promising strategy to reverse these cardiovascular disorders via restoring lymphatic function. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) members VEGF-C and VEGF-D are both potent candidates for stimulating lymphangiogenesis, though maintaining spatial and temporal control of these factors represents a challenge to developing efficient therapeutic lymphangiogenic applications. Injectable alginate hydrogels have been useful for the controlled delivery of many angiogenic factors, including VEGF-A, to stimulate new blood vasculature. However, the utility of these tunable hydrogels for delivering lymphangiogenic factors has never been closely examined. Thus, the objective of this study was to utilize ionically cross-linked alginate hydrogels to deliver VEGF-C and VEGF-D for potential lymphangiogenic applications. We demonstrated that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are sensitive to temporal presentation of VEGF-C and VEGF-D but with different responses between the factors. The greatest LEC mitogenic and sprouting response was observed for constant concentrations of VEGF-C and a high initial concentration that gradually decreased over time for VEGF-D. Additionally, alginate hydrogels provided sustained release of radiolabeled VEGF-C and VEGF-D. Finally, VEGF-C and VEGF-D released from these hydrogels promoted a similar number of LEC sprouts as exogenously added growth factors and new vasculature in vivo via a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Overall, these findings demonstrate that alginate hydrogels can provide sustained and bioactive release of VEGF-C and VEGF-D which could have applications for therapeutic lymphangiogenesis.

  14. Therapeutic effects of co-inhaled roflumilast or formoterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effects of "inhaled" roflumilast and formoterol separately or combined with fluticasone on the ultrastructural airway changes in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic mice. Methods: The asthmatic mice were divided randomly into seven groups (n = 8): positive control, vehicle, and five treated ...

  15. Therapeutic effect of Lianbeijuqin (a Chinese herbal cocktail) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effect of Lianbeijuqin (LBJQ) decoction on periodontitis in rats in vivo and in vitro. Methods: High ... inflammatory cytokines and growth of oral anaerobic bacteria. Keywords: Lianbeijuqin decoction ... (Table 1). In Chinese traditional medicinal theory system, LBJQ is used for ...

  16. therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TRAINING. PROGRAM ON SERUM CREATININE CONCENTRATION IN MEN. WITH HYPERTENSION: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. L. SIKIRU1and G. C. OKOYE2. 1Biomedical Technology Dept., School of Health Technology, Federal ...

  17. Therapeutic effect of a moderate intensity interval training program ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic effect of a moderate intensity interval training program on the lipid profile in men with hypertension: A randomized controlled trial. S Lamina, GC Okoye. Abstract. Objective: Physical inactivity has been established as a major primary risk factor for the development of hypertension. Also, factors such as elevated ...

  18. Therapeutic Effects of Annona senegalensis Pers Stem Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic Effects of Annona senegalensis Pers Stem Bark Extracts in Experimental African Trypanosomiasis. ... International Journal of Health Research ... Results: Hexane extract, at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight and aqueous extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight, cured the experimental infection in mice.

  19. Therapeutic effect of Lianbeijuqin (a Chinese herbal cocktail) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effect of Lianbeijuqin (LBJQ) decoction on periodontitis in rats in vivo and in vitro. Methods: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the main constituents of LBJQ. Periodontitis in rats was induced in rats by ligation with bacteria-infected silk. Gingival ...

  20. Protective and therapeutic effects of Chamomilla Recutita extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective and therapeutic effects of Chamomilla Recutita extract on subacute ethanol intoxication in white albino rats. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how ...

  1. Comparative study of the therapeutic effects of brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To compare the therapeutic effects of two brands of Paracetamol: Panadol® (paracetamol 1000mg) and Panadol-Extra®( paracetamol 1000mg and 60mg caffeine) on the perception of dental pain. Method: The setting for the study was the Oral Diagnosis Unit of the Dental Hospital, Obafemi Awolowo University ...

  2. Evaluation of Therapeutic Effects of Radiotherapy during Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    starting pathways of anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic oxidation, but the proliferation of tumor cells was inhibited, so it is difficult for 18F-FDG to reflect the therapeutic effects accurately. Although there are a large number of reports on application of 18F-FDG in evaluation of antitumor efficacy [10], 18F-FDG can mainly reflect ...

  3. Therapeutic Effects and Biomarkers in Sublingual Immunotherapy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fujimura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy is considered to be the only curative treatment for allergic diseases such as pollinosis, perennial rhinitis, asthma, and food allergy. The sublingual route is widely applied for immunotherapy for allergy, instead of the conventional administration by subcutaneous route. A recent meta-analysis of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has shown that this approach is safe, has positive clinical effects, and provides prolonged therapeutic effects after discontinuation of treatment. However, the mechanism of SLIT and associated biomarkers are not fully understood. Biomarkers that change after or during SLIT have been reported and may be useful for response monitoring or as prognostic indicators for SLIT. In this review, we focus on the safety, therapeutic effects, including prolonged effects after treatment, and new methods of SLIT. We also discuss response monitoring and prognostic biomarkers for SLIT. Finally, we discuss immunological mechanisms of SLIT with a focus on oral dendritic cells and facilitated antigen presentation.

  4. Biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogel for SAHA and DDP delivery: therapeutic effects on oral squamous cell carcinoma xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: OSCC is one of the most common malignancies and numerous clinical agents currently applied in combinative chemotherapy. Here we reported a novel therapeutic strategy, SAHA and DDP-loaded PECE (SAHA-DDP/PECE, can improve the therapeutic effects of intratumorally chemotherapy on OSCC cell xenografts. OBJECTIVE/PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the SAHA-DDP/PECE in situ controlled drug delivery system on OSCC cell xenografts. METHODS: A biodegradable and thermosensitive hydrogel was successfully developed to load SAHA and DDP. Tumor-beared mice were intratumorally administered with SAHA-DDP/PECE at 50 mg/kg (SAHA +2 mg/kg (DDP in 100 ul PECE hydrogel every two weeks, SAHA-DDP at 50 mg/kg(SAHA +2 mg/kg(DDP in NS, 2 mg/kg DDP solution, 50 mg/kg SAHA solution, equal volume of PECE hydrogel, or equal volume of NS on the same schedule, respectively. The antineoplastic actions of SAHA and DDP alone and in combination were evaluated using the determination of tumor volume, immunohistochemistry, western blot, and TUNEL analysis. RESULTS: The hydrogel system was a free-flowing sol at 10 °C, become gel at body temperature, and could sustain more than 14 days in situ. SAHA-DDP/PECE was subsequently injected into tumor OSCC tumor-beared mice. The results demonstrated that such a strategy as this allows the carrier system to show a sustained release of SAHA and DDP in vivo, and could improved therapeutic effects compared with a simple additive therapeutic effect of SAHA and DDP on mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: Our research indicated that the novel SAHA-DDP/PECE system based on biodegradable PECE copolymer enhanced the therapeutic effects and could diminished the side effects of SAHA/DDP. The present work might be of great importance to the further exploration of the potential application of SAHA/DDP-hydrogel controlled drug release system in the treatment of OSCC.

  5. Sustainability, the Greenhouse effect, silviculture, and overpopulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, F.K. (International Paper Co., Corporate Research Center, Tuxedo Park, NY (US))

    1991-10-01

    Ever since man became conscious of the finite dimensions of Planet Earth, he has worried about his ability to survive in an ever-more crowded environment. This paper reports that the fundamental question underlying this concern is sustainability: Can we indefinitely supply, maintain, and prolong that which we have This question is, of course, multifaceted. Man's early concerns quickly polarized the scientists and economists of this world into two philosophical camps---the Malthusians and the Cornucopians. Over time, economists learned that Malthus seriously underestimated the capacity of technology to enhance productivity, although Malthusian sympathizers (both scientists and economists) continually raised the specter of imminent doom. Much of what lies ahead will provide a series of daunting challenges for us all, and the engine that drives sustainability has to be technology. The central issue is to ensure that the right kind of technology is available, and that it is used widely to ensure sustainability.

  6. Conceptualizing the Effectiveness of Sustainability Assessment in Development Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Hugé

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment has emerged as a key decision-support process in development cooperation in response to the growing acknowledgement of the impacts of global change. This paper aims at conceptualizing the effectiveness of sustainability assessment as applied in development cooperation, by focusing on the sustainability assessment practice by actors of the official Belgian Development Cooperation. The conceptualization of the effectiveness of sustainability assessment is synthesized in a set of issues and concerns, based on semi-structured interviews. The paper highlights the specificity of sustainability assessment in the development cooperation sector (e.g., through the cultural and discursive compatibility dimensions of assessment in a North-South context. Effectiveness is inherently linked to the expected functions of sustainability assessment in the decision-making process, which include fostering organizational change, shaping contextually adapted framings of sustainability and operationalizing the sustainability transition. These findings highlight the relevance of a discourse-sensitive approach to sustainability assessment if one is to strengthen its credibility and legitimacy.

  7. Therapeutic Effects of Phytochemicals and Medicinal Herbs on Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2017-01-01

    Background . Depression is a recurrent, common, and potentially life-threatening psychiatric disease related to multiple assignable causes. Although conventional antidepressant therapy can help relieve symptoms of depression and prevent relapse of the illness, complementary therapies are required due to disadvantage of the current therapy such as adverse effects. Moreover, a number of studies have researched adjunctive therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for depression patients. Purpose . One potential complementary method with conventional antidepressants involves the use of medicinal herbs and phytochemicals that provide therapeutic benefits. Studies have revealed beneficial effects of medical herbs and phytochemicals on depression and their central nervous system mechanism. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the therapeutic benefits of phytochemicals and medicinal herbs against depression and describe their detailed mechanisms. Sections . There are two sections, phytochemicals against depression and medical herbs against depression, in this review. Conclusion . Use of phytomedicine may be an alternative option for the treatment of depression in case conventional drugs are not applicable due to their side effects, low effectiveness, or inaccessibility. However, the efficacy and safety of these phytomedicine treatments for depression have to be supported by clinical studies.

  8. Individual prognosis regarding effectiveness of a therapeutic intervention using pre-therapeutic "kinesiology muscle test".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxenegger, Ingrid; Endler, P Christian; Wulkersdorfer, Beatrix; Spranger, Heinz

    2007-10-22

    Since a therapy's full positive effect and possible adverse effects are individual and not predictable for every single patient, scientists have been searching for methods to predict optimal effects of a therapy. This pilot study investigated the applicability of the "kinesiology muscle test" as a prognostic tool regarding effectiveness in a defined therapeutic procedure. Each of 11 test persons with elevated total cholesterol values received a naturopathic drug supposed to lower cholesterol level on a daily basis for eight consecutive weeks. Prior to treatment the "kinesiology muscle test" was performed, where the patients' ability to maintain a flexed position in a selected joint was evaluated. The resistance created by the patient against the tester's pressure was monitored. Being in touch with healthful or unhealthful chemical substances may, according to the kinesiology literature, increase or decrease this resistance. For testing purposes, the drug was placed onto the patients' skin. The ability of the brachioradial muscle to resist the tester's pressure was determined on a subjective scale (0-100%). The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between four variables (total cholesterol value before therapy, total cholesterol value after therapy, difference of total cholesterol values before and after therapy, prior to treatment kinesiology testing) was chosen. A significant correlation between the difference of total cholesterol values before-after and the prior to treatment test was found, as well as a significant correlation between the total cholesterol values after therapy and the prior to treatment kinesiology test.

  9. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM VACCINIUM GENUS L

    OpenAIRE

    Karcheva-Bahchevanska D; Lukova P

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the botanical characteristics of four species of Vaccinium genus: Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (Lingonberry), Vaccinium myrtillus L. (Bilberry), Vaccinium uliginosum L. (Bog bilberry) and Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. (Caucasian whortleberry) as well as to consider the chemical composition and therapeutic effects of anthocyanins isolated from these species. The following therpeutic properites have been found in the extracts rich in anthocyanins and obtai...

  10. Effective Learning Approaches for Sustainability: A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Laura; Johnson, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    The authors offer an exploratory glimpse into the perceived effectiveness of learning approaches presently being used to teach students about sustainability in a business school setting. Sustainability is a topic of growing importance in business and business education. Using teaching approaches generated through self-reports related to the…

  11. Therapeutic suggestion has not effect on postoperative morphine requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, W H; van Leeuwen, B L; Sebel, P S; Winograd, E; Baumann, P; Bonke, B

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting unpremedicated patients scheduled for elective gynecologic surgery were randomly divided into three equal groups: Group 1 received a tape of therapeutic suggestions preoperatively, and the story of Robinson Crusoe intraoperatively; Group 2 heard the story of Peter Pan preoperatively and therapeutic suggestions intraoperatively; Group 3 heard the Crusoe story preoperatively and the Peter Pan story intraoperatively. A standardized anesthetic technique was used with fentanyl, propofol, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide. After surgery, all patients received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with a standardized regimen. In the 24 h postsurgery, morphine use was recorded every 6 h and at 24 h an indirect memory test (free association) was used to test for memory of the stories. Anxiety scores were measured before surgery and at 6 and 24 h postsurgery. There were no significant differences between groups for postoperative morphine use, pain or nausea scores, anxiety scores, or days spent in hospital after surgery. Seven of 20 patients who heard the Pan story intraoperative gave a positive association with the word "Hook," whereas 2 of 20 who did not hear the story gave such an association. Indirect memory for the Pan story was established using confidence interval (CI) analysis. (The 95% CI for difference in proportion did not include zero). No indirect memory for the Crusoe story could be demonstrated. This study did not confirm previous work which suggested that positive therapeutic auditory suggestions, played intraoperatively, reduced PCA morphine requirements. In contrast, a positive implicit memory effect was found for a story presented intraoperatively.

  12. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary COKINS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC and Activity-Based Management (ABM system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resulting information calculated and provided by the ABC/ABM system are analyzed and interpreted in terms of a multidimensional data analysis. The article ends with the authors' conclusions about the benefits of continued operation of sustaining the ABC/ABM system.

  13. Labor productivity, perceived effectiveness, and sustainability of innovative projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makai, P.; Cramm, J.M.; Grotel, M. van; Nieboer, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess labor productivity, perceived effectiveness, and sustainability of a national quality program that sought to stimulate efficiency gains through increased labor productivity while maintaining quality through implementing small-scale innovation projects. DESIGN: Longitudinal

  14. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of the Sterilization Policy in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ping Chung; Jen-Te Hwang; Chieh-Hsuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the sterilization policy in China. First, several indices are used to measure the status of China’s markets and to determine effectiveness and sustainability of the sterilization policy and the possible impacts it may have induced. Second, within a microeconomic framework, we incorporate the housing price variable into the target loss function of the monetary authority to explore its financial capabilities and evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability o...

  15. Labor productivity, perceived effectiveness, and sustainability of innovative projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Peter; Cramm, Jane M; van Grotel, Marloes; Nieboer, Anna P

    2014-01-01

    To assess labor productivity, perceived effectiveness, and sustainability of a national quality program that sought to stimulate efficiency gains through increased labor productivity while maintaining quality through implementing small-scale innovation projects. Longitudinal measures of labor productivity and quality were collected at baseline and after completion of the innovation projects. Perceived effectiveness and sustainability (measured by routinization) were assessed cross-sectionally after project completion. This study was conducted in The Netherlands. Ninety-eight improvement projects in long-term care organizations. A national quality program to stimulate innovative approaches in long-term care. Labor productivity, perceived effectiveness, and sustainability were the main outcome measures. Labor productivity data were available for only 37 (38%) of the 98 projects, 33 (89%) of which demonstrated significantly improved efficiency. Perceived effectiveness was significantly associated with sustainability (0.29; p labor productivity. To achieve sustainability in long-term care, developers of innovative projects must collect better quality information on efficiency gains in terms of labor productivity and focus more on efficiency improvement. More research is necessary to explore relationships between labor productivity, perceived effectiveness, and sustainability. © 2012 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  16. Sustained effects of grass pollen AIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, S R

    2011-07-01

    We report the sustained efficacy of the SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet Grazax® (Phleum pratense 75000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU, ALK, Denmark) from a 5-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial. Adults with moderate-to-severe grass pollen allergy inadequately controlled by symptomatic medications were followed for 2 years after the completion of 3 years of treatment. The active group demonstrated a 31% reduction in median rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score over the season compared with placebo. Individual symptom scores favoured active treatment. Combined symptom and medication scores demonstrated a 33% reduction in medians with active treatment. Persistent clinical efficacy was accompanied by prolonged increases in allergen-specific IgG(4) antibodies and IgE-blocking factor, confirming clinical and immunological tolerance for at least 2 years after the treatment completion. No safety issues were identified during follow-up. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. New insights into cannabis consumption; abuses and possible therapeutic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luiza Baconi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the oldest psychotropic drugs known to humanity. The paper assesses the current knowledge on the cannabis, including the mechanisms of action and the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids. Three varieties of Cannabis plant are recognised: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. The variety indica is used predominantly to obtain the drugs. Cannabis herb is usually named marijuana, while the cannabis oleoresin secreted by the glandular hairs found mainly on the flowering or fruiting tops of the plant is known as hashish. More than 400 known chemicals are present in cannabis, at least 70 of which are called cannabinoids. The major psychoactive constituent in cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC. It is now recognized that there are three types of cannabinoids: natural (phytocannabinoids, endogenous cannabinoids, and synthetic cannabioids. Cannabinoids exert their actions by binding to specific membrane protein, the cannabinoid receptor. To date, two subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, named cannabinoid-1 (CB1, most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and cannabinoid-2 (CB2 receptors, found predominantly in peripheral tissues with immune functions have been cloned. Therefore, the concept of endogenous cannabinoid system (endocannabinoid system, SEC has been developed. Based on the current scientific evidence, there are several effects of cannabinoids with potential therapeutic use: antiemetic, analgesic in cancerous pains, and chronic neuropathic pain, in multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injuries. Cannabis consume can result in a state of drug dependency and cannabis withdrawal has been included in DSM-V. Cannabis plant remains controversial in the twenty-first century and the potential therapeutic of specific cannabinoid compounds and medical marijuana remains under active medical research.

  18. Therapeutic effect of ursolic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica A. Jesus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important neglected tropical disease, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated and present diverse side effects in patients, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the therapeutic potential and toxicity of ursolic acid (UA, isolated from the leaves of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae, were evaluated in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of UA, hamsters infected with L. (L. infantum were treated daily during 15 days with 1.0 or 2.0 mg UA/kg body weight, or with 5.0 mg amphotericin B/kg body weight by intraperitoneal route. Fifteen days after the last dose, the parasitism of the spleen and liver was stimated and the main histopathological alterations were recorded. The proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells was evaluated and IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 gene expressions were analyzed in spleen fragments. The toxicity of UA and amphotericin B were evaluated in healthy golden hamsters by histological analysis and biochemical parameters. Animals treated with UA had less parasites in the spleen and liver when compared with the infected control group, and they also showed preservation of white and red pulps, which correlate with a high rate of proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells, IFN-γ mRNA and iNOS production. Moreover, animals treated with UA did not present alterations in the levels of AST, ALT, creatinine and urea. Taken together, these findings indicate that UA is an interesting natural compound that should be considered for the development of prototype drugs against visceral leishmaniasis.

  19. The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chuanhai; Li, Yaqiong; Liu, Hui; Bai, Ge; Mayl, Jonathan; Lin, Xiaoyang; Sutherland, Kyle; Nabar, Neel; Cai, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic qualities of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with respect to slowing or halting the hallmark characteristics of Alzheimer's disease. N2a-variant amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) cells were incubated with THC and assayed for amyloid-β (Aβ) levels at the 6-, 24-, and 48-hour time marks. THC was also tested for synergy with caffeine, in respect to the reduction of the Aβ level in N2a/AβPPswe cells. THC was also tested to determine if multiple treatments were beneficial. The MTT assay was performed to test the toxicity of THC. Thioflavin T assays and western blots were performed to test the direct anti-Aβ aggregation significance of THC. Lastly, THC was tested to determine its effects on glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and related signaling pathways. From the results, we have discovered THC to be effective at lowering Aβ levels in N2a/AβPPswe cells at extremely low concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. However, no additive effect was found by combining caffeine and THC together. We did discover that THC directly interacts with Aβ peptide, thereby inhibiting aggregation. Furthermore, THC was effective at lowering both total GSK-3β levels and phosphorylated GSK-3β in a dose-dependent manner at low concentrations. At the treatment concentrations, no toxicity was observed and the CB1 receptor was not significantly upregulated. Additionally, low doses of THC can enhance mitochondria function and does not inhibit melatonin's enhancement of mitochondria function. These sets of data strongly suggest that THC could be a potential therapeutic treatment option for Alzheimer's disease through multiple functions and pathways.

  20. Therapeutic Effects of Tangshen Formula on Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TingTing Zhao

    Full Text Available Inflammation and fibrosis are essential promoters in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN in type 2 diabetes. The present study examined the anti-inflammation and anti-fibrosis effect of Tangshen Formula (TSF, a traditional Chinese medicine, on DN.Protective role of TSF in DN was examined in a rat model of type 2 DN that was established by high-fat diet-fed and low-dose-streptozotocin injection. TSF was suspended in 0.5% CMC-Na solution and delivered by oral gavage at a dosage of 1.67g/Kg body weight/day. The therapeutic effects and mechanisms of TSF on diabetic kidney injury were examined.We found that TSF treatment for 20 weeks attenuated DN by significantly inhibiting urinary excretion of albumin and renal histological injuries. These beneficial effects were associated with an inactivation of NF-κB signaling, thereby blocking the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, chemokine (MCP-1, and macrophage infiltration in the TSF-treated rats with type 2 DN. In addition, TSF treatment also inactivated TGF-β/Smad3 signaling and therefore suppressed renal fibrosis including expressions of fibronectin, collagen I, and collagen IV. Further studies revealed that the inhibitory effect of TSF on TGF-β/Smad3 and NF-κB signaling in DN was associated with inhibition of Smurf2-dependent ubiquitin degradation of Smad7.The present study reveals that TSF has therapeutic potential for type 2 DN in rats. Blockade of NF-κB-driven renal inflammation and TGF-β/Smad3-mediated renal fibrosis by preventing the Smurf2-mediated Smad7 degradation pathway may be mechanisms through which TSF inhibits type 2 DN.

  1. Effect of therapeutic massage on pain in patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Yamini; Orr, Robin

    2015-04-23

    The aim was to investigate whether therapeutic massage was effective in relieving pain in elderly residents with dementia. A randomized controlled study was conducted in an aged care facility. Ten participants with dementia or advanced dementia were allocated to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received 10 min of massage (effleurage, kneading, and trigger point therapy) four times per week for 4 weeks. The Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale was used as the outcome measure. No significant changes in mean outcome measure scores were found post intervention (Intervention mean = 5.0 ± 3.49; Control mean = 5.2 ± 3.49: t(8) = 0.09, p = 0.93). However, the Intervention Group had a greater magnitude of change (1.200 ± 1.78) when compared to the control group (0.800 ± 2.16). Therapeutic massage may provide a useful adjunct to the current pain management plan of patients with dementia. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Physical mechanisms of the therapeutic effect of ultrasound (a review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. R.; Khokhlova, V. A.; Sapozhnikov, O. A.; Kargl, S. G.; Crum, L. A.

    2003-07-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound is an emerging field with many medical applications. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) provides the ability to localize the deposition of acoustic energy within the body, which can cause tissue necrosis and hemostasis. Similarly, shock waves from a lithotripter penetrate the body to comminute kidney stones, and transcutaneous ultrasound enhances the transport of chemotherapy agents. New medical applications have required advances in transducer design and advances in numerical and experimental studies of the interaction of sound with biological tissues and fluids. The primary physical mechanism in HIFU is the conversion of acoustic energy into heat, which is often enhanced by nonlinear acoustic propagation and nonlinear scattering from bubbles. Other mechanical effects from ultrasound appear to stimulate an immune response, and bubble dynamics play an important role in lithotripsy and ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery. A dramatic shift to understand and exploit these nonlinear and mechanical mechanisms has occurred over the last few years. Specific challenges remain, such as treatment protocol planning and real-time treatment monitoring. An improved understanding of the physical mechanisms is essential to meet these challenges and to further advance therapeutic ultrasound.

  3. POSSIBLE MECHANISMS UNDERLYING THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eChervyakov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is an effective method used to diagnose and treat many neurological disorders. Although repetitive TMS (rTMS has been used to treat a variety of serious pathological conditions including stroke, depression, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, pain, and migraines, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term TMS remain unclear. In the present review, the effects of rTMS on neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity are described, including the classic interpretations of TMS effects on synaptic plasticity via long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. We also discuss the effects of rTMS on the genetic apparatus of neurons, glial cells and the prevention of neuronal death. The neurotrophic effects of rTMS on dendritic growth and sprouting and neurotrophic factors are described, including change in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration under the influence of rTMS. Also, non-classical effects of TMS related to biophysical effects of magnetic fields are described, including the quantum effects, the magnetic spin effects, genetic magnetoreception, the macromolecular effects of TMS, and the electromagnetic theory of consciousness. Finally, we discuss possible interpretations of TMS effects according to dynamical systems theory. Evidence suggests that a rTMS-induced magnetic field should be considered a separate physical factor that can be impactful at the subatomic level and that rTMS is capable of significantly altering the reactivity of molecules (radicals. It is thought that these factors underlie the therapeutic benefits of therapy with TMS. Future research on these mechanisms will be instrumental to the development of more powerful and reliable TMS treatment protocols.

  4. Realism and Impartiality: Making Sustainability Effective in Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastons, Miquel; Armengou, Jaume

    2017-08-01

    There is both individual and collective widespread concern in society about the impact of human activity and the effects of our decisions on the physical and social environment. This concern is included within the idea of sustainability. The meaning of the concept is still ambiguous and its practical effectiveness disputed. Like many other authors, this article uses as a starting point the definition proposed by the World Commission on Environment and Development (Our common future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987), considering it to be a proposal for changing the assessment of the effects of decisions, from at least two perspectives: (1) what effects we should consider and (2) how we should assess them. Based on this double perspective, sustainability is explored as a method for decision-making which both expands the assessment of the consequences, and also provides an objective criterion for such assessment. It will be argued that the idea of sustainability, seen from this perspective, brings to decision-making two qualities which had been partially lost: realism and impartiality. In turn, the criteria for realism and impartiality in decision-making can be used to identify the limitations of some partial approaches to sustainability, which suffer from insufficient realism (emotional altruism), insufficient impartiality (tactical altruism) or both phenomena at once (egoism). The article concludes by demonstrating how realism and impartiality provide the basis for a new form of sustainable decision-making (ethical sustainability), which is dependent on the development of two moral virtues, prudence and benevolence, and which brings practical effectiveness and ethical sense to the concept of sustainability.

  5. Development of a macromolecular prodrug for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis: mechanisms involved in arthrotropism and sustained therapeutic efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the present manuscript is to test the hypothesis that arthrotropic localization and synovial cell internalization account for the unique capacity of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-dexamethasone conjugate (P-Dex, a macromolecular prodrug of dexamethasone) to induce sustained amelioration of joint inflammation and inhibition of tissue damage in an animal model of inflammatory arthritis. Methods Rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) were treated with P-Dex, free dexamethasone, saline or HPMA homopolymer. To define the biodistribution of P-Dex, conjugates with different imaging labels were given to AA rats and analyzed. Isolated joint tissues were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and immunohistochemical staining. Cellular uptake of P-Dex and its effects on apoptosis and production of proinflammatory cytokines were examined using human monocyte-macrophages and fibroblasts. Results A single systemic administration of P-Dex completely suppressed AA for >20 days. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated higher HPMA copolymer influx into the inflamed joints than the normal joints. Immunohistochemistry and FACS analyses of arthritic joints revealed extensive uptake of the polymer conjugate by synovial fibroblasts and myeloid lineage cells. The capacity of P-Dex to suppress inflammation was confirmed in monocyte-macrophage cultures in which P-Dex treatment resulted in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 and TNFα release. Similarly, TNFα-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1 and MMP3) in synovial fibroblasts from a rheumatoid arthritis patient was suppressed by P-Dex. P-Dex showed no detectable effect on monocyte apoptosis. Conclusions P-Dex provides superior and sustained amelioration of AA compared with an equivalent dose of free dexamethasone. The arthrotropism and local retention of P-Dex is attributed to the enhanced vascular permeability in arthritic joints and the

  6. Therapeutic effects of dendrosomal solanine on a metastatic breast tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenikia, Maryam; Farhangi, Baharak; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Khodayari, Hamid; Khodayari, Saeed; Khori, Vahid; Arjmand Abbassi, Yasaman; Vesovic, Milica; Soleymani, Ali; Najafi, Farhood

    2016-03-01

    Our previous studies showed that alpha-solanine can inhibit tumor growth in cell culture and animal models of breast cancer. However, solanine is insoluble in common solvents; therefore, we developed a special nanoparticle with high-capacity solubility. The present study is aimed to deliberate the therapeutic effects of dendrosomal solanine (DNS) on a metastatic breast tumor in vitro and in vivo. After DNS preparation and dosing procedures, forty-five mice were equally divided into five groups to investigate the anti-metastatic effects of DNS on mammary tumor-bearing mice. Compared to solanine, DNS significantly suppressed the proliferation of 4 T1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. DNS showed a remarkable safety rate of up to 10mg/kg. A significant decrease in white blood-cell count was seen at 20mg/kg DNS in comparison with control animals. Mice treated with DNS had smaller tumor volume (mm(3)) in comparison with control and solanine groups. Moreover, the incidence of the breast tumor metastases was about 67% in the control animals, where as solanine and DNS 1mg/kg were about 22% and 0%, respectively. Furthermore, the number of metastases per mouse varied from one to three. The tissues of tumor, brain, liver, spleen, and lung showed higher expression levels of Bcl-2 but lower expression levels of Bax, MMP-2, MMP-9, mTOR, and Akt in DNS-treated mice than control and solanine groups. The findings suggest that DNS has a more impactful therapeutic effect than solanine on 4 T1-induced breast tumorigenesis via influencing the tissue microenvironment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. School effectiveness and school improvement : Sustaining links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, B.P.M.; Reezigt, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ideally, school effectiveness research and school improvement might have a relationship with a surplus value for both. In reality, this relationship is often troublesome. Some problems can be attributed to the intrinsic differences between effectiveness and improvement, such as different missions.

  8. A systematic review of the therapeutic effects of Reiki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderVaart, Sondra; Gijsen, Violette M G J; de Wildt, Saskia N; Koren, Gideon

    2009-11-01

    Reiki is an ancient form of Japanese healing. While this healing method is widely used for a variety of psychologic and physical symptoms, evidence of its effectiveness is scarce and conflicting. The purpose of this systematic review was to try to evaluate whether Reiki produces a significant treatment effect. Studies were identified using an electronic search of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Quality of reporting was evaluated using a modified CONSORT Criteria for Herbal Interventions, while methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad Quality score. Two (2) researchers selected articles based on the following features: placebo or other adequate control, clinical investigation on humans, intervention using a Reiki practitioner, and published in English. They independently extracted data on study design, inclusion criteria, type of control, sample size, result, and nature of outcome measures. The modified CONSORT Criteria indicated that all 12 trials meeting the inclusion criteria were lacking in at least one of the three key areas of randomization, blinding, and accountability of all patients, indicating a low quality of reporting. Nine (9) of the 12 trials detected a significant therapeutic effect of the Reiki intervention; however, using the Jadad Quality score, 11 of the 12 studies ranked "poor." The serious methodological and reporting limitations of limited existing Reiki studies preclude a definitive conclusion on its effectiveness. High-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to address the effectiveness of Reiki over placebo.

  9. [Relevance between writing characteristic and therapeutic effect in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Cai, Wei-Xiong

    2014-04-01

    To explore the relevance between writing characteristic and therapeutic effect in schizophrenia and to discuss the influence of aggressive behavior on writing characteristic. Recoding the casual and fixed writing in admission, one week, two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks after treatment and rating Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS). Choosing two characteristics, "relationship between font and grid lines" and "having big strokes or not", and comparing before and after treatment. Eight weeks after treatment, the score of PANSS decreased. The condition of patients and the writing characteristic improved as well. The differences of writing characteristics were statistically significant in patients with aggressive behavior before and after treatment (P aggressive patients.

  10. [Therapeutic effect of gamma knife on intracranial cavernous angioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ge; Zhang, Junmei; Ma, Zhiming; Qiu, Bin; Hou, Yonghong

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of gamma knife on patients with intracranial cavernous angioma (CA). The medical records of 122 patients (134 lesions) who underwent radiosurgery were reviewed retrospectively. Th e average follow-up period was 43 months. No patient died. One patient underwent CA resection. In patients with epilepsy, 83% patients showed alleviation of seizures. About 44% of the lesions shrank in size after treatment with gamma knife radiosurgery (59/134). Seven cases had hemorrhage again after radiosurgery, and the overall annual hemorrhage rate was 1.6%. Edema was found in 11.5% patients (14/122) and all patients showed improvement aft er treatment. Gamma knife is a safe treatment for CA, which could obviously improve the symptoms of epilepsy. Gamma knife radiosurgery is the fi rst option for the treatment of cavernous sinus angiomas.

  11. [Therapeutic applications and biomedical effects of cannabinoids; pharmacological starting points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killestein, J; Nelemans, S A

    1997-08-30

    A broad range of therapeutic applications has been suggested for cannabis or its pharmacologically active compound (tetrahydrocannabinol; THC) in many publications. Psychotropic side effects and the anecdotal character of the research have limited the pharmacotherapeutic use of THC until now. Therefore, the Netherlands Health Council recently decided negatively on this matter. Besides several cannabinoid receptor subtypes present in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues endogenous cannabinoids have been detected. These endogenous cannabinoids appear to play an important role in signal transduction, which may be starting points for therapy regarding: cardiovascular diseases, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord disorders. cerebrovascular accident and brain trauma, neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, pain management, glaucoma, oncologic and aids-related disorders such as nausea, vomiting and appetite problems.

  12. ERP characterization of sustained attention effects in visual lexical categorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara D Martin

    Full Text Available As our understanding of the basic processes underlying reading is growing, the key role played by attention in this process becomes evident. Two research topics are of particular interest in this domain: (1 it is still undetermined whether sustained attention affects lexical decision tasks; (2 the influence of attention on early visual processing (i.e., before orthographic or lexico-semantic processing stages remains largely under-specified. Here we investigated early perceptual modulations by sustained attention using an ERP paradigm adapted from Thierry et al. [1]. Participants had to decide whether visual stimuli presented in pairs pertained to a pre-specified category (lexical categorization focus on word or pseudoword pairs. Depending on the lexical category of the first item of a pair, participants either needed to fully process the second item (hold condition or could release their attention and make a decision without full processing of the second item (release condition. The P1 peak was unaffected by sustained attention. The N1 was delayed and reduced after the second item of a pair when participants released their attention. Release of sustained attention also reduced a P3 wave elicited by the first item of a pair and abolished the P3 wave elicited by the second. Our results are consistent with differential effects of sustained attention on early processing stages and working memory. Sustained attention modulated early processing stages during a lexical decision task without inhibiting the process of stimulus integration. On the contrary, working memory involvement/updating was highly dependent upon the allocation of sustained attention. Moreover, the influence of sustained attention on both early and late cognitive processes was independent of lexical categorization focus.

  13. An Injectable Gel Platform for the Prolonged Therapeutic Effect of Pitavastatin in the Management of Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Nanxi; Zhou, Xu; He, Xinyi; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinjie; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Sun, Xun; Gong, Tao; Fu, Yao

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an injectable in situ-forming gel has been designed and fabricated for the controlled and prolonged release of pitavastatin calcium (Pit) for treating hyperlipidemia. By mixing phospholipids and soybean oil with ethanol, the phospholipid-based platform material (PSE) displayed in a sol state with low viscosity in vitro. After subcutaneous injection, pregel solution underwent rapid-phase separation and gelation in situ thus forming a drug release depot. Pit was loaded within PSE (PSE-P), which achieved prolonged release profiles for 15 consecutive days in vitro. Correspondingly, the pharmacokinetic study in rats demonstrated that PSE-P achieved sustained in vivo release for 15 days after 1 subcutaneous injection. The pharmacodynamic study in hyperlipidemia rats further revealed that the levels of total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein decreased remarkably, and the in vivo therapeutic effect was well maintained for over 20 days. Additionally, PSE-P showed mild tissue inflammatory responses and excellent degradability in vivo. Thus, in situ-forming PSE-P gel represents a viable and promising drug delivery platform to achieve long-term therapeutic effects in the management of hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Creating, Invigorating, and Sustaining Effective Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Susan; Miller, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Teams can boost creativity, morale, and communication, but they can also unleash disharmony, create tension, and waste time. To maximize teaming benefits, administrators must share authority, cultivate teacher leadership, train all team members, use situational leadership, model effective team leader behaviors, provide incentives, support each…

  15. Sustainable agriculture development through effective farmer groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group formation cannot simply be achieved by calling people together. The formation and development of an effective farmer group is influenced by the skills of the group promoter and the adherence to certain basic group dynamic principles. This paper reflects on the experience of establishing and working with farmer ...

  16. A novel therapeutic effect of statins on nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfrate, Leonilde; Procino, Giuseppe; Wang, David Q-H; Svelto, Maria; Portincasa, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Statins competitively inhibit hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, resulting in reduced plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Recently, it has been shown that statins exert additional ‘pleiotropic’ effects by increasing expression levels of the membrane water channels aquaporin 2 (AQP2). AQP2 is localized mainly in the kidney and plays a critical role in determining cellular water content. This additional effect is independent of cholesterol homoeostasis, and depends on depletion of mevalonate-derived intermediates of sterol synthetic pathways, i.e. farnesylpyrophosphate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. By up-regulating the expression levels of AQP2, statins increase water reabsorption by the kidney, thus opening up a new avenue in treating patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a hereditary disease that yet lacks high-powered and limited side effects therapy. Aspects related to water balance determined by AQP2 in the kidney, as well as standard and novel therapeutic strategies of NDI are discussed. PMID:25594563

  17. Oxytocin has therapeutic effects on cancer, a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanieh, Mohammad Hossein; Bagheri, Fereshte; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Ashkani-Esfahani, Soheil

    2014-10-15

    Oxytocin (OT) is the first peptide hormone structurally assessed and chemically synthesized in biologically active form. This hormone acts as an important factor in a human reproductive system particularly during pregnancy and lactation in women. So far, different therapeutic roles for OT have been identified as a spectrum from central and peripheral actions on male and female reproductive systems, circulatory system, musculoskeletal system, etc. Some in vitro and in vivo studies also revealed that OT is responsible for bivariate biological functions involved in cancer as following. By activating OT receptor in tumoral cells, OT enacts as a growth regulator, whether activator or inhibitor. Regarding the increase of OT in some conditions such as breastfeeding, exercise, and multiparity, we can relate the effect of these conditions on cancer with OT effects. Based on this hypothesis, we present a review on the effects of this neuropeptide on various types of cancer and also the influence of these conditions on the same cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: A CHALLENGE TO EFFECTIVE LANDSCAPING IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anifowose M. O. Atolagbe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The poor quality of the Nigerian urban environment has been attributed partly to the inadequate%2C misuse and mis- management of the urban open spaces. This%2C according to various researchers%2C has exerted a major strain on the physical outlook of the environment and a negative effect on the welfare and productivity of the residents. This has called for the need to identify and analyze the open spaces in the urban environment and assess the implications of their landscape planning on the status of the city and the development of a healthy and sustainable environment. This study therefore discusses the concept of sustainability%2C particularly within the built environment. It looks into the principles and indicators for sustainability of the environment and the resulting problems. Furthermore%2C a case study of Akure urban core was carried out to assess the uses and landscape status of the open spaces. The results when statistically analysed showed the inadequacies in the provision and management of the open spaces in the study area. It therefore recommends attainable policies for the effective sustainability of the environment. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : urban environment%2C sustainability%2C landscaping.

  19. Therapeutic effects of fig tree latex on bovine papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatzadeh, F; Fatemi, A; Amini, F

    2003-12-01

    The effects of fig tree latex in treating teat papillomatosis in cow in comparison with salicylic acid were evaluated. For this purpose, 12 cows of 1-3 years of age (average 2.25) affected by teat papillomatosis were divided into three groups. In group A, four cows were treated by fig tree (Ficus carica) latex; in group B, four cows were treated with 10% salicylic acid solution and in group C, four cows were kept as control animals receiving no treatment. Animals in each treatment group received their treatment once every 5 days. In groups A and B, de-epithelialization and shrinking of the warts began from the fifth day of treatment and all the warts disappeared within 30 days. However, in the control group no changes in the number of warts were observed until day 15 but thereafter a number of warts disappeared spontaneously in some of the animals. Both salicylic acid and fig tree latex were evaluated as having similar therapeutic effects in treating teat papillomatosis in cow.

  20. Discourses on sustainable forest management and effects of Natura 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferranti, Francesca; Vericat, Pau; Koning, de Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed discourses influencing the meaning of Sustainable Forest Management in Catalonia (Spain) and the effects of the European Natura 2000 policy on these discourses. It focused on the Montseny area and on the Administration and Practitioner stakeholder groups. Based on literature

  1. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of the Sterilization Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ping Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the sterilization policy in China. First, several indices are used to measure the status of China’s markets and to determine effectiveness and sustainability of the sterilization policy and the possible impacts it may have induced. Second, within a microeconomic framework, we incorporate the housing price variable into the target loss function of the monetary authority to explore its financial capabilities and evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of China’s sterilization policy. The empirical results show that Chinese monetary authorities sterilize almost all of the effects of international capital inflows and increase foreign exchange reserves on the monetary base. That is, increased capital mobility does not sabotage the independence of the Chinese monetary policy. Nevertheless, analyses of the sustainability of sterilization policy indicate that the sustainability of the monetary sterilization policy has been seriously challenged since March 2008, which suggests that Chinese monetary authority has endured tremendous pressure for unsustainable sterilization.

  2. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.

  3. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Chen, Wei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Huabing; Lu, Huizhi

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran) after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Dong

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.

  5. Antidiabetic Effects of Aronia melanocarpa and Its Other Therapeutic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Banjari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a global pandemic which warrants urgent attention due to its rising prevalence and economic burden. Thus, many alternative therapies are being researched for antidiabetic properties, given the inefficacy of current medicinal treatments. From this perspective, Aronia melanocarpa or black chokeberry has been investigated for its therapeutic properties in many studies, especially for its ability to combat hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and the macrovascular complications of diabetes including cardiovascular disease. Though A. melanocarpa is native to the eastern areas of North America, it has been planted extensively in Europe and Asia as well. Several in vivo studies have displayed the antioxidant properties of A. melanocarpa berry juice and plant extract in rat models where oxidative stress markers were observed to have significant reductions. Some of the potent bioactive compounds present in the fruits and other parts of the plant were identified as (−-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and cyanidin-3-galactoside. Overall, A. melanocarpa could be considered a good source of antioxidants which is effective in combating hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress.

  6. V-ATPase as an effective therapeutic target for sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perut, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.perut@ior.it [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Avnet, Sofia; Fotia, Caterina; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Salerno, Manuela [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Hosogi, Shigekuni [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki [Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Baldini, Nicola [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumors show intense glycolysis and, as a consequence, high lactate production and proton efflux activity. We investigated proton dynamics in osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma, and evaluated the effects of esomeprazole as a therapeutic agent interfering with tumor acidic microenvironment. All sarcomas were able to survive in an acidic microenvironment (up to 5.9–6.0 pH) and abundant acidic lysosomes were found in all sarcoma subtypes. V-ATPase, a proton pump that acidifies intracellular compartments and transports protons across the plasma membrane, was detected in all cell types with a histotype-specific expression pattern. Esomeprazole administration interfered with proton compartmentalization in acidic organelles and induced a significant dose-dependent toxicity. Among the different histotypes, rhabdomyosarcoma, expressing the highest levels of V-ATPase and whose lysosomes are most acidic, was mostly susceptible to ESOM treatment. - Highlights: • Osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma survive in acidic microenvironment. • At acidic extracellular pH, sarcoma survival is dependent on V-ATPase expression. • Esomeprazole administration induce a significant dose-dependent toxicity.

  7. [Therapeutic strategies to increase the effectiveness of cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Castro, Rodrigo; Monge, Gonzalo; Vera, Roberto; Puppo, Homero; Céspedes, Juan; Vilaró, Jordi

    2014-02-01

    Cough is a natural reflex that protects respiratory airways against infections or mucus retention. Cough maintains an adequate cleaning of the airways and is a mainstay of respiratory therapy. It can be triggered voluntarily by the patient or by a specific cough device. Peak cough flow (PCF) is used to assess the effectiveness of the cough. When this value is below 160 L/min, cough is considered inefficient and becomes a risk factor for respiratory problems. Patients with weak cough, especially those with neuromuscular disease, have in common a low tidal volume and a decreased maximum insufflation capacity. Both factors directly affect the inspiratory phase previous to cough, which is considered vital to obtain the optimum flow for a productive cough. Different therapeutic measures may help to increase cough efficiency among patients with cough weakness. These interventions may be performed using manual techniques or by mechanical devices. The aim of this review is to analyze the different techniques available for cough assistance, set a hierarchy of use and establish a scientific basis for their application in clinical practice.

  8. Enhanced acute anti-inflammatory effects of CORM-2-loaded nanoparticles via sustained carbon monoxide delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Omer Salman; Zeb, Alam; Akram, Muhammad; Kim, Myung-Sic; Kang, Jong-Ho; Kim, Hoo-Seong; Majid, Arshad; Han, Inbo; Chang, Sun-Young; Bae, Ok-Nam; Kim, Jin-Ki

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of carbon monoxide (CO) via sustained release of CO from carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2-loaded lipid nanoparticles (CORM-2-NPs). CORM-2-NPs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization method using trilaurin as a solid lipid core and Tween 20/Span 20/Myrj S40 as surfactant mixture. The physicochemical properties of CORM-2-NPs were characterized and CO release from CORM-2-NPs was assessed by myoglobin assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by nitric oxide assay in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by measuring paw volumes and histological examination in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Spherical CORM-2-NPs were around 100nm with narrow particle size distribution. The sustained CO release from CORM-2-NPs was observed and the half-life of CO release increased up to 10 times compared with CORM-2 solution. CORM-2-NPs showed enhanced in vitro anti-inflammatory effects by inhibition of nitric oxide production. Edema volume in rat paw was significantly reduced after treatment with CORM-2-NPs. Taken together, CORM-2-NPs have a great potential for CO therapeutics against inflammation via sustained release of CO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development in Swedish Compulsory Schools--Assessing Pupils' Sustainability Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, D.; Gericke, N.; Chang Rundgren, S.-N.

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, numerous schools in Sweden have implemented education for sustainable development (ESD) as an explicit guiding approach in teaching. In this paper, we investigate the effect of this approach in comparison with that of pupils taught in ordinary schools. Accordingly, we introduce the concept of sustainability consciousness to…

  10. [Thinking about increasing therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion for slimming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-ying; Al, Bing-wei

    2006-07-01

    To probe into the factor of increasing the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion for slimming. The factors of increasing the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion for slimming were thought by analysis of the physician and the patient, and combination of theory with clinical treatment, and opinions were put forward. There are a lot of factors influencing the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion for slimming, and only both the physician and the patient cooperate each other and pay attention to the factors, can the therapeutic effect be better increased.

  11. Clinical therapeutic effect of two therapies on circumscribed choroidal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Le Huang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of photodynamic therapy(PDTand transpupillary thermotherapy(TTTon circumscribed choroid hemangioma(CCH.METHODS: Totally 24 cases(24 eyesof CCH were selected in this study. Twelve of them had undergone TTT, and the other 12 were treated by PDT. The changes of tumors were examined by best corrected visual acuity, results of fundus photography, and direct ophthalmoscopy; the changes of tumors' sizes and heights were examined by B-ultrasound examination and coloured doppler imaging; the presence of serous subretinal fluid were examined by optical coherence tomography(OCT; the leakage of tumors and complications were analyzed by fluorescence fundus angiography(FFAand indocyanine green angiography(ICGA.RESULTS: In all cases, the tumors shrinked back, the blood flows tuned negative, the fluorescence leakages lessened and the serous retinal detachments resolved completely according to OCT, FFA, ICGA and coloured doppler imaging. In the 12 patients treated by TTT, visual acuity improved in 33.3%, unchanged in 33.3%, and droped in 33.3% too; the results of fundus examinations showed obvious pigmentation and atrophy tumor with organized scar. In the 12 patients treated by PDT, visual acuity improved in 66.7%, unchanged in 33.3%, and none droped; the results of fundus examinations showed slight pigment derangement, atrophy tumor tuned white, and normal blood vessel undamaged.CONCLUSION: Both TTT and PDT can make the tumor atrophy and the exudation absorbed. Unlike TTT, PDT damages little normal tissue, and has higher security.

  12. Sustained Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation Investigated with Centrality Mapping Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiangyu; Huang, Wenjing; Napadow, Vitaly; Liang, Fanrong; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno; Witt, Claudia M; Nierhaus, Till; Pach, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture can have instant and sustained effects, however, its mechanisms of action are still unclear. Here, we investigated the sustained effect of acupuncture by evaluating centrality changes in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging after manually stimulating the acupuncture point ST36 at the lower leg or two control point locations (CP1 same dermatome, CP2 different dermatome). Data from a previously published experiment evaluating instant BOLD effects and S2-seed-based resting state connectivity was re-analyzed using eigenvector centrality mapping and degree centrality mapping. These data-driven methods might add new insights into sustained acupuncture effects on both global and local inter-region connectivity (centrality) by evaluating the summary of connections of every voxel. We found higher centrality in parahippocampal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus after ST36 stimulation in comparison to the two control points. These regions are positively correlated to major hubs of the default mode network, which might be the primary network affected by chronic pain. The stronger integration of both regions within the whole-brain connectome after stimulation of ST36 might be a potential contributor to pain modulation by acupuncture. These findings highlight centrality mapping as a valuable analysis for future imaging studies investigating clinically relevant outcomes associated with physiological response to acupuncture stimulation. NCT01079689, ClinicalTrials.gov.

  13. Sustained effects of acupuncture stimulation investigated with centrality mapping analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Long

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can have instant and sustained effects, however its mechanisms of action are still unclear. Here we investigated the sustained effect of acupuncture by evaluating centrality changes in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging after manually stimulating the acupuncture point ST36 at the lower leg or two control point locations (CP1 same dermatome, CP2 different dermatome. Data from a previously published experiment evaluating instant BOLD effects and S2-seed-based resting state connectivity was re-analyzed using eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM and degree centrality mapping (DCM. These data-driven methods might add new insights into sustained acupuncture effects on both global and local inter-region connectivity (centrality by evaluating the summary of connections of every voxel. We found higher centrality in parahippocampal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus after ST36 stimulation in comparison to the two control points. These regions are positively correlated to major hubs of the default mode network, which might be the primary network affected by chronic pain. The stronger integration of both regions within the whole-brain connectome after stimulation of ST36 might be a potential contributor to pain modulation by acupuncture. These findings highlight centrality mapping as a valuable analysis for future imaging studies investigating clinically-relevant outcomes associated with physiological response to acupuncture stimulation.

  14. Sustainability of treatment effect of a 3-year early intervention programme for first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wing Chung; Kwong, Vivian Wing Yan; Lau, Emily Sin Kei; So, Hon Cheong; Wong, Corine Sau Man; Chan, Gloria Hoi Kei; Jim, Olivia Tsz Ting; Hui, Christy Lai Ming; Chan, Sherry Kit Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chen, Eric Yu Hai

    2017-07-01

    BackgroundEvidence indicates that the positive effects of 2-year early intervention services for psychosis are not maintained after service withdrawal. Optimal duration of early intervention in sustaining initial improved outcomes remains to be determined.AimsTo examine the sustainability of the positive effects of an extended, 3-year, early intervention programme for patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) after transition to standard care.MethodA total of 160 patients, who had received a 2-year early intervention programme for FEP, were enrolled to a 12-month randomised-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01202357) comparing a 1-year extension of the early intervention (3-year specialised treatment) with step-down care (2-year specialised treatment). Participants were followed up and reassessed 2 and 3 years after inclusion to the trial.ResultsThere were no significant differences between the treatment groups in outcomes on functioning, symptom severity and service use during the post-trial follow-up period.ConclusionsThe therapeutic benefits achieved by the extended, 3-year early intervention were not sustainable after termination of the specialised service. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  15. Estimation of dose requirements for sustained in vivo activity of a therapeutic human anti-CD20 antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, Wim K.; Munk, Martin E.; Mackus, Wendy J. M.; van den Brakel, Jeroen H. N.; Pluyter, Marielle; Glennie, Martin J.; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.

    We evaluated the dose requirements for sustained in vivo activity of ofatumumab, a human anti-CD20 antibody under development for the treatment of B cell-mediated diseases. In a mouse xenograft model, a single dose, resulting in an initial plasma antibody concentration of 5 mu g/ml, which was

  16. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B; Fenger, M

    1983-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... theophylline concentration....

  17. The Effects of Sustainable Tourism on the Pygmies of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Njenji, Julius

    2014-01-01

    The Cameroon Pygmies like many indigenous groups of the World are facing threats and marginalization or discrimination on the land they first possessed by their neighboring farmer´s group known as, the Bantus and the Cameroon Government policies as a result of tourism development. This study examines The Effects of Sustainable Tourism on the Pygmies of Cameroon as the government pushes its policy to invest more in tourism, hoping to make Cameroon a tourist destination by 2035. The tourism gro...

  18. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  19. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  20. Therapeutic Effectiveness of Anticancer Phytochemicals on Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jisun; Hlatky, Lynn; Jeong, Yong-Seob; Kim, Dohoon

    2016-06-30

    Understanding how to target cancer stem cells (CSCs) may provide helpful insights for the development of therapeutic or preventive strategies against cancers. Dietary phytochemicals with anticancer properties are promising candidates and have selective impact on CSCs. This review summarizes the influence of phytochemicals on heterogeneous cancer cell populations as well as on specific targeting of CSCs.

  1. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  2. Tanshinones as Effective Therapeutic Agents for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    prostate cancer research. The use of plants for medicinal purposes is as old as human history . All traditional and indigenous healing sys- tems used...basis for most modern pharmaceutical drugs. Herbal medicines usually contain multiple bioactive compo- nents with specific biological activities and...are also used as alter- native therapeutic or preventive regimens for individuals with cancer.1 Some of those herbal medicines have been used for cen

  3. New insights into cannabis consumption; abuses and possible therapeutic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Luiza Baconi; Robert Daniel Vasile; Cristian Bălălău

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is one of the oldest psychotropic drugs known to humanity. The paper assesses the current knowledge on the cannabis, including the mechanisms of action and the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids. Three varieties of Cannabis plant are recognised: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. The variety indica is used predominantly to obtain the drugs. Cannabis herb is usually named marijuana, while the cannabis oleoresin secreted by the glandular hairs found mainly...

  4. Curcumin (Extracted from Tumeric and its Therapeutic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezou khosrojerdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives:  The application of herbal medicine has been rising in recent years. Therefore, it is logical to revise and revive these traditional drugs while identifying their mechanisms of action can result in developing new treatments for many diseases. Curcumin is the most important component of Turmeric with numerous therapeutic properties. We aimed to review the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties of Curcumin and introduce it as a therapeutic molecule in the present article. Methods: In this review, 121 articles were selected from authenticated electronic resources and scientific library databases such as Pubmed, Medline, Sciencedirect, WOS, DOAJ, SID, Iranmedex, Magiran and Google Scholar search engine in which Curcumin (Turmeric had been evaluated as a therapeutic molecule from differeny aspects. Results: Our findings from the literature revealed that immune responses against infectious and inflammatory factors could be fascilitated by Curcumin. However, the low solubility in water and minimal bioavailability which may lead to poor absorbance from gastrointestinal tract, quick metabolization and elimination from blood circulation are the most important problems during oral consumption. Conclusion: According to the results of the present review article, Curcumin possesses efficient anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral and anti-parasitic properties. However, the low bioavailability of this substance has limited its treatment properties. Nowadays, several mechanisms have been proposed to increase the bioavailability which can improve its absorption.

  5. To evaluate the effectiveness of the therapeutic effect of color and Health Centers

    OpenAIRE

    JAN NESARI, Azzam JAN NESARI; DARVISH, Behrouz; SAGHAFI, Mahmoud Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Rehabilitation centers for the formation of adequate space to provide rehabilitation services, along with education, leisure, work, recreation, etc. are designed. Factors that major developments in the creation of health centers and the development of new ideas on the effects of the space environment on the human psyche is considered as pick psychology. He study examines the influence color and its therapeutic effects of comprehensive health centers, as well as the environmental fac...

  6. The Effect of Special Operations Training on Testosterone, Lean Body Mass, and Strength and the Potential for Therapeutic Testosterone Replacement: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    and muscle function during SOF training or sustained operations.  15. SUBJECT TERMS Androgenic, anabolic, cachexia, fatigue 16. SECURITY...Testosterone. Both testosterone and AAS have been used therapeutically to prevent cachexia, muscle wasting, and fatigue in patients living with HIV and...stopped. JAMA . 1992; 267(3):397-399. 26. Griggs RC, Kingston W, Jozefowicz RF, Herr BE, Forbes G, Halliday D. Effect of testosterone on muscle mass

  7. Clinical therapeutic effect of intense pulse light PhotoDerm for vascular dermatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Li-Jun; Xu, Li-Wei; Li, Ying-Yi; Yang, Ji-Qing; Qi, Jia-Xue

    2008-12-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of intense pulsed light PhotoDerm (IPL PhotoDerm) for vascular dermatosis and analysis the possible factors affecting the therapeutic effect. Methods: Treat all blank kinds of vascular dermatosis 85 cases with IPL PhotoDerm, observe the therapeutic effect and no obvious side-effects of vascular dermatosis. Results: The cure rate of telangiectasis, arterial spider nevus, strawberry nevus, avermrus uemongioma and nevus flammeus with IPL PhotoDerm is respective 76.5%, 91.7%, 88.9%, 27.8%, 15%, and the cure rate in three times is respective 35.3%, 91.7%, 66.7%, 5.6% and 5%. 6 eases appear pigmentation, pigment subsidence or atrophic scar. Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of vascular dermatosis with IPL PhotoDerm is satisfying, and the no obvious side-effects is less.

  8. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  9. Therapeutic Effects of Topical Tranexamic Acid in Comparison with Hydroquinone in Treatment of Women with Melasma

    OpenAIRE

    Atefi, Najmolsadat; Dalvand, Behzad; Ghassemi, Mahammadreza; Mehran, Golnaz; Heydarian, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have focused on therapeutic as well as side effects of tranexamic acid (TXA) as a topical drug compared to other topical drugs in treating melasma. The present study aimed to assess and compare the beneficial therapeutic effects and also side effects of local TXA in comparison with hydroquinone in treating women with melasma. Methods This randomized double-blinded clinical trial was performed on 60 women who suffered from melasma and were referred to the skin disorder...

  10. Anorexia nervosa versus hyperinsulinism: therapeutic effects of neuropharmacological manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Lechin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuad Lechin1,2, Bertha van der Dijs1,2, Betty Pardey-Maldonado1, Scarlet Baez1, Marcel E Lechin31Sections of Neuroendocrinology, Neuropharmacology, and Neurochemistry, Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas; 2Instituto de Vias Digestivas Caracas, Centro Clínico Profesional Caracas, Venezuela; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A & M Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Texas, USABackground: We have demonstrated that anorexia nervosa is underpinned by overwhelming adrenal sympathetic activity which abolishes the neural sympathetic branch of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. This physiological disorder is responsible for gastrointestinal hypomotility, hyperglycemia, raised systolic blood pressure, raised heart rate, and other neuroendocrine disorders. Therefore, we prescribed neuropharmacological therapy to reverse this central and autonomic nervous system disorder, in order to normalize the clinical and neuroendocrine profile.Methods: The study included 22 female patients with anorexia nervosa (10 restricted type, 12 binge-eating type who received three months of treatment with amantadine 100 mg/day. We measured blood pressure, heart rate, and circulating neurotransmitters, (noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, platelet serotonin, free plasma serotonin during supine resting, one minute of orthostasis, and a five-minute exercise test before and after one, two, and three months of treatment with amantadine, a drug which abrogates adrenal sympathetic activity by acting at the C1(Ad medullary nuclei responsible for this branch of the peripheral sympathetic activity.Results: We found the amantadine abolished symptoms of anorexia nervosa from the first oral dose onwards. Normalization of autonomic and cardiovascular parameters was demonstrated within the early days of therapy. Abrupt and sustained increases in the plasma noradrenaline

  11. Inhibition factors of arsenic trioxide therapeutic effects in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Meijuan; Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Jin

    2014-01-01

    To summarize limitations involved in arsenic trioxide therapeutic effects in acute promyelocytic leukemia, because current studies show that some individuals of acute promyelocytic leukemia have relatively poor outcomes during treatment with arsenic trioxide. Most relevant articles were included in the PubMed database between 2000 and 2013 with the keywords "acute promyelocytic leukemia," "arsenic trioxide," "thiol" or "methylation." In addition, a few older articles were also reviewed. Data and articles related to arsenic trioxide effect in acute promyelocytic leukemia treatment were selected and reviewed. We developed an overview of limitations associated with arsenic trioxide therapeutic effect. This review focuses on the researches about the arsenic trioxide therapeutic effect in acute promyelocytic leukemia and summarizes three mainly limitations which can influence the arsenic trioxide therapeutic effect to different degrees. First, with the combination of arsenic and glutathione the therapeutic effect and cytotoxicity decrease when glutathione concentration increases; second, arsenic methylation, stable arsenic methylation products weaken the apoptosis effect of arsenic trioxide in leukemia cells; third, gene mutations affect the sensitivity of tumor cells to arsenic trioxide and increase the resistance of leukemia cells to arsenic trioxide. The chief limitations are listed in the review. If we can exclude all of them, we can obtain a better therapeutic effect of arsenic trioxide in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.

  12. Sustaining effect of soil warming on organic matter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ruixing; Ouyang, Zhu; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Wilson, Glenn; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Global warming affects various parts of carbon (C) cycle including acceleration of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition with strong feedback to atmospheric CO2 concentration. Despite many soil warming studies showed changes of microbial community structure, only very few were focused on sustainability of soil warming on microbial activity associated with SOM decomposition. Two alternative hypotheses: 1) acclimation because of substrate exhaustion and 2) sustaining increase of microbial activity with accelerated decomposition of recalcitrant SOM pools were never proven under long term field conditions. This is especially important in the nowadays introduced no-till crop systems leading to redistribution of organic C at the soil surface, which is much susceptible to warming effects than the rest of the profile. We incubated soil samples from a four-year warming experiment with tillage (T) and no-tillage (NT) practices under three temperatures: 15, 21, and 27 °C, and related the evolved total CO2 efflux to changes of organic C pools. Warmed soils released significantly more CO2 than the control treatment (no warming) at each incubation temperature, and the largest differences were observed under 15 °C (26% increase). The difference in CO2 efflux from NT to T increase with temperature showing high vulnerability of C stored in NT to soil warming. The Q10 value reflecting the sensitivity of SOM decomposition to warming was lower for warmed than non-warmed soil indicating better acclimation of microbes or lower C availability during long term warming. The activity of three extracellular enzymes: β-glucosidase, chitinase, sulphatase, reflecting the response of C, N and S cycles to warming, were significantly higher under warming and especially under NT compared to two other respective treatments. The CO2 released during 2 months of incubation consisted of 85% from recalcitrant SOM and the remaining 15% from microbial biomass and extractable organic C based on the

  13. The effect of knowledge based view on sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rezaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quantitative relationship between knowledge based view (i.e. empowering employees, promoting confidence, coding rules and sustainability competitive advantage (i.e. market, customer, financial within the banking industry of Iran. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 150 top- and middle-level managers from Mellat bank of Iran. With a response rate of 81.3 percent, 122 questionnaires are returned; the number of valid and usable questionnaires was 101. In order to determine validity of questionnaire, the content validity was used and Cronbach's alpha was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire (KBV questionnaire 0.886, SCA questionnaire 0.843. Utilizing the structural equation modeling, and after a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, it was found that KBV had the greatest effect on the market centered SCA, while it had the least influence on the customer centered.

  14. Sustainable packaging: from eco-efficiency to eco-effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Boas, Simon H.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2014-01-01

    and the natural environment. Companies in the packaging sector have traditionally been using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to fulfill these requirements. However, being inspired by the eco-efficiency principle, LCA aims to reduce the negative environmental footprint of human activities by optimizing......According to Verghese et al (2012) sustainable packaging should be: effective in delivering its functional requirements, efficient in its use of materials, energy, and water throughout its life cycle, cyclic in its use of renewable materials and recoverability at end-of-life, and safe for people......-effective” solutions,i.e. maximizing the benefit to ecological systems. C2C is based on three key principles “waste equal food”,“use solar energy income” and “celebrate diversity” (McDonough and Braungart, 2002). The first principlecalls for eliminating the concept of waste by designing systems where waste...

  15. Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kueffer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter

  16. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of preoperative exercise on functional recovery after joint replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeboom, Thomas J; Oosting, Ellen; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; Veenhof, Cindy; Siemonsma, Petra C; de Bie, Rob A; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to develop a rating scale to assess the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise programmes. By use of this rating scale we investigated the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise in patients awaiting primary total joint replacement (TJR). Finally, we studied the association between therapeutic validity of preoperative therapeutic exercise and its effectiveness in terms of postoperative functional recovery. (Quasi) randomised clinical trials on preoperative therapeutic exercise in adults awaiting TJR on postoperative recovery of functioning within three months after surgery were identified through database and reference screening. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias and therapeutic validity. Therapeutic validity of the interventions was assessed with a nine-itemed, expert-based rating scale (scores range from 0 to 9; score ≥6 reflecting therapeutic validity), developed in a four-round Delphi study. Effects were pooled using a random-effects model and meta-regression was used to study the influence of therapeutic validity. Of the 7,492 articles retrieved, 12 studies (737 patients) were included. None of the included studies demonstrated therapeutic validity and two demonstrated low risk of bias. Therapeutic exercise was not associated with 1) observed functional recovery during the hospital stay (Standardised Mean Difference [SMD]: -1.19; 95%-confidence interval [CI], -2.46 to 0.08); 2) observed recovery within three months of surgery (SMD: -0.15; 95%-CI, -0.42 to 0.12); and 3) self-reported recovery within three months of surgery (SMD -0.07; 95%-CI, -0.35 to 0.21) compared with control participants. Meta-regression showed no statistically significant relationship between therapeutic validity and pooled-effects. Preoperative therapeutic exercise for TJR did not demonstrate beneficial effects on postoperative functional recovery. However, poor therapeutic validity of the therapeutic exercise programmes may have hampered

  17. Therapeutic effects of flunitrazepan in dystonias and torticollis preliminary communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Marino Jr.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available A new form of clinical treatment is proposed for dystonias and torticollis using flunitrazepan (FN, a powerful agonist of all benzodiazepine receptors of GABA neurons. FN has a specific effect in dystonic patients, specially those in which the hypnotic effect of this drug is absent or diminished, thus suggesting the existence of two different neurochemical categories of dystonias.

  18. The Effect of Common Therapeutic Drugs on Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    since the 18th century. The effects on blood vessels to skin and digitalis group is one of the group of mucosa, salivary glands , etc.) than re- drugs...285-286, 1961. 447-451, 1969. Gentles, W. and E. Llewellyn Thomas. Fink, M. EEG classification of psy- Effect of benzodiazepines upon sac- choactive

  19. Therapeutic Effects of Medication on ADHD: Implications for School Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Information is presented to familiarize school psychologists with (1) behavioral effects and side-effects associated with stimulant medications used for the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); (2) factors to consider in recommending medicine trials for individual children; (3) methods to assess treatment response within schools; and…

  20. Therapeutic treatment with sustained-release platelet-rich plasma restores blood perfusion by augmenting ischemia-induced angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Esaki, Jiro; Marui, Akira; Sakaguchi, Hisashi; Kevil, Christopher G; Ikeda, Tadashi; Komeda, Masashi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish the effectiveness of sustained-release platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on perfusion and neovascularization in diabetic murine hind limb ischemia. After surgery in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, the mice were randomly assigned to the following 4 experimental groups: control (C), 100 μl of the sustained-release form of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), 100 μl of the solution form of PRP (PRP-sol), and 100 μl of the sustained-release form of PRP (PRP-sr). Endpoint evaluations were: blood perfusion by laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), vascular density by anti-vWF, and mature vessel density by anti-smooth muscle actin antibody. This study demonstrated that a sustained release of PRP increases the perfusion of ischemic tissue as measured by LDPI (57 ± 12; 56 ± 9; 72 ± 7, and 98 ± 4 for the C, PPP, PRP-sol, and PRP-sr groups, respectively; p < 0.05), capillary density (151 ± 16; 158 ± 12; 189 ± 39, and 276 ± 39 for groups C, PPP, PRP-sol, and PRP-sr, respectively; p < 0.05), and mature vessel density (28 ± 2; 31 ± 3; 52 ± 10, and 85 ± 13 for the C, PPP, PRP-sol, and PRP-sr groups, respectively; p < 0.05). A sustained release of PRP containing potent angiogenic growth factors restores blood perfusion by stimulating angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Therapeutic effects of intensive inpatient rehabilitation in advanced Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kaseda, Yumiko; IKEDA, Junko; Sugihara, Katsunobu; Yamawaki, Takemori; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of rehabilitation therapy in Parkinson's disease is well recognized. However, the effects of an inpatient rehabilitation program for advanced Parkinson's disease have not been fully investigated. Aim To assess the effects of intensive inpatient rehabilitation. Methods We enrolled 31 patients (mean age 69.5 ? 9.4 years; mean disease duration 8.8 ? 6.4 years) with advanced Parkinson's disease, without severe cognitive impairment. The median Hoehn?Yahr stage wa...

  2. [Classic psychedelic drugs and their potential therapeutic effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Michael

    2017-09-11

    Over the past decade we have witnessed a renewed scientific interest in the classic hallucinogens (psychedelic drugs). These are substances which exert their effects by an agonist action on the 5-HT2A receptors. The purpose of this paper is to provide a short review and discussion of the psychedelic drugs, their safety profile and their potential antidepressive, anxiolytic and antiaddictive effects. The article primarily focusses on the most recent clinical trials.

  3. Therapeutic effect ofArctium lappainSchistosoma haematobiumassociated kidney disturbance: biochemical and molecular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Idris, Zulzamri H; Haron, Hasniza F; Omar, Nurulhuda A; Lazain, Halita S

    2016-12-01

    Schistosoma haematobium ( S. haematobium ) infection has been found to be strongly associated with bladder cancer, which necessitates for discover of a natural new therapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Arctium lappa seed extract in S. haematobium associated kidney disturbance. Forty male albino mice were used and divided into four equal groups; group 1 control includes non-infected healthy mice, groups 2, 3 and 4 subcutaneous infected with S. haematobium cercariae. Groups 3 co-treated daily with oral dose of A. lappa seed extract (300 mg/kg, bwt) for 15 days in the same time of S. haematobium infection. Groups 4 post-treated daily for 15 days with oral dose of A. lappa seed extract (300 mg/kg, bwt) after 15 days of S. haematobium infection. The results obtained revealed that S. haematobium significantly decreased kidney weight and serum sodium, potassium and chloride, but increased urinary volume, urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride, serum urea, creatinine and uric acid. Schistosoma haematobium also significantly decreased kidney superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels while increased kidney lipid peroxidation level. Co- and post-treatment with A. lappa seed extract restore all the above parameters to approach the normal values. These results were supported with histopathological examinations. In conclusion, A. lappa seed extract has therapeutic effect in kidney disturbance caused by S. haematobium where co-treatment of A. lappa seed extract was more effective than post-treatment of the extract.

  4. The effect of resource based view on sustainable capability advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jafari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is important to achieve and to sustain an organization’s competitive advantage in complex environments. This paper evaluates different concepts that have led to such benefits. The study sheds light on resource based view (RBV and its role to reach sustainable competitive advantage (SCA within banking industry of Iran. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 150 top- and middle-level managers from Mellat bank of Iran. With a response rate of 81.3 percent, 122 questionnaires were returned while a number of valid and usable questionnaires were 101. In order to determine validity of questionnaire, the content validity and Cronbach's alpha were used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire (RBV questionnaire 0.934, SCA questionnaire 0.843. The study utilized structural equation modelling, and a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and they tested the integrated model of MKM and SCA. Statistical support was found for the hypothesized relationships. Moreover it has been shown that RBV had the greatest effect on the market centered SCA, while it had the least influence on the financial centered. The findings offer valuable insights on the generalizability of MKM in a research setting. Structural equation modeling has been implemented and the study also used freedman test to rank the factors and the results show that communication was the most important factor (4.41, followed by process (4.03, knowledge implementation (2.79, decision making (2.54 and human resources (1.22 was the last important factor.

  5. Effect of attention control on sustained attention during induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Christian; Robinson, Oliver J; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety has wide-reaching and complex effects on cognitive performance. Although it can intrude on cognition and interfere with performance, it can also facilitate information processing and behavioural responses. In a previous study, we showed that anxiety induced by threat of shock facilitates performance on the Sustained Attention to Response Task, a vigilance test, which probes response inhibition to infrequent nogo stimuli. The present study sought to identify factors that may have contributed to such improved performance, including on- and off-task thinking (assessed with thought probes) and individual differences in attention control, as measured with the Attention Control Scale. Replicating our prior finding, we showed that shock threat significantly reduced errors of commission on the nogo trials. However, we extended this finding in demonstrating that this effect was driven by subjects with low attention control. We therefore confirm that anxiety increases inhibitory control of prepotent responses--a mechanism which is adaptive under threat--and show that this effect is greater in those who rely more upon such prepotent responding, i.e., those with low attentional control.

  6. Sustaining the Effects of Gatekeeper Suicide Prevention Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelband, Annette; Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Chen, Peter Y

    2015-02-23

    Background: Gatekeeper training is a promising suicide prevention strategy that is growing in popularity. Although gatekeeper training programs have been found to improve trainee knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived skills, researchers have found that the benefit of gatekeeper training may not last over time. Aims: The purpose of this study was to identify strategies for strengthening the long-term effects of suicide prevention gatekeeper training. Method: In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with gatekeepers (N = 44) and data were analyzed using a qualitative research approach. Results: The results of this study suggest that posttraining interventions may be more effective if they include the following seven themes: (a) social network - connecting with other gatekeepers; (b) continued learning - further education; (c) community outreach - building awareness; (d) accessibility - convenience; (e) reminders - ongoing communication; (f) program improvement -- enhancing previous training; and (g) certification - accreditation. Conclusion: Posttraining interventions that incorporate the themes from this study offer a promising direction in which to sustain the effects of gatekeeper suicide prevention training.

  7. Therapeutic effects of Laser and L-carnitine against amiodarone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Amiodarone-Induced Lung Toxicity in Rats. Internet. Toxicol. 2013; 10: 11-34. 10. Zickri MB, Aboul-Fadl SG, Metwally HG. Comparative. Study between Intravenous and Intraperitoneal Stem. Cell Therapy in Amiodarone Induced Lung Injury in Rat. Int J Stem Cells 2014; 7 (1): 103-114.

  8. Therapeutic effects of intensive inpatient rehabilitation in advanced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseda, Yumiko; Ikeda, Junko; Sugihara, Katsunobu; Yamawaki, Takemori; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2017-01-01

    The importance of rehabilitation therapy in Parkinson's disease is well recognized. However, the effects of an inpatient rehabilitation program for advanced Parkinson's disease have not been fully investigated. To assess the effects of intensive inpatient rehabilitation. We enrolled 31 patients (mean age 69.5 ± 9.4 years; mean disease duration 8.8 ± 6.4 years) with advanced Parkinson's disease, without severe cognitive impairment. The median Hoehn-Yahr stage was IV. Patients received 2 h of individualized rehabilitation for 6-7 days each week for 1 month. At hospital discharge, patients and caregivers were instructed to continue daily exercise. Motor and total scores of Functional Independence Measures significantly improved between admission and discharge in patients with stage III and IV disease, but not stage V. There was no significant effect of Hoehn-Yahr stage on improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores, (total, part I, II or III), cognitive Functional Independence Measures or Berg Balance Scale. Intensive inpatient rehabilitation was effective even in advanced Parkinson's disease. Intensive inpatient rehabilitation, together with home and day-care exercise, might counteract the progressive motor decline in Parkinson's disease.

  9. Therapeutic effect of different doses of antibiotic-enrofloxacin (10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increase in bacteria disease outbreak with intensive aquaculture leading to high mortality and economic loss. Most available drugs have not been very effective and are also very expensive. This study therefore investigate the colony forming unit (cfu) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that can establish infection and the ...

  10. Therapeutic effects of co-inhaled roflumilast or formoterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1056. 14. Vanacker N, Palmans E, Pauwels R, Kips J. Dose-related effect of inhaled fluticasone on allergen-induced airway changes in rats. Eur Respir J 2002; 20: 873-879. 15. Price D, Hillyer EV. Fluticasone propionate/formoterol fumarate in ...

  11. Therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Creatinine (Cr) has been implicated as an independent predictor of hypertension and exercise has been reported as adjunct therapy for hypertension. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of continuous training programme on blood pressure and serum creatinine concentration in black ...

  12. Therapeutic effects of Iranian herbal extracts against Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashan, Zohreh Fakhrieh; Delavari, Mahdi; Arbabi, Mohsen; Hooshyar, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated parasite affecting about 276 million people annually worldwide. Tricomoniasis is associated with different complications in pregnant women and infants. 5’-nitroimidazole derivatives (metronidazole, ornidazole, and tinidazole) are FDA approved drugs recommended for trichomoniasis treatment. Treatment with metronidazole 5’-nitroimidazole derivatives is associated with many side effects, and drug resistance to metronidazole has been reported in some cases. Recently, many attempts have been made to evaluate the effects of plants on causative agents of vaginal infections. In our research, the national and international databases were searched and the effects of various herbal extracts on T. vaginalis in Iran were reviewed from 2006 to 2016. In articles investigated, some plants had favorable antitrichomonal effects and needed to be further investigated. All the plant extracts have only been evaluated in vitro. Surveys of different articles in this review show that the active ingredients present in different parts of plants, including aerial parts, leaves, flowers, stems, and root can be suitable sources for introducing and developing new antitrichomonal compounds PMID:28755655

  13. Therapeutic Effects of Water Soluble Danshen Extracts on Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Danshen is a traditional Chinese medicine with many beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms responsible for the antiatherogenic effect of water soluble Danshen extracts (DEs. Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were treated with DE. To evaluate the effects of DE in vivo, carotid balloon injury and tail vein thrombosis were induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and iliac artery stent was induced in New Zealand white rabbits. The inhibitory action of DE on platelet aggregation was confirmed with an impedance aggregometer. DE inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, and the migration and proliferation of platelet-derived growth factor-BB stimulated VSMCs. Furthermore, DE prevented inflammation and apoptosis in HUVECs. Both effects of DE were reconfirmed in both rat models. DE treatment attenuated platelet aggregation in both in vivo and ex vivo conditions. Pretreatment with DE prevented tail vein thrombosis, which is normally induced by κ-carrageenan injection. Lastly, DE-treated rabbits showed decreased in-stent restenosis of stented iliac arteries. These results suggest that water soluble DE modulates key atherogenic events in VSMCs, endothelial cells, and platelets in both in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  14. Effect of a therapeutic dose of pseudoephedrine on swimmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in increased oxygenated blood supply to the exercising muscles, reducing the premature onset of muscle fatigue. The total torque production of the muscles is consequently increased and may result in enhanced athletic performance.[2,3] These and other positive effects of PSE appeal to athletes, although doses ≥240 mg ...

  15. Therapeutic effects of Iranian herbal extracts against Trichomonas vaginalis

    OpenAIRE

    Kashan, Zohreh Fakhrieh; Delavari, Mahdi; Arbabi, Mohsen; Hooshyar, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated parasite affecting about 276 million people annually worldwide. Tricomoniasis is associated with different complications in pregnant women and infants. 5?-nitroimidazole derivatives (metronidazole, ornidazole, and tinidazole) are FDA approved drugs recommended for trichomoniasis treatment. Treatment with metronidazole 5?-nitroimidazole derivatives is associated with many side effects, and drug resistance to metronidazole has been reported in some cases. ...

  16. Therapeutic effects of Iranian herbal extracts against Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrieh Kashan, Zohreh; Delavari, Mahdi; Arbabi, Mohsen; Hooshyar, Hossein

    2017-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated parasite affecting about 276 million people annually worldwide. Tricomoniasis is associated with different complications in pregnant women and infants. 5'-nitroimidazole derivatives (metronidazole, ornidazole, and tinidazole) are FDA approved drugs recommended for trichomoniasis treatment. Treatment with metronidazole 5'-nitroimidazole derivatives is associated with many side effects, and drug resistance to metronidazole has been reported in some cases. Recently, many attempts have been made to evaluate the effects of plants on causative agents of vaginal infections. In our research, the national and international databases were searched and the effects of various herbal extracts on T. vaginalis in Iran were reviewed from 2006 to 2016. In articles investigated, some plants had favorable antitrichomonal effects and needed to be further investigated. All the plant extracts have only been evaluated in vitro. Surveys of different articles in this review show that the active ingredients present in different parts of plants, including aerial parts, leaves, flowers, stems, and root can be suitable sources for introducing and developing new antitrichomonal compounds.

  17. Benefical Therapeutic Effect of Chinese Herbal Xinji′Erkang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: XJEK therapy in the 2K1C hypertensive rats affects the rise in blood pressure and ameliorates the severity of kidney injury. The protective effect is most likely due to the ability of XJEK to affect the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) and the TGF-β systems. Keywords: renal injury; 2K1C hypertensive; ...

  18. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, R.; van der Galien, O.P.; Smeets, H.M.; Hollinga, A.P.D.; Bosmans, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. Methods: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  19. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, Rosan; van der Galiën, Onno P; Smeets, Hugo M; Hollinga, Anne P D; Bosmans, Judith E

    BACKGROUND: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. METHODS: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  20. Therapeutic effects of different durations of acupuncture on rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is regarded as an effective therapy for cerebral ischemia. Different acupuncture manipulations and durations may result in different therapeutic effects. In the present study, the Neiguan (PC6 acupoint of rats with occluded middle cerebral arteries was needled at a fixed frequency (3 Hz with different durations, i.e., 5, 60 and 180 seconds under a twisting-rotating acupuncture method. Results showed that different durations of acupuncture had different therapeutic effects, with 60 seconds yielding a better therapeutic effect than the other two groups. This duration of treatment demonstrated rapid cerebral blood flow, encouraging recovery of neurological function, and small cerebral infarct volume. Experimental findings indicated that under 3 Hz frequency, the treatment of needling Neiguan for 60 seconds is effective for ischemic stroke

  1. Potential therapeutic effects of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Ban, Jung Ok; Park, Kyung-Ran; Lee, Chong Kil; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2014-05-01

    The medicinal properties of functionally active organosulfur compounds such as allin, diallyl disulfide, S-allylmercaptocysteine, and S-trityl-L-cysteine isolated from garlic have received great attention from a large number of investigators who have studied their pharmacological effects for the treatment of various diseases. These organosulfur compounds are able to prevent for development of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, and liver diseases as well as allergy and arthritis. There have been also many reports on toxicities and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. The aim of this study is to review a variety of experimental and clinical reports, and describe the effectiveness, toxicities and pharmacokinetics, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aromatase inhibitors in men: effects and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Frank H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aromatase inhibitors effectively delay epiphysial maturation in boys and improve testosterone levels in adult men Therefore, aromatase inhibitors may be used to increase adult height in boys with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, idiopathic short stature and constitutional delay of puberty. Long-term efficacy and safety of the use of aromatase inhibitors has not yet been established in males, however, and their routine use is therefore not yet recommended.

  3. Therapeutic Effects of Breviscapine in Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Breviscapine is a crude extract of several flavonoids of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant. Hand.-Mazz., containing more than 85% of scutellarin, which has been traditionally used in China as an activating blood circulation medicine to improve cerebral blood supply. Accumulating evidence from various in vivo and in vitro studies has shown that breviscapine exerts a broad range of cardiovascular pharmacological effects, including vasodilation, protection against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R, anti-inflammation, anticoagulation, antithrombosis, endothelial protection, myocardial protection, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, anticardiac remodeling, antiarrhythmia, blood lipid reduction, and improvement of erectile dysfunction. In addition, several clinical studies have reported that breviscapine could be used in conjunction with Western medicine for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs including coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidaemia, viral myocarditis, chronic heart failure, and pulmonary heart disease. However, the protective effects of breviscapine on CVDs based on experimental studies along with its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the underlying pharmacological mechanisms in the cardioprotective effects of breviscapine and elucidated its clinical applications.

  4. Late effects of whole brain irradiation within the therapeutic range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caveness, W.F.; Carsten, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    Whole brain exposure with supervoltage x irradiation was carried out in three sets of Macaca mulatta. Two sets of 12 monkeys each, at puberty, received single and fractionated exposures, respectively. One set of 21 monkeys in adulthood received a fractionated exposure. Exposure to 1000 rads in a single dose, at puberty, caused no late effects. Exposure to 1500 rads caused small areas of necrosis in the forebrain white matter at 26 weeks, but a much more extensive involvement at and beyond 52 weeks that included confluent areas of necrosis in gray and white matter. Brain loss resulted in ventricular dilatation. Gliomas appeared in two out of three monkeys at or beyond 52 weeks. Exposure to 2000 rads caused such a wide scatter of focal areas of necrosis, including those in the brain stem, that survival beyond 20 to 26 weeks was not possible. All showed enlarged ventricular systems. Whole brain exposure, 200 rads a day, five days a week, for a course of 4000 rads, at puberty, resulted in no delayed effects. Whole brain exposure to 6000 rads in a six weeks course, in the adult, produced less effects than the same dose at puberty. The onset of the scattered necrotic lesions was later than expected, appearing in one out of three animals at 33 weeks, two out of three animals at 52 weeks, and two out of three at 104 weeks. The lesions at 104 weeks were predominantly mineralized, but were accompanied by a greater extent of telangiectasia than seen in the pubescent monkeys.

  5. Oxidative Stress and Immunosenescence: Therapeutic Effects of Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Espino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-associated deterioration in the immune system, which is referred to as immunosenescence, contributes to an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and cancer in the elderly. A summary of major changes associated with aging in immune system is described in this paper. In general, immunosenescence is characterized by reduced levels of peripheral naïve T cells derived from thymus and the loss of immature B lineage cells in the bone marrow. As for macrophages and granulocytes, they show functional decline with advancing age as evidenced by their diminished phagocytic activity and impairment of superoxide generation. The indole melatonin is mainly secreted in the pineal gland although it has been also detected in many other tissues. As circulating melatonin decreases with age coinciding with the age-related decline of the immune system, much interest has been focused on melatonin’s immunomodulatory effect in recent years. Here, we underlie the antioxidant and immunoenhancing actions displayed by melatonin, thereby providing evidence for the potential application of this indoleamine as a “replacement therapy” to limit or reverse some of the effects of the changes that occur during immunosenescence.

  6. The Therapeutic Effect of Speechvive on Prosody in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Brianna Rose

    It is well known that physiological impairments secondary to Parkinson's Disease (PD) negatively impact speech production. Individuals with PD display vocal, prosodic, resonant, and articulatory abnormalities which reduce communicative effectiveness. Prosody is a broad term which refers to the alterations in pitch, duration, and loudness used by speakers to convey important linguistic and paralinguistic information during speech. Little is known about the prosodic abnormalities associated with PD relative to healthy older adults; however, it is well known that individuals with PD display impairments in their ability to modulate the acoustic cues (pitch, duration, intensity) associated with prosodic inflection in speech. Literature presently lacks sufficient evidence to support treatment paradigms commonly used to address dysprosody in PD. Thus, there is a significant need to develop and investigate potential evidence-based treatment paradigms for dysprosody associated with PD. The present study aimed to examine the potential treatment effects the SpeechVive device has on treating dysprosody in PD. Acoustic recordings were obtained from 15 individuals with PD during a reading task. Participants read the passage at the start of the study and 12 weeks later, after wearing the SpeechVive device for the intervening weeks. Main outcome measures examined productions of contrastive stress, intonation contours, rate, and patterns of pausing. The results revealed that participants increased vocal intensity levels during the production of stressed words and improved standard deviation of pitch during the productions of intonation contours. Lastly, the device was found to improve participants' abilities to pause relative to syntactic boundaries.

  7. Preventive and therapeutic effects of tranexamic acid on postpartum bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Solltani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum hemorrhage is among the leading causes of maternal mortality throughout the world. Severe blood loss contributes to  the increased blood transfusion risk with its concerned inherent adverse events and therefore increased rate of emergency re-operative interventions such as arterial ligation or hysterectomy. It also can lead to protracted anemia, particularly in low or median income countries. Extended application of antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic acid has been customary for long years to stop or reduce blood loss in postpartum period. However, there are not enough reliable evidence to approve the real efficacy of these drugs. In this brief and summary review, we pointed to a few conducted studies. The PubMed was searched for keyword including postpartum hemorrhage, tranexamic acid, cesarean section, vaginal delivery, and blood loss prevention. The articles with language other than English were excluded from our review.  We concluded that more convincing information is needed to determine the precise effects of tranexamic acid, and its benefits against adverse effects.

  8. Effect of different types of therapeutic trauma on vitiligo lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mofty, Medhat; Esmat, Samia; Hunter, Nahla; Mashaly, Heba M; Dorgham, Dina; Shaker, Olfat; Ibrahim, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    New treatment modalities for vitiligo acting by changing certain cytokines and metalloproteinases are newly emerging. The aim of this work is to To assess the efficacy of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) chemical peel, dermapen, and fractional CO2 laser in treatment of stable non-segmental vitiligo and to detect their effects on IL-17 and MMP-9 levels. Thirty patients with stable vitiligo were recruited in a randomized controlled study. They were randomly categorized into three equal groups. Group 1: TCA peel, Group 2: dermapen machine, and Group 3: Fractional CO2 laser. Skin biopsies were taken from treated areas and from control areas for which MMP-9 and IL-17 tissue levels were measured using ELISA. The 30 vitiligo patients had low basal tissue MMP-9 levels and high baseline IL-17 tissue levels. As regards the three different used modalities, all of them caused rise in MMP-9 as well as IL-17 levels and almost their levels were much more elevated with repetition of the previously mentioned traumatic procedures. TCA 25% peel proved to be the most effective modality both clinically and laboratory and it can be used prior or with other conventional therapies in the treatment of vitiligo. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Therapeutic cold: An effective kind to modulate the oxidative damage resulting of a skeletal muscle contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntel, Gustavo O; Carvalho, Nélson R; Amaral, Guilherme P; Lobato, Lauren D; Silveira, Sérgio O; Daubermann, Melissa F; Barbosa, Nilda V; Rocha, João B T; Soares, Félix A A

    2011-02-01

    Muscular contusions affect the function of the skeletal muscle system. This study investigated the oxidative damage as well as the main morphological changes related to a skeletal muscle contusion in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats and also the capacity of therapeutic cold to modulate these parameters. The therapeutic cold modulated the increase of oxidative stress markers and also modulated the reduction in the antioxidants levels in the injured muscle. In enzyme assays, therapeutic cold was also effective in normalizing the muscle Na(+)/K(+) and Ca(2+) ATPases, lactate dehydrogenase and myeloperoxidase activities. Similarly, the lesioned non-treated animals presented evident impairments in the mitochondrial functions and in the muscle morphology which were diminished by the cold treatment. The therapeutic cold was able to modulate the oxidative damage possibly by its capacity to limit the inflammatory response intensity, to attenuate the impairment of the mitochondrial function and also to preserve the skeletal muscle morphology.

  10. [Therapeutic effect of lisuride maleate on post-stroke depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaku, H; Matsumoto, M; Hata, R; Handa, N; Imaizumi, M; Sugitani, Y; Yoneda, S; Etani, H; Sueyoshi, K; Kusunoki, M

    1994-01-01

    Twenty post-stroke depressive patients who obtained more than 11 points on Self-Rating Questionnaire for Depression, were treated with 0.075 mg/day lisuride maleate for 12 weeks. The drug effect on depression was evaluated quantitatively by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The relationships between brain CT or MRI and SRQ-D score were investigated in 24 subjects. More than 80% of post-stroke depressive patients improved after lisuride maleate treatment for 8 or 12 weeks. In particular, depressed mood, hypobulia, sleep disturbance, anxiety, etc. were significantly improved compared to the baseline condition. As for the relationships with CT and/or MRI findings, the group with moderate to severe brain atrophy had a significantly higher grade of depressive state than those without.

  11. Psychotherapist countertransference in the nuclear age: Effects on therapeutic interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oderberg, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, there has been considerable attention in the psychology literature to mental health problems related to living in a world threatened by nuclear destruction. Questionnaires were mailed to 630 psychotherapists from the Colorado Psychological Association, California Psychotherapists for Social Responsibility, California Psychologists for Social Responsibility, the US Army, and the APA Division of Military Psychology; 174 questionnaires were returned. It was hypothesized that liberalism, nuclear weapons opposition, nuclear concern, nuclear awareness, and anti-nuclear activism in psychotherapists would facilitate perception of, and openness to working with, a client's nuclear concerns and thus, would be positively correlated with intentions to discuss nuclear issues with clients in three different clinical vignettes. Results indicated that when controlling for subject group, psychotherapy orientation, age, sex, and income, all five independent variables were positively correlated with responses to all three clinical vignettes, with nuclear concern having the strongest unique effect in accounting for variance in responses to the vignettes.

  12. Therapeutic effects of amla in medicine and dentistry: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis (Amla is widely used in the Indian system of medicine and believed to increase defense against diseases. Amla is called amalaki in Sanskrit. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for assorted ailments. A wide range of phytochemical components present in amla including alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids have been shown to procure useful biological activities. It is an ingredient of many Ayurvedic medicines and tonics as it removes excessive salivation and internal body heat. Research has been done with amla evaluating its role as an antioxidant. Amla is useful in ulcer prevention, for diabetic patients, and for memory effects. Amla Tonic has a hematinic and lipalytic function useful in scurvy, prevents indigestion, and controls acidity as well as it is a natural source of anti-aging.

  13. The special effects of hypnosis and hypnotherapy: A contribution to an ecological model of therapeutic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Matthias

    2006-04-01

    There is ample evidence that hypnosis enhances the effectiveness of psychotherapy and produces some astounding effects of its own. In this paper, the effective components and principles of hypnosis and hypnotherapy are analyzed. The "special" hypnotic and hypnotherapeutic effects are linked to the fact that the ecological requirements of therapeutic change are taken into account implicitly and/or explicitly when working with hypnotic trances in a therapeutic setting. The hypnotic situation is described--theoretically and in case examples--as a therapeutic modality that gratifies and aligns the basic emotional needs to feel autonomous, related, competent, and oriented. It is shown how the hypnotic relationship can help promote a sound ecological balance between these needs--a balance that is deemed to be a necessary prerequisite for salutogenesis. Practical implications for planning hypnotherapeutic interventions are discussed.

  14. [Programme of criteria for clinical evaluation and assessment of therapeutic effects of peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-qiang; Bai, Ya-Ping; Wang, Zi-chen

    2006-11-01

    To establish perfect criteria for clinical evaluation and assessment of therapeutic effects of peripheral facial paralysis. With reference to relative evaluating criteria, and in combination with self-characteristics of TCM and functional characteristics of facial nerves, and via clinical repeated investigation and control evaluation, put forward a scale for peripheral facial nerve rating, criteria for facial nerve grading, criteria of syndrome types and criteria of assessment of therapeutic effects. Clinical preliminary determination indicated that the assessment contents were characterized by rational reference, convenience and objectiveness. The program can used as criteria for clinical evaluation and assessment of therapeutic effects, but it needs support of clinical effectiveness and determination of confidence, and multi-central studies.

  15. [Pathological nighttime fears in children: Clinical specificities and effective therapeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducasse, D; Denis, H

    2015-09-01

    . The treatments which have proved effective are some cognitive-behavioral techniques: systematic desensitization (with relaxation or emotive imagery), reinforcement (gain of points and techniques of self statement), and cognitive techniques (reinforcing self-statements, reducing the aversive aspects of being in the dark, involving reality-testing statements, and active control are preferred in children older than 6 years, whereas the "anti-monster letter" and the techniques using a doll are preferred in children under 6 years old). The modelling technique seems to be appropriate at any age. We have explained the clinical features of pathological nighttime fears and the way to assess this disease, and we have pointed out the treatments whose effectiveness has been evaluated in this indication. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Meditation for Treating Affective Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie T. Y. Leung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective dysregulation is at the root of many psychopathologies, including stress induced disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression. The root of these disorders appears to be an attenuated, top-down cognitive control from the prefrontal cortices over the maladaptive subcortical emotional processing. A form of mental training, long-term meditation practice can trigger meditation-specific neuroplastic changes in the brain regions underlying cognitive control and affective regulation, suggesting that meditation can act as a kind of mental exercise to foster affective regulation and possibly a cost-effective intervention in mood disorders. Increasing research has suggested that the cultivation of awareness and acceptance along with a nonjudgmental attitude via meditation promotes adaptive affective regulation. This review examined the concepts of affective regulation and meditation and discussed behavioral and neural evidence of the potential clinical application of meditation. Lately, there has been a growing trend toward incorporating the “mindfulness” component into existing psychotherapeutic treatment. Promising results have been observed thus far. Future studies may consider exploring the possibility of integrating the element of “compassion” into current psychotherapeutic approaches.

  17. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Physical Exercise for Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Paes, Flávia; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Lattari, Eduardo; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Cheniaux, Elie; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are observed in a variety of domains in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). These deficits are attributed to neurobiological, functional and structural brain factors, particularly in prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, cortical alterations in each phase (mania/hypomania, euthymia and depression) are also present. A growing basis of evidence supports aerobic exercise as an alternative treatment method for BD symptoms. Its benefits for physical health in healthy subjects and some psychiatric disorders are fairly established; however evidence directly addressed to BD is scant. Lack of methodological consistency, mainly related to exercise, makes it difficult accuracy and extrapolation of the results. Nevertheless, mechanisms related to BD physiopathology, such as hormonal and neurotransmitters alterations and mainly related to brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) can be explored. BDNF, specially, have a large influence on brain ability and its gene expression is highly responsive to aerobic exercise. Moreover, aerobic exercise trough BDNF may induce chronic stress suppression, commonly observed in patients with BD, and reduce deleterious effects caused by allostatic loads. Therefore, it is prudent to propose that aerobic exercise plays an important role in BD physiopathological mechanisms and it is a new way for the treatment for this and others psychiatric disorders.

  18. [Therapeutic effect of 138 imported falciparum malaria patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Fu-Yong; Wei, Dong-Dong; Yin, Bin; Wei, Yan-Bin; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Wang, Yong-Bin

    2014-12-01

    To summarize the clinical characteristics of imported falciparum malaria patients and the treatment, so as to provide the evidences for improving the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. A total of 138 imported falciparum malaria patients who received the treatment in Shandong Institute of Parasitic Diseases from January 2007 to February 2013 were adopted as the observation subjects, and their clinical data were collected and analyzed. All the 138 patients were back from African countries. The main manifestations were fever, headache, asthenia, and hepatosplenomegaly, and most of them were with decreased RBC, PLT levels and increased LDH levels, and 36.96% of them were misdiagnosed as respiratory diseases, nephritis, hepatitis and so on. Through antimalarial treatment of artemether or artesunate or dihydroartemisinin and primaquine, or dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine, and symptomatic treatment, the short-term and long-term cure rates were 98.55% and 94.93% respectively, with 1 case unrecovered and 1 died. Artemisinins are still the most effective antimalarial drugs for falciparum malaria. However, some patients recrudesce as the Plasmodium in their body is resistant or insensitive to these drugs. We should pay more attention to the antimalarial and symptomatic treatments in the early stage of severe malaria so as to improve the cure rate.

  19. [Effectiveness of physical exercise in psychiatry: a therapeutic approach?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordeurs, D; Janne, P; Appart, A; Zdanowicz, N; Reynaert, C

    2011-10-01

    There is a general belief that physical activity and exercise have positive effects on mood and anxiety. Intervention studies describe an anxiolytic and antidepressive effect of exercise in healthy subjects and patients. However, the majority of published studies have substantial methodological inconsistencies. Our review of the literature showed the importance of distinguishing three items in studies regarding efficacy of physical exercise in psychiatry: operationalisation of concepts (duration, frequency, intensity, type of exercise), the type of disorder, the diagnosis, and exploratory hypotheses. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that physical exercise in the psychiatry department contributes to the improvement of the mental health of in-hospital patients. Sociodemographical data, the diagnosis and the physical exercise (duration, distance, type and frequency) of 283 in-hospital patients in the psychiatry department were listed. Physical exercise (cycling, long walks, short walks, soft and hard gymnastics) included in a database has been proposed to patients for many years in this hospital. After their hospitalisation, the members of the medical staff (20 persons) evaluated the patients on a visual analogic scale from 1 to 10 related to the improvement of their mental health. No experimental manipulation was made. One hundred and twenty-eight men, mean age: 45.67 years (± 13.59) exhibited the following disorders: major depressive disorder (117), anxious disorders (25), alcoholic addiction (85), toxicomania (10), psychotic decompensation (33), bipolar disorder (3) and others (10). Patients practised at least one exercise during their hospitalisation, mean duration of 15.93 (± 9.18) working days. The frequency of physical exercises per patient was 5.65 (± 6.20). The improvement of each patient was evaluated around six times (6.16 ± 3.83). The average amelioration score for all the patients was close to 50% (4.99 ± 1.65). Correlations between the

  20. Therapeutic effects of cranial osteopathic manipulative medicine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Anne; von Hauenschild, Phillip

    2011-12-01

    Cranial osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) involves the manipulation of the primary respiratory mechanism to improve structure and function in children and adults. To identify and critically evaluate the literature regarding the clinical efficacy of cranial OMM. The clinical keywords "cranial manipulation" OR "osteopathy in the cranial field" OR "cranial osteopathy" OR "craniosacral technique" were searched in the following electronic databases: EMBASE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and AMED (Alternative Medicine). Searches were conducted in April 2011 with no date restriction for when the studies were completed. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies that measured the effectiveness of cranial OMM on humans were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included non-English language articles, studies not relevant to cranial OMM, animal studies, and studies in which there was no clear indication of the use of cranial OMM. Studies that described the use of cranial OMM with other treatment modalities and that did not perform subgroup analysis were also excluded. The present study did not have criteria regarding type of disease. Outcome measures on pain, sleep, quality of life, motor function, and autonomic nervous system function were extracted. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Of the 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 7 were randomized controlled trials and 1 was an observational study. A range of cranial OMM techniques used for the management of a variety of conditions were identified in the included studies. Positive clinical outcomes were reported for pain reduction, change in autonomic nervous system function, and improvement of sleeping patterns. Methodological Downs and Black quality scores ranged from 14 to 23 points out of a maximum of

  1. Is sustained natural apophyseal glides combined with conventional physiotherapy effective for patients with facet joint syndrome? – A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Anap, Subhash Khatri, Zambre BR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic back pain has been the nemesis of the human race since the time they evolved and began walking on their two legs; leaving aside the 4 limb locomotion of their predecessors. Varied are the causes of low back ache and facet joint syndrome is one amongst them. Hence this study was undertaken to find out the effectiveness of SNAGS and conventional physiotherapy in patients with lumbar facet joint syndrome. Purpose: To describe the management and outcomes of 4 patients with lumbar facet joint syndrome treated with Sustained Natural apophyseal glides (SNAGs, Therapeutic Ultrasound and lumbar stabilization exercises. Study Design : A case series of consecutive patients with Lumbar facet syndrome Case Description: Four consecutive patients (mean age 52 years who presented with lumbar facet syndrome were treated with two weeks protocol which included Sustained Natural apophyseal glides, Therapeutic Ultrasound (Cont. 1-MHz , 2.0-W/cm2, 10min and lumbar stabilization exercises. Follow up was taken 1 week after the end of active intervention. All patients completed Visual analogue Scale (VAS, Modified Oswestery Disability Questionnaire (MODQ, Sorensen Test hold Timing and spinal Range of motion on initial assessment, immediately at the end of active intervention (2 weeks and at the end of follow up. Outcome: All four patients showed the mean percentage change in score of VAS 49.87 %, MODQ 61.14 %, Sorensen test scores 19.63 %, Flexion range 9.21 % and extend range 17.07 % at the end of follow up. Conclusion: All four patients with Lumbar facet joint syndrome treated with sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGS, Therapeutic Ultrasound and lumbar stabilisation exercises exhibited reduced pain, reduced disability, improved endurance of back muscles and range of motion at the time follow-up.

  2. Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver cancer induced by dimethylnitrosamine in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen Abd El Moneim Hussein

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The protective effect of cannabis extract is more pronounced in group taking cannabis before DMNA. Cannabinoids might exert their anti-tumor effects by the direct induction of apoptosis and can decrease telomerase activity by inhibiting the expression of the TERT gene. Coordination between inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of apoptosis might be a potential therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

  3. Effective contribution of structural engineers to green buildings and sustainability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaudhary, Tariq; Piracha, Awais

    2013-01-01

    .... However, their contribution seems to be limited in sustainability rating systems. This review analysed the credits available in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design green building rating systems related to the structural aspects...

  4. What are the Most Effective Drivers of Sustainable Development in the Decision Making Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2017-01-01

    and sustaining the market demand for sustainable buildings it is actually the economic and social drivers for sustainable building, such as life cycle costs, futureproofing of investments, better quality and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), that have the greatest impact on construction clients’ decision......The identification of the most effective drivers of sustainable development is a focal point for most – if not all – policymakers and companies interested in sustainable development. Whilst the answer to this is of course very contextual this paper presents a practitioner’s review of the political...... and voluntary drivers for sustainable building in Denmark. The paper identifies the most influential drivers for sustainable development in the Danish Building industry by combining a review of the regulatory political drivers in Denmark with two market surveys for construction clients from 2015 and 2016...

  5. Effects of artemisinin sustained-release granules on mixed alga growth and microcystins production and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lixiao; Li, Danye; Hu, Shuzhen; Wang, Peifang; Li, Shiyin; Li, Yiping; Li, Yong; Acharya, Kumud

    2015-12-01

    To safely and effectively apply artemisinin sustained-release granules to control and prevent algal water-blooms, the effects of artemisinin and its sustained-release granules on freshwater alga (Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) and Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa)), as well as the production and release of microcystins (MCs) were studied. The results showed that artemisinin sustained-release granules inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa (above 95% IR) and S. obliquus (about 90% IR), with M. aeruginosa more sensitive. The artemisinin sustained-release granules had a longer inhibition effect on growth of pure algae and algal coexistence than direct artemisinin dosing. The artemisinin sustained-release granules could decrease the production and release of algal toxins due to the continued stress of artemisinin released from artemisinin sustained-release granules. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium.

  6. Therapeutic and prophylactic effect of intermittent preventive anti-malarial treatment in infants (IPTi from Ghana and Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuels Benno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP reduces the incidence of malaria episodes in young children. The exact mechanism by which the protective effect is mediated needs to be defined. This study aimed to investigate therapeutic, prophylactic, and possible exceeding effects of SP-based IPTi in two clinical trials. Methods Protective efficacies from two IPTi trials performed in Kumasi, Ghana, and Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for overlapping time series of 61 days. For six-months periods after each of three IPTi doses a multivariate Poisson regression model with the respective cohort as co-variate was generated and effect modification of protective efficacy with time strata was evaluated by log-likelihood tests. Results Protective efficacies were not significantly different between the two study cohorts. Study-cohort corrected protective efficacy was highest for the first 61 days after each IPTi application and decreased continuously. For the first 61 days after IPTi-1, IPTi-2, and IPTi-3 the protective efficacy was 71%, 44%, and 43%, respectively. A reduction of the malaria incidence rate was detectable for the first 60, 30 and 40 days after IPTi-1, IPTi-2 and IPTi-3 drug application, respectively. After IPTi-3 a higher risk for malaria could be seen after day 60. This effect was mainly based on the overwhelming influence of the Kumasi cohort. Conclusion The results suggest that SP-based IPTi mainly works through a therapeutic and prophylactic effect over 30 to 60 days after drug application and that a sustained effect beyond post-treatment prophylaxis might be very low. Trial registration Data analysis from clinical trials NCT ID # 00206739 (Kumasi Trial and NCT ID # 00167843 (Lambaréné Trial, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  7. Short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a need to develop reproducible interventions that reinforce the implementation of these guidelines and assess their effect and sustainability. Objectives. To assess the short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening intervention on mortality attributable to SAM in two hospitals located in the Eastern ...

  8. Building Corporate Reputation through Sustainable Entrepreneurship: The Mediating Effect of Ethical Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª del Mar Ramos-González

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how a management approach based on sustainable entrepreneurship can positively affect corporate reputation. The analysis showed that this effect is enhanced by the mediating effect of good governance based on ethical behavior. The empirical study was conducted using data for 104 large Spanish firms defined as sustainable by the Corporate Reputation Business Monitor (MERCO ranking.

  9. Sustainability policy and effects on practices in the remediation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2012-12-01

    Land is not only a critical component of the earth's life support system, but also a precious resource and an important factor of production in economy. However, historical industrial operations have caused a huge stockpile of contaminated land that is only slowly being remediated. After several decades of clean-up efforts, there are still an estimated 294,000 contaminated sites in the US and over 300,000 hectares of potentially contaminated land in the UK. It is imperative to develop technical solutions as well as socioeconomic and political instruments to achieve sustainable restoration of contaminated land. The inclusion of sustainability in decision making provides an opportunity to integrate a wide range of considerations: risk control, brownfield regeneration, carbon footprint, water footprint, renewable energy, etc. This study explores the behavior patterns and driving forces behind sustainable practices in remediation, aiming at advancing our understanding of the fundamental relationships among changing natural and manipulated geological environments, sustainability, and technology choices. A large-scale survey is being conducted in the US and UK to study behaviour and decision making issues from a stakeholder perspective. Historically stakeholder theories have been extensively applied to study organization management issues in the academia. This study intends to apply stakeholder theories to engineering practice and sustainability science studies. Pilot test results found that sustainability considerations are widely adopted and in a wide variety of ways. Site owners and regulators are found to be most influential in the decision making process. There is no lack of incentives to adopt sustainability practices, but various factors, such as lack of resources and cost considerations, are still considered impeding factors. At the time of the 2012 AGU meeting, further results from the survey will be available.

  10. Therapeutic use of the rebound effect of modern drugs: "New homeopathic medicines"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    Full Text Available Summary The homeopathic treatment is based on the principle of therapeutic similitude, employing medicines that cause certain disorders to treat similar manifestations, stimulating a reaction of the organism against its own ailments. The occurrence of this secondary reaction of the organism, opposite in nature to the primary action of the medicines, is evidenced in the study of the rebound (paradoxical effect of several classes of modern drugs. In this work, in addition to substantiate the principle of similitude before the experimental and clinical pharmacology, we suggest a proposal to employ hundreds of conventional drugs according to homeopathic method, applying the therapeutic similitude between the adverse events of medicines and the clinical manifestations of patients. Describing existing lines of research and a specific method for the therapeutic use of the rebound effect of modern drugs (http://www.newhomeopathicmedicines.com, we hope to minimize prejudices related to the homeopathy and contribute to a broadening of the healing art.

  11. Health effects of using cannabis for therapeutic purposes: a gender analysis of users' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Bissell, Laura J L; Balneaves, Lynda G; Oliffe, John L; Kang, H Bindy K; Capler, N Rielle; Buxton, Jane A; O'Brien, Robin K

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe how individuals who self-report therapeutic use of cannabis perceive its health effects. Data from 23 individual interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Understandings of gendered roles and identities were used to explore the data and interpret differences in perceptions. Descriptions of the health benefits of cannabis for therapeutic purposes included cannabis as life preserving, a disease therapy, a medicine for the mind, a means for self-management, and a way to manage addiction. Self-management of risks focused on the potential effects of excessive use, smoking-related risks, and purchasing precautions. Although the reports of women and men were similar in many respects, there were important differences in patterns and practices of use that reflected gender influences. Insights from the study provide direction for developing gender-specific information to support decision making and usage for therapeutic users.

  12. [Observation on therapeutic effect of deeply needling Qiangji 4 points on prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Rui-ping

    2008-05-01

    To compare therapeutic effects of deeply needling Qiangji 4 points and routine acupuncture therapy on prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc. Two hundred and seventy-nine cases were randomly divided into 2 groups, deeply needling group (n=140) and routine acupuncture group (n=139). The deeply needling group were treated with deeply needling Qiangji 4 points, and the routine acupuncture group with acupuncture at Qihaishu (BL 24), Dachangshu (BL 25), Guanyuanshu (BL 26), Xiaochangshu (BL 27) into routine deep. Their therapeutic effects were compared. At the end of the first therapeutic course, the cured rate was 42.1% in the deeply needling group and 28.1% in the routine acupuncture group with significant difference between the two groups (Pprolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc is significantly better than that of routine acupuncture.

  13. Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, Alexandra; Tzoufi, Meropi; Ntzani, Evangelia; Varvarousis, Dimitrios; Beris, Alexandros; Ploumis, Avraam

    2017-10-01

    Equine-assisted therapies, such as therapeutic riding and hippotherapy, are believed to have positive physical and emotional effects in individuals with neuromotor, developmental, and physical disabilities. The purpose of this review was to determine whether therapeutic riding and hippotherapy improve balance, motor function, gait, muscle symmetry, pelvic movement, psychosocial parameters, and the patients' overall quality of life. In this study, a literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, CINAHL, MBASE, SportDiscus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PEDro, DARE, Google Scholar, and Dissertation Abstracts. Only studies with a control/comparison group or self-controlled studies performing preintervention and postintervention assessment were included. Excluded were (1) studies not providing data on baseline score or end-point outcome, (2) single-subject studies, (3) studies providing only qualitative data, and (4) studies that used a mechanical horse. Sixteen trials were included. The methodologic quality of each study was evaluated using Downs and Black quality assessment tool. Most of the studies showed a trend toward a beneficial effect of therapeutic riding and hippotherapy on balance and gross motor function. The meta-analysis showed improvement in both the Berg Balance Scale and the Gross Motor Function Measure in therapeutic riding and hippotherapy programs. Programs such as therapeutic riding and hippotherapy are a viable intervention option for patients with balance, gait, and psychomotor disorders.

  14. The protective and therapeutic effects of alpha-solanine on mice breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenikia, Maryam; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Khodayari, Saeed; Khodayari, Hamid; Kouhpayeh, Seyed Amin; Karimi, Aliasghar; Zamani, Mina; Azizian, Saleh; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali

    2013-10-15

    Alpha-solanine, a naturally steroidal glycoalkaloid, is found in leaves and fruits of plants as a defensive agent against fungi, bacteria and insects. Herein, we investigated solanine toxicity in vitro and in vivo, and assessed its protective and the therapeutic effects on a typical animal model of breast cancer. The study conducted in three series of experiments to obtain (i) solanine effects on cell viability of mammary carcinoma cells, (ii) in vivo toxicity of solanine, and (iv) the protective and therapeutic effects of solanine on animal model of breast cancer. Alpha-solanine significantly suppressed proliferation of mouse mammary carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo (Psolanine has been chosen for assessing its protective and therapeutic effects in mice breast cancer. Tumor take rate in the solanine-treated group was zero compared with a 75% rate in its respective control group (Psolanine-treated animals than its respective control ones (Psolanine compared with its respective control group (Psolanine-treated animals (Psolanine-treated mice (Psolanine exerts a significant chemoprotective and chemotherapeutic effects on an animal model of breast cancer through apoptosis induction, cell proliferation and angiogenesis inhibition. These findings reveal a new therapeutic potential for solanine in cancer. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. More talking, more doing: because we can. : Comparative study of effectiveness of sustainability integration strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Jablonski, Przemyslaw; Kanwal, Khadija

    2017-01-01

    This research study measures the impact of academic engagement and operational engagement, the strategies that are used by business schools for sustainability integration. The effectiveness of these strategies is studied through their impact on business students’ sustainability perception, their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) attitude, and their current behavior regarding sustainability. It is a quantitative study in which Independent sample t-test is used based on sample of 158 busine...

  16. Sustained exogenous expression of therapeutic levels of IFN-gamma ameliorates atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice via Th1 polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kayoko; Nishikawa, Makiya; Watcharanurak, Kanitta; Ikoma, Akihiko; Kabashima, Kenji; Toyota, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Yuki; Takahashi, Rei; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2010-03-01

    The short in vivo half-life of IFN-gamma can prevent the cytokine from inducing immunological changes that are favorable for the treatment of Th2-dominant diseases, such as atopic dermatitis. To examine whether a sustained supply of IFN-gamma is effective in regulating the balance of Th lymphocyte subpopulations, plasmid vector encoding mouse IFN-gamma, pCpG-Mugamma, or pCMV-Mugamma was injected into the tail vein of NC/Nga mice, a model for human atopic dermatitis. A single hydrodynamic injection of a CpG motif reduced pCpG-Mugamma at a dose of 0.14 microg/mouse resulted in a sustained concentration of IFN-gamma in the serum, and the concentration was maintained at >300 pg/ml over 80 d. The pCpG-Mugamma-mediated IFN-gamma gene transfer was associated with an increase in the serum concentration of IL-12, reduced production of IgE, and inhibition of mRNA expression of IL-4, -5, -10, -13, and -17 and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in the spleen. These immunological changes were not clearly observed in mice receiving two injections of 20 microg pCMV-Mugamma, a CpG-replete plasmid DNA, because of the transient nature of the expression from the vector. The mice receiving pCpG-Mugamma showed a significant reduction in the severity of skin lesions and in the intensity of their scratching behavior. Furthermore, high transepidermal water loss, epidermal thickening, and infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils, all of which were obvious in the untreated mice, were significantly inhibited. These results indicate that an extraordinary sustained IFN-gamma expression induces favorable immunological changes, leading to a Th1-dominant state in the atopic dermatitis model.

  17. Undergraduate Sustainable Learning: Effects of Sustainable Soilless Media on Production and Sensory Evaluation of Cucumbers, Basil, Parsley, and Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Russell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern greenhouse production has been ~100% reliant on fossil fuels for all inputs (glazing, heating, fertilization, lighting, post-harvest. Recent innovations may reduce fossil fuel dependence but their effectiveness may not be thoroughly tested. To promote education in sustainable production, undergraduate students in Greenhouse Management class (Hort 3002W; University of Minnesota tested the effectiveness of two organic or ‘sustainable’ soilless media (Sunshine Natural and Organic Growing Mix, Sungro Metro-Mix Special Blend with a control (Sunshine LC8 Professional for crop production (height, leaf/flower number, yield and sensory evaluations (appearance, texture, taste, purchase of cucumbers (‘Big Burpless Hybrid’, ‘Sweet Burpless Hybrid’, basil (‘Opal Purple’, ‘Redleaf’, parsley (‘Green River’, ‘Extra Curled Dwarf’, ‘Hamburg’, and lettuce (Flying Saucer ‘Green’, ‘Red’. Significant differences between sustainable vs. control soils occurred for plant growth, depending on vegetative or reproductive traits, crops, and cultivars. These differences occasionally disappeared for sensory evaluation of edible components. In most crops, however, cultivars were highly significant factors. Undergraduate research can be used to provide directionality for future vegetable and herb plant breeding to focus on creating cultivars with increased yield and high consumer acceptance when grown in sustainable greenhouse soilless mixes.

  18. Protective and therapeutic effects of Crataegus aronia in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Humayed, Suliman

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the potential preventive and therapeutic effects of Crataegus aronia (C. aronia) in NAFLD induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in rat models. Protective effect of Crataegus aronia or simvastatin was investigated in Wistar rats fed either low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD. Liver histopathological examinations confirmed the development of NAFLD in rats fed HFD. In both protective and therapeutic treatments, C. aronia significantly reduced liver index (3.85 ± 0.21% in HFD plus aronia group versus 6.22 ± 0.58% in HFD model group), increased the HDL-cholesterol and reduced the LDL-cholesterol in blood. The hawthorn plant also significantly ameliorated oxidative stress biomarker (p < 0.002) and liver enzymes (p < 0.0001) that indicate liver damage. C. aronia exhibits therapeutic and protective effects on NAFLD in an animal model possibly by its lipid lowering and antioxidant effects; thus, may offer therapeutic potential in humans.

  19. Effectiveness of a Therapeutic Summer Camp for Children with ADHD: Phase I Clinical Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantson, Julie; Wang, Pan Pan; Grizenko-Vida, Michael; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Harvey, William; Joober, Ridha; Grizenko, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-week therapeutic summer day camp for children with ADHD, which included a social skills training program and parent psychoeducation and training program. This was an open-label, nonrandomized Phase I Clinical Intervention Trial. Method: Parents completed the Weiss…

  20. Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of preoperative therapeutic exercise in patients with cancer: A pragmatic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.; Groot, J.F. de; Hulzebos, H.J.; Knikker, R. de; Kerkkamp, H.E.M.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an individually designed preoperative therapeutic exercise program (PreTEP), in patients recently diagnosed with cancer and awaiting elective surgery. The purpose is to improve their physical fitness levels

  1. Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of preoperative therapeutic exercise in patients with cancer: a pragmatic study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.; Groot, J.F. de; Hulzebos, H.J.; Knikker, R. de; Kerkkamp, H.E.M.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an individually designed preoperative therapeutic exercise program (PreTEP), in patients recently diagnosed with cancer and awaiting elective surgery. The purpose is to improve their physical fitness levels

  2. Effect of emulsifier and viscosity on oil separation in ready-to-use therapeutic food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil separation is a common food quality problem in ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), the shelf-stable, peanut-based food used to treat severe acute malnutrition in home settings. Our objective was to evaluate the effect on oil separation of three emulsifiers at different concentrations in RUTF. ...

  3. Effectiveness of Therapeutic Programs for Students with ADHD with Executive Function Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimaha, Napalai; Sriphetcharawut, Sarinya; Lersilp, Suchitporn; Chinchai, Supaporn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of therapeutic programs, an executive function training program and a collaborative program, for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with executive function deficits (EFDs), especially regarding working memory, planning, and monitoring. The participants were…

  4. Therapeutic effect of He-Wei-Tong-Xie decoction on acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the therapeutic effect of He-Wei-Tong-Xie (HWXT) decoction on acute pancreatitis. (AP) complicated with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Methods: AP patients (50) were recruited from the Teaching Hospital of Chengdu University of. Traditional Chinese Medicine and randomly divided into treatment and ...

  5. A systematic review study of therapeutic effects of Matricaria recuitta chamomile (chamomile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraj, Sepide; Alesaeidi, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Matricaria recuitta chamomilla is a plant that grows and is cultivated in some parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to overview the therapeutic effects of this valuable plant. This systematic review was aimed to introduce Matricaria recuitta chamomile, its chemical compounds, and its traditional usages. Methods This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases. The initial search strategy identified about 87 references. In this study, 69 studies were accepted for further screening and met all our inclusion criteria [in English, full text, therapeutic effects of Matricaria recuitta chamomilla L and dated mainly from the year 1990 to 2016]. The search terms were “Matricaria recuitta chamomilla L.,” “therapeutic properties,” “pharmacological effects.” Result It is commonly used for its antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal activities, angiogenesis activity, anticarcinogenic, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Besides, it is beneficial for knee osteoarthritis, ulcerative colitis, premenstrual syndrome, and gastrointestinal disorders. Conclusion Matricaria recuitta chamomilla L. is widely used for therapeutic and nontherapeutic purposes that trigger its significant value. Various combinations and numerous medicinal properties of its extract, oil, and leaves demand further studies about other useful and unknown properties of this multipurpose plant. PMID:27790360

  6. [Effects of distractors on sustained attention in children with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Zhou, Xiao-lin; Wang, Yu-feng

    2004-01-01

    Using an experimental design combining the sustained attention task (CPT, SART) and the flanker task, we investigated: 1) whether children with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) have deficits in their sustained attention; 2) whether distractors have different effects on response to targets at different sustained attention levels; 3) whether different subtypes of ADHD children show different patterns in sustained attention. Subjects were recruited from elementary school (Grade 2 - 6). Twenty seven ADHD children (23 male, 4 female) and 29 normal controls (24 male, 5 female) were matched by IQ and age. The cognitive experiment measuring reaction times and error rates was conducted on a computer using DMDX software. ADHD and normal children's performance in sustained attention and the effect of distractors were analyzed, and the results of subtypes of ADHD were compared. ADHD children and normal children did not show significant differences in error rates in their response to dominant (non-attentional) item. However, distractors impaired ADHD children's response to targets. ADHD children also showed more errors than normal children in the sustained attention task, but compared with the non-distractor condition, distractors facilitated their response. ADHD children have deficits in their sustained attention, reflecting the deficits in brain development. More importantly, this study found that the effects of distractors in sustained attention can be dissociated according to the level of demand on sustained attention: distractors interfered with responses to targets when the demand on sustained attention was low, and they facilitated responses to targets when the demand on sustained attention was high. There were no significant differences between ADHD-inattentive type and ADHD-combined type in their deficits in sustained attention.

  7. Effects of electromagnetic forcing on self-sustained jet oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, R.; Tummers, M.J.; Kenjeres, S.; Righolt, B.W.; Kleijn, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of electromagnetic forcing on self-sustained oscillations of a jet issuing from a submerged nozzle into a thin vertical cavity (width W much larger than thickness T) has been studied using particle image velocimetry. A permanent Lorentz force is produced by applying an electrical

  8. Environmental extension as effective tool for sustainable natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It should involve all possible interaction of all actors in environmental concerns, i.e. its users, researchers ad change agents in ways of horizontal dissemination of information to foster common understanding of the environment and its management. This paper suggests ways of maintaining bio-diversity through sustained ...

  9. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy

  10. Sustainable school infrastructure through effective innovative building technology selection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of a model proposed for the selection Innovative Building Technologies (IBTs) and procurement of services supporting the erection of the IBTs that will ensure the construction of a sustainable school...

  11. Effects of economics and demographics on global fisheries sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qi; Wang, Yali; Chen, Xinjun; Chen, Yong

    2017-08-01

    A good understanding of social factors that lead to marine ecological change is important to developing sustainable global fisheries. We used balanced panel models and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1970-2010) of 122 nations to examine how economic prosperity and population growth affected the sustainability of marine ecosystems. We used catches in economic exclusive zone (EEZ); mean trophic level of fishery landings (MTL); primary production required to sustain catches (expressed as percentage of local primary production [%PPR]); and an index of ecosystem overfishing (i.e., the loss in secondary production index [L index]) as indicators of ecological change in marine ecosystems. The EEZ catch, %PPR, and L index declined gradually after gross domestic product (GDP) per capita reached $15,000, $14,000, and $19,000, respectively, and MTL increased steadily once GDP per capita exceeded $20,000. These relationships suggest that economic growth and biodiversity conservation are compatible goals. However, increasing human populations would degrade marine ecosystems. Specifically, a doubling of human population caused an increase in the %PPR of 17.1% and in the L index of 0.0254 and a decline in the MTL of 0.176. A 1% increase in human population resulted in a 0.744% increase in EEZ catch. These results highlight the importance of considering social and economic factors in developing sustainable fisheries management policy. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Genugten, Marianne; Höner-Snoeken, Kathrin; van de Velde, Marco J; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, pharmaceutical-grade cultivated cannabis is distributed for medicinal purposes as commissioned by the Ministry of Health. Few studies have thus far described its therapeutic efficacy or subjective (adverse) effects in patients. The aims of this study are to assess the therapeutic satisfaction within a group of patients using prescribed pharmaceutical-grade cannabis and to compare the subjective effects among the available strains with special focus on their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content. In a cross-sectional and natural design, users of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis were investigated with questionnaires. Medical background of the patients was asked as well as experienced therapeutic effects and characteristics of cannabis use. Subjective effects were measured with psychometric scales and used to compare among the strains of cannabis used across this group of patients. One hundred two patients were included; their average age was 53 years and 76% used it for more than a year preceding this study. Chronic pain (53%; n = 54) was the most common medical indication for using cannabis followed by multiple sclerosis (23%; n = 23), and 86% (n = 88) of patients (almost) always experienced therapeutic satisfaction when using pharmaceutical cannabis. Dejection, anxiety, and appetite stimulation were found to differ among the 3 strains of cannabis. These results show that patients report therapeutic satisfaction with pharmaceutical cannabis, mainly pain alleviation. Some subjective effects were found to differ among the available strains of cannabis, which is discussed in relation to their different tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol content. These results may aid in further research and critical appraisal for medicinally prescribed cannabis products.

  13. Exploring the therapeutic effects of yoga and its ability to increase quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Woodyard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the findings of selected articles regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga and to provide a comprehensive review of the benefits of regular yoga practice. As participation rates in mind-body fitness programs such as yoga continue to increase, it is important for health care professionals to be informed about the nature of yoga and the evidence of its many therapeutic effects. Thus, this manuscript provides information regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga as it has been studied in various populations concerning a multitude of different ailments and conditions. Therapeutic yoga is defined as the application of yoga postures and practice to the treatment of health conditions and involves instruction in yogic practices and teachings to prevent reduce or alleviate structural, physiological, emotional and spiritual pain, suffering or limitations. Results from this study show that yogic practices enhance muscular strength and body flexibility, promote and improve respiratory and cardiovascular function, promote recovery from and treatment of addiction, reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and chronic pain, improve sleep patterns, and enhance overall well-being and quality of life.

  14. EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AND WORK MOTIVATION IN THE APLICATION OF NURSE THERAPEUTIC COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Farida

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to identify effective leadership and the work motivation with the implementation of therapeutic communication, Method: Design used in this study was descriptive design of the correlation with the approach cross sectional study. The population of this study was all of the practising nurse in the in-patient (hospitalized ward at the Dr. Iskak Tulungagung hospital. All datas were taken by using the method of total population of the 98 practising nurses. Result: The result of this study showed that the big proportion of the practising nurses whose ages are less than 30 years old, graduated from Diploma, status are single (unmarried, duration of work was less or same as 6 years, generally never followed a training of communication, whereas effective leadership was in the good category and the category of work motivation wasn’t better. Analysis using chi-square with alpha 0,05 showed that there was relations between the age, old the work, effective leadership and the work motivation and the implementation of therapeutic communication. The marital status and training had not relationship with the implementation of therapeutic communication. Discussion: It is suggested that hospital should encoverage nurse manager to promote therapeutic communication among nurses.

  15. The Effect of Board Independence on the Sustainability Reporting Practices of Large U.S. Firms \\

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Herda

    2012-12-01

    firms with a greater proportion of independent board members are: 1 more likely to publish standalone sustainability reports, and 2 more likely to publish higher quality sustainability reports. This paper contributes to prior literature that reports somewhat mixed results on the effect of board independence on voluntary disclosure.

  16. Attribute Segmentation and Communication Effects on Healthy and Sustainable Consumer Diet Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, Muriel; Sijtsema, Siet; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    A shift towards more sustainable consumer diets is urgently needed. Dietary guidelines state that changes towards less animal-based and more plant-based diets are beneficial in terms of sustainability and, in addition, will have a positive effect on public health. Communication on these guidelines

  17. Volcanic Ash Soils: Sustainable Soil Management Practices, With Examples of Harvest Effects and Root Disease Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Curran; Pat Green; Doug Maynard

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability protocols recognize forest soil disturbance as an important issue at national and international levels. At regional levels continual monitoring and testing of standards, practices, and effects are necessary for successful implementation of sustainable soil management. Volcanic ash-cap soils are affected by soil disturbance and changes to soil properties...

  18. Combined effects of attention and motivation on visual task performance: transient and sustained motivational effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan B; Damaraju, Eswar; Padmala, Srikanth; Pessoa, Luiz

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how the brain integrates motivational and attentional signals by using a neuroimaging paradigm that provided separate estimates for transient cue- and target-related signals, in addition to sustained block-related responses. Participants performed a Posner-type task in which an endogenous cue predicted target location on 70% of trials, while motivation was manipulated by varying magnitude and valence of a cash incentive linked to task performance. Our findings revealed increased detection performance (d') as a function of incentive value. In parallel, brain signals revealed that increases in absolute incentive magnitude led to cue- and target-specific response modulations that were independent of sustained state effects across visual cortex, fronto-parietal regions, and subcortical regions. Interestingly, state-like effects of incentive were observed in several of these brain regions, too, suggesting that both transient and sustained fMRI signals may contribute to task performance. For both cue and block periods, the effects of administering incentives were correlated with individual trait measures of reward sensitivity. Taken together, our findings support the notion that motivation improves behavioral performance in a demanding attention task by enhancing evoked responses across a distributed set of anatomical sites, many of which have been previously implicated in attentional processing. However, the effect of motivation was not simply additive as the impact of absolute incentive was greater during invalid than valid trials in several brain regions, possibly because motivation had a larger effect on reorienting than orienting attentional mechanisms at these sites.

  19. Combined effects of attention and motivation on visual task performance: transient and sustained motivational effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B Engelmann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how the brain integrates motivational and attentional signals by using a neuroimaging paradigm that provided separate estimates for transient cue- and target-related signals, in addition to sustained block-related responses. Participants performed a Posner-type task in which an endogenous cue predicted target location on 70% of trials, while motivation was manipulated by varying magnitude and valence of a cash incentive linked to task performance. Our findings revealed increased detection performance (d’ as a function of incentive value. In parallel, brain signals revealed that increases in absolute incentive magnitude led to cue- and target-specific response modulations that were independent of sustained state effects across visual cortex, fronto-parietal regions, and subcortical regions. Interestingly, state-like effects of incentive were observed in several of these brain regions, too, suggesting that both transient and sustained fMRI signals may contribute to task performance. For both cue and block periods, the effects of administering incentives were correlated with individual trait measures of reward sensitivity. Taken together, our findings support the notion that motivation improves behavioral performance in a demanding attention task by enhancing evoked responses across a distributed set of anatomical sites, many of which have been previously implicated in attentional processing. However, the effect of motivation was not simply additive as the impact of absolute incentive was greater during invalid than valid trials in several brain regions, possibly because motivation had a larger effect on reorienting than orienting attentional mechanisms at these sites.

  20. Immediate Effect of Therapeutic Massage on Pain Sensation and Unpleasantness: A Consecutive Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Martha Brown

    2015-09-01

    Musculoskeletal pain is a common condition that poses a significant burden to its sufferers and costs the US economy billions of dollars each year in lost productivity. Individuals complaining of musculoskeletal pain make up a large proportion of clients treated by massage therapists in community practices, yet few studies have examined the immediate effect of therapeutic massage on this type of pain in the practice setting. To assess the immediate effect of therapeutic massage on musculoskeletal pain sensation and unpleasantness in a community setting. Solo private practice in central Virginia, United States. One hundred sixteen first-time clients who complained of musculoskeletal pain as a presenting symptom. Prospective, consecutive practice-based case series. A single 60-minute session of individualized therapeutic massage; techniques used included Swedish massage employing effleurage, petrissage, and friction,;deep tissue; myofascial; positional release; passive and resisted joint mobilization; and biofield modalities. Visual Analog Scales for pain sensation and unpleasantness. Both pain sensation and unpleasantness were significantly reduced by a single session of therapeutic massage. Mean pain sensation decreased from 3.76 (SD=1.87) prior to massage to .89 (SD=1.35) following massage, with t=18.87, P<.001. Mean pain unpleasantness decreased from 5.21 (SD=2.48) prior to massage to .64 (SD=1.23) following massage, with t =20.45, P<.001. Effect sizes were 1.76 and 1.90, respectively. In this case series, therapeutic massage appeared to be an effective intervention for common musculoskeletal pain that influenced both the physical and affective dimension of the pain experience. Although care was taken to reduce potential bias through limiting eligibility to first time clients and use of a standardized script, practice-based case series have inherent limitations. Issues in conducting practice-based research by massage therapists and recommendations for future

  1. The effectiveness of therapeutic exercise for painful shoulder conditions: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinko, Lee N; Chacko, Juliann M; Dalton, Diane; Chacko, Charles C

    2011-12-01

    Shoulder pain is the third leading musculoskeletal complaint seen by general practitioners. Physical therapy is often the first line of intervention in this population; however, there is limited description of what constitutes effective physical therapy treatment. No study has examined the effectiveness of therapeutic exercise across all painful shoulder conditions. Our purpose was to examine the effectiveness of therapeutic exercise as an intervention across all pathoanatomic mechanisms of shoulder pain in terms of range of motion (ROM), pain, and function. Medline via Ovid, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from 1997 through March 2011. Randomized controlled trials comparing physical therapist-prescribed exercises against any other type of intervention were included. Articles were qualitatively evaluated by use of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale by 5 separate reviewers. Data from included studies were extracted and synthesized with respect to the primary outcomes of ROM, pain, and function. Individual effect sizes were calculated with a standard formula, and overall effect was calculated by use of random- and fixed-effects models. We qualitatively reviewed 19 articles; 17 achieved the criterion of 6 or better on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Significant heterogeneity in reporting among included studies limited quantitative assessment. Overall, therapeutic exercise has a positive effect on pain and function above all other interventions. The findings for ROM were inconclusive. Therapeutic exercise is an effective intervention for the treatment of painful shoulder conditions; however, subsequent research is necessary for translation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasany, Alireza Rezaee; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings.

  3. Optimized Peptide Vaccines Eliciting Extensive CD8 T Cell Responses with Therapeutic Anti-Tumor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Celis, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge for developing effective therapeutic vaccines against cancer is overcoming immunological tolerance to tumor-associated antigens that are expressed on both malignant cells and normal tissues. Herein, we describe a novel vaccination approach, TriVax that utilizes synthetic peptides representing CD8 T cell epitopes, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists that function as a potent immunological adjuvants and costimulatory anti-CD40 antibodies to generate large numbers of high avidity antigen-reactive T cells capable of recognizing and killing tumor cells. Our results show that TriVax induced huge numbers of long-lasting antigen specific CD8 T cells that displayed significant anti-tumor effects in vivo. The administration of a TriVax formulation containing a CD8 T cell epitope derived from a melanosomal antigen (Trp2180-188) elicited antigen-specific CD8 T cells that induced systemic autoimmunity (vitiligo). More important, TriVax immunization was effective in eliciting potent protective anti-tumor immunity as well as remarkable therapeutic effects against established B16 melanoma. This therapeutic effect was mediated by CD8 T cells via perforin-mediated lysis and required the participation of type I-IFN but not IFNγ. These results suggest that similar strategies would be applicable for the design of effective vaccination for conducting clinical studies in cancer patients. PMID:19903852

  4. Optimized peptide vaccines eliciting extensive CD8 T-cell responses with therapeutic antitumor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Celis, Esteban

    2009-12-01

    A major challenge for developing effective therapeutic vaccines against cancer is overcoming immunologic tolerance to tumor-associated antigens that are expressed on both malignant cells and normal tissues. Herein, we describe a novel vaccination approach, TriVax, that uses synthetic peptides representing CD8 T-cell epitopes, Toll-like receptor agonists that function as potent immunologic adjuvants and costimulatory anti-CD40 antibodies to generate large numbers of high-avidity antigen-reactive T cells capable of recognizing and killing tumor cells. Our results show that TriVax induced huge numbers of long-lasting antigen-specific CD8 T cells that displayed significant antitumor effects in vivo. The administration of a TriVax formulation containing a CD8 T-cell epitope derived from a melanosomal antigen (Trp2(180-188)) elicited antigen-specific CD8 T cells that induced systemic autoimmunity (vitiligo). More important, TriVax immunization was effective in eliciting potent protective antitumor immunity as well as remarkable therapeutic effects against established B16 melanoma. This therapeutic effect was mediated by CD8 T cells via perforin-mediated lysis and required the participation of type-I IFN but not IFNgamma. These results suggest that similar strategies would be applicable for the design of effective vaccination for conducting clinical studies in cancer patients.

  5. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in digestive disorders: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaee Khorasany

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings.

  6. Preventive and therapeutic effects of physical exercise on bleomycin-induced lung injury and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Aurino Pinho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that regular physical exercise of moderate intensity is an important tool for the control of pulmonary oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to examine the preventive and therapeutic effect of physical exercise on oxidative stress in the lungs of mice exposed to bleomycin (BLM. Thirty-six male mice (CF1, 30-35 g received a single endotracheal dose of BLM (2.5 U/kg body weight dissolved in 0.25 mL 0.9% NaCl or saline (0.9% NaCl and were divided into six groups (n=6: untrained saline or BLM, preventive training saline or BLM, and therapeutic training saline or BLM. The trained groups underwent a program of progressive exercise on a treadmill for 8 weeks (up to 17 m.min-1, 50 min.day-1. The preventive group started the exercise program 62 days before the administration of BLM and the therapeutic group 62 days after the administration of BLM. All animals were killed by decapitation 48 hours after the experimental period, and the right lung was surgically removed for the determination of biochemical parameters. Hydroxyproline content, TBARS level, protein carbonylation, and superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities were analyzed. The results showed that preventive and therapeutic training led to a significant reduction in hydroxyproline content and inhibited the increase in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. However, only therapeutic training decreased SOD and CAT activities in mice exposed to BLM. The results suggest that preventive and therapeutic physical exercise is able to minimize pulmonary oxidative stress induced by BLM.

  7. Effects of elastic therapeutic taping on motor function in children with motor impairments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Andréa Baraldi; Lima-Alvarez, Carolina Daniel de; Rocha, Ana Carolinne Portela; Tudella, Eloisa

    2017-03-22

    The elastic therapeutic taping has been considered a promising resource for disabled children. To systematically review the evidence of the effects of elastic therapeutic taping on motor function in children with motor impairments. Three independent evaluators conducted searches in electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, BIREME/BVS, Science Direct, SciELO, and PEDro). Clinical studies design, published until 2016, involving elastic therapeutic taping and children aged 0-12 years with motor impairments were included. The variables considered were the methodological aspects (study design, participants, outcome measurements, and experimental conditions); results presented in the studies, and also the methodological quality of studies. Final selection was composed by 12 manuscripts (five randomized controlled trials), published in the last 10 years. Among them, cerebral palsy (CP) was the most recurrent disorder (n = 7), followed by congenital muscular torticollis (n = 2) and brachial plexus palsy (n = 2). Positive results were associated with taping application: improvement in the upper limb function, gross motor skills, postural control, muscular balance, and performance in the dynamics functional and daily activities. Lower quality of the studies, clinical and population heterogeneity existed across studies. The elastic therapeutic taping has been shown to be a promising adjunct resource to the conventional rehabilitation in children with motor impairments. However, high methodological studies about its efficacy in this population are already scarce. Implications for Rehabilitation Elastic therapeutic taping has been shown to be a promising adjunct resource to the conventional rehabilitation in disabled children. Clinical trials have indicated improvement in the postural control and functional activities with both, upper and lower limbs, and increase in the functional independency resulting from the taping use. Randomized control trials and

  8. Effectiveness of Therapeutic Community in Executive Functions and Autobiographical Memory in People with Addiction to Stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Alipoor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was an attempt to examine the effectiveness of therapeutic community in executive functions and autobiographical memory in people with addiction to stimulants. Method: This study was conducted based on a quasi-experimental research design along with pretest and posttest. From among the male stimulant users who had referred to Vardij medical center of Tehran therapeutic community, the number of 27 participants was selected via purposive sampling after the consideration of inclusion and exclusion criteria. From admission to end treatment stage of people in this center (4-month treatment, Wisconsin test, Stroop test, tower of London test, digit span, and autobiographical memory questionnaire were used for data collection. Results: The results of the study showed that therapeutic community significantly improved scores Wisconsin, Stroop, tower of London and digit span tests, as well as scores of specific autobiographical memories. Conclusion: Based on the effects of etiology, treatment and prevention of executive functions and autobiographical memory on addiction, it is recommended to use therapeutic community in treatment interventions and addiction relapse. 

  9. Misinterpreting the therapeutic effects of small interfering RNA caused by immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Marjorie; Judge, Adam; Ambegia, Ellen; Choi, Catherine; Yaworski, Ed; Palmer, Lorne; McClintock, Kevin; MacLachlan, Ian

    2008-10-01

    Activation of innate immunity has direct effects in modulating viral replication, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and inflammatory and other immunological processes. It is now established that unmodified siRNA can activate this innate immune response and therefore there is real potential for siRNA to elicit nonspecific therapeutic effects in a wide range of disease models. Here we demonstrate that in a murine model of influenza infection, the antiviral activity of siRNA is due primarily to immune stimulation elicited by the active siRNA duplexes and is not the result of therapeutic RNA interference (RNAi) as previously reported. We show that the misinterpretation stems from the use of a particular control green fluorescent protein (GFP) siRNA that we identify as having unusually low immunostimulatory activity compared with the active anti-influenza siRNA. Curiously, this GFP siRNA has served as a negative control for a surprising number of groups reporting therapeutic effects of siRNA. The inert immunologic profile of the GFP sequence was unique among a broad panel of published siRNAs, all of which could elicit significant interferon induction from primary immune cells. This panel included eight active siRNAs against viral, angiogenic, and oncologic targets, the reported therapeutic efficacy of which was based on comparison with the nonimmunostimulatory GFP siRNA. These results emphasize the need for researchers to anticipate, monitor, and adequately control for siRNA-mediated immune stimulation and calls into question the interpretation of numerous published reports of therapeutic RNAi in vivo. The use of chemically modified siRNA with minimal immunostimulatory capacity will help to delineate more accurately the mechanism of action underlying such studies.

  10. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiyuki Hirano; Minoru Onozuka

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We ...

  11. Effects of the application of therapeutic massage in children with cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Mansilla

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to learn about the effects of the use of therapeutic massage in children with cancer. Method: systematic review of controlled clinical trials The search was conducted in November 2014 in the following databases: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane and PEDro. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials, published in English or Spanish, analyzing the effects of massage on the different stages and types of childhood cancer (between 1 and 18 years old. Results: of 1007 articles found, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Their authors use different massage techniques (Swedish massage, effleurage, petrissage, frictions, pressures, obtaining benefits in the symptoms present during the illness (decrease of pain, nausea, stress, anxiety and increase of white blood cells and neutrophils. Conclusion: therapeutic massage improves the symptoms of children with cancer, but there is a need for more research that may support the effects attributed to it.

  12. Immunoactive effects of cannabinoids: considerations for the therapeutic use of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greineisen, William E.; Turner., Helen

    2013-01-01

    The active constituents of Cannabis sativa have been used for centuries as recreational drugs and medicinal agents. Today, marijuana is the most prevalent drug of abuse in the United States and, conversely, therapeutic use of marijuana constituents are gaining mainstream clinical and political acceptance. Given the documented contributions of endocannabinoid signaling to a range of physiological systems, including cognitive function, and the control of eating behaviors, it is unsurprising that cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists are showing significant clinical potential. In addition to the neuroactive effects of cannabinoids, an emerging body of data suggests that both endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids are potently immunoactive. The central premise of this review article is that the immunological effects of cannabinoids should be considered in the context of each prescribing decision. We present evidence that the immunological effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists are highly relevant to the spectrum of disorders for which cannabinoid therapeutics are currently offered. PMID:20219697

  13. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabchi, Farzaneh; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Egemnazarov, Bakytbek; Shid-Moosavi, S Mostafa; Dehghani, Gholam A; Weissmann, Norbert; Sommer, Natascha

    2012-01-31

    Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min), as well as sustained (> 30 min) hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate), and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min) and endothelial permeability. In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA), a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Hypercapnia with and without acidosis increased HPV during conditions of sustained hypoxia. The

  14. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketabchi Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min, as well as sustained (> 30 min hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. Method We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate, and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min and endothelial permeability. Results In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA, a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc. This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Conclusion Hypercapnia with and without acidosis

  15. Effects of Therapeutic Touch on Healing of the Skin in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz de Souza, André Luiz; Carvalho Rosa, David Patrick; Blanco, Bruno Anjos; Passaglia, Patrícia; Stabile, Angelita Maria

    Therapeutic touch is a complementary treatment directed toward the balance of the energy field surrounding living beings. This study's aim was to investigate the effect of therapeutic touch on wound area contraction and fibroblast proliferation in rat skin. This study was conducted using 24 male Wistar rats with dorsal wounds of diameter 8mm. The rats were divided into the following two groups: a control group: in this, the wounds were sanitized with filtered water and neutral-pH soap and a treatment group: in this, the wounds were sanitized as in the control group but the rats also underwent to daily sessions of therapeutic touch. Wound area was measured on days 1, 4, and 7 using imagelab software, version 2.4 R.C. On days 4 and 7, six animals in each group were euthanized so that the lesioned tissue could be collected for fibroblast counts and histological evaluations. On days 1 and 4, wound areas were similar in both groups. Moreover, no significant differences in fibroblast counts were observed on day 4. On day 7, however, fibroblast counts were significantly higher in the treated group than in the control group, with a subsequent wound shrinkage. These data indicate that therapeutic touch may accelerate wound repair, possibly by increasing fibroblast activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Therapeutic Touch in Patients with Cancer: a Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaee, Amir; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri; Rassouli, Maryam; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; AlaviMajd, Hamid; Farahmand, Seyed Kazem

    2016-04-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) techniques has been growing. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine places therapeutic touch (TT) into the category of bio field energy. This literature review is aimed at critically evaluating the data from clinical trials examining the clinical efficacy of therapeutic touch as a supportive care modality in adult patients with cancer. Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Scholar Google, and Science Direct) were searched from the year 1990 to 2015 to locate potentially relevant peer-reviewed articles using the key words therapeutic touch, touch therapy, neoplasm, cancer, and CAM. Additionally, relevant journals and references of all the located articles were manually searched for other potentially relevant studies. The number of 334 articles was found on the basis of the key words, of which 17 articles related to the clinical trial were examined in accordance with the objectives of the study. A total of 6 articles were in the final dataset in which several examples of the positive effects of healing touch on pain, nausea, anxiety and fatigue, and life quality and also on biochemical parameters were observed. Based on the results of this study, an affirmation can be made regarding the use of TT, as a non-invasive intervention for improving the health status in patients with cancer. Moreover, therapeutic touch was proved to be a useful strategy for adult patients with cancer.

  17. The effect of elastic therapeutic taping on lumbar extensor isokinetic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapman, Harry J; Fallon, Tom; O'Connor, Matthew; Titmus, Lee A; Choy, Sherrie T; Hornsby, Claire; Marsden, Jon F; Shum, Gary L

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects of elastic therapeutic tape when applied overlaying the lumbar extensors on different measures of muscle performance, compared to a placebo taping technique and a no-tape control. A cross-sectional experimental study. A biomechanics laboratory. Twenty one participants received three taping conditions in a randomised order: elastic therapeutic tape, a placebo tape and a no-tape control. Peak torque, the time taken to reach peak torque and peak velocity were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Concentric lumbar extension peak torque at 60°/s, time taken to reach peak torque and peak velocity was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Friedman's test and post-hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine the statistical differences between the three taping conditions. Level of signicance was set at 0.05.fi. A statistically significant improvement in peak lumbar extensor torque was observed when comparing elastic therapeutic tape with the no-tape control (p  0.05). Results demonstrate that the application of elastic therapeutic tape overlaying the primary lumbar extensors significantly improves the maximal lumbar extension peak torque in healthy, asymptomatic adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radon as a medicine. Therapeutic effectiveness, biological mechanism and comparative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deetjen, Peter; Falkenbach, Albrecht; Harder, Dietrich; Joeckel, Hans; Kaul, Alexander; Philipsborn, Henning von

    2014-07-01

    Proofs of the therapeutic efficiency of balneological radon applications administered to patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, investigations into the biological action mechanism associated with the alpha particles emitted by radon and its radioactive daughter products, and the comparative risk assessment of radon treatment and medicinal pain therapy have been the research projects whose results are summarized in this book. Controlled clinical studies, if possible performed as prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled double blind studies, have given evidence that the therapeutic effects of balneological radon applications - long-lasting pain reduction and reduced consumption of medicines compared with controls - are significantly persisting over many post-treatment months. The molecular and cellular mechanism of action underlying these long-lasting therapeutic effects has been identified as the down-regulation of cellular immune responses, initiated by cellular apoptosis sequential to low alpha particle doses and by the subsequent release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The unwanted side-effects of non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drug treatments have to be compared with the absence of side effects from the balneological radon applications which merely involve radiation doses well below the mean value and the fluctuation width of the annual doses attributable to everybody's natural radiation exposure.

  19. [Observation on therapeutic effect of scalp-acupoint catgut embedding for 33 cases of insomnia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong-Fang; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Li

    2012-10-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of scalp-acupoint catgut embedding in the treatment of insomnia. Sixty-four insomniacs were randomly divided into catgut embedding group (n = 33) and routine acupuncture group (n = 31). Baihui (GV 20), Shenting (GV 24) and bilateral Fengchi (GB 20) were selected for subcutaneous embedding of catgut, once a week for 4 weeks. GV 20, GV 24, bilateral GB 20, bilateral Shenmen (HT 7), bilateral Neiguan (PC 6) and bilateral Sanyinjiao (SP 6) were punctured with filiform needles for patients of the acupuncture group. The treatment was performed once every other day, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by using International Unified Sleep Efficiency Value and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). After the treatment, the falling asleep latency and PSQI scores of both catgut embedding and routine acupuncture groups were decreased significantly (P efficiency increased considerably (P acupuncture in prolonging sleep duration and improving sleep efficiency (P 0.05). Both routine acupuncture and scalp-acupoint catgut embedding interventions can effectively reduce falling asleep latency and prolong sleep duration. The therapeutic effect of scalp-acupoint catgut embedding is relatively better in improving sleep duration and sleep efficiency.

  20. Sensory and vascular changes in a rat monoarthritis model: prophylactic and therapeutic effects of meloxicam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Javeria Ali; Yashpal, Kiran; Holdsworth, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective and design The objective of this study was to determine the ability of meloxicam prophylaxis and therapy to blunt the effect of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) induced monoarthritis. Materials and methods First the validity of this animal model was established by examining joint changes at multiple levels after injecting CFA into the tibio-tarsal joint. Next, meloxicam (5 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered on days 0–7 (prophylactic) and on days 7–16 (therapeutic) in separate groups of animals. Results The CFA-injected joint demonstrated hallmark histological and structural changes such as pannus formation, bone remodeling, cartilage erosion and immune cell infiltration. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with meloxicam effectively reduced swelling (ankle circumference), oedema and extravasation of Evans blue dye in the affected joint. Moreover, meloxicam reduced loss in range of motion and also reduced mechanical stimulus evoked pain scores. Notably, these effects persisted after discontinuing drug treatment. Conclusion The present study provides a unique comparison of prophylactic versus therapeutic effects of meloxicam in the CFA-induced model of monoarthritis. PMID:20349327

  1. Starting the Pluralistic Tradition of Teaching? Effects of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) on Pre-Service Teachers' Views on Teaching about Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Klas

    2017-01-01

    There is currently a well-established belief among politicians, scholars and university representatives that educational systems can produce positive attitudes towards sustainable development (SD) among citizens. This article investigates whether Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in teacher education has effects on pre-service teachers'…

  2. Therapeutic effect of Schistosoma japonicum cystatin on bacterial sepsis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huihui; Wang, Shushu; Zhan, Bin; He, Wenxin; Chu, Liang; Qiu, Dapeng; Li, Nan; Wan, Yongkun; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xingzhi; Fang, Qiang; Shen, Jilong; Yang, Xiaodi

    2017-05-08

    Sepsis is a life-threatening complication of an infection and remains one of the leading causes of mortality in surgical patients. Bacteremia induces excessive inflammatory responses that result in multiple organ damage. Chronic helminth infection and helminth-derived materials have been found to immunomodulate host immune system to reduce inflammation against some allergic or inflammatory diseases. Schistosoma japonicum cystatin (Sj-Cys) is a cysteine protease inhibitor that induces regulatory T-cells and a potential immunomodulatory. The effect of Sj-Cys on reducing sepsis inflammation and mortality was investigated. Sepsis was induced in BALB/c mice using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), followed by intraperitoneal injection of different doses (10, 25 or 50 μg) of recombinant Sj-Cys (rSj-Cys). The therapeutic effect of rSj-Cys on sepsis was evaluated by observing the survival rates of mice for 96 h after CLP and the pathological injury of liver, kidney and lung by measuring the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) in sera and the tissue sections pathology, and the expression of MyD88 in liver, kidney and lung tissues. The immunological mechanism was investigated by examining pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) and IL-10 and TGF-β1 in mice sera and in culture of macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). rSj-Cys treatment provided significant therapeutic effects on CLP-induced sepsis in mice demonstrated with increased survival rates, alleviated overall disease severity and tissue injury of liver, kidney and lung. The rSj-Cys conferred therapeutic efficacy was associated with upregualted IL-10 and TGF-β1 cytokines and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β. MyD88 expression in liver, kidney and lung tissues of rSj-Cys-treated mice was reduced. In vitro assay with macrophages also showed that rSj-Cys inhibited the release of pro

  3. Novel therapeutic mechanisms determine the effectiveness of lipid-core nanocapsules on melanoma models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Carine C; Fiel, Luana A; Bexiga, Celina G; Asbahr, Ana Carolina C; Uchiyama, Mayara K; Cogliati, Bruno; Araki, Koiti; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Farsky, Sandra P

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a severe metastatic skin cancer with poor prognosis and no effective treatment. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches using nanotechnology have been proposed to improve therapeutic effectiveness. Lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs), prepared with poly(ε-caprolactone), capric/caprylic triglyceride, and sorbitan monostearate and stabilized by polysorbate 80, are efficient as drug delivery systems. Here, we investigated the effects of acetyleugenol-loaded LNC (AcE-LNC) on human SK-Mel-28 melanoma cells and its therapeutic efficacies on melanoma induced by B16F10 in C57B6 mice. LNC and AcE-LNC had z-average diameters and zeta potential close to 210 nm and -10.0 mV, respectively. CytoViva(®) microscopy images showed that LNC and AcE-LNC penetrated into SK-Mel-28 cells, and remained in the cytoplasm. AcE-LNC in vitro treatment (18-90×10(9) particles/mL; 1 hour) induced late apoptosis and necrosis; LNC and AcE-LNC (3-18×10(9) particles/mL; 48 hours) treatments reduced cell proliferation and delayed the cell cycle. Elevated levels of nitric oxide were found in supernatant of LNC and AcE-LNC, which were not dependent on nitric oxide synthase expressions. Daily intraperitoneal or oral treatment (days 3-10 after tumor injection) with LNC or AcE-LNC (1×10(12) particles/day), but not with AcE (50 mg/kg/day, same dose as AcE-LNC), reduced the volume of the tumor; nevertheless, intraperitoneal treatment caused toxicity. Oral LNC treatment was more efficient than AcE-LNC treatment. Moreover, oral treatment with nonencapsulated capric/caprylic triglyceride did not inhibit tumor development, implying that nanocapsule supramolecular structure is important to the therapeutic effects. Together, data herein presented highlight the relevance of the supramolecular structure of LNCs to toxicity on SK-Mel-28 cells and to the therapeutic efficacy on melanoma development in mice, conferring novel therapeutic mechanisms to LNC further than a drug delivery system.

  4. Optimized Peptide Vaccines Eliciting Extensive CD8 T Cell Responses with Therapeutic Anti-Tumor Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Celis, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge for developing effective therapeutic vaccines against cancer is overcoming immunological tolerance to tumor-associated antigens that are expressed on both malignant cells and normal tissues. Herein, we describe a novel vaccination approach, TriVax that utilizes synthetic peptides representing CD8 T cell epitopes, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists that function as a potent immunological adjuvants and costimulatory anti-CD40 antibodies to generate large numbers of high avidity...

  5. Homeopathic use of modern drugs: therapeutic application of the organism paradoxical reaction or rebound effect

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    When Samuel Hahnemann systematized homeopathy and the effects of drugs on the state of human health, he described the primary action of drugs and the following secondary and opposite reaction of the organism. Seeking to apply this secondary action or vital reaction of the organism as therapeutic method, he postulated the principle of similitude, i.e. the prescription to ill individuals of drugs that cause similar symptoms in the healthy (similia similibus curentur). In modern pharmacology, se...

  6. The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca: Possible Effects against Various Diseases of Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Winkelman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world. In the present paper we describe the chief characteristics of ayahuasca, discuss important questions raised about its use, and provide an overview of the scientific research supporting its potential therapeutic benefits. A growing number of studies indicate that the psychotherapeutic potential of ayahuasca is based mostly on the strong serotonergic effects, whereas the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) agonist effect of its active ingredient dimethyltryptamine raises the possibility that the ethnomedical observations on the diversity of treated conditions can be scientifically verified. Moreover, in the right therapeutic or ritual setting with proper preparation and mindset of the user, followed by subsequent integration of the experience, ayahuasca has proven effective in the treatment of substance dependence. This article has two important take-home messages: (1) the therapeutic effects of ayahuasca are best understood from a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model, and (2) on the biological level ayahuasca may act against chronic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress via the Sig-1R which can explain its widespread therapeutic indications.

  7. The Potential Protective and Therapeutic Effects of Aloe Vera Juice on Malathion Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed S. Al-Shinnawy, Ahmed R. Hassan, Dalia A. Ismail and Mohamed A. Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: the potential protective and therapeutic effects of Aloe vera juice against malathion induced hepatotoxicity were evaluated in this study. Material and methods: one hundred twelve young male rabbits were used ; they were allocated into two sets of experiments included rabbits treated for short (7 days) and long (21 days) periods. Animals of the first set (short period of treatment) were divided into eight groups; each consisted of four treated groups and four control groups (e...

  8. The therapeutic potentials of ayahuasca: possible effects against various diseases of civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ede eFrecska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world. In the present paper we describe the chief characteristics of ayahuasca, discuss important questions raised about its use, and provide an overview of the scientific research supporting its potential therapeutic benefits. A growing number of studies indicate that the psychotherapeutic potential of ayahuasca is based mostly on the strong serotonergic effects, whereas the sigma-1 receptor agonist effect of its active ingredient dimethyltryptamine raises the possibility that the ethnomedical observations on the diversity of treated conditions can be scientifically verified. Moreover, in the right therapeutic or ritual setting with proper preparation and mindset of the user, followed by subsequent integration of the experience, ayahuasca has proven effective in the treatment of substance dependence. This article has two important take-home messages: 1 the therapeutic effects of ayahuasca are best understood from a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model, and 2 on the biological level ayahuasca may act against chronic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress via the sigma-1 receptor which can explain its widespread therapeutic indications.

  9. Therapeutic Effects of Mycobacterial Secretory Proteins Against Established Asthma in BALB/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Choi, Inseon S.; Choi, Han-Gyu; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Live/killed mycobacteria and culture supernatants can suppress asthmatic reactions. This study investigated whether mycobacterial secretory proteins have therapeutic effects on asthma. Methods Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG; 2×105 CFUs) and mycobacterial secretory proteins (Ag85 complex, 38-kDa protein or MPB70; 4 or 20 µg) were administered intraperitoneally to female BALB/c mice with established airway hyperresponsiveness. One week after treatment, the mice underwe...

  10. Therapeutic effects of Jiaotai pill on rat insomnia via regulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic effects of Jiaotai pill on rat insomnia via regulation of GABA signal pathway. ... Methods: Rats with PCPA-induced insomnia were divided into 5 groups (n = 10), made up of control group, positive treatment group (estazolam 0.1 mg/kg), and 3 JTP treatment groups (0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 g/kg). Another group of 10 rats ...

  11. Real effects of government debt on sustainable economic growth in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Danial Ariff Burhanudin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The persistent increase of government debt in Malaysia in the recent years has raised con-cerns as to whether the borrowings have spurred the economy or became a drag on econom-ic growth. The present paper investigates the real effect of government debt on sustainable economic growth in Malaysia using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach for the period of 1970-2015. The results show there are positive significant long- and short-run relationships between government debt and sustainable economic growth. There is also a unidirectional causality running from government debt to sustainable economic growth. The findings indicate that Malaysia’s government debt is an important macroeconomic element for sustainability of economic growth in Malaysia. There is no evidence, however, to con-clude that the level of government debt had any adverse impacts on sustainable economic growth.

  12. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally......This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport. Promoting environmentally sustainable transport is defined as follows: (1) Reducing the volume of motorised travel; (2) Transferring travel to modes...

  13. Effect of therapeutic chemical agents in vitro and on experimental meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Suk-Yul; Lee, Yang-Jin; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Kwon, Daeho; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Im, Kyung-Il; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2008-11-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a ubiquitous, pathogenic free-living amoeba; it is the most virulent Naegleria species and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) in laboratory animals and humans. Although amphotericin B is currently the only agent available for the treatment of PAME, it is a very toxic antibiotic and may cause many adverse effects on other organs. In order to find other potentially therapeutic agents for N. fowleri infection, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of miltefosine and chlorpromazine against pathogenic N. fowleri. The result showed that the growth of the amoeba was effectively inhibited by treatment with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine. When N. fowleri trophozoites were treated with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine, the MICs of the drug were 0.78, 25, and 12.5 microg/ml, respectively, on day 2. In experimental meningoencephalitis of mice that is caused by N. fowleri, the survival rates of mice treated with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine were 40, 55, and 75%, respectively, during 1 month. The average mean time to death for the amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine treatments was 17.9 days. In this study, the effect of drugs was found to be optimal when 20 mg/kg was administered three times on days 3, 7, and 11. Finally, chlorpromazine had the best therapeutic activity against N. fowleri in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it may be a more useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of PAME than amphotericin B.

  14. Therapeutic Effect of the Tuber of Alisma orientale on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyun Ha Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Alisma orientale, an ethnic herb, has been prescribed for treating various diseases in Asian traditional medicine, experimental evidence to support its therapeutic effects is lacking. Here, we sought to determine whether A. orientale has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury (ALI. Ethanol extract of the tuber of A. orientale (EEAO was prepared and fingerprinted by HPLC for its constituents. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS for the induction of ALI. At 2 h after LPS treatment, mice received an intratracheal (i.t. spraying of various amounts of EEAO to the lung. Bioluminescence imaging of transgenic NF-κB/luciferase reporter mice shows that i.t. EEAO posttreatment suppressed lung inflammation. In similar experiments with C57BL/6 mice, EEAO posttreatment significantly improved lung inflammation, as assessed by H&E staining of lung sections, counting of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses of proinflammatory cytokines and Nrf2-dependent genes in the inflamed lungs. Furthermore, EEAO posttreatment enhanced the survival of mice that received a lethal dose of LPS. Together, our results provide evidence that A. orientale has a therapeutic effect on ALI induced by sepsis.

  15. [Therapeutic effect of early applying hydrotherapy with Chinese drugs on children hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun-Zhi; Zhai, Hong-Yin; Su, Chun-Ya

    2009-02-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of hydrotherapy with Chinese drugs (HT-C) in early intervention on children hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). HIE children were assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 50 in each, at random depending on the willingness of patients' parents. Both groups received the conventional functional training, according to the "0 -3-year-old early intervention outline", but for the treatment group, HT-C was applied additionally. Indexes for quality of sleep, gross motor function, severity of spasm and intellectual development were observed and compared before and after treatment to assess the therapeutic effects. Therapeutic effect in the treatment group was better than that in the control group in all the indexes observed, showing statistical significance (all P <0.05). Early intervention of HT-C could improve clinical symptom, promote the functional recovery and intellectual development in children HIE, and also could reduce or prevent the sequelae occurrence of the nervous system in them.

  16. Effect of shared decision-making on therapeutic alliance in addiction health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EAG Joosten

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available EAG Joosten1,2, GH de Weert3, T Sensky4, CPF van der Staak5, CAJ de Jong1,21Novadic-Kentron, Network for Addiction Treatment Services, Vught, the Netherlands; 2Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction (NISPA, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 3Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Health Care, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Department of Psychological Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; 5Academic Centre for Social Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the NetherlandsBackground: In recent decades, shared decision-making (SDM models have been developed to increase patient involvement in treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a shared decision-making intervention (SDMI for substance-dependent patients on patients’ and clinicians’ perceptions of therapeutic alliance.Methods: Clinicians were randomly assigned to SDMI or usual procedures to reach a treatment agreement. SDMI is a structured, manualized, 5-session procedure to facilitate treatment agreement and consists of five standardized sessions.Results: Patients’ perceptions of the therapeutic alliance were very favorable at start of treatment, and no differences were found between intervention groups. Clinicians’ scores on perceived helpfulness and on the overall therapeutic alliance were higher in the SDMI group than in the controls, after 8 weeks of treatment and at the end of treatment.Conclusion: The present study has shown that a specific intervention to enhance shared decision-making results in favorable changes in clinicians’ perceptions of the therapeutic alliance.Keywords: therapeutic alliance, helping alliance, shared decision-making, addiction, substance-dependence

  17. Effect of transient versus sustained activation on interocular suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David F; Wilson, Hugh R

    2009-01-01

    Switches in perceptual dominance resulting from either binocular rivalry or flash suppression likely involve some mechanism of interocular suppression, although it is unclear from past research whether different mechanisms are involved in the two cases. Using monocular, centrally fixated sinusoidal gratings surrounded by contiguous annuli of rivalrous gratings, suppression of the entire central grating was possible using either technique. However, the magnitude of the suppression was unaffected by the presence of an ipsilateral surround for flash suppression, yet, for binocular rivalry, suppression no longer occurred when the surrounds were fusible. Nevertheless, computational modeling demonstrates that the differences between the techniques may be attributable to the sustained versus transient stimulation of the contralateral surround, with the magnitude of the suppression proportional to the activation of the contralateral surround. Consistent with this, suppression extends over a greater distance at the onset of the contralateral surround than during sustained rivalry. Therefore, it is likely that perceptual dominance in both binocular rivalry and flash suppression is based on the same mechanism of interocular suppression.

  18. Russian Dolls and Chinese Whispers: Two Perspectives on the Unintended Effects of Sustainability Indicator Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyytimäki, Jari; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    to describe and assess key trends at local, national and global level. We argue that it is at least equally important to focus on how, when and by whom indicators are actually used. In addition, the focus should be on what kinds of desirable and undesirable effects are related to the use or non......Indicators are considered a key tool in assessing whether societies are progressing towards sustainability. In indicator development, the main emphasis has been on the production of new indicators. Various kinds of sustainable development indicators and indicator sets have been developed......-use of indicators. Here, attention is paid to the negative, unintended effects of sustainability indicators in communication processes. Starting from an earlier typology focusing on health communication, various types of negative unintended effects of sustainable development indicators are identified and discussed....

  19. Acute and sustained effects of cognitive emotion regulation in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Susanne; Mikschl, Alexandra; Stier, Sabine; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Gapp, Volker; Weber, Bernhard; Walter, Henrik

    2010-11-24

    Dysfunctional regulation of mood and emotion is a key component of major depressive disorder and leads to sustained negative feelings. Using functional MRI (fMRI), we investigated the temporal dynamics of emotion regulation in patients with major depressive disorder and in healthy controls, testing for acute and sustained neural effects of active emotion regulation. Moderately depressed individuals (n = 17) and never-depressed healthy control subjects (n = 17) underwent fMRI during performance of an active cognitive emotion regulation task while viewing emotionally arousing pictures. In a second task, completed 15 min later, subjects were presented with the same stimuli in a passive viewing task. Whole-brain analyses and connectivity measures were used to determine acute and sustained effects of emotion regulation on brain activation and coupling between regions. On the group level, patients were able to downregulate negative emotions and corresponding amygdala activation, but this ability decreased with increasing symptom severity. Moreover, only healthy control subjects showed a sustained regulation effect in the amygdala after a 15 min delay, whereas depressed patients did not. Finally, patients exhibited diminished prefrontal activation and reduced prefrontolimbic coupling during active regulation. Although emotion regulation capacity in medicated depressive patients appears to be preserved depending on symptom severity, the effect is not sustained. Correlational analyses provide evidence that this diminished sustained-regulation effect might be related to reduced prefrontal activation during regulation.

  20. Therapeutic effects of intranigral transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in rat models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dandan; Fu, Wenyu; Zhuang, Wenxin; Lv, Cui; Li, Fengjie; Wang, Xin

    2017-03-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a promising tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the therapeutic routes and mechanisms of mechanical approaches to stem cell transplantation must be explored. This study tests the therapeutic effect of transplantation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the substantia nigra (SN) of the PD rat. 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine-labeled rat MSCs were transplanted into the SN of the 6-hydroxydopamine-injected side of PD rat brains. The behavioral changes in PD rats were examined before and 4 and 8 weeks after MSC transplantation. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the SN and the striatum and the survival and differentiation of MSCs were assessed by immunohistochemical and double immunofluorescence techniques. Abnormal behavior of PD rats was significantly improved by the administration of bone marrow MSCs, and the number of TH-positive cells in the SN and the optical density of TH-positive fibers in the striatum were markedly increased. Transplanted MSCs can survive and migrate in the brain and differentiate into nestin-, neuron-specific enolase-, and GFAP-positive cells. Our findings suggest that transplantation of rat bone marrow MSCs into the SN of PD rats may provide therapeutic effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave combined with orthopaedic insole on plantar fasciitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenguang; Sun, Shaodan; Li, Xuhong

    2014-12-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave combined with orthopaedic insole on plantar fasciitis. A total of 153 plantar with plantar fasciitis were randomly divided into a combined group (n=51), an extracorporeal shock wave group (n=53) and an orthopaedic group (n=49). The combined group received treatment of both extracorporeal shock wave and orthopaedic insole while the extracorporeal shock wave or the orthopaedic group only received the treatment of extracorporeal shock wave or orthopaedic insole. The therapeutic parameters such as visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, continued walking time and thickness of the plantar fascia were monitored before and aft er the treatment for 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months, respectively. The VAS scores in the 3 groups were all reduced after the treatment compared with the corresponding scores before the therapy (Pplantar fascia was improved after the treatment (Pplantar fasciitis. It is recommended to spread in clinic.

  2. The effect of therapeutic touch on behavioral symptoms and cortisol in persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Diana Lynn; Beck, Cornelia; Sinha, Karabi

    2009-06-01

    Between 75-90% of nursing home (NH) residents with dementia develop behavioral symptoms (BSD) which may be associated with a stress response. Therapeutic touch has been shown to decrease restlessness in NH residents, however the mechanism is unknown. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the effect of therapeutic touch on BSD and basal cortisol levels among NH residents with dementia. Using a double blind experimental interrupted time series ABAB design, 65 participants were assigned to one of three groups. The experimental group received therapeutic touch with contact on the neck and shoulders delivered twice daily for 3 days (administered over 2 separate treatment periods); the placebo group received a mimic treatment identical in appearance, and the control group received routine care. Study outcomes were BSD, measured by the modified Agitated Behavior Rating Scale (mABRS), and salivary cortisol levels, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 64 residents, aged 67-93 years (M = 85.5, SD = 5.50), completed the study. Restlessness was significantly reduced in the experimental group compared to the control group (p = 0.03). There was a significant difference in morning cortisol variability among groups across time periods (touch may be effective for management of symptoms like restlessness coupled with stress reduction. At a time when cost containment is a consideration in health care, therapeutic touch is an intervention that is non-invasive, readily learned, and can provide a non-pharmacologic alternative for selected persons with BSD. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Possible Therapeutic Effects of Ozone Mixture on Hypoxia in Tumor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Margherita; Brigida, Anna Lisa; Mascolo, Luigi; Gaudino, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    Recent literature highlights that ozone therapy could be considered a viable adjuvant therapy in oncological patients receiving radio-chemotherapy. The use of ozone therapy in these patients enhances the action of chemotherapy and at the same time reduces side-effects, such as nausea, vomiting, opportunistic infections, buccal ulcers, hair loss and fatigue. Such positive therapeutic effects of ozone therapy can cause a larger physical and mental wellbeing resulting in improved quality of life. This work reviews the recent acquisition of scientific knowledge regarding the ozone therapy and highlights the molecular and cellular pathways involved. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutic effect of nucleoside analogs on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in dark agouti rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Danijela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is a commonly used animal model of the human neurological disorder multiple sclerosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of combined treatment with two nucleoside analogs, ribavirin and tiazofurin, on development of EAE actively induced in highly susceptible dark agouti rats. The obtained results showed that ribavirin and tiazofurin applied either separately or in combination from the onset of the firstsymptoms of EAE after its induction (therapeutic treatment significantly suppressed EAE’s clinical symptoms. However, the most pronounced effect was gained with combined treatment, probably as a result of synergistic/additive action.

  5. Biological Activity of Lenalidomide and Its Underlying Therapeutic Effects in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martiniani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lenalidomide is a synthetic compound derived by modifying the chemical structure of thalidomide. It belongs to the second generation of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs and possesses pleiotropic properties. Even if lenalidomide has been shown to be active in the treatment of several hematologic malignancies, this review article is mostly focalized on its mode of action in multiple myeloma. The present paper is about the direct and indirect antitumor effects of lenalidomide on malignant plasmacells, bone marrow microenvironment, bone resorption and host’s immune response. The molecular mechanisms and targets of lenalidomide remain largely unknown, but recent evidence shows cereblon (CRBN as a possible mediator of its therapeutical effects.

  6. Structural model to evaluate the effect of participation and satisfaction on ecotourism sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kencana, Eka N.; Manutami, T.

    2017-10-01

    This paper is directed to study the effect of local community participation and visitors’ satisfaction on ecotourism sustainability at Badung regency of Bali province, Indonesia. Two important aspects regarding ecotourism sustainability had been studied, i.e. (a) economic benefits for local people and (b) tourists’ satisfaction. Applying variance-based structural equation modeling, data were collected in July 2015 from local community leaders of Kiadan Village at Badung regency and tourists whom visited this village, were analysed. Four latent variables, namely (a) community participation, (b) economic benefits, (c) tourists’ satisfaction, and (d) ecotourism sustainability, were used to build structural model. The results showed sustainability of Kiadan’s ecotourism was significantly affected by local community participation and visitors’ satisfaction although community participation’s effect slightly greater than tourists’ satisfaction with path values for participation and satisfaction as much as 0.651 and 0.627, respectively.

  7. Sustainability of hydrogen supply chain. Part I: Identification of critical criteria and cause–effect analysis for enhancing the sustainability using DEMATEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Toniolo, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The enhancement of sustainability of hydrogen supply chain is of vital importance for the stakeholders/decision-makers to design a sustainable hydrogen supply chain. The objective of this paper is to develop a method for prioritizing the influential factors, identifying the key driving factors...... that influence the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain and mapping the cause–effect relationships to improve the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain. In this paper, thirty seven criteria in four aspects including economic, technological, environmental and societal aspects are considered for enhancing...... the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain, and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory has been used to analyze the relationships among these criteria. The status of hydrogen supply chain in China has been studied by the proposed method, and the results are consistent with the actual conditions. It could...

  8. [Observation on therapeutic effect of child amblyopia treated with auricular point sticking therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Run-Lian

    2011-12-01

    To compare the differences in the therapeutic effect on child amblyopia between auricular point sticking therapy and routine complex treatment. Two hundreds and thirty cases of amblyopia were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 120 cases (212 eyes) were in the observation group and 110 cases (194 eyes) were in the control group. The observation group was treated with auricular point sticking therapy. The main points were Yan (eye), Shenmen, Gan (liver), Pi (spleen) and Shen (kidney), etc. The control group was treated with routine complex treatment, such as wearing glasses, shade therapy and family refined performance therapy. The changes of vision were observed after treatment in the two groups. The follow-up was 3 years. The effective rate was 81.0% (64/79) in the observation group of ametropic amblyopia and 52.2% (36/69) in the control group. The effective rate was 73.1% (49/67) in the observation group of anisometropic amblyopia and 47.7% (31/65) in the control group. The effective rate was 71.2% (47/66) in the observation group of strabismic amblyopia and 45.0% (27/60) in the control group. The therapeutic effect of the observation group was superior to that of the control group (all P < 0.05). Auricular point sticking therapy can obviously improve child visual acuity with simple manipulation.

  9. Autophagy-inducing effect of pterostilbene: A prospective therapeutic/preventive option for skin diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Jane Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterostilbene is a naturally occurring analog of resveratrol with many health benefits. These health benefits are associated with its antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and chemopreventive effects attributed to its unique structure. The skin cancer chemopreventive potential of pterostilbene is supported by a variety of mechanistic studies confirming the anti-inflammatory effects in skin cancer models. Molecular biological studies have identified that pterostilbene targets pleotropic signaling pathways, including those involved in mitogenesis, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. Recently, pterostilbene has been reported to induce autophagy in cancer and normal cells. Through autophagy induction, the inflammatory-related skin diseases can be attenuated. This finding suggests the potential use of pterostilbene in the treatment and prevention of skin disorders via alleviating inflammatory responses by autophagy induction. This review summarizes the protective and therapeutic benefits of pterostilbene in skin diseases from the viewpoint of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and autophagy-inducing effects. Novel underlying mechanisms regarding these effects are discussed. We proposed that pterostilbene, a promising natural product, can be used as a preventive and therapeutic agent for inflammation-related skin disorders through induction of autophagy.

  10. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Mentha Longifolia L. and its main constituent, menthol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaili, Peyman; Mojaverrostami, Sina; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Mentha longifolia (wild mint) is a popular folk remedy. Some parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine of Iran and other countries. Many studies have shown various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of the plant. Our aim in preparing this study was to review the traditional uses of M. longifolia together with the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of its entire extract and major compounds. Mentha longifolia is an herb with a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, and nervous system effects. Pulegone is the main compound of the plant responsible for most of its pharmacological effects followed by menthone, isomenthone, menthol, 1, 8-cineole, borneol, and piperitenone. Moreover, the plant may dose-dependently exert toxic effects in different systems of the body. Based on the review of various studies, it can be concluded that M. longifolia is a potential natural source for the development of new drugs. However, further studies are required to determine the precise quality and safety of the plant to be used by clinicians. PMID:25284948

  11. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Mentha Longifolia L. and its main constituent, menthol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mentha longifolia (wild mint is a popular folk remedy. Some parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine of Iran and other countries. Many studies have shown various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of the plant. Our aim in preparing this study was to review the traditional uses of M. longifolia together with the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of its entire extract and major compounds. Mentha longifolia is an herb with a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, and nervous system effects. Pulegone is the main compound of the plant responsible for most of its pharmacological effects followed by menthone, isomenthone, menthol, 1, 8-cineole, borneol, and piperitenone. Moreover, the plant may dose-dependently exert toxic effects in different systems of the body. Based on the review of various studies, it can be concluded that M. longifolia is a potential natural source for the development of new drugs. However, further studies are required to determine the precise quality and safety of the plant to be used by clinicians.

  12. Therapeutic abortion in Islam: contemporary views of Muslim Shiite scholars and effect of recent Iranian legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, K M; Shooshtarizadeh, P; Raza, M

    2006-01-01

    Abortion is forbidden under normal circumstances by nearly all the major world religions. Traditionally, abortion was not deemed permissible by Muslim scholars. Shiite scholars considered it forbidden after implantation of the fertilised ovum. However, Sunni scholars have held various opinions on the matter, but all agreed that after 4 months gestation abortion was not permitted. In addition, classical Islamic scholarship had only considered threats to maternal health as a reason for therapeutic abortion. Recently, scholars have begun to consider the effect of severe fetal deformities on the mother, the families and society. This has led some scholars to reconsider the prohibition on abortion in limited circumstances. This article reviews the Islamic basis for the prohibition of abortion and the reasons for its justification. Contemporary rulings from leading Shiite scholars and from the Sunni school of thought are presented and reviewed. The status of abortion in Muslim countries is reviewed, with special emphasis on the therapeutic abortion law passed by the Iranian Parliament in 2003. This law approved therapeutic abortion before 16 weeks of gestation under limited circumstances, including medical conditions related to fetal and maternal health. Recent measures in Iran provide an opportunity for the Muslim scholars in other countries to review their traditional stance on abortion. PMID:17074823

  13. Effective Disclosure in the Fast-Fashion Industry: from Sustainability Reporting to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Garcia-Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work, set in the context of the apparel industry, proposes an action-oriented disclosure tool to help solve the sustainability challenges of complex fast-fashion supply chains (SCs. In a search for effective disclosure, it focusses on actions towards sustainability instead of the measurements and indicators of its impacts. We applied qualitative and quantitative content analysis to the sustainability reporting of the world’s two largest fast-fashion companies in three phases. First, we searched for the challenges that the organisations report they are currently facing. Second, we introduced the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs framework to overcome the voluntary reporting drawback of ‘choosing what to disclose’, and revealed orphan issues. This broadened the scope from internal corporate challenges to issues impacting the ecosystems in which companies operate. Third, we analysed the reported sustainability actions and decomposed them into topics, instruments, and actors. The results showed that fast-fashion reporting has a broadly developed analysis base, but lacks action orientation. This has led us to propose the ‘Fast-Fashion Sustainability Scorecard’ as a universal disclosure framework that shifts the focus from (i reporting towards action; (ii financial performance towards sustainable value creation; and (iii corporate boundaries towards value creation for the broader SC ecosystem.

  14. Simulating the cumulative effects of multiple forest management strategies on landscape measures of forest sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; David E. Lytle; Randy Swaty; Craig Loehle

    2007-01-01

    While the cumulative effects of the actions of multiple owners have long been recognized as critically relevant to efforts to maintain sustainable forests at the landscape scale, few studies have addressed these effects. We used the HARVEST timber harvest simulator to predict the cumulative effects of four owner groups (two paper companies, a state forest and non-...

  15. Short-term therapeutic effects of combined therapy with metformin hydrochloride for aplastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-chun LU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To screen and select new drugs for aplastic anemia (AA and evaluate their clinical efficacy by clinical bioinformatics methods. Methods First, we established genome expression profiles of AA patients, and conducted similarity analyses with the pharmacogenomics database to screen and select drugs with possible efficacy. Intractable AA patients who received immunosuppressors and/or androgen for more than six months showing no clinical efficacy were enrolled in the study to evaluate therapeutic effects of the therapeutic regime. Clinical efficacy and adverse effects were evaluated after six months. Results The clinical bioinformatics results showed therapeutic effects of metformin hydrochloride on AA. Forty-three intractable AA patients (15 with severe AA were treated with metformin hydrochloride combined with cyclosporin A (CsA and stanozolol. Twenty-seven transfusion-dependent patients (100% became transfusion independent after a 6-month therapy. The hemoglobin level completely returned to normal in 37 out of 40 anemia patients (92.5%. In the 40 patients with platelet count lower than 20×109/L, the platelet count of 28 patients (90.3% increased to higher than 50×109/L. The white cell count increased to higher than 3.5×109/L in 30 out of 35 patients (88.6% with white cell count lower than 2.5×109/L. Among 40 anemic patients, 1 was found to have abnormal renal function, but it recovered to the normal range after ending CsA treatment. Eighteen patients were found to have elevated transaminase levels which were lowered to normal range after using liver protectants and reducing the dosage of stanozolol. There were no instances of hypoglycemia in all patients throughout the treatment. Conclusion Combination of metformin hydrochloride, CsA and stanozolol is effective in refractory aplastic anemia with acceptable toxicity.

  16. Therapist Effects and the Impact of Early Therapeutic Alliance on Symptomatic Outcome in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Graham; Bentall, Richard P.; Lewis, Shôn W.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined therapist effects and therapeutic alliance (TA) in treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Therapist effects are the differences in outcomes achieved by different therapists. TA is the quality of the bond and level of agreement regarding the goals and tasks of therapy. Prior research suffers the methodological problem that the allocation of therapist was not randomized, meaning therapist effects may be confounded with selection effects. We used data from a randomized controlled treatment trial of 296 people with CFS. The trial compared pragmatic rehabilitation (PR), a nurse led, home based self-help treatment, a counselling-based treatment called supportive listening (SL), with general practitioner treatment as usual. Therapist allocation was randomized. Primary outcome measures, fatigue and physical functioning were assessed blind to treatment allocation. TA was measured in the PR and SL arms. Regression models allowing for interactions were used to examine relationships between (i) therapist and therapeutic alliance, and (ii) therapist and average treatment effect (the difference in mean outcomes between different treatment conditions). We found no therapist effects. We found no relationship between TA and the average treatment effect of a therapist. One therapist formed stronger alliances when delivering PR compared to when delivering SL (effect size 0.76, SE 0.33, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.41). In these therapies for CFS, TA does not influence symptomatic outcome. The lack of significant therapist effects on outcome may result from the trial’s rigorous quality control, or random therapist allocation, eliminating selection effects. Further research is needed. Trial Registration: ISRCTN74156610 PMID:26657793

  17. Therapist Effects and the Impact of Early Therapeutic Alliance on Symptomatic Outcome in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy P Goldsmith

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined therapist effects and therapeutic alliance (TA in treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Therapist effects are the differences in outcomes achieved by different therapists. TA is the quality of the bond and level of agreement regarding the goals and tasks of therapy. Prior research suffers the methodological problem that the allocation of therapist was not randomized, meaning therapist effects may be confounded with selection effects. We used data from a randomized controlled treatment trial of 296 people with CFS. The trial compared pragmatic rehabilitation (PR, a nurse led, home based self-help treatment, a counselling-based treatment called supportive listening (SL, with general practitioner treatment as usual. Therapist allocation was randomized. Primary outcome measures, fatigue and physical functioning were assessed blind to treatment allocation. TA was measured in the PR and SL arms. Regression models allowing for interactions were used to examine relationships between (i therapist and therapeutic alliance, and (ii therapist and average treatment effect (the difference in mean outcomes between different treatment conditions. We found no therapist effects. We found no relationship between TA and the average treatment effect of a therapist. One therapist formed stronger alliances when delivering PR compared to when delivering SL (effect size 0.76, SE 0.33, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.41. In these therapies for CFS, TA does not influence symptomatic outcome. The lack of significant therapist effects on outcome may result from the trial's rigorous quality control, or random therapist allocation, eliminating selection effects. Further research is needed.ISRCTN74156610.

  18. Sustainable Hydraulic Barrier Design Technologies for Effective Infrastructure Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitral Wijeyesekera Devapriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration of liquids lead to embarrassing post construction scenarios such as that of leaks from roofs, potable water leaking from water tanks/ reservoirs, rising damp in walls with groundwater seeping into basement structures, leakage of water from ornamental lakes and ponds or leachate leakage into the environment from MSW landfill sites. Such failures demand immediate and expensive maintenance. A stringent control on structural and waterproof stability is deemed necessary for long term service life of structures and in particular underground and near surface structures. On a micro scale and over a longer time scale, the phenomenon of rising dampness occurs in older buildings with the groundwater rising up through walls, floors and masonry via capillary action. Even slower rates of contaminant fluid migration occur through landfill base liners. In this paper a variety of hydraulic barrier technologies is critically discussed against a backdrop of relevant case studies. The choice of an appropriate hydraulic barrier technology for a given scenario will depend also on the sustainability, financial affordability and subjective aesthetics.

  19. Can Rebound Effects Explain Why Sustainable Mobility Has Not Been Achieved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the report “Our Common Future” launched sustainable development as a primary goal for society in 1987, both scientific and political discussions about the term’s definition and how to achieve sustainable development have ensued. The manifold negative environmental impacts of transportation are an important contributor to the so-far non-sustainable development in financially rich areas of the world. Thus, achieving sustainable mobility is crucial to achieving the wider challenge of sustainable development. In this article, we limit our sustainability focus to that of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. We discuss whether rebound effects can reveal why sustainable mobility has not been reached. Rebound effects refer to behavioral or other systemic responses after the implementation of new technologies or other measures to reduce energy consumption. Three main strategies exist for achieving sustainable mobility: efficiency, substitution, and volume reduction. (1 The efficiency strategy is based on the idea that environmental problems caused by transport can be improved by developing new and more efficient technologies to replace old, inefficient, and polluting materials and methods; (2 The second strategy—substitution—argues for a change to less polluting means of transport; (3 The volume reduction strategy argue that efficiency and substitution are not sufficient, we must fundamentally change behavior and consumption patterns; people must travel less, and freight volumes must decrease. We found rebound effects associated with all three of the main strategies that will lead to offsetting expected savings in energy use and GHG emissions in the transport sector.

  20. Preventive and therapeutic effect of treadmill running on chronic stress-induced memory deficit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-04-01

    Previous results indicated that stress impairs learning and memory. In this research, the effects of preventive, therapeutic and regular continually running activity on chronic stress-induced memory deficit in rats were investigated. 70 male rats were randomly divided into seven groups as follows: Control, Sham, Stress-Rest, Rest-Stress, Stress-Exercise, Exercise-Stress and Exercise-Stress & Exercise groups. Chronic restraint stress was applied 6 h/day for 21days and treadmill running 1 h/day. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test. The results revealed that running activities had therapeutic effect on mid and long-term memory deficit and preventive effects on short and mid-term memory deficit in stressed rats. Regular continually running activity improved mid and long-term memory compared to Exercise-Stress group. The beneficial effects of exercise were time-dependent in stress conditions. Finally, data corresponded to the possibility that treadmill running had a more important role on treatment rather than on prevention on memory impairment induced by stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Cannabis: Effects in the Central Nervous System. Therapeutic, societal and legal consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Olmos, Víctor Manuel; Parra-Bernal, Marisela C

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of marijuana extracted from Cannabis sativa and indica plants involves an important cultural impact in Mexico. Their psychological stimulatory effect is widely recognized; their biochemical and molecular components interact with CB1 and CB2 (endocannabinoid system) receptors in various central nervous system structures (CNS) and immune cells. The psychoactive element Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be reproduced synthetically. Systematic reviews show evidence of therapeutic effectiveness of therapeutic marijuana only for certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis (spasticity, spasms and pain), despite attempts for its widespread use, including refractory childhood epilepsy. Evidence indicates significant adverse effects of smoked marijuana on the structure, functioning and brain connectivity. Cannabis exposure during pregnancy affects fetal brain development, potentially leading to later behavioral problems in children. Neuropsychological tests and advanced imaging techniques show involvement in the learning process in adolescents with substance use. Also, marijuana increases the cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. Social and ethical consequences to legally free marijuana for recreational use may be deleterious transcendentally. The medicinal or psychoactive cannabinol no addictive effect requires controlled proven efficacy and safety before regulatory approval studies.

  2. Influence of nutritional status on the therapeutic effect of infliximab in patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Ryoko; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Iijima, Hideki; Wasa, Masafumi; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Nezu, Riichiro; Inoue, Yoshifumi; Ito, Toshinori

    2016-08-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a refractory inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology, frequently complicated by malnutrition. It is thought that the delayed wound healing associated with this malnutrition in CD patients might adversely affect the therapeutic benefits of infliximab (IFX). Therefore, we investigated the effects of nutritional status on IFX treatment. We assessed nutritional status and CD activity when IFX therapy was initiated and following the third dose, 6 weeks later. Nutritional status was assessed using the body mass index (BMI) and nutritional risk index (NRI), whereas CD activity was assessed using the CD activity index (CDAI). All patients with a BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) at the time of IFX therapy met the effective criteria for the CDAI, and IFX treatment was considered responsive in these patients. Furthermore, IFX treatment was responsive, with a high level of effectiveness, in all five subjects (31.3 %) with NRI scores of 97.5 and above with no risk of malnutrition (p = 0.037). Our results suggest that nutritional status does influence the therapeutic effect of IFX in CD patients. The response rate to IFX treatment thus could be improved by optimizing the nutritional status. We recommend comprehensive nutritional assessment and intervention prior to IFX treatment schedules.

  3. Effect of functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles incorporated with whole attenuated rabies virus antigen on sustained release and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Nivedh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanovaccines introduced a new dimension to prevent or cure diseases in an efficient and sustained manner. Various polymers have been used for the drug delivery to increase the therapeutic value with minimal side effects. Thus the present study incorporates both nanotechnology and polymers for the drug delivery. Poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid-b-poly(ethylene glycol was incorporated with the rabies whole attenuated viral antigen using double emulsion (W/O/W method and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Chitosan-PEG nanoparticles incorporated with the rabies whole attenuated virus antigen (CS-PEG NP-RV Ag. were prepared using Ionic Gelation method. The CS-PEG NP-RV Ag. was surface modified with biocompatible polymers such as Acacia, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA, Casein, Ovalbumin and Starch by Ionic Gelation method. The morphology was confirmed by SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The surface modification was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Zeta potential. The size distribution of CS-PEG-RV Ag. and surface modified CS-PEG-RV Ag. by respective biocompatible polymers was assessed by Zetasizer. Release profile of both stabilized nanoparticles was carried out by modified centrifugal ultrafiltration method which showed the sustained release pattern of the Rabies Ag. Immune stimulation under in-vitro condition was studied using rosette assay and phagocytosis assay. In-vitro toxicity using human blood and genotoxicity using human blood DNA was also studied to assess the toxicity of the nanoformulations. The results of these studies infer that PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles, CS-PEG and surface modified CS-PEG nanoparticles may be an efficient nanocarrier for the RV Ag. to elicit immune response sustainably with negligible toxic effect to the human system.

  4. Therapeutic effects of cannabinoids in animal models of seizures, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, and epilepsy-related neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Evan C; Patra, Pabitra H; Whalley, Benjamin J

    2017-05-01

    The isolation and identification of the discrete plant cannabinoids in marijuana revived interest in analyzing historical therapeutic claims made for cannabis in clinical case studies and anecdotes. In particular, sources as old as the 11th and 15th centuries claimed efficacy for crude marijuana extracts in the treatment of convulsive disorders, prompting a particularly active area of preclinical research into the therapeutic potential of plant cannabinoids in epilepsy. Since that time, a large body of literature has accumulated describing the effects of several of the >100 individual plant cannabinoids in preclinical models of seizures, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, and epilepsy-related neuroprotection. We surveyed the literature for relevant reports of such plant cannabinoid effects and critically reviewed their findings. We found that acute CB 1 R agonism in simple models of acute seizures in rodents typically produces anti-convulsant effects whereas CB 1 R antagonists exert converse effects in the same models. However, when the effects of such ligands are examined in more complex models of epilepsy, epileptogenesis and neuroprotection, a less simplistic narrative emerges. Here, the complex interactions between (i) brain regions involved in a given model, (ii) relative contributions of endocannabinoid signaling to modulation of synaptic transmission in such areas, (iii) multi-target effects, (iv) cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptor signaling interactions and, (v) timing, (vi) duration and (vii) localization of ligand administration suggest that there is both anti-epileptic therapeutic potential and a pro-epileptic risk in up- and down-regulation of endocannabinoid signaling in the central nervous system. Factors such receptor desensitization and specific pharmacology of ligands used (e.g. full vs partial agonists and neutral antagonists vs inverse agonists) also appear to play an important role in the effects reported. Furthermore, the effects of several plant

  5. Sustainable Overall Throughputability Effectiveness (S.O.T.E. as a Metric for Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Durán

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new index for a comprehensive and systematic measurement of sustainability and throughput performance in production systems. The proposed index, called Sustainable Overall Throughput Effectiveness (S.O.T.E., is designed on the basis of a comparison of the environmental and operational factors. Specifically, it integrates the following four dimensions: availability, utilization, performance, and environmental sustainability. The way each dimension is measured is explained and justified. This index uses the overall environmental equipment effectiveness (OEEE index, which is based on the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE index. However, such metrics are lacking at the factory level, because OEEE, as well as the OEE, is devoted to equipment-level. Its application and potential contribution to the analysis of sustainable throughput is demonstrated through a case study in an actual crushing plant. Through examining several hypotheses concerning the relationship between operational and environmental performance, a series of useful conclusions could be raised. The main difference and advantage of the proposed S.O.T.E. is that S.O.T.E., as it is based on the Overall Throughput Effectiveness (OTE, measures factory-level sustainability and operational performance. S.O.T.E. allows us to relate the impact of the overall effectiveness of each one of the components of the index to each piece of equipment that makes a part of the production systems. Furthermore, S.O.T.E., as OTE, take into account the production system configuration (series, parallel, assembly, etc..

  6. The effect of mental fatigue on sustained attention: an fNIRS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Hanjun; Cao, Yong; Xu, Fenggang; Jiang, Jin; Jiao, Xuejun

    2017-01-01

    Sustained attention is the ability to keep focused and vigilance for long time in external stimulation, which was crucial in safe-critical human-machine system. While the ability of sustained attention will decline because of mental fatigue, even lead to serious accidents in fatigue state. Therefore, it is of great significance to explore the impact of fatigue on sustained attention. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) can measure cerebral hemoglobin in order to reflect cognitive function indirectly. In previous related fatigue studies, monotonous and long-time CPT (continuous performance test task) was often used to explore the performance change and brain activity, but the effect of time on task (TOT) was always involved. In this study, in order to avoid the TOT effect, the sustained attention task and fatigue task were separated. It was adopted in the study that the modified continuous performance test (CPT) was chosen as the sustained attention task and verbal 2-back task as the fatigue induced task. The fNIRS signals were extracted from 10 channels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) from 20 healthy subjects. Studies found that cerebral lateralization increased significantly from alert to fatigue state in sustained attention task. Besides, Average oxyhemoglobin (HBO) of PFC increased significantly from alert to fatigue task, and the spatial pattern of activity of oxyhemoglobin also changed, which c be sensitive features to fatigue detection.

  7. [Therapeutic effects of the integrated acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine on reflux esophagitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan; Li, Bolin; Sun, Jianhui; Wang, Zhikun; Zhang, Nana; Shi, Fang; Pei, Lin

    2017-07-12

    To compare the differences in the clinical therapeutic effects on reflux esophagitis among the combined therapy of huazhuo jiedu jiangni decoction (the decoction for resolving the turbid, detoxification and reducing the pathologic upward qi in short) and acupuncture, omeprazole and Chinese herbal medicine. Ninety patients were randomized into 3 groups, 4 cases of them were dropped off. Finally, there were 29 cases in the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, 29 cases in the western medication group and 28 cases in the Chinese herbal medicine group in the statistical analysis. In the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, the decoction was prescribed recurrence rate. The therapeutic effects are better than the simple application of either Chinese herbal medicine or omeprazole. for oral administration. Additionally, acupuncture was applied to Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Zhongwan (CV 12), Ganshu (BL 18), Danshu (BL 19) and Taichong (LR 3). The decoction was applied one dose a day and acupuncture was once a day. In the western medication group, omeprazole capsules, 20 mg were prescribed for oral administration, twice a day. In the Chinese herbal medicine group, the decoction was simply applied. The treatment was 8 weeks in the 3 groups and the follow-up visit was 6 months. The score of reflux disorder questionnaire (RDQ) and the changes in esophageal mucosa under gastroscope were observed before and after treatment; the clinical therapeutic effects and recurrence rate were evaluated in the 3 groups. In 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, RDQ scores in the 3 groups were all reduced as compared with those before treatment (all P herbal medicine was lower than that in the western medication group ( P herbal medicine was lower than those in the western medication group and the Chinese herbal medicine group (both P herbal medicine group (all P <0.05). The combined therapy of huazhuo jiedu jiangni decoction and acupuncture achieve the

  8. Therapeutic Effect of Virtual Reality on Post-Stroke Patients: Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreira da Fonseca, Erika; Ribeiro da Silva, Nildo Manoel; Pinto, Elen Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to check the therapeutic effect of virtual reality associated with conventional physiotherapy on gait balance and the occurrence of falls after a stroke. This was a randomized, blinded clinical trial conducted with post-stroke patients, randomized into two groups-treatment group and control group-and subjected to balance assessments by the Dynamic Gait Index and investigation of falls before and after 20 intervention sessions. Statistically significant difference was considered at P rehabilitation in post-stroke patients, with repercussions on the reduction of falls. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Therapeutic effect of meliacine, an antiviral derived from Melia azedarach L., in mice genital herpetic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrera, Erina; Coto, Celia E

    2009-12-01

    Since natural products are considered powerful sources of novel drug discovery, a partially purified extract (meliacine) from the leaves of Melia azedarach L., a plant used in traditional medicine in India for the treatment of several diseases, has been studied. Meliacine exhibits a potent antiviral effect against several viruses without displaying cytotoxicity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of intravaginal administration of meliacine in a mouse model of genital herpetic infection. BALB/c female mice were infected with MS or G strains of Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 and then treated with meliacine topically. An overall protective effect was observed. Animal survival increased, the severity of the disease was reduced, life span was extended and virus shedding in vagina fluids was diminished. In addition, meliacine reduced the amount of virus that migrated to the brain and vaginal fluids presented higher levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha than untreated infected mice. These results indicate that meliacine could be an alternative therapeutic compound against HSV-2 genital infection. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Therapeutic effects of umbilical cord blood plasma in a rat model of acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jongman; Kim, Han-Soo; Seo, Jin-Ju; Eom, Jang-Hyoun; Choi, Seong-Mi; Park, Sanghyun; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hwang, Dong-Youn

    2016-11-29

    Umbilical cord blood plasma (UCB-PL) contains various cytokines, growth factors, and immune modulatory factors that regulate the proliferation and function of immune cells and adult stem cells. Despite its therapeutic potential, the effects of UCB-PL treatment in conditions of ischemic brain injury have yet to be investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that both behavioral and structural impairments resulting from ischemic brain injury were significantly prevented/reversed after intravenous administration of UCB-PL relative to the vehicle control. As early as 1-week post-ischemia, an increased number of newborn cells in the subventricular zone and a reduced number of activated microglial cells in the peri-infarct area were observed in the UCB-PL group, suggesting that enhanced neurogenesis and/or the suppression of inflammation may have contributed to functional protection/recovery. Moreover, UCB-PL was more effective than plasma derived from a 65-year-old healthy adult for the treatment of ischemia-related structural and functional deficits, indicating that UCB-PL had greater therapeutic potential. This study provides valuable insights into the development of a safe, effective, and cell-free strategy for the treatment of ischemic brain damage and a much-needed alternative for patients who are ineligible for thrombolytic therapy.

  11. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A; Zanaty, Mohamed I

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture.

  12. The effects of sustained hyperventilation on regional cerebral blood volume in thiopental-anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broux, Christophe; Tropres, Irène; Montigon, Olivier; Julien, Cécile; Decorps, Michel; Payen, Jean-François

    2002-12-01

    Sustained hyperventilation has a time-limited effect on cerebrovascular dynamics. We investigated whether this effect was similar among brain regions by measuring regional cerebral blood volume (CBV) with steady-state susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging during 3 h of hyperventilation. Regional CBV was determined in nine thiopental-anesthetized, mechanically-ventilated rats every 30 min in the dorsoparietal neocortex, the corpus striatum, and the cerebellum. The corpus striatum was the only brain region showing a stable reduction in CBV during the hypocapnic episode (PaCO(2), 24 +/- 3 mm Hg). In contrast, neocortex and, to a lesser extent, cerebellum exhibited a progressive return toward normal values despite continued hypocapnia. No evidence of a rebound in CBV was found on return to normal ventilation in the three brain regions. We conclude that sustained hyperventilation can lead to an uneven change in the reduction of CBV, possibly because of differences of brain vessels in their sensitivity to extracellular pH. Our results in neocortex confirm the transient effect of sustained hyperventilation on cerebral hemodynamics. Sustained hyperventilation has a transient effect in decreasing cerebral blood volume (CBV). Using susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging in thiopental-anesthetized rats, we found differences between brain regions in their transient CBV response to sustained hyperventilation.

  13. Additive Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Effects of Ripasudil with Glaucoma Therapeutic Agents in Rabbits and Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Kaneko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate (K-115, a specific Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK inhibitor, is developed for the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Topical administration of ripasudil decreases intraocular pressure (IOP by increasing conventional outflow through the trabeculae to Schlemm’s canal, which is different from existing agents that suppress aqueous humor production or promote uveoscleral outflow. In this study, we demonstrated that ripasudil significantly lowered IOP in combined regimens with other glaucoma therapeutic agents in rabbits and monkeys. Ripasudil showed additional effects on maximum IOP lowering or prolonged the duration of IOP-lowering effects with combined administration of timolol, nipradilol, brimonidine, brinzolamide, latanoprost, latanoprost/timolol fixed combination, and dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination. These results indicate that facilitation of conventional outflow by ripasudil provides additive IOP-lowering effect with other classes of antiglaucoma agents. Ripasudil is expected to have substantial utility in combined regimens with existing agents for glaucoma treatment.

  14. In Vitro Sonodynamic Therapeutic Effect of Polyion Complex Micelles Incorporating Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yamamoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs can act as sonosensitizers, generating reactive oxygen species under ultrasound irradiation, for use in sonodynamic therapy. For TiO2 NPs delivery, we prepared polyion complex micelles incorporating TiO2 NPs (TiO2 NPs-PIC micelles by mixing TiO2 NPs with polyallylamine bearing poly(ethylene glycol grafts. In this study, the effects of polymer composition and ultrasound irradiation conditions on the sonodynamic therapeutic effect toward HeLa cells were evaluated experimentally using cell viability evaluation, intracellular distribution observation, and a cell staining assay. TiO2 NPs-PIC micelles with widely distributed features induced a significant decrease in cell viability under ultrasound irradiation. Furthermore, prolonging the irradiation time killed cells more effectively than did increasing the ultrasound power. The combination of TiO2 NP-PIC micelles and ultrasound irradiation was confirmed to induce apoptotic cell death.

  15. In Vitro Sonodynamic Therapeutic Effect of Polyion Complex Micelles Incorporating Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ono, Masafumi; Yuba, Eiji; Harada, Atsushi

    2017-09-11

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO₂ NPs) can act as sonosensitizers, generating reactive oxygen species under ultrasound irradiation, for use in sonodynamic therapy. For TiO₂ NPs delivery, we prepared polyion complex micelles incorporating TiO₂ NPs (TiO₂ NPs-PIC micelles) by mixing TiO₂ NPs with polyallylamine bearing poly(ethylene glycol) grafts. In this study, the effects of polymer composition and ultrasound irradiation conditions on the sonodynamic therapeutic effect toward HeLa cells were evaluated experimentally using cell viability evaluation, intracellular distribution observation, and a cell staining assay. TiO₂ NPs-PIC micelles with widely distributed features induced a significant decrease in cell viability under ultrasound irradiation. Furthermore, prolonging the irradiation time killed cells more effectively than did increasing the ultrasound power. The combination of TiO₂ NP-PIC micelles and ultrasound irradiation was confirmed to induce apoptotic cell death.

  16. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in counteracting chemotherapy-induced adverse effects: an exploratory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza; Rahimian, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Cannabinoids (the active constituents of Cannabis sativa) and their derivatives have got intense attention during recent years because of their extensive pharmacological properties. Cannabinoids first developed as successful agents for alleviating chemotherapy associated nausea and vomiting. Recent investigations revealed that cannabinoids have a wide range of therapeutic effects such as appetite stimulation, inhibition of nausea and emesis, suppression of chemotherapy or radiotherapy-associated bone loss, chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity, pain relief, mood amelioration, and last but not the least relief from insomnia. In this exploratory review, we scrutinize the potential of cannabinoids to counteract chemotherapy-induced side effects. Moreover, some novel and yet important pharmacological aspects of cannabinoids such as antitumoral effects will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Prosocial effects of oxytocin and clinical evidence for its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striepens, Nadine; Kendrick, Keith M; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2011-10-01

    There has been unprecedented interest in the prosocial effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin in humans over the last decade. A range of studies has demonstrated correlations between basal oxytocin levels and the strength of social and bonding behaviors both in healthy individuals and in those suffering from psychiatric disorders. Mounting evidence suggests associations between polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene and prosocial behaviors and there may also be important epigenetic effects. Many studies have now reported a plethora of prosocial effects of intranasal application of oxytocin, including the domains of trust, generosity, socially reinforced learning, and emotional empathy. The main focus of this review will be to summarize human preclinical work and particularly the rapidly growing number of clinical studies which have identified important links between oxytocin and a wide range of psychiatric disorders, and have now started to directly assess its therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Short Intervention, Sustained Effects: Promoting Students’ Math Competence Beliefs, Effort, and Achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brisson, Brigitte Maria; Dicke, Anna Lena; Gaspard, Hanna; Häfner, Isabelle; Flunger, Barbara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412516322; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of two short relevance interventions (writing a text or evaluating quotations about the utility of mathematics) using a sample of 1,916 students in 82 math classrooms in a cluster randomized controlled experiment. Short-term and sustained effects (6

  19. Between green growth and degrowth: Decoupling, rebound effects and the politics for long-term sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Xue, Jin

    2016-01-01

    that the rebound effect is both a natural consequence of the growth dedicated society and a driver of further economic growth. Through rebound effects, labour productivity and eco-efficiency technologies in the growth society tend to contradict the goal of achieving environmental sustainability. To address...

  20. Effect of Corrupt Behavior of the Forestry Bureaucrats on the Forest Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This article show that corrupt bureaucrats do not always result in a negative effect on the forest sustainability. Even under a certain condition, a corrupt behavior may result in a positive effect on the forest sustainability. An inappropriate policy is more important a cause of the forest sustainability than a corrupt behavior. Therefore, fixing this structural mistake needs to be prioritized in combating the forest destruction, for this structural mistake is the real primary cause of the forest destruction in Indonesia. Fixing this structural mistake is much more effective in combating the forest destruction than finding honest bureaucrats. Keywords:     Birokrat, Distortionary, Nondistortionary, Kelestarian, Korup. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  1. Therapeutic Effects of Topical Tranexamic Acid in Comparison with Hydroquinone in Treatment of Women with Melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Najmolsadat; Dalvand, Behzad; Ghassemi, Mahammadreza; Mehran, Golnaz; Heydarian, Amir

    2017-07-26

    Few studies have focused on therapeutic as well as side effects of tranexamic acid (TXA) as a topical drug compared to other topical drugs in treating melasma. The present study aimed to assess and compare the beneficial therapeutic effects and also side effects of local TXA in comparison with hydroquinone in treating women with melasma. This randomized double-blinded clinical trial was performed on 60 women who suffered from melasma and were referred to the skin disorders clinic at the Rasoul-e-Akram hospital in Tehran in 2015. The patients were then randomly assigned via computerized randomization to two groups: group A received TXA%5 (topically twice a day for 12 weeks in the location of the melasma) and group B (received hydroquinone 2% with the same treatment order). Prior to intervention and at 12 weeks after intervention, the intensity and extension of melasma were assessed based on the Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scoring method. The mean MASI score in both treatment groups decreased considerably after completion of treatment and was not significant between the two groups. No side effects were detected in group A, but 10% of those in group B complained of drug-related side effects including erythema and skin irritation (p = 0.131). Regarding the level of patient satisfaction, the patients in group A had a significantly higher level of satisfaction level of 33.3% compared with 6.7% in group B (p = 0.015) (Fig. 9). Multivariate linear regression modeling with the presence of age, history of systemic disorder, drug history, and family history of melasma demonstrated no difference in the mean MASI between the two groups. Topical use of TXA significantly reduced both melanin level and MASI score. Given its high efficiency and low drug side effects, this regimen results in high patient satisfaction compared with topical hydroquinone. IRCT code: IRCT2016040627220N2.

  2. [Clinical observation on the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture combined with cupping on post-stroke fatigue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Li, Shao-Kun; Jin, Jian-Hong

    2010-10-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with cupping at the lumbo-back on post-stroke fatigue. A total of 128 cases of post-stroke fatigue patients were randomly divided into EA + cupping group and medication group, with 64 cases in each group. EA (20 Hz, 2 mA) was applied to Baihui (GV 20), Yintang (EX-HN 3), Shuigou (GV 26), Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), and Taichong (LR 3) for 30 min, once daily for 30 times, and cupping was applied at the patient's lumbo-back region once every two days, and continuously for 5 weeks. Patients of medication group were ordered to take compound aminobutyric acid vitamin E capsule (20 mg, t. i.d, po), magnesium gluconate solution (10 mL, t. i. d, po), sertraline hydrochloridetablet (50 mg, qd, po) for 5 weeks. The Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QOL) was used to evaluate the patients' energy state. After the treatment, the energy scores of SS-QOL of both EA + cupping and medication groups were increased significantly in comparison with the pre-treatment in each group (P cupping group was significantly higher than the score of the medication group (P cupping group and medication group, 42 and 23 were recovered basically, 13 and 13 experienced marked improvement, 7 and 18 were effective, 2 and 10 failed in the treatment, with the effective rates being 96.87% and 84.37% respectively. The effective rate of EA + cupping group was obviously higher than that of medication group (P cupping at the lumbo-back can effectively relieve fatigue of post-stroke patients, and its therapeutic effect is superior to medication.

  3. Symptom combinations associated with outcome and therapeutic effects in a cohort of cases with SARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao; Wang, Ruiqin; Zhang, Yulong; Zhang, Xuegong; Layon, A Joseph; Li, Yanda; Chen, Mingzhe

    2006-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an infectious disease and some of its symptoms were clinically indistinguishable of those from similar diseases. This study aimed to find the symptom combinations associated with adverse outcome and the therapeutic effects in a cohort of patients with probable SARS retrospectively. In 2003, 123 SARS cases in Beijing were subjected to a strictly western medicine (WM) treatment, or a combined treatment (WM plus Herba houttuyniae injection, addition of individualized herbal treatments when necessary), of which 115 were followed till death or discharge; 8 were transferred and lost to follow-up. In both treatment groups, clinical manifestations were evaluated daily; development of signs and symptoms, and their possible relationship with outcome, were assessed. The relationships between these sign/symptom complexes and outcome under two treatment protocols were evaluated and differences were noted. Dynamic symptom combinations, dividing into the early, the medium-term and the durational symptom clusters, were identified as likely being related to the adverse outcomes of SARS (p arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation significantly at day 22 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the progress and outcome of SARS may be associated with specific temporal patterns of development in combination of several non-specific signs and symptom complexes, which are also helpful for evaluating the therapeutic effects on SARS patients.

  4. Therapeutic effects of calcium dobesilate on diabetic nephropathy mediated through reduction of expression of PAI-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether calcium dobesilate (calcium dihydroxy-2,5-benzenesulfonate) may be used to treat diabetic nephropathy. A total of 121 patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy received calcium dobesilate (500 mg, 3 times a day) for 3 months. The levels of glycated hemoglobin, fasting serum C peptide, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, hematocrit, plasma viscosity, whole blood reduced viscosity, high, medium and low shear rate whole blood viscosity, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and endothelin were determined. The urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) was also determined once a month during the study. The UAER and medium and low shear rate whole blood viscosity were significantly lower in the treated patients. The rate of microalbuminuria normalization was 90%. During the treatment, the UAERs decreased. The results revealed that calcium dobesilate has therapeutic effects on type 2 diabetes patients with microalbuminuria. In addition, the benefit was positively correlated with the calcium dobesilate treatment time. The therapeutic effect may be due to decreases in the levels of PAI-1.

  5. Therapeutic Effects of Topical Application of Ozone on Acute Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Su; Noh, Sun Up; Han, Ye Won; Kim, Kyoung Moon; Kang, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical ozonated olive oil on acute cutaneous wound healing in a guinea pig model and also to elucidate its therapeutic mechanism. After creating full-thickness skin wounds on the backs of guinea pigs by using a 6 mm punch biopsy, we examined the wound healing effect of topically applied ozonated olive oil (ozone group), as compared to the pure olive oil (oil group) and non-treatment (control group). The ozone group of guinea pig had a significantly smaller wound size and a residual wound area than the oil group, on days 5 (Pozone group than that in the oil group on day 7. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated upregulation of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions, but not fibroblast growth factor expression in the ozone group on day 7, as compared with the oil group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that topical application of ozonated olive oil can accelerate acute cutaneous wound repair in a guinea pig in association with the increased expression of PDGF, TGF-β, and VEGF. PMID:19543419

  6. Effect of therapeutic exercises augmented by kinesio tape in treatment of scoliosis in adolescent females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman.A.Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is a lateral curvature of the spine. It is the most common deformity of the immature spine. The essential goal of treatment is to allow patients with scoliosis to avoid cardiopulmonary and neurological problems, and to improve the patient's appearance and future quality of life. Kinesio Taping is a method used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. The effects of Kinesio Taping is to relieve pain or abnormal feeling on the skin and fascia, supports the muscle in movement, removes congestion of lymphatic fluid or hemorrhages under the skin, and corrects misalignment of the muscle, fascia, and joint. Forty adolescent females complain from scoliosis their ages ranged from 11 to 17 years old, and their BMI was from 15 to 25 kg/m². They were divided randomly into two groups. Group A received therapeutic exercises for scoliosis, while group B received therapeutic exercise in addition to kinesio taping. X ray plain used for measuring of Cobb’s angle and present pain intensity (Ppi for pain assessment before and after treatment. There was a significant reduction of Cobb's angle and pain intensity at post treatment at both groups (p<0.05. There were significant reduction p<0.0001 in Ppi and this significant reduction in favor of group B. There was no significant differences between both groups in Cobb’s angle. Exercises for scoliosis and exercises augmented by kinesio taping had a significant effects on reduction of both Cobb’s angle and pain intensity.

  7. Therapeutic effects of topical application of ozone on acute cutaneous wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Su; Noh, Sun Up; Han, Ye Won; Kim, Kyoung Moon; Kang, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2009-06-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical ozonated olive oil on acute cutaneous wound healing in a guinea pig model and also to elucidate its therapeutic mechanism. After creating full-thickness skin wounds on the backs of guinea pigs by using a 6 mm punch biopsy, we examined the wound healing effect of topically applied ozonated olive oil (ozone group), as compared to the pure olive oil (oil group) and non-treatment (control group). The ozone group of guinea pig had a significantly smaller wound size and a residual wound area than the oil group, on days 5 (Poil group on day 7. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated upregulation of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions, but not fibroblast growth factor expression in the ozone group on day 7, as compared with the oil group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that topical application of ozonated olive oil can accelerate acute cutaneous wound repair in a guinea pig in association with the increased expression of PDGF, TGF-beta, and VEGF.

  8. Evaluating the effect of therapeutic stem cells on TRAIL resistant and sensitive medulloblastomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nesterenko

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are emerging as novel cell-based delivery agents; however, a thorough investigation addressing their therapeutic potential in medulloblastomas (MB has not been explored to date. In this study, we engineered human MSC to express a potent and secretable variant of a tumor specific agent, tumor necrosis factor-apoptosis-inducing ligand (S-TRAIL and assessed the ability of MSC-S-TRAIL mediated MB killing alone or in combination with a small molecule inhibitor of histone-deacetylase, MS-275, in TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant MB in vitro and in vivo. We show that TRAIL sensitivity/resistance correlates with the expression of its cognate death receptor (DR5 and MSC-S-TRAIL induces caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in TRAIL-sensitive MB lines. In TRAIL-resistant MB, we show upregulation of DR4/5 levels when pre-treated with MS-275 and a subsequent sensitization to MSC-S-TRAIL mediated apoptosis. Using intracranially implanted MB and MSC lines engineered with different combinations of fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins, we show that MSC-S-TRAIL has significant anti-tumor effects in mice bearing TRAIL-sensitive and MS-275 pre-treated TRAIL-resistant MBs. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the use of human MSC as MB-targeting therapeutic-vehicles in vivo in TRAIL-sensitive and resistant tumors, and has implications for developing effective therapies for patients with medulloblastomas.

  9. The Sustainability Analysis Framework: An Effective Knowledge Communication Tool in a Whole of Government Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal Hodgman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the structural formation of the Sustainability Analysis Framework (SAF, which has proved to be an effective knowledge communication tool in the largest state administration in Australia, the Government of New South Wales. The SAF, devised by the author, has been implemented across thirty-eight state agencies and demonstrates that a whole of government Sustainability perspective is achievable. The level of the NSW Government's commitment to this process is evidenced by the fact that it was coordinated at the highest levels of the administration and engaged high-level input from a comprehensive portfolio of its agencies. The SAF's successful deployment across this significant bureaucracy shows that the generally applicable mechanism is effective in data collation, information sharing, knowledge organisation and the communication of Sustainability practice and wisdom. At the heart of the paper is the author's contention that one of the key problems which jeopardises our common future on Earth is the lack of effective tools to communicate Sustainability thinking and practice. In the course of the project, upon which this paper is based, the author identified the need for a visually and conceptually accessible mechanism to accelerate the uptake of Sustainability practice in a whole of organization context. In designing the SAF, which has successfully bridged this knowledge communication gap, the author employed two of humanity's fundamental learning tools – the diagram and the story.

  10. Therapeutic Effects of Blue Honeysuckle on Lesions of Hyperthyroidism in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-In; Lee, Young Joon; Choi, Seong Hun; Park, Soo Jin; Song, Chang-Hyun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a hypermetabolic syndrome characterized by an overproduction of thyroid hormones, which enhances the hormone-induced oxidative stress responsible for some complications in the liver, heart and muscle. Blue honeysuckle (BH) is an edible berry, rich in polyphenols, especially flavonoids or anthocyanins, known as strong antioxidants. The chemo-protective activities of the berry have been connected to the improvement of symptoms in cancer, diabetes mellitus, tumor or cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the therapeutic effects of BH were examined in hyperthyroidism rat model. The hyperthyroidism was induced by injection with levothyroxine (LT4), and the model was treated with distilled water (LT4 control), propylthiouracil (PTU) or BH at 3 dosages of 500, 250 and 125[Formula: see text]mg/kg. The treatment was performed once a day for 15 days. Compared to LT4 control, the oral administration of BH dose-dependently ameliorated the hyperthyroidism, reducing thyroid hormones and increasing thyroid stimulating hormones. These effects were accompanied by improvement of body weight loss and atrophy in the thyroid gland, liver and epididymal fat pads. BH treatments also reduced the levels of hepatic enzymes (AST and ALT), which suggests BH exerts protective effects on hepatocytes. BH might also be involved in the augmentation of the anti-oxidant activities, supported by increased endogenous antioxidant (glutathione). In addition, the histopathological analyses revealed the beneficial effects of BH on the atrophic changes and cellular injuries in the thyroid gland, liver and epididymal fat pads. The therapeutic potentials of BH were either similar or more effective than PTU. These results provide valuable information that will guide more detailed studies to use the BH as a complementary and alternative medicine.

  11. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF ADAPALEN IN PATIENTS WITH ACNE VULGARIS TYPE I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratko Stanković

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of retinoids for the treatment of acne vulgaris in the 1970′s was revolutionary in dermatology. For the first time, dermatologists had effective comedolytic medication that could attenuate multiple aspects of acne pathogenesis, resulting in superior clinical and cosmetic outcomes. The quest for more stable molecules able to produce therapeutic effects similar to tretinoin lead to the evolution of adapalen, which has completely new chemical composition attained as a derivate of naphtoic-acid. Nowadays, the accepted opinion is that acne is accounted by multifactor processes, i.e. that there are many elements which determine the course of disease in pilosebaceous folicle. Ideal topical treatment of acne vulgaris could achieve therapeutic effects at four key components of this pathogen process: abnormal keratinization, proliferation and differentiation, augmented creation of sebum, settlement of pilosebaceous unit from Propionbacterium acnes (P. acnes and inflammatory reaction on antigenes and mediators which originate from P. acnes. The aims of this research were to establish the efficiency of treatments with adapalen, to establish eventual undesirable effects of this therapy, quality of life during the therapy and importance of home attendance.The research included 35 subjects. The selection of subjects was based on clinical analysis and anamnestic data. The research was conducted in the Center of Esthetic Medicine in the Primary Health Care Center in Nis. The subjects of experimental subsample (20 of them applied adapalen (Airol cream, Pantenol gel cream and Plantoderm unquent (Actavis co for night use. Subjects of control subsample applied only Pantenol gel cream and Plantoderm unquent (Actavis co for nightly usage. The research lasted 12 weeks. All subjects underwent complete treatment. The subjects of experimental subsample treated with adapalen showed visible amelioration after second therapy, and results were clear after

  12. A Research on Class Teachers Related to Determining the Effects of Consumers’ Personal Values on Sustainable Consumption Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Karalar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s sources about to running out have been realised as a result of that population increase and economic development to be lived in the twentieth century have caused the transformation from the notion of unlimited economic development to sustainable development notion. Sustainable development is a model that predicts existing generation satisfies their needs without that next generation’s satisfy their need. Projection of sustainable development on marketing area have been actualized by means of coming up with sustainable marketing approach. Sustainable marketing approach predict to create sustainable solutions by adding conformity with eco-system in addition to achieving organizational goals and satisfy consumers’ needs which traditional marketing’s goals. The target of sustainable development notion in regard of consumption is to be accepted sustainable consumption behavior. It requires inquiring factors affecting behavior in question because sustainable consumption pattern to be accepted and spread to the world. In the study examined that individual values affecting sustainable consumption behavior of class teacher who work at elementary schools in Kutahya, Merkez. The findings indicate the significant effect of universalism and security values type in sustainable consumption behavior. Also, it is found that frequency of sustainable consumption behavior is mid-level. The results of this research have significant implications for stakeholders of sustainable consumption and future research.

  13. Endocannabinoid system and psychiatry: in search of a neurobiological basis for detrimental and potential therapeutic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Marco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Public concern on mental health has noticeably increased given the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders. Cognition and emotionality are the most affected functions in neuropsychiatric disorders, i.e. anxiety disorders, depression and schizophrenia. In this review, most relevant literature on the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB system in neuropsychiatric disorders will be presented. Evidence from clinical and animal studies is provided for the participation of CB1 and CB2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. CBRs are crucial in some of the emotional and cognitive impairments reported, although more research is required to understand the specific role of the eCB system in neuropsychiatric disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD, the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa plant, has shown therapeutic potential in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Although further studies are needed, recent studies indicate that CBD therapeutic effects may partially depend on facilitation of eCB-mediated neurotransmission. Last but not least, this review includes recent findings on the role of the eCB system in eating disorders. A deregulation of the eCB system has been proposed to be in the bases of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Cannabis consumption has been related to the appearance of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia. In contrast, the pharmacological manipulation of this eCB system has been proposed as a potential strategy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, depression, and anorexia nervosa. In conclusion, the eCB system plays a critical role in psychiatry; however, detrimental consequences of manipulating this endogenous system cannot be underestimated over the potential and promising perspectives of its therapeutic manipulation.

  14. Endocannabinoid System and Psychiatry: In Search of a Neurobiological Basis for Detrimental and Potential Therapeutic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Eva M.; García-Gutiérrez, María S.; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Moreira, Fabricio A.; Guimarães, Francisco; Manzanares, Jorge; Viveros, María-Paz

    2011-01-01

    Public concern on mental health has noticeably increased given the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders. Cognition and emotionality are the most affected functions in neuropsychiatric disorders, i.e., anxiety disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. In this review, most relevant literature on the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in neuropsychiatric disorders will be presented. Evidence from clinical and animal studies is provided for the participation of CB1 and CB2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R) in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. CBRs are crucial in some of the emotional and cognitive impairments reported, although more research is required to understand the specific role of the eCB system in neuropsychiatric disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa plant, has shown therapeutic potential in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Although further studies are needed, recent studies indicate that CBD therapeutic effects may partially depend on facilitation of eCB-mediated neurotransmission. Last but not least, this review includes recent findings on the role of the eCB system in eating disorders. A deregulation of the eCB system has been proposed to be in the bases of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Cannabis consumption has been related to the appearance of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia. In contrast, the pharmacological manipulation of this eCB system has been proposed as a potential strategy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, depression, and anorexia nervosa. In conclusion, the eCB system plays a critical role in psychiatry; however, detrimental consequences of manipulating this endogenous system cannot be underestimated over the potential and promising perspectives of its therapeutic manipulation. PMID:22007164

  15. Therapeutic effect of polysaccharide fraction of Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. in bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Guan, Ran; Lu, Yisong; Su, Xiaoyan; Xu, Ye; Du, Aifang; Hu, Songhua

    2015-07-25

    Mastitis is considered the most significant and persistent disease in dairy cows, bringing about large economic losses. Subclinical mastitis brings about major cost implications, for it is difficult to detect due to absence of any visible indications and can persist in the mammary tissue throughout lactation. Immunomodulators have been widely used to reduce intramammary infections by modulating bovine mammary gland. Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. polysaccharides (RAMP), extracted from herbal medicine, has been used widely especially for its immunomodulatory function for many years. The objective of this study was to estimate an oil emulsified Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. polysaccharides (RAMP-O) as a potential therapeutic agent to treat subclinical mastitis by subcutaneous injection of RAMP-O in the area of supramammary lymph node in lactating cows via analysis of SCC, IMIs and NAGase. Injection of RAMP-O in the area of supramammary lymph node significantly reduced milk SCC and NAGase activity compared with control. The quarters with bacterial infection were also progressively reduced in RAMP-O treated cows and only 9 quarters were found to have bacterial infection, while no obvious change was found in the control group. Subcutaneous injection of RAMP-O in the area of supramammary lymph node had therapeutic value in the treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis by reducing SCC, NAGase and IMIs in milk. Considering both the therapeutic effect and the cost of RAMP-O, 32 mg per dose was found most suitable to reduce milk SCC and NAGase. Therefore, RAMP-O deserves further study for its use in treatment of bovine mastitis.

  16. Adult Education and Social Sustainability: Harnessing the "Red Queen Effect"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In 1973, the evolutionary biologist Leigh Van Valen of the University of Chicago devised what he called the "Red Queen Effect" to describe the growth and development of species. It stipulated that an evolutionary system must continue to develop just to maintain its fitness relative to others evolving in its environment. The literary reference is…

  17. Therapeutic effects of beta-thujaplicin eardrops on canine Malassezia-related otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yasuyuki; Matsuo, Saburo; Tani, Hiroyuki; Sasai, Kazumi; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2006-04-01

    An eardrop solution of beta-thujaplicin was examined for therapeutic effects on canine Malassezia-related otitis externa. Half to one ml of beta-thujaplicin solution of 100 microg/ml including DMSO 2% was injected everyday into both external ear canals of 31 cases for test-of-cure agreement. Fifteen score phases were established from the symptoms and cerumen smear biopsy findings, and score changes were recorded at least once a week. The means of the second and the third inspection day scores decreased significantly more than the previous value of each. In addition, the numbers of yeast-like organisms clearly decreased. These results suggest that beta-thujaplicin eardrops are effective for Malassezia-related otitis externa in dogs.

  18. A method for the investigation of the effects of outsole modifications in therapeutic footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, P R; Ulbrecht, J S; Zanine, W; Welling, R L; Leschinsky, D; van Schie, C

    1996-11-01

    Experiments to determine the effects of therapeutic shoe outsole modifications frequently require the examination of many different configurations and typically use in-shoe pressure measurement to determine the optimal design. A method is presented here to allow the foot-shoe interface to remain undisturbed as different outsole designs are used in the same patient. A standard extra-depth (or super extra-depth) shoe is modified to house three receptacles for quarter-turn fasteners in a carbon fiber plate. The fasteners pass through the outsole unit and secure it firmly to the plate. Results from a typical experiment are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the approach. It is possible that a large clinic could use this approach in complex cases to assist with optimal footwear prescription.

  19. Correcting Effect of Therapeutic Doses of Optical Radiation on Hematological Parameters of Blood Irradiated In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the effect of therapeutic doses of optical radiation on the hematological parameters of blood irradiated in vivo: hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and the number of erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of patients during courses of extracorporeal, overvein, and intravenous blood irradiation and after treatment. The reversible changes during the procedures were found to differ from the changes obtained after treatment completion. At the end of the treatment course, the hematological parameters had changed in different directions and became higher, the same, or lower than the initial parameters depending on the initial parameters and photoinduced changes in blood oxygenation. A compensatory effect was found for photohemotherapy on oxygen-dependent processes altering the oxygen inflow into cells as well as the generation of active oxygen species and their inhibition by antioxidant systems.

  20. Effect of in vivo irradiation of blood by therapeutic doses of optical radiation on metabolic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.

    2013-03-01

    We have studied the effect of in vivo irradiation of venous blood by therapeutic doses of optical radiation at different wavelengths (254 nm and 670 nm) on the absorption spectra of blood, the level of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in erythrocytes, and also the blood lactate and glucose levels for individual patients before and after irradiation of the blood. We have determined the differences in short-term (achieved during irradiation) and long-term photoinduced changes in metabolite levels. The changes in the lactate and glucose concentrations measured after completion of the course of treatment were appreciably different for different patients, and depended on two quantities: their initial concentration, and the photoinduced changes in the oxygen saturation of venous blood (Δ S v O2). The strongest normalizing effect of optical radiation occurred for changes in Δ S v O2 in the narrow range -15% < Δ S v O2 < 10%.

  1. [Observation on therapeutic effect of He's Santong needling methods on cold erythema multiforme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He

    2009-10-01

    To search for an effective therapy for cold erythema multiforme in ham. One hundred and eighty cases with cold erythema multiforme in ham were randomly divided into a Santong group (n=90) and a western medicine group (n=90). The Santong group was treated by He's Santong needling methods and Huantiao (GB 30), Fengshi (GB 31), Zusanli (ST 36), etc. were selected. The western medicine group was treated by oral administration of Cinnarizine, Cyproheptadine and Vitamin E. Two weeks later, their therapeutic effects were observed. The cured rate was 68.9% and the recurrence rate was 11.3% in the Santong group, and 33.3% and 53.3% in the western medicine group, with significant differences in the cured rate and the recurrence rate between the two groups (both Perythema multiforme in ham.

  2. The therapeutic or prophylactic effect of exogenous melatonin against depression and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Danielsen, A K; Hageman, I

    2014-01-01

    Circadian- and sleep disturbances may be central for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. The effect of melatonin on depression/depressive symptoms has been investigated previously. This systematic review assesses the current evidence of a therapeutic- and prophylactic...... effect of melatonin in adult patients against depression or depressive symptoms. A search was performed in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO for published trials on November 14th 2013. Inclusion criteria were English language, RCTs or crossover trials. Our outcome was measurement...... of depression/depressive symptoms with a validated clinician-administered or self-rating questionnaire. PRISMA recommendations were followed and the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool used. Ten studies in 486 patients were included in the final qualitative synthesis and four studies, 148 patients, were included in two...

  3. [Analysis of trainers’ « effective practice » in patient therapeutic education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballet, Delphine

    2016-10-01

    Introduction : development of Therapeutic Patient Education (TPE) incites healthcare professionals to introduce in their pratices an educational dimension. Objective : existing few works on the « effective » practices of the TPE trainers, this exploratory research aims at giving a perspective on what cancharacterize their pratices in teaching situation. Method : by taking support on the workson teaching pratices observation in Educational sciences, several sessions of TPE were observed, recorded and analysed by focusing on the forms and the contents of the verbal interactions near the trainers. Results : the results underline variations intra and interpersonal on guidance model of the trainers. Discussion : these results are to be put in links to the design of the sessions, professionals training and public receipted. Conclusion : effective practices observation, complemented withdeclared practices, is a tool of analysis susceptible to inform educationnal posture of the trainer in aim of knowledge and professionalization.

  4. Neurocognitive, Neuroprotective, and Cardiometabolic Effects of Raloxifene: Potential for Improving Therapeutic Outcomes in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad M

    2016-07-01

    Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has been approved for treating osteoporosis and breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women. However, recent evidence suggests that raloxifene adjunct therapy improves cognition and reduces symptom severity in men and women with schizophrenia. In animal models, raloxifene increases forebrain neurogenesis and enhances working memory and synaptic plasticity. It may consequently repair the neuronal and synaptic connectivity that is disrupted in schizophrenia. It also reduces oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, which are potent etiological factors in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, in postmenopausal women, raloxifene reduces the risks for atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and weight gain, which are serious adverse effects associated with long-term antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia; therefore, it may improve the safety and efficacy of antipsychotic drugs. In this review, recent insights into the neurocognitive, neuroprotective, and cardiometabolic effects of raloxifene in relation to therapeutic outcomes in schizophrenia are discussed.

  5. The therapeutic effect of high-dose esomeprazole on stress ulcer bleeding in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Hong; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Zhi-Hui; He, Xing; Gong, San-Dong

    2015-01-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of different doses of intravenous esomeprazole on treating trauma patients with stress ulcer bleeding. A total of 102 trauma patients with stress ulcer bleeding were randomly divided into 2 groups: 52 patients were assigned to the high-dose group who received 80 mg intravenous esomeprazole, and then 8 mg/h continuous infusion for 3 days; 50 patients were assigned to the conventional dose group who received 40 mg intravenous esomeprazole sodium once every 12 h for 72 h. Compared with the conventional dose group, the total efficiency of the high-dose group and conventional dose group was 98.08% and 86.00%, respectively (p esomeprazole have good hemostatic effects on stress ulcer bleeding in trauma patients. The high-dose esomeprazole is better for hemostasis.

  6. [Therapeutic effect of acupuncture on postoperative recovery of prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-qing; Liu, Yan-qing

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate therapeutic effect of comprehensive therapy of acupuncture as main in postoperative recovery of prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc. Seventy-seven cases were randomly divided into an observation group (n = 40) and a control group (n = 37). The observation group were treated with acupuncture at Shenshu (BL 23), Dachangshu (BL 25), Baliao (BL 31, BL32, BL33, BL 34), Zhibian (BL 54) combined with polarized light, and the control group with western medicine dikeleke 75 mg, once daily. They were treated for 1 month. The cure-markedly effective rate was 95.0% in the observation group and 75.7% in the control group with a significant difference between the two groups (Pprolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc.

  7. [Observation on the therapeutic effect of warming needle moxibustion on prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xing-Wei; Huang, Jian-Hua; Zeng, Li-Yuan

    2007-04-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of warming needle moxibustion on prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc. Seventy-eight cases were randomly divided into a test group and a control group, 39 cases in each group. The control group were treated with acupuncture at Shenshu (BIL 23), Mingmen (GV 4), Yaoyangguan (GV 3) and Weizhong (BL, 40), etc. , and the test group with acupuncture at the same acupoints as in the control group plus warming needle moxibustion at Mingmen (GV 4), Yaoyangguan (GV 3) and Weizhong (BL 40). The total effective rate of 94.9% in the test group was significantly better than 71.8% in the control group (P prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc.

  8. Effects of Therapeutic Exercises on Functional Capacities of Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Haji Zadeh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by symmetric joint involvement with progressive deformities. This leads to limitation of motion and reduction of activity daily living (ADL. Previous reports showed the beneficial effects of therapeutic exercises in these patients in the remission phase. Methods and Materials: A clinical trial as a self-control sequential control study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a range of motion (ROM exercise program in patients with RA, referring to Rheumatology Research Center between 1994-1995. ROM of the selected joints by Goniometer, and ADL by a questionnaire was assessed in all patients in 3 phases: when entering the program, after 6 weeks of observation, and then after another 6 weeks with the therapeutic exercises. The mean difference in these 2 period were compared by student paired t test. The analysis of differences between different subgroups (job, education, etc. was done by one way variance analysis. Results: Forty patients completed the program. The mean ADL increased from 0437±0.252 before exercise to 6.69±3.06 after exercise (P<0.001, and the mean scores of ROM increased from 0.278±0.28 to 8±3.57 (P<0.0001, both statistically significant. This was more pronounced in women and in those with ankle joints involvement. The type of disease onset and duration of the disease did not influence the effects of treatment. No increase in disease activity was seen. Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of our ROM exercises in increasing functional capacities of patients with RA in remission phase.

  9. Can the Clean Development Mechanism attain both cost-effectiveness and sustainable development objectives?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolshus, Hans H; Vevatne, Jonas; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Aunan, Kristin

    2001-06-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as defined in the Kyoto Protocol, has two objectives: to promote sustainable development in host developing countries, and to improve global cost-effectiveness by assisting developed countries in meeting their Kyoto targets. The aim of this paper is to explore the background of the CDM and discuss to what extent its current design allows it to achieve its dual objective. The first part of the paper is a literature review that includes descriptions of the flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol; the CDM's market potential, and the issues of cost-effectiveness and sustainable development. In the second part of the paper, we discuss to what extent there is a conflict between cost-effectiveness and sustain ability, and whether the two objectives of the CDM can be achieved simultaneously. We develop a set of indicators to evaluate non-carbon benefits of CDM projects on the environment, development, and. equity, and show how these indicators can be used in practice by looking at case studies of CDM project candidates in the energy sector from Brazil and China. We demonstrate that for some CDM projects there is a trade-off between cost-effectiveness, in terms of a low quota price, and a high score on sustain ability indicators. We have reason to believe that the size of the CDM market in some studies is over-estimated since transaction costs and the challenge of promoting sustainable development are not fully accounted for. Also, we find that the proposed set of indicators can be a necessary tool to assure that sustain ability impacts of CDM projects are taken into consideration. (author)

  10. Glycosaminoglycans analogs from marine invertebrates: structure, biological effects, and potential as new therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavão, Mauro S. G.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, several glycosaminoglycan analogs obtained from different marine invertebrate are reported. The structure, biological activity and mechanism of action of these unique molecules are detailed reviewed and exemplified by experiments in vitro and in vivo. Among the glycans studied are low-sulfated heparin-like polymers from ascidians, containing significant anticoagulant activity and no bleeding effect; dermatan sulfates with significant neurite outgrowth promoting activity and anti-P-selectin from ascidians, and a unique fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumbers, possessing anticoagulant activity after oral administration and high anti P- and L-selectin activities. The therapeutic value and safety of these invertebrate glycans have been extensively proved by several experimental animal models of diseases, including thrombosis, inflammation and metastasis. These invertebrate glycans can be obtained in high concentrations from marine organisms that have been used as a food source for decades, and usually obtained from marine farms in sufficient quantities to be used as starting material for new therapeutics. PMID:25309878

  11. Effects of therapeutic touch on the vital signs of patients before coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Zahra; Shahsavari, Hooman; Moeini, Mahin

    2010-01-01

    Currently healthy heart word considered to be the objective of community health applications in many countries of the world because cardiovascular diseases are the most important factor in mortality of humans, worldwide. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery is one of the most common surgery procedures for these patients. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of therapeutic touch on medical vital signs of patients before coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The present study is a clinical trial with 44 samples that were selected by easy sampling method and based on two separate lists of random numbers for both men and women; they were divided into two groups. In the therapeutic touch group, intervention therapy was applied on patents for 20 minutes. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Test results showed that there was a significant difference between the mean pulse rate before and after intervention in both groups (p touch therapy as a safe and effective intervention on the patients which were revealed in this study, this technique can be used as a simple, cheap and applicable technique in all health care centers to help these patients.

  12. Effect of telephone follow-up on adherence to a diabetes therapeutic regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesari, Maryam; Zakerimoghadam, Masoumeh; Rajab, Asadollah; Bassampour, Shiva; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether a nurse telephone follow-up service could improve the level of adherence to a diabetes therapeutic regimen for patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 61 patients attended a 3 day diabetes self-care program at the Iranian Diabetes Society. They were randomly assigned to one of the experimental or control groups. A telephone follow-up program was applied to the experimental group for 3 months, twice per week for the first month and weekly for the second and third months. The data-collection instruments included a data sheet to record the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and a questionnaire. The data were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks. There were significant differences between the control and the experimental groups in their adherence to a diabetic diet, exercise, foot care, blood glucose monitoring, and medication-taking. Also, the HbA1c levels differed significantly between the two groups after 3 months. A nurse-led telephone follow-up was effective in enhancing the level of adherence to a diabetes therapeutic regimen, such that the HbA1c level decreased. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  13. Therapeutic effects of ritual ayahuasca use in the treatment of substance dependence--qualitative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizaga-Velder, Anja; Verres, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative empirical study explores the ritual use of ayahuasca in the treatment of addictions. Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychedelic plant compound created from an admixture of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the bush Psychotria viridis. The study included interviews with 13 therapists who apply ayahuasca professionally in the treatment of addictions (four indigenous healers and nine Western mental health professionals with university degrees), two expert researchers, and 14 individuals who had undergone ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addictions in diverse contexts in South America. The study provides empirically based hypotheses on therapeutic mechanisms of ayahuasca in substance dependence treatment. Findings indicate that ayahuasca can serve as a valuable therapeutic tool that, in carefully structured settings, can catalyze neurobiological and psychological processes that support recovery from substance dependencies and the prevention of relapse. Treatment outcomes, however, can be influenced by a number of variables that are explained in this study. In addition, issues related to ritual transfer and strategies for minimizing undesired side-effects are discussed.

  14. The Effect of a Program Using Some Therapeutic Methods to Rehabilitate Patients Suffering from Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad O MAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neck pain is one of the common physical problems of the adults which needs to be taken seriously in order to prevent further health problems. As the daily life of the modern people leads physical in activity, and the use of electronic devices causes imprope r effect on certain parts of the body, specials programs have to be developed as preventive treatment. Therapeutic methods can also be listed through such preventive methods. The purpose of this study was to i dentify the impact of the proposed program usin g some natural methods of treatment for the rehabilitation of people with neck pain , to i dentify the improved range of motion in all directions to the neck area , and also t o identify the extent of improvement in muscle strength for the neck and back. Twelv e patients in Ain Zara Physiotherapy Center and Tripoli Clinic (in Tripoli city were chosen as voluntarily whose age ranged from 30 to 50 years, and the subjects were divided into two groups , as experimental and control groups. This study proved that pro posed therapeutic methods help the treatment of neck pain.

  15. Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Yuuki; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Sagawa, Takehito; Arai, Ryo; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection.

  16. Complementary therapeutic effects of dual delivery of insulin-like growth factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor by gelatin microspheres in experimental heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittadini, Antonio; Monti, Maria Gaia; Petrillo, Valentina; Esposito, Giovanni; Imparato, Giorgia; Luciani, Alessia; Urciuolo, Francesco; Bobbio, Emanuele; Natale, Carlo F; Saccà, Luigi; Netti, Paolo A

    2011-12-01

    Strategies to prevent adverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling after myocardial infarction have included several traditional approaches and novel cell-based or gene therapies. Delivery of growth factors in post-infarction heart failure has emerged as a valuable alternative strategy. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sequential release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) from biodegradable gelatin microspheres in experimental heart failure. Gelatin hydrogel microspheres were known to guarantee a sustained release of encapsulated growth factors, characterized by an initial burst followed by a slower release. Rats with moderate myocardial infarction were randomized to receive empty microspheres (MI), microspheres loaded with IGF-1 or VEGF, or a combination thereof (DUAL). Myocardial injections of microspheres were performed at the time of surgery, and treatment lasted 4 weeks. Echocardiography, LV catheterization, morphometric histology and immunohistochemistry, and molecular assessment of downstream mediators [e.g. Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase-2 (SERCA-2)] were assessed at the end of the treatment period. Infarct sizes were 33 ± 2, 28 ± 4, 24 ± 3, and 16 ± 3% in the MI, IGF-1, VEGF, and DUAL groups, respectively. IGF-1 attenuated LV remodelling, improved LV systolic and diastolic function, increased myocyte size, and reduced apoptotic deaths, capillary loss, and indexes of inflammation. VEGF-treated animals displayed a marked myocardial neoangiogenesis that led to the formation of mature vessels if combined with IGF-1 delivery. Downstream effects of IGF-1 were principally mediated by the Akt-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-dependent pathway, and both growth factors, particularly VEGF, induced a robust and sustained increase of eNOS. IGF-1 and VEGF exerted complementary therapeutic effects in post-infarction heart failure. Biodegradable

  17. Therapeutic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of laser acupuncture on patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Atef M M; Ibrahim, Fatma A A; Abd El-Latif, Noha A; Aziz, Samir W; Elwan, Azhar M; Abdel Aziz, Abdel Aziz A; Elgendy, Aliaa; Elgengehy, Fatema T

    2016-07-01

    The laser acupuncture has many potential therapeutic effects. Currently, they are not evaluated for their therapeutic effects on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of laser acupuncture on the oxidative and antioxidative markers, as well as the inflammatory markers and disease activity of RA patients. The study was conducted on 30 RA patients and 20 healthy subjects. The patients were subjected to laser acupuncture (904 nm, 100 mW power output, 1 minute irradiation time, beam area of 1 cm(2) , total energy per point 6 J, energy density 6 J/ cm(2) , irradiance 0.1 W/cm(2) , frequency 10000 Hz, duty-cycle 100%) for 3 days/week for duration of 4 weeks. The acupuncture points of exposure were LI4, TE5, LI 11, DU 14, LIV3, SP6, GB34, and S36. The levels of oxidative and antioxidant markers were determined by spectrophotometric methods whereas the inflammatory markers were determined by ELISA methods. Lastly, using DAS28 scores the disease activity was assessed. After laser acupuncture, the study group revealed significantly increased plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase activities, blood glutathione (GSH), and plasma ATP concentrations, compared to those before treatment (P acupuncture showed highly significant reduction in disease activity (P acupuncture in alleviating oxidative stress and inflammation, improving antioxidant and energy metabolic status, while also suppressing the disease activity in RA patients. Laser acupuncture is a promising treatment modality to reduce the pain and suffering of RA patients because of its efficiency in inhibiting most of the main factors involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:490-497, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. WR-2721 protects against cytoxan-induced hprt mutagenesis without affecting therapeutic effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Yasushi [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation and Cellular Oncology; Perrin, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hunter, N.; Milas, L. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Grdina, D. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicadgo, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation and Cellular Oncology]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The radioprotector S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) was evaluated for its ability to protect against cytoxan-induced mutagenesis at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in mouse splenocytes under conditions that would not interfere with the therapeutic effectiveness of cytoxan in the treatment of fibrosarcoma lung tumors. Mutations at the hprt locus increase in frequency as a function of the dose of cytoxan used. With a spontaneous mutation frequency in C3H mice of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}, mutation frequencies increased from 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} as the dose of cytoxan increased from 50 to 200 mg/kg. C3H male mice were injected in their tail veins with 3.5 {times} 10{sup 5} viable fibrosarcoma (FSa) cells. This protocol gave rise to an average of 68 tumor colonies per mouse. Four days following injection animals were treated with cytoxan at a dose of 100 mg/kg, which gave rise to significant tumor cell killing and a reduction in tumor colony number to less than an average of one per animal. WR-2721 at a concentration of 100 mg/kg did not affect on cytoxan`s therapeutic effectiveness. However, a 100 mg/kg dose of WR-2721 was effective in reducing the cytoxan induced hprt mutation frequency in mice from 160 to 35 per 10{sup 5} viable cells regardless of whether it was administered 30 min before or 2 h following cytoxan treatment.

  19. Radiologic evaluation of the therapeutic effect of gamma knife radiosurgery in cerebral vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ig Dae; Kim, Il; Jeon, Young Seup; Lee, Jong Yuk; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Seong Suk; Eun, Choong Ki; Kim, Mu Seong; Sim, Jae Hong [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of gamma knife radiosurgery in cerebral vascular malformation using a radiologic imaging method such as MRI or angiography. We retrospectively reviewed MRIs, CT scans and angiograms of 29 cases of arteriovenous malformation and 15 of cavernous malformation before and after gamma knife radiosurgery. The patients underwent follow-up radiologic studies for between 6 and 35 months after radiosurgery. No patient underwent other surgery or embolization. Radiological imaging analysis focused on changes in the volume of the nidus or central core. Other findings of edema, cystic change, hemorrhage, signal intensity, enhancement and distributional vascular markings were also studied. The volume of the AVM nidus was measured and assigned to one of four groups:<1cc, 1-4cc,>4-10cc and >10cc. In arteriovenous malformation cases, the volume of the nidus decreased by mean 60.2%;reduction was greatest(68.1%) in the 1-4cc group. Three cases showed complete loss of the nidus at 9, 12 and 25 months after radiosurgery, respectively. In nine cases, decreased caliber or loss of draining vein was noted. High signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images, suggesting either edema or demyelination, was observed in four cases. In cavernous angioma cases, core volume was reduced by 36.8%. Transient cerebral edema and presumed radiation necrosis were observed in two cases and one, respectively. Gamma knife surgery was effective in nearly all cases of arteriovenous malformation and some cases of cavernous malformation. More than two years follow-up involving radiologic imaging such as MRI is needed for the evaluation of therapeutic effect and diagnosis of complications.=20.

  20. Dopa-Responsive Dystonia and gait analysis: A case study of levodopa therapeutic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebour, Rémi; Delporte, Ludovic; Revol, Patrice; Arsenault, Lisette; Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Luauté, Jacques; Rossetti, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Patients suffering Dopa-Responsive Dystonia present dystonia, abnormal postural balance and gait impairment. Treatment with levodopa typically improves these three symptoms. The present study provides an extensive analysis of gait and posture in a patient with Dopa-Responsive Dystonia, prior to and during levodopa therapy. The patient was assessed with the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale, underwent motion analysis with an optoelectronic system and postural analysis with force plates. This study provides a detailed quantification of gait parameters in a Dopa-Responsive Dystonia patient. Prior to treatment, mean walking speed was severely reduced, gait cadence and step length were decreased and stride width was increased. Right lower limb and pelvis showed kinematic defects, trunk and Centre of Mass were backwards. During levodopa therapy, the walking speed was doubled, gait cadence and step length were increased and stride width was reduced. Nearly all kinematic parameters of lower limbs were significantly improved. The patient's Centre of Mass during gait and Centre of pressure in static position both shifted forward. Levodopa dramatically decreased dystonia and improved spatio-temporal, kinematic and posture parameters. Our main pathophysiological hypothesis is that trunk tilt and its consequences on the Centre of Mass position have a pivotal influence on gait and balance, explaining both the initial impairments and the therapeutic effects. Gait analysis proves to be an effective tool to understand the pathophysiology of this patient, the therapeutic effects and mild residual gait defects in order to plan further rehabilitation strategy for this DRD patient. We propose that it will also prove to be useful for the exploration of other dystonic patients. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The therapeutic effect of PLAG against oral mucositis in hamster and mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-Reum Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced mucositis can limit the effectiveness of cancer therapy and increase the risk of infections. However, no specific therapy for protection against mucositis is currently available. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol, acetylated diglyceride in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced oral mucositis animal models. Hamsters were administered 5-FU (80 mg/kg intraperitoneally on days 0, 6, and 9. The animals’ cheek pouches were then scratched equally with the tip of an 18-gauge needle on days 1, 2, and 7. PLAG was administered daily at 250 mg/kg/day. PLAG administration significantly reduced 5-FU/scratching–induced mucositis. Dramatic reversal of weight loss in PLAG-treated hamsters with mucositis was observed. Histochemical staining data also revealed newly differentiated epidermis and blood vessels in the cheek pouches of PLAG-treated hamsters, indicative of recovery. Whole blood analyses indicated that PLAG prevents 5-FU–induced excessive neutrophil transmigration to the infection site and eventually stabilizes the number of circulating neutrophils. In a mouse mucositis model, mice with 5-FU–induced disease treated with PLAG exhibited resistance to body-weight loss compared with mice that received 5-FU or 5-FU/scratching alone. PLAG also dramatically reversed mucositis-associated weight loss and inhibited mucositis-induced inflammatory responses in the tongue and serum. These data suggest that PLAG enhances recovery from 5-FU–induced oral mucositis and may therefore be a useful therapeutic agent for treating side effects of chemotherapy, such as mucositis and cachexia.

  2. Effects of formulation design on niacin therapeutics: mechanism of action, metabolism, and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Dustin L; Murrell, Derek E; Roane, David S; Harirforoosh, Sam

    2015-07-25

    Niacin is a highly effective, lipid regulating drug associated with a number of metabolically induced side effects such as prostaglandin (PG) mediated flushing and hepatic toxicity. In an attempt to reduce the development of these adverse effects, scientists have investigated differing methods of niacin delivery designed to control drug release and alter metabolism. However, despite successful formulation of various orally based capsule and tablet delivery systems, patient adherence to niacin therapy is still compromised by adverse events such as PG-induced flushing. While the primary advantage of orally dosed formulations is ease of use, alternative delivery options such as transdermal delivery or polymeric micro/nanoparticle encapsulation for oral administration have shown promise in niacin reformulation. However, the effectiveness of these alternative delivery options in reducing inimical effects of niacin and maintaining drug efficacy is still largely unknown and requires more in-depth investigation. In this paper, we present an overview of niacin applications, its metabolic pathways, and current drug delivery formulations. Focus is placed on oral immediate, sustained, and extended release niacin delivery as well as combined statin and/or prostaglandin antagonist niacin formulation. We also examine and discuss current findings involving transdermal niacin formulations and polymeric micro/nanoparticle encapsulated niacin delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Manual Therapy, Therapeutic Patient Education, and Therapeutic Exercise, an Effective Multimodal Treatment of Nonspecific Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Alacreu, Hector; López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; La Touche, Roy

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a multimodal treatment in the short and medium term for disability in nonspecific chronic neck pain. The design of this study is a single-blinded randomized controlled trial carried out in a university research laboratory. Forty-five patients between 18 and 65 yrs with nonspecific chronic neck pain were included in this study. Each patient was treated eight times over a 4-wk period. The sample was divided into three groups: control group, subjected to a protocol of manual therapy; experimental group 1, subjected to a protocol of manual therapy and therapeutic patient education; and experimental group 2, subjected to manual therapy, therapeutic patient education, and a therapeutic exercise protocol. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 4, 8, and 16 wks using the following measurements: the Neck Disability Index, the 11-item Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, the Neck Flexor Muscle Endurance Test, and the Visual Analog Fatigue Scale. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test for the Neck Disability Index showed statistically significant differences between baseline outcomes and all follow-up periods (P < 0.01). In the Kruskal-Wallis test, differences were found for the Visual Analog Fatigue Scale and the Neck Flexor Muscle Endurance Test in the follow-ups at 8 and 16 wks (P < 0.05). Analysis of variance for group × time interaction showed statistically significant changes (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, F = 3.613, P = 0.005; Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, F = 2.803, P = 0.022). Minimal detectable changes were obtained in both experimental groups for the 11-item Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia but not in the control group. Differences between experimental groups and the control group were found in the short and medium term. A multimodal treatment is a good method for reducing disability in patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain in the short and medium term.

  4. Sustained attention in adult ADHD : time-on-task effects of various measures of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Buggenthin, Rieka; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Thome, Johannes; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    Neuropsychological research on adults with ADHD showed deficits in various aspects of attention. However, the majority of studies failed to explore the change of performance over time, so-called time-on-task effects. As a consequence, little is known about sustained attention performance of adults

  5. Sustainable semiarid dryland production in relation to tillage effects on Hydrology: 1983-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid dryland crop yields with no-till, NT, residue management are often greater than stubble-mulch tillage, SM, as a result of improved soil conditions or water conservation, but knowledge of long-term tillage effects on the comprehensive field hydrology and sustained crop production is needed. ...

  6. Sustained protective effects of 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside in an in vivo model of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Celle, T; Heeringa, P; Strzelecka, AE; Bast, A; Smits, JF; Janssen, BJ

    2004-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER), an antioxidant flavonoid, protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. In this study, we investigated potential sustained cardioprotective effects of monoHER in a model of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in mice. Ischemia was

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of therapeutic options for chronic hepatitis C genotype 3 infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-Ballester, Vicente; Mar, Javier; O'Leary, Aisling; Adams, Róisín; San Miguel, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a cost-effectiveness analysis of therapeutic strategies for chronic hepatitis C genotype 3 infected patients in Spain. A Markov model was designed to simulate the progression in a cohort of patients aged 50 years over a lifetime horizon. Sofosbuvir (SOF) plus peginterferon and ribavirin for 12 weeks was a cost-effective option when compared to standard of care (SoC) in the treatment of both 'moderate fibrosis' and 'cirrhotic' patients. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were €35,276/QALY and €18,374/QALY respectively. ICERs for SOF plus daclatasvir (DCV) regimens versus SoC were over the threshold limit considered, at €56,178/QALY and €77,378/QALY for 'moderate fibrosis' and 'cirrhotic' patients respectively. Addition of SOF to IFN-based regimens for genotype 3 was cost-effective for both 'moderate fibrosis' and 'cirrhotic' patients. IFN-free options including SOF and DCV association required price reductions lower than the list prices to be considered cost-effective.

  8. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL TREATMENT WITH JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Andrés-Pueyo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several treatment evaluations have highlighted the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural programmes with both youth and adult offenders. This paper describes the application and assessment of a cognitive-behavioural treatment (adapted to Spanish from Ross and Fabiano’s Reasoning & Rehabilitation Programme with juvenile offenders serving community orders in an educational measure called in Spanish ‘libertad vigilada’ (similar to parole. The intervention comprised six different therapeutic components: self-control, cognitive restructuring, problem solving, social skills/assertiveness, values/empathy, and relapse prevention. Treatment effectiveness was tested using a quasi-experimental design involving two groups and pre/post evaluation. The results show that the programme was effective (with low to moderate effect sizes in improving participants’ social skills and self-esteem, as well as in reducing their aggressiveness. However, the intervention had no positive influence on empathy, cognitive distortions or impulsiveness. These results are in line with those of many other correctional studies, in which the treatment applied had a significant but partial effect on participants.

  9. India's Proposed Universal Health Coverage Policy: Evidence for Age Structure Transition Effect and Fiscal Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Muttur Ranganathan

    2016-12-01

    India's High Level Expert Group on Universal Health Coverage in 2011 recommended a universal, public-funded and national health coverage policy. As a plausible forward-looking macroeconomic reform in the health sector, this policy proposal on universal health coverage (UHC) needs to be evaluated for age structure transition effect and fiscal sustainability to strengthen its current design and future implementation. Macroeconomic analyses of the long-term implications of age structure transition and fiscal sustainability on India's proposed UHC policy. A new measure of age-specific UHC is developed by combining the age profile of public and private health consumption expenditure by using the National Transfer Accounts methodology. Different projections of age-specific public health expenditure are calculated over the period 2005-2100 to account for the age structure transition effect. The projections include changes in: (1) levels of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows, (2) levels and shape of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows and expenditure converges to that of developed countries (or convergence scenario) based on the Lee-Carter model of forecasting mortality rates, and (3) levels of the expenditure as India moves toward a UHC policy. Fiscal sustainability under each health expenditure projection is determined by using the measures of generational imbalance and sustainability gap in the Generational Accounting methodology. Public health expenditure is marked by age specificities and the elderly population is costlier to support for their healthcare needs in the future. Given the discount and productivity growth rates, the proposed UHC is not fiscally sustainable under India's current fiscal policies except for the convergence scenario. However, if the income elasticity of public expenditure on social welfare and health expenditure is less than one, fiscal sustainability of the UHC policy is attainable in all scenarios of projected public

  10. A Cost-Effective Energy-Recovering Sustain Driving Circuit for ac Plasma Display Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae Kwang; Tae, Heung-Sik; Choi, Byungcho; Kim, Seok Gi

    A new sustain driving circuit, featuring an energy-recovering function with simple structure and minimal component count, is proposed as a cost-effective solution for driving plasma display panels during the sustaining period. Compared with existing solutions, the proposed circuit reduces the number of semiconductor switches and reactive circuit components without compromising the circuit performance and gas-discharging characteristics. In addition, the proposed circuit utilizes the harness wire as an inductive circuit component, thereby further simplifying the circuit structure. The performance of the proposed circuit is confirmed with a 42-inch plasma display panel.

  11. Melatonin effects on Plasmodium life cycle: new avenues for therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Venkataramanujam; Ahmad, Asma H; Mohamed, Mahaneem; Zakaria, Rahimah

    2012-05-01

    Malaria remains a global health problem affecting more than 515 million people all over the world including Malaysia. It is on the rise, even within unknown regions that previous to this were free of malaria. Although malaria eradication programs carried out by vector control programs are still effective, anti-malarial drugs are also used extensively for curtailing this disease. But resistance to the use of anti-malarial drugs is also increasing on a daily basis. With an increased understanding of mechanisms that cause growth, differentiation and development of malarial parasites in rodents and humans, new avenues of therapeutic approaches for controlling the growth, synchronization and development of malarial parasites are essential. Within this context, the recent discoveries related to IP3 interconnected signalling pathways, the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores of Plasmodium, ubiquitin protease systems as a signalling pathway, and melatonin influencing the growth and differentiation of malarial parasites by its effects on these signalling pathways have opened new therapeutic avenues for arresting the growth and differentiation of malarial parasites. Indeed, the use of melatonin antagonist, luzindole, has inhibited the melatonin's effect on these signalling pathways and thereby has effectively reduced the growth and differentiation of malarial parasites. As Plasmodium has effective sensors which detect the nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations, suppression of plasma melatonin levels with the use of bright light during the night or by anti-melatonergic drugs and by using anti-kinase drugs will help in eradicating malaria on a global level. A number of patients have been admitted with regards to the control and management of malarial growth. Patents related to the discovery of serpentine receptors on Plasmodium, essential for modulating intra parasitic melatonin levels, procedures for effective delivery of bright light to suppress plasma melatonin

  12. [An analysis of therapeutic effects of jinsangsanjie and jinsangkaiyin pills on polyps and/or nodules of the vocal cords].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiqin; Lin, Shangze

    2005-04-01

    To observe the therapeutic effects of Jinsangsanjie and Jinsangkaiyin Pills in treating polyps and/or nodules of the vocal cords. Two hundred and fifty cases of vocal polyp and/or nodule including 88 cases of early poly, 115 cases of nodule and 47 eases of postoperative patients of vocal polyp were treated with Jinsangsanjie and Jinsangkaiyin Pills. The total effective rate of early polyps and nodules was 94.1% and the total effective rate of postoperative patients of vocal polyp was 100.0. The better therapeutic effects of Jinsangsanjie and Jinsangkaiyin Pills in treating vocal polyps and/or nodules are worthy to be popularized.

  13. A narrative literature review of the therapeutic effects of music upon childbearing women and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins Martin, Caroline J

    2014-11-01

    Therapeutic effects of music are well recognised within the literature, with benefits for a variety of health problems documented. This narrative review summarises benefits in terms of reducing stress, anxiety, labour pain and depression in childbearing women. For neonates, music has been shown to reduce number of days to discharge, reduce pain response behaviours, increase weight gain, improve Brazelton scores, improve parent/infant intimacy, improve oxygen saturation, increase formula intake, stabilize vital signs and increase parental reports of calmed infants. The main criticism of the studies reviewed is lack of categorisation of the particulars of the variables within the music that directly influenced outcome variables. A recommendation is made that a music package be developed and relationships with variables rigorously evaluated. The validated product may then be made available for use. Since evidence supports advantages from listening to music, it is suggested that maternity professionals use it in more creative ways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Therapeutic Effects of Camel Milk: A Systematic Review of Animal and Human Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihic, Tamara; Rainkie, Daniel; Wilby, Kyle John; Pawluk, Shane Ashley

    2016-10-01

    The clinical effectiveness and value of camel milk as a therapeutic agent is currently unclear. MEDLINE (1946 to March 2016), EMBASE (1974 to March 2016), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms: milk, bodily secretions, camels, camelus, camelini, camelidae, dromedary, bactrian camel, body fluid, and bodily secretions. Articles identified were reviewed if the study was investigating the use of camel milk for the potential treatment of diseases affecting humans. Of 430 studies, 24 were included after assessment. Identified studies highlighted treatment with camel milk of diseases, including diabetes, autism, cancer, various infections, heavy metal toxicity, colitis, and alcohol-induced toxicity. Although most studies using both the human and animal model do show a clinical benefit with an intervention and camel milk, limitations of these studies must be taken into consideration before widespread use. Based on the evidence, camel milk should not replace standard therapies for any indication in humans. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Therapeutic effects of hyaluronidase on acquired lymphedema using a newly developed mouse limb model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kangsan; Cho, Sungrae; Park, Jae-hyun; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Won-Ki; Kim, Seok-ki; Park, Kyewon; Kang, Hee; Ku, Jin-mo; Yeom, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Kyunghoon

    2017-01-01

    Acquired lymphedema is one of the most dreaded side effects of cancer treatment, such as surgical treatment or irradiation. However, due to the lack of appropriate animal models, there is no effective therapeutic method to cure acquired lymphedema. To develop a reproducible acquired lymphedema animal model, we devised a mouse hind limb model by removing a superficial inguinal lymph node, a popliteal lymph node, a deep inguinal lymph node, and the femoral lymphatic vessel. We measured the volume of lymphedematous leg and observed the change in level of hyaluronic acid (HA) and lymphangiogenic factors after injecting hyaluronidase. Our model showed the distinguishable swelling and the reliable symptoms compared to previously reported models. In the lymphedematous regions of our model, we confirmed that HA, a major component of extracellular matrix, accumulated to higher levels than in a normal mouse. This lymphedema volume was rapidly reduced by treating hyaluronidase. Following hyaluronidase injection, the lymphedematous region of our model resembled a normal hind limb. Our findings indicated that hyaluronidase promoted lymphangiogenesis on the lymphedematous limb. Based on hyaluronidase treatment in the lymphedematous region, this could potentially be a new therapeutic approach for acquired lymphedema mediated through the modification of the size of HA fragments. Impact statement In this manuscript, the essence of the work described in this manuscript involves the development of (1) a mouse limb model showing acquired lymphedema and (2) a potent therapeutic treatment using hyaluronidase to remedy acquired lymphedema in our model. In order to develop a reproducible acquired lymphedema animal model that reflects the most common symptoms experienced by lymphedema patients, we devised a mouse hind limb model by removing lymph nodes and lymphatics. Our model showed the distinguishable swelling and the reliable symptoms compared to previously reported models. In the

  16. Design, Mechanism of Action, Bioavailability and Therapeutic Effects of Mn Porphyrin-based Redox Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Sheng, Huaxin; Weitner, Tin; Arulpragasam, Amanda; Lu, Miaomiao; Warner, David S.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Spasojevic, Ivan; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2013-01-01

    Based on aqueous redox chemistry and simple in vivo models of oxidative stress, Escherichia coli and Streptomyces cerevisiae, the cationic Mn(III) N-substituted pyridylporphyrins (MnPs) have been identified as the most potent cellular redox modulators within the porphyrin class of drugs; their efficacy in animal models of diseases that have oxidative stress in common, is based on their high ability to catalytically remove superoxide (O2•−), peroxynitrite, carbonate anion radical (CO3•−), hypochlorous acid (HClO), nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxyl and alkoxyl radicals, thus suppressing the primary oxidative event. While doing so MnPs could couple with cellular reductants and redox-active proteins. Reactive species are widely accepted as regulators of cellular transcriptional activity: minute, nanomolar levels are essential for normal cell function, while submicromolar or micromolar levels impose oxidative stress, which is evidenced in increased inflammatory and immune responses. By removing reactive species, MnPs affect redox-based cellular transcriptional activity and consequently secondary oxidative stress, and in turn inflammatory processes. The equal ability to reduce and oxidize superoxide during the dismutation process and recently accumulated results suggest that pro-oxidative actions of MnPs may also contribute to their therapeutic effects. All our data identify the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity (estimated by log kca(O2•−) as a good measure for the therapeutic efficacy of MnPs. Their accumulation in mitochondria and their ability to cross the blood brain barrier contribute to their remarkable efficacy. We summarize herein the therapeutic effects of MnPs in cancer, central nervous system injuries, diabetes, their radioprotective action and potential for imaging. Few of the most potent modulators of cellular redox-based pathways, MnTE-2-PyP5+, MnTDE-2-ImP5+, MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ are under preclinical and clinical

  17. An evaluative study of the short-term effects of oncedaily, sustained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine the effects of once-daily, sustainedrelease theophylline on sleep patterns in nocturnal asthmatics. Design. Double-blind, randomised, cross-over, placebocontrolled trial over 22 days. Seven-day period to establish therapeutic levels of theophylline (11.8 ± 3 mg/I); a-day cross-over period of 4 days' placebo or ...

  18. Potential effects of gamma irradiation on the stability and therapeutic activity of anticancer drug, doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmah M. Alshammari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer therapy has progressed dramatically in recent years. In order to decrease the dose and side effects of the anticancer drug, the therapeutic options for patients with cancer include increasingly complex combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This combination may cause overlapping interaction between the two types of treatment and affect the stability of the anticancer drug. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the stability and therapeutic activity of one anticancer drug (Doxorubicin was studied. For this purpose, doxorubicin drug characterized by two methods, at first, in-vitro study, before and after drug irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (2, 5, 20, 100 GY which achieved through measuring the dielectric relaxation and absorption spectrum of drug solution. Secondly, in-vivo studies, where the unirradiated and the drug, which later exposed to gamma rays, were injected respectively into 6 groups of mice (3 mice in each group. The dielectric relaxation and absorption spectrum were studded for hemoglobin of the injected mice. The results for the in-vitro study indicate that the values of dielectric parameters show unnoticeable change for drug molecules before and after irradiation as compared with the control. The results for in-vivo study indicated an increase in the values of relaxation time and Cole- Cole parameter, that may as a result of changes in the conformational structure in hemoglobin molecules which may affect their properties and hence RBC's physiological functions. The absorption spectra of hemoglobin molecules show an increase in the amplitude of the characteristic bands with irradiation dose indicate an increase of the oxygen binding capacity with hemoglobin. It was concluded that combination between the drugs and gamma irradiation can be used as a powerful conjunction that may give us the benefit chemo and radiotherapy treatment.

  19. Therapeutic effect of microcurrent therapy in infants with congenital muscular torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Young; Kwon, Dong Rak; Lee, Hak Il

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether microcurrent therapy is therapeutically effective in infants with torticollis. Prospective, unblinded, controlled trial. Bundang CHA Hospital. Fifteen infants were included in this study who received torticollis treatment from April to July 2008. The control group (CG) included 8 infants (3 male, 5 female) with a mean age of 7.1 months. The experimental group (EG) included 7 infants (6 male, one female) with a mean age of 10 months. The CG underwent stretching exercises for 30 minutes after ultrasound therapy and the EG underwent stretching exercises for 2 minutes after microcurrent therapy for 30 minutes. Each group received 3 treatments per week for 2 consecutive weeks. Measurements included head tilting angle at supine (TA) and neck rotation range of motion to the affected side (RR) at the first day and the 14th day of treatment. The incidence of crying during therapy also was recorded. The results were assessed by Mann-Whitney U and the Fisher exact tests. In the CG, 4 infants showed TA improvement, one infant showed RR improvement, and 8 infants cried during therapy. In the EG, 6 infants showed TA improvement, 5 infants showed RR improvement, and 3 infants cried during therapy. In the CG, mean TA was 16.3 +/- 9.2 degrees at the first day and 13.9 +/- 8.2 degrees at the 14th day of treatment. In the EG, mean TA was 15.7 +/- 8.2 degrees at the first day and 6.7 +/- 4.3 degrees at the 14th day of treatment. TA improvement was greater in the EG (P Microcurrent therapy in infants with torticollis appears more effective in improving TA and RR and shows better therapeutic compliance than traditional therapy.

  20. Clinical therapeutic effect of surgery on 
upper cervical spinal cord tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Zou, Mingxiang; Liu, Congcong; Deng, Youwen

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the long-term clinical therapeutic effect of polyaxial screw-rod system for posterior cervical arthrodesis on patients with upper cervical spinal cord tumors.
 From March 2007 to May 2013, 22 patients with upper cervical spinal cord tumors underwent tumor resection and posterior cervical arthrodesis in our institution. The medical records of these patients were reviewed respectively. There were 10 males and 12 females with ages ranging from 16 to 60 years old. Posterior cervical arthrodesis by polyaxial screw-rod was performed at the upper cervical spine (C1-3). All patients were followed-up clinically and radiographically.
 The average follow-up was 65.5 months. Twenty-two patients were enrolled and a total of 114 screws were placed in this study. Histopathology revealed neurinoma, meningioma, ganglioneuroma and ganglioglioma in 16, 3, 1 and 1 case (s), respectively. The mixed tumor with component of ganglioneuroma and neurinoma was observed in 1 case. All patients received tumor resection and posterior athrodesis by polyaxial screw-rod system. Cervical kyphosis was encountered in one patient and this patient suffered the recurrence of tumor. Solid fusion was achieved in all patients. The average postoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score was 13.9 and the average recovery rate was 51.4%. Neurologic deterioration was found in 2 patients. No complications, such as spinal cord or vertebral artery injury, postoperative radiculopathy or instrumentation failure, were observed.
 The long-term clinical therapeutic effects of posterior cervical arthrodesis using polyaxial screw-rod system on upper cervical spinal cord tumors are satisfactory, with no severe complication.

  1. [Long-term therapeutic effects of whole lung lavage in the management of silicosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-ming; Zhang, Hai-tao; Wang, Cai-ying; Wang, Wei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Chun

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the long-term therapeutic effect of whole lung lavage (WLL) in the treatment of silicosis. A total of 70 patients with silicosis were randomly and equally divided into WLL group and control group based on chest X-ray, silicosis staging, age, and working age of dust exposure. Comparative analysis was performed to evaluate the long-term therapeutic effect of WLL. Moreover, 157 patients with silicosis treated by WLL were subject to long-term follow-up. Two years after treatment, the cough, expectoration, and asthma improvement rates of the WLL group were 62.5% , 75.0% , and 81.8%, respectively, significantly higher than those (24.0%, 23.8%, and 26.3%) of the control group (P 0.05), while the control group showed significant decrease in FVC and FEV1 after treatment (P 0.05). 22 cases of accelerated silicosis in the WLL group had significantly higher no change rate than the control group with respect to chest X-ray (75.0% vs. 30.0%; 58.3% vs. 20.0%). The WLL group had lower progression rate (2 years of treatment) and significant progression rate (4 years after treatment) than the control group (16.7% vs. 50.0%, P silicosis stage was, the less FVC decreased. Follow-up of 108 cases treated by WLL showed that the lower silicosis stage was, the higher no change rate was, according to the chest X-ray findings 2 ∼ 3, 4 ∼ 5, and 6 ∼ 7 years after treatment and that there were significant differences in no change rate between stages II and III silicosis groups and stages 0+ and I silicosis groups (P silicosis, especially for early silicosis and accelerated silicosis. However, WLL should be used cautiously in the treatment of advanced silicosis.

  2. [Therapeutic effects of the Feldenkrais method "awareness through movement" in patients with eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumer, U; Bauer, M; Fichter, M; Milz, H

    1997-05-01

    Based on the movement-pedagogical concept of Feldenkrais and the findings-of disturbed body perception by eating disordered patients this research aimed at studying the therapeutical effects of the Feldenkrais Method "Awareness through Movement" with eating disorder patients, 15 eating disordered patients treated at the Roseneck hospital for behavioural medicine rated-by means of a questionnaire consisting of scales of the Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale (BPSS), the questionnaire for body perception (Fragebogen zum Körpererleben; FKE), the Emotion inventory (Emotionalitätsinventar; EMI-B), the Anorexia-Nervosa-Inventory for Self-rating (ANIS) and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI)-various aspects of their eating disorder before and after participating in a nine hour course of the Feldenkrais Method. The data of these patients were compared to those of the members of a control group, also consisting of 15 eating disordered patients who did not participate in a Feldenkrais course. The participants of the Feldenkrais-course showed increasing contentment with regard to problematic zones of their body and their own health as well as concerning acceptance and familiarity with their own body. Other results were a more spontaneous, open and self-confident behaviour, the decrease of feelings of helplessness and decrease of the wish to return to the security of the early childhood, which indicates the development of felt sense of self, self-confidence and a general process of maturation of the whole personality. The outcome points to the therapeutical effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method with eating-disorder patients within a multimodal treatment program.

  3. Therapeutic effects of dichloromethane fraction of Securidaca inappendiculata on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jian; Xia, Yan; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jian-wei

    2014-04-28

    Securidaca inappendiculata (SI) is a traditional antirheumatic medicine used in China. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of dichloromethane fraction of SI (SID) at three different doses on adjuvant induced arthritis (AA) rats. Arthritis severity was evaluated by arthritic score, body weight loss, paw circumference, histological changes and hyperplasia of lymphatic tissues. Serum samples were collected for estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), hydroxy radical (OH·), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAG), sialic acid (SA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The levels of GSH, MDA, NAG and SA in liver were also assessed. The levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined using ELISA method. Another portion of blood was used for total and differential leucocyte counts. Administration with SID (at high dose with 100 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated the AA severity, suggested by the modulatory effects on body weight loss, paw swelling, hyperplasia of lymphatic tissues and synovial membrane, neutrocytosis and lymphocytosis. It also decreased levels of NO, MDA and OH·, restored SOD and GSH levels in serum. The abnormal increased levels of AST, ALT, ALP, NAG and SA significantly were reverted (compared with AA rats, P<0.01). A similar result was observed in livers. Levels of IL-1, TNF-α, MCP-1 and VEGF were reduced dramatically by SID too. The results suggest SID possesses substantial anti-arthritic activity. The therapeutic efficacy may be due to immumodepressive effects, cytokines regulation, increasing membrane stability and antioxidantive activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A pilot study into the therapeutic effects of music therapy at a cancer help center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S J; Harbuz, M S; Hucklebridge, F; Bunt, L

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, music therapy has been a regular feature of the residential program at the internationally renowned Bristol Cancer Help Centre, United Kingdom. Music therapy complements other therapeutic interventions available to residents at the center. To compare the therapeutic effects of listening to music in a relaxed state with the active involvement of music improvisation (the playing of tuned and untuned percussion instruments) in a music therapy group setting and to investigate the potential influence of music therapy on positive emotions and the immune system of cancer patients. A quantitative pre-posttest, psychological/physiological measures, and qualitative focus group design. A cancer help center that offers a fully integrated range of complementary therapies, psychological support, spiritual healing, and nutritional and self-help techniques addressing the physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual needs of cancer patients and their supporters. Twenty-nine cancer patients, aged 21 to 68 years. Group music therapy interventions of listening to recorded/live music in a relaxed state and improvisation. Increased well-being and relaxation and less tension during the listening experience. Increased well-being and energy and less tension during improvisation. Increased levels of salivary immunoglobulin A and decreased levels of cortisol in both experiences. Psychological data showed increased well-being and relaxation as well as altered energy levels in both interventions. Physiological data showed increased salivary immunoglobulin A in the listening experience and a decrease in cortisol levels in both interventions over a 2-day period. Preliminary evidence of a link between positive emotions and the immune system of cancer patients was found. These findings, which link listening to music in a relaxed state and improvisation to alterations in psychological and physiological parameters, may provide a better understanding of the effectiveness of music

  5. Subunit Vaccines Consisting of Antigens from Dormant and Replicating Bacteria Show Promising Therapeutic Effect against Mycobacterium Bovis BCG Latent Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F; Kang, H; Li, J; Zhang, D; Zhang, Y; Dannenberg, A M; Liu, X; Niu, H; Ma, L; Tang, R; Han, X; Gan, C; Ma, X; Tan, J; Zhu, B

    2017-06-01

    To screen effective antigens as therapeutic subunit vaccines against Mycobacterium latent infection, we did bioinformatics analysis and literature review to identify effective antigens and evaluated the immunogenicity of five antigens highly expressed in dormant bacteria, which included Rv2031c (HspX), Rv2626c (Hrp1), Rv2007c (FdxA), Rv1738 and Rv3130c. Then, several fusion proteins such as Rv2007c-Rv2626c (F6), Rv2031c-Rv1738-Rv1733c (H83), ESAT6-Rv1738-Rv2626c (LT40), ESAT6-Ag85B-MPT64 -Mtb8.4 (EAMM), and EAMM-Rv2626c (LT70) were constructed and their therapeutic effects were evaluated in pulmonary Mycobacterium bovis Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) - latently infected rabbit or mouse models. The results showed that EAMM and F6 plus H83 had therapeutic effect against BCG latent infection in the rabbit model, respectively, and that the combination of EAMM with F6 plus H83 significantly reduced the bacterial load. In addition, the fusion proteins LT40 and LT70 consisting of multistage antigens showed promising therapeutic effects in the mouse model. We conclude that subunit vaccines consisting of both latency and replicating-associated antigens show promising therapeutic effects in BCG latent infection animal models. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  6. Effect of the Microenvironment on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Paracrine Signaling: Opportunities to Engineer the Therapeutic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Gina D; Carthew, James; Lim, Rebecca; Frith, Jessica E

    2017-05-01

    Cues from the extracellular environment, including physical stimuli, are well known to affect mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) properties in terms of proliferation and differentiation. Many therapeutic strategies are now targeting this knowledge to increase the efficacy of cell therapies, typically employed to repair tissue functions in the event of injury, either by direct engraftment into the target tissue or differentiation into mature tissues. However, it is now envisioned that harnessing the repertoire of factors secreted by MSCs (termed the secretome) may provide an alternate to these cell therapies. Of current interest are both direct protein secretions and two major subpopulations of bioactive extracellular vesicles (EVs), namely exosomes and microvesicles. EVs released by MSCs are reflective of their cells of origin, able to impact upon the activities of other cells in the local microenvironment, making the rational design of MSC paracrine activities an encouraging strategy to reproducibly modulate cell therapies. The precise mechanisms by which the secretome is modulated by the microenvironment, however, remain elusive. Controlling MSC growth conditions with oxygen tension, growth factor composition, and mechanical properties may serve to directly influence paracrine activity. Our growing understanding implicates components of the mechanotransduction machinery in translating both mechanical and chemical cues from the environment into alterations in gene regulation and varied paracrine activity. As technologies are developed to manufacture MSCs, advances in bioengineering and novel insight of how the extracellular environment affects MSC paracrine activity will play a pivotal role in the generation of widespread, successful, clinical MSC therapies.

  7. Assessing Capacity for Sustainability of Effective Programs and Policies in Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Duggan, Katie; Smith, Carson; Aisaka, Kristelle; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability has been defined as the existence of structures and processes that allow a program to leverage resources to effectively implement and maintain evidence-based public health and is important in local health departments (LHDs) to retain the benefits of effective programs. Explore the applicability of the Program Sustainability Framework in high- and low-capacity LHDs as defined by national performance standards. Case study interviews from June to July 2013. Standard qualitative methodology was used to code transcripts; codes were developed inductively and deductively. Six geographically diverse LHD's (selected from 3 of high and 3 of low capacity) : 35 LHD practitioners. Thematic reports explored the 8 domains (Organizational Capacity, Program Adaptation, Program Evaluation, Communications, Strategic Planning, Funding Stability, Environmental Support, and Partnerships) of the Program Sustainability Framework. High-capacity LHDs described having environmental support, while low-capacity LHDs reported this was lacking. Both high- and low-capacity LHDs described limited funding; however, high-capacity LHDs reported greater funding flexibility. Partnerships were important to high- and low-capacity LHDs, and both described building partnerships to sustain programming. Regarding organizational capacity, high-capacity LHDs reported better access to and support for adequate staff and staff training when compared with low-capacity LHDs. While high-capacity LHDs described integration of program evaluation into implementation and sustainability, low-capacity LHDs reported limited capacity for measurement specifically and evaluation generally. When high-capacity LHDs described program adoption, they discussed an opportunity to adapt and evaluate. Low-capacity LHDs struggled with programs requiring adaptation. High-capacity LHDs described higher quality communication than low-capacity LHDs. High- and low-capacity LHDs described strategic planning, but high

  8. Family physicians believe the placebo effect is therapeutic but often use real drugs as placebos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermen, Rachel; Hickner, John; Brody, Howard; Hasham, Irma

    2010-10-01

    Few national data exist on physicians' use of and beliefs about placebos in routine health care. We mailed a 22-question, confidential survey about placebo use and beliefs to a random sample of 1,000 members of the American Academy of Family Physicians. A total of 412 of 970 (43%) eligible physicians responded, and 56% of respondents said they had used a placebo in clinical practice. Forty percent of respondents had used an antibiotic as a placebo, and 11% had used inert substances. The most common reason for prescribing placebos was "after unjustified demand for medication." Eighty-five percent of respondents believed placebos can have both psychological and physical benefits. The majority (61%) recommended a placebo over offering no treatment, while 8% said clinical placebo use should be categorically prohibited. Nearly all respondents believed a number of routine clinical practices promote the placebo effect. Many US family physicians use placebos and generally believe the placebo effect has both psychological and physical benefits. Physicians recognize the broader application of the placebo effect but they commonly use active medication as placebos. The responses to this survey raise important questions about the appropriate use of placebos and the therapeutic value of the placebo effect in clinical practice.

  9. Effect of bovine lactoferrin in a therapeutic hamster model of hepatic amoebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz-Pichardo, Cynthia; León-Sicairos, Nidia; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica Ivonne; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; de la Garza, Mireya

    2012-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebiasis, a disease that produces dysentery as a result of the perforation of the large intestine. This parasite often invades other organs, primarily the liver, leading to an amoebic liver abscess (ALA), which can cause death. Metronidazole is the drug of choice for the treatment of ALA; however, it produces toxic side effects in patients. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a glycoprotein of the innate immune response that sequesters iron in the mucosae. Lf possesses immune-regulatory properties, such as antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the microbicidal activity of apoLf, which lacks bound iron, has been shown. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of bovine Lf (bLf) against ALA in a model of hepatic amoebiasis in hamsters. Interestingly, hamsters treated intragastrically with Lf (2.5 mg/100 g mass) over a period of 8 days showed no clinical signs of disease and ALA was effectively decreased, with only 0.63% detectable lesion, compared with 63% in untreated animals. Furthermore, liver function and blood cells approached normal levels among those receiving bLf treatment. These results suggest that bLf may aid in the therapy of amoebiasis, likely without producing undesirable effects in patients.

  10. The effects of asset securitization on sustainability & profitability of microfinance institutions in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Quacoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Asset Securitization is a process that involves repackaging portfolios of cash-flow-producing financial instruments into securities or tradable capital market instruments for transfer to investors. There have been a number of studies on asset securitization and microfinance but most of these studies did not focus on the effects of asset securitization on sustainability and profitability of microfinance institutions. These studies were conducted in developed economies and little has been done in Africa and for that matter Ghana. This study therefore sought to explore the effects of asset securitization on sustainability and profitability of MFIs in Ghana knowing the important role they play in the Ghanaian economy. The objectives were to determine whether asset securitization is being practiced in Ghana, to determine whether asset securitization will improve the sustainability and profitability of microfinance institutions (MFI’s as well as challenges that may arise. As a qualitative research, the case study approach was employed in the research design. Questionnaires were administered to a sample size of 200 respondents from a population of 517 who were drawn from the management and staff of five microfinance companies selected through convenience and purposeful sampling techniques. The findings are that asset securitization in microfinance is currently not being practiced in Ghana but if implemented, it will have a positive effect on the sustainability and profitability of microfinance companies in Ghana. The study identified some challenges that microfinance institutions may face in the introduction of asset securitization in Ghana.

  11. Immediate and Sustained Effects of 5-Day Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Motor Cortex in Phantom Limb Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Nadia; Spandri, Viviana; Ferraro, Francesco; Salmaggi, Andrea; Molinari, Alessandro C L; Fregni, Felipe; Maravita, Angelo

    2015-07-01

    The study explored the analgesic effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex on postamputation phantom limb pain (PLP). Eight subjects with unilateral lower or upper limb amputation and chronic PLP were enrolled in a crossover, double-blind, sham-controlled treatment program. For 5 consecutive days, anodal (active or sham) tDCS was applied over the motor cortex for 15 minutes at an intensity of 1.5 mA. The 5-day treatment with active, but not sham, tDCS induced a sustained decrease in background PLP and in the frequency of PLP paroxysms, which lasted for 1 week after the end of treatment. Moreover, on each day of active tDCS, patients reported an immediate PLP relief, along with an increased ability to move their phantom limb. Patients' immediate responses to sham tDCS, on the contrary, were variable, marked by an increase or decrease of PLP levels from baseline. These results show that a 5-day treatment of motor cortex stimulation with tDCS can induce stable relief from PLP in amputees. Neuromodulation targeting the motor cortex appears to be a promising option for the management of this debilitating neuropathic pain condition, which is often refractory to classic pharmacologic and surgical treatments. The study describes sustained and immediate effects of motor cortex stimulation by tDCS on postamputation PLP, whose analgesic action seems linked to the motor reactivation of the phantom limb. These results are helpful for the exploitation of tDCS as a therapeutic tool for the management of neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effects of Environmental and Social Dimensions of Sustainability in Response to the Economic Crisis of European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Nevado-Peña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development, which has emerged over the last few decades, has moved away from the global to the local level. The sustainability measurements at the global level use the triple bottom line, considering environmental, economic and social dimensions; however, the limited data available at the local level has driven what little research there is to use these optics when considering cities sustainability. In this paper, we use a sustainability city index based on the intellectual capital approach, which considers the three dimensions for European cities. Concretely, we use the environmental and social dimensions of this city index to analyze the effect of different levels of development in terms of sustainability over the main economic variables with available information. The results highlight the importance of the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability in cities economic recovery and show that cities with best positions in sustainability have better performance in economic terms.

  13. Differential Effects of Interventions on the Therapeutic Alliance With Patients With Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Michael; Banon, Elisabeth; Grenier, Marcella

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between clearly defined therapist interventions and the therapeutic alliance with personality-disordered patients. Transcripts of one psychotherapy session for each of 5 subjects taking part in a long-term psychotherapy research project were rated for therapist interventions and therapeutic alliance to determine if specific interventions were followed by enhanced or diminished therapeutic work. Transference interpretations were followed b...

  14. A Systematic Review of the Effect of Therapists' Internalized Models of Relationships on the Quality of the Therapeutic Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Catherine; Macdonald, James; Schroder, Thomas

    2017-05-15

    Previous reviews have found equivocal evidence of an association between therapists' internalized relational models and the therapeutic relationship and have neglected empirical literature based on Sullivan's notion of introject. This review expanded upon previous reviews to examine the effect of therapist internalized relational models on a broader conceptualization of the therapeutic relationship. Systematic search processes identified 22 papers measuring therapist attachment and/or introject and therapeutic relationship: 19 on therapist attachment, 5 on introject with 2 overlapping. Overall, despite heterogeneity in design and variable methodological quality, evidence suggests that therapist attachment affects therapeutic relationship quality, observed in client-rated evaluation, therapist negative countertransference, empathy, and problems in therapy. Interaction effects between client and therapist attachment style were also found. Evidence suggesting that therapist introject also affects therapeutic relationship quality, including therapists' manner and feelings toward their clients, was stronger. Evidence clearly shows that therapists' internalized relational models affect the therapeutic relationship. More research is necessary to clarify exactly how therapist and client internalized relational models interact and translate these findings into clinical practice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Lipoic Acid on Memory Deficits Related to Aging and Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Molz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aging process comprises a series of organic alterations, affecting multiple systems, including the nervous system. Aging has been considered the main risk factor for the advance of neurodegenerative diseases, many of which are accompanied by cognitive impairment. Aged individuals show cognitive decline, which has been associated with oxidative stress, as well as mitochondrial, and consequently energetic failure. Lipoic acid (LA, a natural compound present in food and used as a dietary supplement, has been considered a promising agent for the treatment and/or prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. In spite of a number of preclinical studies showing beneficial effects of LA in memory functioning, and pointing to its neuroprotective potential effect, to date only a few studies have examined its effects in humans. Investigations performed in animal models of memory loss associated to aging and neurodegenerative disorders have shown that LA improves memory in a variety of behavioral paradigms. Moreover, cell and molecular mechanisms underlying LA effects have also been investigated. Accordingly, LA displays antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory properties in both in vivo and in vitro studies. In addition, it has been shown that LA reverses age-associated loss of neurotransmitters and their receptors, which can underlie its effects on cognitive functions. The present review article aimed at summarizing and discussing the main studies investigating the effects of LA on cognition as well as its cell and molecular effects, in order to improve the understanding of the therapeutic potential of LA on memory loss during aging and in patients suffering from neurodegenerative disorders, supporting the development of clinical trials with LA.

  16. 32-Phosphorus selectively delivered by listeria to pancreatic cancer demonstrates a strong therapeutic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Dinesh; Selvanesan, Benson Chellakkan; Yuan, Ziqiang; Libutti, Steven K; Koba, Wade; Beck, Amanda; Zhu, Kun; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Gravekamp, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Our laboratory has developed a novel delivery platform using an attenuated non-toxic and non-pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes that infects tumor cells and selectively survives and multiplies in metastases and primary tumors with help of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME). 32P was efficiently incorporated into the Listeria bacteria by starvation of the bacteria in saline, and then cultured in phosphorus-free medium complemented with 32P as a nutrient. Listeria-32P kills tumor cells through both 32P-induced ionizing radiation and Listeria-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). The levels of 32P and Listeria were studied in various normal and tumor tissues, at sequential time points after injection of mice with pancreatic cancer (syngeneic model Panc-02). We found that 32P and Listeria predominantly accumulated in tumors and metastases, with their highest accumulation 4 hrs (32P) and 3 days (Listeria) after injection. Listeria also penetrated the transgenic KPC (conditionally express endogenous Kras-G12D and p53-R172H mutant alleles) pancreatic tumors and metastases. This is remarkable since KPC tumors, like human tumors, exhibit a stromal barrier, which prevents most drugs from penetrating the pancreatic tumors. Therapeutic treatment with Listeria -32P resulted in a strong reduction of the growth of pancreatic cancer at early and late stages in Panc-02 and KPC mice. These results highlight the power of Listeria as new delivery platform of anticancer agents to the TME. Not only were therapeutic levels of radioactive Listeria reached in tumors and metastases but the selective delivery also led to minimal side effects. PMID:28186976

  17. Stem cells in degenerative orthopaedic pathologies: effects of aging on therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc; Fu, Freddie H; Sekiya, Ichiro; Stolzing, Alexandra; Ochi, Mitsuo; Rodeo, Scott A

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the current evidence on the use of stem cells in the elderly population with degenerative orthopaedic pathologies and to highlight the pathophysiologic mechanisms behind today's therapeutic challenges in stem cell-based regeneration of destructed tissues in the elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA), degenerative disc disease (DDD), and tendinopathies. Clinical and basic science studies that report the use of stem cells in the elderly patients with OA, DDD, and tendinopathies were identified using a PubMed search. The studies published in English have been assessed, and the best and most recent evidence was included in the current study. Evidence suggests that, although short-term results regarding the effects of stem cell therapy in degenerative orthopaedic pathologies can be promising, stem cell therapies do not appear to reverse age-related tissue degeneration. Causes of suboptimal outcomes can be attributed to the decrease in the therapeutic potential of aged stem cell populations and the regenerative capacity of these cells, which might be negatively influenced in an aged microenvironment within the degenerated tissues of elderly patients with OA, DDD, and tendinopathies. Clinical protocols guiding the use of stem cells in the elderly patient population are still under development, and high-level randomized controlled trials with long-term outcomes are lacking. Understanding the consequences of age-related changes in stem cell function and responsiveness of the in vivo microenvironment to stem cells is critical when designing cell-based therapies for elderly patients with degenerative orthopaedic pathologies.

  18. The effect of environmental and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics on nitrate reduction rates in river sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chen; Dinh, Quoc Tuc; Chevreuil, Marc; Garnier, Josette; Roose-Amsaleg, Céline; Labadie, Pierre; Laverman, Anniet M

    2013-07-01

    The use of antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine has led to increased presence of these compounds and antibiotic resistance in the environment. In this study, the effect of low, environmentally relevant (mg L(-1)) concentrations of vancomycin (VA), flumequine (FLU), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on nitrate reduction rates was studied in river sediments. Nitrate reduction rates were determined by supplying intact sediments for several weeks with both nitrate and antibiotics (ng L(-1), μg L(-1), and mg L(-1) concentrations), including a non-amended control. Furthermore the concentrations of the three investigated antibiotics were measured in the initial (natural) sediments and the sediments supplied with the antibiotics. The antibiotic concentrations in the sediments decreased (on average 62% for FLU and 93% for SMX) during the experiments, indicating loss of antibiotics due to sorption or (bio) degradation. Nitrate reduction rates were not affected by environmental concentrations of VA, FLU and SMX. FLU and SMX only partially inhibited nitrate reduction rates at high, therapeutic concentrations by 41 and 39% respectively. The three tested antibiotics significantly enhanced the production of nitrite, an intermediate in dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Nitrite production increased 1.9 and 1.4 fold for environmental VA concentrations (107 and 187 μg L(-1) respectively), application of 58 mg L(-1) SMX resulted in a 7.5 fold increase and augmented 16 and 8.5 fold in the presence of respectively 13 μg L(-1) and 52 mg L(-1) FLU. Even though inhibition of nitrate reduction rates was observed at therapeutic antibiotic concentrations, nitrate reduction proceeded under all experimental conditions, indicating the presence of resistance toward these antibiotics among the nitrate reducing bacteria. The accumulation of nitrite suggests that the nitrite reduction step was more affected than the overall nitrate reduction process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. The Effect of Therapeutic Touch on Pain and Fatigue of Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghabati, Nahid; Pour Esmaiel, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    Despite major advances in pain management, cancer pain is managed poorly in 80% of the patients with cancer. Due to deleterious side effects of pharmacology therapy in these people, there is an urgent need for clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions. To examine the effect of therapeutic touch (TT) on the pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, a randomized and three-groups experimental study—experimental (TT), placebo (placebo TT), and control (usual care)—was carried out. Ninety patients undergoing chemotherapy, exhibiting pain and fatigue of cancer, were randomized into one of the three groups in the Cancer Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Pain and fatigue were measured and recorded by participants before and after the intervention for 5 days (once a day). The intervention consisted of 30 min TT given once a day for 5 days between 10:00 a.m. and 10:30 a.m. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain and the Rhoten Fatigue Scale (RFS) were completed for 5 days before and after the intervention by the subjects. The TT (significant) was more effective in decreasing pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy than the usual care group, while the placebo group indicated a decreasing trend in pain and fatigue scores compared with the usual care group. PMID:18955319

  20. Therapeutic Effects of S-Petasin on Disease Models of Asthma and Peritonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Pil; Kang, Saeromi; Noh, Min-Soo; Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jung-Min; Chung, Hae Young; Je, Nam Kyung; Lee, Young-Geun; Choi, Young-Whan; Im, Dong-Soon

    2015-01-01

    To explore the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of extracts of Petasites genus, we studied the effects of s-petasin, a major sesquiterpene from Petasites formosanus (a butterbur species) on asthma and peritonitis models. In an ovalbumin-induced mouse asthma model, s-petasin significantly inhibited the accumulations of eosinophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar fluids. S-petasin inhibited the antigen-induced degranulation of β-hexosamidase but did not inhibit intracellular Ca2+ increase in RBL-2H3 mast cells. S-petasin inhibited the LPS induction of iNOS at the RNA and protein levels in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, s-petasin inhibited the production of NO (the product of iNOS) in a concentration-dependent manner in the macrophages. Furthermore, in an LPS-induced mouse model of peritonitis, s-petasin significantly inhibited the accumulation of polymorpho nuclear and mononuclear leukocytes in peritoneal cavity. This study shows that s-petasin in Petasites genus has therapeutic effects on allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as, asthma and peritonitis through degranulation inhibition in mast cells, suppression of iNOS induction and production of NO in macrophages, and suppression of inflammatory cell accumulation. PMID:25593643

  1. The Effect of Therapeutic Touch on Pain and Fatigue of Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Aghabati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite major advances in pain management, cancer pain is managed poorly in 80% of the patients with cancer. Due to deleterious side effects of pharmacology therapy in these people, there is an urgent need for clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions. To examine the effect of therapeutic touch (TT on the pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, a randomized and three-groups experimental study—experimental (TT, placebo (placebo TT, and control (usual care—was carried out. Ninety patients undergoing chemotherapy, exhibiting pain and fatigue of cancer, were randomized into one of the three groups in the Cancer Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Pain and fatigue were measured and recorded by participants before and after the intervention for 5 days (once a day. The intervention consisted of 30 min TT given once a day for 5 days between 10:00 a.m. and 10:30 a.m. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS of pain and the Rhoten Fatigue Scale (RFS were completed for 5 days before and after the intervention by the subjects. The TT (significant was more effective in decreasing pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy than the usual care group, while the placebo group indicated a decreasing trend in pain and fatigue scores compared with the usual care group.

  2. Therapeutic effect of curcumin on experimental colitis mediated by inhibiting CD8+CD11c+ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Han, Fei; Xu, Rong; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Cheng, Shao-Min; Huang, Min-Fang; Yue, Hai-Yang; Wang, Xin; Zou, Yong; Xu, Han-Lin; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2017-03-14

    To verify whether curcumin (Cur) can treat inflammatory bowel disease by regulating CD8+CD11c+ cells. We evaluated the suppressive effect of Cur on CD8+CD11c+ cells in spleen and Peyer's patches (PPs) in colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Mice with colitis were treated by 200 mg/kg Cur for 7 d. On day 8, the therapeutic effect of Cur was evaluated by visual assessment and histological examination, while co-stimulatory molecules of CD8+CD11c+ cells in the spleen and PPs were measured by flow cytometry. The levels of interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-γ and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in spleen and colonic mucosa were determined by ELISA. The disease activity index, colon weight, weight index of colon and histological score of experimental colitis were obviously decreased after Cur treatment, while the body weight and colon length recovered. After treatment with Cur, CD8+CD11c+ cells were decreased in the spleen and PPs, and the expression of major histocompatibility complex II, CD205, CD40, CD40L and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was inhibited. IL-10, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 levels were increased compared with those in mice with untreated colitis. Cur can effectively treat experimental colitis, which is realized by inhibiting CD8+CD11c+ cells.

  3. An investigation on therapeutic effect of zinc sulfate in patients with geographic tongue

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    Abdolsamadi H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Geographic tongue (GT is a relatively common lesion which is usually asymptomatic and found during routine examinations. Lesions may be single or multiple and frequently are confined to the dorsal surface and lateral borders of the tongue. Although the cause is unknown, zinc deficiency has been suggested as a possible etiologic factor. The purpose of the present study was to determine the therapeutic effect of zinc sulfate in patients with geographic tongue. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized double blind clinical trial performed on 40 cases. 20 patients in experimental group were given zinc sulfate and 20 patients in control group took placebo. Slides were taken at the first day and healing was recorded after 10 days. Data were analyzed using chi-square test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: In 16 cases of the experimental group and in 3 cases of the control group signs of healing were observed. Conclusion: Regarding the role of zinc in epithelial tissues health and development of filliform papillas and in spite of the positive effect of zinc sulfate in treatment of geographic tongue, further investigations concerning its effects on other mucosal conditions are recommended.

  4. [Observation on therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture under continuous traction for treatment of lumbar disc herniation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Yang, Ai-tang; Dai, Mei-tang; Fu, Qin-li

    2009-12-01

    To observe the clinical effect of electroacupuncture under continuous traction in prone position for treatment of lumbar disc herniation, to search a better clinical treatment for lumbar disc herniation. The patients were randomly divided into group A (42 cases), group B (39 cases) and group C (38 cases). The acupuncture methods of three groups were the same, Jiaji (EX B 2), Weizhong (BL 40) and Chengshan (BL 57) etc. were selected, and the electroacupuncture was applied as a basic treatment. Continuous traction in prone position and electroacupuncture treatment were used at the same time in group A, group B was treated with supine position traction first and then electroacupuncture treatment, while group C was treated with electroacupuncture only, the therapeutic effects were observed and compared. The effective rate of 95.2% in group A was superior to that of 79.5% in group B and 65.8% in group C (P traction in prone position is a better treatment for lumbar disc herniation.

  5. The therapeutic effect of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia in rats

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    Namdar Yousefvand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The glutamatergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. Administration of crocus sativus (Saffron or its constituent, crocin, facilitates the formation of memory. This research investigated the effect of crocin on antagonizing retrograde amnesia induced by ketamine, a glutamatergic receptor antagonist, in rats by shuttle box. Methods: Male Wistar rats were tested to measure their learning behavior in the passive avoidance task. All animals were trained by a 1 mA shock. The drugs were injected immediately after the training was successfully performed. The animals were tested 24h after training to measure Step Through Latency (STL. Results: On the test day, administration of ketamine (12 mg/kg, ip impaired the memory after training. Different doses of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip were injected 30 min after ketamine, but only 2 mg/kg crocin could improve retrograde amnesia and 5 and 10 mg/kg doses did not have any significant effect on retrograde amnesia. Moreover, administration of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip after training had no significant impact on passive avoidance memory by itself. Conclusion: Considering the therapeutic effect of post-training administration of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia, it can be argued that crocin has an interaction with glutamatergic system in formation of passive avoidance memory in rats.

  6. Therapeutic and adverse effects of flunixin-meglumine in adult and young cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kenji; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we elucidated the difference in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sensitivities between young and adult cats on therapeutic and adverse effects. In the prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using flunixin-meglumine, young (12 months old) cats of both sexes were given LPS (0.3 µg/kg, i.v.), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered 30 min before the LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pre-treatment with flunixin in both adult and young cats. In addition, flunixin showed almost the same antipyretic effects in both young and adult cats. The animals were administered flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days, and sacrificed 24 hr later to examine the gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. In adult cats, flunixin caused many severe lesions in the small intestine. In contrast, very few gastrointestinal lesions were produced by flunixin in young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of flunixin, plasma concentrations of flunixin were analysed using a high performance liquid chromatography. There were no significant differences in plasma concentration of flunixin between young and adult cats from 0.5 to 4 hr after the injection. These results demonstrated that NSAIDs could be used more safely in young than in adult cats from the points of gastrointestinal adverse effects. Furthermore, this difference in gastrointestinal lesions between adult and young cats was not related with the plasma concentration of flunixin.

  7. Breviscapine Injection Improves the Therapeutic Effect of Western Medicine on Angina Pectoris Patients.

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    Chuan Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of breviscapine injection in combination with Western medicine on the treatment of patients with angina pectoris. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Science Citation Index, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Wanfang Database, the Chongqing VIP Information Database and the China Biomedical Database were searched to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs that evaluated the effects of Western medicine compared to breviscapine injection plus Western medicine on angina pectoris patients. The included studies were analyzed using RevMan 5.1.0 software. The literature search yielded 460 studies, wherein 16 studies matched the selection criteria. The results showed that combined therapy using Breviscapine plus Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone for improving angina pectoris symptoms (OR=3.77, 95% Cl: 2.76~5.15 and also resulted in increased electrocardiogram (ECG improvement (OR=2.77, 95% Cl: 2.16~3.53. The current evidence suggests that Breviscapine plus Western medicine achieved a superior therapeutic effect compared to Western medicine alone.

  8. Insights Into the Therapeutic Effect of Responsive Neurostimulation Assessed With Scalp EEG Recording: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, Maria Jose; Issa, Naoum; Rose, Sandra; Warnke, Peter; Towle, Vernon L; Tao, James X; Wu, Shasha

    2017-10-10

    The responsive neurostimulation system (RNS) is the first closed-loop neurostimulator approved as an adjunctive treatment for adults with medically refractory focal epilepsy from no more than two seizure foci. In addition to its therapeutic effect, it provides chronic intracranial EEG recordings, with limited storage capacity. Long-term monitoring with scalp EEG recordings can provide additional information regarding seizure patterns, the efficacy of RNS stimulation in aborting individual seizures, and the net effect of RNS on seizure control. We present a 34-year-old woman with medically intractable right temporoparietal lobe epilepsy who failed two resective epilepsy surgeries and MR-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT), after which RNS was implanted. Long-term scalp EEG performed 16 months after implantation showed continuous right hemisphere slowing and right temporal sharp waves. In addition, RNS stimulation produced bursts of high-voltage, broad-field, surface-negative activity, which allowed correlation of RNS stimulation with scalp EEG patterns. Twenty-seven seizures were captured. Responsive neurostimulation system stimulation did not abort any of the seizures recorded on the scalp EEG. However, the frequency of seizures doubled after RNS stimulation was discontinued and returned to baseline once it was turned back on. This observation supports the neuromodulation effect of RNS.

  9. Plasma concentration of phenylbutazone and its therapeutic effect-studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, M; Holt, P J; Hughes, G R; Bulpitt, C J; Draffan, G H; Thorgeirsson, S S; Williams, F; Davies, D S

    1976-01-01

    1 Phenylbutazone in doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/day has been given for four periods of 3 weeks to seven patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The trial was double-blind and the order of administration of doses was arranged to eliminate order and carry-over effects. 2 Before the trial and at the end of each period, the patient's responses were assessed by measurement of the duration of morning stiffness, the pain score, paracetamol tablet count, grip strength, digital joint size and articular index. 3 The plasma phenybutazone concentration was measured by gas-liquid chromatography and was also predicted by prior measurement of the phenazone half-life. 4. Compared with the pretreatment period, phenylbutazone had a significant therapeutic effect, as judged by morning stiffness, pain score and articular index, in a dose of 50 mg/day, but no statistically significant differences in effect were seen between the various doses of phenylbutazone. 5 There were no significant coorelations between the plasma concentration of phenylbutazone and any of the clinical assessments. 6 The plasma phenylbutazone concentration agreed closely with that predicted at doses of 50 and 100 mg, but at higher doses the plasma concentration was significantly lower than predicted (P less than 0.05). This may have been due to saturation of the protein binding sites at these doses. PMID:788739

  10. Synergy of Raddeanin A and cisplatin induced therapeutic effect enhancement in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Nan; Yu, Ye; Zhang, Yan-Fei; Li, Zhi-Meng; Cai, Guang-Zhi; Gong, Ji-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Cisplatin is a main compound for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) chemotherapies, but it has certain cytotoxicity during applications. To release that, combining with other drugs are being as a regular plan in clinic. In our present study, we are focusing on one of active monomers extracted from Anemone Raddeana Regel, Raddeanin A (RA), which is on behalf of the same character like cisplatin in the tumor remedies. In order to investigate whether combination usage of RA and cisplatin can be priority to the later drug's effect development and its toxicity reduction in HCC, both of two drugs were treated 24 h or 48 h in QGY-7703 cells for estimating their abilities in tumor cell proliferation inhibition. Results show RA makes synergistic functions with cisplatin after measuring and analyzing their combination index (CI) values. Meanwhile it can strengthen cisplatin's effect through arresting the tumor cells in G0/G1 cycle and further promoting their apoptosis. Interestingly, the molecule signals correlated to tumor cell apoptosis containing both of p53 and bax are simultaneously activated, but bcl-2 and survivin are all depressed in mRNA level. Meanwhile, combining usage with RA can even raise the intracellular productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS). All these consequences reflect RA plays an important role in enhancing the therapeutic effect of cisplatin in HCC. This finding may guide for the drug usage of cisplatin in clinic practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of tumor therapeutic irradiation on the mechanical properties of teeth tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraenzel, W. [Dept. of Physics, Martin Luther Univ. Halle (Germany); Gerlach, R. [Univ. Clinic and Policlinic for Radiation Therapy, Martin Luther Univ. Halle (Germany); Hein, H.J. [Univ. Clinic and Policlinic for Orthopaedics and Physical Medicine, Martin Luther Univ. Halle (Germany); Schaller, H.G. [Dept. of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Martin Luther Univ. Halle (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Tumor irradiation of the head-neck area is accompanied by the development of a so-called radiation caries in the treated patients. In spite of conservative therapeutic measures, the process results in tooth destruction. The present study investigated the effects of irradiation on the demineralization and remineralization of the dental tissue. For this purpose, retained third molars were prepared and assigned either to a test group, which was exposed to fractional irradiation up to 60 Gy, or to a non-irradiated control group. Irradiated and non-irradiated teeth were then demineralized using acidic hydroxyl-cellulose gel; afterwards the teeth were remineralized using either Bifluorid12 {sup registered} or elmex gelee {sup registered}. The nanoindentation technique was used to measure the mechanical properties, hardness and elasticity, of the teeth in each of the conditions. The values were compared to the non-irradiated control group. Irradiation decreased dramatically the mechanical parameters of enamel and dentine. In non-irradiated teeth, demineralization had nearly the same effects of irradiation on the mechanical properties. In irradiated teeth, the effects of demineralization were negligible in comparison to non-irradiated teeth. Remineralization with Bifluorid12 {sup registered} or elmex gelee {sup registered} led to a partial improvement of the mechanical properties of the teeth. The enamel was more positively affected, by remineralization than the dentine. (orig.)

  12. Preparation of a Sustained-Release Nebulized Aerosol of R-terbutaline Hydrochloride Liposome and Evaluation of Its Anti-asthmatic Effects via Pulmonary Delivery in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingrui; Zhan, Shuyao; Liu, Qing; Su, Hao; Dai, Xi; Wang, Hai; Beng, Huimin; Tan, Wen

    2018-01-01

    An aerosolized liposome formulation for the pulmonary delivery of an anti-asthmatic medication was developed. Asthma treatment usually requires frequent administration of medication for a sustained bronchodilator response. Liposomes are known for their sustained drug release capability and thus would be a suitable delivery system for prolonging the therapeutic effect of anti-asthmatic medication. Liposomes prepared by thin film hydration were loaded with a model drug, R-terbutaline hydrochloride(R-TBH), using an ammonium sulfate-induced transmembrane electrochemical gradient. This technique provided an encapsulation efficiency of up to 71.35% and yielded R-TBH liposomes with a particle size of approximately 145 ± 20 nm. According to stability studies, these R-TBH liposomes should be stored at 4°C before usage. Compared to R-TBH solution, which showed 90.84% release within 8 h, liposomal R-TBH had a cumulative release of 73.53% at 37°C over 192 h. A next generation impactor (NGI) was used to analyze the particle size distribution in the lungs of R-TBH liposome aerosol in vitro at 5°C. The therapeutic efficacy of the nebulized aerosol of the R-TBH liposomes was assessed via pulmonary delivery in guinea pigs. The results showed that, compared to the R-TBH solution group, the R-TBH liposome group had a prolonged anti-asthma effect.

  13. The fourth scientific conference 'Higher education and effective business management - challenges of sustainable regional development'

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    Srećko R. Stopić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The First Scientific Conference 'Higher Education and effective business management- challenges of sustainable regional development' was held on 20-21 December, 2006, in Užice, Republic of Serbia. More than 90 papers were presented. The number of authors and coauthors was 150. The Second Scientific Conference 'Economy development and effective business management - challenges of sustainable regional development' - was held upon the initiative of the management of the High Business Technical School of Užice on the occasion of its 30th anniversary It was held on 21-22 January 2007, in Užice, Republic of Serbia. Eighty papers were presented at the Conference. The number of authors and coauthors was 140. After that, the management of the High Business Technical School of Užice decided, for the first time, to organize an International Conference. The first International Conference 'Science and Higher Education in Function of Sustainable Development'. SED 2008 was held on 17-18 September, 2008, in Užice, Serbia. Ninety papers were presented on the Conference. The number of authors and coauthors was 150. The second International Conference 'Science and Higher Education in Function of Sustainable Development'. SED 2009 was held on 14-15 September 2009, in Užice, Serbia. More than 80 papers were presented. The number of authors and co-authors exceeded 100.

  14. Therapeutic effects of uterine artery embolisation (UAE) and methotrexate (MTX) conservative therapy used in treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Li, Shuying; Ma, Zhe; Jia, Yanju

    2016-04-01

    Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a rare and severe complication after cesarean section. The incidence of CSP has been increased significantly in recent years. In this retrospective case study of 131 CSP patients, the therapeutic effects and prognosis were compared between the two treatment groups: uterine artery embolization and systemic methotrexate injection conservative therapy. In addition, the necessary of subsequent dilation and curettage as a further treatment was also evaluated. The 131 CSP patients were assigned into two groups receiving uterine artery embolization (UAE) or MTX conservative therapy. Based on patients' myometrial thickness and reducing degree of β-hCG level, each of the two treatment group was further divided into two subgroups according to whether the patient received subsequent dilation and curettage as further treatment. The therapeutic effect of two treatment groups was compared. The results indicated that both UAE and MTX conservative treatment achieved the expected therapeutic effect, and the recovery time in dilation and curettage subgroup was significantly shorter than that of the non-curettage subgroup. One hundred and thirty patients resumed normal menstrual cycles within 3-10 months after the treatment. The individualized therapeutic regimen is an important factor to achieve the desired therapeutic effect based on the specific indications. Dilation and curettage could shorten the recovery time significantly.

  15. Cost-effective therapeutic hypothermia treatment device for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen RH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available John J Kim,1,2 Nathan Buchbinder,1,† Simon Ammanuel,1,4,5,† Robert Kim,1,† Erika Moore,1 Neil O'Donnell,1 Jennifer K Lee,3 Ewa Kulikowicz,3 Soumyadipta Acharya,1 Robert H Allen,1,9 Ryan W Lee,6,7 Michael V Johnston4–81Department of Biomedical Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 4Kennedy Krieger Institute, 5Hugo W Moser Research Institute, 6Department of Neurology, 7Department of Pediatrics, 8Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; 9Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA†These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Despite recent advances in neonatal care and monitoring, asphyxia globally accounts for 23% of the 4 million annual deaths of newborns, and leads to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Occurring in five of 1000 live-born infants globally and even more in developing countries, HIE is a serious problem that causes death in 25%–50% of affected neonates and neurological disability to at least 25% of survivors. In order to prevent the damage caused by HIE, our invention provides an effective whole-body cooling of the neonates by utilizing evaporation and an endothermic reaction. Our device is composed of basic electronics, clay pots, sand, and urea-based instant cold pack powder. A larger clay pot, lined with nearly 5 cm of sand, contains a smaller pot, where the neonate will be placed for therapeutic treatment. When the sand is mixed with instant cold pack urea powder and wetted with water, the device can extract heat from inside to outside and maintain the inner pot at 17°C for more than 24 hours with monitoring by LED lights and thermistors

  16. Therapeutic Plasmapheresis. A Gate to an Effective Treatment of Severe Pathological Conditions

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    Claudia Stefanutti

    2014-07-01

    pregnancy do not exist (6. A further complication of the apheresis issue is represented by the indication of sepsis with multi organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS as the most common cause of death in patients in non-coronary intensive care units. Presently, an effective treatment to reduce mortality in sepsis and MODS patients is still not available. Therapeutic PEX in the management of sepsis and MODS was suggested several years ago and more recently (7, 8. On the other side, even a selective LA technique such as Heparin induced Extracorporeal Lipoprotein Precipitation (H.E.L.P. was used in the treatment of sepsis and it is still on use (9. In conclusion, extracorporeal therapeutic techniques can be clinically helpful in emergency, in deferred urgency and in chronic, long-term use. As these techniques are invasive and relatively complex, appropriate equipment and highly skillful medical and non-medical staff personnel is a necessary complement.   Key words: Therapeutic Plasmapheresis, Plasma Exchange, Lipoprotein Apheresis, Hyperlipidemic Pancreatitis, Acute Pancreatitis, Homozygous- Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Hyper Lp(a lipoproteinemia

  17. A Study of Effects of Open Ceremony on e-learning Account Sustainability

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    Kuo L.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify whether an open ceremony affects on-line learning platform account keeping behavior. This is a longitudinal non-experimental study. Total 9959 user accounts on a e-learning server since 2009 were reviewed. The server provides on-line learning courses to the publics. There are two types of courses, one with open ceremony for learners in classroom and the other is not. A survival analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness of the ceremony for user account sustainability. It was found that after five years, the survival rate of ceremony group is 0.53 and non-ceremony group is 0.01. Based upon the statistically significant effect, it was concluded that open ceremony had shown effects on user account sustainability.

  18. Effectiveness of Manual Therapy and Therapeutic Exercise for Temporomandibular Disorders: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitance, Laurent; Singh, Vandana; Neto, Francisco; Thie, Norman; Michelotti, Ambra

    2016-01-01

    Background Manual therapy (MT) and exercise have been extensively used to treat people with musculoskeletal conditions such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The evidence regarding their effectiveness provided by early systematic reviews is outdated. Purpose The aim of this study was to summarize evidence from and evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of MT and therapeutic exercise interventions compared with other active interventions or standard care for treatment of TMD. Data Sources Electronic data searches of 6 databases were performed, in addition to a manual search. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials involving adults with TMD that compared any type of MT intervention (eg, mobilization, manipulation) or exercise therapy with a placebo intervention, controlled comparison intervention, or standard care were included. The main outcomes of this systematic review were pain, range of motion, and oral function. Forty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Data Extraction Data were extracted in duplicate on specific study characteristics. Data Synthesis The overall evidence for this systematic review was considered low. The trials included in this review had unclear or high risk of bias. Thus, the evidence was generally downgraded based on assessments of risk of bias. Most of the effect sizes were low to moderate, with no clear indication of superiority of exercises versus other conservative treatments for TMD. However, MT alone or in combination with exercises at the jaw or cervical level showed promising effects. Limitations Quality of the evidence and heterogeneity of the studies were limitations of the study. Conclusions No high-quality evidence was found, indicating that there is great uncertainty about the effectiveness of exercise and MT for treatment of TMD. PMID:26294683

  19. Effectiveness of Manual Therapy and Therapeutic Exercise for Temporomandibular Disorders: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Pitance, Laurent; Singh, Vandana; Neto, Francisco; Thie, Norman; Michelotti, Ambra

    2016-01-01

    Manual therapy (MT) and exercise have been extensively used to treat people with musculoskeletal conditions such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The evidence regarding their effectiveness provided by early systematic reviews is outdated. The aim of this study was to summarize evidence from and evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of MT and therapeutic exercise interventions compared with other active interventions or standard care for treatment of TMD. Electronic data searches of 6 databases were performed, in addition to a manual search. Randomized controlled trials involving adults with TMD that compared any type of MT intervention (eg, mobilization, manipulation) or exercise therapy with a placebo intervention, controlled comparison intervention, or standard care were included. The main outcomes of this systematic review were pain, range of motion, and oral function. Forty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Data were extracted in duplicate on specific study characteristics. The overall evidence for this systematic review was considered low. The trials included in this review had unclear or high risk of bias. Thus, the evidence was generally downgraded based on assessments of risk of bias. Most of the effect sizes were low to moderate, with no clear indication of superiority of exercises versus other conservative treatments for TMD. However, MT alone or in combination with exercises at the jaw or cervical level showed promising effects. Quality of the evidence and heterogeneity of the studies were limitations of the study. No high-quality evidence was found, indicating that there is great uncertainty about the effectiveness of exercise and MT for treatment of TMD. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  20. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  1. Novel Therapeutic Effects of Leonurine On Ischemic Stroke: New Mechanisms of BBB Integrity

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    Qiu-Yan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Leonurine (also named SCM-198, a compound extracted from Herba leonuri, was effective on the prevention of various cardiovascular and brain diseases. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible therapeutic potential of SCM-198 against ischemia reperfusion injury and underlying mechanisms. In the in vivo transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO rat model, we found that treatment with SCM-198 could decrease infarct volume and improve neurological deficit by protecting against blood-brain barrier (BBB breakdown. In the in vitro model of cell oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R, consistent results were obtained with decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and maintained the BBB integrity. Further study demonstrated that SCM-198 increased the expression of histone deacetylase- (HDAC- 4 which could inhibit NADPH oxidase- (NOX- 4 and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 expression, resulting in the elevation of tight junction proteins, including claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occluden- (ZO- 1. These results indicated SCM-198 protected BBB integrity by regulating the HDAC4/NOX4/MMP-9 tight junction pathway. Our findings provided novel insights into the protective effects and mechanisms of SCM-198 on ischemic stroke, indicating SCM-198 as a new class of potential drug against acute onset of ischemic stroke.

  2. [Therapeutic effect of vadian neurectomy under the nasal endoscope on the vasomotor rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-bo; Tan, Guo-lin

    2007-10-01

    To explore the therapeutic effect of vadian neurectomy under the nasal endoscope on the vasomotor rhinitis. Anatomic measurements of vadian canal in 14 cadavers were carried out, and vadian neurectomy under the nasal endoscope was performed on 51 patients with vasomotor rhinitis. Anatomic measurements showed vadian canal was located behind the sphenoid-palatine hole, and its external orifice was shaped as infundibular. The vertical diameter was (3.5+/-0.9) mm and the horizontal diameter was (2.9+/-0.5) mm. The distance to the rotundum foramen and nasal septum was (6.1+/-1.2) mm and (10.5+/-5.9) mm. Longitudinal axes of the vadian canal was (27.0+/-9.6) degrees with the horizontal plane, and (7.8+/-2.5) degree with the sagittal plane. Among the 51 patients, 41(80.4%) patients showed complete response and 3(5.9%) partial response at the 5-year follow-up. Vadian neurectomy under nasal endoscope is an effective technique for vasomotor rhinitis.

  3. Therapeutic effects of autologous tumor-derived nanovesicles on melanoma growth and metastasis.

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    Eun-Young Lee

    Full Text Available Cancer vaccines with optimal tumor-associated antigens show promise for anti-tumor immunotherapy. Recently, nano-sized vesicles, such as exosomes derived from tumors, were suggested as potential antigen candidates, although the total yield of exosomes is not sufficient for clinical applications. In the present study, we developed a new vaccine strategy based on nano-sized vesicles derived from primary autologous tumors. Through homogenization and sonication of tumor tissues, we achieved high yields of vesicle-bound antigens. These nanovesicles were enriched with antigenic membrane targets but lacked nuclear autoantigens. Furthermore, these nanovesicles together with adjuvant activated dendritic cells in vitro, and induced effective anti-tumor immune responses in both primary and metastatic melanoma mouse models. Therefore, autologous tumor-derived nanovesicles may represent a novel source of antigens with high-level immunogenicity for use in acellular vaccines without compromising safety. Our strategy is cost-effective and can be applied to patient-specific cancer therapeutic vaccination.

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabidiol in Hypoxic Ischemic Insult. The Therapeutic Window in Newborn Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Nagat; Ceprian, Maria; Jimenez, Laura; Pazos, M Ruth; Martínez-Orgado, Jose

    2017-01-01

    A relevant therapeutic time window (TTW) is an important criterion for considering the clinical relevance of a substance preventing newborn hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. To test the TTW of the neuroprotective effects of cannabidol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid in a model of newborn HI brain damage. 9-10 day-old C57BL6 mice underwent a HI insult (10% oxygen for 90 min after left carotid artery electrocoagulation). Then, CBD 1 mg/kg or vehicle were administered s.c. 15 min, or 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 or 24 h after the end of the HI insult. Seven days later brain damage was assessed using T2W Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan (ipsilateral hemisphere volume loss, IVHL) and histological studies: Nissl staining (neuropathological score), TUNEL staining (apoptotic damage) and immunohistochemistry with glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte viability) or ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule (microglial activation). CBD administered up to 18 h after HI reduced IHVL and neuropathological score by 60%, TUNEL+ count by 90% and astrocyte damage by 50%. In addition, CBD blunted the HI-induced increase in microglial population. When CBD administration was delayed 24 h, however, the neuroprotective effect was lost in terms of IHVL, apoptosis or astrogliosis reduction. CBD shows a TTW of 18 h when administered to HI newborn mice, which represents a broader TTW than reported for other neuroprotective treatments including hypothermia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of a novel granulated formulation of Artemisia extract on broiler coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboutari, Jahangir; Arab, Hossien Ali; Ebrahimi, Kambiz; Rahbari, Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis is an important parasitic disease in poultry industry. Owing to the development of drug resistance against Eimeria and concerns about drug residues, attentions toward the alternative compounds including herbal medicines have been increased. This study aimed to examine the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of a new formulation derived from Artemisia sieberi extract on avian coccidiosis. The extract was obtained from A. sieberi using petroleum ether, and then, it was formulated into a wet granule. Three hundred and sixty 1-day-old broilers were divided into six groups, each with three replicates (n = 20); the first group was chosen as the noninfected control group and the remainders were challenged by oral administration of 250,000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella per chick on day 21. Group 2 (as nontreated control) received no treatment, but group 3 (as prophylactic group) received 0.5 mg/kg artemisinin 10 days before challenging with E. tenella. However, groups 4, 5, and 6 received 1 mg/kg artemisinin on the next day and at 24 and 48 h after the challenge, respectively, for 5 days. Mortality rate, bloody diarrhea score, lesion score, and oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces were used to determine the anticoccidial effects of the formulation. The granule significantly (p coccidiosis.

  6. Immunogenicity and therapeutic effects of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis rv2190c DNA vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Bai, Xuejuan; Xiao, Li; Wang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Junxian; Yang, Yourong; Song, Jinying; Wang, Lan; Wu, Xueqiong

    2017-02-27

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem. New treatment methods on TB are urgently demanded. In this study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) rv2190c DNA vaccine was prepared and its immunogenicity and therapeutic effects were evaluated. Non-infected mice immunized with rv2190c DNA or ag85a DNA showed higher levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in stimulated spleen lymphocyte culture supernatants, and had more Th1 cells and an elevatory ratio of Th1/Th2 immune cells in whole blood, indicating that Th1-type immune response was predominant. Compared with the saline group, ag85a DNA group and rv2190c DNA group in the infected mice decreased the lung colony-forming units (CFUs) by 0.533 and 0.283 log10, and spleen CFUs by 0.425 and 0.321 log10 respectively, and pathological lesion. The rv2190c DNA had some immunotherapeutic effect on TB.

  7. [Preventive and therapeutic effects of xiaobanxia fuling decoction on cisplatin-induced pica rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Chun-bao; Ma, Hu; Bai, Yu-ju

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the preventive and therapeutic effects of Xiaobanxia Fuling Decoction (XBFD) on cisplatin-induced pica rats and to study its mechanism. Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following 7 groups, i.e., the blank control group, the model group, the high-, middle-, and low-dose XBFD groups (at the daily dose of 30, 15, and 7. 5 g/kg, respectively), the aprepitant (at the daily dose of 13 mg/kg), and pure Chinese medicine group (at the daily dose of XBFD 15 g/kg), 6 in each group. On the 3rd day of this study, 3 mg/kg cisplatin was intraperitoneally injected to rats except the blank control group and the model group to establish the pica rat model. The consumptions of kaolin, food, and the general situation of rats were observed. The protein and mRNA expressions of neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) in both the medulla oblongata and the gastric antrum were measured by immunohistochemical assay and Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR respectively on the sixth day of this study. On the third, fourth, and fifth day of this study, the consumption of kaolin of rats significantly increased when compared with the blank control group (Ppica in rats. Its effect might be correlated with decreasing expressions of NK, R in the medulla oblongata and the gastric antrum.

  8. Experimental investigations into the therapeutic effect of griseofulvin in favus caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, E. I.; Nadaždin, M.

    1965-01-01

    Experimental investigations have been carried out in 32 children on the therapeutic effect of griseofulvin in favus caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii and to determine the optimal treatment schedule. It was found that, while daily doses of 3.12 mg, 6.25 mg or 12.50 mg griseofulvin per kg of body-weight did bring about a measurable degree of inhibition of the fungal hyphae in infected hairs, a dose of 25 mg/kg daily for some 28 days was required to effect complete cure. The advantages of greater daily doses (50 mg/kg) were not sufficiently pronounced to justify the extra cost involved. Administration of doses under 50 mg/kg on alternate days is unsatisfactory, as it allows for the re-establishment of the hyphae in newly formed keratin. Another favourable schedule is the administration of 50 mg/kg daily for five days, thus setting up a stable and impenetrable griseofulvin barrier, followed for about 28 days by daily doses of 6.25 mg/kg that would otherwise be subtherapeutic but in this case prevent the reintroduction of infection from extrapilar fungi. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 6 PMID:5294590

  9. The Selective SGLT2 Inhibitor Ipragliflozin Has a Therapeutic Effect on Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice.

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    Yasushi Honda

    Full Text Available In recent years, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH has become a considerable healthcare burden worldwide. Pathogenesis of NASH is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and insulin resistance. However, a specific drug to treat NASH is lacking. We investigated the effect of the selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2I ipragliflozin on NASH in mice.We used the Amylin liver NASH model (AMLN, which is a diet-induced model of NASH that results in obesity and T2DM. AMLN mice were fed an AMLN diet for 20 weeks. SGLT2I mice were fed an AMLN diet for 12 weeks and an AMLN diet with 40 mg ipragliflozin/kg for 8 weeks.AMLN mice showed steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver as well as obesity and insulin resistance, features that are recognized in human NASH. Ipragliflozin improved insulin resistance and liver injury. Ipragliflozin decreased serum levels of free fatty acids, hepatic lipid content, the number of apoptotic cells, and areas of fibrosis; it also increased lipid outflow from the liver.Ipragliflozin improved the pathogenesis of NASH by reducing insulin resistance and lipotoxicity in NASH-model mice. Our results suggest that ipragliflozin has a therapeutic effect on NASH with T2DM.

  10. Therapeutic effects of orally administrated antioxidant drugs on acute noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, C-H; Du, X; Floyd, R A; Kopke, R D

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the dose-dependent therapeutic effect of the orally administrated antioxidant drugs [4-hydroxy alpha-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone (4-OHPBN) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)] on acute noise-induced hearing loss because oral administration is the most commonly used method of drug administration due to its convenience, safety, and economical efficiency. Thirty chinchilla were exposed to a 105 dB octave band noise centered at 4 kHz for 6 h and randomly assigned to a control group (saline only) and three experimental groups [4-OHPBN (10 mg/kg) plus NAC (20 mg/kg), 4-OHPBN (20 mg/kg) plus NAC (50 mg/kg), and 4-OHPBN (50 mg/kg) plus NAC (100 mg/kg)]. The drugs were orally administrated beginning 4 h after noise exposure and then administered twice daily for the next 2 days. Permanent auditory brainstem response threshold shifts, distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts, and the percentage of missing outer hair cell were determined. The oral administration significantly reduced permanent hearing threshold shift, distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shift, and the percentage of missing outer hair cell in a dose-dependent manner. This result demonstrates that orally administered drugs can treat acute noise-induced hearing loss in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests that oral administration was effective in treating acute noise-induced hearing loss as in intraperitoneal administration.

  11. Therapeutic Effect of Novel Single-Stranded RNAi Agent Targeting Periostin in Eyes with Retinal Neovascularization

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    Takahito Nakama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neovascularization (NV due to retinal ischemia remains one of the principal causes of vision impairment in patients with ischemic retinal diseases. We recently reported that periostin (POSTN may play a role in the development of preretinal fibrovascular membranes, but its role in retinal NV has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of POSTN in the ischemic retinas of a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinal NV. We also studied the function of POSTN on retinal NV using Postn KO mice and human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs in culture. In addition, we used a novel RNAi agent, NK0144, which targets POSTN to determine its effect on the development of retinal NV. Our results showed that the expression of POSTN was increased in the vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and M2 macrophages in ischemic retinas. POSTN promoted the ischemia-induced retinal NV by Akt phosphorylation through integrin αvβ3. NK0144 had a greater inhibitory effect than canonical double-stranded siRNA on preretinal pathological NV in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest a causal relationship between POSTN and retinal NV, and indicate a potential therapeutic role of intravitreal injection of NK0144 for retinal neovascular diseases.

  12. Therapeutic effects of Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pill on myocardial injury induced by chronic hypoxia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fu-Chao; Xu, Yan-Juan; Tong, Jia-Yi; Lu, Zhou-Zhou; Zhang, Xiao-Hui

    2015-10-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine, called Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pill on chronic hypoxia-induced myocardial injury. To establish a rat chronic hypoxia model to be used in the evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pill, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control, model, and treatment groups (n = 10 per group). The animals were housed in a plexiglass container. The control animals were under normal oxygen concentration and the model and treatment groups were exposed to air and nitrogen for 5 weeks. The rats in the treatment group were orally administered the Qishen Yiqi Dropping pill (35 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 5 weeks. After the treatment, the cardiac function and morphology were analyzed, and the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) were determined using Western blotting. Our results indicated that the cardiac function was impaired, cell apoptosis was enhanced, and HIF-1α expression was up-regulated in the model group, compared to the control group. These changes were ameliorated by the treatment with the Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pill. In conclusion, Qishen Yiqi Dropping pill can ameliorate myocardial injury induced by chronic hypoxia, improve cardiac function, and decrease myocardial cell apoptosis, which may provide a basis for its clinical use for the treatment of chronic cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Live Typhoid Vaccine for IBD-Patients—Well Tolerated and with Possible Therapeutic Effect

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    Arnold Berstad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our incidental observation of a remarkable improvement of disease activity following vaccination against typhoid in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD was the incentive of this pilot study.Methods: Ten IBD-patients (7 with ulcerative colitis and 3 with Crohn’s disease with disease activity grade 2–10 on simple colitis index were included in the study. The use of 5-ASA and prednisolone 12.5 mg/day, but no other immunosuppressive drugs, were allowed during the trial. Live typhoid vaccine containing Salmonella serovar Ty21a (Vivotif®, Berna was given in standard doses on day 1, 3 and 5. Symptoms and endoscopic findings were followed up for a 3-months-period.Results: Improvement of abdominal symptoms was recorded in 8 patients after 90 days, one patient was unchanged and one slightly worse. Endoscopic findings improved in 4 patients and were unchanged in 5 patients after 90 days. No side effects were observed.Conclusion: Our results indicate that a live typhoid vaccine is well tolerated by patients with IBD of moderate activity. The symptomatic and endoscopic improvements were not dramatic, but encouraging enough to warrant further studies on the potential therapeutic effect of live typhoid vaccine on patients with IBD.

  14. Live Typhoid Vaccine for IBD-Patients—Well Tolerated and with Possible Therapeutic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Nysæter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our incidental observation of a remarkable improvement of disease activity following vaccination against typhoid in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD was the incentive of this pilot study. Methods: Ten IBD-patients (7 with ulcerative colitis and 3 with Crohn’s disease with disease activity grade 2–10 on simple colitis index were included in the study. The use of 5-ASA and prednisolone 12.5 mg/day, but no other immunosuppressive drugs, were allowed during the trial. Live typhoid vaccine containing Salmonella serovar Ty21a (Vivotif®, Berna was given in standard doses on day 1, 3 and 5. Symptoms and endoscopic findings were followed up for a 3-months-period. Results: Improvement of abdominal symptoms was recorded in 8 patients after 90 days, one patient was unchanged and one slightly worse. Endoscopic findings improved in 4 patients and were unchanged in 5 patients after 90 days. No side effects were observed. Conclusion: Our results indicate that a live typhoid vaccine is well tolerated by patients with IBD of moderate activity. The symptomatic and endoscopic improvements were not dramatic, but encouraging enough to warrant further studies on the potential therapeutic effect of live typhoid vaccine on patients with IBD.

  15. Therapeutic Effects of Cortex acanthopanacis Aqueous Extract on Bone Metabolism of Ovariectomized Rats

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    Zhiguo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of aqueous extract from Cortex acanthopanacis (CAE on osteoporosis rats induced by ovariectomy (OVX using aqueous extract from Folium Epimedii (FEE as positive control agent. Three-month-old female rats that underwent OVX were treated with CAE. After 12 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD and indices of bone histomorphometry of tibia were measured. Levels of protein and mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL in tibia were evaluated. In addition, the serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, calcitonin (CT, and parathyroid hormone (PTH were determined. Administration of CAE significantly prevented OVX-induced rats from gain of the body weight. Treatment with CAE increased bone mass remarkably and showed a significant inhibitory effect on bone resorption by downregulating significantly the expression of RANKL in tibia of OVX rats. Meanwhile, treatment of CAE significantly reduced serum level of IL-1β and increased level of CT in OVX rats. This suggests that CAE has the potential to be used as an alternative therapeutic agent for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  16. [Selected mechanisms of the therapeutic effect of arsenic trioxide in cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Magdalena; Grzanka, Alina; Szczepański, Mariusz Andrzej; Litwiniec, Anna

    2008-09-09

    The properties of arsenic trioxide (arsenic) have been known for centuries. This compound has been used, among others, in the industrial production of paints and glass and also for the conservation of leather and wood. Although arsenic trioxide is highly toxic, this compound was shown to have a therapeutic potential as early as the fifteenth century. The period between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries resulted in the development of new arsenic-based drugs which were applied for the treatment of skin diseases and acute promyelocytic leukemia. The mechanism of action of arsenic trioxide is mainly related to the induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in cancer cells. In particular it involves effects on the activities of JNK kinases, NF-kB transcription factor, glutathione, caspases, as well as pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Experiments investigating the effect of arsenic trioxide on cell lines such as glioma and prostate, breast, stomach, liver, and ovarian cancer are in progress. There are also clinical trials underway aimed at the use of arsenic trioxide with ascorbic acid, retinoid acid, and growth factors in combined therapy.

  17. Therapeutic Effectiveness and Safety of Mesotherapy in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee

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    Liang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of mesotherapy by comparing it with the classic systematic therapy in patients with osteoarthritis (OA. Methods. Sixty patients were included and classified into two groups based on the existence of contraindications for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. These patients were treated with oral NSAIDs (Group A or mesotherapy (Group B. After completing the treatment, the patients were followed up for 6 months. Their clinical features, laboratory results, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC scores were evaluated. Results. A total of 50 patients completed treatment and follow-up. The patients in Group B had significantly fewer gastric acid-related complaints and requested less supplementary treatment for recurrent pain (p<0.05. The patients in both groups exhibited decreased blood viscosity after treatment (p<0.05. WOMAC scores, specifically those for pain and stiffness, were found to be significantly improved after either type of treatment (p<0.05. Mesotherapy also ameliorated physical function (p<0.05. Furthermore, Group B presented with better outcomes than Group A (p<0.05 or p<0.01. Conclusion. Our results suggest that mesotherapy is an effective and safe treatment for patients with OA. Clinicians should consider mesotherapy as an alternative therapy for patients with contraindications for NSAID use.

  18. Adverse effects of the renal accumulation of haem proteins. Novel therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Hue, Melania; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Sevillano, Ángel; Yuste, Claudia; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Palomino-Antolín, Alejandra; Román, Elena; Praga, Manuel; Egido, Jesús; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2017-06-28

    Haemoglobin and myoglobin are haem proteins that play a key role as they help transport oxygen around the body. However, because of their chemical structure, these molecules can exert harmful effects when they are released massively into the bloodstream, as reported in certain pathological conditions associated with rhabdomyolysis or intravascular haemolysis. Once in the plasma, these haem proteins can be filtered and can accumulate in the kidney, where they become cytotoxic, particularly for the tubular epithelium, inducing acute kidney failure and chronic kidney disease. In this review, we will analyse the different pathological contexts that lead to the renal accumulation of these haem proteins, their relation to both acute and chronic loss of renal function, the pathophysiological mechanisms that cause adverse effects and the defence systems that counteract such actions. Finally, we will describe the different treatments currently used and present new therapeutic options based on the identification of new cellular and molecular targets, with particular emphasis on the numerous clinical trials that are currently ongoing. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The therapeutic effectiveness of using visual art modalities with the bereaved: a systematic review

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    Weiskittle RE

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rachel E Weiskittle, Sandra E Gramling Department of Clinical Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: Bereaved individuals are increasingly considered at risk for negative psychological and physiological outcomes. Visual art modalities are often incorporated into grief therapy interventions, and clinical application of art therapy techniques with the bereaved has been widely documented. Although clinicians and recipients of these interventions advocate for their helpfulness in adapting to bereavement, research investigating the efficacy of visual art modalities has produced equivocal results and has not yet been synthesized to establish empirical support across settings. Accordingly, this review critically evaluates the existent literature on the effectiveness of visual art modalities with the bereaved and offers suggestions for future avenues of research. A total of 27 studies were included in the current review. Meta-analysis was not possible because of clinical heterogeneity and insufficient comparable data on outcome measures across studies. A narrative synthesis reports that therapeutic application of visual art modalities was associated with positive changes such as continuing bonds with the deceased and meaning making. Modest and conflicting preliminary evidence was found to support treatment effectiveness in alleviating negative grief symptoms such as general distress, functional impairment, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Keywords: grief, expressive arts, bereavement, therapy, efficacy

  20. Clinical therapeutic effects of intravitreal Ranibizumab injection combined laser photocoagulation for macular edema in BRVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical therapeutic efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab injection combined grid laser photocoagulation for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion(BRVO. METHODS: Forty-two confirmed cases(42 eyeswith macular edema secondary to BRVO were randomized into 3 groups, each group contained 14 eyes. The ranibizumab group was received intravitreal injection of ranibizumab(0.05mL, the laser group was received grid laser photocoagulation, and the combined group was received a second therapy of grid laser photocoagulation after 1wk of the intravitreal injection of ranibizumab. Recorded the best-corrected visual acuity(BCVAand the central macular thickness(CMTpreoperative and at 1, 3, 6mo after therapy. RESULTS: The BCVA and the CMT had no differences among three groups pretherapy(P>0.05. While BCVA was much better and CMT was reduced significantly posttherapy than pretherapy in all three groups(PPP>0.05. While the BCVA was better and the CMT was thinner in the combined group than ranibizumab group and laser group at every time point(PPCONCLUSION: The intravitreal ranibizumab injection combined grid laser photocoagulation is an effective treatment method for the macular edema secondary to BRVO, it is more effective in improving BCVA than intravitreal ranibizumab or grid laser photocoagulation alone.

  1. The therapeutic effectiveness of using visual art modalities with the bereaved: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramling, Sandra E

    2018-01-01

    Bereaved individuals are increasingly considered at risk for negative psychological and physiological outcomes. Visual art modalities are often incorporated into grief therapy interventions, and clinical application of art therapy techniques with the bereaved has been widely documented. Although clinicians and recipients of these interventions advocate for their helpfulness in adapting to bereavement, research investigating the efficacy of visual art modalities has produced equivocal results and has not yet been synthesized to establish empirical support across settings. Accordingly, this review critically evaluates the existent literature on the effectiveness of visual art modalities with the bereaved and offers suggestions for future avenues of research. A total of 27 studies were included in the current review. Meta-analysis was not possible because of clinical heterogeneity and insufficient comparable data on outcome measures across studies. A narrative synthesis reports that therapeutic application of visual art modalities was associated with positive changes such as continuing bonds with the deceased and meaning making. Modest and conflicting preliminary evidence was found to support treatment effectiveness in alleviating negative grief symptoms such as general distress, functional impairment, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. PMID:29440940

  2. Novel Therapeutic Effects of Leonurine On Ischemic Stroke: New Mechanisms of BBB Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jun; Sun, De-Miao; Xu, Peng; Wu, Wei-Jun; Liu, Xin-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Leonurine (also named SCM-198), a compound extracted from Herba leonuri, was effective on the prevention of various cardiovascular and brain diseases. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible therapeutic potential of SCM-198 against ischemia reperfusion injury and underlying mechanisms. In the in vivo transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) rat model, we found that treatment with SCM-198 could decrease infarct volume and improve neurological deficit by protecting against blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. In the in vitro model of cell oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R), consistent results were obtained with decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and maintained the BBB integrity. Further study demonstrated that SCM-198 increased the expression of histone deacetylase- (HDAC-) 4 which could inhibit NADPH oxidase- (NOX-) 4 and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 expression, resulting in the elevation of tight junction proteins, including claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occluden- (ZO-) 1. These results indicated SCM-198 protected BBB integrity by regulating the HDAC4/NOX4/MMP-9 tight junction pathway. Our findings provided novel insights into the protective effects and mechanisms of SCM-198 on ischemic stroke, indicating SCM-198 as a new class of potential drug against acute onset of ischemic stroke. PMID:28690765

  3. The therapeutic effect of high-dose esomeprazole on stress ulcer bleeding in trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Lihong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the therapeutic effects of different doses of intravenous esomeprazole on treating trauma patients with stress ulcer bleeding. Methods: A total of 102 trauma patients with stress ulcer bleeding were randomly divided into 2 groups: 52 patients were assigned to the high-dose group who received 80 mg intravenous esomeprazole, and then 8 mg/h continuous infusion for 3 days; 50 patients were assigned to the conventional dose group who received 40 mg intravenous esomeprazole sodium once every 12 h for 72 h. Results: Compared with the conventional dose group, the total efficiency of the high-dose group and conventional dose group was 98.08% and 86.00%, respectively (p < 0.05, the hemostatic time was 22.10 h ± 5.18 h and 28.27 h ± 5.96 h, respectively (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Both doses of intravenous esomeprazole have good hemostatic effects on stress ulcer bleeding in trauma patients. The high-dose esomeprazole is better for hemostasis.

  4. Therapeutic effects and mechanism of Teucrium polium in diabetes mellitus :a review article

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    Z. Moghimi*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Amongst the serious metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus (DM is a common disease throughout the world. The excess of morbidity and mortality associated with DM and its complications emphasize the importance of new or alternative therapeutic strategies in prevention and treatment of this chronic disorder. Medicinal herbs grow vastly in Iran and are widely used for natural treatment of diseases. One of these medicinal plants, which has been recommended in Iranian folk medicine for treatment of DM since centuries ago, is Teucrium polium L. Methods: We searched the following electronic databases with use of keywords such as Teucrium polium, diabetes mellitus, insulin and mechanism in search engine such as Sciencedirect and Pubmed to identify the reports of relevant to Teucrium polium and diabetes mellitus. Results: In some studies, the hypoglycemic activity of Teucrium polium extracts was referred to the presence of flavonoids (rutin and apigenin, sterols, and volatile oils as the active constituents. Rutin has hypoglycemic effects possibly by stimulating glucose utilization in extra hepatic tissues and probably apigenin is responsible for stimulating the insulin release from pancreas. Conclusion: In recent studies Teucrium polium was known as a hypoglycemic plant but toxicologic studies and clinical trials are required to determine if Teucrium polium has the potential to be an effective and safe glucose lowering agent for diabetic patients.

  5. Web thickness determines the therapeutic effect of endoscopic keel placement on anterior glottic web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Shi, Fang; Chen, Min; Yang, Yue; Cheng, Lei; Wu, Haitao

    2017-10-01

    This work is a retrospective analysis to investigate the critical risk factor for the therapeutic effect of endoscopic keel placement on anterior glottic web. Altogether, 36 patients with anterior glottic web undergoing endoscopic lysis and silicone keel placement were enrolled. Their voice qualities were evaluated using the voice handicap index-10 (VHI-10) questionnaire, and improved significantly 3 months after surgery (21.53 ± 3.89 vs 9.81 ± 6.68, P thickness, and the recurrence rates were compared. The distribution of recurrence rates for Cohen type 1 ~ 4 were 28.6, 16.7, 33.3, and 40%, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.461). When classified by web thickness, only 2 of 27 (7.41%) thin type cases relapsed whereas 8 of 9 (88.9%) cases in the thick group reformed webs (P thickness rather than the Cohen grades. Endoscopic lysis and keel placement is only effective for cases with thin glottic webs. Patients with thick webs should be treated by other means.

  6. Survivin counteracts the therapeutic effect of microtubule de-stabilizers by stabilizing tubulin polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Hsing-Pang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin is a dual function protein. It inhibits the apoptosis of cells by inhibiting caspases, and also promotes cell growth by stabilizing microtubules during mitosis. Over-expression of survivin has been demonstrated to induce drug-resistance to various chemo-therapeutic agents such as cisplatin (DNA damaging agent and paclitaxel (microtubule stabilizer in cancers. However, survivin-induced resistance to microtubule de-stabilizers such as Vinca alkaloids and Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4-related compounds were seldom demonstrated in the past. Furthermore, the question remains as to whether survivin plays a dominant role in processing cytokinesis or inhibiting caspases activity in cells treated with anti-mitotic compounds. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of survivin on the resistance and susceptibility of human cancer cells to microtubule de-stabilizer-induced cell death. Results BPR0L075 is a CA-4 analog that induces microtubule de-polymerization and subsequent caspase-dependent apoptosis. To study the relationship between the expression of survivin and the resistance to microtubule de-stabilizers, a KB-derived BPR0L075-resistant cancer cell line, KB-L30, was generated for this study. Here, we found that survivin was over-expressed in the KB-L30 cells. Down-regulation of survivin by siRNA induced hyper-sensitivity to BPR0L075 in KB cells and partially re-stored sensitivity to BPR0L075 in KB-L30 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that down-regulation of survivin induced microtubule de-stabilization in both KB and KB-L30 cells. However, the same treatment did not enhance the down-stream caspase-3/-7 activities in BPR0L075-treated KB cells. Translocation of a caspase-independent apoptosis-related molecule, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, from cytoplasm to the nucleus was observed in survivin-targeted KB cells under BPR0L075 treatment. Conclusion In this study, survivin plays an important role in the

  7. Therapeutic effect of Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 1190-fermented milk on chronic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Cecilia; Medici, Marta; Mozzi, Fernanda; de Valdez, Graciela Font

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus) CRL 1190 fermented milk on chronic gastritis in Balb/c mice. METHODS: Balb/c mice were fed with the fermented milk for 7 d after inducing gastritis with acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA, 400 mg/kg body weight per day for 10 d). Omeprazole was included in this study as a positive therapeutic control. The gastric inflammatory activity was evaluated from gastric histology and inflammation score, number of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-γ (INFγ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) cytokine-producing cells in the gastric mucosa, and thickness of the mucus layer. RESULTS: Animals receiving treatment with the EPS-producing S. thermophilus CRL 1190 fermented milk showed a conserved gastric mucosa structure similar to that of healthy animals. Inflammation scores of the fermented milk-treated mice were lower than those of mice in the gastritis group (0.2 ± 0.03 vs 2.0 ± 0.6, P < 0.05). A marked decrease in INFγ+ (15 ± 1.0 vs 28 ± 1.2, P < 0.05) and TNF-α+ (16 ± 3.0 vs 33 ± 3.0, P < 0.05) cells and an increase in IL-10+ (28 ± 1.5 vs 14 ± 1.3, P < 0.05) cells compared to the gastritis group, was observed. Also, an increase in the thickness of the mucus gel layer (2.2 ± 0.6 vs 1.0 ± 0.3; 5.1 ± 0.8 vs 1.5 ± 0.4 in the corpus and antrum mucosa, respectively, P < 0.05) compared with the gastritis group was noted. A milk suspension of the purified EPS from S. thermophilus CRL1190 was also effective as therapy for gastritis. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that fermented milk with S. thermophilus CRL 1190 and/or its EPS could be used in novel functional foods as an alternative natural therapy for chronic gastritis induced by ASA. PMID:20355240

  8. Therapeutic effects of escitalopram and reboxetine in seasonal affective disorder: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjrek, Edda; Konstantinidis, Anastasios; Assem-Hilger, Eva; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Willeit, Matthäus; Kasper, Siegfried; Winkler, Dietmar

    2009-05-01

    The monoaminergic neurotransmitters serotonin and noradrenaline have both been implicated in the pathogenesis of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). However, the differential therapeutic value of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NARI) in SAD has not been assessed until now. This study compares data from two open-label trials with similar methodology investigating the SSRI escitalopram and the NARI reboxetine. 20 SAD patients were treated with escitalopram (10-20mg) and 15 patients received treatment with reboxetine (fixed dosage: 8mg) over 6 weeks. Ratings included the structured interview guide for the Hamilton depression rating scale, SAD version (SIGH-SAD), the clinical global impression of severity (CGI-S) and improvement (CGI-I) and the UKU side effect rating scale. Treatment led to a significant reduction in SIGH-SAD score, CGI-S and CGI-I after one week in the reboxetine group and after two weeks in the escitalopram group. SIGH-SAD score was significantly lower in the reboxetine group at weeks 1, 2 and 4 but not at the end of the study. The response rate (SIGH-SAD <50% of baseline value) and the remission rate (SIGH-SAD <8) were not significantly different after 6 weeks of treatment, but the time to response and to remission was significantly shorter in the reboxetine group. The number and severity of side effects were higher in patients treated with reboxetine at all time points. Thus escitalopram and reboxetine were equally effective in treating SAD on all primary and secondary outcome measures. Reboxetine displayed a faster onset of action, but was associated with more pronounced side effects. Further studies comparing SSRI and NARI in SAD are warranted.

  9. Therapeutic effects of rosmarinic acid on airway responses in a murine model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhengmin; Nie, Haiying; Xu, Yangfeng; Peng, Jianbo; Zeng, Yun; Wei, Yingyi; Wen, Xuemei; Qiu, Jiaming; Zhong, Weiting; Deng, Xuming; He, Jiakang

    2016-12-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an active component of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Previously, we reported that RA exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect in a mouse acute lung injury model. Therefore, we hypothesized that RA might also have potential therapeutic effects in a murine model of asthma. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-asthmatic activity of RA and explored its possible molecular mechanisms of action. Female BALB/c mice that had been sensitized to and challenged with ovalbumin (Ova) were treated with RA (20mg/kg) 1h after challenge. The results showed that RA greatly diminished the number of inflammatory cells and the production of Th2 cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); significantly reduced the secretion of total IgE, Ova-specific IgE, and eotaxin; and markedly ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) compared with Ova-induced mice. Histological studies further revealed that RA substantially decreased inflammatory cells infiltration and mucus hypersecretion compared with Ova-induced mice. Moreover, our results suggested that the protective effects of RA were mediated by the inhibition of JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Furthermore, RA treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the mRNA expression of AMCase, CCL11, CCR3, Ym2 and E-selectin in lung tissue. These findings suggest that RA may effectively delay the development of airway inflammation and could thus be used as a therapy for allergic asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Therapeutic effects of blood purification in treatment of fulminant hepatic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchuan Pu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effects of blood purification for treating fulminant hepatic failure (FHF. METHODS: Thirty-three severe FHF patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE above grade III were subjected to a combined blood purification treatment in addition to the comprehensive liver protection therapy. Patients underwent continuous hemofiltration on a daily basis during the daytime followed by sequential treatment with plasma exchange or hemodialysis every 2-3 days. The therapeutic effects of this treatment were evaluated. RESULTS: After treatment with blood purification, restoration of consciousness (those who abandoned the treatment without restoration of consciousness were excluded was achieved in 6 of 8 cases (75% in acute liver failure (ALF group, 3 of 3 cases (100% in subacute liver failure (SALF group, and 9 of 14 cases (64.29% in acute/subacute on chronic liver failure (A/SCLF group. Of all cases, 11 patients restored consciousness after 7 days in a coma. The rate of long-term survival (those who abandoned the treatment were excluded was 3/7 (42.86% for ALF group, 2/2 (100% for SALF group, and 1/11 (9.09% for A/SCLF group. The levels of hemoglobin and platelet in peripheral blood were significantly reduced after blood purification. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of FHF patients with daily continuous hemofiltration during the daytime is effective in treating HE and in improving health status in the early stages of the disease. Long-term prognosis also benefits from this treatment. The rate of consciousness recovery and long-term survival is highest in SALF group followed by ALF group. This treatment is less effective in A/SCLF patients. It should be noted that blood purification procedure may cause damage to blood cells.

  11. Therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine Niubeixiaohe in mouse tuberculosis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Wang, Xiaomei; Song, Jinying; Wang, Lan; Chen, Dan; Yang, Yourong; Bai, Xuejuan; Wang, Jie; Shi, Yingchang; Chen, Shibing; Liu, Jun; Yang, Cunwei; Luo, Huafeng; Liu, Guangling; Wu, Xueqiong

    2017-01-04

    The traditional Chinese medicine Niubeixiaohe (NBXH) is an effective anti-tuberculosis prescription, which is made up of Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae, Rhizoma Bletillae, Radix Platycodonis, Fructus Arctii, Herba Houttuyniae and Glutinous rice. In this study, NBXH powder (I) and three kinds of NBXH extracts (II, III, and IV) were prepared. The water decoction of NBXH had been used to treat TB in clinic sixteen years suggested that it was effective to treat TB. This study evaluated the effects of different processing products of NBXH on mouse TB model in vivo and provide a new Chinese medicine for the clinical treatment of TB. In this study, 120 female BALB/c mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, were treated with distilled water, M. vaccae vaccine, the low, middle and high doses of NBXH I, the low, middle and high doses of NBXH II, the low, middle and high doses of NBXH III, the low, middle and high doses of NBXH IV for 12 weeks, respectively. The body weights of mice in all NBXH groups were higher than that in the water group. The weight indexes of the spleens in M. vaccae group, the middle dose of NBXH II group, the low dose of NBXH IV group and in the high dose of NBXH IV group were significantly lower than that in the water group(Ptraditional Chinese medicine NBXH all had anti-tuberculosis therapeutic effects on mouse tuberculosis model, and this study provided a base for the further development of Chinese patent medicine NBXH. Also, this is the first report on comprehensive experimental research of NBXH extracts coming from six kinds of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Therapeutic effects of four strains of probiotics on experimental colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin Lin; Wang, Xue Hong; Cui, Yi; Lian, Guang Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ouyang, Chun Hui; Lu, Fang Gen

    2009-01-21

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of four strains of probiotics (E. feacalis, L. acidophilus, C. butyricum and B. adolescentis) on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in Balb/c mice. Eighty Balb/c mice were randomly divided into 8 groups. Weight-loss, fecal character, fecal occult blood and hematochezia were recorded daily. Disease activity index (DAI) scores were also evaluated everyday. Length of colon was measured and histological scores were evaluated on the 13th day. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was detected. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-4 expression was detected by ELISA and RT-PCR. The four strains of probiotics relieved the inflammatory condition of DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice. Weight loss was slowed down in all probiotics-treated mice. Even weight gain was observed by the end of probiotics treatment. The DAI and histological scores of probiotics-treated mice were lower than those of mice in the control group (1.9 +/- 0.2 vs 8.6 +/- 0.4, P probiotics-treated mice was longer than that of mice in the control group (10.3 +/- 0.34 vs 8.65 +/- 0.77, P probiotics decreased the MP activity and the IL-1 expression, but increased the IL-4 expression. E. faecalis had a better effect on DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice than the other three strains. The four strains of probiotics have beneficial effects on experimental colitis in mice. E. faecalis has a better effect on DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice than the other three strains. Supplement of probiotics provides a new therapy for UC.

  13. Overall Bike Effectiveness as a Sustainability Metric for Bike Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Nugroho Yahya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bike sharing systems (BSS have been widely accepted as an urban transport scheme in many cities around the world. The concept is recently expanded and followed by many cities to offer citizen a “green” and flexible transportation scheme in urban areas. Many works focus on the issues of bike availability while the bike performance, i.e., life cycle issues and its sustainability, for better management has been abandoned. As a consequence, mismanagement of BSS would lead to cost inefficiency and, the worst case, end with operation termination. This study proposes a design science approach by developing an Overall Bike Effectiveness (OBE framework. By incorporating the concept of overall equipment analysis (OEE, the proposed framework is used to measure the bike utilization. Accordingly, the OBE is extended into Theoretical OBE to measure the sustainability of the early-stage of BSS. The framework has been verified and evaluated using a real dataset of BSS. The proposed method provides valuable results for benchmarking, life cycle analysis, system expansion and strategy planning toward sustainability. The paper concludes with a discussion to show the impact of the proposed approach into the real practices of BSS including an outlook toward sustainability of BSS.

  14. The Influence of Local Governance: Effects on the Sustainability of Bioenergy Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cavicchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with processes and outcomes of sustainable bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna. It draws on an on-going research project concerning inclusive innovation in forest-based bioenergy and biogas in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Italy. The goal is to explore how local governance impacts on inclusive innovation processes and triple bottom sustainability of bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna and, ultimately, to contribute to the debate on the bioeconomy. It thus compares the case of biogas and forest-based bioenergy production. The study adopts an analytical framework called Grounded Innovation (GRIP and the local governance approach. The study uses qualitative methods and particularly semi-structured interviews and governance analysis. The key results show different outcomes on both inclusive innovation and triple bottom-line dimensions. Biogas has not fostered inclusiveness and triple bottom line sustainability benefits, contrary to forest-based bioenergy. The findings indicate that the minor role of local actors, particularly municipalities, in favour of industrial and national interests may jeopardise the sustainability of biobased industries. Besides, policies limited to financial incentives may lead to a land-acquisition rush, unforeseen local environmental effects and exacerbate conflicts.

  15. Glucose and caffeine effects on sustained attention: an exploratory fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Grabulosa, Josep M; Adan, Ana; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Núria

    2010-11-01

    Caffeine and glucose can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, neural basis of these effects remain unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of caffeine and glucose on sustained attention, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Forty young right-handed, healthy, low caffeine-consuming subjects participated in the study. In a double-blind, randomised design, subjects received one of the following beverages: vehicle (water, 150 ml); vehicle plus 75 g of glucose; vehicle plus 75 mg of caffeine; vehicle plus 75 g of glucose and 75 mg of caffeine. Participants underwent two scanning fMRI sessions (before and 30 min after of the administration of the beverage). A continuous performance test was used to assess sustained attention. Participants who received combined caffeine and glucose had similar performance to the others but had a decrease in activation in the bilateral parietal and left prefrontal cortex. Since these areas have been related to the sustained attention and working memory processes, results would suggest that combined caffeine and glucose could increase the efficiency of the attentional system. However, more studies using larger samples and different levels of caffeine and glucose are necessary to better understand the combined effects of both substances. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Therapeutic equivalence of diclofenac sustained-released 75 mg tablets and diclofenac enteric-coated 50 mg tablets in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loët, X; Dreiser, R L; Le Gros, V; Febvre, N

    1997-09-01

    Efficacy and tolerability of diclofenac sustained-released (SR) 75 mg tablets taken b.i.d. were compared with that of enteric-coated diclofenac sodium 50 mg tablets given t.i.d. in a seven-day, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel groups study in 294 outpatients suffering from painful femorotibial or hip osteoarthritis. Primary efficacy criteria were spontaneous joint pain assessed on serial visual analogue scales during the first 36 hours and after 48 hours of treatment. The two treatments had equivalent efficacy since all the 90% confidence intervals of differences between means for pain intensity between the two groups were included within the interval (-10 mm; +10 mm). Rates of overall efficacy judged good to excellent ranged from 74.3-78.5% in both groups. One or more drug-related adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal, was reported by 24.5% and 27.2% of patients in diclofenac SR 75 mg and diclofenac 50 mg groups, respectively. Percentage of good compliance (i.e. > 90%) was higher with diclofenac SR 75 mg (p < 0.001).

  17. Effect of therapeutic interchange on medication reconciliation during hospitalization and upon discharge in a geriatric population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Wang

    Full Text Available Therapeutic interchange of a same class medication for an outpatient medication is a widespread practice during hospitalization in response to limited hospital formularies. However, therapeutic interchange may increase risk of medication errors. The objective was to characterize the prevalence and safety of therapeutic interchange.Secondary analysis of a transitions of care study. We included patients over age 64 admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 2009-2010 with heart failure, pneumonia, or acute coronary syndrome who were taking a medication in any of six commonly-interchanged classes on admission: proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2 blockers, hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS. There was limited electronic medication reconciliation support available. Main measures were presence and accuracy of therapeutic interchange during hospitalization, and rate of medication reconciliation errors on discharge. We examined charts of 303 patients taking 555 medications at time of admission in the six medication classes of interest. A total of 244 (44.0% of medications were therapeutically interchanged to an approved formulary drug at admission, affecting 64% of the study patients. Among the therapeutically interchanged drugs, we identified 78 (32.0% suspected medication conversion errors. The discharge medication reconciliation error rate was 11.5% among the 244 therapeutically interchanged medications, compared with 4.2% among the 311 unchanged medications (relative risk [RR] 2.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-5.19.Therapeutic interchange was prevalent among hospitalized patients in this study and elevates the risk for potential medication errors during and after hospitalization. Improved electronic systems for managing therapeutic interchange and medication reconciliation

  18. Is the emotional Stroop task a special case of mood induction? Evidence from sustained effects of attention under emotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Mama, Yaniv; Icht, Michal; Algom, Daniel

    Sustained effects of emotion are well known in everyday experience. Surprisingly, such effects are seldom recorded in laboratory studies of the emotional Stroop task, in which participants name the color of emotion and neutral words...

  19. Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Agonist Experts Sustained Neuroprotective Effects In Aged Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumners, Colin; Isenberg, Jacob; Harmel, Allison

    2016-01-01

    in preclinical studies, effects that likely involve neurotropic actions. However, these beneficial actions of C21 have not been demonstrated to occur beyond 1 week post stroke. The objective of this study was to determine if systemic administration of C21 would exert sustained neuroprotective effects in aged...... rats. DESIGN AND METHOD: Aged adult male Sprague Dawley rats (18-20 months) underwent ischemic stroke by monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and were randomly divided into two groups that received intraperitoneal (IP) injections of either 0.9% NaCl or 0.03 mg/kg C21 at reperfusion (90...... adhesive. Infarct volume tended to be non-significantly decreased by C21 treatment at 21d post-stroke. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that targeting the renin-angiotensin system, by stimulation of AT2Rs with C21, improves neurological function in aged rats with stroke over a sustained period of 21...

  20. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  1. The Effects of Storytelling on Worldview and Attitudes toward Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Grace, Patricia Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The Effects of Storytelling on Worldview and Attitudes toward Sustainable Agriculture Patricia E. Grace ABSTRACT There is evidence that the American agrifood system is a significant contributor to environmental, economic, social, and ethical-animal welfare damage to the earth and to society and is unsustainable, yet the worldview of a substantial percentage of the population conflicts with this assessment. A significant number of researchers, non-governmental organizations, and gove...

  2. Competitiveness and Sustainability Effects of Cars and their Business Models in Swedish Small Town Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhadi, Lisiana; Borén, Sven; Ny, Henrik; Larsson, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to develop and test a new approach for comparing sustainability effects (mainly approximated through CO2 emissions) and the total cost of ownership of various business models (Regular Purchasing, Car Pooling, Car Leasing, and Taxiing) applied to private cars with different energy carriers (Biogas, Ethanol, Gasoline, Plug-in Hybrid, and Electric). The results indicate that, out of all of the vehicles, electric vehicles are the most competitive—from both an ecological and econ...

  3. Effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance and gait of people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Lasa, Susana; Ferriero, Giorgio; Valero, Raquel; Gomez-Muñiz, Fernando; Rabini, Alessia; Varela, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Exercise therapy is an important part of symptomatic and supportive treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). According to the literature, equine-assisted therapies--such as therapeutic horseback riding (THR) and hippotherapy (HT)--are exercise therapies that can have positive physical effects on coordination, muscle tone, postural alignment, stiffness/flexibility, endurance and strength, correcting abnormal movement patterns and improving gait and balance. While HT is known to have a positive effect on balance in PwMS, data about THR are limited. The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of THR on the balance and gait of ambulatory PwMS. Twenty-seven PwMS were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: 12 underwent THR and 15 traditional physiotherapy (for both groups, two series of 10 weekly sessions were performed). Before and after the study period, the following outcome measures were applied: Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Barthel Index, Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA). In addition, patients of the THR group underwent a gait analysis to assess spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction forces. The THR group showed a significant improvement in POMA scores (p<0.005) and two gait parameters: stride time (p<0.04) and ground reaction forces (p<0.01). No statistically significant change was found in the control group. The results of the study show that THR can improve balance and gait of ambulatory PwMS. Findings are preliminary, but promising and in line with the recent literature.

  4. A new therapeutic effect of simvastatin revealed by functional improvement in muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Nicholas P.; Kim, Min Jeong; Bible, Kenneth L.; Adams, Marvin E.; Froehner, Stanley C.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, degenerative muscle disease with no effective treatment. DMD muscle pathogenesis is characterized by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Statins, cholesterol-lowering drugs, inhibit these deleterious processes in ischemic diseases affecting skeletal muscle, and therefore have potential to improve DMD. However, statins have not been considered for DMD, or other muscular dystrophies, principally because skeletal-muscle-related symptoms are rare, but widely publicized, side effects of these drugs. Here we show positive effects of statins in dystrophic skeletal muscle. Simvastatin dramatically reduced damage and enhanced muscle function in dystrophic (mdx) mice. Long-term simvastatin treatment vastly improved overall muscle health in mdx mice, reducing plasma creatine kinase activity, an established measure of muscle damage, to near-normal levels. This reduction was accompanied by reduced inflammation, more oxidative muscle fibers, and improved strength of the weak diaphragm muscle. Shorter-term treatment protected against muscle fatigue and increased mdx hindlimb muscle force by 40%, a value comparable to current dystrophin gene-based therapies. Increased force correlated with reduced NADPH Oxidase 2 protein expression, the major source of oxidative stress in dystrophic muscle. Finally, in old mdx mice with severe muscle degeneration, simvastatin enhanced diaphragm force and halved fibrosis, a major cause of functional decline in DMD. These improvements were accompanied by autophagy activation, a recent therapeutic target for DMD, and less oxidative stress. Together, our findings highlight that simvastatin substantially improves the overall health and function of dystrophic skeletal muscles and may provide an unexpected, novel therapy for DMD and related neuromuscular diseases. PMID:26417069

  5. Comparing the therapeutic effects of finasteride gel and tablet in treatment of the androgenetic alopecia

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    Hajheydari Zohreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride, a type P-selective 5a-reductase inhibitor, as a causative agent of decreasing dihydroxy testestrone (DHT level, is effective in the treatment of male androgenic alopecia. Aim: We compared the local and oral finasteride in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Method: This is a double blind, randomized clinical trial study of 45 male patients, who were referred with alopecia to the private clinics and departments in Boo-Ali Sina Hospital, in Sari. Patients with male androgenic alopecia were selected according to the history and physical examinations. The patients were randomly divided into two: topical finasteride (A and oral finasteride (B groups. Topical finasteride group (A received a topical gel of 1% finasteride and placebo tablets, while the oral finasteride group (B received finasteride tablets (1 mg and gel base (without drug as placebo for 6 months. The patients were followed by clinical observation and recording of side effects prior to the treatment and at the end of first week, and then by a monthly follow-up. The size of bald area, total hair count, and terminal hair were studied. Data were analyzed by descriptive and Chi-square statistical test. Results: The mean duration of hair loss was 18.8±23.10 months. Each month the terminal hair, size of bald area and hair count between the two groups were compared. There were no significant differences between the two groups as a viewpoint of hair thickness, hair counts and the size of bald area. Serial measurements indicated a significant increase in hair counts and terminal hair counts between the two groups. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the therapeutic effects of both finasteride gel and finasteride tablet were relatively similar to each other.

  6. [Comparison of the effectiveness of isokinetic vs isometric therapeutic exercise in patients with osteoarthritis of knee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Uganet Hernández; Velásquez Tlapanco, Jorge; Lara Maya, Catalina; Villarreal Ríos, Enrique; Martínez González, Lidia; Vargas Daza, Emma Rosa; Galicia Rodríguez, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic joint disease; isometric exercise leads to the development of mechanical work and isokinetic exercise leads to better joint mobility. To compare the effectiveness of isometric versus isokinetic therapeutic exercises in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Quasiexperimental study in a population of 45 to 75 year old patients with a diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Group 1 (experimental) was put under isokinetic exercises and group 2 (control) under isometric exercises. The sample size was of 33 patients per group; the allocation to the experimentation or control group was nonrandom, but stratified by degrees of knee osteoarthritis. The effectiveness of the exercise was measured in three dimensions: muscle strength, joint range and pain. The intervention lasted eight weeks and the physical activity was carried out every third day. The statistical analysis included averages, standard deviation, percentage, Chi square test, z test for two populations, t test for two independent populations and twin t test. The analysis of muscle strength comparing the categories independently demonstrates differences at 8 weeks; 33.3% of the isokinetic exercise is in the normal category and 15.2% in the isometric exercise (p= 0.04). There was not difference of joint range between groups, despite finding a stage I range in 100.0% of the isokinetic group and 97.0% in the isometric (p> 0.05) group. Pain was milder in the isokinetic exercise group at 8 weeks (p= 0.01) Isokinetic exercises have a greater effectiveness than isometric exercises for muscle strength and pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, other studies with randomized designs are needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Therapeutic effects of Hominis placenta herb-acupuncture in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat

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    MiJung Yeom

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, characterized by leukocyte infiltration, a chronic inflammation of the joint, a pannus formation and the extensive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of synovial tissue proliferation, joint destruction and programmed cell death in rheumatoid joint. In the Korean traditional medicine, Hominis placenta (HP as an herbal solution of herb-acupuncture has been widely used to treat the inflammatory diseases including RA. In order to study the medicinal effect of HP herb-acupuncture on rheumatoid joint, an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA was generated by the injection of 1.5 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emulsified in squalene, to the base of the tail of Spraque-Dawley (SD rats. After onset stage of polyarthritis, HP was daily injected to the Zusanli (ST36 acupuncture points in both of rat lags and the expression patterns of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the knee joint were analyzed using immunostaining and RT-PCR. The HP herb-acupuncture was found to be effective to alleviate the arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats as regards the joint appearance and the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, therapeutic effects of HP herb-acupuncture on the rat with AIA might be related to anti-inflammatory activities of the hurb-acupuncture.

  8. A new therapeutic effect of simvastatin revealed by functional improvement in muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Nicholas P; Kim, Min Jeong; Bible, Kenneth L; Adams, Marvin E; Froehner, Stanley C

    2015-10-13

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, degenerative muscle disease with no effective treatment. DMD muscle pathogenesis is characterized by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Statins, cholesterol-lowering drugs, inhibit these deleterious processes in ischemic diseases affecting skeletal muscle, and therefore have potential to improve DMD. However, statins have not been considered for DMD, or other muscular dystrophies, principally because skeletal-muscle-related symptoms are rare, but widely publicized, side effects of these drugs. Here we show positive effects of statins in dystrophic skeletal muscle. Simvastatin dramatically reduced damage and enhanced muscle function in dystrophic (mdx) mice. Long-term simvastatin treatment vastly improved overall muscle health in mdx mice, reducing plasma creatine kinase activity, an established measure of muscle damage, to near-normal levels. This reduction was accompanied by reduced inflammation, more oxidative muscle fibers, and improved strength of the weak diaphragm muscle. Shorter-term treatment protected against muscle fatigue and increased mdx hindlimb muscle force by 40%, a value comparable to current dystrophin gene-based therapies. Increased force correlated with reduced NADPH Oxidase 2 protein expression, the major source of oxidative stress in dystrophic muscle. Finally, in old mdx mice with severe muscle degeneration, simvastatin enhanced diaphragm force and halved fibrosis, a major cause of functional decline in DMD. These improvements were accompanied by autophagy activation, a recent therapeutic target for DMD, and less oxidative stress. Together, our findings highlight that simvastatin substantially improves the overall health and function of dystrophic skeletal muscles and may provide an unexpected, novel therapy for DMD and related neuromuscular diseases.

  9. Therapeutic effect of 0.1% Tacrolimus Eye Ointment in Allergic Ocular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barot, Rakesh K; Shitole, Satish C; Bhagat, Nupur; Patil, Deepak; Sawant, Pawan; Patil, Kalpita

    2016-06-01

    Allergic Ocular Diseases (AODs) like Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) are chronic forms of ocular allergy that can cause severe visual complications. Pathogenesis of AODs is uncertain and treatment has been a challenge for ophthalmologists. Tacrolimus, a 23-member cyclic macrolide lactone derived from [streptomyces tsukubaensis] now in ointment form has been successfully used in AODs. To study the therapeutic effect of 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment in patients with Allergic Ocular Diseases (AODs). This prospective observational study was conducted on 36 patients with severe AOD and moderate cases not responding to conventional treatment. They were treated with 0.1% tacrolimus eye ointment twice daily for minimum three months in addition to conventional treatment and observed for a period of 6 months. Symptoms and signs after treatment were evaluated. Grades of clinical signs were assessed based on slit lamp clinical photographs; development of possible complications was assessed and analysed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Mean age of patients was 9.3±4.3 years and mean duration of AODs was 3.1±1.8 years. The scores on both the four point scales for signs and symptoms decreased significantly (p<0.0001) after 1 month of 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment treatment. Itching was the first symptom to show dramatic relief and conjunctival hyperaemia was the first sign to show improvement. 88.88% of patients were successfully weaned off topical steroids in 6 months into Tacrolimus treatment. Even in patients unresponsive to 0.1% topical Cyclosporine, symptoms and signs scores decreased significantly (p<0.0001). The most common adverse reaction was a transient burning sensation (36.11%). Topical 0.1% Tacrolimus eye ointment was found to be a safe and effective treatment in cases of AODs and also worked as steroid sparing and replacing agent. It was also found effective in patient's refractory to topical Cyclosporine.

  10. Multiple emulsion-mediated enhancement of the therapeutic effect of tetrandine against silicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, D.H.; Ma, J.Y.C.; Malanga, C.J.; Banks, D.E.; Hubbs, A.F.; Rojanasakul, Y.; Castranova, V.; Ma, J.K.H. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). School of Pharmacy

    1996-07-01

    Using a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion system developed for pulmonary drug targeting, the effectiveness of tetrandrine as an antifibrotic agent and the therapeutic advantage of a tetrandrine emulsion over drug in solution for the treatment of silicosis were investigated in rats. Previously it was shown that the action of tetrandrine is attributed to its ability to inhibit the release of reactive oxygen metabolites and inflammatory cytokines by alveolar macrophages, and that targeted delivery of tetrandrine to alveolar macrophages using a multiple emulsion system minimizes drug toxicity, maintains the drug`s pharmacological activity, and enhances tetrandrine distribution in the lungs while reducing systemic drug distribution. This study provides in vivo evidence of emulsion-mediated enhancement of drug action in the lungs against silica-induced lung injury using a rat model. The antifibrotic action of tetrandrine was evaluated by examinations of lung histology, alveolar cell differentials, in vivo drug effect on macrophage respiratory burst, and the measurements of lung weight and collagen content. Tetradrine was shown to inhibit the macrophage-orchestrated inflammatory process in response to silica exposure, preventing infiltration of neutrophils into the alveolar space, it also protected the cells from silica-induced toxicity and stimulation, and restored healthy alveolar macrophage populations in the alveolar region. Intervention of the silica effect with tetrandrine markedly decreased light microscopic lung lesions. These results were supported by inhibition of a silica-induced increase in lung weight and collagen content by tetrandrine. In all experiments the tetrandrine emulsion system was shown to be consistently more efficacious than the solution dosage form in the treatment of silica-induced granulomatous pneumonia, alveolar lipoproteinosis consistent with acute silicosis, and fibrosis. 45 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Therapeutic effect of imiquimod on dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in mice.

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    Lu Chen

    Full Text Available Imiquimod is a Toll-like receptor-7 agonist that regulates immunity and can be used as an immune adjuvant. Ulcerative colitis has a close correlation with immune disorder.To investigate the therapeutic effect of imiquimod on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis and explore the underlying mechanisms.C57BL/6J C57 mice received 3% DSS for 7 days to induce ulcerative colitis. Groups of mice were intraperitoneally injected with dexamethasone (DXM, 1.5 mg/kg or imiquimod (IMQ, 30 mg/kg at the same time daily. During the experimental period, clinical signs, body weight, stool consistency and visible fecal blood were monitored and recorded daily; colitis was evaluated by disease activity index (DAI score and by histological score. At the conclusion of the experiment, the level of colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and the serum levels of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin 10 (IL-10 were measured.Administration of 3% DSS for 7 days successfully induced acute colitis associated with diarrhea, bloody mucopurulent stool, body weight decreases, and other changes. Colitis severity was significantly ameliorated in the IMQ treatment groups, as determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining and histopathological scores. Moreover, IMQ significantly reduced the activity of MPO in colonic tissue and the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, increased colon length and spleen weight, and effectively inhibited microscopic damage to the colon tissue.IMQ had beneficial effects on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis, supporting its further development and clinical application in ulcerative colitis.

  12. Comparison of therapeutic effects of liposomal Tranexamic Acid and conventional Hydroquinone on melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Zabolinejad, Naghmeh; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Salehi, Maryam; Jabari, Asma

    2015-09-01

    Melasma is one of the most common cosmetic disorders with skin darkening. Although several treatment modalities are available, none is satisfactorily used in management of this condition. Tranexamic acid (TA), a plasmin inhibitor, is reported to improve melasma when injected locally or used as oral and topical forms. The aim of this study was to compare therapeutic effects of liposomal tranexamic acid and conventional hydroquinone on melasma. Thirty women with bilateral melasma were enrolled in a split-face trial lasting 12 weeks. Patients blindly applied 5% topical liposomal TA and 4% hydroquinone cream, to the designated sides of the face twice daily in addition to the assigned sunscreen in the morning. Skin pigmentation was measured using MASI (Melasma Area and Severity Index) at each visit separately for each side at the base line and every month until one month after treatment course. Data were obtained from patients file and were analyzed statistically using SPSS software, paired samples t-test, and repeated measured ANOVA. Twenty-three patients completed the study. The mean MASI scores significantly reduced in both treated sides (P melasma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Separation of nuclear isomers for cancer therapeutic radionuclides based on nuclear decay after-effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, R.; van der Meer, A.; Das, S. K.; de Bruin, M.; Gascon, J.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Denkova, A. G.; Serra-Crespo, P.

    2017-03-01

    177Lu has sprung as a promising radionuclide for targeted therapy. The low soft tissue penetration of its β- emission results in very efficient energy deposition in small-size tumours. Because of this, 177Lu is used in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours and is also clinically approved for prostate cancer therapy. In this work, we report a separation method that achieves the challenging separation of the physically and chemically identical nuclear isomers, 177mLu and 177Lu. The separation method combines the nuclear after-effects of the nuclear decay, the use of a very stable chemical complex and a chromatographic separation. Based on this separation concept, a new type of radionuclide generator has been devised, in which the parent and the daughter radionuclides are the same elements. The 177mLu/177Lu radionuclide generator provides a new production route for the therapeutic radionuclide 177Lu and can bring significant growth in the research and development of 177Lu based pharmaceuticals.

  14. Therapeutic effects of the smartphones and pads on hyperopia amblyopia of children

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    Ze-Hong Dong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of the fine sight training with the smartphones and pads on hyperopia amblyopia of children.METHODS: One hundred and twenty children(120 eyeswith hyperopia amblyopia were randomly divided into two groups in this prospective study. All the children in these two groups received the basic treatments of spectacle correction, penalization therapy and amblyopia trainings. The treatments of red-light blinking and grating as well as traditional fine sight training were used for the children in the control group. However, the smartphones and pads were applied instead of the traditional performances for the fine sight training in the experimental group. Best corrected visual acuity of every child was tested for every 3mo, to observe the time for the visual improvement and efficacy.RESULTS: In comparison with the control group, significant shorter time(80.54±30.87d, PPZ=-2.37, P=0.02.CONCLUSION: The fine sight training with the smartphones and pads can improve vison faster than traditional methods and decrease the time of therapy in children with hyperopia amblyopia, thus providing a new strategy for the treatment of hyperopia amblyopia.

  15. Therapeutic and Radiosensitizing Effects of Armillaridin on Human Esophageal Cancer Cells

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    Chih-Wen Chi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Armillaridin (AM is isolated from Armillaria mellea. We examined the anticancer activity and radiosensitizing effect on human esophageal cancer cells. Methods. Human squamous cell carcinoma (CE81T/VGH and TE-2 and adenocarcinoma (BE-3 and SKGT-4 cell lines were cultured. The MTT assay was used for cell viability. The cell cycle was analyzed using propidium iodide staining. Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was measured by DiOC6(3 staining. The colony formation assay was performed for estimation of the radiation surviving fraction. Human CE81T/VGH xenografts were established for evaluation of therapeutic activity in vivo. Results. AM inhibited the viability of four human esophageal cancer cell lines with an estimated concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50 which was 3.4–6.9 μM. AM induced a hypoploid cell population and morphological alterations typical of apoptosis in cells. This apoptosis induction was accompanied by a reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. AM accumulated cell cycle at G2/M phase and enhanced the radiosensitivity in CE81T/VGH cells. In vivo, AM inhibited the growth of CE81T/VGH xenografts without significant impact on body weight and white blood cell counts. Conclusion. Armillaridin could inhibit growth and enhance radiosensitivity of human esophageal cancer cells. There might be potential to integrate AM with radiotherapy for esophageal cancer treatment.

  16. Therapeutic effect of frankincense in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease

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    Siamak Beheshti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Frankincense improves memory in different models of learning. However, its influence on models of Alzheimer's disease (AD has not been studied widely. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of frankincense was evaluated in a model of AD induced by i.c.v administration of streptozotocin. Materials and Methods: Under stereotaxic surgery, two guide cannulas were implanted in the lateral ventricles of adult male Wistar rats weighing 230-270 g. One group received streptozotocin (1.5 mg/kg/2μl/side bilaterally on the first and third day of surgery. Another group received artificial cerebro-spinal fluid. Fourteen days after surgery, learning was evaluated using the passive avoidance paradigm. Four other groups of animals received frankincense (50 mg/kg or its solvent after establishment of AD for 21 or 42 consecutive days, and then, memory retrieval was assessed. Results: Streptozotocin increased the number of stimulations required for induction of short-term memory and decreased step-through latency on the test day, significantly (p

  17. Therapeutic effects of D-aspartate in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

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    Sanaz Afraei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is an animal model of multiple sclerosis. EAE is mainly mediated by adaptive and innate immune responses that leads to an inflammatory demyelization and axonal damage. The aim of the present research was to examine the therapeutic efficacy of D-aspartic acid (D-Asp on a mouse EAE model. EAE induction was performed in female C57BL/6 mice by myelin 40 oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35-55 in a complete Freund's adjuvant emulsion, and D-Asp was used to test its efficiency in the reduction of EAE. During the course of study, clinical evaluation was assessed, and on Day 21, post-immunization blood samples were taken from the heart of mice for the evaluation of interleukin 6 and other chemical molecules. The mice were sacrificed, and their brain and cerebellum were removed for histological analysis. Our findings indicated that D-Asp had beneficial effects on EAE by attenuation in the severity and delay in the onset of the disease. Histological analysis showed that treatment with D-Asp can reduce inflammation. Moreover, in D-Asp-treated mice, the serum level of interleukin 6 was significantly lower than that in control animals, whereas the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher. The data indicates that D-Asp possess neuroprotective property to prevent the onset of the multiple sclerosis.

  18. A novel natural compound from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with therapeutic effects against experimental polymicrobial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Kyun; Park, Yoo Jung; Ko, Min Jung; Wang, Ziyu; Lee, Ha Young; Choi, Young Whan; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-28

    Sepsis is a serious, life-threatening, infectious disease. In this study, we demonstrate that sucrose methyl 3-formyl-4-methylpentanoate (SMFM), a novel natural compound isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.), markedly enhances survival rates by inhibiting lung inflammation in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experimental polymicrobial sepsis model. SMFM strongly reduced bacterial colony units from peritoneal fluid in CLP mice by stimulating the generation of reactive oxygen species. Lymphocyte apoptosis in spleens from CLP mice was also markedly decreased by SMFM administration. SMFM also significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6, in CLP mice. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-6 were also strongly inhibited by SMFM in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that SMFM has therapeutic effects against polymicrobial sepsis that are mediated by enhanced microbial killing and blockage of cytokine storm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Cardioprotective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide in Heart Diseases: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Potential

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    Yaqi Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is now recognized as a third gaseous mediator along with nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO, though it was originally considered as a malodorous and toxic gas. H2S is produced endogenously from cysteine by three enzymes in mammalian tissues. An increasing body of evidence suggests the involvement of H2S in different physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have shown that H2S has the potential to protect the heart against myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, hypertrophy, fibrosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure. Some mechanisms, such as antioxidative action, preservation of mitochondrial function, reduction of apoptosis, anti-inflammatory responses, angiogenic actions, regulation of ion channel, and interaction with NO, could be responsible for the cardioprotective effect of H2S. Although several mechanisms have been identified, there is a need for further research to identify the specific molecular mechanism of cardioprotection in different cardiac diseases. Therefore, insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying H2S action in the heart may promote the understanding of pathophysiology of cardiac diseases and lead to new therapeutic targets based on modulation of H2S production.

  20. The Ultrasound effects on non tumoral cell line at 1 MHz therapeutic frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giambattista, L.; Grimaldi, P.; Udroiu, I.; Pozzi, D.; Cinque, G.; Frogley, M. D.; Cassarà, A. M.; Bedini, A.; Giliberti, C.; Palomba, R.; Buogo, S.; Giansanti, A.; Congiu Castellano, A.

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate some bioeffects due to Therapeutic Ultrasound (1 MHz and 50equipment for 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes at distances of 10 and 15 cm from the source transducer, corresponding to the far field region where cm. We have worked with the maximum power in pulsed system with 75% duty cycle. Characterization of the unfocused, planar and with a circular geometry 1 MHz source transducer, was performed and the acoustics pressure was measured by a calibrated 0.5 mm needle hydrophone; moreover, the pressure field generated by the source transducer was simulated. The US effects on cells were assessed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) Imaging with focal plane array (FPA) detector. By the IR analysis, the US exposure on non tumoral cells has induced a change of the intensity for CH2 asymmetric stretching (2924 cm-1) band in the lipid region (3000-2800 cm-1) that it could detect an energy-dependent process. It has already shown that cells invest energy to catalyze lipid movement in order to maintain a specific transmembrane phospholipid distribution. Although asymmetry is the rule for control cells, the loss of asymmetry could be associated with the permeability change of plasma membrane inducing temporary pores.

  1. MUCOLYTIC AGENTS IN PEDIATRICS: RATIONAL SELECTION, THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS AND SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Simonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cough treatment options with mucolytic agents administration at the first several days of acute respiratory tract infections in children. Efficacy of treatment with secretolytic and secretomotoric drugs significantly depends on certain factors. The article contains the criteria of therapeutic efficacy of expectorants. A special attention is given to N-acetylcysteine — a direct acting mucolytic agent, which effect is caused by presence of free sulfhydryl groups, disrupting disulfide bonds between molecules of acid mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins therefore changing the structure of sputum. Acetylcysteine is active against every type of sputum (mucous, muco-purulent, purulent, that is especially important in treatment of bacterial infections, when it is necessary to quickly decrease sputum thickness, eliminate it from the respiratory tract and prevent dissemination of the infection. High efficacy of acetylcysteine is caused by its unique triple action: mucolytic, antioxidant and antitoxic. Mechanism of action of acetylcysteine is discussed in detail. Timely administered treatment will improve sputum discharge and therefore eliminate one of the main factors of bronchial obstruction and decrease the risk of microbial colonization of the respiratory tract. The article also includes indications, contraindications and dosage regimens of acetylcysteine in children. The most common mistakes and specific aspects of mucolytic drugs in pediatrics are listed in the conclusion. 

  2. In Vivo Therapeutic Effect of Vaccinium Meridionale Swartz in Ischemia-Reperfusion Induced Male Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingge; Li, Ketian; Jing, Hongying; Zheng, Linyi

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective and antioxidant effect of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz in ischemia-induced male albino Wistar strain rats. Rats were grouped into 5 of 6 numbers each. Group I served as a sham, group II served as control and group III, IV, and V served for 1, 10, and 25 mg/kg/d of an extract of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz for 15 consecutive days of treatment. Serum marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and myeloperoxidase were increased, whereas antioxidant enzymes were reduced in control due to injury. Increased phenol and anthocyanin contents and increased free radical scavenging activity was noted following treatment. Serum marker enzymes, necrosis, and lipid peroxidation, were reduced, whereas antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione were increased. Nitric oxide synthase and Akt expression were also increased following treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that Vaccinium meridionale Swartz may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic injury. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. [Recombinant thrombopoietin antiradiation therapeutic effectiveness evaluation on dogs according to hemopoiesis and survival criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhdestvenskiĭ, L M; Shliakova, T G; Shchegoleva, R A; Lisina, N I; Zorin, V V

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant human thrombopoietin (rh TPO) has been investigated as a means of acute radiation disease urgent treatment in the experiments on 24 mongrel dogs. The animals were exposed to total acute gamma-irradiation at the doses of 3.5 Gy (exceeding LD50/45 under our conditions) and 3 Gy. All the dogs including control ones received antibiotics Ampicillin and Gentamicin twice a day during the acute period from the 7th to the 21st day. TPO was injected one time s/c or i/v at the doses of5 or 10 mkg/kg 1.5-2 h after exposure. TPO at a dose of 5 mkg/kg was ineffective. TPO at a dose of 10 mkg/kg had a positive effect on the kinetics of blood forming units, especially platelets (nadir, restoration rate) in terms of the 45-day survival. As a result, in TPO groups, nadir averaged at both exposure doses on leucocytes (1.3-1.4) x 10(9)/l vs (0.70-0.75) x 10(9)/l in control groups and on thrombocytes (102-112) x 10(9)/l vs (44-33) x 10(9)/l in control ones. Despite the low number of animals in experimental groups, the results permit to regard rhTPO as a worth-while urgent therapeutic means for the acute radiation damage treatment and preventing thrombopenia.

  4. Therapeutic Effects of Static Magnetic Field on Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of static magnetic field (SMF on cutaneous wound healing of Streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats. Methods. 20 STZ-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into two groups (10 in each group: diabetic rats with SMF exposure group which were exposed to SMF by gluing one magnetic disk of 230 mT intensity and diabetic rats with sham SMF exposure group (sham group. 10 normal Wistar rats were used as the control group. One open circular wound with 2 cm diameter in the dorsum was generated on both normal and diabetic rats and then covered with sterile gauzes. Wound healing was evaluated by wound area reduction rate, mean time to wound closure, and wound tensile strength. Results. The wound area reduction rate in diabetic rats in comparison with the control group was significantly decreased (P<0.01. Compared with sham magnet group, diabetic rats under 230 mT SMF exposure demonstrated significantly accelerated wound area reduction rate on postoperative days 7, 14, and 21 and decreased gross time to wound closure (P<0.05, as well as dramatically higher wound tissue strength (P<0.05 on 21st day. Conclusion. 230 mT SMF promoted the healing of skin wound in diabetic rats and may provide a non-invasive therapeutic tool for impaired wound healing of diabetic patients.

  5. Therapeutic Effect of Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Hypervascular Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Web-based Multicenter Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Jun Hyun [St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung Sup [St. Paul' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) as a first treatment course for hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), using nationwide web-based multicenter data in Korea. Eight hundred eighty eight HCC patients who were registered in the internet homepage of primary liver cancer registry (www.plcr.or.kr) from August 2003 to August 2005 were enrolled in this study, and they were investigated till February 2007. The patients were divided into three groups according to the following treatments after first TAE; TAE only, TAE + SL (any surgical resection, transplantation or percutaneous ablation followed), TAE + RC (any radiation therapy or chemotherapy followed). The clinical and tumor characteristics, embolization factors and survival periods were analyzed. The 5-year survival rates of the groups of TAE only, TAE + SL and TAE + RC were 21.6%, 57.4%, and 13.1%, respectively. In all cases and in the TAE only group, more selective and complete embolization increased survival rates. There were tendencies that as smaller tumor and the tumor in earlier stage, more selective and complete embolizations were performed in the TAE only group, and independent prognostic factors of this group were Child-Pugh classification, tumor size and Modified 4th UICC stage. This study is the first nationwide multicenter analysis for TAE using an online registration system in Korea. Selective and complete TAE increases patient's survival, and decisive combined treatment after TAE such as surgical resection, transplantation or percutaneous ablation increases patient's survival.

  6. Therapeutic effect of frankincense in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Siamak; Aghaie, Rezvan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Frankincense improves memory in different models of learning. However, its influence on models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not been studied widely. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of frankincense was evaluated in a model of AD induced by i.c.v administration of streptozotocin. Materials and Methods: Under stereotaxic surgery, two guide cannulas were implanted in the lateral ventricles of adult male Wistar rats weighing 230-270 g. One group received streptozotocin (1.5 mg/kg/2μl/side) bilaterally on the first and third day of surgery. Another group received artificial cerebro-spinal fluid. Fourteen days after surgery, learning was evaluated using the passive avoidance paradigm. Four other groups of animals received frankincense (50 mg/kg) or its solvent after establishment of AD for 21 or 42 consecutive days, and then, memory retrieval was assessed. Results: Streptozotocin increased the number of stimulations required for induction of short-term memory and decreased step-through latency on the test day, significantly (pfrankincense for 21 days did not affect learning parameters, but injection of it for 42 days, significantly increased step-through latency (pfrankincense has the potential to improve dementia type of AD induced by i.c.v injection of streptozotocin in a time-dependent manner. PMID:27516988

  7. Therapeutic effects of acetylspiramycin and garlicin on cryptosporidiosis among drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Zhu Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis affects humans of all ages, particularly malnourished children and those with compromised immune systems such as HIV/AIDS. This study investigated the therapeutic effects of acetylspiramycin and garlicin on Cryptosporidium infection in institutionalized male drug users receiving rehabilitative treatment. Examination of stool specimens from 903 drug users via modified acid-fast bacilli staining resulted in 172 positive cases. Among them 151 subjects consented to participate in a randomized trial of acetylspiramycin and garlicin in four groups: acetylspiramycin plus garlicin, acetylspiramycin only, garlicin only, and placebo control. The cryptosporidiosis rate was higher in younger subjects with longer drug use history than subjects who are older with shorter history of drug use. After two segments of treatments, 76.2% of the cases achieved negative test results, with the four groups achieving the rates of 92.1%, 76.7%, 72.2%, and 61.8%, respectively (χ2 = 9.517, P = 0.023. These results indicate clinical potential of garlicin in conjunction with acetylspiramycin in treating cryptosporidiosis.

  8. Nanoscale triboelectric-effect-enabled energy conversion for sustainably powering portable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihong; Lin, Long; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-12-12

    Harvesting energy from our living environment is an effective approach for sustainable, maintenance-free, and green power source for wireless, portable, or implanted electronics. Mechanical energy scavenging based on triboelectric effect has been proven to be simple, cost-effective, and robust. However, its output is still insufficient for sustainably driving electronic devices/systems. Here, we demonstrated a rationally designed arch-shaped triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) by utilizing the contact electrification between a polymer thin film and a metal thin foil. The working mechanism of the TENG was studied by finite element simulation. The output voltage, current density, and energy volume density reached 230 V, 15.5 μA/cm(2), and 128 mW/cm(3), respectively, and an energy conversion efficiency as high as 10-39% has been demonstrated. The TENG was systematically studied and demonstrated as a sustainable power source that can not only drive instantaneous operation of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) but also charge a lithium ion battery as a regulated power module for powering a wireless sensor system and a commercial cell phone, which is the first demonstration of the nanogenerator for driving personal mobile electronics, opening the chapter of impacting general people's life by nanogenerators.

  9. Bixa orellana (annatto) exerts a sustained hypoglycemic effect in experimental diabetes mellitus in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Teles,Flávio; Anjos, Felipe Silveira dos; Machado, Tarcilo; Lima, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bixa orellana (annatto) is a natural pigment and food colorant that has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes. It has been suggested that annatto could have the property of reducing blood glucose levels. However, most previous studies have demonstrated a hypoglycemic effect in non-diabetic animals. We evaluated the impact of annatto on blood glucose levels in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus. METHOD: Male Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single dose of60 mg/...

  10. The Avahan Transition: Effects of Transition Readiness on Program Institutionalization and Sustained Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ozawa

    Full Text Available With declines in development assistance for health and growing interest in country ownership, donors are increasingly faced with the task of transitioning health programs to local actors towards a path to sustainability. Yet there is little available guidance on how to measure and evaluate the success of a transition and its subsequent effects. This study assesses the transition of the Avahan HIV/AIDS prevention program in India to investigate how preparations for transition affected continuation of program activities post-transition.Two rounds of two surveys were conducted and supplemented by data from government and Avahan Computerized Management Information Systems (CMIS. Exploratory factor analysis was used to develop two measures: 1 transition readiness pre-transition, and 2 institutionalization (i.e. integration of initial program systems into organizational procedures and behaviors post-transition. A fixed effects model was built to examine changes in key program delivery outcomes over time. An ordinary least square regression was used to assess the relationship between transition readiness and sustainability of service outcomes both directly, and indirectly through institutionalization.Transition readiness data revealed 3 factors (capacity, alignment and communication, on a 15-item scale with adequate internal consistency (alpha 0.73. Institutionalization was modeled as a unidimensional construct, and a 12-item scale demonstrated moderate internal consistency (alpha 0.60. Coverage of key populations and condom distribution were sustained compared to pre-transition levels (p<0.01. Transition readiness, but not institutionalization, predicted sustained outcomes post-transition. Transition readiness did not necessarily lead to institutionalization of key program elements one year after transition.Greater preparedness prior to transition is important to achieve better service delivery outcomes post-transition. This paper illustrates a

  11. Evolution of the Therapeutic Effects of Induced Local Hypothermia in Neonates with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

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    B. Basiri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is one of the most important causes of permanent damage to brain tissue that redound to mortality and/or late sequelae such as cerebral palsy or delayed neural development. 15-20 percent of Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE cases die during neonatal period and 25-30 percent of those who survive suffer from neural development problems such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Hypothermia or lowering temperature of brain or total body is a new and promising treatment. The present study was done to assess therapeutic effects of induced local hypothermia in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE among neonates admitted to Fatemieh and Beset hospitals of Hamadan city.Materials & Method: The present study was performed as a randomized clinical trial upon 36 neonates who had inclusion criteria to be imported into the study. In the first 6 hours after birth, the neonates were randomly classified into two 18 person groups. In the control group the neonates were managed with routine treatments consisted of preservative measures and anti-convulsive treatments, if necessary. In the case group the neonates received induced local hypothermia for 6 hours in addition to routine therapeutic managements. The data were analyzed using SPSS Version 13.Results: 72.7% of the neonates of the case and control groups were male. There was no significant difference between the case and control groups in sex, birth weight, gestational age and perinatal obstetric complications. The mean duration of admission was 7.72±4.23 days in the case group and 10.06±5.99 days in the control group with no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.199. The mean time of starting oral feeding was 3.44±3.11 days and 4.53±2.74 days in the control and case groups respectively and this difference was not statistically significant either (P=0.737.The mean time of regaining consciousness was 3.72±3.19 days in the case

  12. A Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Vitamin E on Testicular Tissue Damage Caused by Fluoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalili Tohid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fluoxetine is widely used in the treatment of neurological disorders. Hence, considering the adverse effects of this drug on the endocrine axes of the body is very important. Fluoxetine has been shown to cause significant changes in testicular tissue structure and sex hormones in rats. It seems that antioxidant compounds such as vitamin E can reduce free radicals and inhibit these changes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of vitamin E on testicular tissue damage caused by fluoxetine use. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 40 Wistar rats (weight = 250 ± 10 gr were randomly divided into 4 groups; control group that received normal saline (with intraperitoneal (IP method, fluoxetine group (n = 10 that received 10 mg/kg of fluoxetine (IP, vitamin E group (n = 10 that received 100 mg/kg of vitamin E (IP, and the treatment group that received both vitamin E (100 mg/kg and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg for 28 days. On the 28th day of the study testis tissue was removed and sent to the pathology lab and blood samples were taken for analyzing of testosterone and total antioxidant capacity. Results: The highest testosterone levels are related to the control group and the lowest levels are related to the fluoxetine receiving group. Significant differences were observed between sperm density in the seminiferous tubes, spermatogonia cells, and primary spermatocyte, and leydig and sertoli cells in the experimental groups compared to the control group after a 28-day period. Conclusion: Fluoxetine can damage the leydig cells and decrease activity of testis and production of testosterone, but vitamin E can repair the leydig cells and reduce damages caused by fluoxetine.

  13. Therapeutic Effects of Mechanical Horseback Riding on Gait and Balance Ability in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun Young; Kim, Shin Kyoung; Chung, Jin Sang; Lee, Hyun-Cheol; Lim, Jae Kuk; Lee, Jiwon; Park, Kawn Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of mechanical horseback riding for gait and balance parameters in post-stroke patients. Method This study was a non randomized prospective positive-controlled trial over a 12 week period. From May 2011 to October 2011, 37 stroke patients were recruited from our outpatient clinic and divided into two groups. The control group received the conventional physiotherapy while the intervention group received the conventional physiotherapy along with mechanical horseback riding therapy for 12 weeks. Outcome measurements of gait included the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) and gait part of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (G-POMA) while those of balance included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the balance part of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (B-POMA). These measurements were taken before and after treatment. Results There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics and initial values between the two groups. When comparing baseline and 12 weeks post treatment in each group, the intervention group showed significant improvement on BBS (39.9±5.7 → 45.7±4.8, p=0.001) and B-POMA (10.4±2.6 → 12.6±2.1, p=0.001), but significant improvement on gait parameters. When comparing the groups, the dynamic balance category of BBS in post treatment showed significant difference (p=0.02). Conclusion This study suggests that mechanical horseback riding therapy may be an effective treatment tool for enhancing balance in adults with stroke. PMID:23342307

  14. Transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma invading the portal veins: therapeutic effects and prognostic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uraki, Junji; Yamakado, Koichiro E-mail: yama@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takeda, Kan

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: This retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invading the portal veins and to identify prognostic factors. Materials and methods: Sixty-one patients underwent chemoembolization. The HCC had invaded the main portal vein in 23 patients, a first-order branch in 25 patients and a second-order branch in 13 patients. The hepatic arteries feeding the tumors were embolized with gelatin sponge after a mixture of iodized oil and anticancer drugs was injected via these vessels. Tumor response was evaluated by measuring tumor sizes on CT images. A reduction in maximum diameter of 25% or more was considered to indicate response to chemoembolization. Significant prognostic factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Tumor size was reduced by 25% or more in 26 patients (43%). The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 42, 11 and 3%, respectively, with mean survival of 15 months in all patients. In the univariate analysis, the following six variables were significantly associated with prognosis: (i) tumor response; (ii) ascites; (iii) accumulation of iodized oil in tumor thrombi; (iv) in main tumors; (v) Okuda classification; and (vi) tumor size. In the multivariate analysis, the first three of these factors showed significantly independent values for patient prognosis. Conclusion: Chemoembolization appears to be an effective treatment for HCCs invading the portal venous system. The prognostic factors identified here are expected to be helpful in classifying patients with HCCs invading the portal veins and should serve as useful guidelines for chemoembolization in clinical practice.

  15. Secretome Conveys the Protective Effects of ASCs: Therapeutic Potential Following Hemorrhagic Shock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmwe, Mostafa; Penzenstadler, Carina; Bahrami, Arian; Klotz, Anton; Jafarmadar, Mohammad; Banerjee, Asmita; Wolbank, Susanne; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl

    2017-11-03

    We tested whether resuscitation supplemented with a) rat adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) or b) secretome (conditioned media) of ASCs can ameliorate inflammation, cell/organ injury, and/or improve outcome after Hemorrhagic traumatic shock (HTS). Rats were subjected to HTS and a resuscitation protocol that mimics pre-hospital restrictive reperfusion followed by an adequate reperfusion phase. 20 minutes into the restrictive reperfusion, animals received an intravenous bolus of 2x10 cells (ASC group) or the secretome produced by 2x10 ASCs/24 h (ASC-Secretome group). Controls received the vehicle (Vehicle group). All rats were observed for 28-day survival. HTS-induced inflammation represented by IL-6 was inhibited in the ASC (80%, p < 0.001) and in ASC-Secretome (59%, p < 0.01) group at 48 h compared to Vehicle group. At 24 h, HTS-induced liver injury reflected in plasma alanine aminotransferase was ameliorated by 36% (p < 0.001) in both the ASC and ASC-Secretome groups when compared to the Vehicle. There was no effect on kidney function and/or general cell injury markers. HTS-induced a moderate 28-day mortality (18%) that was prevented (p = 0.08) in the ASC but not in the ASC-Secretome group (12%). Our data suggest that the ASC-secretome supplemented resuscitation following HTS, in absence of the stem cells, exerts anti-inflammatory and liver protective effects. Given its ease of preparation, storage, availability and application (in contrast to the stem cells) we believe that the cell free secretome has a better therapeutic potential in the early phase of an acute hemorrhagic shock scenario.

  16. [Long-term therapeutic effects of tracheotomy on children with recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya-li; Zhang, Tie-song

    2012-12-01

    To explore the long-term therapeutic effects of tracheotomy on juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in children. Between 1993 and 2007, 86 cases of juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JRRP) in children were encounted and divided into tracheotomy group and conventional surgery group, the clinical data of these children were retrospectively analyzed. There were 29 cases in tracheotomy group, the time of carrying tracheal casing pipe was 13 - 66.5 months, the operative times of every case was 4 - 9 times (median 7), there were 27 cases with more than 2 years release after extubation. There were 2 cases with tumor dissemination into incision of trachea and endotracheal, one case lost to follow up and the other one dead. No case developed laryngotracheal stenosis and severe complication. There were 57 cases in conventional surgery group, the operation times of every case was 9 - 32 times (median 18). Fifty-three cases with no recurrence after follow up for more than one year; 2 cases with trachea tumor dissemination, and after operation, no recurrence after 2 years follow up. Two cases with endotracheal dissemination, one case lost to follow up and the other one dead. No case developed laryngotracheal stenosis and severe complication. The voice assessment result of tracheotomy group was obviously better than that in the conventional surgery group, the difference had statistical significance (χ(2) = 33.16, P 0.05). Tracheotomy significantly reduce the operative times, give the greatest degree of preservation of laryngeal function, and it do not increase the tumor dissemination into trachea. Tracheotomy is an effective method of treatment in children with a high rate of recurrence, and with poor economic conditions, and difficult to follow-up. It can improve the long-term life quality of the children.

  17. The therapeutic effects of docosahexaenoic acid on oestrogen/androgen-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Bioactive Materials Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Luo, Fei [Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin 300211 (China); Zhou, Ying; Du, Xiaoling; Shi, Jiandang; Zhao, Xiaoling [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Bioactive Materials Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Xu, Yong [Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin 300211 (China); Zhu, Yan [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193 (China); Hong, Wei, E-mail: hongwei@tijmu.edu.cn [Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhang, Ju, E-mail: zhangju@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Bioactive Materials Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the major disorders of the urinary system in elderly men. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the main component of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and has nerve protective, anti-inflammatory and tumour-growth inhibitory effects. Here, the therapeutic potential of DHA in treating BPH was investigated. Seal oil effectively prevented the development of prostatic hyperplasia induced by oestradiol/testosterone in a rat model by suppressing the increase of the prostatic index (PI), reducing the thickness of the peri-glandular smooth muscle layer, inhibiting the proliferation of both prostate epithelial and stromal cells, and downregulating the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor α (ERα). An in vitro study showed that DHA inhibited the growth of the human prostate stromal cell line WPMY-1 and the epithelial cell line RWPE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In both cell lines, the DHA arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. In addition, DHA also reduced the expression of ERα and AR in the WPMY-1 and RWPE-1 cells. These results indicate that DHA inhibits the multiplication of prostate stromal and epithelial cells through a mechanism that may involve cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of ERα and AR expression. - Highlights: • Seal oil prevents oestradiol/testosterone (E2/T)-induced BPH in castrated rats. • Seal oil downregulates the expression of oestrogen receptor α(ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) in rat BPH tissues. • DHA inhibits the growth of human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in vitro. • DHA arrests human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in the G2/M phase and downregulates the expression of cyclin B1. • DHA inhibits the expression of ERα and AR in human prostate stromal and epithelial cells.

  18. Immunoprotective effect of von Willebrand factor towards therapeutic factor VIII in experimental haemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delignat, S; Repessé, Y; Navarrete, A-M; Meslier, Y; Gupta, N; Christophe, O D; Kaveri, S V; Lacroix-Desmazes, S

    2012-03-01

    The development of inhibitory anti-factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies in patients with haemophilia A following replacement therapy is associated with several types of risk factors. Among these, the purity of FVIII concentrates, and in particular the presence of von Willebrand factor (VWF), was controversially proposed to influence the immunogenicity of exogenous FVIII. We re-assessed in vivo and in vitro the immuno-protective effect of VWF towards FVIII. The immuno-protective effect of VWF towards FVIII was investigated in vivo, in a model of haemophilia A. We studied the endocytosis of FVIII by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and evaluated the capacity of VWF to block the internalization of FVIII. We characterized the relevance of VWF for the accumulation of FVIII in the marginal zone of the spleen, a secondary lymphoid organ where the immune response to therapeutically administered FVIII initiates. Our results confirm that VWF reduces the immunogenicity of FVIII in FVIII-deficient mice. Paradoxically, VWF is important for the accumulation of FVIII in the marginal zone of the spleen. We propose that VWF exerts at least two non-mutually exclusive immunoprotective roles towards FVIII in haemophilic mice: VWF prevents the endocytosis of FVIII by professional antigen-presenting cells by blocking the interaction of FVIII with as yet unidentified endocytic receptor(s). Hypothetically, VWF, by virtue of increasing the half-life of FVIII in the circulation, may allow an increased contact time with tolerogenic marginal zone B cells in the spleen. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Therapeutic effects of soluble dietary fiber consumption on type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunye; Zeng, Yuan; Xu, Jing; Zheng, Hongting; Liu, Jun; Fan, Rong; Zhu, Wenyi; Yuan, Lijia; Qin, Yu; Chen, Shihui; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Ying; Wan, Jing; Mi, Mantian; Wang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Soluble dietary fiber (DF) reduces the risk of developing diabetes and may have therapeutic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The present study aimed to investigate the effect of soluble DF on metabolic control in patients with DM2. A total of 117 patients with DM2 between the ages of 40 and 70 were assessed. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, and administered extra soluble DF (10 or 20 g/day), or to a control group (0 g/day) for one month. Blood glucose, serum insulin and connecting peptide (C-peptide) levels, and the insulin resistance index, as determined using the homeostatic model assessment method, were measured during fasting and up to 2-h postprandially prior to and following one month of treatment. Other measurements included serum levels of glycated albumin (GA), blood lipid profiles, and an analysis of the blood pressure, body weight and waist/hip ratio of all patients. Following intervention, the levels of 2-h blood glucose, fasting insulin and lipoprotein(a), and the insulin resistance index, were significantly improved in all groups. Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose, 2-h insulin, fasting C-peptide, 2-h C-peptide, GA and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly improved in the soluble DF groups. The 20 g/day soluble DF group exhibited significantly improved fasting blood glucose and low-density lipoprotein levels, as well as a significantly improved insulin resistance index. In addition, 10 and 20 g/day soluble DF significantly improved the waist and hip circumferences and levels of TGs and apolipoprotein A. The results of the present study suggested that increased and regular consumption of soluble DF led to significant improvements in blood glucose levels, insulin resistance and metabolic profiles, without improving the secretory function of the islets of Langerhans, over a short-term intervention period in patients with DM2.

  20. Therapeutic effect of nisin Z on subclinical mastitis in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junqiang; Hu, Songhua; Cao, Liting

    2007-09-01

    Bovine subclinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial intramammary infection, accounting for large economic losses. Treatment of subclinical mastitis is not suggested for lactating cows due to the risk of milk contamination. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into nisin-treated (n = 46) and control (n = 44) groups. In the nisin-treated group, cows received an intramammary infusion of nisin at a dose of 2,500,000 IU once daily for 3 days while the control cows received no treatment. Milk samples were collected from the affected mammary quarters before treatment and 1 and 2 weeks after treatment for analyses of bacteria, somatic cells, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase). Results indicated that nisin therapy had bacteriological cure rates of 90.1% for Streptococcus agalactiae (10 of 11), 50% for Staphylococcus aureus (7 of 14), 58.8% for coagulase-negative staphylococci (7 of 17), and 65.2% for all cases (30 of 46). Meanwhile, only 15.9% (7 of 44) of untreated cows spontaneously recovered. NAGase activity in milk samples and the number of mammary quarters with a milk somatic cell count of > or =500,000/ml were significantly decreased after nisin treatment while no significant changes took place in the control group. Because of its therapeutic effects on bovine subclinical mastitis, as well as its safety in humans, nisin deserves further study to clarify its effects on mastitis caused by different pathogens.

  1. Therapeutic effect of ethyl acetate extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis on phthalic anhydride-induced skin inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Go, Jun; Seo, Eun-Ji; Yun, Woo-Bin; Kim, Dong-Seob; Son, Hong-Joo; Lee, Chung-Yeoul; Lee, Hee-Seob; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2016-03-01

    Asparagus cochinchinensis has been used to treat various diseases including fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease, while IL-4 cytokine has been considered as key regulator on the skin homeostasis and the predisposition toward allergic skin inflammation. However, few studies have investigated its effects and IL-4 correlation on skin inflammation to date. To quantitatively evaluate the suppressive effects of ethyl acetate extracts of A. cochinchinensis (EaEAC) on phthalic anhydride (PA)-induced skin inflammation and investigate the role of IL-4 during their action mechanism, alterations in general phenotype biomarkers and luciferase-derived signals were measured in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic (Tg) mice with PA-induced skin inflammation after treatment with EaEAC for 2 weeks. Key phenotype markers including lymph node weight, immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, epidermis thickness and number of infiltrated mast cells were significantly decreased in the PA+EaEAC treated group compared with the PA+Vehicle treated group. In addition, expression of IL-1β and TNF-α was also decreased in the PA+EaEAC cotreated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the luciferase signal derived from IL-4 promoter was detected in the abdominal region, submandibular lymph node and mesenteric lymph node of the PA+EaEAC treated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that EaEAC treatment could successfully improve PA-induced skin inflammation of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice, and that IL-4 cytokine plays a key role in the therapeutic process of EaEAC.

  2. Therapeutic effects of Aloe spp. in traditional and modern medicine: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, Maryam; Sobhani, Zahra; Javadi, Behjat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Traditional medicine is a useful guide in medical sciences. In the Islamic Iranian traditional medicine, the medicinal properties of many plants have been mentioned that could be exploited in drug discovery. We aimed to explore the nature and properties of Aloe spp. As described in some major Islamic traditional texts including Ferdows al-Hekmah fi'l-Tibbe (The Paradise of Wisdom in Medicine), Al-Hawi fi'l-Tibb (Comprehensive Book of Medicine), Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyyah (Complete Book of the Medical Art), Al-Qanun fi'l-Tibb (Canon of Medicine), Zakhireh Kharazmshahi (Treasure of Kharazmshah), and Makhzan al-Adwiah (Drug Treasure), and assess the conformity of traditional medicine instructions with the findings of modern pharmacological studies. Gastrointestinal activities, hepato-protective properties, beneficial effects against skin problems such as wounds, injuries, and infective diseases are among the most frequently mentioned properties of Aloe spp. Several activities of Aloe spp. described in traditional medicine have been the subject of recent in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials. Owing to the positive findings, different preparations of Aloe spp. are now present in pharmaceutical markets such as Aloe cosmetic products. On the other hand, there are many traditional therapeutic effects of Aloe spp. which have not been studied and require confirmatory experimental or clinical investigations. It is hoped that the present study could stimulate further research on the unexplored aspects of the medicinal properties of Aloe spp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Valuing Clients' Perspective and the Effects on the Therapeutic Alliance: A Randomized Controlled Study of an Adjunctive Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluckiger, Christoph; Del Re, A. C.; Wampold, Bruce E.; Znoj, Hansjorg; Caspar, Franz; Jorg, Urs

    2012-01-01

    The patterns of growth and development of the therapeutic alliance over the course of therapy have been of continued interest to psychotherapy researchers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a simple institutional metacommunication intervention with clients had an effect on the development of the alliance. This adjunctive…

  4. Effects of a Program of Adapted Therapeutic Horse-Riding in a Group of Autism Spectrum Disorder Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Andrés; Risco, Manuel López; Rubio, Jesús Carlos; Guerrero, Eloisa; García-Peña, Inés Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of horses in therapy has a fairly long history. There are many references to the therapeutic benefits of this activity. Such therapies have been undergoing a boom internationally in recent years. However scientific research into the effective use of this activity in children with autism is still in the early stages of…

  5. Offloading effect of therapeutic footwear in patients with diabetic neuropathy at high risk for plantar foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, M. L. J.; Waaijman, R.; de Haart, M.; Keukenkamp, R.; Nollet, F.; Bus, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Diabet. Med. 29, 15341541 (2012) Abstract Aims Custom-made therapeutic footwear is often prescribed to patients with diabetic neuropathy, foot deformity and a healed plantar foot ulcer. Offloading these feet is important to prevent ulcer recurrence. The aim was to evaluate the offloading effect of

  6. Diagnostic and therapeutic path of breast cancer: effectiveness, appropriateness, and costs – results from the DOCMa study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovagnoli MR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli,1 Adriana Bonifacino,2 Cosimo Neglia,3 Marco Benvenuto,3,4 Francesco Vincenzo Sambati,3 Lorenzo Giolli,5 Alessandra Giovagnoli,6 Prisco Piscitelli7,8 1Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, 2Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Sant’Andrea University Hospital, Rome, 3Euro Mediterranean Scientific Biomedical Institute (ISBEM, Brindisi, 4Department of Economics, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, 5eCampus University, Novedrate, 6Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, 7Coleman Ltd, 8IOS, Southern Italy Hospital Institute, Naples, ItalyObjective: An increase in breast cancer incidence has been documented in Italy and in other countries, and some women decide by themselves to undergo diagnostic examinations outside the official screening campaigns. The aim of this paper was to analyze – in terms of effectiveness, appropriate access, and related costs – the path spontaneously followed by a sample of Italian women for the early diagnosis of breast cancer.Subjects and methods: A total of 143 women who consecutively referred themselves to the breast cancer outpatient facilities at the Sant’Andrea University Hospital in Rome from May to June 2007 were enrolled in the study, gave their consent, and were screened according to their individual risk factors for breast cancer. The entire diagnostic and therapeutic path followed in the previous 2 years by each of them, either at Sant’Andrea or in other medical facilities, was reviewed and evaluated in terms of its operative efficiency and fair economic value.Results: The subjects’ mean age was 47.5 years (standard deviation 13.6 years; 55% of the women were <50 years old (28% <40 years, and were thus not included in the official screening campaigns; 97 women (70% were requesting a routine control; and 49% of them had already undergone four to seven examinations before the

  7. The therapeutic effects of the physician-older patient relationship: Effective communication with vulnerable older patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer L Williams

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Summer L Williams, Kelly B Haskard, M Robin DiMatteoDepartment of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA Abstract: There is growing evidence that the outcomes of health care for seniors are dependent not only upon patients’ physical health status and the administration of care for their biomedical needs, but also upon care for patients’ psychosocial needs and attention to their social, economic, cultural, and psychological vulnerabilities. Even when older patients have appropriate access to medical services, they also need effective and empathic communication as an essential part of their treatment. Older patients who are socially isolated, emotionally vulnerable, and economically disadvantaged are particularly in need of the social, emotional, and practical support that sensitive provider-patient communication can provide. In this review paper, we examine the complexities of communication between physicians and their older patients, and consider some of the particular challenges that manifest in providers’ interactions with their older patients, particularly those who are socially isolated, suffering from depression, or of minority status or low income. This review offers guidelines for improved physician-older patient communication in medical practice, and examines interventions to coordinate care for older patients on multiple dimensions of a biopsychosocial model of health care.Keywords: physician-patient communication, adherence, health outcomes, vulnerable populations

  8. Political Will for Effective Reform Management and Sustainable Development Goals Achievement in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Political will is important for effective and sustainable reform management because anticorruption reforms must focus on the internal management of public sector resources to reduce incentives and opportunities for corruption and mismanagement. It is the driver of a robust private sector, resilient media, vibrant civil society, transparent judiciary and good administrative reforms that lead to national integrity and sustainable development. The absence of political will is responsible for a situation where it is estimated that one out of every six out-of-school children worldwide is a Nigerian, and which brings to more than 10 million, the number of Nigerian children that are out-of-school. Consequently, the ranking of Nigeria as 39th out of 54 African countries in overall governance is a reflection of lack of political will, weak leadership and overall governance. This must be overcome as the world heads towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals 2030 Agenda. The sample comprised of 494 participants generated from a cross section of the population in Nigeria. Data were analyzed through descriptive and Chi-Square statistical methods. It was found that effective reform management in Nigeria requires political will.

  9. Assessing Program Sustainability in an Eating Disorder Prevention Effectiveness Trial Delivered by College Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Butryn, Meghan L.; Stice, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability of the Body Project, a dissonance-based selective eating disorder prevention program supported by efficacy and effectiveness trials, has not previously been examined. This mixed-methods study collected qualitative and quantitative data on training, supervision, and the intervention from 27 mental health clinicians from eight US universities who participated in an effectiveness trial and quantitative data on 2-year sustainability of program delivery. Clinicians, who were primarily masters-level mental health providers, had limited experience delivering manualized interventions. They rated the training and manual favorably, noting that they particularly liked the role-plays of session activities and intervention rationale, but requested more discussion of processes and group management issues. Clinicians were satisfied receiving emailed supervision based on videotape review. They reported enjoying delivering the Body Project but reported some challenges with the manualized format and time constraints. Most clinicians anticipated running more groups after the study ended but only four universities (50%) reported providing additional Body Project groups at the 1-year follow-up assessment and sustained delivery of the groups decreased substantially two years after study completion, with only one university (12%) continuing to deliver groups. The most commonly reported barriers for conducting additional groups were limited time and high staff turnover. PMID:26143559

  10. Effects of the application of therapeutic massage in children with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González-Sánchez, Blanca; Torres-Piles, Silvia; Martín, Jorge Guerrero; Jiménez-Palomares, María; Bellino, Macarena Núñez

    2017-06-08

    to learn about the effects of the use of therapeutic massage in children with cancer. systematic review of controlled clinical trials The search was conducted in November 2014 in the following databases: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane and PEDro. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials, published in English or Spanish, analyzing the effects of massage on the different stages and types of childhood cancer (between 1 and 18 years old). of 1007 articles found, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Their authors use different massage techniques (Swedish massage, effleurage, petrissage, frictions, pressures), obtaining benefits in the symptoms present during the illness (decrease of pain, nausea, stress, anxiety and increase of white blood cells and neutrophils). therapeutic massage improves the symptoms of children with cancer, but there is a need for more research that may support the effects attributed to it. conocer los efectos del uso del masaje terapéutico en niños con cáncer. revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos controlados la búsqueda se llevó a cabo en noviembre de 2014 en las bases de datos científicas: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane y PEDro. Los criterios de inclusión han sido: ensayos clínicos, publicados en inglés o español, en los que se analizaran los efectos del masaje en las diferentes etapas y tipos de cáncer infantil (entre 1 y 18 años). de 1007 artículos localizados, 7 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Sus autores utilizan diferentes técnicas de masaje (masaje sueco, effleurage, petrissage, fricciones, presiones), obteniendo beneficios en los síntomas presentes durante la enfermedad (disminución del dolor, náuseas, estrés, ansiedad y aumento de glóbulos blancos y neutrófilos). el masaje terapéutico mejora los síntomas de los niños con cáncer, que respalden los efectos que se le atribuyen. conhecer os efeitos do uso da massagem terapêutica em crianças com câncer. revisão sistemática de ensaios cl

  11. Naproxen release from sustained release matrix system and effect of cellulose derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Muhammad Khan; Rehman, Nisar Ur; Mohsin, Sabeeh

    2006-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the low viscosity grades of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and ethyl cellulose (EC) in sustaining the release of water insoluble drug, naproxen from the matrix tablets. Both HPMC and EC were incorporated in the matrix system separately or in combinations by wet granulation technique. In vitro dissolution studies indicated that EC significantly reduced the rate of drug release compared to HPMC in 12 hour testing time. But, no significant difference was observed in the release profiles of matrix tablets made by higher percentages of EC. The tablets prepared with various combinations of HPMC and EC also failed to produce produce the desired release profiles. However, comparatively linear and desirable sustained release was obtained from EC-based matrix tablets prepared by slightly modifying the granulation method. Moreover, two different compression forces used in tableting had no remarkable effect on the release profile of naproxen.

  12. Considering Background Condition Effects in Tailoring Tropical Forest Management Systems for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Hammond

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems devised for managing tropical forests sustainably have yet to prove successful. In many instances, they have fallen short of initial prospects, but the reasons for these shortfalls are often not apparent. Here, we explore factors that can shape the likelihood of success, collectively referred to as background conditions, which are not always adequately considered prior to selecting a suitable management system. We examine the ability of one background condition, geologic terrane, to explain crude spatial variation in a number of trailing indicators of varying forest land use. Forest areas on Precambrian and Phanerozoic terranes show significant differences in production of fossil hydrocarbons, gold, and tropical roundwood, among other indicators, even after considering regional effects. Background conditions are considered to be factors capable of quantifying spatial variation in the likelihood of achieving management success given predefined benchmarks of sustainability. A number of avenues for further exploring and discriminating spatial variation of background conditions are discussed.

  13. Effects of Population Growth and Climate Variability on Sustainable Groundwater in Mali, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lutz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is increasingly relied on as a source of potable water in developing countries, but factors such as population growth, development, and climate variability, pose potential challenges for ongoing sustainable supply. The effect of these factors on the groundwater system was considered in four scenarios using a numerical model to represent the Bani area of Mali, West Africa. By 2040, population growth, climate variability, and development as urbanization, agriculture, and industry creates scenarios in which groundwater extraction is an increasingly larger percentage of the groundwater system. Consumption from agriculture and industry increases extraction rates from less than 1 to 3.8% of mean annual precipitation, which will likely affect the groundwater system. For instance, concentrated pumping in local areas may result in water level declines. The results of this study contribute to an ongoing evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources in West Africa.

  14. Effect of mixing proportion on the properties of seaweed modified sustainable concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Md Nurul Islam; Wahid, Zularisam bin Abd

    2017-10-01

    Although the application of organic polymer has already been reported in the development of polymer modification process the use of carbohydrate polymer hasn't been reported till date. The effect of mixing ratio of seaweed modified mortar on the properties of sustainable concrete was investigated. A number of mixing ratios of seaweed (gel) with cement, sand and water (such as 0.1; 0.6; 1.1; 6) was studied in this work. In addition, a range of mixing ratios of seaweed (powder) with cement, sand and water (such as 0.1; 0.3; 0.6; 1.1; 2.1, 5.1) was examined. The performance of the seaweed modified sustainable concrete was evaluated by compressive and splitting strength. Results revealed that seaweed modified concrete with mixing ratio (0.6) was optimum. This ratio produced significant compressive and splitting strength of 30 MPa and 5 MPa for 28 days, respectively.

  15. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

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    Linda STEG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  16. [Clinical observation on therapeutic effect of cupping combined with acupuncture stimulation at trigger points for lumbar myofascial pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong

    2014-08-01

    To observe the clinical effect of cupping combined with acupuncture stimulation of trigger points on lumbar myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Sixty MPS patients were randomly divided into acupuncture + TDP group (n = 30), and cupping + acupuncture group (n = 30). Patients in the acupuncture + TDP group were treated by acupuncture stimulation of trigger points and local TDP irradiation, and patients of the cupping + acupuncture group treated by intensive cupping applied to the myofascial band and acupuncture stimulation of the locus according to the position of muscular tension band. The therapeutic effects were assessed according to the score of the McGill pain questionnaire composing of pain rating index (PRI), visual analogue scale (VAS) and present pain intensity (PPI) before, immediately and 1 month after the treatment. After the treatment, the total effective rates of the acupuncture+ TDP and cupping + acupuncture groups were 83.3% (25/30) and 96.6% (29/30), respectively, without significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). One month's follow-up showed that the total effective rates of the acupuncture + TDP and cupping + acupuncture groups were 40.0% and 90.0% respectively, and the latter group was significantly better than the acupuncture + TDP group in the therapeutic effect (P cupping + acupuncture group were obviously lower than those of the acupuncture group (P cupping plus acupuncture can effectively relieve pain in MPS patients, while the therapeutic effect of cupping plus acupuncture treatment lasts longer analgesic effect.

  17. Alkali-Activated Mortars for Sustainable Building Solutions: Effect of Binder Composition on Technical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Attanasio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the construction sector in the use of sustainable binders as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement, the production of which is highly impacting on the environment, due to high carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption. Alkali-activated binders, especially those resulting from low-cost industrial by-products, such as coal fly ash or metallurgical slag, represent a sustainable option for cement replacement, though their use is more challenging, due to some technological issues related to workability or curing conditions. This paper presents sustainable alkali-activated mortars cured in room conditions and based on metakaolin, fly ash, and furnace slag (both by-products resulting from local sources and relevant blends, aiming at their real scale application in the building sector. The effect of binder composition—gradually adjusted taking into consideration technical and environmental aspects (use of industrial by-products in place of natural materials in the view of resources saving—on the performance (workability, compressive strength of different mortar formulations, is discussed in detail. Some guidelines for the design of cement-free binders are given, taking into consideration the effect of each investigated alumino-silicate component. The technical feasibility to produce the mortars with standard procedures and equipment, the curing in room conditions, the promising results achieved in terms of workability and mechanical performance (from 20.0 MPa up to 52.0 MPa, confirm the potential of such materials for practical applications (masonry mortars of class M20 and Md. The cement-free binders resulting from this study can be used as reference for the development of mortars and concrete formulations for sustainable building materials production.

  18. Effects of an acute therapeutic or rewarding dose of amphetamine on acquisition of Pavlovian autoshaping and ventral striatal dopamine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuweiler, D R; Athens, J M; Thompson, J M; Vazhayil, S T; Garris, P A

    2018-01-15

    Rewarding doses of amphetamine increase the amplitude, duration, and frequency of dopamine transients in the ventral striatum. Debate continues at the behavioral level about which component of reward, learning or incentive salience, is signaled by these dopamine transients and thus altered in addiction. The learning hypothesis proposes that rewarding drugs result in pathological overlearning of drug-predictive cues, while the incentive sensitization hypothesis suggests that rewarding drugs result in sensitized attribution of incentive salience to drug-predictive cues. Therapeutic doses of amphetamine, such as those used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, are hypothesized to enhance the ventral striatal dopamine transients that are critical for reward-related learning and to enhance Pavlovian learning. However, the effects of therapeutic doses of amphetamine on Pavlovian learning are poorly understood, and the effects on dopamine transients are completely unknown. We determined the effects of an acute pre-training therapeutic or rewarding amphetamine injection on the acquisition of Pavlovian autoshaping in the intact rat. We also determined the effects of these doses on electrically evoked transient-like dopamine signals using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the anesthetized rat. The rewarding dose enhanced the amplitude and duration of DA signals, caused acute task disengagement, impaired learning for several days, and triggered incentive sensitization. The therapeutic dose produced smaller enhancements in DA signals but did not have similar behavioral effects. These results underscore the necessity of more studies using therapeutic doses, and suggest a hybrid learning/incentive sensitization model may be required to explain the development of addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The conceptual imperfection of aquatic risk assessment tests: highlighting the need for tests designed to detect therapeutic effects of pharmaceutical contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Jonsson, Micael; Fick, Jerker; Sundelin, Anna; Brodin, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    .... This methodological bias, generated from assays where mortality in the control group is systematically disregarded, makes it difficult to measure therapeutic effects of pharmaceutical contaminants...

  20. Finasteride adverse effects in subjects with androgenic alopecia: A possible therapeutic approach according to the lateralization process of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Georgescu, Simona R; Tampa, Mircea; Baconi, Daniela; Stefanescu, Emil; Baleanu, Bogdan C; Balalau, Cristian; Constantin, Vlad; Paunica, Stana

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, finasteride is a relatively frequently prescribed drug in the therapeutic management of male androgenic alopecia. The reported adverse effects are notable in some patients, consisting in signs and symptoms that are encountered both during finasteride administration and after treatment cessation. Clinical and imagistic data show that cognition and sexuality are two distinct but interrelated environmental functions, most probable due to lateralization process of the brain. Specific for our topic, relatively recent published studies found that frequency and severity of finasteride adverse effects could be interrelated with hand preference and sexual orientation of the respective subjects. This paper tries to explain/support this interrelation through a psychophysiologic approach, to suggest how this premise could be further proved in dermatological practice, and to highlight its relevance in respect to therapeutic approach of male androgenic alopecia. As a possible therapeutic application, subjects having preference for a certain sexual orientation and/or predisposition for a given dominant hand could be advised before finasteride administration, that present an increased risk/sensitivity to develop adverse effects. Finally, even if finasteride and post-finasteride symptoms overlap to a large extent they should be, however, viewed as distinct physiopathologic entities, which could require perhaps different therapeutic approaches.

  1. Therapeutic effect of bilastine in Japanese cedar pollinosis using an artificial exposure chamber (OHIO Chamber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Kazuhiro; Wakabayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Togawa, Michinori; Saito, Akihiro; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2017-01-01

    Environmental exposure chambers have been used to expose subjects to aeroallergens to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic treatment with symptomatic agents in Japan. We first examined the therapeutic effect of bilastine (BIL), a novel non-sedative second-generation H 1 -antihistamine, in subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis using an artificial exposure chamber (OHIO Chamber). This was a randomized, double-blind, four-way crossover, placebo- and active-controlled phase II study (trial registration number JapicCTI-132213). Subjects were exposed to cedar pollen (8000 grains/m 3 ) for 2 h on Day -1 and 4 h each on Day 1 and 2. BIL 10 or 20 mg, placebo, or fexofenadine hydrochloride (FEX) 60 mg was administered orally 1 h after the start of pollen exposure on Day 1. Placebo or FEX was administered 12 h after the first dosing. The primary efficacy endpoint was the sum of total nasal symptom score (TNSS) from 0 to 3 h after the Day 1 dosing. We enrolled 136 subjects and the sum of TNSS on Day 1 of the three active treatments was significantly lower than that of placebo and was maintained up to 26 h after the first dosing (Day 2). The sum of TNSS or sneezing score on Day 1 after BIL 20 mg was more significantly decreased than after FEX. Moreover, BIL showed a faster onset of action than FEX. We demonstrated the efficacy, rapid onset, and long duration of action of BIL in subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis exposed to cedar pollen using the OHIO Chamber. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Succinate/NLRP3 inflammasome induces synovial fibroblast activation: therapeutical effects of clematichinenoside AR on arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clematichinenoside AR (C-AR is a triterpene saponin isolated from the root of Clematis manshurica Rupr., which is a herbal medicine used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of arthritis. C-AR exerts anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, but little is known about its action in the suppression of fibroblast activation. Low oxygen tension and TGF-β1 induction in the synovium contribute to fibrosis in arthrits. This study was designed to investigate the effect of clematichinenoside AR (C-AR on synovial fibrosis from the aspects of hypoxic TGF-β1 and HIF-1α induction. In the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis rats, hypoxic TGF-β1 induction increased succinate accumulation due to the reversal of SDH activation and induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a manner dependent on HIF-1α induction. In response to NLRP3 inflammsome activation, the released IL-1β further increased TGF-β1 induction, suggesting the forward cycle between inflammation and fibrosis in myofibroblast activation. In the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis rats, C-AR inhibited hypoxic TGF-β1 induction and suppressed succinate-associated NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting SDH activity, and thereby prevented myofibroblast activation by blocking the cross-talk between inflammation and fibrosis. Taken together, these results showed that succinate worked as a metabolic signaling, linking inflammation with fibrosis through NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These findings suggested that synovial succinate accumulation and HIF-1α induction might be therapeutical targets for the prevention of fibrosis in arthritis.

  3. Therapeutic effectiveness of electric stimulation of the upper-limb poststroke using implanted microstimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Ruth; Burridge, Jane H; Davis, Ross; Cosendai, Gregoire; Sparrow, Owen; Roberts, Helen C; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Schulman, Joe

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of functional exercise augmented by programmable implanted microstimulators on arm and hand function. Before and after study. Implantation was performed in a neurosurgery unit, systems were programmed, and tests were conducted in a university laboratory and subjects exercised at home. Hemiparetic subjects (N=7) with reduced upper-limb function who were at least 12 months poststroke were recruited from the community. No subjects withdrew. Microstimulators were implanted into the arms and forearms to activate elbow, wrist, and finger extension, and thumb abduction. After training and programming of the system, subjects underwent 12 weeks of functional home-based exercise with stimulation. The primary functional measure was the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). Impairment measures included upper-limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and tests of motor control (tracking index), spasticity (electromyography stretch index) strength, and active range of motion (AROM). The assessor was not blinded, but scores were validated by an independent blinded observer. All subjects were able to perform functional activities at home by using the system. Compliance was excellent, and there were no serious adverse events. Statistically significant improvements were measured (P<.05) in the tracking index (57.3 degrees(2)+/-48.65 degrees(2)), FMA score (6.3+/-3.59), wrist-extensor strength (5.5+/-4.37 N), and wrist AROM (19.3 degrees +/-18.96 degrees). The mean improvement in ARAT score +/- SD of 4.9+/-7.89 was not statistically significant. This study has shown the feasibility of a programmable implanted microstimulator system used at home to perform functional exercises and a reduction in impairment after 12 weeks.

  4. [The visual functional therapeutic effects of deep lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty for fungal corneal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qin-kang; Tong, Qi-hu; Lai, Xiao-ming; Wang, Hui-yun; Zhao, Na

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the visual functional therapeutic effects of deep lamellar keratoplasty (DLK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) on perforated fungal keratitis. 64 patients (64 eyes) of fungal corneal ulcer in Ophthalmology Center of Ningbo Yinzhou People Hospital from 2004 to 2009 were retrospected, of which undergo DLK (36 patients, 36 eyes) and PK (28 patients, 28 eyes), and followed up by 12 to 24 months. Check two sets of patients' VA and refraction before operation, and analyze the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal refraction changes, corneal endothelium counting and complications, using χ(2) test and t-test. The BCVA after the operation of two sets are both improved, 32 eyes of DLK set were above 0.4, 19 eyes of PK set were above 0.4, of which the DKL set is a bit better than PK set (χ(2) = 4.304, P > 0.05). The astigmatism of DLK set is smaller than the PK set after operation, and there is significant difference (χ(2) = 4.98, P astigmatism of two sets on the average were all no more than 5.00 D. The reject reaction of keratoplasty of DLK is less than PK, there is obviously significant difference (χ(2) = 34.17, P < 0.05). There is less complications of DLK than PK for fungal corneal ulcer. DLK can reduce the occurrence of reject reaction of endothelium type, and the BCVA, refraction of DLK after operation is similar to PK, the incidence rate of surgical operation failure is low.

  5. Pharmacologic rationale underlying the therapeutic effects of tiotropium/olodaterol in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelaia G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Girolamo Pelaia,1 Alessandro Vatrella,2 Maria Teresa Busceti,1 Luca Gallelli,3 Cecilia Calabrese,4 Rosa Terracciano,3 Nicola Lombardo,1 Rosario Maselli11Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Magna Græcia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 2Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, 3Department of Health Science, Magna Græcia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 4Department of Cardio-Thoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Bronchodilators are the most important drugs used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In particular, these therapeutic agents are mostly long-acting compounds utilized via inhalation, and include LAMA (long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists and LABA (long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists. Because LAMA and LABA induce bronchodilation by distinct mechanisms of action, LABA/LAMA combinations provide a reciprocal potentiation of the pharmacological effects caused by each component. Hence, many COPD patients who do not achieve a satisfactory control of their symptoms using a single, either LAMA or LABA bronchodilator, can experience relevant benefits with the use of LAMA/LABA fixed combinations. Many different LAMA/LABA combinations have been recently developed and evaluated in randomized clinical trials. In this context, our review focuses on the pharmacological mechanisms underpinning the bronchodilation elicited by the LAMA tiotropium bromide and the LABA olodaterol. We also discuss the results of the most important clinical studies carried out in COPD patients to assess the efficacy and safety of tiotropium/olodaterol combinations.Keywords: LAMA, LABA, tiotropium, olodaterol, dual bronchodilation, tiotropium/olodaterol combinations

  6. EFFECT OF THERAPEUTIC TOUCH ON PAIN RELATED PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaee, Amir; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri; Rassouli, Maryam; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; AlaviMajd, Hamid; Farahmand, Seyed Kazem

    2016-06-01

    In patients with cancer, pain may influence their life style, and feeling of satisfaction and comfort, leading to fatigue, and cause impairment of their quality of life, personal relationships, sleep and daily activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of therapeutic touch (TT) on pain related parameters of in patients with cancer. In a randomized clinical trial a total of 90 male patients referring to Specialized Oncology Hospital in Mashhad, were conveniently selected and randomly divided into three intervention, placebo, and control groups. The intervention consisted of TT in 7 sessions for a 4-week period. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire along with the Brief Pain Inventory, which were then analyzed and compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. By comparing scores parameters of pain scales (general activity, mood, walking ability, relations with other people and sleep) in the three groups, there was no significant difference at the beginning of the first session. However, a significant difference was observed at the end of TT sessions between the three groups (p= 0.001). Furthermore, the groups were compared two-by-two by using Mann-Whitney test and Bonferroni correction, and the result indicated significant differences between the two intervention and placebo groups as well as between the two intervention and control groups. The results of the study showed that TT had a positive impact on the positive management of pain related parameters in cancer patients. Therefore, TT is suggested to be used by healthcare providers as a complementary method for managing pain and its parameters.

  7. Interaction of celecoxib with membranes: the role of membrane biophysics on its therapeutic and toxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Leite, Catarina; Nunes, Cláudia; Lima, José L F C; Reis, Salette; Lúcio, Marlene

    2012-11-26

    The present work provides a biophysical characterization of the interaction of celecoxib, a cyclo-oxigenase-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, with membranes using liposomes, constituted by phosphatidylcholines, as membrane model systems. In order to mimic biological conditions, the experiments were performed at physiological pH (7.4); at an acidic pH to mimic the conditions of the inflamed cells (5.0); and at different membrane physical states (gel, ripple, and fluid phase). Important information regarding the celecoxib-membrane interactions was gathered by the complementary biophysical techniques: derivative spectrophotometry was used to determine liposome/water partition coefficient of celecoxib; dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements were performed to study the influence of celecoxib on lipid main phase transition temperature; fluorescence binding measurements were made to assess the location of celecoxib within the membrane; and small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) were used to assess the changes in the structure and order of phosphatidylcholine bilayers caused by the presence of celecoxib. The overall results obtained indicate that celecoxib greatly interacts with membranes. Briefly, celecoxib exhibits a high liposome/water partition coefficient that is non-pH-dependent, but the location of celecoxib within the membrane is pH-dependent. In fact, celecoxib is more deeply located inside the membrane at pH 5.0, while it locates closer to the surface at pH 7.4. DLS, SAXS, and WAXS results have shown a high membrane fluidization in the presence of celecoxib, especially at pH 7.4. Overall, the current study can contribute to a biophysical characterization of the celecoxib-membrane interaction. The relevance of the gathered results will be discussed in terms of the reported celecoxib therapeutic and toxic effects.

  8. Neuroprotective and Therapeutic Effect of Caffeine on the Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Induced by Rotenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Salem, Ahmed M; El-Shamy, Karima A; Ahmed, Emad K; Fadl, Nevein N; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-09-03

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of caffeine on rotenone-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rats were divided into control, PD model induced by rotenone (1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 45 days), protected group injected with caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and rotenone for 45 days (during the development of PD model), and treated group injected with caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 45 days after induction of PD model. The data revealed a state of oxidative and nitrosative stress in the midbrain and the striatum of animal model of PD as indicated from the increased lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels and the decreased reduced glutathione level and activities of glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase. Rotenone induced a decrease in acetylcholinesterase and Na + /K + -ATPase activities and an increase in tumor necrosis factor-α level in the midbrain and the striatum. Protection and treatment with caffeine ameliorated the oxidative stress and the changes in acetylcholinesterase and Na + /K + -ATPase activities induced by rotenone in the midbrain and the striatum. This was associated with improvement in the histopathological changes induced in the two areas of PD model. Caffeine protection and treatment restored the depletion of midbrain and striatal dopamine induced by rotenone and prevented decline in motor activities (assessed by open field test) and muscular strength (assessed by traction and hanging tests) and improved norepinephrine level in the two areas. The present study showed that caffeine offered a significant neuroprotection and treatment against neurochemical, histopathological, and behavioral changes in a rotenone-induced rat model of PD.

  9. Therapeutic effects of fermente