WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained therapeutic effect

  1. Therapeutic effects of 5-fluorouracil sustained-release particles in 81 malignant pericardial effusion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Li Ji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the clinical application value of the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU sustained-release particles implanted along the cardiac tangent direction into malignant pericardial effusion (MPCE. A total of 81 MPCE patients underwent pericardiocentesis, and were implanted with 5-FU sustained-release particles into the pericardial cavity under ultrasound guidance. The puncturing path was along the cardiac tangent direction. Ultrasound examinations were performed every week, and the efficacy was evaluated 4 weeks after treatment. The 45 patients who were treated with pericardial catheter drainage and simultaneous intracavitary chemotherapy were used as the control group. The success rate of pericardiocentesis was 100%. Ultrasound reviews performed 4 weeks after treatment showed that 71 cases achieved complete remission and eight cases achieved partial remission, while treatment was completely ineffective in two cases. The total remission rate was 97.53%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (77.78%, p < 0.01. The implantation of 5-FU sustained-release particles along the cardiac tangent direction was safe, and demonstrated good efficacy and fewer adverse reactions. Thus, this method could be ideal for the treatment of MPCE.

  2. Therapeutic effect of an injectable sustained-release sinomenine hydrochloride and sodium hyaluronate compound in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Guang; Ling, Pei-Xue; Lin, Xiu-Kun; Chen, Jian-Ying; Wang, Shao-Jin; Li, Peng; Wu, Xiao-Juan; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Liu, Sheng-Hou

    2012-07-01

    While intra-articular injection of sinomenine hydrochloride has a therapeutic effect on osteoarthritis, it has a short half-life, and is thermolabile and photolabile. The aim of this research was to evaluate the sustained-release of sinomenine hydrochloride from an injectable sinomenine hydrochloride and sodium hyaluronate compound (CSSSI) and its therapeutic effect in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis following intra-articular injection. An injectable compound consisting of 1% sodium hyaluronate and 2.5% sinomenine hydrochloride was prepared and kept as the experiment group, and 2.5% sinomenine hydrochloride was prepared and kept as the control group. The cumulative mass release was measured at different time points in each group in vitro. Sixty-five male Zelanian rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: 15 (30 knees) each for the control, sodium hyaluronate, sinomenine hydrochloride, and CSSSI groups respectively, and five (10 knees) for the modeling group. Papain was injected into both knees of each rabbit for model establishment. Subsequently, 0.2 ml of the corresponding drugs was injected into the articular cavities of the remaining experiment groups, while the control group was treated with 0.2 ml normal saline. All groups were treated once a week for 4 weeks. Seven days after the last treatment, knees were anatomized to perform pathological observations and Mankin's evaluation of the synovium. Four groups were compared using the SPSS 13.0 software package. In the in vitro sustained-release experiments, 90% of the drug was released in the experiment group 360 minutes following the injection. Comparison of the Mankin's evaluations of the four groups illustrated statistical discrepancies (P sodium hyaluronate/sinomenine hydrochloride groups, statistical significance was uniformly obtained. Moreover, sodium hyaluronate and sinomenine hydrochloride treatments showed significant improvement over the modeling control (P sodium hyaluronate vs. sinomenine

  3. Sustained release of piroxicam from solid lipid nanoparticle as an effective anti-inflammatory therapeutics in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Hua; Wei, Wei; Shan, Ying-Hui; Chong, Yee-Song; Yu, Lian; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) as a novel vehicle for the sustained release and transdermal delivery of piroxicam, as well as to determine the anti-inflammation effect of piroxicam-loaded SLN. SLN formulation was optimized and the particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential (ZP), encapsulation efficiency, drug release, and morphological properties were characterized. The transdermal efficiency and mechanism of the piroxicam-loaded SLNs were investigated in vitro. With the inflammation induced edema model in rat, the anti-inflammatory efficiency of piroxicam-enriched SLNs (Pir-SLNs) was evaluated. The SLN formulation was optimized as: lecithin 100 mg, glycerin monostearate 200 mg, and Tween (1%, w/w). The particle size is around 102 ± 5.2 nm with a PDI of 0.262. The ZP is 30.21 ± 2.05 mV. The prepared SLNs showed high entrapment efficiency of 87.5% for piroxicam. There is no interaction between piroxicam and the vehicle components. The presence of polymorphic form of lipid with higher drug content in the optimized Pir-SLNs enables the Pir-SLNs to release the drug with a sustained manner. Pir-SLNs with oleic acid as enhancer can radically diffuse into both the stratum corneum and dermal layer, as well as penetrate through the hair follicles and sebaceous glands with significantly higher density than the other control groups. Pir-SLNs promptly inhibited the inflammation since the 3rd hour after the treatment by decreasing the PGE 2 level. SLN was demonstrated to be a promising carrier for encapsulation and sustained release of piroxicam. Pir-SLN is a novel topical preparation with great potential for anti-inflammation application.

  4. Medical therapeutic effect of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    In order to compare the therapeutic effect as well as side effects between antithyroid therapy and radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism, the author evaluated 111 cases of hyperthyroidism which were composed of 57 patients with antithyroid treatment, 23 patients with combined treatment comprising of antithyroid and radioactive iodine ( 131 I) and 31 patients with treatment of 131 I alone. (author)

  5. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-07-01

    Psilocybin and other 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A agonist classic psychedelics have been used for centuries as sacraments within indigenous cultures. In the mid-twentieth century they were a focus within psychiatry as both probes of brain function and experimental therapeutics. By the late 1960s and early 1970s these scientific inquires fell out of favor because classic psychedelics were being used outside of medical research and in association with the emerging counter culture. However, in the twenty-first century, scientific interest in classic psychedelics has returned and grown as a result of several promising studies, validating earlier research. Here, we review therapeutic research on psilocybin, the classic psychedelic that has been the focus of most recent research. For mood and anxiety disorders, three controlled trials have suggested that psilocybin may decrease symptoms of depression and anxiety in the context of cancer-related psychiatric distress for at least 6 months following a single acute administration. A small, open-label study in patients with treatment-resistant depression showed reductions in depression and anxiety symptoms 3 months after two acute doses. For addiction, small, open-label pilot studies have shown promising success rates for both tobacco and alcohol addiction. Safety data from these various trials, which involve careful screening, preparation, monitoring, and follow-up, indicate the absence of severe drug-related adverse reactions. Modest drug-related adverse effects at the time of medication administration are readily managed. US federal funding has yet to support therapeutic psilocybin research, although such support will be important to thoroughly investigate efficacy, safety, and therapeutic mechanisms.

  6. Exposure to intermittent hypoxia and sustained hypercapnia reduces therapeutic CPAP in participants with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chami, Mohamad; Sudan, Sukhesh; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mateika, Jason H

    2017-10-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether exposure to mild intermittent hypoxia leads to a reduction in the therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure required to eliminate breathing events. Ten male participants were treated with twelve 2-min episodes of hypoxia ([Formula: see text] ≈50 mmHg) separated by 2-min intervals of normoxia in the presence of [Formula: see text] that was sustained 3 mmHg above baseline. During recovery from the last episode, the positive airway pressure was reduced in a stepwise fashion until flow limitation was evident. The participants also completed a sham protocol under normocapnic conditions, which mimicked the time frame of the intermittent hypoxia protocol. After exposure to intermittent hypoxia, the therapeutic pressure was significantly reduced (i.e., 5 cmH 2 O) without evidence of flow limitation (103.4 ± 6.3% of baseline, P = 0.5) or increases in upper airway resistance (95.6 ± 15.0% of baseline, P = 0.6). In contrast, a similar decrease in pressure was accompanied by flow limitation (77.0 ± 1.8% of baseline, P = 0.001) and an increase in upper airway resistance (167.2 ± 17.5% of baseline, P = 0.01) after the sham protocol. Consistent with the initiation of long-term facilitation of upper airway muscle activity, exposure to intermittent hypoxia reduced the therapeutic pressure required to eliminate apneic events that could improve treatment compliance. This possibility, coupled with the potentially beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia on comorbidities linked to sleep apnea, suggests that mild intermittent hypoxia may have a multipronged therapeutic effect on sleep apnea. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our new finding is that exposure to mild intermittent hypoxia reduced the therapeutic pressure required to treat sleep apnea. These findings are consistent with previous results, which have shown that long-term facilitation of upper muscle activity can be initiated following exposure to intermittent hypoxia in humans.

  7. Proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance: The mediating effect of sustainability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethilake, Chaminda

    2017-07-01

    This study examines to what extent corporations use sustainability control systems (SCS) to translate proactive sustainability strategy into corporate sustainability performance. The study investigates the mediating effect of SCS on the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Survey data were collected from top managers in 175 multinational and local corporations operating in Sri Lanka and analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SCS were observed to only partially mediate the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. The mediating effect of SCS is further examined under three sustainability strategies; environmental and social strategies reveal a partial mediation, while the economic strategy exhibits no mediation. The study also finds that (i) a proactive sustainability strategy is positively associated with SCS and corporate sustainability performance and (ii) SCS are positively associated with corporate sustainability performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Huajun; Wang, Taisen; Tang, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice and the safety. Methods: Sixty-eight neonates with jaundice were divided into a control group and a treatment group (n=34) randomly, and treated by blue light phototherapy and that in combination with probiotics. The serum bilirubin levels were detected before and 1, 4, 7 days after treatment. The time when therapy showed effects and jaundice faded, clinical outcomes as well as adverse reactions were recorded. T...

  9. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B

    1983-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... formulation, whereas this was not the case for the other (r = 0.27 and 0.49). The daily dose necessary to keep the plasma concentration within the therapeutic range of 55-110 mumole/liter varied from 7.9 to 22.9 mg/kg. Only mild side effects were recorded, but they were not correlated to the plasma...... theophylline concentration....

  10. [Eye contact effects: A therapeutic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, M; Conty, L

    2016-12-01

    The perception of a direct gaze - that is, of another individual's gaze directed at the observer that leads to eye contact - is known to influence a wide range of cognitive processes and behaviors. We stress that these effects mainly reflect positive impacts on human cognition and may thus be used as relevant tools for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we aim (1) to provide an exhaustive review of eye contact effects while discussing the limits of the dominant models used to explain these effects, (2) to illustrate the therapeutic potential of eye contact by targeting those pathologies that show both preserved gaze processing and deficits in one or several functions that are targeted by the eye contact effects, and (3) to propose concrete ways in which eye contact could be employed as a therapeutic tool. (1) We regroup the variety of eye contact effects into four categories, including memory effects, activation of prosocial behavior, positive appraisals of self and others and the enhancement of self-awareness. We emphasize that the models proposed to account for these effects have a poor predictive value and that further descriptions of these effects is needed. (2) We then emphasize that people with pathologies that affect memory, social behavior, and self and/or other appraisal, and self-awareness could benefit from eye contact effects. We focus on depression, autism and Alzheimer's disease to illustrate our proposal. To our knowledge, no anomaly of eye contact has been reported in depression. Patients suffering from Alzheimer disease, at the early and moderate stage, have been shown to maintain a normal amount of eye contact with their interlocutor. We take into account that autism is controversial regarding whether gaze processing is preserved or altered. In the first view, individuals are thought to elude or omit gazing at another's eyes while in the second, individuals are considered to not be able to process the gaze of others. We adopt the first stance

  11. Therapeutic effects of low radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, K.R. (Dept. of Radiation Biology, St. Bartholomew' s Medical College, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    This editorial explores the scientific basis of radiotherapy with doses of < 1 Gy for various non-malignant conditions, in particular dose-effect relationships, risk-benefit considerations and biological mechanisms. A review of the literature, particularly clinical and experimental reports published more than 50 years ago was conducted to clarify the following problems. 1. The dose-response relationships for the therapeutic effects on three groups of conditions: non-malignant skin disease, arthrosis and other painful degenerative joint disorders and anti-inflammatory radiotherapy; 2. risks after radiotherapy and after the best alternative treatments; 3. the biological mechanisms of the different therapeutic effects. Radiotherapy is very effective in all three groups of disease. Few dose-finding studies have been performed, all demonstrating that the optimal doses are considerable lower than the generally recommended doses. In different conditions, risk-benefit analysis of radiotherapy versus the best alternative treatment yields very different results: whereas radiotherapy for acute postpartum mastitis may not be justified any more, the risk-benefit ratio of radiotherapy of other conditions and particularly so in dermatology and some anti-inflammatory radiotherapy appears to be more favourable than the risk-benefit ratio of the best alternative treatments. Radiotherapy can be very effective treatment for various non-malignant conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, periarthritis humeroscapularis, epicondylitis, knee arthrosis, hydradenitis, parotitis and panaritium and probably be associated with less acute and long-term side effects than similarly effective other treatments. Randomized clinical studies are required to find the optimal dosage which, at present, may be unnecessarily high.

  12. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  13. Radiosensitizers action on Iodine 131 therapeutical effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agote, Marcos; Kreimann, Erica L.; Bocanera, Laura V.; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.

    1999-01-01

    Present studies were aimed to research the possible application of a radiosensitizer, nicotinamide, to increase the therapeutical effect of radioiodine. There were used goitrous and normal rats with growing dose of Iodine 131, with and without simultaneous treatment with nicotinamide. The obtained results show that the nicotinamide treatment importantly increases the thyroid radio destructive effect induced by radioiodine. Under these experimental conditions, nicotinamide induces to a significant increase of thyroid vascularisation, without changes in the proteins ADP-ribosylation activity. These results show, for the first time, the radiosensitizer effect of nicotinamide in front of Iodine 131 and give the possibility of using it in the treatment of hyperthyroid or thyroid difference cancer patients. (author)

  14. Sustained Release of Protein Therapeutics from Subcutaneous Thermosensitive Biocompatible and Biodegradable Pentablock Copolymers (PTSgels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate thermosensitive, biodegradable pentablock copolymers (PTSgel for sustained release and integrity of a therapeutic protein when injected subcutaneously. Materials and Methods. Five PTSgels with PEG-PCL-PLA-PCL-PEG block arrangements were synthesized. In vitro release of IgG from PTSgels and concentrations was evaluated at 37°C. Released IgG integrity was characterized by SDS-PAGE. In vitro disintegration for 10GH PTSgel in PBS was monitored at 37°C over 72 days using gravimetric loss and GPC analysis. Near-infrared IgG in PTSgel was injected subcutaneously and examined by in vivo imaging and histopathology for up to 42 days. Results. IgG release was modulated from approximately 7 days to more than 63 days in both in vitro and in vivo testing by varying polymer composition, concentration of PTSgel aqueous solution, and concentration of IgG. Released IgG in vitro maintained structural integrity by SDS-PAGE. Subcutaneous PTSgels were highly biocompatible and in vitro IgG release occurred in parallel with the disappearance of subcutaneous gel in vivo. Conclusions. Modulation of release of biologics to fit the therapeutic need can be achieved by varying the biocompatible and biodegradable PTSgel composition. Release of IgG parallels disappearance of the polymeric gel; hence, little or no PTSgel remains after drug release is complete.

  15. Gene delivery to skeletal muscle results in sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, P D; Podsakoff, G M; Chen, X; McQuiston, S A; Colosi, P C; Matelis, L A; Kurtzman, G J; Byrne, B J

    1996-11-26

    Somatic gene therapy has been proposed as a means to achieve systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. However, there is limited evidence that current methods of gene delivery can practically achieve this goal. In this study, we demonstrate that, following a single intramuscular administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector containing the beta-galactosidase (AAV-lacZ) gene into adult BALB/c mice, protein expression was detected in myofibers for at least 32 weeks. A single intramuscular administration of an AAV vector containing a gene for human erythropoietin (AAV-Epo) into mice resulted in dose-dependent secretion of erythropoietin and corresponding increases in red blood cell production that persisted for up to 40 weeks. Primary human myotubes transduced in vitro with the AAV-Epo vector also showed dose-dependent production of Epo. These results demonstrate that rAAV vectors are able to transduce skeletal muscle and are capable of achieving sustained expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein following a single intramuscular administration. Gene therapy using AAV vectors may provide a practical strategy for the treatment of inherited and acquired protein deficiencies.

  16. The effects of therapeutic touch on pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Carolyn Magdalen

    2009-06-01

    To better understand how Therapeutic Touch can be used in today's health care arena, this integrative literature review will examine current research that will help answer the question, Does Therapeutic Touch reduce pain? An extensive search was conducted of the online databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsychLIT, and PubMed to retrieve research articles published from 1997 to 2007. Seven studies that were conducted between 1997 and 2004 were found and only five of the seven were included as pertinent evidence to answer the question. All of the research that was reviewed to answer whether Therapeutic Touch could significantly reduce pain revealed a majority of statistically significant positive results for implementing this intervention. Because there are no identified risks to Therapeutic Touch as a pain relief measure, it is safe to recommend despite the limitations of current research. Therapeutic Touch should be considered among the many possible nursing interventions for the treatment of pain.

  17. Effects of experimental lead exposure and the therapeutic effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of experimental lead exposure and the therapeutic effect of defatted Moringa oleifera seed meal on serum electrolytes levels of Wistar rats. IS Idoko, IC Ugochukwu, SE Abalaka, AM Adamu, PK Columbus, YA Kwabugge, RE Edeh, S Adamu, B Muhammed ...

  18. Polymer therapeutics and the EPR effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroshi

    History of the EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) effect is discussed, which goes back to the analyses of molecular pathology in bacterial infection and edema (extravasation) formation. The first mediator we found for extravasation was bradykinin. Later on, were found nitric oxide and superoxide, then formation of peroxynitrite, that activates procollagenase. In this inflammatory setting many other vascular mediators are involved that are also common to cancer vasculature. Obviously cancer vasculature is defective architechtally, and this makes macromolecular drugs more permeable through the vascular wall. The importance of this pathophysiological event of EPR effect can be applied to macromolecular drug-delivery, or tumor selective delivery, which takes hours to achieve in the primary as well as metastatic tumors, not to mention of the inflamed tissues. The retention of the EPR means that such drugs will be retained in tumor tissues more than days to weeks. This was demonstrated initially, and most dramatically, using SMANCS, a protein-polymer conjugated-drug dissolved in lipid contrast medium (Lipiodol) by administering intraarterially. For disseminating the EPR concept globally, or in the scientific community, Professor Ruth Duncan played a key role at the early stage, as she worked extensively on polymer- therapeutics, and knew its importance.

  19. Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Huajun; Wang, Taisen; Tang, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice and the safety. Sixty-eight neonates with jaundice were divided into a control group and a treatment group (n=34) randomly, and treated by blue light phototherapy and that in combination with probiotics. The serum bilirubin levels were detected before and 1, 4, 7 days after treatment. The time when therapy showed effects and jaundice faded, clinical outcomes as well as adverse reactions were recorded. The categorical data were expressed as (±s) and compared by t test. The numerical data were expressed as (case, %) and compared by χ² test. P0.05). The levels significantly decreased 1, 4 and 7 days after treatment (P0.05). The treatment group underwent more significant decreases on the 4th and 7th days than the control group did (P=0.002, 0.001). In the treatment group, the therapy exerted effects on (1.0±0.5) d and jaundice faded on (3.8±1.7) d, which were (2.6±0.6) d and (5.3±2.1) d respectively in the control group (P=0.001, 0.002). The effective rate of the treatment group significantly exceeded that of the control group (P=0.002). There were no obvious adverse reactions in either group. Probiotics lowered the serum bilirubin levels of neonates with jaundice rapidly, safely and significantly, and accelerated jaundice fading as well. This method is worthy of application in clinical practice.

  20. Identifying and engineering promoters for high level and sustainable therapeutic recombinant protein production in cultured mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Steven C L; Yang, Yuansheng

    2014-08-01

    Promoters are essential on plasmid vectors to initiate transcription of the transgenes when generating therapeutic recombinant proteins expressing mammalian cell lines. High and sustained levels of gene expression are desired during therapeutic protein production while gene expression is useful for cell engineering. As many finely controlled promoters exhibit cell and product specificity, new promoters need to be identified, optimized and carefully evaluated before use. Suitable promoters can be identified using techniques ranging from simple molecular biology methods to modern high-throughput omics screenings. Promoter engineering is often required after identification to either obtain high and sustained expression or to provide a wider range of gene expression. This review discusses some of the available methods to identify and engineer promoters for therapeutic recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells.

  1. Sustained release of sphingosine 1-phosphate for therapeutic arteriogenesis and bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefcik, Lauren S; Petrie Aronin, Caren E; Wieghaus, Kristen A; Botchwey, Edward A

    2008-07-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive phospholipid that impacts migration, proliferation, and survival in diverse cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and osteoblast-like cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of sustained release of S1P on microvascular remodeling and associated bone defect healing in vivo. The murine dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to evaluate the structural remodeling response of the microvasculature. Our results demonstrated that 1:400 (w/w) loading and subsequent sustained release of S1P from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) significantly enhanced lumenal diameter expansion of arterioles and venules after 3 and 7 days. Incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at day 7 revealed significant increases in mural cell proliferation in response to S1P delivery. Additionally, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds loaded with S1P (1:400) were implanted into critical-size rat calvarial defects, and healing of bony defects was assessed by radiograph X-ray, microcomputed tomography (muCT), and histology. Sustained release of S1P significantly increased the formation of new bone after 2 and 6 weeks of healing and histological results suggest increased numbers of blood vessels in the defect site. Taken together, these experiments support the use of S1P delivery for promoting microvessel diameter expansion and improving the healing outcomes of tissue-engineered therapies.

  2. Measuring the effect of Sustainable Public Procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp MC; Kok L; Valk E de; DMG; M&V; M&V

    2018-01-01

    Many purchasing services of the Dutch local and central governments, aim to include the effects of products and services on human health and the environment in the procurement process. Sustainable procurement (SP) encompasses more than just price and quality considerations. SP can result, for

  3. Effective Strategies for Sustaining Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Patricia R.

    2010-01-01

    Professional Learning Communities (PLCs), in which educators work collaboratively to improve learning for students, need effective strategies to sustain them. PLCs promote continuous improvement in student learning and build academic success with increased teacher expertise. Grounded in organizational systems theory, participative leadership…

  4. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  5. Nonthermal effects of therapeutic ultrasound: the frequency resonance hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Lennart D

    2002-07-01

    To present the frequency resonance hypothesis, a possible mechanical mechanism by which treatment with non-thermal levels of ultrasound stimulates therapeutic effects. The review encompasses a 4-decade history but focuses on recent reports describing the effects of nonthermal therapeutic levels of ultrasound at the cellular and molecular levels. A search of MEDLINE from 1965 through 2000 using the terms ultrasound and therapeutic ultrasound. The literature provides a number of examples in which exposure of cells to therapeutic ultrasound under nonthermal conditions modified cellular functions. Nonthermal levels of ultrasound are reported to modulate membrane properties, alter cellular proliferation, and produce increases in proteins associated with inflammation and injury repair. Combined, these data suggest that nonthermal effects of therapeutic ultrasound can modify the inflammatory response. The concept of the absorption of ultrasonic energy by enzymatic proteins leading to changes in the enzymes activity is not novel. However, recent reports demonstrating that ultrasound affects enzyme activity and possibly gene regulation provide sufficient data to present a probable molecular mechanism of ultrasound's nonthermal therapeutic action. The frequency resonance hypothesis describes 2 possible biological mechanisms that may alter protein function as a result of the absorption of ultrasonic energy. First, absorption of mechanical energy by a protein may produce a transient conformational shift (modifying the 3-dimensional structure) and alter the protein's functional activity. Second, the resonance or shearing properties of the wave (or both) may dissociate a multimolecular complex, thereby disrupting the complex's function. This review focuses on recent studies that have reported cellular and molecular effects of therapeutic ultrasound and presents a mechanical mechanism that may lead to a better understanding of how the nonthermal effects of ultrasound may be

  6. Newly engineered magnetic erythrocytes for sustained and targeted delivery of anti-cancer therapeutic compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Cinti

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic chemotherapy of cancer is limited by serious, sometimes life-threatening, side effects that arise from toxicities to sensitive normal cells because the therapies are not selective for malignant cells. So how can they be selectively improved? Alternative pharmaceutical formulations of anti-cancer agents have been investigated in order to improve conventional chemotherapy treatment. These formulations are associated with problems like severe toxic side effects on healthy organs, drug resistance and limited access of the drug to the tumor sites suggested the need to focus on site-specific controlled drug delivery systems. In response to these concerns, we have developed a new drug delivery system based on magnetic erythrocytes engineered with a viral spike fusion protein. This new erythrocyte-based drug delivery system has the potential for magnetic-controlled site-specific localization and highly efficient fusion capability with the targeted cells. Here we show that the erythro-magneto-HA virosomes drug delivery system is able to attach and fuse with the target cells and to efficiently release therapeutic compounds inside the cells. The efficacy of the anti-cancer drug employed is increased and the dose required is 10 time less than that needed with conventional therapy.

  7. Newly Engineered Magnetic Erythrocytes for Sustained and Targeted Delivery of Anti-Cancer Therapeutic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranta, Monia; Naldi, Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy of cancer is limited by serious, sometimes life-threatening, side effects that arise from toxicities to sensitive normal cells because the therapies are not selective for malignant cells. So how can they be selectively improved? Alternative pharmaceutical formulations of anti-cancer agents have been investigated in order to improve conventional chemotherapy treatment. These formulations are associated with problems like severe toxic side effects on healthy organs, drug resistance and limited access of the drug to the tumor sites suggested the need to focus on site-specific controlled drug delivery systems. In response to these concerns, we have developed a new drug delivery system based on magnetic erythrocytes engineered with a viral spike fusion protein. This new erythrocyte-based drug delivery system has the potential for magnetic-controlled site-specific localization and highly efficient fusion capability with the targeted cells. Here we show that the erythro-magneto-HA virosomes drug delivery system is able to attach and fuse with the target cells and to efficiently release therapeutic compounds inside the cells. The efficacy of the anti-cancer drug employed is increased and the dose required is 10 time less than that needed with conventional therapy. PMID:21373641

  8. The employment effects of sustainable development policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, Judith M.; Williams, Jeremy B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that it is time for ecological economists to bring the employment impacts of sustainable development policies to the forefront of the research agenda. Important conservation efforts continue to founder because of their perceived employment effects. The paper examines the evidence on the employment impacts of sustainable development policies and argues that maintaining or even increasing employment depends critically on appropriate policy design and attention to the political economy of implementation of policies. The paper concludes that a better understanding of these issues, fair labour market and structural adjustment programs, and especially forward planning to anticipate problem areas, must replace the piecemeal, 'knee-jerk' reactions to environmental issues, such as were evident in Australia during the last federal election. (author)

  9. Therapeutic effect of praziquantel against Taeniasis asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Kenji; Sakamoto, Naoya; Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi

    2013-08-01

    Eight Japanese adult patients infected with Taenia asiatica were treated with a single 600 mg dose of praziquantel. The patients' body weights ranged from 47 to 87 kg (mean 67.1±12.7 kg). All patients expelled the strobila after taking praziquantel, and all of them were free from proglottids the day after praziquantel administration, hence all patients were considered to be cured. No side effects due to praziquantel were noted. Although the number of patients is small, our results indicate that praziquantel is a drug of choice for the treatment of taeniasis asiatica and that a single dose of 7-13 mg/kg (9.3±1.9 mg/kg) is effective. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Therapeutic Effects of Islamic Intercessory Prayer on Warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoşrik, Evren M; Cüceloğlu, Aydın E; Erpolat, Seval

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of Islamic intercessory prayer on warts. Forty-five participants who are mostly Muslims and infected with warts were randomized into three groups: Group-1 (uncertain, with intercessory prayer), Group-2 (uncertain, no intercessory prayer), and control group (informed, no intervention). Stress symptoms were also measured before and after prayer sessions for these three groups. The results revealed that there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of healing. Although participants believed in the therapeutic effects of prayer, when participants did not trust the intercessor, prayer had no effect on warts.

  11. Effect of therapeutic class on counseling in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Kirsti K; Airaksinen, Marja S A; Hyykky, Tarja T; Enlund, K Hannes

    2002-05-01

    To assess the effect and importance of the therapeutic class of a drug as a determinant for verbal counseling by community pharmacists. Direct external observations (n = 1431) of pharmacist-customer interactions at the point of delivery of prescription medicines were conducted in 7 community pharmacies in Finland. Trained observers noted whether the pharmacist provided information on directions for use, mode of action, and adverse effects. To examine factors associated with counseling, a multiple logistic regression analysis was constructed, with the dependent variable being counseling of any of the 3 observed topics. In addition to therapeutic class, other independent variables were the pharmacy; pharmacist's age, gender, and degree; and the customer's age, gender, previous use of medicine, and question asking. Provision of counseling differed significantly according to therapeutic classes. Counseling on any of the 3 observed topics was most likely to be provided for customers with antibiotics (80%) and least likely for customers with gynecologic preparations (18%). Differences between therapeutic classes remained statistically significant when the effects of the other variables were controlled for. Other significant predictors for any verbal counseling were the pharmacy, customer's previous use of the medicine, and question asking. Therapeutic class is an important variable that should be included in further studies and considered when comparing studies on patient counseling in community pharmacies.

  12. Priority for sustainability. Study of the effects on investment climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The Dutch cabinet has been asked to make sure that sustainable electricity plants can be connected to the grid with high priority. By request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, the effects on the investment climate have been examined (both for sustainable and conventional) if priority (with regard to connection and transport) is given to sustainable generated electricity. Five models for priority for sustainable have been defined, i.e. (1) Sustainable is only given priority on the waiting list for connection; (2) Connect sustainable immediately, but no priority for transport; (3) Connect sustainable immediately and priority granted in transport; (4) Connect sustainable and conventional immediately, no priority for transport; (5) Connect sustainable and conventional immediately and give priority in transport to sustainable. [mk] [nl

  13. Therapeutic effects of co-inhaled roflumilast or formoterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effects of "inhaled" roflumilast and formoterol separately or combined with fluticasone on the ultrastructural airway changes in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic mice. Methods: The asthmatic mice were divided randomly into seven groups (n = 8): positive control, vehicle, and five treated ...

  14. [Identification of novel therapeutically effective antibiotics using silkworm infection model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Urai, Makoto; Paudel, Atmika; Horie, Ryo; Murakami, Kazuhisa; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Most antibiotics obtained by in vitro screening with antibacterial activity have inappropriate properties as medicines due to their toxicity and pharmacodynamics in animal bodies. Thus, evaluation of the therapeutic effects of these samples using animal models is essential in the crude stage. Mammals are not suitable for therapeutic evaluation of a large number of samples due to high costs and ethical issues. We propose the use of silkworms (Bombyx mori) as model animals for screening therapeutically effective antibiotics. Silkworms are infected by various pathogenic bacteria and are effectively treated with similar ED(50) values of clinically used antibiotics. Furthermore, the drug metabolism pathways, such as cytochrome P450 and conjugation systems, are similar between silkworms and mammals. Silkworms have many advantages compared with other infection models, such as their 1) low cost, 2) few associated ethical problems, 3) adequate body size for easily handling, and 4) easier separation of organs and hemolymph. These features of the silkworm allow for efficient screening of therapeutically effective antibiotics. In this review, we discuss the advantages of the silkworm model in the early stages of drug development and the screening results of some antibiotics using the silkworm infection model.

  15. The Relationships between Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Therapeutic Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proefrock, David W.; Bloom, Robert

    The relationship between a therapist's verbal and nonverbal communication of therapeutic effectiveness was investigated. In a design intended to eliminate many of the methodological problems which exist in this area of research, subjects (N=102) were asked to rate videotaped segments showing combinations of three different levels of both verbal…

  16. Therapeutic radiology: the modalities and their effects on oral tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, R.L.; Doku, H.C.

    1971-01-01

    In recent years, therapeutic radiology has been used extensively in the management of head and neck malignancies. An increasing number of the population who have been exposed to such therapy are being seen by the dentist for dental treatment. It is recognized that radiation therapy may cause temporary and permanent alterations in tissue. A discussion of the various therapeutic modalities and their side effects on the oral tissues has been presented to aid the dental practitioner in understanding the problems and care of such patients

  17. Strategies for implementing and sustaining therapeutic lifestyle changes as part of hypertension management in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scisney-Matlock, Margaret; Bosworth, Hayden B; Giger, Joyce Newman; Strickland, Ora L; Harrison, R Van; Coverson, Dorothy; Shah, Nirav R; Dennison, Cheryl R; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline M; Jones, Loretta; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Batts-Turner, Marian L; Jamerson, Kenneth A

    2009-05-01

    African Americans with high blood pressure (BP) can benefit greatly from therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) such as diet modification, physical activity, and weight management. However, they and their health care providers face many barriers in modifying health behaviors. A multidisciplinary panel synthesized the scientific data on TLC in African Americans for efficacy in improving BP control, barriers to behavioral change, and strategies to overcome those barriers. Therapeutic lifestyle change interventions should emphasize patient self-management, supported by providers, family, and the community. Interventions should be tailored to an individual's cultural heritage, beliefs, and behavioral norms. Simultaneously targeting multiple factors that impede BP control will maximize the likelihood of success. The panel cited limited progress with integrating the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan into the African American diet as an example of the need for more strategically developed interventions. Culturally sensitive instruments to assess impact will help guide improved provision of TLC in special populations. The challenge of improving BP control in African Americans and delivery of hypertension care requires changes at the health system and public policy levels. At the patient level, culturally sensitive interventions that apply the strategies described and optimize community involvement will advance TLC in African Americans with high BP.

  18. Healthcare Building Sustainability Assessment tool - Sustainable Effective Design criteria in the Portuguese context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Maria de Fátima; Mateus, Ricardo; Bragança, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Tools and methods to improve current practices and quality in the healthcare building sector are necessary to support decision-making at different building life cycle phases. Furthermore, Healthcare Building Sustainability Assessment (HBSA) Methods are based on criteria organised into different levels, such as categories and indicators. These criteria highlight aspects of significant importance when designing and operating a sustainable healthcare building. To bring more objectivity to the sustainability assessments, the standardisation bodies (CEN and ISO) proposed core indicators that should be used in the evaluation of the environmental, societal and economic performances of buildings. Nevertheless, relying on state of the art analysis, it is possible to conclude that there are aspects of major importance for the operation of healthcare buildings that are not considered in the HBSA methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to discuss the context of sustainability assessment methods in the field of healthcare buildings and to present a proposal for the incorporation of Sustainable-Effective Design (SED) criteria in a new HBSA method. The used research method is innovative since in the development of the list of sustainability criteria it considers the opinion of main healthcare buildings' stakeholders, the existing healthcare assessment methods and the ISO and CEN standardisation works in the field of the methods to assess the sustainability of construction works. As a result, the proposed method is composed of fifty-two sustainability indicators that cover the different dimensions of the sustainability concept to support decision making during the design of a new or retrofitted healthcare building in urban areas. - Highlights: •A new system to assess the sustainability of healthcare buildings is presented. •We propose a method to develop the list of sustainability indicators for hospitals. •We propose a new concept – Sustainable-Effective Design (SED

  19. Testing the Effectiveness of Therapeutic Showering in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Mary Ann

    : Therapeutic showering is a holistic nursing intervention that is often available and supports physiologic labor. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of therapeutic showering with usual care during active labor. Research questions were as follows: Are there significant differences between women who showered 30 minutes during active labor and those who received usual labor care in anxiety, tension, relaxation, pain, discomfort, and coping? Is there a difference in use of obstetric interventions between groups? A convenience sample of healthy low-risk women in active labor was recruited (N = 32). A pretest posttest control group repeated-measures design was used. Participants were randomized to treatment group (n = 17), who showered for 30 minutes, or to control group (n = 14) who received usual labor care. Women evaluated pain, discomfort, anxiety, tension, coping, and relaxation at enrollment, again 15 minutes after entering the shower or receiving usual care, then again 30 minutes after entering the shower or receiving usual care. Chart reviews after delivery recorded obstetric interventions. The showering group had statistically significant decreases in pain, discomfort, anxiety and tension, and significant increase in relaxation. There were no differences in use of obstetric interventions. Therapeutic showering was effective in reducing pain, discomfort, anxiety, and tension while improving relaxation and supporting labor in this sample.

  20. Effectiveness of therapeutic barium enema for diverticular hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Komiya, Yasuhiko; Inoh, Yumi; Kawasima, Keigo; Naitoh, Mai; Fujita, Yuji; Eduka, Akiko; Kanazawa, Noriyoshi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Tani, Rie; Kawana, Kennichi; Ohtani, Setsuya; Nagase, Hajime

    2015-05-14

    To evaluate the effectiveness of barium impaction therapy for patients with colonic diverticular bleeding. We reviewed the clinical charts of patients in whom therapeutic barium enema was performed for the control of diverticular bleeding between August 2010 and March 2012 at Yokohama Rosai Hospital. Twenty patients were included in the review, consisting of 14 men and 6 women. The median age of the patients was 73.5 years. The duration of the follow-up period ranged from 1 to 19 mo (median: 9.8 mo). Among the 20 patients were 11 patients who required the procedure for re-bleeding during hospitalization, 6 patients who required it for re-bleeding that developed after the patient left the hospital, and 3 patients who required the procedure for the prevention of re-bleeding. Barium (concentration: 150 w%/v%) was administered per the rectum, and the leading edge of the contrast medium was followed up to the cecum by fluoroscopy. After confirmation that the ascending colon and cecum were filled with barium, the enema tube was withdrawn, and the patient's position was changed every 20 min for 3 h. Twelve patients remained free of re-bleeding during the follow-up period (range: 1-19 mo) after the therapeutic barium enema, including 9 men and 3 women with a median age of 72.0 years. Re-bleeding occurred in 8 patients including 5 men and 3 women with a median age of 68.5 years: 4 developed early re-bleeding, defined as re-bleeding that occurs within one week after the procedure, and the remaining 4 developed late re-bleeding. The DFI (disease-free interval) decreased 0.4 for 12 mo. Only one patient developed a complication from therapeutic barium enema (colonic perforation). Therapeutic barium enema is effective for the control of diverticular hemorrhage in cases where the active bleeding site cannot be identified by colonoscopy.

  1. Effective integrated frameworks for assessing mining sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgone, K M; Ramirez-Andreotta, M; Mainhagu, J; Brusseau, M L

    2018-05-28

    The objectives of this research are to review existing methods used for assessing mining sustainability, analyze the limited prior research that has evaluated the methods, and identify key characteristics that would constitute an enhanced sustainability framework that would serve to improve sustainability reporting in the mining industry. Five of the most relevant frameworks were selected for comparison in this analysis, and the results show that there are many commonalities among the five, as well as some disparities. In addition, relevant components are missing from all five. An enhanced evaluation system and framework were created to provide a more holistic, comprehensive method for sustainability assessment and reporting. The proposed framework has five components that build from and encompass the twelve evaluation characteristics used in the analysis. The components include Foundation, Focus, Breadth, Quality Assurance, and Relevance. The enhanced framework promotes a comprehensive, location-specific reporting approach with a concise set of well-defined indicators. Built into the framework is quality assurance, as well as a defined method to use information from sustainability reports to inform decisions. The framework incorporates human health and socioeconomic aspects via initiatives such as community-engaged research, economic valuations, and community-initiated environmental monitoring.

  2. Sustainability, the Greenhouse effect, silviculture, and overpopulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, F.K. (International Paper Co., Corporate Research Center, Tuxedo Park, NY (US))

    1991-10-01

    Ever since man became conscious of the finite dimensions of Planet Earth, he has worried about his ability to survive in an ever-more crowded environment. This paper reports that the fundamental question underlying this concern is sustainability: Can we indefinitely supply, maintain, and prolong that which we have This question is, of course, multifaceted. Man's early concerns quickly polarized the scientists and economists of this world into two philosophical camps---the Malthusians and the Cornucopians. Over time, economists learned that Malthus seriously underestimated the capacity of technology to enhance productivity, although Malthusian sympathizers (both scientists and economists) continually raised the specter of imminent doom. Much of what lies ahead will provide a series of daunting challenges for us all, and the engine that drives sustainability has to be technology. The central issue is to ensure that the right kind of technology is available, and that it is used widely to ensure sustainability.

  3. Sustainability, the Greenhouse effect, silviculture, and overpopulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, F.K.

    1991-01-01

    Ever since man became conscious of the finite dimensions of Planet Earth, he has worried about his ability to survive in an ever-more crowded environment. This paper reports that the fundamental question underlying this concern is sustainability: Can we indefinitely supply, maintain, and prolong that which we have? This question is, of course, multifaceted. Man's early concerns quickly polarized the scientists and economists of this world into two philosophical camps---the Malthusians and the Cornucopians. Over time, economists learned that Malthus seriously underestimated the capacity of technology to enhance productivity, although Malthusian sympathizers (both scientists and economists) continually raised the specter of imminent doom. Much of what lies ahead will provide a series of daunting challenges for us all, and the engine that drives sustainability has to be technology. The central issue is to ensure that the right kind of technology is available, and that it is used widely to ensure sustainability

  4. Conceptualizing the Effectiveness of Sustainability Assessment in Development Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Hugé

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment has emerged as a key decision-support process in development cooperation in response to the growing acknowledgement of the impacts of global change. This paper aims at conceptualizing the effectiveness of sustainability assessment as applied in development cooperation, by focusing on the sustainability assessment practice by actors of the official Belgian Development Cooperation. The conceptualization of the effectiveness of sustainability assessment is synthesized in a set of issues and concerns, based on semi-structured interviews. The paper highlights the specificity of sustainability assessment in the development cooperation sector (e.g., through the cultural and discursive compatibility dimensions of assessment in a North-South context. Effectiveness is inherently linked to the expected functions of sustainability assessment in the decision-making process, which include fostering organizational change, shaping contextually adapted framings of sustainability and operationalizing the sustainability transition. These findings highlight the relevance of a discourse-sensitive approach to sustainability assessment if one is to strengthen its credibility and legitimacy.

  5. Fociss for an effective sustainable innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John J. Hageman; Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable development will be a major driving force for new developments in businesses. Most companies are very much aware of that but find it difficult to translate this insight into concrete actions. An often observed obstacle is that most, particularly SME's, find it difficult to evaluate how

  6. Therapeutic Effects of PPARα on Neuronal Death and Microvascular Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth P. Moran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPARα is a broadly expressed nuclear hormone receptor and is a transcription factor for diverse target genes possessing a PPAR response element (PPRE in the promoter region. The PPRE is highly conserved, and PPARs thus regulate transcription of an extensive array of target genes involved in energy metabolism, vascular function, oxidative stress, inflammation, and many other biological processes. PPARα has potent protective effects against neuronal cell death and microvascular impairment, which have been attributed in part to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here we discuss PPARα’s effects in neurodegenerative and microvascular diseases and also recent clinical findings that identified therapeutic effects of a PPARα agonist in diabetic microvascular complications.

  7. Effectiveness of therapeutic barium enema for diverticular hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Komiya, Yasuhiko; Inoh, Yumi; Kawasima, Keigo; Naitoh, Mai; Fujita, Yuji; Eduka, Akiko; Kanazawa, Noriyoshi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Tani, Rie; Kawana, Kennichi; Ohtani, Setsuya; Nagase, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of barium impaction therapy for patients with colonic diverticular bleeding. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical charts of patients in whom therapeutic barium enema was performed for the control of diverticular bleeding between August 2010 and March 2012 at Yokohama Rosai Hospital. Twenty patients were included in the review, consisting of 14 men and 6 women. The median age of the patients was 73.5 years. The duration of the follow-up period ranged from 1 to 19 mo (median: 9.8 mo). Among the 20 patients were 11 patients who required the procedure for re-bleeding during hospitalization, 6 patients who required it for re-bleeding that developed after the patient left the hospital, and 3 patients who required the procedure for the prevention of re-bleeding. Barium (concentration: 150 w%/v%) was administered per the rectum, and the leading edge of the contrast medium was followed up to the cecum by fluoroscopy. After confirmation that the ascending colon and cecum were filled with barium, the enema tube was withdrawn, and the patient’s position was changed every 20 min for 3 h. RESULTS: Twelve patients remained free of re-bleeding during the follow-up period (range: 1-19 mo) after the therapeutic barium enema, including 9 men and 3 women with a median age of 72.0 years. Re-bleeding occurred in 8 patients including 5 men and 3 women with a median age of 68.5 years: 4 developed early re-bleeding, defined as re-bleeding that occurs within one week after the procedure, and the remaining 4 developed late re-bleeding. The DFI (disease-free interval) decreased 0.4 for 12 mo. Only one patient developed a complication from therapeutic barium enema (colonic perforation). CONCLUSION: Therapeutic barium enema is effective for the control of diverticular hemorrhage in cases where the active bleeding site cannot be identified by colonoscopy. PMID:25987779

  8. New insights into cannabis consumption; abuses and possible therapeutic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luiza Baconi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the oldest psychotropic drugs known to humanity. The paper assesses the current knowledge on the cannabis, including the mechanisms of action and the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids. Three varieties of Cannabis plant are recognised: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. The variety indica is used predominantly to obtain the drugs. Cannabis herb is usually named marijuana, while the cannabis oleoresin secreted by the glandular hairs found mainly on the flowering or fruiting tops of the plant is known as hashish. More than 400 known chemicals are present in cannabis, at least 70 of which are called cannabinoids. The major psychoactive constituent in cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC. It is now recognized that there are three types of cannabinoids: natural (phytocannabinoids, endogenous cannabinoids, and synthetic cannabioids. Cannabinoids exert their actions by binding to specific membrane protein, the cannabinoid receptor. To date, two subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, named cannabinoid-1 (CB1, most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and cannabinoid-2 (CB2 receptors, found predominantly in peripheral tissues with immune functions have been cloned. Therefore, the concept of endogenous cannabinoid system (endocannabinoid system, SEC has been developed. Based on the current scientific evidence, there are several effects of cannabinoids with potential therapeutic use: antiemetic, analgesic in cancerous pains, and chronic neuropathic pain, in multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injuries. Cannabis consume can result in a state of drug dependency and cannabis withdrawal has been included in DSM-V. Cannabis plant remains controversial in the twenty-first century and the potential therapeutic of specific cannabinoid compounds and medical marijuana remains under active medical research.

  9. Therapeutic effect of ursolic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica A. Jesus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important neglected tropical disease, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated and present diverse side effects in patients, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the therapeutic potential and toxicity of ursolic acid (UA, isolated from the leaves of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae, were evaluated in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of UA, hamsters infected with L. (L. infantum were treated daily during 15 days with 1.0 or 2.0 mg UA/kg body weight, or with 5.0 mg amphotericin B/kg body weight by intraperitoneal route. Fifteen days after the last dose, the parasitism of the spleen and liver was stimated and the main histopathological alterations were recorded. The proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells was evaluated and IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 gene expressions were analyzed in spleen fragments. The toxicity of UA and amphotericin B were evaluated in healthy golden hamsters by histological analysis and biochemical parameters. Animals treated with UA had less parasites in the spleen and liver when compared with the infected control group, and they also showed preservation of white and red pulps, which correlate with a high rate of proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells, IFN-γ mRNA and iNOS production. Moreover, animals treated with UA did not present alterations in the levels of AST, ALT, creatinine and urea. Taken together, these findings indicate that UA is an interesting natural compound that should be considered for the development of prototype drugs against visceral leishmaniasis.

  10. Sub-therapeutic doses of fluvastatin and valsartan are more effective than therapeutic doses in providing beneficial cardiovascular pleiotropic effects in rats: A proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; France Štiglic, Alenka; Jerin, Aleš; Skitek, Milan; Černe, Darko; Marc, Janja; Drevenšek, Gorazd; Šabovič, Mišo

    2017-12-01

    Statins and sartans can, in therapeutic doses, induce pleiotropic cardiovascular effects. Similar has recently been shown also for sub-therapeutic doses. We thus explored and compared the cardiovascular pleiotropic efficacy of sub-therapeutic vs. therapeutic doses. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups receiving fluvastatin, valsartan and their combination in sub-therapeutic and therapeutic doses, or saline. After 6weeks, the animals were euthanised, their hearts and thoracic aortas isolated, and blood samples taken. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of the thoracic aortae and ischaemic-reperfusion injury of the isolated hearts were assessed along with the related serum parameters and genes expression. Fluvastatin and valsartan alone or in combination were significantly more effective in sub-therapeutic than therapeutic doses. The sub-therapeutic combination greatly increased thoracic aorta endothelium-dependent relaxation and maximally protected the isolated hearts against ischaemia-reperfusion injury and was thus most effective. Beneficial effects were accompanied by increased levels of nitric oxide (NO) and decreased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in the serum (again prominently induced by the sub-therapeutic combination). Furthermore, nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) genes expression increased, but only in both combination groups and without significant differences between them. In the therapeutic dose groups, fluvastatin and valsartan decreased cholesterol values and systolic blood pressure. Sub-therapeutic doses of fluvastatin and valsartan are more effective in expressing cardiovascular pleiotropic effects than therapeutic doses of fluvastatin and/or valsartan. These results could be of significant clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Therapeutic Effects of Bee Venom on Immunological and Neurological Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Deok-Sang; Kim, Sun Kwang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2015-06-29

    Bee Venom (BV) has long been used in Korea to relieve pain symptoms and to treat inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of BV have been proved to some extent. Additionally, recent clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that BV and BV-derived active components are applicable to a wide range of immunological and neurodegenerative diseases, including autoimmune diseases and Parkinson's disease. These effects of BV are known to be mediated by modulating immune cells in the periphery, and glial cells and neurons in the central nervous system. This review will introduce the scientific evidence of the therapeutic effects of BV and its components on several immunological and neurological diseases, and describe their detailed mechanisms involved in regulating various immune responses and pathological changes in glia and neurons.

  12. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary COKINS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC and Activity-Based Management (ABM system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resulting information calculated and provided by the ABC/ABM system are analyzed and interpreted in terms of a multidimensional data analysis. The article ends with the authors' conclusions about the benefits of continued operation of sustaining the ABC/ABM system.

  13. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    OpenAIRE

    Gary COKINS; Sorinel CĂPUŞNEANU

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC) and Activity-Based Management (ABM) system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resul...

  14. POSSIBLE MECHANISMS UNDERLYING THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eChervyakov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is an effective method used to diagnose and treat many neurological disorders. Although repetitive TMS (rTMS has been used to treat a variety of serious pathological conditions including stroke, depression, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, pain, and migraines, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term TMS remain unclear. In the present review, the effects of rTMS on neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity are described, including the classic interpretations of TMS effects on synaptic plasticity via long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. We also discuss the effects of rTMS on the genetic apparatus of neurons, glial cells and the prevention of neuronal death. The neurotrophic effects of rTMS on dendritic growth and sprouting and neurotrophic factors are described, including change in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration under the influence of rTMS. Also, non-classical effects of TMS related to biophysical effects of magnetic fields are described, including the quantum effects, the magnetic spin effects, genetic magnetoreception, the macromolecular effects of TMS, and the electromagnetic theory of consciousness. Finally, we discuss possible interpretations of TMS effects according to dynamical systems theory. Evidence suggests that a rTMS-induced magnetic field should be considered a separate physical factor that can be impactful at the subatomic level and that rTMS is capable of significantly altering the reactivity of molecules (radicals. It is thought that these factors underlie the therapeutic benefits of therapy with TMS. Future research on these mechanisms will be instrumental to the development of more powerful and reliable TMS treatment protocols.

  15. Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Therapeutic Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervyakov, Alexander V.; Chernyavsky, Andrey Yu.; Sinitsyn, Dmitry O.; Piradov, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective method used to diagnose and treat many neurological disorders. Although repetitive TMS (rTMS) has been used to treat a variety of serious pathological conditions including stroke, depression, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, pain, and migraines, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term TMS remain unclear. In the present review, the effects of rTMS on neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity are described, including the classic interpretations of TMS effects on synaptic plasticity via long-term potentiation and long-term depression. We also discuss the effects of rTMS on the genetic apparatus of neurons, glial cells, and the prevention of neuronal death. The neurotrophic effects of rTMS on dendritic growth and sprouting and neurotrophic factors are described, including change in brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration under the influence of rTMS. Also, non-classical effects of TMS related to biophysical effects of magnetic fields are described, including the quantum effects, the magnetic spin effects, genetic magnetoreception, the macromolecular effects of TMS, and the electromagnetic theory of consciousness. Finally, we discuss possible interpretations of TMS effects according to dynamical systems theory. Evidence suggests that a rTMS-induced magnetic field should be considered a separate physical factor that can be impactful at the subatomic level and that rTMS is capable of significantly altering the reactivity of molecules (radicals). It is thought that these factors underlie the therapeutic benefits of therapy with TMS. Future research on these mechanisms will be instrumental to the development of more powerful and reliable TMS treatment protocols. PMID:26136672

  16. A systematic review of the therapeutic effects of Reiki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderVaart, Sondra; Gijsen, Violette M G J; de Wildt, Saskia N; Koren, Gideon

    2009-11-01

    Reiki is an ancient form of Japanese healing. While this healing method is widely used for a variety of psychologic and physical symptoms, evidence of its effectiveness is scarce and conflicting. The purpose of this systematic review was to try to evaluate whether Reiki produces a significant treatment effect. Studies were identified using an electronic search of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Quality of reporting was evaluated using a modified CONSORT Criteria for Herbal Interventions, while methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad Quality score. Two (2) researchers selected articles based on the following features: placebo or other adequate control, clinical investigation on humans, intervention using a Reiki practitioner, and published in English. They independently extracted data on study design, inclusion criteria, type of control, sample size, result, and nature of outcome measures. The modified CONSORT Criteria indicated that all 12 trials meeting the inclusion criteria were lacking in at least one of the three key areas of randomization, blinding, and accountability of all patients, indicating a low quality of reporting. Nine (9) of the 12 trials detected a significant therapeutic effect of the Reiki intervention; however, using the Jadad Quality score, 11 of the 12 studies ranked "poor." The serious methodological and reporting limitations of limited existing Reiki studies preclude a definitive conclusion on its effectiveness. High-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to address the effectiveness of Reiki over placebo.

  17. Multiple therapeutic effects of progranulin on experimental acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Masato; Kawamura, Kunio; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Miura, Minami; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Koyama, Misaki; Toriyabe, Masafumi; Igarashi, Hironaka; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nishihara, Masugi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Shimohata, Takayoshi

    2015-07-01

    In the central nervous system, progranulin, a glycoprotein growth factor, plays a crucial role in maintaining physiological functions, and progranulin gene mutations cause TAR DNA-binding protein-43-positive frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Although several studies have reported that progranulin plays a protective role against ischaemic brain injury, little is known about temporal changes in the expression level, cellular localization, and glycosylation status of progranulin after acute focal cerebral ischaemia. In addition, the precise mechanisms by which progranulin exerts protective effects on ischaemic brain injury remains unknown. Furthermore, the therapeutic potential of progranulin against acute focal cerebral ischaemia, including combination treatment with tissue plasminogen activator, remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to determine temporal changes in the expression and localization of progranulin after ischaemia as well as the therapeutic effects of progranulin on ischaemic brain injury using in vitro and in vivo models. First, we demonstrated a dynamic change in progranulin expression in ischaemic Sprague-Dawley rats, including increased levels of progranulin expression in microglia within the ischaemic core, and increased levels of progranulin expression in viable neurons as well as induction of progranulin expression in endothelial cells within the ischaemic penumbra. We also demonstrated that the fully glycosylated mature secretory isoform of progranulin (∼88 kDa) decreased, whereas the glycosylated immature isoform of progranulin (58-68 kDa) markedly increased at 24 h and 72 h after reperfusion. In vitro experiments using primary cells from C57BL/6 mice revealed that the glycosylated immature isoform was secreted only from the microglia. Second, we demonstrated that progranulin could protect against acute focal cerebral ischaemia by a variety of mechanisms including attenuation of blood-brain barrier disruption

  18. Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of diosgenin, a food saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Jayadev; Mehta, Rekha

    2009-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is a strategy taken to retard, regress, or resist the multistep process of carcinogenesis, including the blockage of its vital morphogenetic milestones viz. normal-preneoplasia-neoplasia-metastasis. For several reasons, including safety, minimal (or no) toxicity and side-effects, and better availability, alternatives such as naturally occurring phytochemicals that are found in foods are becoming increasingly popular over synthetic drugs. Food saponins have been used in complimentary and traditional medicine against a variety of diseases including several cancers. Diosgenin, a naturally occurring steroid saponin found abundantly in legumes and yams, is a well-known precursor of various synthetic steroidal drugs that are extensively used in the pharmaceutical industry. Over the past decade, a series of preclinical and mechanistic studies have been conducted to understand the role of diosgenin as a chemopreventive/therapeutic agent against several cancers. This review highlights the biological activity of diosgenin that contributes to cancer chemoprevention and control. The anticancer mode of action of diosgenin has been demonstrated via modulation of multiple cell signaling events involving critical molecular candidates associated with growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. Altogether, these preclinical and mechanistic findings strongly implicate the use of diosgenin as a novel, multitarget-based chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against several cancer types. Future research in this field will help to establish not only whether diosgenin is safe and efficacious as a chemopreventive agent against several human cancers, but also to develop and evaluate standards of evidence for health claims for diosgenin-containing foods as they become increasingly popular and enter the marketplace labeled as functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  19. Therapeutic Effect of 131I for 230 Patients with Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yujie; Zhang Chengxi; Hu Jiqing; Guo Sihui; Yuan Hui; Li Jing

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of 131 I in treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism and analysis the factors that influence the effect, 230 cases of hyperthyroidism were treated with 131 I, and were followed-up at 1.5, 3, 6, 12 months and even longer time after 131 I radiotherapy. The serum levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH were detected in all cases. The results showed that 181 patients were cured (78.6%), 22 patients were improved (9.5%), 23 cases developed early hypothyroidism(10.0%),and 4 cases developed later hypothyroidism. 12 cases in 27 patients with hypothyroidism treated with thyroxin were recovered, but the other 15 cases need to be given permanent treatment. The factors which influence 131 I radiotherapeutic effect include the patient age, course of disease,application of ATD, size and quality of thyroid, and the level of thyroid hormone. The patients should be followed up to prevent occurrence of hypothyroidism. The early hypothyroidism should be treated in order to decrease the permanent hypothyroidism rate. (authors)

  20. Safety, therapeutic effectiveness, and cost of parenteral iron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Suheyl; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2009-07-01

    Patients have to discontinue the use of oral iron therapy due to the development of side effects and lack of long-term adherence to medication for iron deficiency anemia. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness, safety, and cost of intravenous iron sucrose therapy. The computerized database and medical records of 453 patients diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia who received intravenous iron sucrose therapy for iron deficiency anemia between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. The improvement of hematologic parameters and cost of therapy were evaluated 4 weeks after therapy. 453 patients (443 females, 10 males; age: 44.2 +/- 12.3 years) received iron sucrose therapy. Mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume values were 8.2 +/- 1.4 g/dL, 26.9 +/- 3.8%, and 66.1 +/- 7.8 fL, respectively, before therapy and 11.5 +/- 1.0 g/dL, 35.8 +/- 2.5%, 76.5 +/- 6.1 fL, respectively, after therapy (P 50%). The mean cost of therapy was 143.07 +/- 29.13 US dollars. The therapy was well tolerated. Although the cost of intravenous iron sucrose therapy may seem high, a lack of adherence to therapy and side effects including gastrointestinal irritation during oral iron therapy were not experienced during intravenous therapy.

  1. Therapeutic Effects of Bupleurum Polysaccharides in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Pan

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is related to low-grade chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Bupleurum Polysaccharides (BPs, isolated from Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. However, little is known about its therapeutic effects on diabetes. In this experiment, the effects of BPs on alleviation of diabetes and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Diabetic mice model was established via successive intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg body weight for two days. Mice with blood glucose levels higher than 16.8mmol/L were selected for experiments. The diabetic mice were orally administered with BPs (30 and 60 mg/kg once a day for 35 days. BPs not only significantly decreased levels of blood glucose, but also increased those of serum insulin and liver glycogen in diabetic mice compared to model mice. Additionally, BPs adminstration improved the insulin expression and suppressed the apoptosis in pancreas of the diabetic mice. Histopathological observations further demonstrated that BPs protected the pancreas and liver from oxidative and inflammatory damages. These results suggest that BPs protect pancreatic β cells and liver hepatocytes and ameliorate diabetes, which is associated with its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties.

  2. Therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Huang Chaoqun; Chen Zhen; Huang Meiying; Jiang Ying; Wang Tao

    1997-09-01

    The therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness were evaluated by observing the changes in the peripheral white blood cell (PWBC) count, the total activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) in sera of the irradiated rats following P.O. administration of bee pollens. It was found that bee pollens could remarkably help irradiated rats recover from radiation-induced injury. The functions of bee pollens might be summarized as follows: (1) Stimulating Proliferation of PWBC. The PWBC count of the bee pollens group showed no significant difference as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day postirradiation. (2) Enhancing antioxidative effect of clearing free radicals. The total activity of serum SOD in the bee pollens group increased by 6.48% as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day after irradiation, and the LPO levels i.e. MDA and POV in sera of the irradiated rats decreased by 54.73% and 21.60% respectively. The result suggests that using bee pollens as antiradiation and health-promoting agents in clinical treatment of acute radiation sickness and during radiotherapy of patients with tumors may has certain practical value. (12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  3. Pharmacological effects and potential therapeutic targets of DT-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Rizwan, Mohsin; Abbas, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Boyang, Yu; Naeem, Muhammad Ahsan; Khan, Sara; Yuan, Shengtao; Baig, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf; Sun, Li

    2018-01-01

    DT-13 is an isolated compound from Dwarf lillytruf tuber and currently among active research drugs by National Natural Science foundation of China for its several potential effects. The drug has been reported for its multiple pharmacological actions however no thorough review studies are available on it. Our present study is highlighting the pros and cons of DT-13 focusing on its potential pharmacological actions, therapeutic utilization and further exploration for novel targets. The drug possesses very low toxicity profile, quick onset and long duration of action with slow elimination that combinely makes it favorable for the clinical studies. In vivo and in vitro studies show that the drug regulates multiple cellular functions for its several pharmacological effects including, anti-adhesive effects via regulation of tissue factor and transforming growth factor; anti-migratory effects through indirect regulation of NM-IIA in the tumor microenvironment, Tissue factor, down-regulation of CCR5-CCL5 axis and MMP-2/9 inhibition; anti-metastatic effects via regulation of MMPs and tissue factor; pro-apoptotic effects by modulation of endocytosis of EGF receptor; anti-angiogenic effects via regulation of HIF-1α,ERK, Akt signalling and autophagy inducing characteristics by regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway. In addition to anti-tumor activities, DT-13 has significant anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective and immunomodulating effects. Pharmaceutical dosage form and targeted drug delivery system for DT-13 has not been established yet. Moreover, DT-13, has not been studied for its action on brain, colorectal, hepatic, pancreatic, prostate and blood cancers. Similarly the effects of drug on carbohydrate and glucose metabolism is another niche yet to be explored. In some traditional therapies, crude drug from the plant is used against diabetic and neurological disorders that are not reported in scientific literature, however due to profound effects of

  4. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.

  5. Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of Propolis in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; El-Shahat, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to stimulate the generation of oxygen radicals which destabilize organic molecules resulting in a decrease of the system's antioxidant potential. Propolis (bee glue) is a complex mixture of natural substances that exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities. As the possibility exists that it may exert a radio protections role, the present study aimed to examine the preventive and therapeutic effects of propolis on the gamma irradiation-induced changes in antioxidant status and certain biochemical parameters. HPLC chromatography for analysis of propolis showed that the number of identified phenols was 6 compounds (natural antioxidants). Male albino rats were exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation. The efficiency of propolis was evaluated when propolis was administered orally to rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg as follow: non-irradiated rats received orally propolis extract for 6 weeks (positive control) and rats received orally propolis extract for 3 weeks before or after gamma irradiation. The obtained results revealed that propolis given to rats before gamma irradiation protect the hazardous effects of gamma irradiation. In addition, administration of propolis to gamma irradiated rats caused significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes (glutathion reductase; GR and catalase; CAT) and total antioxidant capacity associated with a remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Also, it significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum levels of glucose and liver enzymes; aminotransferases (AST, ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). In conclusion, the positive results obtained in the gamma irradiated rats given propolis indicated that propolis could be considered as effective

  6. V-ATPase as an effective therapeutic target for sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perut, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.perut@ior.it [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Avnet, Sofia; Fotia, Caterina; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Salerno, Manuela [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Hosogi, Shigekuni [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki [Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Baldini, Nicola [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumors show intense glycolysis and, as a consequence, high lactate production and proton efflux activity. We investigated proton dynamics in osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma, and evaluated the effects of esomeprazole as a therapeutic agent interfering with tumor acidic microenvironment. All sarcomas were able to survive in an acidic microenvironment (up to 5.9–6.0 pH) and abundant acidic lysosomes were found in all sarcoma subtypes. V-ATPase, a proton pump that acidifies intracellular compartments and transports protons across the plasma membrane, was detected in all cell types with a histotype-specific expression pattern. Esomeprazole administration interfered with proton compartmentalization in acidic organelles and induced a significant dose-dependent toxicity. Among the different histotypes, rhabdomyosarcoma, expressing the highest levels of V-ATPase and whose lysosomes are most acidic, was mostly susceptible to ESOM treatment. - Highlights: • Osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma survive in acidic microenvironment. • At acidic extracellular pH, sarcoma survival is dependent on V-ATPase expression. • Esomeprazole administration induce a significant dose-dependent toxicity.

  7. Therapeutic effectiveness of pediatric renal transplantation in 63 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Shu; Wang Mu; Zhu Youhua; Zeng Li; Zhou Meisheng; Zhang Lei; Fu Shangxi; Wang Liming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristic of operation, intra-operation treatment and the application of immunosuppressant in pediatric renal transplantation in order to improve therapeutic effectiveness. Methods: From March 1986 to October 2006, the clinical data of 63 children who underwent renal transplantation in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The 1-, 3-, 5-, 10-year graft survival rates were 98.4%, 90.5%, 88.9% and 68.3%,respectively. And the corresponding patient survival rates were 100%, 95.2%, 92.1%, 71.4%. The body weight increased 4 to 12 kg and the body height grew up 2 to 6 cm during the first year post-transplantation. The main complications in the first year post-transplantation were hypertension (26/63, 41.3%), crinosity (14/63, 22.2%),drug-induced hepatic injury(11/63, 17.5%), gingival hyperplasia (10/63, 15.8%), pulmonary infection(9/63, 14.3%),bone marrow suppression(5/63, 7.9%), herpes (4/63, 6.3%) and diabetes (3/63, 4.8%). Conclusion: Renal transplantation is a preferred method for the treatment of children in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Good tissue matching, proper operative time and pattern, peri-operactive care were essential to success, as well as appropriate immuno-suppressant strategy and good compliance.

  8. Antidiabetic Effects of Aronia melanocarpa and Its Other Therapeutic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Banjari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a global pandemic which warrants urgent attention due to its rising prevalence and economic burden. Thus, many alternative therapies are being researched for antidiabetic properties, given the inefficacy of current medicinal treatments. From this perspective, Aronia melanocarpa or black chokeberry has been investigated for its therapeutic properties in many studies, especially for its ability to combat hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and the macrovascular complications of diabetes including cardiovascular disease. Though A. melanocarpa is native to the eastern areas of North America, it has been planted extensively in Europe and Asia as well. Several in vivo studies have displayed the antioxidant properties of A. melanocarpa berry juice and plant extract in rat models where oxidative stress markers were observed to have significant reductions. Some of the potent bioactive compounds present in the fruits and other parts of the plant were identified as (−-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and cyanidin-3-galactoside. Overall, A. melanocarpa could be considered a good source of antioxidants which is effective in combating hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress.

  9. Realism and Impartiality: Making Sustainability Effective in Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastons, Miquel; Armengou, Jaume

    2017-08-01

    There is both individual and collective widespread concern in society about the impact of human activity and the effects of our decisions on the physical and social environment. This concern is included within the idea of sustainability. The meaning of the concept is still ambiguous and its practical effectiveness disputed. Like many other authors, this article uses as a starting point the definition proposed by the World Commission on Environment and Development (Our common future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987), considering it to be a proposal for changing the assessment of the effects of decisions, from at least two perspectives: (1) what effects we should consider and (2) how we should assess them. Based on this double perspective, sustainability is explored as a method for decision-making which both expands the assessment of the consequences, and also provides an objective criterion for such assessment. It will be argued that the idea of sustainability, seen from this perspective, brings to decision-making two qualities which had been partially lost: realism and impartiality. In turn, the criteria for realism and impartiality in decision-making can be used to identify the limitations of some partial approaches to sustainability, which suffer from insufficient realism (emotional altruism), insufficient impartiality (tactical altruism) or both phenomena at once (egoism). The article concludes by demonstrating how realism and impartiality provide the basis for a new form of sustainable decision-making (ethical sustainability), which is dependent on the development of two moral virtues, prudence and benevolence, and which brings practical effectiveness and ethical sense to the concept of sustainability.

  10. Therapeutic Effect of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Multiple Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Kyu; Lee, Sang Ryul; Cho, Jin Mo; Yang, Kyung Ah

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in patients with multiple brain metastases and to investigate prognostic factors related to treatment outcome. Methods We retrospectively reviewed clinico-radiological and dosimetric data of 36 patients with 4-14 brain metastases who underwent GKRS for 264 lesions between August 2008 and April 2011. The most common primary tumor site was the lung (n=22), followed by breast (n=7). At GKRS, the median Karnofsky performance scale score was 90 and the mean tumor volume was 1.2 cc (0.002-12.6). The mean prescription dose of 17.8 Gy was delivered to the mean 61.1% isodose line. Among 264 metastases, 175 lesions were assessed for treatment response by at least one imaging follow-up. Results The overall median survival after GKRS was 9.1±1.7 months. Among various factors, primary tumor control was a significant prognostic factor (11.1±1.3 months vs. 3.3±2.4 months, p=0.031). The calculated local tumor control rate at 6 and 9 months after GKRS were 87.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Paddick's conformity index (>0.75) was significantly related to local tumor control. The actuarial peritumoral edema reduction rate was 22.4% at 6 months. Conclusion According to our results, GKRS can provide beneficial effect for the patients with multiple (4 or more) brain metastases, when systemic cancer is controlled. And, careful dosimetry is essential for local tumor control. Therefore, GKRS can be considered as one of the treatment modalities for multiple brain metastase. PMID:22102945

  11. School effectiveness and school improvement : Sustaining links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, B.P.M.; Reezigt, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ideally, school effectiveness research and school improvement might have a relationship with a surplus value for both. In reality, this relationship is often troublesome. Some problems can be attributed to the intrinsic differences between effectiveness and improvement, such as different missions.

  12. ERP characterization of sustained attention effects in visual lexical categorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara D Martin

    Full Text Available As our understanding of the basic processes underlying reading is growing, the key role played by attention in this process becomes evident. Two research topics are of particular interest in this domain: (1 it is still undetermined whether sustained attention affects lexical decision tasks; (2 the influence of attention on early visual processing (i.e., before orthographic or lexico-semantic processing stages remains largely under-specified. Here we investigated early perceptual modulations by sustained attention using an ERP paradigm adapted from Thierry et al. [1]. Participants had to decide whether visual stimuli presented in pairs pertained to a pre-specified category (lexical categorization focus on word or pseudoword pairs. Depending on the lexical category of the first item of a pair, participants either needed to fully process the second item (hold condition or could release their attention and make a decision without full processing of the second item (release condition. The P1 peak was unaffected by sustained attention. The N1 was delayed and reduced after the second item of a pair when participants released their attention. Release of sustained attention also reduced a P3 wave elicited by the first item of a pair and abolished the P3 wave elicited by the second. Our results are consistent with differential effects of sustained attention on early processing stages and working memory. Sustained attention modulated early processing stages during a lexical decision task without inhibiting the process of stimulus integration. On the contrary, working memory involvement/updating was highly dependent upon the allocation of sustained attention. Moreover, the influence of sustained attention on both early and late cognitive processes was independent of lexical categorization focus.

  13. Therapeutic effect of beta radiation on onychomycosis: An innovative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroz, S.; Islam, N.; Rashid, H.; Shahidullah, M.; Ali, S.; Islam, S.K.M.; Hossain, S.; Ali, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Onychomycosis is the most frequent cause of nail disease and the most prevalent type of dermatophytosis in Bangladesh. The humid and warm climate of this tropical country is congenial for the growth of fungi. Therapeutic limitations of conventional antimycotic agents in respect of low cure rates, high relapse rate, inherent side effects, long duration of treatment and high cost in treating onychomycosis have provided clear incentives to explore alternative forms of treatment procedure. The objectives of the present thesis work were: (i) To use beta radiation as a curative therapy for Onychomycosis, optimisation of its dosages and to promote an innovative clinical development in the field of therapeutic application of nuclear medicine; (ii) To assess the efficacy of beta radiation either alone or in combination with conventional antifungal therapy; and (iii) To reduce the duration of drug exposure and cost of treatment for onychomycosis. This is a PhD research work under the University of Dhaka and was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Information and Communication Technology, Government of the people's republic of Bangladesh. This study is an open, randomised and controlled trial to verify the efficacy of beta radiation in patients with onychomycosis. Using the appropriate statistical formula, sample size of the study population was determined and in each group 92 patients were assigned. With an assumption of patients drop out and for better statistical analysis, a total of 330 patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criterion having diagnosed to have onychomycosis clinically and mycological were randomly allocated to enter in therapeutic regimen. Study population was randomised in three groups. Group A (n =110) received griseofulvin orally 500 mg once daily for 12-16 weeks; Group B (n=110) received beta radiation, 500 rads bi-weekly for 3 weeks (total 2500 rads); and Group C (n=110) received combined beta radiation (total 2500 rads in 3 weeks) and

  14. Effect of radioimmunoassay procedures on therapeutic drug monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampa, I.S.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for the measurement of therapeutic drugs have covered every aspect of analysis from extraction to derivatization. In general, published methods were modified to shorten drug extractions and overall analysis time. The use of different standards, as well as the frequent omission of internal standards, often produced large and clinically unacceptable analytical variations. As a result, physicians would adjust drug dosages according to the physiological response to a standard dose. The introduction of radioimmunoassay techniques for the quantitation of therapeutic drugs have made a significant impact on the clinical chemistry laboratory. The similarities of the various assay methods and the technologists' familiarity with the assay protocols have produced clinically relevant results. Clinical laboratories are now able to frequently analyze a large number of samples with acceptable accuracy and precision. The esoteric test once performed infrequently is today a routine analytical assay often performed STAT. Therapeutic drug monitoring has become a major activity in many clinical laboratories

  15. Effective and Sustainable Health Research Partnerships : a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC frequently supports collaborative Canada-South research on subjects of vital ... to structure and manage Canada-South research partnerships more effectively. ... Africa, Latin America and Canada leading to region-specific working papers on ... for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 competition.

  16. Examining the Time to Therapeutic Effect of Pregabalin in Spinal Cord Injury Patients With Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Diana D; Emir, Birol; Parsons, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    In 2 large-scale, placebo-controlled trials, pregabalin improved both pain and pain-related sleep interference in patients with neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury (SCI). In both trials, pregabalin found statistically significant improvement compared with placebo after 1 week of treatment. However, the effects of pregabalin in the days immediately after initiation of treatment are unknown. The purpose of the present analysis was to determine timing of pregabalin's therapeutic effect in the days after initiation of treatment. Data were derived from 2 trials of pregabalin in patients with SCI-related neuropathic pain. Each day patients rated severity of pain and pain-related sleep interference over the past 24 hours on a scale from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating greater severity. To quantify timing of therapeutic effect, we compared (pregabalin [vs] placebo) daily average pain and pain-related sleep interference scores over the first 14 days of treatment. Significant improvement was defined as the first day, of ≥2 consecutive days, that pregabalin significantly (P pain and pain-related sleep interference score among patients with a clinically meaningful and sustained response (≥30% improvement from baseline to end point) by using a time-to-event analysis method. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to estimate the median (or 25th quartile) time (in days) required to achieve a ≥1-point improvement, among these responders, in pain and pain-related sleep interference scores. Comparisons between pregabalin and placebo were made with a log-rank test. In both trials, significant improvement of pain and pain-related sleep interference occurred within 2 days of initiating treatment with pregabalin. Among patients reporting a clinically meaningful and sustained response to treatment (patients with ≥30% improvement from baseline to end point), the time to a ≥1-point improvement of pain and pain-related sleep interference occurred significantly earlier among

  17. Effects of therapeutic plasma exchange on early allograft dysfunction after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Wonho; Kwon, Seog-Woon; Kim, Sung-Soo; Hwang, Shin; Song, Gi-Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2017-06-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) is a serious complication of liver transplantation (LT) and is associated with graft failure, which can result in patient mortality. Due to the shortage of organs for retransplantation, only a small proportion of EAD patients undergo retransplantation. Thus, liver support is needed for most patients with EAD. We evaluated the effects of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in EAD patients. EAD was defined as a sustained hyperbilirubinemia (≥10 mg/dL) within 30 days of LT without concurrent biliary complications. In a 13-year period, 107 EAD patients underwent TPE while 36 EAD patients did not. We investigated the laboratory and clinical outcomes of TPE and non-TPE groups. The TPE group showed 1-month and 1-year survival rates of 82.2% and 53.8%, respectively, whereas the non-TPE group showed 58.3% and 22.2%, respectively. In TPE group, statistically significant decreases (P higher INR on the day of EAD onset increased the risk. TPE effectively removed plasma bilirubin and improved coagulation function in EAD patients, with higher survival in the TPE group than in the non-TPE group. TPE may be an effective liver support for EAD patients. J. Clin. Apheresis 32:147-153, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effectiveness of plant based insecticides as a sustainable means of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is an important crop in Pakistan. It is affected by many biotic and abiotic factors. Among these, Cucumber mosaic virus is the important disease with economic losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plant based insecticides as a sustainable means to control the ...

  19. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  20. Curcumin (Extracted from Tumeric and its Therapeutic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezou khosrojerdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives:  The application of herbal medicine has been rising in recent years. Therefore, it is logical to revise and revive these traditional drugs while identifying their mechanisms of action can result in developing new treatments for many diseases. Curcumin is the most important component of Turmeric with numerous therapeutic properties. We aimed to review the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties of Curcumin and introduce it as a therapeutic molecule in the present article. Methods: In this review, 121 articles were selected from authenticated electronic resources and scientific library databases such as Pubmed, Medline, Sciencedirect, WOS, DOAJ, SID, Iranmedex, Magiran and Google Scholar search engine in which Curcumin (Turmeric had been evaluated as a therapeutic molecule from differeny aspects. Results: Our findings from the literature revealed that immune responses against infectious and inflammatory factors could be fascilitated by Curcumin. However, the low solubility in water and minimal bioavailability which may lead to poor absorbance from gastrointestinal tract, quick metabolization and elimination from blood circulation are the most important problems during oral consumption. Conclusion: According to the results of the present review article, Curcumin possesses efficient anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral and anti-parasitic properties. However, the low bioavailability of this substance has limited its treatment properties. Nowadays, several mechanisms have been proposed to increase the bioavailability which can improve its absorption.

  1. Effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance in community-dwelling older adults with balance deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homnick, Douglas N; Henning, Kim M; Swain, Charlene V; Homnick, Tamara D

    2013-07-01

    Falls are an important cause of morbidity in older adults. Equine-assisted activities including therapeutic riding (TR) benefit balance and neuromuscular control in patients with neurological disabilities but have not been systematically studied in older adults at greater risk for falls due to balance deficits. The effect of an 8-week TR program on measures of balance and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults with established balance deficits was evaluated. This was a pretest-post-test single-group trial of a TR program on measures of balance and quality of life. The study was conducted at a Professional Association of Therapeutic Horsemanship (PATH) International Premier riding center. The subjects comprised 9 adults (5 female, 4 males) with a mean age 76.4 years (range 71-83 years). This included an 8-week observation period followed by an 8-week TR program consisting of 1 hour per week of supervised horseback riding and an 8-week follow-up period. SUBJECTS received balance testing at weeks 0, 8, 16, and 24 using the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FABS), and quality of life was measured at weeks 8 and 16 using the Rand SF (short form) 36 quality-of-life measure. OUTCOME MEASURES were change in the FABS and Rand SF 36. There was no significant difference in balance scores between the start and end of the observation period. There was a significant improvement in the balance score and perception of general health from the start to the end of the intervention period, and no significant difference between the end of the intervention and the end of study, suggesting that improvements may have been sustained. TR is a safe activity for older adults with mild to moderate balance deficits and leads to both improvements in balance and quality of life. Longer and larger studies to assess the benefit of equine-assisted activities on improvements in balance and reduction in fall risk are needed.

  2. Damaging effect of therapeutic radiation on programmable pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamec, R.; Haefliger, J.M.; Killisch, J.P.; Niederer, J.; Jaquet, P.

    1982-01-01

    Two series of present-day pacemakers were tested in vitro with pulsed x-ray radiation. The first series of 12 pacemakers consisted of 10 different types and models of demand pacemakers (VVI). The second series of 13 pacemakers had 9 different types and models of programmable pacemakers. Unlike the first series which showed only mild changes in frequency and pulse width, all but four of the programmable pacemakers presented sudden complete failure after different radiation doses. We conclude that direct pulse radiation at therapeutic levels of programmable pacemakers should be avoided

  3. The Effect of Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development in Swedish Compulsory Schools--Assessing Pupils' Sustainability Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, D.; Gericke, N.; Chang Rundgren, S.-N.

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, numerous schools in Sweden have implemented education for sustainable development (ESD) as an explicit guiding approach in teaching. In this paper, we investigate the effect of this approach in comparison with that of pupils taught in ordinary schools. Accordingly, we introduce the concept of sustainability consciousness to…

  4. Therapeutic Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Rat Spinal Cord Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Fu Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is prepared by centrifuging fresh blood in an anticoagulant state, and harvesting the platelet-rich portion or condensing platelets. Studies have consistently demonstrated that PRP concentrates are an abundant source of growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, and epithelial growth factor (EGF. The complex mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury (SCI diminish intrinsic repair and neuronal regeneration. Several studies have suggested that growth factor-promoted axonal regeneration can occur for an extended period after injury. More importantly, the delivery of exogenous growth factors contained in PRP, such as EGF, IGF-1, and TGF-β, has neurotrophic effects on central nervous system (CNS injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. However, only a few studies have investigated the effects of PRP on CNS injuries or neurodegenerative diseases. According to our review of relevant literature, no study has investigated the effect of intrathecal (i.t. PRP injection into the injured spinal cord and activation of intrinsic mechanisms. In the present study, we directly injected i.t. PRP into rat spinal cords and examined the effects of PRP on normal and injured spinal cords. In rats with normal spinal cords, PRP induced microglia and astrocyte activation and PDGF-B and ICAM-1 expression. In rats with SCIs, i.t. PRP enhanced the locomotor recovery and spared white matter, promoted angiogenesis and neuronal regeneration, and modulated blood vessel size. Furthermore, a sustained treatment (a bolus of PRP followed by a 1/3 dose of initial PRP concentration exerted more favorable therapeutic effects than a single dose of PRP. Our findings suggest by i.t. PRP stimulate angiogenesis, enhancing neuronal regeneration after SCI in rats. Although PRP induces minor inflammation in normal and injured spinal cords, it has many advantages. It is an

  5. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  6. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  7. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  8. Anorexia nervosa versus hyperinsulinism: therapeutic effects of neuropharmacological manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechin, Fuad; van der Dijs, Bertha; Pardey-Maldonado, Betty; Baez, Scarlet; Lechin, Marcel E

    2011-01-01

    Background: We have demonstrated that anorexia nervosa is underpinned by overwhelming adrenal sympathetic activity which abolishes the neural sympathetic branch of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. This physiological disorder is responsible for gastrointestinal hypomotility, hyperglycemia, raised systolic blood pressure, raised heart rate, and other neuroendocrine disorders. Therefore, we prescribed neuropharmacological therapy to reverse this central and autonomic nervous system disorder, in order to normalize the clinical and neuroendocrine profile. Methods: The study included 22 female patients with anorexia nervosa (10 restricted type, 12 binge-eating type) who received three months of treatment with amantadine 100 mg/day. We measured blood pressure, heart rate, and circulating neurotransmitters, (noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, platelet serotonin, free plasma serotonin) during supine resting, one minute of orthostasis, and a five-minute exercise test before and after one, two, and three months of treatment with amantadine, a drug which abrogates adrenal sympathetic activity by acting at the C1(Ad) medullary nuclei responsible for this branch of the peripheral sympathetic activity. Results: We found the amantadine abolished symptoms of anorexia nervosa from the first oral dose onwards. Normalization of autonomic and cardiovascular parameters was demonstrated within the early days of therapy. Abrupt and sustained increases in the plasma noradrenaline:adrenaline ratio and disappearance of abnormal plasma glucose elevation were registered throughout the three-month duration of the trial. Significant and sustained increases in body weight were documented in all cases. No relapses were observed. Conclusion: We have confirmed our previously published findings showing that the anorexia nervosa syndrome depends on the hypomotility of the gastrointestinal tract plus hyperglycemia, both of which are triggered by adrenal sympathetic hyperactivity. The above

  9. Sustainable packaging: from eco-efficiency to eco-effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Boas, Simon H.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2014-01-01

    According to Verghese et al (2012) sustainable packaging should be: effective in delivering its functional requirements, efficient in its use of materials, energy, and water throughout its life cycle, cyclic in its use of renewable materials and recoverability at end-of-life, and safe for people...... and the natural environment. Companies in the packaging sector have traditionally been using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to fulfill these requirements. However, being inspired by the eco-efficiency principle, LCA aims to reduce the negative environmental footprint of human activities by optimizing...... and emissions can be taken up as nutrients by other processes instead of reducing the amount of waste as eco-efficiency advocates. From a company point of view, LCA and C2C are complementary approaches to develop sustainable andinnovative solutions for packaging, see Figure 1. We will illustrate the challenges...

  10. Anorexia nervosa versus hyperinsulinism: therapeutic effects of neuropharmacological manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Lechin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuad Lechin1,2, Bertha van der Dijs1,2, Betty Pardey-Maldonado1, Scarlet Baez1, Marcel E Lechin31Sections of Neuroendocrinology, Neuropharmacology, and Neurochemistry, Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas; 2Instituto de Vias Digestivas Caracas, Centro Clínico Profesional Caracas, Venezuela; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A & M Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Texas, USABackground: We have demonstrated that anorexia nervosa is underpinned by overwhelming adrenal sympathetic activity which abolishes the neural sympathetic branch of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. This physiological disorder is responsible for gastrointestinal hypomotility, hyperglycemia, raised systolic blood pressure, raised heart rate, and other neuroendocrine disorders. Therefore, we prescribed neuropharmacological therapy to reverse this central and autonomic nervous system disorder, in order to normalize the clinical and neuroendocrine profile.Methods: The study included 22 female patients with anorexia nervosa (10 restricted type, 12 binge-eating type who received three months of treatment with amantadine 100 mg/day. We measured blood pressure, heart rate, and circulating neurotransmitters, (noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, platelet serotonin, free plasma serotonin during supine resting, one minute of orthostasis, and a five-minute exercise test before and after one, two, and three months of treatment with amantadine, a drug which abrogates adrenal sympathetic activity by acting at the C1(Ad medullary nuclei responsible for this branch of the peripheral sympathetic activity.Results: We found the amantadine abolished symptoms of anorexia nervosa from the first oral dose onwards. Normalization of autonomic and cardiovascular parameters was demonstrated within the early days of therapy. Abrupt and sustained increases in the plasma noradrenaline

  11. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosens, Jorrit; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Bluemling, Bettina; Beckers, Theo A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy framework, which targets household budget, fuel collection workload, forest degradation, indoor air quality and health, renewable energy supply, and climate change. A household survey was used to determine how biogas affected consumption levels of crop residues, fuel wood, coal, LPG, and electricity. Biogas users were found to reduce consumption of biomass fuels but not coal. Although LPG is not a highly commonly used fuel in rural China, biogas users nearly cease to use it altogether. A big reduction in fuel wood consumption results in strongly reduced workload and forest degradation. Although household scale biogas has alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by Chinese policies, low quality fuel use remains abundant, even in households using biogas. Continued promotion of the construction of biogas installations is advisable, but additional policies are needed to ensure higher quality heating energy supply and cleaner uses of biomass fuels. - Highlights: ► Household biogas alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by policy. ► Biogas users consume less biomass fuels, much less LPG, but similar amounts of coal. ► Strongest sustainability effects are reduced workload and forest degradation. ► Household budget effects are slight as commercial cooking fuel use is limited. ► Low quality fuel use remains abundant and further policy efforts are needed

  12. Antimicrobial Effect of Biocompatible Silicon Nanoparticles Activated Using Therapeutic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Svetlana N; Burkhardt, Markus; Sheval, Eugene V; Natashina, Ulyana A; Grosse, Christina; Nikolaev, Alexander L; Gopin, Alexander V; Neugebauer, Ute; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A; Sivakov, Vladimir; Osminkina, Liubov A

    2017-03-14

    In this study, we report a method for the suppression of Escherichia coli (E. coli) vitality by means of therapeutic ultrasound irradiation (USI) using biocompatible silicon nanoparticles as cavitation sensitizers. Silicon nanoparticles without (SiNPs) and with polysaccharide (dextran) coating (DSiNPs) were used. Both types of nanoparticles were nontoxic to Hep 2 cells up to a concentration of 2 mg/mL. The treatment of bacteria with nanoparticles and application of 1 W/cm 2 USI resulted in the reduction of their viabilities up to 35 and 72% for SiNPs and DSiNPs, respectively. The higher bacterial viability reduction for DSiNPs as compared with SiNPs can be explained by the fact that the biopolymer shell of the polysaccharide provides a stronger adhesion of nanoparticles to the bacterial surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies showed that the bacterial lipid shell was partially perforated after the combined treatment of DSiNPs and USI, which can be explained by the lysis of bacterial membrane due to the cavitation sensitized by the SiNPs. Furthermore, we have shown that 100% inhibition of E. coli bacterial colony growth is possible by coupling the treatments of DSiNPs and USI with an increased intensity of up to 3 W/cm 2 . The observed results reveal the application of SiNPs as promising antimicrobial agents.

  13. The effects of therapeutic climbing in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbert, Kai; Weber, Michaela

    2011-05-15

    A randomized controlled study investigated the effects of therapeutic climbing in patients with chronic low back pain. Before and after 4 weeks of training, physical and mental well-being were measured by two questionnaires (36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]; Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire for measuring back pain-related disability [FFbH-R]). Therapeutic climbing has been suggested to increase muscular strength and perceived physical and mental well-being. This study focused on the psychological effects of therapeutic climbing and compared it with standard exercise therapy. Therapeutic climbing has become increasingly popular in rehabilitation and its effects on muscular strengthening have been shown. Therapeutic climbing has also been suggested to yield psychological effects such as changes in attentional focus from pain to physical capabilities. To date, no controlled clinical trial has investigated these psychological effects and it is unclear whether therapeutic climbing is comparable or superior to other forms of exercise. Twenty-eight patients with chronic low back pain conducted either a therapeutic climbing or a standard exercise regime. Each program took 4 weeks, including four guided training sessions per week. Before and after the program, patients answered two questionnaires assessing their physical and mental well-being. For the Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire for measuring back pain-related disability, there was no difference before versus after or between the treatments. For the SF-36, both treatments showed significant improvements in 3/8 subscales of the SF-36. In 2/8 subscales, only the participants of the therapeutic climbing improved and in 1/8 subscales the converse was true. Comparing both groups, significantly larger improvements were found after therapeutic climbing in two subscales of the SF-36: physical functioning and general health perception. The benefits of therapeutic climbing were comparable with those of

  14. Therapeutic effects of flunitrazepan in dystonias and torticollis preliminary communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Marino Jr.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available A new form of clinical treatment is proposed for dystonias and torticollis using flunitrazepan (FN, a powerful agonist of all benzodiazepine receptors of GABA neurons. FN has a specific effect in dystonic patients, specially those in which the hypnotic effect of this drug is absent or diminished, thus suggesting the existence of two different neurochemical categories of dystonias.

  15. Effect of a therapeutic dose of pseudoephedrine on swimmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is thought to result from direct stimulation of post-synaptic receptors and inhibition ..... optimal effect could be extensive with the use of nutritional supplements; therefore ... These studies support the theory that higher doses of PSE may result in.

  16. Therapeutic effects of intensive inpatient rehabilitation in advanced Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kaseda, Yumiko; Ikeda, Junko; Sugihara, Katsunobu; Yamawaki, Takemori; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of rehabilitation therapy in Parkinson's disease is well recognized. However, the effects of an inpatient rehabilitation program for advanced Parkinson's disease have not been fully investigated. Aim To assess the effects of intensive inpatient rehabilitation. Methods We enrolled 31 patients (mean age 69.5 ? 9.4 years; mean disease duration 8.8 ? 6.4 years) with advanced Parkinson's disease, without severe cognitive impairment. The median Hoehn?Yahr stage wa...

  17. The effect of natural resources on a sustainable development policy: The approach of non-sustainable externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, Markus; Chiang Lichun

    2011-01-01

    The debate about the importance of non-renewable resources for economic development between optimists and pessimists shows that the extensive depletion of non-renewable resources, particularly oil, along with a higher level of consumption could have a significant impact on the economic development of future generations. Based on this debate, this paper proposes criteria under which the depletion of non-renewable resources would create excess costs for future generations. Therefore, this paper aims to answer the question 'What will be the impact of the depletion of non-renewable resources on sustainable economic development?' Accordingly, a sustainable development policy appears feasible by minimizing non-sustainable externalities which derive from future externalities that weigh the benefits from a previous employment of natural resources. The research based on qualitative analysis clarifies the reasons for and the extents of taking sustainability into account as well as points to difficulties of implementing policies to time the transition towards a sustainable economic development. Finally, the research shows the implications of this approach for environmental degradation, the depletion of non-renewable resources and energy production. - Research Highlights: →Economic development will more or less smoothly switch to the use of renewable substitutes. →The transition towards a sustainable use of resources may inherit costs for future generations. →Non-sustainable externalities show the future costs of excessive resource depletion. →The approach aims to take the long-term global effects of resource substitution into account.

  18. Therapeutic effect of Arctium lappa in Schistosoma haematobium associated kidney disturbance: biochemical and molecular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Idris, Zulzamri H; Haron, Hasniza F; Omar, Nurulhuda A; Lazain, Halita S

    2016-12-01

    Schistosoma haematobium ( S. haematobium ) infection has been found to be strongly associated with bladder cancer, which necessitates for discover of a natural new therapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Arctium lappa seed extract in S. haematobium associated kidney disturbance. Forty male albino mice were used and divided into four equal groups; group 1 control includes non-infected healthy mice, groups 2, 3 and 4 subcutaneous infected with S. haematobium cercariae. Groups 3 co-treated daily with oral dose of A. lappa seed extract (300 mg/kg, bwt) for 15 days in the same time of S. haematobium infection. Groups 4 post-treated daily for 15 days with oral dose of A. lappa seed extract (300 mg/kg, bwt) after 15 days of S. haematobium infection. The results obtained revealed that S. haematobium significantly decreased kidney weight and serum sodium, potassium and chloride, but increased urinary volume, urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride, serum urea, creatinine and uric acid. Schistosoma haematobium also significantly decreased kidney superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels while increased kidney lipid peroxidation level. Co- and post-treatment with A. lappa seed extract restore all the above parameters to approach the normal values. These results were supported with histopathological examinations. In conclusion, A. lappa seed extract has therapeutic effect in kidney disturbance caused by S. haematobium where co-treatment of A. lappa seed extract was more effective than post-treatment of the extract.

  19. Tripeptide tyroserleutide plus doxorubicin: therapeutic synergy and side effect attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhi-feng; Yao, Zhi; Chen, Li-juan; Lu, Rong; Jia, Jing; Liang, Yu; Xu, Qiong; Zhou, Chun-lei; Wang, Li; Wang, Song

    2008-01-01

    Tripeptide tyroserleutide (YSL) is a novel small molecule anti-tumor polypeptide that has been shown to inhibit the growth of human liver cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of YSL plus doxorubicin on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells that had been transplanted into nude mice. Nude mice bearing human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 tumors were treated with successive intraperitoneal injections of saline; low-, mid-, or high-dose doxorubicin; or low-, mid-, or high-dose doxorubicin plus YSL. Effects on the weight and volume of the tumors were evaluated. Co-administration of YSL and high-dose doxorubicin (6 mg/kg every other day) prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing mice as compared to high-dose doxorubicin alone. As well, the anti-tumor effects of mid- and low-dose doxorubicin (2 and 0.7 mg/kg every other day, respectively) were enhanced when supplemented with YSL; the tumor growth inhibition rates for YSL plus doxorubicin were greater than the inhibition rates for the same dosages of doxorubicin alone. The combination of YSL and doxorubicin decreased chemotherapy-associated weight loss, leukocyte depression, and heart, liver, and kidney damage as compared to doxorubicin alone. The combination of YSL plus doxorubicin enhances the anti-tumor effect and reduces the side effects associated with doxorubicin chemotherapy

  20. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  1. Therapeutic effectiveness of a new enzymatic bleaching dentifrice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner, Leopaldo; Amengual, José; Liena, Carmen; Riutord, Pere

    2012-01-01

    Research into bleaching focuses on new products in order to minimize undesirable effects. This study evaluated the bleaching effectiveness of a new enzymatic-activated dentifrice. A total of 20 volunteers were bleached with a dentifrice containing 5% lactoperoxidase and 3% carbamide peroxide applied three times a day for two minutes over 21 days. Color was recorded before and after the treatment using a spectrophotometer. CIELAB differences were calculated before and after treatment using the paired t test (P whitening teeth. Enzymatic dental bleaching is able to increase the efficiency of low concentration peroxides, reducing the potential risk of peroxides on oral tissues.

  2. Therapeutic effects of ciprofloxacin/bushenhuazhuo combination on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical effect of bushenhuazhuo (a Chinese traditional medicine) in combination with ciprofloxacin (an orthodox medicine) in chronic prostatitis (CP) therapy. Methods: A total of 160 patients who suffered from CP and received treatment in the People's Hospital of Zhengzhou between April 2012 ...

  3. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, Rosan; van der Galiën, Onno P; Smeets, Hugo M; Hollinga, Anne P D; Bosmans, Judith E

    BACKGROUND: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. METHODS: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  4. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, R.; van der Galien, O.P.; Smeets, H.M.; Hollinga, A.P.D.; Bosmans, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. Methods: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  5. PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES OF HIBISCUS CANNABINUS- A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

    2018-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Hibiscus cannabinus showed the presence of phytosterols, flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, saponins, lignans, essential oils, glucosides such as cannabiscitrin, cannabiscetin and anthocyanin glycoside. The pharmacological studies revealed that Hibiscus cannabinus possessed cytotoxic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antiulcer, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, immunological, haematinic and hepatoprotective effects. This review will highli...

  6. Therapeutic effects of Laser and L-carnitine against amiodarone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary toxicity is considered a life- threatening complication of ... Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ain .... Laser therapy restores the balance between oxidants and ... No conflict of interest associated with this work. Contribution of .... Fitness. 2014; 149-159. 21. Lee BJ, Lin JS, Lin YC, Lin PT. Effects of L-carnitine.

  7. Therapeutic effects of different durations of acupuncture on rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is regarded as an effective therapy for cerebral ischemia. Different acupuncture manipulations and durations may result in different therapeutic effects. In the present study, the Neiguan (PC6 acupoint of rats with occluded middle cerebral arteries was needled at a fixed frequency (3 Hz with different durations, i.e., 5, 60 and 180 seconds under a twisting-rotating acupuncture method. Results showed that different durations of acupuncture had different therapeutic effects, with 60 seconds yielding a better therapeutic effect than the other two groups. This duration of treatment demonstrated rapid cerebral blood flow, encouraging recovery of neurological function, and small cerebral infarct volume. Experimental findings indicated that under 3 Hz frequency, the treatment of needling Neiguan for 60 seconds is effective for ischemic stroke

  8. The Warburg effect: molecular aspects and therapeutic possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hanh; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-04-01

    It has been about nine decades since the proposal of Otto Warburg on the metabolism of cancer cells. Unlike normal cells which undergo glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of oxygen, proliferating and cancer cells exhibit an increased uptake of glucose and increased rate of glycolysis and predominantly undergo lactic acid fermentation. Whether this phenomenon is the consequence of genetic dysregulation in cancer or is the cause of cancer still remains unknown. However, there is certainly a strong link between the genetic factors, epigenetic modulation, cancer immunosurveillance and the Warburg effect, which will be discussed in this review. Dichloroacetate and 3-bromopyruvate are among the substances that have been studied as potential cancer therapies. With our expanding knowledge of cellular metabolism, therapies targeting the Warburg effect appear very promising. This review discusses different aspects of these emerging therapies.

  9. Aromatase inhibitors in men: effects and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Frank H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aromatase inhibitors effectively delay epiphysial maturation in boys and improve testosterone levels in adult men Therefore, aromatase inhibitors may be used to increase adult height in boys with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, idiopathic short stature and constitutional delay of puberty. Long-term efficacy and safety of the use of aromatase inhibitors has not yet been established in males, however, and their routine use is therefore not yet recommended.

  10. Health effects of therapeutic use of 131I in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, E. K. J.; Slats, A.; Overbeek, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1942, therapy with radioiodine (Na 131 I) has gained a major role in the treatment of benign thyroid disorders, notably hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease or toxic multi nodular goiter. The very large series of patients treated so far offer the opportunity for an assessment of both benign and malignant side effects. Hyperthyroidism is sometimes observed after radioiodine therapy due to radiation induced thyroid hormone or by an immunological mechanism. Despite the numerous attempts to design dosage schedules aiming at euthyroidism, hypothyroidism occurs in the majority of patients throughout life. Transient hypothyroidism may be observed within the first year after therapy and is caused by an immunological mechanism. Radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease may induce or worsen ophthalmopathy, which can be prevented by steroids effectively. Hypoparathyroidism and hyperparathyroidism have been reported after radioiodine therapy but probably do not exceed the normal incidence. Sialitis is commonly observed but mostly in patients treated with radioiodine for thyroid cancer. There are no indications for induction of genetic abnormalities after radioiodine therapy although no definite conclusion can be reached. Much attention has been paid to malignant disease. In very large series, no effects of radioiodine therapy on survival have been observed. Some studies report an increased relative risk for certain types of cancer (notably thyroid cancer, stomach cancer, bladder and kidney cancer or hematological malignancies). However, these observations were not confirmed by other large studies, so that no definite conclusion with respect to risk for certain types of malignant disease can be drawn. However, radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid disorders has generally considered safe and without major side effects, hypothyroidism being the most frequent one

  11. Therapeutic Effects of Breviscapine in Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jialiang; Chen, Guang; He, Haoqiang; Liu, Chao; Xiong, Xingjiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Breviscapine is a crude extract of several flavonoids of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. , containing more than 85% of scutellarin, which has been traditionally used in China as an activating blood circulation medicine to improve cerebral blood supply. Accumulating evidence from various in vivo and in vitro studies has shown that breviscapine exerts a broad range of cardiovascular pharmacological effects, including vasodilation, protection against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R), anti-inflammation, anticoagulation, antithrombosis, endothelial protection, myocardial protection, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, anticardiac remodeling, antiarrhythmia, blood lipid reduction, and improvement of erectile dysfunction. In addition, several clinical studies have reported that breviscapine could be used in conjunction with Western medicine for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidaemia, viral myocarditis, chronic heart failure, and pulmonary heart disease. However, the protective effects of breviscapine on CVDs based on experimental studies along with its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the underlying pharmacological mechanisms in the cardioprotective effects of breviscapine and elucidated its clinical applications.

  12. Therapeutic Effects of Breviscapine in Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Breviscapine is a crude extract of several flavonoids of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant. Hand.-Mazz., containing more than 85% of scutellarin, which has been traditionally used in China as an activating blood circulation medicine to improve cerebral blood supply. Accumulating evidence from various in vivo and in vitro studies has shown that breviscapine exerts a broad range of cardiovascular pharmacological effects, including vasodilation, protection against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R, anti-inflammation, anticoagulation, antithrombosis, endothelial protection, myocardial protection, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, anticardiac remodeling, antiarrhythmia, blood lipid reduction, and improvement of erectile dysfunction. In addition, several clinical studies have reported that breviscapine could be used in conjunction with Western medicine for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs including coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidaemia, viral myocarditis, chronic heart failure, and pulmonary heart disease. However, the protective effects of breviscapine on CVDs based on experimental studies along with its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the underlying pharmacological mechanisms in the cardioprotective effects of breviscapine and elucidated its clinical applications.

  13. Late effects of whole brain irradiation within the therapeutic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caveness, W.F.; Carsten, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    Whole brain exposure with supervoltage x irradiation was carried out in three sets of Macaca mulatta. Two sets of 12 monkeys each, at puberty, received single and fractionated exposures, respectively. One set of 21 monkeys in adulthood received a fractionated exposure. Exposure to 1000 rads in a single dose, at puberty, caused no late effects. Exposure to 1500 rads caused small areas of necrosis in the forebrain white matter at 26 weeks, but a much more extensive involvement at and beyond 52 weeks that included confluent areas of necrosis in gray and white matter. Brain loss resulted in ventricular dilatation. Gliomas appeared in two out of three monkeys at or beyond 52 weeks. Exposure to 2000 rads caused such a wide scatter of focal areas of necrosis, including those in the brain stem, that survival beyond 20 to 26 weeks was not possible. All showed enlarged ventricular systems. Whole brain exposure, 200 rads a day, five days a week, for a course of 4000 rads, at puberty, resulted in no delayed effects. Whole brain exposure to 6000 rads in a six weeks course, in the adult, produced less effects than the same dose at puberty. The onset of the scattered necrotic lesions was later than expected, appearing in one out of three animals at 33 weeks, two out of three animals at 52 weeks, and two out of three at 104 weeks. The lesions at 104 weeks were predominantly mineralized, but were accompanied by a greater extent of telangiectasia than seen in the pubescent monkeys

  14. Effects of sustainable employability policies on organizational performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.O.; Sanders, J.

    2015-01-01

    Presentations on the 11th International Conference on Occupational Stress and Health. Session: organizational justice and sustainability: approaches and implications for performance and the bottom line. Interactive paper session: sustainability, occupational safety and health: developing a research

  15. Late effects of whole brain irradiation within the therapeutic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caveness, W.F.; Carsten, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    Whole brain exposure with supervoltage irradiation was carried out on three sets of Macaca mulatta. Two sets of 12 monkeys each, at puberty, received single and fractionated exposures respectively. One set of 21 monkeys in adulthood received a fractionated exposure. Exposure to 1000 rads in a single dose, at puberty, caused no late effects. Exposure to 1500 rads caused small areas of necrosis in the forebrain white matter at 26 weeks, but a much more extensive involvementat and beyond 52 weeks that included confluent areas of necrosis in gray and white matter. Brain loss resulted in ventricular dilatation. Gliomas appeared in two out of three monkeys at or beyond 52 weeks. Exposure to 2000 rads caused such a wide scatter of focal areas of necrosis, including those in the brain stem, that survival beyond 20-26 weeks was not possible. All showed enlarged ventricular systems. Whole brain exposure, 200 rads a day, five days a week, for a course of 4000 rads, at puberty, resulted in no delayed effects. An exposure to 6000 rads, in a six weeks course, caused small, less than 1 mm, widely scattered necrotic lesions with a predilection for the forebrain white matter but not excluding the central gray matter and brain stem, at 26 weeks. At 52 weeks, there was considerable mineralization of the lesions and widespread telangiectasia. In the developing lesions, multiple minute breaks in the blood brain barrier caused diffuse brain swelling, reflected by papilloedema. Whole brain exposure to 6000 rads in a six weeks course, in the adult, produced less effects than the same dose at puberty. The onset of the scattered necrotic lesions was later than expected, appearing in one out of three animals at 33 weeks, two out of three animals at 52 weeks, and two out of three at 104 weeks. The lesions at 104 weeks were predominantly mineralized, but were accompanied by a greater extent of telangiectasia than seen in the pubescent monkeys

  16. The Therapeutic Effect of Speechvive on Prosody in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Brianna Rose

    It is well known that physiological impairments secondary to Parkinson's Disease (PD) negatively impact speech production. Individuals with PD display vocal, prosodic, resonant, and articulatory abnormalities which reduce communicative effectiveness. Prosody is a broad term which refers to the alterations in pitch, duration, and loudness used by speakers to convey important linguistic and paralinguistic information during speech. Little is known about the prosodic abnormalities associated with PD relative to healthy older adults; however, it is well known that individuals with PD display impairments in their ability to modulate the acoustic cues (pitch, duration, intensity) associated with prosodic inflection in speech. Literature presently lacks sufficient evidence to support treatment paradigms commonly used to address dysprosody in PD. Thus, there is a significant need to develop and investigate potential evidence-based treatment paradigms for dysprosody associated with PD. The present study aimed to examine the potential treatment effects the SpeechVive device has on treating dysprosody in PD. Acoustic recordings were obtained from 15 individuals with PD during a reading task. Participants read the passage at the start of the study and 12 weeks later, after wearing the SpeechVive device for the intervening weeks. Main outcome measures examined productions of contrastive stress, intonation contours, rate, and patterns of pausing. The results revealed that participants increased vocal intensity levels during the production of stressed words and improved standard deviation of pitch during the productions of intonation contours. Lastly, the device was found to improve participants' abilities to pause relative to syntactic boundaries.

  17. Additional therapeutic effect of balneotherapy in low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Murat; Sahin, Ozlem; Elden, Hasan; Hayta, Emrullah; Kaptanoglu, Ece

    2011-08-01

    Balneotherapy has been widely used for treatment of chronic low back pain recently. However there are only a few clinical controlled trials on balneotherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of balneotherapy in patients with chronic low back pain. Sixty patients with lumbar spondylosis were included in the study. In Group 1, patients received both balneotherapy and physiotherapy and in Group 2, patients received only physiotherapy for three weeks. The intensity of the pain was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and functional disability was scored according to Revised Oswestry Index (ROI). Spinal mobility was assessed by the Schober and lateral flexion tests. Variables were evaluated before and after the three weeks of treatment. The groups were comparable regarding age (P = 0.970) and sex (P = 0.357). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for baseline VAS (P = 0.838), Schober test (P = 0.226), and right (P = 0.642) and left (P = 0.674) lateral flexion measurements, and ROI scores (P = 0.798). At the end of the therapy, all clinical parameters significantly improved in patients in both of the groups (P balneotherapy may be effective in the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain.

  18. Preventive and therapeutic effects of tranexamic acid on postpartum bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Solltani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum hemorrhage is among the leading causes of maternal mortality throughout the world. Severe blood loss contributes to  the increased blood transfusion risk with its concerned inherent adverse events and therefore increased rate of emergency re-operative interventions such as arterial ligation or hysterectomy. It also can lead to protracted anemia, particularly in low or median income countries. Extended application of antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic acid has been customary for long years to stop or reduce blood loss in postpartum period. However, there are not enough reliable evidence to approve the real efficacy of these drugs. In this brief and summary review, we pointed to a few conducted studies. The PubMed was searched for keyword including postpartum hemorrhage, tranexamic acid, cesarean section, vaginal delivery, and blood loss prevention. The articles with language other than English were excluded from our review.  We concluded that more convincing information is needed to determine the precise effects of tranexamic acid, and its benefits against adverse effects.

  19. The special effects of hypnosis and hypnotherapy: A contribution to an ecological model of therapeutic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Matthias

    2006-04-01

    There is ample evidence that hypnosis enhances the effectiveness of psychotherapy and produces some astounding effects of its own. In this paper, the effective components and principles of hypnosis and hypnotherapy are analyzed. The "special" hypnotic and hypnotherapeutic effects are linked to the fact that the ecological requirements of therapeutic change are taken into account implicitly and/or explicitly when working with hypnotic trances in a therapeutic setting. The hypnotic situation is described--theoretically and in case examples--as a therapeutic modality that gratifies and aligns the basic emotional needs to feel autonomous, related, competent, and oriented. It is shown how the hypnotic relationship can help promote a sound ecological balance between these needs--a balance that is deemed to be a necessary prerequisite for salutogenesis. Practical implications for planning hypnotherapeutic interventions are discussed.

  20. Psychotherapist countertransference in the nuclear age: Effects on therapeutic interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oderberg, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, there has been considerable attention in the psychology literature to mental health problems related to living in a world threatened by nuclear destruction. Questionnaires were mailed to 630 psychotherapists from the Colorado Psychological Association, California Psychotherapists for Social Responsibility, California Psychologists for Social Responsibility, the US Army, and the APA Division of Military Psychology; 174 questionnaires were returned. It was hypothesized that liberalism, nuclear weapons opposition, nuclear concern, nuclear awareness, and anti-nuclear activism in psychotherapists would facilitate perception of, and openness to working with, a client's nuclear concerns and thus, would be positively correlated with intentions to discuss nuclear issues with clients in three different clinical vignettes. Results indicated that when controlling for subject group, psychotherapy orientation, age, sex, and income, all five independent variables were positively correlated with responses to all three clinical vignettes, with nuclear concern having the strongest unique effect in accounting for variance in responses to the vignettes

  1. Therapeutic effects of amla in medicine and dentistry: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis (Amla is widely used in the Indian system of medicine and believed to increase defense against diseases. Amla is called amalaki in Sanskrit. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for assorted ailments. A wide range of phytochemical components present in amla including alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids have been shown to procure useful biological activities. It is an ingredient of many Ayurvedic medicines and tonics as it removes excessive salivation and internal body heat. Research has been done with amla evaluating its role as an antioxidant. Amla is useful in ulcer prevention, for diabetic patients, and for memory effects. Amla Tonic has a hematinic and lipalytic function useful in scurvy, prevents indigestion, and controls acidity as well as it is a natural source of anti-aging.

  2. Neurocognitive effects of therapeutic irradiation for base of skull tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Christina A.; Geara, Fady; Wong Peifong; Morrison, William H.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy delivered to the paranasal sinuses causes any long-term impairment in neurocognitive function as a result of incidental brain irradiation. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients who received paranasal sinus irradiation at least 20 months and up to 20 years before assessment were given a battery of neuropsychologic tests of cognitive function. Radiation was delivered by a three-field (one anteroposterior and two lateral) technique. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy (range 50-68 Gy) in fractions of 1.8 to 2 Gy. The volume of irradiated brain was calculated from planning computed tomography slices or simulation films. The results of the neuropsychologic tests were compared to normative control values. Results: Memory impairment was found in 80% of the patients, and one-third manifested difficulty with visual-motor speed, frontal lobe executive functions, and fine motor coordination. Two of the patients had frank brain necrosis with resultant dementia and blindness, and three had evidence of brain atrophy. Three of the fourteen patients without documented cerebral atrophy or necrosis were disabled from their normal activities. Three patients also developed pituitary dysfunction. Neurocognitive symptoms were related to the total dose of radiation delivered but not to the volume of brain irradiated, side of radiation boost, or chemotherapy treatment. The pattern of test findings was consistent with radiation injury to subcortical white matter. Conclusions: Radiation therapy for paranasal sinus cancer may cause delayed neurocognitive side effects. Currently, however, the development of severe adverse effects appears to be decreasing because of improvements in the techniques used to deliver radiation. Lowering the total dose and improving dose distributions should further decrease the incidence of delayed brain injury due to radiation

  3. [Pathological nighttime fears in children: Clinical specificities and effective therapeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducasse, D; Denis, H

    2015-09-01

    . The treatments which have proved effective are some cognitive-behavioral techniques: systematic desensitization (with relaxation or emotive imagery), reinforcement (gain of points and techniques of self statement), and cognitive techniques (reinforcing self-statements, reducing the aversive aspects of being in the dark, involving reality-testing statements, and active control are preferred in children older than 6 years, whereas the "anti-monster letter" and the techniques using a doll are preferred in children under 6 years old). The modelling technique seems to be appropriate at any age. We have explained the clinical features of pathological nighttime fears and the way to assess this disease, and we have pointed out the treatments whose effectiveness has been evaluated in this indication. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Meditation for Treating Affective Dysregulation

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    Natalie T. Y. Leung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective dysregulation is at the root of many psychopathologies, including stress induced disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression. The root of these disorders appears to be an attenuated, top-down cognitive control from the prefrontal cortices over the maladaptive subcortical emotional processing. A form of mental training, long-term meditation practice can trigger meditation-specific neuroplastic changes in the brain regions underlying cognitive control and affective regulation, suggesting that meditation can act as a kind of mental exercise to foster affective regulation and possibly a cost-effective intervention in mood disorders. Increasing research has suggested that the cultivation of awareness and acceptance along with a nonjudgmental attitude via meditation promotes adaptive affective regulation. This review examined the concepts of affective regulation and meditation and discussed behavioral and neural evidence of the potential clinical application of meditation. Lately, there has been a growing trend toward incorporating the “mindfulness” component into existing psychotherapeutic treatment. Promising results have been observed thus far. Future studies may consider exploring the possibility of integrating the element of “compassion” into current psychotherapeutic approaches.

  5. Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver cancer induced by dimethylnitrosamine in mice

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    Neveen Abd El Moneim Hussein

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The protective effect of cannabis extract is more pronounced in group taking cannabis before DMNA. Cannabinoids might exert their anti-tumor effects by the direct induction of apoptosis and can decrease telomerase activity by inhibiting the expression of the TERT gene. Coordination between inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of apoptosis might be a potential therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

  6. Preventive and therapeutic effects of lithium carbonate on acute radiation injury of hemopoietic system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, X Y; Wang, Y F; Jia, T Z

    1991-01-01

    The administration of Li2CO3 to female LACA mice for three consecutive days before or after 4Gy whole body gamma-irradiation appeared to have both preventive and therapeutic effects on radiation-induced leucopenia, especially on the depression of CFU-GM. It is effective in small dosage, short course, and even when given 24 hours after irradiation.

  7. Potential therapeutic effect of nanobased formulation of rivastigmine on rat model of Alzheimer's disease

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    Ismail MF

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Manal Fouad Ismail,1 Aliaa Nabil ElMeshad,2 Neveen Abdel-Hameed Salem31Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Narcotics and Ergogenic Aids and Poisons, National Research Center, Giza, EgyptBackground: To sustain the effect of rivastigmine, a hydrophilic cholinesterase inhibitor, nanobased formulations were prepared. The efficacy of the prepared rivastigmine liposomes (RLs in comparison to rivastigmine solution (RS was assessed in an aluminium chloride (AlCl3-induced Alzheimer’s model.Methods: Liposomes were prepared by lipid hydration (F1 and heating (F2 methods. Rats were treated with either RS or RLs (1 mg/kg/day concomitantly with AlCl3 (50 mg/kg/day.Results: The study showed that the F1 method produced smaller liposomes (67.51 ± 14.2 nm than F2 (528.7 ± 15.5 nm, but both entrapped the same amount of the drug (92.1% ± 1.4%. After 6 hours, 74.2% ± 1.5% and 60.8% ± 2.3% of rivastigmine were released from F1 and F2, respectively. Both RLs and RS improved the deterioration of spatial memory induced by AlCl3, with RLs having a superior effect. Further biochemical measurements proved that RS and RLs were able to lower plasma C-reactive protein, homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. RS significantly attenuated acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity, whereas Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase activity was enhanced compared to the AlCl3-treated animals; however, RLs succeeded in normalization of AChE and Na+/K+ ATPase activities. Gene-expression profile showed that cotreatment with RS to AlCl3-treated rats succeeded in exerting significant decreases in BACE1, AChE, and IL1B gene expression. Normalization of the expression of the aforementioned genes was achieved by coadministration of RLs to AlCl3-treated rats. The profound therapeutic effect of RLs over RS was

  8. Therapeutic Effects of Extinction Learning as a Model of Exposure Therapy in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucich, Elizabeth A; Paredes, Denisse; Morilak, David A

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are inadequate. Cognitive behavioral psychotherapies, including exposure therapy, are an alternative to pharmacotherapy, but the neurobiological mechanisms are unknown. Preclinical models demonstrating therapeutic effects of behavioral interventions are required to investigate such mechanisms. Exposure therapy bears similarity to extinction learning. Thus, we investigated the therapeutic effects of extinction learning as a behavioral intervention to model exposure therapy in rats, testing its effectiveness in reversing chronic stress-induced deficits in cognitive flexibility and coping behavior that resemble dimensions of depression and PTSD. Rats were fear-conditioned by pairing a tone with footshock, and then exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) that induces deficits in cognitive set-shifting and active coping behavior. They then received an extinction learning session as a therapeutic intervention by repeated exposure to the tone with no shock. Effects on cognitive flexibility and coping behavior were assessed 24 h later on the attentional set-shifting test or shock-probe defensive burying test, respectively. Extinction reversed the CUS-induced deficits in cognitive flexibility and coping behavior, and increased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of stress-compromised rats, suggesting a role for activity-dependent protein synthesis in the therapeutic effect. Inhibiting protein synthesis by microinjecting anisomycin into mPFC blocked the therapeutic effect of extinction on cognitive flexibility. These results demonstrate the utility of extinction as a model by which to study mechanisms underlying exposure therapy, and suggest these mechanisms involve protein synthesis in the mPFC, the further study of which may identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:27417516

  9. The effect of knowledge based view on sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rezaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quantitative relationship between knowledge based view (i.e. empowering employees, promoting confidence, coding rules and sustainability competitive advantage (i.e. market, customer, financial within the banking industry of Iran. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 150 top- and middle-level managers from Mellat bank of Iran. With a response rate of 81.3 percent, 122 questionnaires are returned; the number of valid and usable questionnaires was 101. In order to determine validity of questionnaire, the content validity was used and Cronbach's alpha was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire (KBV questionnaire 0.886, SCA questionnaire 0.843. Utilizing the structural equation modeling, and after a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, it was found that KBV had the greatest effect on the market centered SCA, while it had the least influence on the customer centered.

  10. Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kueffer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter

  11. Therapeutic effect of vegetable oils and ubiquinone-9 against radiation affection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomijtseva, I.K.; Novoselova, E.G.; Potekhina, N.I.; Obol'nikova, E.A.; Samokhvalov, G.I.; Markevich, L.N.; Kuzin, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The comparison was made of the protective (the administration 3 h before irradiation with a dose of 7.3 Gy) and therapeutic (the administration immediately and later after exposure) effects of soya oil (150 mg/kg) and oil solution of ubiquinone-9 (100-200 mg/kg) on survival of exposed rats. It was shown that soya oil and ubiquinone-9 increased the survival rate of rats when administered before and, to a lesser extent, immediately after irradiation. Corn oil administered immediately after exposure increased the survival rate as well. DMF for the therapeutic effect of soya oil solution of ubiquinone-9 was 1.08

  12. Effects of Corporate Sustainability on Established Brand : the case of IKEA

    OpenAIRE

    Gbanabila, Yenimi

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Sustainable Development as an alternative approach to changing unsustainable behaviour in today’s business practices to save the planet towards a sustainable society is shifting branding paradigm from the “what of the commodity to the how of shared values”. For marketers responding to this changing paradigm to maintain competitive in today’s market sustainable branding is gaining attention in today’s business practices. But does sustainable practice have effects on branding i...

  13. Therapeutic and prophylactic effect of intermittent preventive anti-malarial treatment in infants (IPTi from Ghana and Gabon

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    Kreuels Benno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP reduces the incidence of malaria episodes in young children. The exact mechanism by which the protective effect is mediated needs to be defined. This study aimed to investigate therapeutic, prophylactic, and possible exceeding effects of SP-based IPTi in two clinical trials. Methods Protective efficacies from two IPTi trials performed in Kumasi, Ghana, and Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for overlapping time series of 61 days. For six-months periods after each of three IPTi doses a multivariate Poisson regression model with the respective cohort as co-variate was generated and effect modification of protective efficacy with time strata was evaluated by log-likelihood tests. Results Protective efficacies were not significantly different between the two study cohorts. Study-cohort corrected protective efficacy was highest for the first 61 days after each IPTi application and decreased continuously. For the first 61 days after IPTi-1, IPTi-2, and IPTi-3 the protective efficacy was 71%, 44%, and 43%, respectively. A reduction of the malaria incidence rate was detectable for the first 60, 30 and 40 days after IPTi-1, IPTi-2 and IPTi-3 drug application, respectively. After IPTi-3 a higher risk for malaria could be seen after day 60. This effect was mainly based on the overwhelming influence of the Kumasi cohort. Conclusion The results suggest that SP-based IPTi mainly works through a therapeutic and prophylactic effect over 30 to 60 days after drug application and that a sustained effect beyond post-treatment prophylaxis might be very low. Trial registration Data analysis from clinical trials NCT ID # 00206739 (Kumasi Trial and NCT ID # 00167843 (Lambaréné Trial, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  14. Therapeutic use of the rebound effect of modern drugs: "New homeopathic medicines"

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    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    Full Text Available Summary The homeopathic treatment is based on the principle of therapeutic similitude, employing medicines that cause certain disorders to treat similar manifestations, stimulating a reaction of the organism against its own ailments. The occurrence of this secondary reaction of the organism, opposite in nature to the primary action of the medicines, is evidenced in the study of the rebound (paradoxical effect of several classes of modern drugs. In this work, in addition to substantiate the principle of similitude before the experimental and clinical pharmacology, we suggest a proposal to employ hundreds of conventional drugs according to homeopathic method, applying the therapeutic similitude between the adverse events of medicines and the clinical manifestations of patients. Describing existing lines of research and a specific method for the therapeutic use of the rebound effect of modern drugs (http://www.newhomeopathicmedicines.com, we hope to minimize prejudices related to the homeopathy and contribute to a broadening of the healing art.

  15. Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, Alexandra; Tzoufi, Meropi; Ntzani, Evangelia; Varvarousis, Dimitrios; Beris, Alexandros; Ploumis, Avraam

    2017-10-01

    Equine-assisted therapies, such as therapeutic riding and hippotherapy, are believed to have positive physical and emotional effects in individuals with neuromotor, developmental, and physical disabilities. The purpose of this review was to determine whether therapeutic riding and hippotherapy improve balance, motor function, gait, muscle symmetry, pelvic movement, psychosocial parameters, and the patients' overall quality of life. In this study, a literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, CINAHL, MBASE, SportDiscus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PEDro, DARE, Google Scholar, and Dissertation Abstracts. Only studies with a control/comparison group or self-controlled studies performing preintervention and postintervention assessment were included. Excluded were (1) studies not providing data on baseline score or end-point outcome, (2) single-subject studies, (3) studies providing only qualitative data, and (4) studies that used a mechanical horse. Sixteen trials were included. The methodologic quality of each study was evaluated using Downs and Black quality assessment tool. Most of the studies showed a trend toward a beneficial effect of therapeutic riding and hippotherapy on balance and gross motor function. The meta-analysis showed improvement in both the Berg Balance Scale and the Gross Motor Function Measure in therapeutic riding and hippotherapy programs. Programs such as therapeutic riding and hippotherapy are a viable intervention option for patients with balance, gait, and psychomotor disorders.

  16. Systematic Review of the Diagnostic Accuracy and Therapeutic Effectiveness of Sacroiliac Joint Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Thomas T; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Gupta, Sanjeeva; Aydin, Steve M; Kim, Chong Hwan; Solanki, Daneshvari; Nampiaparampil, Devi E; Singh, Vijay; Staats, Peter S; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is well known as a cause of low back and lower extremity pain. Prevalence estimates are 10% to 25% in patients with persistent axial low back pain without disc herniation, discogenic pain, or radiculitis based on multiple diagnostic studies and systematic reviews. However, at present there are no definitive management options for treating sacroiliac joint pain. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic effectiveness of sacroiliac joint interventions. A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic effectiveness of sacroiliac joint interventions. The available literature on diagnostic and therapeutic sacroiliac joint interventions was reviewed. The quality assessment criteria utilized were the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) checklist for diagnostic accuracy studies, Cochrane review criteria to assess sources of risk of bias, and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment (IPM-QRB) criteria for randomized therapeutic trials and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment for Nonrandomized Studies (IPM-QRBNR) for observational therapeutic assessments. The level of evidence was based on a best evidence synthesis with modified grading of qualitative evidence from Level I to Level V. Data sources included relevant literature published from 1966 through March 2015 that were identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE, manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles, and all other sources. For the diagnostic accuracy assessment, and for the therapeutic modalities, the primary outcome measure of pain relief and improvement in functional status were utilized. A total of 11 diagnostic accuracy studies and 14 therapeutic studies were included. The evidence for diagnostic accuracy is Level II for dual diagnostic blocks with at least 70% pain relief as the criterion

  17. Therapeutic effects of hydrogen on chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liren; Liu, Xiaopeng; Shen, Jianliang; Zhao, Defeng; Yin, Wenjie

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is rising recent years, which has been the leading cause of non-transplantation mortality post allogenetic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of cGVHD. Recent studies showed that molecular hydrogen has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-fibrosis effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that molecular hydrogen may have therapeutic effects on cGVHD. To determine whether hydrogen could protect mice from cGVHD in an MHC-incompatible murine bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model, survival rates of mice were calculated, and skin lesions were also evaluated after BMT. This article demonstrated that administration of hydrogen-rich saline increased survival rate of cGVHD mice. Administration of hydrogen-rich saline after transplantation also reduced skin lesions of cGVHD mice. Previously, we reported the therapeutic effects of hydrogen on acute GVHD. However, there was no report on the therapeutic effects of hydrogen on cGVHD mice. It is suggested that hydrogen has a potential as an effective and safe therapeutic agent on cGVHD. This study will provide new ideas on the treatment of cGVHD and has important theoretical values. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. The effect of resource based view on sustainable capability advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jafari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is important to achieve and to sustain an organization’s competitive advantage in complex environments. This paper evaluates different concepts that have led to such benefits. The study sheds light on resource based view (RBV and its role to reach sustainable competitive advantage (SCA within banking industry of Iran. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 150 top- and middle-level managers from Mellat bank of Iran. With a response rate of 81.3 percent, 122 questionnaires were returned while a number of valid and usable questionnaires were 101. In order to determine validity of questionnaire, the content validity and Cronbach's alpha were used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire (RBV questionnaire 0.934, SCA questionnaire 0.843. The study utilized structural equation modelling, and a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and they tested the integrated model of MKM and SCA. Statistical support was found for the hypothesized relationships. Moreover it has been shown that RBV had the greatest effect on the market centered SCA, while it had the least influence on the financial centered. The findings offer valuable insights on the generalizability of MKM in a research setting. Structural equation modeling has been implemented and the study also used freedman test to rank the factors and the results show that communication was the most important factor (4.41, followed by process (4.03, knowledge implementation (2.79, decision making (2.54 and human resources (1.22 was the last important factor.

  19. Sustainable Transformation & Effective Competency Management Practices in Nuclear Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardelliano, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Managing essential knowledge as a strategic organizational asset is a factor of upmost relevance in today’s nuclear organizations. The author considers evident that competencies are critical carriers of knowledge. As such the use of an appropriate competency model could be the most effective way to capture the present reservoir of explicit and tacit Knowledge of specific functions or organizational areas. Besides, we could use them for new or other redesigned functions or determine the needs of specific competencies for future positions. Therefore, appropriate competency models or systems have to be developed or updated in each nuclear organization since these are fundamental for managing more effectively and efficiently the present nuclear human capital and to forecast the evolving competence required in management, technical, scientific and safety areas to continuously ensure a highly competent nuclear workforce. On the other hand, competency based management models or systems would not achieve the expected results if they are not fully designed and integrated within the strategic organizational infrastructure of the related nuclear organization. This paper is expected to provide a wider view and practical reflections on organizational transformation issues and the benefits of using an integrative competency model in the nuclear industry. Particularly, the paper give an insight of an empiric model for strategic organizational transformation processes and integrative management practices, and on how to realign strategic issues with top management processes and build organizational capacity through effective competency based management for the sustainable transformation of nuclear organizations. (author

  20. Sustaining the Effects of Gatekeeper Suicide Prevention Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelband, Annette; Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Chen, Peter Y

    2015-02-23

    Background: Gatekeeper training is a promising suicide prevention strategy that is growing in popularity. Although gatekeeper training programs have been found to improve trainee knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived skills, researchers have found that the benefit of gatekeeper training may not last over time. Aims: The purpose of this study was to identify strategies for strengthening the long-term effects of suicide prevention gatekeeper training. Method: In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with gatekeepers (N = 44) and data were analyzed using a qualitative research approach. Results: The results of this study suggest that posttraining interventions may be more effective if they include the following seven themes: (a) social network - connecting with other gatekeepers; (b) continued learning - further education; (c) community outreach - building awareness; (d) accessibility - convenience; (e) reminders - ongoing communication; (f) program improvement -- enhancing previous training; and (g) certification - accreditation. Conclusion: Posttraining interventions that incorporate the themes from this study offer a promising direction in which to sustain the effects of gatekeeper suicide prevention training.

  1. Therapeutic effect of cefozopran (SCE-2787), a new parenteral cephalosporin, against experimental infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizawa, Y; Okonogi, K; Hayashi, R; Iwahi, T; Yamazaki, T; Imada, A

    1993-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of cefozopran (SCE-2787), a new semisynthetic parenteral cephalosporin, against experimental infections in mice was examined. Cefozopran was more effective than cefpiramide and was as effective as ceftazidime and cefpirome against acute respiratory tract infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae DT-S. In the model of chronic respiratory tract infection caused by K. pneumoniae 27, cefozopran was as effective as ceftazidime. The therapeutic effect of cefozopran against urinary tract infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa P9 was superior to that of cefpirome and was equal to those of ceftazidime and cefclidin. In addition, cefozopran was more effective than ceftazidime and was as effective as flomoxef in a thigh muscle infection caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus 308A-1. Against thigh muscle infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus N133, cefozopran was the most effective agent. The potent therapeutic effect of cefozopran in those experimental infections in mice suggests that it would be effective against respiratory tract, urinary tract, and soft tissue infections caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in humans. PMID:8431004

  2. The therapeutic or prophylactic effect of exogenous melatonin against depression and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Danielsen, A K; Hageman, I

    2014-01-01

    Circadian- and sleep disturbances may be central for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. The effect of melatonin on depression/depressive symptoms has been investigated previously. This systematic review assesses the current evidence of a therapeutic- and prophylactic e...

  3. Effects of an Alternative to Suspension Intervention in a Therapeutic High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Melis, Claudia; Fenning, Pamela; Lawrence, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of an alternative to suspension intervention on students' subsequent major referrals. The intervention included activities designed to teach social coping strategies as well as mediation to resolve interpersonal conflicts. The intervention was implemented in a therapeutic high school, and…

  4. Effectiveness of a Therapeutic Summer Camp for Children with ADHD: Phase I Clinical Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantson, Julie; Wang, Pan Pan; Grizenko-Vida, Michael; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Harvey, William; Joober, Ridha; Grizenko, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-week therapeutic summer day camp for children with ADHD, which included a social skills training program and parent psychoeducation and training program. This was an open-label, nonrandomized Phase I Clinical Intervention Trial. Method: Parents completed the Weiss…

  5. The mediating effect of sustainability control system on reverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses part of the viability of green supply chain management practices created for fisheries industry to implement sustainability control system adoption as mediating on reverse logistics innovation and customer environmental collaboration towards sustainability performance. It examines reverse logistics ...

  6. One target, different effects: a comparison of distinct therapeutic antibodies against the same targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyunbo

    2011-10-31

    To date, more than 30 antibodies have been approved worldwide for therapeutic use. While the monoclonal antibody market is rapidly growing, the clinical use of therapeutic antibodies is mostly limited to treatment of cancers and immunological disorders. Moreover, antibodies against only five targets (TNF-α, HER2, CD20, EGFR, and VEGF) account for more than 80 percent of the worldwide market of therapeutic antibodies. The shortage of novel, clinically proven targets has resulted in the development of many distinct therapeutic antibodies against a small number of proven targets, based on the premise that different antibody molecules against the same target antigen have distinct biological and clinical effects from one another. For example, four antibodies against TNF-α have been approved by the FDA -- infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, and certolizumab pegol -- with many more in clinical and preclinical development. The situation is similar for HER2, CD20, EGFR, and VEGF, each having one or more approved antibodies and many more under development. This review discusses the different binding characteristics, mechanisms of action, and biological and clinical activities of multiple monoclonal antibodies against TNF-α, HER-2, CD20, and EGFR and provides insights into the development of therapeutic antibodies.

  7. Technological progress and sustainable development. What about the rebound effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binswanger, M.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainability concepts that rest on the idea of resource- or energy-efficiency improvements due to technological progress tend to overestimate the potential saving effects because they frequently ignore the behavioral responses evoked by technological improvements. Efficiency improvements also affect the demand for resources and energy, and often an increase in efficiency by 1% will cause a reduction in resource use that is far below 1% or, sometimes, it can even cause an increase in resource use. This phenomenon is commonly labeled the rebound effect, which is well-known among energy economists, but never attracted much attention in ecological economics. The paper starts with the traditional neoclassical analysis of the rebound effect in a partial equilibrium framework that concentrates on the demand of one particular energy service such as mobility or room temperature. It also provides an overview of some of the main empirical studies based on this model that mostly confirm the existence of the rebound effect, but are controversial about its actual importance. However, we have to go beyond the neoclassical single-service model in order to take care of the variety of possible feedback affecting energy use. The paper presents two important expansions of the single-service model in order to show the potential relevance of the rebound effect to ecological economics. First, it is shown that in a multi-services model it proves to be difficult to make general statements about the relevance of the rebound effect. In this case, the overall effect of an increase in energy efficiency on total energy use depends on the on the assumptions about the substitutability between the services considered and the direction of the income effect. Second, the paper also tries to take care of the fact that changes in resource use or energy use are frequently just 'side-effects' of other forms of technological progress. Especially technological change of a time-saving nature can have a

  8. Follow-up at a Dutch addiction hospital and effectiveness of therapeutic community treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Velde, J C; Schaap, G E; Land, H

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports on inpatient treatment of addicts. Attention is paid to the Therapeutic Community (TC) model employed with alcoholics. A sample of 881 patients was assessed at intake and was followed up. The results demonstrate that the patients improved on a variety of outcome measures. Some associations were found between patient variables and improvement. Treatment variables predicting a positive outcome were sustained treatment in a TC and attending AA meetings. The relative efficacy of TCs, originally created by drug users, holds for alcoholics as well. It is concluded that an important precondition to a positive treatment outcome is the continuity of the treatment process. Pursuing that continuity seems to be an excellent mediate goal for both addicts and treatment personnel.

  9. Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Genugten, Marianne; Höner-Snoeken, Kathrin; van de Velde, Marco J; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, pharmaceutical-grade cultivated cannabis is distributed for medicinal purposes as commissioned by the Ministry of Health. Few studies have thus far described its therapeutic efficacy or subjective (adverse) effects in patients. The aims of this study are to assess the therapeutic satisfaction within a group of patients using prescribed pharmaceutical-grade cannabis and to compare the subjective effects among the available strains with special focus on their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content. In a cross-sectional and natural design, users of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis were investigated with questionnaires. Medical background of the patients was asked as well as experienced therapeutic effects and characteristics of cannabis use. Subjective effects were measured with psychometric scales and used to compare among the strains of cannabis used across this group of patients. One hundred two patients were included; their average age was 53 years and 76% used it for more than a year preceding this study. Chronic pain (53%; n = 54) was the most common medical indication for using cannabis followed by multiple sclerosis (23%; n = 23), and 86% (n = 88) of patients (almost) always experienced therapeutic satisfaction when using pharmaceutical cannabis. Dejection, anxiety, and appetite stimulation were found to differ among the 3 strains of cannabis. These results show that patients report therapeutic satisfaction with pharmaceutical cannabis, mainly pain alleviation. Some subjective effects were found to differ among the available strains of cannabis, which is discussed in relation to their different tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol content. These results may aid in further research and critical appraisal for medicinally prescribed cannabis products.

  10. Effectiveness and acceptability of ready to use therapeutic foods among malnourished children in tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ready-to-use-therapeutic foods (RUTF) are an important component of the effective outpatient treatment of severe wasting because most of the child deaths in the world especially in developing countries is due to malnutrition. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of ready to use therapeutic food among malnourished children in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: An observational exploratory study based on sixty subjects with 3-120 months of age, malnourished children were chosen by universal sampling from Children Hospital Lahore, Pakistan, during the time period 1st September 2012 to 30th November 2012 with the approval of ethical committee. The study tool for investigation was a well-structured questionnaire. Results: The highest proportion of malnourished children belonged to urban areas (71.67%) and age group <24 months (65%). The effect of RUTF on weight for height and weight for age Z score from baseline to the end of follow-up was statistically significant (Paired sample t-test) (p=0.000, 0.000) but there was no significant effect of RUTF on height for age (p-value=0.14).The acceptance of food among patients was good, the proportion of patient was higher who consumed ready to use therapeutic food easily (70%), percentage of vomiting (16.7%) and complaints of diarrhoea (46.7%) after taking RUTF was less in patients. All mothers were satisfied from ready to use therapeutic foods (100%). Conclusion: Malnourished children gained weight after the short term supplementation of ready to use therapeutic food but had no significant effect on height of the patients. Its acceptability in term of taste, amount consumes and demand was good. Mother's perception was also satisfactory regarding these foods. (author)

  11. Effects of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage and partial liquid ventilation on meconium-aspirated newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Mei-Jy; Soong, Wen-Jue; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Hua-Lun; Shen, Chung-Min; Wang, Chua-Ho; Yang, Shyh-Sheng; Hwang, Betau

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with either diluted surfactant (SBAL) or perfluorochemical liquid (PBAL), followed by either conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) or partial liquid ventilation (PLV), on lung injury and proinflammatory cytokine production induced by meconium aspiration in newborn piglets. A prospective, randomized, experimental study. An animal research laboratory at a medical center. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated newborn piglets (n = 27). The animals were instilled with 3-5 mL/kg 25% human meconium via an endotracheal tube to induce meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). After stabilization, animals were randomly assigned to either CMV group (no BAL) or one of the treatment groups (SBAL-CMV, SBAL-PLV, PBAL-CMV, and PBAL-PLV). Cardiopulmonary variables were monitored, and interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 content of the serum and lung tissue was measured. The animals without any treatment (CMV group) displayed the worst outcome; the animals in the PBAL-PLV group had the best gas exchange, lung compliance, and least pulmonary damage; and the SBAL-CMV, PBAL-CMV, and SBAL-PLV groups had intermediate effects. The serum interleukin-1beta concentration of the CMV group was significantly higher than all other groups over time (p CMV group and lowest in the PBAL-PLV group. Initial therapeutic BAL and therapeutic BAL followed by PLV with the same perfluorochemical liquid provided significant therapeutic effects in treating an animal model with severe MAS and therefore warrant consideration in cases that are intractable to other therapies.

  12. Exploring the therapeutic effects of yoga and its ability to increase quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Woodyard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the findings of selected articles regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga and to provide a comprehensive review of the benefits of regular yoga practice. As participation rates in mind-body fitness programs such as yoga continue to increase, it is important for health care professionals to be informed about the nature of yoga and the evidence of its many therapeutic effects. Thus, this manuscript provides information regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga as it has been studied in various populations concerning a multitude of different ailments and conditions. Therapeutic yoga is defined as the application of yoga postures and practice to the treatment of health conditions and involves instruction in yogic practices and teachings to prevent reduce or alleviate structural, physiological, emotional and spiritual pain, suffering or limitations. Results from this study show that yogic practices enhance muscular strength and body flexibility, promote and improve respiratory and cardiovascular function, promote recovery from and treatment of addiction, reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and chronic pain, improve sleep patterns, and enhance overall well-being and quality of life.

  13. EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AND WORK MOTIVATION IN THE APLICATION OF NURSE THERAPEUTIC COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Farida

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to identify effective leadership and the work motivation with the implementation of therapeutic communication, Method: Design used in this study was descriptive design of the correlation with the approach cross sectional study. The population of this study was all of the practising nurse in the in-patient (hospitalized ward at the Dr. Iskak Tulungagung hospital. All datas were taken by using the method of total population of the 98 practising nurses. Result: The result of this study showed that the big proportion of the practising nurses whose ages are less than 30 years old, graduated from Diploma, status are single (unmarried, duration of work was less or same as 6 years, generally never followed a training of communication, whereas effective leadership was in the good category and the category of work motivation wasn’t better. Analysis using chi-square with alpha 0,05 showed that there was relations between the age, old the work, effective leadership and the work motivation and the implementation of therapeutic communication. The marital status and training had not relationship with the implementation of therapeutic communication. Discussion: It is suggested that hospital should encoverage nurse manager to promote therapeutic communication among nurses.

  14. What are the Most Effective Drivers of Sustainable Development in the Decision Making Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2017-01-01

    The identification of the most effective drivers of sustainable development is a focal point for most – if not all – policymakers and companies interested in sustainable development. Whilst the answer to this is of course very contextual this paper presents a practitioner’s review of the political...... and sustaining the market demand for sustainable buildings it is actually the economic and social drivers for sustainable building, such as life cycle costs, futureproofing of investments, better quality and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), that have the greatest impact on construction clients’ decision...

  15. Sustained effects of attentional re-training on chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Elford, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that cognitive bias modification produces immediate changes in attentional bias for, and consumption of, rewarding substances including food. This study examined the longevity of these attentional bias modification effects. A modified dot probe paradigm was used to determine whether alterations in biased attentional processing of food cues, and subsequent effects on consumption, were maintained at 24-h and one-week follow-up. One hundred and forty-nine undergraduate women were trained to direct their attention toward ('attend') or away from ('avoid') food cues (i.e., pictures of chocolate). Within each group, half received a single training session, the other half completed 5 weekly training sessions. Attentional bias for chocolate cues increased in the 'attend' group, and decreased in the 'avoid' group immediately post training. Participants in the 'avoid' group also ate disproportionately less of a chocolate food product in a so-called taste test than did those in the 'attend' group. Importantly, the observed re-training effects were maintained 24 h later and also one week later, but only following multiple training sessions. There are a number of limitations that could be addressed in future research: (a) the inclusion of a no-training control group, (b) the inclusion of a suspicion probe to detect awareness of the purpose of the taste test, and (c) the use of different tasks to assess and re-train attentional bias. The results showed sustained effects of attentional re-training on attentional bias and consumption. They further demonstrate the importance of administering multiple re-training sessions in attentional bias modification protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The in vitro sustained release profile and antitumor effect of etoposide-layered double hydroxide nanohybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin LL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lili Qin,1 Mei Wang,2 Rongrong Zhu,3 Songhui You,1 Ping Zhou,1 Shilong Wang31Department of Physical Education, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3School of Life Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with antitumor drug etoposide (VP16 were prepared for the first time using a two-step procedure. The X-ray powder diffraction data suggested the intercalation of VP16 into layers with the increased basal spacing from 0.84–1.18 nm was successful. Then, it was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared nanoparticles, VP16-LDH, showed an average diameter of 62.5 nm with a zeta potential of 20.5 mV. Evaluation of the buffering effect of VP16-LDH indicated that the nanohybrids were ideal for administration of the drugs that treat human stomach irritation. The loading amount of intercalated VP16 was 21.94% and possessed a profile of sustained release. The mechanism of VP16-LDH release in the phosphate buffered saline solution at pH 7.4 is likely controlled by the diffusion of VP16 anions from inside to the surface of LDH particles. The in vitro cytotoxicity and antitumor assays indicated that VP16-LDH hybrids were less toxic to GES-1 cells while exhibiting better antitumor efficacy on MKN45 and SGC-7901 cells. These results imply that VP16-LDH is a potential antitumor drug for a broad range of gastric cancer therapeutic applications.Keywords: layered double hydroxides, etoposide, drug delivery, antitumor effect, sustained release

  17. Therapeutic effect of mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells on memory in animals with Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, N V; Poltavtseva, R A; Samokhin, A N; Sukhikh, G T

    2013-11-01

    Transplantation of human mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells improved spatial memory in bulbectomized mice with Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration. The positive effect was observed in 1 month after intracerebral transplantation and in 3 months after systemic injection of mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells. No cases of malignant transformation were noted. These findings indicate prospects of using mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells for the therapy of Alzheimer disease and the possibility of their systemic administration for attaining the therapeutic effect.

  18. Effects of the application of therapeutic massage in children with cancer: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González-Sánchez, Blanca; Torres-Piles, Silvia; Martín, Jorge Guerrero; Jiménez-Palomares, María; Bellino, Macarena Núñez

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to learn about the effects of the use of therapeutic massage in children with cancer. Method: systematic review of controlled clinical trials The search was conducted in November 2014 in the following databases: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane and PEDro. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials, published in English or Spanish, analyzing the effects of massage on the different stages and types of childhood cancer (between 1 and 18 years old). Results: of 1007...

  19. Wrong effects of apparent sustainable solutions. The Dutch impact on global biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, T.; Alkemade, R.

    2005-01-01

    What is the value of sustainable development in a specific country if imported products have negative effects in the country from where those products were imported. Apparently sustainable solutions in one's own country might have negative effects somewhere else, sooner or later. A clear picture of the ecological claim of a country is one of the methods to find the right way towards a sustainable future [nl

  20. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in digestive disorders: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaee Khorasany

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings.

  1. Misinterpreting the therapeutic effects of small interfering RNA caused by immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Marjorie; Judge, Adam; Ambegia, Ellen; Choi, Catherine; Yaworski, Ed; Palmer, Lorne; McClintock, Kevin; MacLachlan, Ian

    2008-10-01

    Activation of innate immunity has direct effects in modulating viral replication, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and inflammatory and other immunological processes. It is now established that unmodified siRNA can activate this innate immune response and therefore there is real potential for siRNA to elicit nonspecific therapeutic effects in a wide range of disease models. Here we demonstrate that in a murine model of influenza infection, the antiviral activity of siRNA is due primarily to immune stimulation elicited by the active siRNA duplexes and is not the result of therapeutic RNA interference (RNAi) as previously reported. We show that the misinterpretation stems from the use of a particular control green fluorescent protein (GFP) siRNA that we identify as having unusually low immunostimulatory activity compared with the active anti-influenza siRNA. Curiously, this GFP siRNA has served as a negative control for a surprising number of groups reporting therapeutic effects of siRNA. The inert immunologic profile of the GFP sequence was unique among a broad panel of published siRNAs, all of which could elicit significant interferon induction from primary immune cells. This panel included eight active siRNAs against viral, angiogenic, and oncologic targets, the reported therapeutic efficacy of which was based on comparison with the nonimmunostimulatory GFP siRNA. These results emphasize the need for researchers to anticipate, monitor, and adequately control for siRNA-mediated immune stimulation and calls into question the interpretation of numerous published reports of therapeutic RNAi in vivo. The use of chemically modified siRNA with minimal immunostimulatory capacity will help to delineate more accurately the mechanism of action underlying such studies.

  2. Recombinant Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Monoclonal Antibody Fab is Effective Therapeutically when Introduced Directly into the Lungs of RSV-Infected Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, James E., Jr.; Murphy, Brian R.; Chanock, Robert M.; Williamson, R. Anthony; Barbas, Carlos F., III; Burton, Dennis R.

    1994-02-01

    Previously, recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) monoclonal antibody Fabs were generated by antigen selection from random combinatorial libraries displayed at the tip of filamentous phage. Two such Fabs, which exhibited high binding affinity for RSV F glycoprotein (a major protective antigen), were evaluated for therapeutic efficacy in infected mice just before or at the time of peak virus replication in the lungs. Fab 19, which neutralized RSV infectivity with high efficiency in tissue culture, was effective therapeutically when delivered directly into the lungs by intranasal instillation under anesthesia. In contrast, RSV Fab 126, which failed to neutralize virus in cell culture, did not exhibit a therapeutic effect under these conditions. The amount of Fab 19 required to effect a 5000- to 12,000-fold reduction in titer of RSV in the lungs within 24 hr was rather small. In four separate experiments, a single instillation of 12.9-50 μg of RSV Fab 19 was sufficient to achieve such a reduction in pulmonary virus in a 25g mouse. The use of Fabs instead of the whole immunoglobulin molecules from which they are derived reduced the protein content of a therapeutic dose. This is important because the protein load that can be delivered effectively into the lungs is limited. The therapeutic effect of a single treatment with Fab 19 was not sustained, so that a rebound in pulmonary virus titer occurred on the 2nd day after treatment. This rebound in pulmonary RSV titer could be prevented by treating infected mice with a single dose of Fab 19 daily for 3 days. These observations suggest that human monoclonal Fabs grown in Escherichia coli may prove useful in the treatment of serious RSV disease as well as diseases caused by other viruses where replication in vivo is limited primarily to the lumenal lining of the respiratory tract.

  3. Effects of the application of therapeutic massage in children with cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Mansilla

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to learn about the effects of the use of therapeutic massage in children with cancer. Method: systematic review of controlled clinical trials The search was conducted in November 2014 in the following databases: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane and PEDro. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials, published in English or Spanish, analyzing the effects of massage on the different stages and types of childhood cancer (between 1 and 18 years old. Results: of 1007 articles found, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Their authors use different massage techniques (Swedish massage, effleurage, petrissage, frictions, pressures, obtaining benefits in the symptoms present during the illness (decrease of pain, nausea, stress, anxiety and increase of white blood cells and neutrophils. Conclusion: therapeutic massage improves the symptoms of children with cancer, but there is a need for more research that may support the effects attributed to it.

  4. Therapeutic writing as an intervention for symptoms of bulimia nervosa: effects and mechanism of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Olwyn; Startup, Helen; Lavender, Anna; Godfrey, Emma; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2010-07-01

    This study explored the effects on bulimic symptomatology of a writing task intended to reduce emotional avoidance. Eighty individuals reporting symptoms of bulimia completed, by e-mail, a therapeutic or control writing task. Participants completed questionnaires on bulimic symptoms, mood, and potential moderating and mediating factors, and were followed up after 4 and 8 weeks. Writing content was explored using a word count package and qualitative framework analysis. Bulimic symptoms decreased in both groups, although in both groups the number of participants who improved was approximately equal to the number who did not improve. Symptom decreases were associated with increases in perceived mood regulation abilities, and decreases in negative beliefs about emotions. Participants preferred internet delivery to face to face discussion. For individuals experiencing symptoms of bulimia, the effects of therapeutic writing did not differ significantly from effects of a control writing task. 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Biological effects of 224Ra. Benefit and risk of therapeutic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.A.; Ebert, H.G.

    1978-01-01

    The Second Symposium on the Biological effects of 224 Ra, held at Neuherberg, was focused on two topical aspects of radiation protection. One aspect was the long-term effects of high-LET ionizing radiations on man and the quantitative data involved in risk assessment at low doses. The evaluation of epidemiological studies and experimental research was discussed in order to provide facts and figures contributing to an objective assessment of the radiation hazard from incorporated radionuclides. The other aspect was that of radiation protection in medicine. In the case of 224 Ra treatment of ankylosing spondylitis the questions of benefit and risk of this therapeutic use of ionizing radiations were discussed, the aim being to achieve the therapeutic effect while reducing radiation exposure - and therefore the hazard - to a minimum. The proceedings contain the complete texts of 23 papers as well as the final round table discussions

  6. [An experimental study on the therapeutic effects of eustachian tube surfactant in barotitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lining; Chen, Wenxian; Cong, Rui; Zheng, Guoxi; Gou, Lin; Guo, Qun

    2002-11-01

    To observe the effect of surfactant on eustachian tube (ET) on the opening of ET as well as it's therapeutic role in barotitis media (BM). 50 guinea pigs were successfully established as BM models by stimulated ascending in altitude chamber. Parts of the models were treated with by middle ear flushing with nature ETS, artificial ETS, artificial phospholipid and saline, after which the eustachian tube pressure opening level (POL) of each group was tested. Others were injected with 1 ml artificial ETS in on side of the middle ear, and 1 ml of saline in the other served as control. Natural ETS decreased the POL from 11.98 to 6.11 kPa (P congestion in drum membrane alleviated, the hearing threshold of ETS group improved and the effusion in tympanic cavity lessened. The results suggest that artificial ETS is as effective as nature ETS to facilitates the opening of eustachian tube. Artificial ETS may exert therapeutic effects on BM.

  7. Building Corporate Reputation through Sustainable Entrepreneurship: The Mediating Effect of Ethical Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª del Mar Ramos-González

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how a management approach based on sustainable entrepreneurship can positively affect corporate reputation. The analysis showed that this effect is enhanced by the mediating effect of good governance based on ethical behavior. The empirical study was conducted using data for 104 large Spanish firms defined as sustainable by the Corporate Reputation Business Monitor (MERCO ranking.

  8. Effects of Therapeutic Touch on Healing of the Skin in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz de Souza, André Luiz; Carvalho Rosa, David Patrick; Blanco, Bruno Anjos; Passaglia, Patrícia; Stabile, Angelita Maria

    Therapeutic touch is a complementary treatment directed toward the balance of the energy field surrounding living beings. This study's aim was to investigate the effect of therapeutic touch on wound area contraction and fibroblast proliferation in rat skin. This study was conducted using 24 male Wistar rats with dorsal wounds of diameter 8mm. The rats were divided into the following two groups: a control group: in this, the wounds were sanitized with filtered water and neutral-pH soap and a treatment group: in this, the wounds were sanitized as in the control group but the rats also underwent to daily sessions of therapeutic touch. Wound area was measured on days 1, 4, and 7 using imagelab software, version 2.4 R.C. On days 4 and 7, six animals in each group were euthanized so that the lesioned tissue could be collected for fibroblast counts and histological evaluations. On days 1 and 4, wound areas were similar in both groups. Moreover, no significant differences in fibroblast counts were observed on day 4. On day 7, however, fibroblast counts were significantly higher in the treated group than in the control group, with a subsequent wound shrinkage. These data indicate that therapeutic touch may accelerate wound repair, possibly by increasing fibroblast activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Therapeutic Touch in Patients with Cancer: a Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaee, Amir; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri; Rassouli, Maryam; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; AlaviMajd, Hamid; Farahmand, Seyed Kazem

    2016-04-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) techniques has been growing. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine places therapeutic touch (TT) into the category of bio field energy. This literature review is aimed at critically evaluating the data from clinical trials examining the clinical efficacy of therapeutic touch as a supportive care modality in adult patients with cancer. Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Scholar Google, and Science Direct) were searched from the year 1990 to 2015 to locate potentially relevant peer-reviewed articles using the key words therapeutic touch, touch therapy, neoplasm, cancer, and CAM. Additionally, relevant journals and references of all the located articles were manually searched for other potentially relevant studies. The number of 334 articles was found on the basis of the key words, of which 17 articles related to the clinical trial were examined in accordance with the objectives of the study. A total of 6 articles were in the final dataset in which several examples of the positive effects of healing touch on pain, nausea, anxiety and fatigue, and life quality and also on biochemical parameters were observed. Based on the results of this study, an affirmation can be made regarding the use of TT, as a non-invasive intervention for improving the health status in patients with cancer. Moreover, therapeutic touch was proved to be a useful strategy for adult patients with cancer.

  10. Effect of Some Therapeutic Agents on the Radionuclides Excretion from Internally Contaminated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.; Mangood, Sh.A.; Sohsah, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The present work was oriented to investigate the effectiveness of Prussian blue (PB), vermiculite and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (CaDTPA) as therapeutic agents for the elimination of either 134 Cs or 60 Co from contaminated rats after intake of one of the isotopes. The study was performed by using 48 adult rats divided into 8 identical groups each of six rats having approximately the same body weight. The groups included a reference group, without isotope or therapeutic agent administration, four groups given one of the isotopes and four groups given the isotopes and treated with different therapeutic regimes. The isotope content of the treated and untreated contaminated rats were followed by daily whole body radiometric counting for three weeks. On plotting log % radionuclide retained as a function of time, elapsed between radionuclide administration and radiometric counting, straight lines were obtained. The results indicate that excretion can mostly be represented by two stages; the first is fast followed by a second slow stage. The % radionuclide excreted, the corresponding rate constant and the biological half-life of each stage was estimated. It was found that the application of PB + vermiculite is more efficient, to remove 134 Cs, from contaminated rats, than PB only and CaDTPA is more efficient to remove 60Co. Therefore, it is recommended to use the three therapeutic agents to remove both isotopes when taken simultaneously

  11. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE PLUS POINT-PENETRATION FOR CHRONIC ANKLE JOINT SPRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi-zao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture plus point-penetration for chronic ankle joint sprain. Methods: 76 patients were randomly divided into treatment group (n=43) and control group (n=33).In teatment group, penetration needling from Qiuxu (丘墟 GB 40) to Zhaohai (照海 KI 6) was performed, combined with electrical stimulation for 30 min. Patients of control group were ordered to take Antinfan (50 mg,b.I.d.),supplemented with local external application of Votalin cream (b.I.d.).After 14 treatments (two courses), the therapeutic effect was assessed. Results: Following two courses of treatment, of the 43 cases and 33 cases in treatment and control groups,33 (76.7%) and 15 (45.5%) were cured, 4 (9.3%) and 7 (21.2%) had marked improvement in their symptoms, 3 (7.0%) and 2 (6.1%) had improvement, and 3 (7.0%) and 9(27.3%) failed, with the effective rates being 93.0% and 72.7% respectively. The therapeutic effect of treatment group was significantly superior to that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Penetrative needling plus EA is significantly superior to medication in relieving chronic ankle spain patient's clinical symptoms and signs.

  12. Radon as a medicine. Therapeutic effectiveness, biological mechanism and comparative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetjen, Peter; Falkenbach, Albrecht; Harder, Dietrich; Joeckel, Hans; Kaul, Alexander; Philipsborn, Henning von

    2014-01-01

    Proofs of the therapeutic efficiency of balneological radon applications administered to patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, investigations into the biological action mechanism associated with the alpha particles emitted by radon and its radioactive daughter products, and the comparative risk assessment of radon treatment and medicinal pain therapy have been the research projects whose results are summarized in this book. Controlled clinical studies, if possible performed as prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled double blind studies, have given evidence that the therapeutic effects of balneological radon applications - long-lasting pain reduction and reduced consumption of medicines compared with controls - are significantly persisting over many post-treatment months. The molecular and cellular mechanism of action underlying these long-lasting therapeutic effects has been identified as the down-regulation of cellular immune responses, initiated by cellular apoptosis sequential to low alpha particle doses and by the subsequent release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The unwanted side-effects of non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drug treatments have to be compared with the absence of side effects from the balneological radon applications which merely involve radiation doses well below the mean value and the fluctuation width of the annual doses attributable to everybody's natural radiation exposure.

  13. Radon as a medicine. Therapeutic effectiveness, biological mechanism and comparative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deetjen, Peter; Falkenbach, Albrecht; Harder, Dietrich; Joeckel, Hans; Kaul, Alexander; Philipsborn, Henning von

    2014-07-01

    Proofs of the therapeutic efficiency of balneological radon applications administered to patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, investigations into the biological action mechanism associated with the alpha particles emitted by radon and its radioactive daughter products, and the comparative risk assessment of radon treatment and medicinal pain therapy have been the research projects whose results are summarized in this book. Controlled clinical studies, if possible performed as prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled double blind studies, have given evidence that the therapeutic effects of balneological radon applications - long-lasting pain reduction and reduced consumption of medicines compared with controls - are significantly persisting over many post-treatment months. The molecular and cellular mechanism of action underlying these long-lasting therapeutic effects has been identified as the down-regulation of cellular immune responses, initiated by cellular apoptosis sequential to low alpha particle doses and by the subsequent release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The unwanted side-effects of non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drug treatments have to be compared with the absence of side effects from the balneological radon applications which merely involve radiation doses well below the mean value and the fluctuation width of the annual doses attributable to everybody's natural radiation exposure.

  14. Avastin exhibits therapeutic effects on collagen-induced arthritis in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Da, Gula; Li, Hongbin; Zheng, Yi

    2013-12-01

    Avastin is the monoclonal antibody for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This study aimed to investigate therapeutic effect of Avastin on type II collagen-induced arthritis. Type II chicken collagen was injected into the tails of Wistar rats, and 60 modeled female rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20): Avastin group, Etanercept group, and control group. Arthritis index and joint pad thickness were scored, and the pathology of back metapedes was analyzed. The results showed that compared to control group, the arthritis index, target-to-non-target ratio, synovial pathological injury index, serum levels of VEGF and tumor necrosis factor alpha, and VEGF staining were decreased significantly 14 days after Avastin or Etanercept treatment, but there were no significant differences between Avastin group and Etanercept group. These data provide evidence that Avastin exhibits similar effects to Etanercept to relieve rheumatoid arthritis in rat model and suggest that Avastin is a promising therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca: Possible Effects against Various Diseases of Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Winkelman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world. In the present paper we describe the chief characteristics of ayahuasca, discuss important questions raised about its use, and provide an overview of the scientific research supporting its potential therapeutic benefits. A growing number of studies indicate that the psychotherapeutic potential of ayahuasca is based mostly on the strong serotonergic effects, whereas the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) agonist effect of its active ingredient dimethyltryptamine raises the possibility that the ethnomedical observations on the diversity of treated conditions can be scientifically verified. Moreover, in the right therapeutic or ritual setting with proper preparation and mindset of the user, followed by subsequent integration of the experience, ayahuasca has proven effective in the treatment of substance dependence. This article has two important take-home messages: (1) the therapeutic effects of ayahuasca are best understood from a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model, and (2) on the biological level ayahuasca may act against chronic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress via the Sig-1R which can explain its widespread therapeutic indications.

  16. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Therapeutic Effect of Cationic Thermosensitive Liposomal Doxorubicin Upon Mild Hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Dicheva, Bilyana M.; Seynhaeve, Ann L. B.; Soulie, Thomas; Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; ten Hagen, Timo L. M.; Koning, Gerben A.

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To evaluate pharmacokinetic profile, biodistribution and therapeutic effect of cationic thermosensitive liposomes (CTSL) encapsulating doxorubicin (Dox) upon mild hyperthermia (HT). Methods: Non-targeted thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) and CTSL were developed, loaded with Dox and characterized. Blood kinetics and biodistribution of Dox-TSL and Dox-CTSL were followed in B16BL6 tumor bearing mice upon normothermia (NT) or initial hyperthermia conditions. Efficacy study in B...

  17. The Therapeutic Effect of the Antitumor Drug 11 Beta and Related Molecules on Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    models (Somlo, Yale). Preparation work to assemble a collection of probes specific for oxidative stress genes and other PKD specific genes (as part... Worked : 6 Contribution to Project: Performance of experiments including those related to mitochondrial biology in vivo and unfolded protein...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0364 TITLE: THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF THE ANTITUMOR DRUG 11 BETA AND RELATED MOLECULES ON POLYYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE

  18. The therapeutic potentials of ayahuasca: possible effects against various diseases of civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ede eFrecska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world. In the present paper we describe the chief characteristics of ayahuasca, discuss important questions raised about its use, and provide an overview of the scientific research supporting its potential therapeutic benefits. A growing number of studies indicate that the psychotherapeutic potential of ayahuasca is based mostly on the strong serotonergic effects, whereas the sigma-1 receptor agonist effect of its active ingredient dimethyltryptamine raises the possibility that the ethnomedical observations on the diversity of treated conditions can be scientifically verified. Moreover, in the right therapeutic or ritual setting with proper preparation and mindset of the user, followed by subsequent integration of the experience, ayahuasca has proven effective in the treatment of substance dependence. This article has two important take-home messages: 1 the therapeutic effects of ayahuasca are best understood from a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model, and 2 on the biological level ayahuasca may act against chronic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress via the sigma-1 receptor which can explain its widespread therapeutic indications.

  19. Therapeutic effects of the smartphones and pads on hyperopia amblyopia of children

    OpenAIRE

    Ze-Hong Dong; Wei Zhao; Yu-Feng Ren; Xiao-Ni Yu; Xue-Ting Chen; Yu-Sheng Wang

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of the fine sight training with the smartphones and pads on hyperopia amblyopia of children.METHODS: One hundred and twenty children(120 eyes)with hyperopia amblyopia were randomly divided into two groups in this prospective study. All the children in these two groups received the basic treatments of spectacle correction, penalization therapy and amblyopia trainings. The treatments of red-light blinking and grating as well as traditional fine sight tra...

  20. Urban branding as an effective sustainability tool in urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeman Mohammed Rehan

    2014-08-01

    Urban branding is a new approach toward urban development of sustainable cities. City branding, a novel aspect of urban communication, improves marketing of the city image in various ways by converting the visual image of the city into a brand image. Unique characteristics of the city are featured and a sustainable urban image is created. This paper will focus on city branding as a powerful image-building strategy. In this realm, the branding of Stuttgart, Germany, serves as a successful model of a branding strategy. Next, branding of the city of Port Said, Egypt, will be explored. The principal aim of this paper is to describe how cities become branded; how branding succeeds; and how a viable city image is created. This paper reviews the methods used to brand cities, and concludes by emphasizing the importance of urban branding in terms of sustainability.

  1. Pretreating mesenchymal stem cells with electrical stimulation causes sustained long-lasting pro-osteogenic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eischen-Loges

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Electrical stimulation (ES has a long history of successful use in the clinical treatment of refractory, non-healing bone fractures and has recently been proposed as an adjunct to bone tissue-engineering treatments to optimize their therapeutic potential. This idea emerged from ES’s demonstrated positive effects on stem cell migration, proliferation, differentiation and adherence to scaffolds, all cell behaviors recognized to be advantageous in Bone Tissue Engineering (BTE. In previous in vitro experiments we demonstrated that direct current ES, administered daily, accelerates Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. In the present study, we sought to define the optimal ES regimen for maximizing this pro-osteogenic effect. Methods Rat bone marrow-derived MSC were exposed to 100 mV/mm, 1 hr/day for three, seven, and 14 days, then osteogenic differentiation was assessed at Day 14 of culture by measuring collagen production, calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic marker gene expression. Results We found that exposing MSC to ES for three days had minimal effect, while seven and 14 days resulted in increased osteogenic differentiation, as indicated by significant increases in collagen and calcium deposits, and expression of osteogenic marker genes Col1a1, Osteopontin, Osterix and Calmodulin. We also found that cells treated with ES for seven days, maintained this pro-osteogenic activity long (for at least seven days after discontinuing ES exposure. Discussion This study showed that while three days of ES is insufficient to solicit pro-osteogenic effects, seven and 14 days significantly increases osteogenic differentiation. Importantly, we found that cells treated with ES for only seven days, maintained this pro-osteogenic activity long after discontinuing ES exposure. This sustained positive osteogenic effect is likely due to the enhanced expression of RunX2 and Calmodulin we observed. This

  2. Effect of shared decision-making on therapeutic alliance in addiction health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EAG Joosten

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available EAG Joosten1,2, GH de Weert3, T Sensky4, CPF van der Staak5, CAJ de Jong1,21Novadic-Kentron, Network for Addiction Treatment Services, Vught, the Netherlands; 2Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction (NISPA, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 3Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Health Care, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Department of Psychological Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; 5Academic Centre for Social Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the NetherlandsBackground: In recent decades, shared decision-making (SDM models have been developed to increase patient involvement in treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a shared decision-making intervention (SDMI for substance-dependent patients on patients’ and clinicians’ perceptions of therapeutic alliance.Methods: Clinicians were randomly assigned to SDMI or usual procedures to reach a treatment agreement. SDMI is a structured, manualized, 5-session procedure to facilitate treatment agreement and consists of five standardized sessions.Results: Patients’ perceptions of the therapeutic alliance were very favorable at start of treatment, and no differences were found between intervention groups. Clinicians’ scores on perceived helpfulness and on the overall therapeutic alliance were higher in the SDMI group than in the controls, after 8 weeks of treatment and at the end of treatment.Conclusion: The present study has shown that a specific intervention to enhance shared decision-making results in favorable changes in clinicians’ perceptions of the therapeutic alliance.Keywords: therapeutic alliance, helping alliance, shared decision-making, addiction, substance-dependence

  3. [Therapeutic effect of early applying hydrotherapy with Chinese drugs on children hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun-Zhi; Zhai, Hong-Yin; Su, Chun-Ya

    2009-02-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of hydrotherapy with Chinese drugs (HT-C) in early intervention on children hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). HIE children were assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 50 in each, at random depending on the willingness of patients' parents. Both groups received the conventional functional training, according to the "0 -3-year-old early intervention outline", but for the treatment group, HT-C was applied additionally. Indexes for quality of sleep, gross motor function, severity of spasm and intellectual development were observed and compared before and after treatment to assess the therapeutic effects. Therapeutic effect in the treatment group was better than that in the control group in all the indexes observed, showing statistical significance (all P <0.05). Early intervention of HT-C could improve clinical symptom, promote the functional recovery and intellectual development in children HIE, and also could reduce or prevent the sequelae occurrence of the nervous system in them.

  4. Undergraduate Sustainable Learning: Effects of Sustainable Soilless Media on Production and Sensory Evaluation of Cucumbers, Basil, Parsley, and Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Russell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern greenhouse production has been ~100% reliant on fossil fuels for all inputs (glazing, heating, fertilization, lighting, post-harvest. Recent innovations may reduce fossil fuel dependence but their effectiveness may not be thoroughly tested. To promote education in sustainable production, undergraduate students in Greenhouse Management class (Hort 3002W; University of Minnesota tested the effectiveness of two organic or ‘sustainable’ soilless media (Sunshine Natural and Organic Growing Mix, Sungro Metro-Mix Special Blend with a control (Sunshine LC8 Professional for crop production (height, leaf/flower number, yield and sensory evaluations (appearance, texture, taste, purchase of cucumbers (‘Big Burpless Hybrid’, ‘Sweet Burpless Hybrid’, basil (‘Opal Purple’, ‘Redleaf’, parsley (‘Green River’, ‘Extra Curled Dwarf’, ‘Hamburg’, and lettuce (Flying Saucer ‘Green’, ‘Red’. Significant differences between sustainable vs. control soils occurred for plant growth, depending on vegetative or reproductive traits, crops, and cultivars. These differences occasionally disappeared for sensory evaluation of edible components. In most crops, however, cultivars were highly significant factors. Undergraduate research can be used to provide directionality for future vegetable and herb plant breeding to focus on creating cultivars with increased yield and high consumer acceptance when grown in sustainable greenhouse soilless mixes.

  5. Neuroendocrine Associations Underlying the Persistent Therapeutic Effects of Classic Serotonergic Psychedelics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle A. D. Schindler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports on the effects of psychedelic-assisted therapies for mood disorders and addiction, as well as the effects of psychedelics in the treatment of cluster headache, have demonstrated promising therapeutic results. In addition, the beneficial effects appear to persist well after limited exposure to the drugs, making them particularly appealing as treatments for chronic neuropsychiatric and headache disorders. Understanding the basis of the long-lasting effects, however, will be critical for the continued use and development of this drug class. Several mechanisms, including biological and psychological ones, have been suggested to explain the long-lasting effects of psychedelics. Actions on the neuroendocrine system are some such mechanisms that warrant further investigation in the study of persisting psychedelic effects. In this report, we review certain structural and functional neuroendocrinological pathologies associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and cluster headache. We then review the effects that psychedelic drugs have on those systems and provide preliminary support for potential long-term effects. The circadian biology of cluster headache is of particular relevance in this area. We also discuss methodologic considerations for future investigations of neuroendocrine system involvement in the therapeutic benefits of psychedelic drugs.

  6. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy

  7. Sustainable school infrastructure through effective innovative building technology selection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of a model proposed for the selection Innovative Building Technologies (IBTs) and procurement of services supporting the erection of the IBTs that will ensure the construction of a sustainable school...

  8. Effects of economics and demographics on global fisheries sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qi; Wang, Yali; Chen, Xinjun; Chen, Yong

    2017-08-01

    A good understanding of social factors that lead to marine ecological change is important to developing sustainable global fisheries. We used balanced panel models and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1970-2010) of 122 nations to examine how economic prosperity and population growth affected the sustainability of marine ecosystems. We used catches in economic exclusive zone (EEZ); mean trophic level of fishery landings (MTL); primary production required to sustain catches (expressed as percentage of local primary production [%PPR]); and an index of ecosystem overfishing (i.e., the loss in secondary production index [L index]) as indicators of ecological change in marine ecosystems. The EEZ catch, %PPR, and L index declined gradually after gross domestic product (GDP) per capita reached $15,000, $14,000, and $19,000, respectively, and MTL increased steadily once GDP per capita exceeded $20,000. These relationships suggest that economic growth and biodiversity conservation are compatible goals. However, increasing human populations would degrade marine ecosystems. Specifically, a doubling of human population caused an increase in the %PPR of 17.1% and in the L index of 0.0254 and a decline in the MTL of 0.176. A 1% increase in human population resulted in a 0.744% increase in EEZ catch. These results highlight the importance of considering social and economic factors in developing sustainable fisheries management policy. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Effects of therapeutic irradiation delivered in early childhood upon subsequent lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, M.E.B.; Griscom, N.T.; Graggis, D.G.; Jaffe, N.

    1975-01-01

    To determine the long-term effects of therapeutic pulmonary irradiation and treatment with actinomycin D during a period of lung growth, 12 patients treated for Wilms' tumor metastatic to the lung and 8 patients treated for Wilms' tumor with no evidence of pulmonary metastases were studied 7 to 14 years after their initial tumor therapy. All patients had received irradiation to the tumor bed and treatment with actinomycin D. Group 1 had received a single course of bilateral pulmonary irradiation; group 2 had received additional pulmonary irradiation and/or thoracic surgery; group 3 had received no therapeutic irradiation directed primarily to the chest. Total lung capacity (TLC) averaged 71 percent of predicted value in group 1, 58 percent in group 2, and 94 percent in group 3. Diffusing capacity in groups 1 and 2 was reduced to the same extent as lung volume. Quasi-static pressure-volume relationships, studied in three of six patients in group 1, were within the normal range when lung volume was expressed as percentage of observed TLC. Airway resistance, evaluated by spirometry, maximum expiratory flow-volume curves, and resistance of the total respiratory system, was normal or reduced. The data support the hypothesis that therapeutic irradiation during a period of lung growth primarily affects the lung parenchyma and produces a decrease in subsequent size of both the lung and chest wall. No effect of actinomycin D alone upon the lung could be demonstrated

  10. Potentiating therapeutic effects by enhancing synergism based on active constituents from traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2014-04-01

    Shifting current drug discovery tide from 'finding new drugs' to 'screening natural products' may be helpful for overcoming the 'more investment, fewer drugs' challenge. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), relying on natural products, has been playing a very important role in health protection and disease control for thousands of years in Asia, whose therapeutic efficacy is based on the 'synergism', that is, the combinational effects to be greater than that of the individual drug. Based on syndromes and patient characteristics and guided by the theories of TCM, formulae are designed to contain a combination of various kinds of crude drugs that, when combined, generally assume that a synergism of all ingredients will bring about the maximum of therapeutic efficacy. The increasing evidence has shown that multiple active component combinations of TCM could amplify the therapeutic efficacy of each agent, representing a new trend for modern medicine. However, the precise mechanism of synergistic action remains poorly understood. The present review highlights the concept of synergy and gives some examples of synergistic effects of TCM, and provides an overview of the recent and potential developments of advancing drug discovery towards more agile development of targeted combination therapies from TCM. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The effect of therapeutic touch on behavioral symptoms and cortisol in persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Diana Lynn; Beck, Cornelia; Sinha, Karabi

    2009-06-01

    Between 75-90% of nursing home (NH) residents with dementia develop behavioral symptoms (BSD) which may be associated with a stress response. Therapeutic touch has been shown to decrease restlessness in NH residents, however the mechanism is unknown. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the effect of therapeutic touch on BSD and basal cortisol levels among NH residents with dementia. Using a double blind experimental interrupted time series ABAB design, 65 participants were assigned to one of three groups. The experimental group received therapeutic touch with contact on the neck and shoulders delivered twice daily for 3 days (administered over 2 separate treatment periods); the placebo group received a mimic treatment identical in appearance, and the control group received routine care. Study outcomes were BSD, measured by the modified Agitated Behavior Rating Scale (mABRS), and salivary cortisol levels, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 64 residents, aged 67-93 years (M = 85.5, SD = 5.50), completed the study. Restlessness was significantly reduced in the experimental group compared to the control group (p = 0.03). There was a significant difference in morning cortisol variability among groups across time periods (touch may be effective for management of symptoms like restlessness coupled with stress reduction. At a time when cost containment is a consideration in health care, therapeutic touch is an intervention that is non-invasive, readily learned, and can provide a non-pharmacologic alternative for selected persons with BSD. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The Impact of Organisational Alignment on the Effectiveness of Firms' Sustainability Strategic Performance Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana

    2013-01-01

    concerns. This paper contributes to the research on integrating sustainability into companies’ daily activities both directly and indirectly. It analyses the extent to which top management’s commitment to sustainability directly affects structural and social alignment and the effectiveness of measurement...

  13. Attribute Segmentation and Communication Effects on Healthy and Sustainable Consumer Diet Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, Muriel; Sijtsema, Siet; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    A shift towards more sustainable consumer diets is urgently needed. Dietary guidelines state that changes towards less animal-based and more plant-based diets are beneficial in terms of sustainability and, in addition, will have a positive effect on public health. Communication on these guidelines

  14. The Effect of Board Independence on the Sustainability Reporting Practices of Large U.S. Firms \\

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Herda

    2012-12-01

    firms with a greater proportion of independent board members are: 1 more likely to publish standalone sustainability reports, and 2 more likely to publish higher quality sustainability reports. This paper contributes to prior literature that reports somewhat mixed results on the effect of board independence on voluntary disclosure.

  15. Biological Activity of Lenalidomide and Its Underlying Therapeutic Effects in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martiniani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lenalidomide is a synthetic compound derived by modifying the chemical structure of thalidomide. It belongs to the second generation of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs and possesses pleiotropic properties. Even if lenalidomide has been shown to be active in the treatment of several hematologic malignancies, this review article is mostly focalized on its mode of action in multiple myeloma. The present paper is about the direct and indirect antitumor effects of lenalidomide on malignant plasmacells, bone marrow microenvironment, bone resorption and host’s immune response. The molecular mechanisms and targets of lenalidomide remain largely unknown, but recent evidence shows cereblon (CRBN as a possible mediator of its therapeutical effects.

  16. The short-term effects of TENS plus therapeutic ultrasound combinations in chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayilir, Selcuk

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the effects of TENS plus therapeutic ultrasound combinations on symptom relief, physical functionality, perceived stress levels, daytime sleepiness and neck mobility in patients with chronic neck pain (CNP). A total of 64 patients were divided into two groups as the TENS plus ultrasound group (n = 39) and the control CNP group (n = 25). The therapy comprised TENS and therapeutic ultrasound applications for 10 sessions. The control subjects were discouraged from using analgesics but were allowed to use paracetamol daily, if necessary. The Neck Disability Index (NDI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), visual analog scale (VAS) and tragus-wall/chin-manubrium distances were recorded at the baseline and after therapy. Significant improvements were detected in the TENS plus ultrasound group compared to the control CNP subjects in respect of VAS, PSS and NDI scores after the TENS plus therapeutic ultrasound therapies (all p stress levels and improving functionality in the short-term of CNP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We ...

  18. Short-term therapeutic effects of combined therapy with metformin hydrochloride for aplastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-chun LU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To screen and select new drugs for aplastic anemia (AA and evaluate their clinical efficacy by clinical bioinformatics methods. Methods First, we established genome expression profiles of AA patients, and conducted similarity analyses with the pharmacogenomics database to screen and select drugs with possible efficacy. Intractable AA patients who received immunosuppressors and/or androgen for more than six months showing no clinical efficacy were enrolled in the study to evaluate therapeutic effects of the therapeutic regime. Clinical efficacy and adverse effects were evaluated after six months. Results The clinical bioinformatics results showed therapeutic effects of metformin hydrochloride on AA. Forty-three intractable AA patients (15 with severe AA were treated with metformin hydrochloride combined with cyclosporin A (CsA and stanozolol. Twenty-seven transfusion-dependent patients (100% became transfusion independent after a 6-month therapy. The hemoglobin level completely returned to normal in 37 out of 40 anemia patients (92.5%. In the 40 patients with platelet count lower than 20×109/L, the platelet count of 28 patients (90.3% increased to higher than 50×109/L. The white cell count increased to higher than 3.5×109/L in 30 out of 35 patients (88.6% with white cell count lower than 2.5×109/L. Among 40 anemic patients, 1 was found to have abnormal renal function, but it recovered to the normal range after ending CsA treatment. Eighteen patients were found to have elevated transaminase levels which were lowered to normal range after using liver protectants and reducing the dosage of stanozolol. There were no instances of hypoglycemia in all patients throughout the treatment. Conclusion Combination of metformin hydrochloride, CsA and stanozolol is effective in refractory aplastic anemia with acceptable toxicity.

  19. Therapeutic effects of selective atrioventricular node vagal stimulation in atrial fibrillation and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Popović, Zoran B; Kusunose, Kenya; Mazgalev, Todor N

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) frequently coexist. We have previously demonstrated that selective atrioventricular node (AVN) vagal stimulation (AVN-VS) can be used to control ventricular rate during AF. Due to withdrawal of vagal activity in HF, the therapeutic effects of AVN-VS may be compromised in the combined condition of AF and HF. Accordingly, this study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of AVN-VS to control ventricular rate in AF and HF. A combined model of AF and HF was created by implanting a dual chamber pacemaker in 24 dogs. A newly designed bipolar electrode was inserted into the ganglionic AVN fat pad and connected to a nerve stimulator for delivering AVN-VS. In all dogs, HF was induced by high rate ventricular pacing at 220 bpm for 4 weeks. AF was then induced and maintained by rapid atrial pacing at 600 bpm after discontinuation of ventricular pacing. These HF + AF dogs were randomized into control (n = 9) and AVN-VS (n = 15) groups. In the latter group, vagal stimulation (310 μs, 20 Hz, 3-7 mA) was delivered continuously for 6 months. Compared with the control, AVN-VS had a consistent effect on ventricular rate slowing (by >50 bpm, all P AVN-VS was well tolerated by the treated animals. AVN-VS achieved consistent rate slowing, which was associated with improved ventricular function in a canine AF and HF model. Thus, AVN-VS may be a novel, effective therapeutic option in the combined condition of AF and HF. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Therapeutic effect of 99Tc - MDP observed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Shibiao; Wu Yiwei; Su Chenghai; Zhang Wei; Dong Shenan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of 99 Tc - MDP in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Two hundred and eight patients with active RA have been treated using 99 Tc - MDP. The clinical manifestation and laboratory examination before and after treatment were observed. Results: The total effective rate of the 99 Tc - MDP was 86.1%. The effectiveness of relieving pain, diminishing swelling, increasing immune function etc was significant. It was most effective in improving morning stiffness, limitation of articulation function and decreasing ESR. Conclusion: The clinical effect of the 99 Tc - MDP is obvious. Application of the 99 Tc - MDP is safety, no significant adverse action and worth clinical using

  1. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min), as well as sustained (> 30 min) hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. Method We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate), and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min) and endothelial permeability. Results In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA), a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Conclusion Hypercapnia with and without acidosis increased HPV during

  2. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketabchi Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min, as well as sustained (> 30 min hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. Method We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate, and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min and endothelial permeability. Results In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA, a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc. This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Conclusion Hypercapnia with and without acidosis

  3. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabchi, Farzaneh; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Egemnazarov, Bakytbek; Shid-Moosavi, S Mostafa; Dehghani, Gholam A; Weissmann, Norbert; Sommer, Natascha

    2012-01-31

    Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min), as well as sustained (> 30 min) hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate), and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min) and endothelial permeability. In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA), a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Hypercapnia with and without acidosis increased HPV during conditions of sustained hypoxia. The

  4. Preventive and therapeutic effect of treadmill running on chronic stress-induced memory deficit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-04-01

    Previous results indicated that stress impairs learning and memory. In this research, the effects of preventive, therapeutic and regular continually running activity on chronic stress-induced memory deficit in rats were investigated. 70 male rats were randomly divided into seven groups as follows: Control, Sham, Stress-Rest, Rest-Stress, Stress-Exercise, Exercise-Stress and Exercise-Stress & Exercise groups. Chronic restraint stress was applied 6 h/day for 21days and treadmill running 1 h/day. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test. The results revealed that running activities had therapeutic effect on mid and long-term memory deficit and preventive effects on short and mid-term memory deficit in stressed rats. Regular continually running activity improved mid and long-term memory compared to Exercise-Stress group. The beneficial effects of exercise were time-dependent in stress conditions. Finally, data corresponded to the possibility that treadmill running had a more important role on treatment rather than on prevention on memory impairment induced by stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective effect and the therapeutic index of indralin in juvenile rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasin, Mikhail V.; Antipov, Vsevolod V.; Ushakov, Igor B.; Semenov, Leonid F.; Lapin, Boris A.; Suvorov, Nikolai N.; Ilyin, Leonid A.

    2014-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of indralin in rhesus monkeys was examined over 60 d following gamma irradiation. Male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) 2-3-years-old and weighing 2.1-3.5 kg were used. Animals were exposed to total-body gamma irradiation from 60 Co at a dose of 6.8 Gy (lethal dose, 100% lethality over 30 days). Indralin (40-120 mg kg -1 ) was administered intramuscularly 5 min prior to radiation exposure. Indralin taken at a dose of 120 mg kg -1 protected five out of six monkeys (compared with the radiation control group, in which all 10 animals died). The average effective dose of indralin in the monkeys exposed to gamma irradiation for 30 min was equal to 77.3 (63.3-94.3) mg kg -1 , and the maximum tolerated dose of indralin administered to monkeys was 800 mg kg -1 . Indralin reduced radiation-induced injuries in macaques, thus resulting in a less severe course of acute radiation syndrome. Delayed and less pronounced manifestation of the haemorrhagic syndrome of the disease, and milder forms of both leukopenia and anaemia were also noted. The therapeutic index for indralin, expressed as the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the average effective dose, was equal to 10. Therefore, indralin has a significant radioprotective effect against radiation and has a high therapeutic index in rhesus monkeys. (author)

  6. [Cannabis: Effects in the Central Nervous System. Therapeutic, societal and legal consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Olmos, Víctor Manuel; Parra-Bernal, Marisela C

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of marijuana extracted from Cannabis sativa and indica plants involves an important cultural impact in Mexico. Their psychological stimulatory effect is widely recognized; their biochemical and molecular components interact with CB1 and CB2 (endocannabinoid system) receptors in various central nervous system structures (CNS) and immune cells. The psychoactive element Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be reproduced synthetically. Systematic reviews show evidence of therapeutic effectiveness of therapeutic marijuana only for certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis (spasticity, spasms and pain), despite attempts for its widespread use, including refractory childhood epilepsy. Evidence indicates significant adverse effects of smoked marijuana on the structure, functioning and brain connectivity. Cannabis exposure during pregnancy affects fetal brain development, potentially leading to later behavioral problems in children. Neuropsychological tests and advanced imaging techniques show involvement in the learning process in adolescents with substance use. Also, marijuana increases the cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. Social and ethical consequences to legally free marijuana for recreational use may be deleterious transcendentally. The medicinal or psychoactive cannabinol no addictive effect requires controlled proven efficacy and safety before regulatory approval studies.

  7. Are morphological changes necessary to mediate the therapeutic effects of electroconvulsive therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Palomero Gallagher, Nicola; Kumar, Vinod; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Brügmann, Elisabeth; Habel, Ute; Eickhoff, Simon B; Grözinger, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The neurotrophic hypothesis has become the favorite model to explain the antidepressant properties of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). It is based on the assumption that a restoration of previously defective neural networks drives therapeutic effects. Recent data in rather young patients suggest that neurotrophic effects of ECT might be detectable by diffusion tensor imaging. We here aimed to investigate whether the therapeutic response to ECT necessarily goes along with mesoscopic effects in gray matter (GM) or white matter (WM) in our patients in advanced age. Patients (n = 21, 15 males and 7 females) suffering from major depressive disorder were treated with ECT. Before the start of treatment and after the completion of the index series, they underwent magnetic resonance imaging, including a diffusion-weighed sequence. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess GM changes and tract-based spatial statistics and an SPM-based whole-brain analysis to detect WM changes in the course of treatment. Patients significantly improved clinically during the course of ECT. This was, however, not accompanied by GM or WM changes. This result challenges the notion that mesoscopic brain structure changes are an obligatory prerequisite for the antidepressant effects of ECT.

  8. [Therapeutic effect of cervical Jiaji electroacupuncture on postoperative intractable hiccup of liver neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S K; Gao, W B; Liu, Y; He, H

    2018-02-23

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of cervical Jiaji electroacupuncture on postoperative intractable hiccup of liver neoplasms. Methods: A total of 39 patients with postoperative intractable hiccup of liver neoplasms in The First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine from May 2013 to May 2017 were collected and divided into 2 groups randomly. The electroacupuncture group included 20 cases, the control group included 19 cases. Patients in the electroacupuncture group were treated by cervical Jiaji electroacupuncture (located in C3-5, sympathetic ganglion), while the control group were treated by metoclopramide combined with chlorpromazine for three days. The therapeutic effects of two groups were compared and the onset time were recorded. Results: Total effective rates of electroacupuncture group and control group were 95.0% and 47.4%, respectively. The onset time in electroacupuncture group and control group were (14.8±3.3) h and (30.5±3.1) h, respectively ( P electroacupuncture for 3 days, 6 cases were recovered, 3 cases became better, while 1 case demonstrated no response. No serious adverse reactions were appeared in each group. Conclusion: Cervical Jiaji electroacupuncture is an effective and safe treatment for postoperative intractable hiccup of liver neoplasms, and it can be used as a remedy for intractable hiccup patients who don't respond to drug treatment.

  9. Therapeutic effects of eustachian tube surfactant in barotitis media in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li-Ning; Chen, Wen-Xian; Cong, Rui; Gou, Lin

    2003-07-01

    Previous research has shown that the eustachian tube (ET) in animals and humans is lined with a substance that lowers surface tension and thus facilitates the opening of the eustachian tube and aeration of the middle ear. The aims of the present study were to observe the role of eustachian tube surfactant (ETS) on the opening of the ET and to explore the therapeutic effect of natural and artificial ETS on barotitis media (BOM). BOM was successfully established in 50 guinea pigs by simulated ascent in an altitude chamber. Subsets of the affected ears were treated by flushing with natural ETS, artificial ETS, artificial phospholipid, or saline. The effects were evaluated by measuring eustachian tube pressure opening level (POL). Other animals with BOM were treated with artificial ETS on one side and saline in the other, after which the clinical signs were observed. The POL of the saline group remained unchanged. Natural ETS decreased the POL from 11.98 to 6.11 kPa (p congestion in the tympanic membrane was alleviated, the hearing threshold improved, and the effusion in tympanic cavity diminished. Artificial ETS was as effective as natural ETS in facilitating the opening of eustachian tube and had definite therapeutic effects on BOM in this model.

  10. Epigenetic targeting in acute myeloid leukemia: use of flow cytometry in monitoring therapeutic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryningen, Anita; Bruserud, Øystein

    2007-12-01

    Flow cytometric techniques have emerged as a powerful tool in hematology allowing fast, sensitive and reproducible multi-parametric analyses at the single cell level of heterogeneous samples. Small subsets of cells can be studied with high degree of accuracy, and a broad and constantly increasing specter of antibodies is available. Flow cytometry has therefore become the method of choice for evaluation of therapeutic effects at single cell level. These methodological approaches can easily be used to study hematological malignancies, and the future use of this strategy in other malignancies will depend on the development of laboratory techniques to prepare suspensions of viable cells also from tumor biopsies. The selection of biological parameters for evaluation of treatment effects should probably be based on (i) molecular markers involved in cancer-associated genetic abnormalities; (ii) other molecular markers showing altered expression in the malignant cells and thought to be involved in leukemogenesis or having a prognostic impact; (ii) functional assays known to reflect biological characteristics that are important in carcinogenesis (e.g. cell cycle distribution, functional evaluation of apoptosis regulation). These molecules will in addition often represent the therapeutic targets when new anticancer drugs are developed. In this review we use treatment of acute myeloid leukemia with histone deacetylase inhibitors as an example. Based on the criteria mentioned above we suggest that the monitoring of therapeutic effects on the cancer cells in these patients should include differentiation status, histone acetylation, cell cycle distribution, pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling balance and intracellular levels of various transcription factors.

  11. The observation of the therapeutic effectiveness of 131I on 260 youngster with Grave's hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Binwen; Gao Xiusheng; Zhang Yahua; Pu Dongli

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapeutic effect and find new ways on treatment of Grave's hyperthyroidism in youngsters. Methods: 260 Grave's hyperthyroidism patients (age under 21 years) treated with 131 I were followed up 1-16 years later. Results: 118 of all patients were cured and 55 cases improved, failed treatment 2 cases, subclinical hypothyroidism 9 cases, clinical hypothyroidism 6 cases. 35 cases were treated with 131 I two or three times. All the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and clinical hypothyroidism caused by 131 I were cured with medicine. 131 I treatment had no effect on growth and mentality and didn't cause leukemia nor thyroid cancer. Conclusions: The therapy of youngsters with Grave's hyperthyroidism with 131 I has the same effectiveness as adult. To the youngster Grave's patients who failed medical treatment, therapy with 131 I is safe and effective. It leads to temporary hypothyroidism which can be cured with medicine, no delayed hypothyroidism has been found

  12. Adrenaline and serotonin therapeutic effect on the hemopoietic system of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, I.B.; Dontsova, G.V.; Rakhmanina, O.N.; Konstantinova, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Post-irradiation effect of adrenaline and serotonin on the hemopoietic system of irradiated mice has been studied. The pharmaceuticals were injected subcutaneously 15 minutes before the X-radiation exposure at a dose of 7 Gy or immediately after it. The degree of radiation injury has been estimated from 30-day survival fraction of the animals, cell state of the bone marrow, mass of spleen, cfu quantity in the bone marrow at exo- and endocolonial growth (following implantation of bone marrow cells from mice that had been injected with these drugs to irradiated recipients). Post-irradiation effect of adrenaline turned to be weaker than that of serotonin, the latter increasing the survival rate of irradiated mice to 50%. It is stated that post-irradiation therapeutic effect of adrenaline and serotonin expressed in acceleration of the irradiated hemopoietic tissue repair can be realized under direct effect of drugs on the viable hemopoietic cells, probably, by enchancement of their proliferation

  13. Evaluation on therapeutic effect of de-compressive craniectomies for patients with diffuse brain swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Sanchao; Zhang Changrong; Zuo Yi; Zhou Xiaowei; Li Jian

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of de-compressive craniectomies in acute traumatic patients with diffuse brain swelling. Methods: 23 patients with acute posttraumatic diffuse brain swelling admitted and confirmed by X-CT were randomly treated by surgical de-compressive craniectomies (operative group). Their treated results were compared with those of another 11 patients treated conservatively (non-operative group) at the same period. Results: The mortality rate was similar in both operative and nonoperative groups. Conclusion: The de-compressive craniectomy operation has no value and not valid for treatment of acute posttraumatic diffuse brain swelling

  14. [Therapeutic effects of the integrated acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine on reflux esophagitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan; Li, Bolin; Sun, Jianhui; Wang, Zhikun; Zhang, Nana; Shi, Fang; Pei, Lin

    2017-07-12

    To compare the differences in the clinical therapeutic effects on reflux esophagitis among the combined therapy of huazhuo jiedu jiangni decoction (the decoction for resolving the turbid, detoxification and reducing the pathologic upward qi in short) and acupuncture, omeprazole and Chinese herbal medicine. Ninety patients were randomized into 3 groups, 4 cases of them were dropped off. Finally, there were 29 cases in the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, 29 cases in the western medication group and 28 cases in the Chinese herbal medicine group in the statistical analysis. In the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, the decoction was prescribed recurrence rate. The therapeutic effects are better than the simple application of either Chinese herbal medicine or omeprazole. for oral administration. Additionally, acupuncture was applied to Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Zhongwan (CV 12), Ganshu (BL 18), Danshu (BL 19) and Taichong (LR 3). The decoction was applied one dose a day and acupuncture was once a day. In the western medication group, omeprazole capsules, 20 mg were prescribed for oral administration, twice a day. In the Chinese herbal medicine group, the decoction was simply applied. The treatment was 8 weeks in the 3 groups and the follow-up visit was 6 months. The score of reflux disorder questionnaire (RDQ) and the changes in esophageal mucosa under gastroscope were observed before and after treatment; the clinical therapeutic effects and recurrence rate were evaluated in the 3 groups. In 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, RDQ scores in the 3 groups were all reduced as compared with those before treatment (all P herbal medicine was lower than that in the western medication group ( P herbal medicine was lower than those in the western medication group and the Chinese herbal medicine group (both P herbal medicine group (all P <0.05). The combined therapy of huazhuo jiedu jiangni decoction and acupuncture achieve the

  15. Effects of pay resets following drug use on attendance and hours worked in a therapeutic workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    This secondary data analysis examined effects of an abstinence contingency on participation in a therapeutic workplace. Participants exposed to a pay reset after drug use did not differ in overall attendance from participants who were not exposed to a pay reset after drug use; however, they initially worked less after a pay reset than participants who did not receive a pay reset, and their attendance increased as their pay increased. Overall participation was not influenced by the abstinence contingency, but transient decreases in attendance occurred. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. The effect of therapeutic radiation on canine alveolar ridges augmented with hydroxylapatite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of radiation on hydroxylapatite (HA) implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation in dogs. All bicuspids and molars were extracted from 16 dogs. After 6 weeks, nonporous HA granules were implanted subperiosteally...... on the alveolar ridge. Following 4 months of healing, 12 dogs (experimental group) underwent therapeutic radiation therapy (Co60, 4,000 rad [40 Gy]) to the head and neck region. Four dogs were not irradiated and served as controls. Four animals (three experimental and one control) were killed at 5,6,7, and 8...

  17. Iso-effect tables and therapeutic ratios for epidermoid cancer and normal tissue stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.; Creditor, M.

    1983-01-01

    Available literature on radiation injury to normal tissue stroma and ablation of epidermoid carcinoma was surveyed. Computer programs (RAD3 and RAD1) were then used to derive cell kinetic parameters and generate iso-effect tables for the relevant tissues. The two tables provide a set of limiting doses for tolerance of normal connective tissue (16% risk of injury) and for ablation of epidermoid cancer (16% risk of recurrence) covering a wide range of treatment schedules. Calculating the ratios of normal tissue tolerance to tumor control doses for each treatment scheme provides an array of therapeutic ratios, from which appropriate treatment schemes can be selected

  18. Effectiveness of community-based mangrove management for sustainable resource use and livelihood support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damastuti, Ekaningrum; Groot, de Dolf

    2017-01-01

    Community-Based Mangrove Management (CBMM) is implemented with different approaches and outcomes. This study examined the effectiveness of various CBMM practices to achieve sustainable management of mangrove resources. We analyzed local mangrove resource management strategies in four coastal

  19. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A; Zanaty, Mohamed I

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture.

  20. Therapeutic Effects of Cassia angustifolia in a Cadmium Induced Hepatotoxicity Assay Conducted in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21stst day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  1. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A.; Zanaty, Mohamed I.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture. PMID:27298610

  2. Starting the Pluralistic Tradition of Teaching? Effects of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) on Pre-Service Teachers' Views on Teaching about Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Klas

    2017-01-01

    There is currently a well-established belief among politicians, scholars and university representatives that educational systems can produce positive attitudes towards sustainable development (SD) among citizens. This article investigates whether Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in teacher education has effects on pre-service teachers'…

  3. Levee Setbacks: An Innovative, Cost Effective, and Sustainable Solution for Improved Flood Risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    ER D C/ EL S R- 17 -3 Levee Setbacks: An Innovative , Cost-Effective, and Sustainable Solution for Improved Flood Risk Management En vi...EL SR-17-3 June 2017 Levee Setbacks: An Innovative , Cost-Effective, and Sustainable Solution for Improved Flood Risk Management David L. Smith...alternative view point is necessary. ERDC/EL SR-17-3 4 Levee setbacks are a relatively recent innovation in Corps flood risk management practice

  4. Prevention and Therapeutic Effects and Mechanisms of Tanshinone IIA Sodium Sulfonate on Acute Liver Injury Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunjie Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate (TSS is a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, which is the main pharmacologically active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza. This study aimed to verify the preventive and therapeutic effects of TSS and its combined therapeutic effects with magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MI in D-galactosamine- (D-Gal- induced acute liver injury (ALI in mice. The potential regulatory mechanisms of TSS on ALI were also examined. Our results may provide a basis for the development of novel therapeutics for ALI.

  5. Therapeutic effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 on experimental radiation enteritis in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, S.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation enteritis in patients treated by abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy is characterized by acute mucosal disruption and chronic intestinal fibrosis. Using a model of localized intestinal irradiation in the rat, we showed remote intestinal dysfunction outside the irradiation field along the whole gut, probably associated with perturbations in the systems regulating intestinal functions. Based on the hypothesis of consequential late effects, acute administration of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2, a growth factor with specific trophic effect on the intestinal mucosa, limited the apparition of both acute and chronic radiation enteritis. This suggests that therapeutic strategies targeting the severity of acute tissue damage may also limit chronic sequelae. The study of GLP-2 effects on epithelial cells in co-culture with either subepithelial myo-fibroblasts or enteric nervous system emphasized the problem of the modelization of complex systems in vitro, and suggested a synergic action from these different actors in vivo. (author)

  6. 3H-TdR autoradiography in vitro incubation for the evaluation of the therapeutic effect in chronic atrophic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jie

    1988-01-01

    This paper discussed with the feasibility of using 3 H-TdR autoraoiography in vitro incubation to evaluate the therapeutic effect of atrophic gastritis. The results showed that gastric mucosa labelling indices measured by autoradiography can reflect the property, severity and clincal conditions of chronic gastritis quantitatively. The methodology is raliable and reproducible. It was suggested that labelling indices may serve as a cytokinetic parameter to evaluate the therapeutic effect of atrophic gastritis

  7. Therapeutic Effect of External Application of Ligustrazine Combined with Holistic Nursing on Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Junzhi; Han, Lin; Gong, Fen

    2016-08-15

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of external application of ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing on pressure sores, as well as the underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS From February 2014 to March 2015, a total of 32 patients with Phase II and Phase III pressure sores were enrolled and randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The clinical data were comparable between the 2 groups. In addition to holistic nursing, the patients in the experimental group received 4 weeks of continuous external application of ligustrazine, whereas patients in the control group received compound clotrimazole cream. Therapeutic effect and healing time were recorded. HaCaT cells were used as an in vitro model for mechanism analysis of the effect of ligustrazine in treating pressure sores. After culturing with different concentrations of ligustrazine or the inhibitor of AKT (LY294002) for 72 h, cell viability, clone formation numbers, and levels of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-AKT, and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were determined. RESULTS Compared to the control group, the total effective rate in the experimental group was significantly higher, and the healing time was significantly reduced. Cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly upregulated by ligustrazine in a dose-dependent manner. Both the cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly inhibited by application of LY294002. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing is an effective treatment of pressure sores. The protective effect may be associated with the promotion of cell growth by activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  8. Therapeutic Effects of Topical Tranexamic Acid in Comparison with Hydroquinone in Treatment of Women with Melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Najmolsadat; Dalvand, Behzad; Ghassemi, Mahammadreza; Mehran, Golnaz; Heydarian, Amir

    2017-09-01

    Few studies have focused on therapeutic as well as side effects of tranexamic acid (TXA) as a topical drug compared to other topical drugs in treating melasma. The present study aimed to assess and compare the beneficial therapeutic effects and also side effects of local TXA in comparison with hydroquinone in treating women with melasma. This randomized double-blinded clinical trial was performed on 60 women who suffered from melasma and were referred to the skin disorders clinic at the Rasoul-e-Akram hospital in Tehran in 2015. The patients were then randomly assigned via computerized randomization to two groups: group A received TXA%5 (topically twice a day for 12 weeks in the location of the melasma) and group B (received hydroquinone 2% with the same treatment order). Prior to intervention and at 12 weeks after intervention, the intensity and extension of melasma were assessed based on the Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scoring method. The mean MASI score in both treatment groups decreased considerably after completion of treatment and was not significant between the two groups. No side effects were detected in group A, but 10% of those in group B complained of drug-related side effects including erythema and skin irritation (p = 0.131). Regarding the level of patient satisfaction, the patients in group A had a significantly higher level of satisfaction level of 33.3% compared with 6.7% in group B (p = 0.015) (Fig. 9). Multivariate linear regression modeling with the presence of age, history of systemic disorder, drug history, and family history of melasma demonstrated no difference in the mean MASI between the two groups. Topical use of TXA significantly reduced both melanin level and MASI score. Given its high efficiency and low drug side effects, this regimen results in high patient satisfaction compared with topical hydroquinone. IRCT code: IRCT2016040627220N2.

  9. [Therapeutic effect of total glucosides of paeony on lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhao-Xia; Yang, Shao-Feng; Wu, Qi-Fu; Lu, Ying; Chen, Yu-Yao; Nie, Xiao-Li; Jie, Hong-Yu; Qi, Jing-Min; Wang, Fan-Sheng

    2011-04-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) on lupus nephritis (LN) in MRL/lpr mice. MRL/lpr mice with lupus nephritis were randomized into model group and TGP group. The urinary protein content was detected using Coomassie brilliant blue, and the serum levels of IgG anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The changes in the renal pathology were examined microscopically, and the spleen and thymus were weighed to calculate the spleen and thymus indexes. At 15 and 30 days after TGP administration, the urinary protein content in the TGP group was significantly lower than that in the model group (PTGP treatment significantly lowered the serum levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and ANA and the weight and index of spleen (PTGP treatment, the urinary protein content and the levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and ANA decreased significantly at 15 and 30 days after TGP administration (PTGP administration, the urinary protein content was significantly lowered in the TGP group as compared to that at 15 days (PTGP can reduce urinary protein content and serum levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and ANA, and lessen renal pathology in MRL/lpr mice with lupus nephritis, suggesting its therapeutic effect on lupus nephritis.

  10. Therapeutic Antiviral Effect of the Nucleic Acid Polymer REP 2055 against Persistent Duck Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordeen, Faseeha; Scougall, Catherine A.; Grosse, Arend; Qiao, Qiao; Ajilian, Behzad B.; Reaiche-Miller, Georget; Finnie, John; Werner, Melanie; Broering, Ruth; Schlaak, Joerg F.; Vaillant, Andrew; Jilbert, Allison R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) have both entry and post-entry inhibitory activity against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection. The inhibitory activity exhibited by NAPs prevented DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes in vitro and protected ducks from DHBV infection in vivo and did not result from direct activation of the immune response. In the current study treatment of primary human hepatocytes with NAP REP 2055 did not induce expression of the TNF, IL6, IL10, IFNA4 or IFNB1 genes, confirming the lack of direct immunostimulation by REP 2055. Ducks with persistent DHBV infection were treated with NAP 2055 to determine if the post-entry inhibitory activity exhibited by NAPs could provide a therapeutic effect against established DHBV infection in vivo. In all REP 2055-treated ducks, 28 days of treatment lead to initial rapid reductions in serum DHBsAg and DHBV DNA and increases in anti-DHBs antibodies. After treatment, 6/11 ducks experienced a sustained virologic response: DHBsAg and DHBV DNA remained at low or undetectable levels in the serum and no DHBsAg or DHBV core antigen positive hepatocytes and only trace amounts of DHBV total and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) were detected in the liver at 9 or 16 weeks of follow-up. In the remaining 5/11 REP 2055-treated ducks, all markers of DHBV infection rapidly rebounded after treatment withdrawal: At 9 and 16 weeks of follow-up, levels of DHBsAg and DHBcAg and DHBV total and cccDNA in the liver had rebounded and matched levels observed in the control ducks treated with normal saline which remained persistently infected with DHBV. These data demonstrate that treatment with the NAP REP 2055 can lead to sustained control of persistent DHBV infection. These effects may be related to the unique ability of REP 2055 to block release of DHBsAg from infected hepatocytes. PMID:26560490

  11. Endocannabinoid system and psychiatry: in search of a neurobiological basis for detrimental and potential therapeutic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Marco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Public concern on mental health has noticeably increased given the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders. Cognition and emotionality are the most affected functions in neuropsychiatric disorders, i.e. anxiety disorders, depression and schizophrenia. In this review, most relevant literature on the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB system in neuropsychiatric disorders will be presented. Evidence from clinical and animal studies is provided for the participation of CB1 and CB2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. CBRs are crucial in some of the emotional and cognitive impairments reported, although more research is required to understand the specific role of the eCB system in neuropsychiatric disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD, the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa plant, has shown therapeutic potential in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Although further studies are needed, recent studies indicate that CBD therapeutic effects may partially depend on facilitation of eCB-mediated neurotransmission. Last but not least, this review includes recent findings on the role of the eCB system in eating disorders. A deregulation of the eCB system has been proposed to be in the bases of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Cannabis consumption has been related to the appearance of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia. In contrast, the pharmacological manipulation of this eCB system has been proposed as a potential strategy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, depression, and anorexia nervosa. In conclusion, the eCB system plays a critical role in psychiatry; however, detrimental consequences of manipulating this endogenous system cannot be underestimated over the potential and promising perspectives of its therapeutic manipulation.

  12. Therapeutic effect of polysaccharide fraction of Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. in bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Guan, Ran; Lu, Yisong; Su, Xiaoyan; Xu, Ye; Du, Aifang; Hu, Songhua

    2015-07-25

    Mastitis is considered the most significant and persistent disease in dairy cows, bringing about large economic losses. Subclinical mastitis brings about major cost implications, for it is difficult to detect due to absence of any visible indications and can persist in the mammary tissue throughout lactation. Immunomodulators have been widely used to reduce intramammary infections by modulating bovine mammary gland. Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. polysaccharides (RAMP), extracted from herbal medicine, has been used widely especially for its immunomodulatory function for many years. The objective of this study was to estimate an oil emulsified Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. polysaccharides (RAMP-O) as a potential therapeutic agent to treat subclinical mastitis by subcutaneous injection of RAMP-O in the area of supramammary lymph node in lactating cows via analysis of SCC, IMIs and NAGase. Injection of RAMP-O in the area of supramammary lymph node significantly reduced milk SCC and NAGase activity compared with control. The quarters with bacterial infection were also progressively reduced in RAMP-O treated cows and only 9 quarters were found to have bacterial infection, while no obvious change was found in the control group. Subcutaneous injection of RAMP-O in the area of supramammary lymph node had therapeutic value in the treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis by reducing SCC, NAGase and IMIs in milk. Considering both the therapeutic effect and the cost of RAMP-O, 32 mg per dose was found most suitable to reduce milk SCC and NAGase. Therefore, RAMP-O deserves further study for its use in treatment of bovine mastitis.

  13. Therapeutic Effects of Blue Honeysuckle on Lesions of Hyperthyroidism in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-In; Lee, Young Joon; Choi, Seong Hun; Park, Soo Jin; Song, Chang-Hyun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a hypermetabolic syndrome characterized by an overproduction of thyroid hormones, which enhances the hormone-induced oxidative stress responsible for some complications in the liver, heart and muscle. Blue honeysuckle (BH) is an edible berry, rich in polyphenols, especially flavonoids or anthocyanins, known as strong antioxidants. The chemo-protective activities of the berry have been connected to the improvement of symptoms in cancer, diabetes mellitus, tumor or cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the therapeutic effects of BH were examined in hyperthyroidism rat model. The hyperthyroidism was induced by injection with levothyroxine (LT4), and the model was treated with distilled water (LT4 control), propylthiouracil (PTU) or BH at 3 dosages of 500, 250 and 125[Formula: see text]mg/kg. The treatment was performed once a day for 15 days. Compared to LT4 control, the oral administration of BH dose-dependently ameliorated the hyperthyroidism, reducing thyroid hormones and increasing thyroid stimulating hormones. These effects were accompanied by improvement of body weight loss and atrophy in the thyroid gland, liver and epididymal fat pads. BH treatments also reduced the levels of hepatic enzymes (AST and ALT), which suggests BH exerts protective effects on hepatocytes. BH might also be involved in the augmentation of the anti-oxidant activities, supported by increased endogenous antioxidant (glutathione). In addition, the histopathological analyses revealed the beneficial effects of BH on the atrophic changes and cellular injuries in the thyroid gland, liver and epididymal fat pads. The therapeutic potentials of BH were either similar or more effective than PTU. These results provide valuable information that will guide more detailed studies to use the BH as a complementary and alternative medicine.

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of palm oil certification in delivering multiple sustainability objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgans, Courtney L.; Meijaard, Erik; Santika, Truly; Law, Elizabeth; Budiharta, Sugeng; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wilson, Kerrie A.

    2018-06-01

    Industrial oil palm plantations in South East Asia have caused significant biodiversity losses and perverse social outcomes. To address concerns over plantation practices and in an attempt to improve sustainability through market mechanisms, civil society organisations and industry representatives developed the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in 2004. The effectiveness of RSPO in improving the sustainability of the palm oil industry is frequently debated and to date, few quantitative analyses have been undertaken to assess how successful RSPO has been in delivering the social, economic and environmental sustainability outcomes it aims to address. With the palm oil industry continuing to expand in South East Asia and significant estates being planted in Africa and South America, this paper evaluates the effectiveness of RSPO plantations compared to non-certified plantations by assessing the relative performance of several key sustainability metrics compared to business as usual practices. Using Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan) as a case study, a novel dataset of RSPO concessions was developed and causal analysis methodologies employed to evaluate the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the industry. No significant difference was found between certified and non-certified plantations for any of the sustainability metrics investigated, however positive economic trends including greater fresh fruit bunch yields were revealed. To achieve intended outcomes, RSPO principles and criteria are in need of substantial improvement and rigorous enforcement.

  15. Polymer based microspheres of aceclofenac as sustained release parenterals for prolonged anti-inflammatory effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Sharma, Sumit; Sinha, VR, E-mail: sinha_vr@rediffmail.com

    2017-03-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (75:25) and polycaprolactone (PCL) microspheres were fabricated for prolonged release of aceclofenac by parenteral administration. Microspheres encapsulating aceclofenac were designed to release the drug at controlled rate for around one month. Biodegradable microspheres were prepared by solvent emulsification evaporation method in different polymer:drug ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). After drug loading, PLGA and PCL microspheres showed a controlled size distribution with an average size of 11.75 μm and 3.81 μm respectively and entrapment efficiency in the range of 90 ± 0.72% to 91.06 ± 4.01% with PLGA and 83.01 ± 2.13% to 90.4 ± 2.11% with PCL. Scanning electron microscopy has confirmed good spherical structures of microspheres. The percent yield of biodegradable polymeric microspheres ranged between 30.95 ± 10.14% to 92.84 ± 3.15% and 47.33 ± 4.72% to 80 ± 3.60% for PLGA and PCL microspheres respectively. PLGA microspheres followed Higuchi release pattern while Korsmeyer-Peppas explained the release pattern of PCL microspheres. Stability studies of microspheres were also carried out by storing the preparations at 2-8 °C for 30, 60 and 90 days and evaluating them for entrapment efficiency, residual drug content and polymer drug compatability. In-vivo studies showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of microspheres upto 48 hours using the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model. - Highlights: • PLGA and PCL polymeric microspheres for parenteral prolonged drug delivery system were formulated. • Polymeric microspheres were characterized physically and drug excipient incompatability. • Three months accelerated stability studies were carried for drug loaded polymeric microspheres. • Pharmacodynamic studies prove the rationality of sustained therapeutic effect of designed drug delivery system.

  16. The therapeutic effects and experience of tracheal stent implantation in managing severe tracheal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Weifu; Zhang Xingming; Zhang Xuebing; Wang Weiyu; Hou Changlong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects and experience of the tracheal stent implantation for the management of severe tracheal stenosis. Materials: Thirteen patients with severe tracheal stenosis of various causes underwent high kilovoltage radiography and computed tomography for evaluating the site, form and extent of the stenosis including 10 at the trachea, 1 at the right main bronchus and 2 at left main bronchus. The C2 catheter assisted with ultra-slipping guide wire was inserted into the trachea under fluoroscopy and then a replaced high shoring guide wire was pushed through the stenotic segment and retained the stent. Results: All stents were implanted successfully with successful rate 100% together with dyspnoeic improvements. The mean survival time was 6.2 months for patients with malignant neoplasm. One patient with benign tracheal stenosis has been followed-up for 5 years without restenosis. Conclusions: The tracheal stent implantation is an effective means for severe tracheal stenosis. (authors)

  17. The translation of product concept to bone products: a partnership of therapeutic effectiveness and commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Anthony

    2011-12-01

    The fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have the capacity to substantially impact clinical care through the introduction of new products that can address unmet clinical needs, or significantly improve on present therapies. These products will be developed through the demonstration of therapeutic effectiveness, adequate safety, and meeting regulatory requirements. The technology used in the product will dictate the product development and manufacturing costs; the regulatory pathway; and the time taken to complete clinical trials, gain regulatory approval, and become commercialized. A comparison of the required investment of time and funds, with the potential revenue generated, allows for a determination of the likely commercialization opportunity. Ultimately, the long-term success of a product will be dependent on its clinical effectiveness and commercial viability. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  18. Evaluating the therapeutic effect of 89Sr using Bremsstrahlung imaging in patients with bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Daping; Lou Cen; Chen Liang; Yu Linliang; Huang Huacheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of 89 Sr (a pure beta emitter) using Bremsstrahlung imaging in patients with multiple bone metastases. Methods: 89 Sr Bremsstrahlung imaging was performed 1-2 weeks after injection in 14 patients with bone metastases, using GE Camstar 3200 SPECT equipped with a medium-energy collimator. To improve resolution of imaging, authors selected suitable energy level and wide window width (a 95-100% energy window around 100 KeV). Results: Abnormal uptake was seen in all and was consistent with the results of 99m Tc-MDP imaging. According to this result, authors can realize localization, retention and metabolism of 89 Sr in body. Conclusion: Bremsstrahlung imaging is useful for clinical observation and estimating the curative effect and prognosis in pure beta emitter therapy such as 89 Sr. In addition, it can be helpful in determining dose of 89 Sr if a repeated therapy is needed

  19. Therapeutic Effectiveness and Safety of Mesotherapy in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Li, Dongqing; Zhong, Jun; Qiu, Bo; Wu, Xianglei

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of mesotherapy by comparing it with the classic systematic therapy in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Sixty patients were included and classified into two groups based on the existence of contraindications for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These patients were treated with oral NSAIDs (Group A) or mesotherapy (Group B). After completing the treatment, the patients were followed up for 6 months. Their clinical features, laboratory results, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were evaluated. A total of 50 patients completed treatment and follow-up. The patients in Group B had significantly fewer gastric acid-related complaints and requested less supplementary treatment for recurrent pain ( p Mesotherapy also ameliorated physical function ( p mesotherapy is an effective and safe treatment for patients with OA. Clinicians should consider mesotherapy as an alternative therapy for patients with contraindications for NSAID use.

  20. Therapeutic effect of angiogenesis inhibitor combined with radiotherapy on liver metastasis model of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Liugen; Zhou Shifu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of angiogenesis inhibitor combined with radiotherapy on liver metastasis model of colon cancer. Methods: Nude mice liver metastasis model of colon cancer was established with human colon cancer cells line (LS174T) inoculated into mice' spleen and followed by splenectomy. Angiogenesis inhibitor 2-ME and radiotherapy were administered after-wads. The growth inhibition effect on metastases and neovessel was examined. Results: The incidences of liver metastasis were 100% in this intrasplenic injection model. The mean weight and microvessel density 4 weeks after inoculation were 53.6 ± 4.7 mg, 8.4 ± 1.7 in treatment group as compared to 173.9 ± 11.6 mg, 41.2 ± 6.3 in control group respectively. Conclusion: 2-ME combined with radiotherapy has significant inhibition on the growth of liver metastases. Angiogenesis inhibition is one of the mechanisms of its efficiency. (authors)

  1. Correcting Effect of Therapeutic Doses of Optical Radiation on Hematological Parameters of Blood Irradiated In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the effect of therapeutic doses of optical radiation on the hematological parameters of blood irradiated in vivo: hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and the number of erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of patients during courses of extracorporeal, overvein, and intravenous blood irradiation and after treatment. The reversible changes during the procedures were found to differ from the changes obtained after treatment completion. At the end of the treatment course, the hematological parameters had changed in different directions and became higher, the same, or lower than the initial parameters depending on the initial parameters and photoinduced changes in blood oxygenation. A compensatory effect was found for photohemotherapy on oxygen-dependent processes altering the oxygen inflow into cells as well as the generation of active oxygen species and their inhibition by antioxidant systems.

  2. Effects of Therapeutic Exercises on Functional Capacities of Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Haji Zadeh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by symmetric joint involvement with progressive deformities. This leads to limitation of motion and reduction of activity daily living (ADL. Previous reports showed the beneficial effects of therapeutic exercises in these patients in the remission phase. Methods and Materials: A clinical trial as a self-control sequential control study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a range of motion (ROM exercise program in patients with RA, referring to Rheumatology Research Center between 1994-1995. ROM of the selected joints by Goniometer, and ADL by a questionnaire was assessed in all patients in 3 phases: when entering the program, after 6 weeks of observation, and then after another 6 weeks with the therapeutic exercises. The mean difference in these 2 period were compared by student paired t test. The analysis of differences between different subgroups (job, education, etc. was done by one way variance analysis. Results: Forty patients completed the program. The mean ADL increased from 0437±0.252 before exercise to 6.69±3.06 after exercise (P<0.001, and the mean scores of ROM increased from 0.278±0.28 to 8±3.57 (P<0.0001, both statistically significant. This was more pronounced in women and in those with ankle joints involvement. The type of disease onset and duration of the disease did not influence the effects of treatment. No increase in disease activity was seen. Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of our ROM exercises in increasing functional capacities of patients with RA in remission phase.

  3. Effect of Polyether Ether Ketone on Therapeutic Radiation to the Spine: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J Benjamin; Crimaldi, Anthony J; Peindl, Richard; Norton, H James; Anderson, William E; Patt, Joshua C

    2017-01-01

    Cadaveric model. To compare the effect of PEEK versus conventional implants on scatter radiation to a simulated tumor bed in the spine SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Given the highly vasculature nature of the spine, it is the most common place for bony metastases. After surgical treatment of a spinal metastasis, adjuvant radiation therapy is typically administered. Radiation dosing is primarily limited by toxicity to the spinal cord. The scatter effect caused by metallic implants decreases the accuracy of dosing and can unintentionally increase the effective dose seen by the spinal cord. This represents a dose-limiting factor for therapeutic radiation postoperatively. A cadaveric thorax specimen was utilized as a metastatic tumor model with two separate three-level spine constructs (one upper thoracic and one lower thoracic). Each construct was examined independently. All four groups compared included identical posterior instrumentation. The anterior constructs consisted of either: an anterior polyether ether ketone (PEEK) cage, an anterior titanium cage, an anterior bone cement cage (polymethyl methacrylate), or a control group with posterior instrumentation alone. Each construct had six thermoluminescent detectors to measure the radiation dose. The mean dose was similar across all constructs and locations. There was more variability in the upper thoracic spine irrespective of the construct type. The PEEK construct had a more uniform dose distribution with a standard deviation of 9.76. The standard deviation of the others constructs was 14.26 for the control group, 19.31 for the titanium cage, and 21.57 for the cement (polymethyl methacrylate) construct. The PEEK inter-body cage resulted in a significantly more uniform distribution of therapeutic radiation in the spine when compared with the other constructs. This may allow for the application of higher effective dosing to the tumor bed for spinal metastases without increasing spinal cord toxicity with either

  4. Structural model to evaluate the effect of participation and satisfaction on ecotourism sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kencana, Eka N.; Manutami, T.

    2017-10-01

    This paper is directed to study the effect of local community participation and visitors’ satisfaction on ecotourism sustainability at Badung regency of Bali province, Indonesia. Two important aspects regarding ecotourism sustainability had been studied, i.e. (a) economic benefits for local people and (b) tourists’ satisfaction. Applying variance-based structural equation modeling, data were collected in July 2015 from local community leaders of Kiadan Village at Badung regency and tourists whom visited this village, were analysed. Four latent variables, namely (a) community participation, (b) economic benefits, (c) tourists’ satisfaction, and (d) ecotourism sustainability, were used to build structural model. The results showed sustainability of Kiadan’s ecotourism was significantly affected by local community participation and visitors’ satisfaction although community participation’s effect slightly greater than tourists’ satisfaction with path values for participation and satisfaction as much as 0.651 and 0.627, respectively.

  5. Effects of therapeutic touch on the vital signs of patients before coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Zahra; Shahsavari, Hooman; Moeini, Mahin

    2010-01-01

    Currently healthy heart word considered to be the objective of community health applications in many countries of the world because cardiovascular diseases are the most important factor in mortality of humans, worldwide. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery is one of the most common surgery procedures for these patients. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of therapeutic touch on medical vital signs of patients before coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The present study is a clinical trial with 44 samples that were selected by easy sampling method and based on two separate lists of random numbers for both men and women; they were divided into two groups. In the therapeutic touch group, intervention therapy was applied on patents for 20 minutes. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Test results showed that there was a significant difference between the mean pulse rate before and after intervention in both groups (p touch therapy as a safe and effective intervention on the patients which were revealed in this study, this technique can be used as a simple, cheap and applicable technique in all health care centers to help these patients.

  6. Unraveling the Effect of Immunogenicity on the PK/PD, Efficacy, and Safety of Therapeutic Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologics have emerged as a powerful and diverse class of molecular and cell-based therapies that are capable of replacing enzymes, editing genomes, targeting tumors, and more. As this complex array of tools arises a distinct set of challenges is rarely encountered in the development of small molecule therapies. Biotherapeutics tend to be big, bulky, polar molecules comprised of protein and/or nucleic acids. Compared to their small molecule counterparts, they are fragile, labile, and heterogeneous. Their biodistribution is often limited by hydrophobic barriers which often restrict their administration to either intravenous or subcutaneous entry routes. Additionally, their potential for immunogenicity has proven to be a challenge to developing safe and reliably efficacious drugs. Our discussion will emphasize immunogenicity in the context of therapeutic proteins, a well-known class of biologics. We set out to describe what is known and unknown about the mechanisms underlying the interplay between antigenicity and immune response and their effect on the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of these therapeutic agents.

  7. The effect of therapeutic ultrasound on metallic implants: a study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoğlu, Barış; Cabukoglu, Cengiz; Ozeras, Nadire; Seyhan, Mustafa; Karahan, Mustafa; Yalcin, Selim

    2011-11-01

    To investigate whether therapeutic ultrasound (US) use over metallic implants has the potential for adverse effects as a result of greater temperature increases at the tissue-metal interface. A randomized controlled trial. A research laboratory. Sprague-Dawley rats (N=40; weight, 230-300g) were used and divided into 3 study groups. In group 1, both limbs of 10 rats were used for evaluation of temperature changes. Metal pins were placed into the femur of the left limb, and the right limbs were used as controls. A thermal sensor was placed into the medulla to record the elevation of tissue temperature during US application. In groups 2 and 3 with 15 rats in each, a midshaft femoral fracture was produced, and intramedullary fixation was performed with metal pins. Group 2 received US treatment for 5 minutes daily and continued for 27 days. Group 3 served as controls. The rats in groups 2 and 3 were killed on postoperative day 30. The specimens were evaluated by radiology, histopathology, and biomechanics. The presence of metal in bone did not cause an increased temperature rise. US application did not increase or decrease callus formation, and there was no tissue necrosis. The average removal torques of pins in groups did not show a significant difference. Internal fixation with metallic implants may not be a contraindication for therapeutic US treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Glycosaminoglycans analogues from marine invertebrates: structure, biological effects and potential as new therapeutics.

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    Mauro Sergio Pavao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, several glycosaminoglycan analogs obtained from different marine invertebrate are reported. The structure, biological activity and mechanism of action of these unique molecules are detailed reviewed and exemplified by experiments in vitro and in vivo. Among the glycans studied are low-sulfated heparin-like polymers from ascidians, containing significant anticoagulant activity and no bleeding effect; dermatan sulfates with significant neurite outgrowth promoting activity and anti-P-selectin from ascidians, and a unique fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumbers, possessing anticoagulant activity after oral administration and high anti P- and L-selectin activities. The therapeutic value and safety of these invertebrate glycans have been extensively proved by several experimental animal models of diseases, including thrombosis, inflammation and metastasis. These invertebrate glycans can be obtained in high concentrations from marine organisms that have been used as a food source for decades, and usually obtained from marine farms in sufficient quantities to be used as starting material for new therapeutics.

  9. Psychological variables implied in the therapeutic effect of ayahuasca: A contextual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquesa, Alba; Sainz-Cort, Alberto; Gandy, Sam; Soler, Joaquim; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel; Bouso, José Carlos

    2018-04-04

    Ayahuasca is a psychedelic decoction originating from Amazonia. The ayahuasca-induced introspective experience has been shown to have potential benefits in the treatment of several pathologies, to protect mental health and to improve neuropsychological functions and creativity, and boost mindfulness. The underlying psychological processes related to the use of ayahuasca in a psychotherapeutic context are not yet well described in the scientific literature, but there is some evidence to suggest that psychological variables described in psychotherapies could be useful in explaining the therapeutic effects of the brew. In this study we explore the link between ayahuasca use and Decentering, Values and Self, comparing subjects without experience of ayahuasca (n = 41) with subjects with experience (n = 81). Results confirm that ayahuasca users scored higher than non-users in Decentering and Positive self, but not in Valued living, Life fulfillment, Self in social relations, Self in close relations and General self. Scores in Decentering were higher in the more experienced subjects (more than 15 occasions) than in those with less experience (less than 15 occasions). Our results show that psychological process variables may explain the outcomes in ayahuasca psychotherapy. The introduction of these variables is warranted in future ayahuasca therapeutic studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of a therapeutic lithium level on a stroke-related cerebellar tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleans, Rachel A; Dubin, Marc J; Kast, Kristopher A

    2018-01-24

    Lithium is a mood stabiliser used in the treatment of acute mania, bipolar disorder and as augmentation for unipolar major depression. Tremor is a common adverse effect associated with lithium at both therapeutic and toxic serum levels. We present a case of dose-dependent changes in the quality and intensity of a stroke-related, chronic cerebellar tremor with lithium treatment at serum levels within the therapeutic range. On admission, the patient in this case had a baseline fine, postural tremor, which increased in frequency and evolved to include myoclonic jerks once lithium therapy was initiated. Although the patient's serum lithium level was never in the toxic range, his tremor returned to baseline on reduction of his serum lithium level. This case highlights that a pre-existing, baseline tremor may lower the threshold for developing myoclonus. It also suggests that caution may be warranted with lithium therapy in the setting of known cerebellar disease. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Therapeutic fasting as a potential effective treatment for type 2 diabetes: A 4-month case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ku

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle therapy is an integral part of type 2 diabetes (T2D management, but there remains no consensus on an optimal diet. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic fasting as a treatment for T2D. This case follows a male T2D patient treated at the Intensive Dietary Management Clinic in Scarborough, Ontario, over a 4-month period. The patient’s initial fasting regimen consisted of a 24-h fast, three times a week. Over the course of treatment, the patient gradually extended his fasting period, eventually fasting for 42 h, two to three times a week. By the end of treatment, the patient’s weight was reduced by 17.8% and his waist circumference was reduced by 11.0%. In addition, the patient’s glycated haemoglobin levels decreased from 7.7% to 7.2%, and he was able to completely discontinue his insulin treatment, despite over a decade of insulin usage. The patient did not find it difficult to adhere to the fasting schedule and did not experience any hypoglycaemic episodes or other significant adverse effects. These observations suggest that therapeutic fasting may be a viable treatment option for T2D patients.

  12. Therapeutic effects of ritual ayahuasca use in the treatment of substance dependence--qualitative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizaga-Velder, Anja; Verres, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative empirical study explores the ritual use of ayahuasca in the treatment of addictions. Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychedelic plant compound created from an admixture of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the bush Psychotria viridis. The study included interviews with 13 therapists who apply ayahuasca professionally in the treatment of addictions (four indigenous healers and nine Western mental health professionals with university degrees), two expert researchers, and 14 individuals who had undergone ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addictions in diverse contexts in South America. The study provides empirically based hypotheses on therapeutic mechanisms of ayahuasca in substance dependence treatment. Findings indicate that ayahuasca can serve as a valuable therapeutic tool that, in carefully structured settings, can catalyze neurobiological and psychological processes that support recovery from substance dependencies and the prevention of relapse. Treatment outcomes, however, can be influenced by a number of variables that are explained in this study. In addition, issues related to ritual transfer and strategies for minimizing undesired side-effects are discussed.

  13. The Effect of a Program Using Some Therapeutic Methods to Rehabilitate Patients Suffering from Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad O MAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neck pain is one of the common physical problems of the adults which needs to be taken seriously in order to prevent further health problems. As the daily life of the modern people leads physical in activity, and the use of electronic devices causes imprope r effect on certain parts of the body, specials programs have to be developed as preventive treatment. Therapeutic methods can also be listed through such preventive methods. The purpose of this study was to i dentify the impact of the proposed program usin g some natural methods of treatment for the rehabilitation of people with neck pain , to i dentify the improved range of motion in all directions to the neck area , and also t o identify the extent of improvement in muscle strength for the neck and back. Twelv e patients in Ain Zara Physiotherapy Center and Tripoli Clinic (in Tripoli city were chosen as voluntarily whose age ranged from 30 to 50 years, and the subjects were divided into two groups , as experimental and control groups. This study proved that pro posed therapeutic methods help the treatment of neck pain.

  14. Sustainability of hydrogen supply chain. Part I: Identification of critical criteria and cause–effect analysis for enhancing the sustainability using DEMATEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Toniolo, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The enhancement of sustainability of hydrogen supply chain is of vital importance for the stakeholders/decision-makers to design a sustainable hydrogen supply chain. The objective of this paper is to develop a method for prioritizing the influential factors, identifying the key driving factors...... that influence the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain and mapping the cause–effect relationships to improve the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain. In this paper, thirty seven criteria in four aspects including economic, technological, environmental and societal aspects are considered for enhancing...... the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain, and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory has been used to analyze the relationships among these criteria. The status of hydrogen supply chain in China has been studied by the proposed method, and the results are consistent with the actual conditions. It could...

  15. Andrographolide presents therapeutic effect on ulcerative colitis through the inhibition of IL-23/IL-17 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Zheng, Peifen; Chen, Xinyu; Zhou, Feng; He, Qiaona; Yang, Yuefeng

    2018-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease, which may increase the risk of colon cancer. Andrographolide is a main active component of Andrographis paniculata . The anti-inflammatory ability of andrographolide suggested its potential therapeutic effect against UC. In the present study, elevated serum concentrations of proinflammatory factors, including (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-23, as well as increased percentages of Th17 cells (IL-17+CD4+ cells) in CD4+ cells were detected in UC patients compared to that in healthy donors. These data suggested that Th17 immune responses may involve in the pathogenesis of UC. Experimental colitis mouse model was then established. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated the therapeutic effect of andrographolide on colitis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry and western blotting analyses showed that andrographolide could decreased the levels of proinflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17A in the serum and in the colon tissues, reduced the percentages of Th17 cells in CD4+ cells, and suppressed the levels of IL-23, IL-17A, ROR-γt (key transcription factor of Th17 cells) and p-STAT3 in the colon tissues. Further, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from UC patients and treated with various concentrations of andrographolide (0, 10, 20 and 30 μg/ml). Andrographolide also showed inhibitory effects on the levels of proinflammatory factors, the percentages of Th17 cells and the expression of relative proteins. Similar results were obtained in lipopolysaccharide-treated normal PBMCs. These data suggested that andrographolide may inhibit Th17 immune response via STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited the activity of IL-23/IL-17 axis and down-stream pro-inflammatory factors so as to suppress inflammation response, resulting in the relieving of UC.

  16. Therapeutic effect of cortistatin on experimental arthritis by downregulating inflammatory and Th1 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rey, Elena; Chorny, Alejo; Del Moral, Raimundo G; Varela, Nieves; Delgado, Mario

    2007-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology characterised by chronic inflammation in the joints and subsequent destruction of the cartilage and bone. To propose a new strategy for the treatment of arthritis based on the administration of cortistatin, a newly discovered neuropeptide with anti-inflammatory actions. DBA/1J mice with collagen-induced arthritis were treated with cortistatin after the onset of disease, and the clinical score and joint histopathology were evaluated. Inflammatory response was determined by measuring the levels of various inflammatory mediators (cytokines and chemokines) in joints and serum. T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-mediated autoreactive response was evaluated by determining the proliferative response and cytokine profile of draining lymph node cells stimulated with collagen and by assaying the content of serum autoantibodies. Cortistatin treatment significantly reduced the severity of established collagen-induced arthritis, completely abrogating joint swelling and destruction of cartilage and bone. The therapeutic effect of cortistatin was associated with a striking reduction in the two deleterious components of the disease-that is, the Th1-driven autoimmune and inflammatory responses. Cortistatin downregulated the production of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, decreased the antigen-specific Th1-cell expansion, and induced the production of regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor beta1. Cortistatin exerted its effects on synovial cells through both somatostatin and ghrelin receptors, showing a higher effect than both peptides protecting against experimental arthritis. This work provides a powerful rationale for the assessment of the efficacy of cortistatin as a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. The therapeutic effect of PLAG against oral mucositis in hamster and mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-Reum Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced mucositis can limit the effectiveness of cancer therapy and increase the risk of infections. However, no specific therapy for protection against mucositis is currently available. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol, acetylated diglyceride in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced oral mucositis animal models. Hamsters were administered 5-FU (80 mg/kg intraperitoneally on days 0, 6, and 9. The animals’ cheek pouches were then scratched equally with the tip of an 18-gauge needle on days 1, 2, and 7. PLAG was administered daily at 250 mg/kg/day. PLAG administration significantly reduced 5-FU/scratching–induced mucositis. Dramatic reversal of weight loss in PLAG-treated hamsters with mucositis was observed. Histochemical staining data also revealed newly differentiated epidermis and blood vessels in the cheek pouches of PLAG-treated hamsters, indicative of recovery. Whole blood analyses indicated that PLAG prevents 5-FU–induced excessive neutrophil transmigration to the infection site and eventually stabilizes the number of circulating neutrophils. In a mouse mucositis model, mice with 5-FU–induced disease treated with PLAG exhibited resistance to body-weight loss compared with mice that received 5-FU or 5-FU/scratching alone. PLAG also dramatically reversed mucositis-associated weight loss and inhibited mucositis-induced inflammatory responses in the tongue and serum. These data suggest that PLAG enhances recovery from 5-FU–induced oral mucositis and may therefore be a useful therapeutic agent for treating side effects of chemotherapy, such as mucositis and cachexia.

  18. The therapeutic effect of negative pressure in treating femoral head necrosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin-gang; Wang, Xuezhi; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Miao; Qiu, Yushen; Guo, Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Because negative pressure can stimulate vascular proliferation, improve blood circulation and promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells, we investigated the therapeutic effect of negative pressure on femoral head necrosis (FHN) in a rabbit model. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 60/group): [1] model control, [2] core decompression, [3] negative pressure and [4] normal control groups. Histological investigation revealed that at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, improvements were observed in trabecular bone shape, empty lacunae and numbers of bone marrow hematopoietic cells and fat cells in the negative pressure group compared to the core decompression group. At week 8, there were no significant differences between the negative pressure and normal control groups. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the femoral heads in the negative pressure group compared with the core decompression group. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that cell organelles were further developed in the negative pressure group compared with the core decompression group. Microvascular ink staining revealed an increased number of bone marrow ink-stained blood vessels, a thicker vascular lumen and increased microvascular density in the negative pressure group relative to the core decompression group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that expression levels of both VEGF and BMP-2 were higher in the negative pressure group compared with the core decompression group. In summary, negative pressure has a therapeutic effect on FHN. This effect is superior to core decompression, indicating that negative pressure is a potentially valuable method for treating early FHN.

  19. Effective Disclosure in the Fast-Fashion Industry: from Sustainability Reporting to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Garcia-Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work, set in the context of the apparel industry, proposes an action-oriented disclosure tool to help solve the sustainability challenges of complex fast-fashion supply chains (SCs. In a search for effective disclosure, it focusses on actions towards sustainability instead of the measurements and indicators of its impacts. We applied qualitative and quantitative content analysis to the sustainability reporting of the world’s two largest fast-fashion companies in three phases. First, we searched for the challenges that the organisations report they are currently facing. Second, we introduced the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs framework to overcome the voluntary reporting drawback of ‘choosing what to disclose’, and revealed orphan issues. This broadened the scope from internal corporate challenges to issues impacting the ecosystems in which companies operate. Third, we analysed the reported sustainability actions and decomposed them into topics, instruments, and actors. The results showed that fast-fashion reporting has a broadly developed analysis base, but lacks action orientation. This has led us to propose the ‘Fast-Fashion Sustainability Scorecard’ as a universal disclosure framework that shifts the focus from (i reporting towards action; (ii financial performance towards sustainable value creation; and (iii corporate boundaries towards value creation for the broader SC ecosystem.

  20. Effect of kinase inhibitors on the therapeutic properties of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh Ngoc; Matera, Eva-Laure; Mathé, Doriane; Evesque, Anne; Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Dumontet, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapies of malignancies currently consist of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and small molecule kinase inhibitors. The combination of these novel agents raises the issue of potential antagonisms. We evaluated the potential effect of 4 kinase inhibitors, including the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib, and 3 PI3K inhibitors idelalisib, NVP-BEZ235 and LY294002, on the effects of the 3 monoclonal antibodies, rituximab and obinutuzumab (directed against CD20) and trastuzumab (directed against HER2). We found that ibrutinib potently inhibits antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity exerted by all antibodies, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.2 microM for trastuzumab, 0.5 microM for rituximab and 2 microM for obinutuzumab, suggesting a lesser effect in combination with obinutuzumab than with rituximab. The 4 kinase inhibitors were found to inhibit phagocytosis by fresh human neutrophils, as well as antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis induced by the 3 antibodies. Conversely co-administration of ibrutinib with rituximab, obinutuzumab or trastuzumab did not demonstrate any inhibitory effect of ibrutinib in vivo in murine xenograft models. In conclusion, some kinase inhibitors, in particular, ibrutinib, are likely to exert inhibitory effects on innate immune cells. However, these effects do not compromise the antitumor activity of monoclonal antibodies in vivo in the models that were evaluated.

  1. Sustainable Hydraulic Barrier Design Technologies for Effective Infrastructure Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitral Wijeyesekera Devapriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration of liquids lead to embarrassing post construction scenarios such as that of leaks from roofs, potable water leaking from water tanks/ reservoirs, rising damp in walls with groundwater seeping into basement structures, leakage of water from ornamental lakes and ponds or leachate leakage into the environment from MSW landfill sites. Such failures demand immediate and expensive maintenance. A stringent control on structural and waterproof stability is deemed necessary for long term service life of structures and in particular underground and near surface structures. On a micro scale and over a longer time scale, the phenomenon of rising dampness occurs in older buildings with the groundwater rising up through walls, floors and masonry via capillary action. Even slower rates of contaminant fluid migration occur through landfill base liners. In this paper a variety of hydraulic barrier technologies is critically discussed against a backdrop of relevant case studies. The choice of an appropriate hydraulic barrier technology for a given scenario will depend also on the sustainability, financial affordability and subjective aesthetics.

  2. Manual Therapy, Therapeutic Patient Education, and Therapeutic Exercise, an Effective Multimodal Treatment of Nonspecific Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Alacreu, Hector; López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; La Touche, Roy

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a multimodal treatment in the short and medium term for disability in nonspecific chronic neck pain. The design of this study is a single-blinded randomized controlled trial carried out in a university research laboratory. Forty-five patients between 18 and 65 yrs with nonspecific chronic neck pain were included in this study. Each patient was treated eight times over a 4-wk period. The sample was divided into three groups: control group, subjected to a protocol of manual therapy; experimental group 1, subjected to a protocol of manual therapy and therapeutic patient education; and experimental group 2, subjected to manual therapy, therapeutic patient education, and a therapeutic exercise protocol. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 4, 8, and 16 wks using the following measurements: the Neck Disability Index, the 11-item Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, the Neck Flexor Muscle Endurance Test, and the Visual Analog Fatigue Scale. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test for the Neck Disability Index showed statistically significant differences between baseline outcomes and all follow-up periods (P Kruskal-Wallis test, differences were found for the Visual Analog Fatigue Scale and the Neck Flexor Muscle Endurance Test in the follow-ups at 8 and 16 wks (P < 0.05). Analysis of variance for group × time interaction showed statistically significant changes (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, F = 3.613, P = 0.005; Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, F = 2.803, P = 0.022). Minimal detectable changes were obtained in both experimental groups for the 11-item Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia but not in the control group. Differences between experimental groups and the control group were found in the short and medium term. A multimodal treatment is a good method for reducing disability in patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain in the short and medium term.

  3. A narrative literature review of the therapeutic effects of music upon childbearing women and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins Martin, Caroline J

    2014-11-01

    Therapeutic effects of music are well recognised within the literature, with benefits for a variety of health problems documented. This narrative review summarises benefits in terms of reducing stress, anxiety, labour pain and depression in childbearing women. For neonates, music has been shown to reduce number of days to discharge, reduce pain response behaviours, increase weight gain, improve Brazelton scores, improve parent/infant intimacy, improve oxygen saturation, increase formula intake, stabilize vital signs and increase parental reports of calmed infants. The main criticism of the studies reviewed is lack of categorisation of the particulars of the variables within the music that directly influenced outcome variables. A recommendation is made that a music package be developed and relationships with variables rigorously evaluated. The validated product may then be made available for use. Since evidence supports advantages from listening to music, it is suggested that maternity professionals use it in more creative ways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Therapeutic Effect of Zuogui Wan in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qianjin; Niu, Xin; Liu, Xinshe; Xu, Kaixia; Yang, Xiangzhu; Wang, Huifeng

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment, we established an animal model of gestational diabetes mellitus rats using streptozotocin. Using the rat model of GDM, the pregnant rats in 1-19d were divided into three groups: (1) Zuogui Wan gestational diabetes mellitus group (group I, n = 12), (2) gestational diabetes mellitus rats as the control group (group II, n = 11), and (3) rats of normal pregnancy group (group III, n = 11). Compared with gestational diabetes mellitus rats as the control group, Zuogui Wan can change the indexes of fasting blood glucose, body weight, total cholesterol, insulin, and metabolism cage index significantly in Zuogui Wan gestational diabetes mellitus group. We can conclude that Zuogui Wan has the therapeutic effect on gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:25136475

  5. Prophylactic and therapeutic effect of Punica granatum in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid induced inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Afroz, Syeda; Mallick, Neelam

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L., Punicaceae) contains varieties of antioxidants and phytochemicals; there are evidences that phytochemicals and antioxidants play a vital role in reducing inflammation. Hence this investigation was planned to assess the outcome of Punica granatum on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid provoked colitis in rats at 2, 5 and 8ml/kg of the body weight. The effect of P. granatum was assessed in two group i.e. prophylaxis as pre-colitis and therapeutic as post-colitis. After completion of dosing in both the groups, macroscopic and histological examination of colon was carried out along with estimation of serum myeloperoxidase, glutathione, alkaline phosphate, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein. In prophylactic procedure P. granatum revealed significant (Pgranatum have a role in prevention as well as treatment of inflammation.

  6. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL TREATMENT WITH JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Andrés-Pueyo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several treatment evaluations have highlighted the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural programmes with both youth and adult offenders. This paper describes the application and assessment of a cognitive-behavioural treatment (adapted to Spanish from Ross and Fabiano’s Reasoning & Rehabilitation Programme with juvenile offenders serving community orders in an educational measure called in Spanish ‘libertad vigilada’ (similar to parole. The intervention comprised six different therapeutic components: self-control, cognitive restructuring, problem solving, social skills/assertiveness, values/empathy, and relapse prevention. Treatment effectiveness was tested using a quasi-experimental design involving two groups and pre/post evaluation. The results show that the programme was effective (with low to moderate effect sizes in improving participants’ social skills and self-esteem, as well as in reducing their aggressiveness. However, the intervention had no positive influence on empathy, cognitive distortions or impulsiveness. These results are in line with those of many other correctional studies, in which the treatment applied had a significant but partial effect on participants.

  7. Melatonin effects on Plasmodium life cycle: new avenues for therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Venkataramanujam; Ahmad, Asma H; Mohamed, Mahaneem; Zakaria, Rahimah

    2012-05-01

    Malaria remains a global health problem affecting more than 515 million people all over the world including Malaysia. It is on the rise, even within unknown regions that previous to this were free of malaria. Although malaria eradication programs carried out by vector control programs are still effective, anti-malarial drugs are also used extensively for curtailing this disease. But resistance to the use of anti-malarial drugs is also increasing on a daily basis. With an increased understanding of mechanisms that cause growth, differentiation and development of malarial parasites in rodents and humans, new avenues of therapeutic approaches for controlling the growth, synchronization and development of malarial parasites are essential. Within this context, the recent discoveries related to IP3 interconnected signalling pathways, the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores of Plasmodium, ubiquitin protease systems as a signalling pathway, and melatonin influencing the growth and differentiation of malarial parasites by its effects on these signalling pathways have opened new therapeutic avenues for arresting the growth and differentiation of malarial parasites. Indeed, the use of melatonin antagonist, luzindole, has inhibited the melatonin's effect on these signalling pathways and thereby has effectively reduced the growth and differentiation of malarial parasites. As Plasmodium has effective sensors which detect the nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations, suppression of plasma melatonin levels with the use of bright light during the night or by anti-melatonergic drugs and by using anti-kinase drugs will help in eradicating malaria on a global level. A number of patients have been admitted with regards to the control and management of malarial growth. Patents related to the discovery of serpentine receptors on Plasmodium, essential for modulating intra parasitic melatonin levels, procedures for effective delivery of bright light to suppress plasma melatonin

  8. Study of the therapeutic dose and the clinical effect on Graves' disease with I-131 treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Graves' disease is being treated with I-131 for more than 40 years in China. Previously the dose of I-131 used to be calculated using the 'Quimby' formula. We have now observed that the dose of I-131 administered to patients is now lower in recent years than the early years. The radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid gland has also changed significantly over a period of time. In this paper we intend to explore these reasons and to research the relationship between the dose and the effect as well as the main cause of the incidence of the hypothyroidism. The parameters in 'Quimby' formula including I-131 uptake, effective half-life and thyroid weight were analyzed and compared with each year data from 1961 to 1988 and subjected to multiple regression analysis to determine the influence on the calculation of dose in 4465 patients. The therapeutic effects were compared with the data of the clinical follow-up of patients between 1961-1973 and 1978-1988 in 748 patients. The factors which might lead to the hypothyroidism were investigated with the non-condition logistic regression. The I-131 uptake was repeatedly measured within one week in 100 patients to identify the changing pattern of the I-131 uptake and its influence on the administered therapeutic dose. We observed an increase in the value of I-131 uptake. The value of I-131 uptake showed an increase after 1977, as well as a prolongation of effective half-life after 1973. The main reason for these changes being a replacement of the equipment in 1977 (G-M counter tube was replaced by scintillation counter), and the other reason being salt iodization in China in 1973. These two factors resulted in a significant reduction in the administered dose of I-131 during the period 1974-1988 as compared to the previous period 1961-1973; the mean administered doses being 168.35MBq and 330.33MBq respectively. The result of multiple regression analyses suggested that the thyroid weight and the effective half

  9. Molecular Consortia—Various Structural and Synthetic Concepts for More Effective Therapeutics Synthesis

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    Anna Pawełczyk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The design and discovery of novel drug candidates are the initial and most probably the crucial steps in the drug development process. One of the tasks of medicinal chemistry is to produce new molecules that have a desired biological effect. However, even today the search for new pharmaceuticals is a very complicated process that is hard to rationalize. Literature provides many scientific reports on future prospects of design of potentially useful drugs. Many trends have been proposed for the design of new drugs containing different structures (dimers, heterodimers, heteromers, adducts, associates, complexes, biooligomers, dendrimers, dual-, bivalent-, multifunction drugs and codrugs, identical or non-identical twin drugs, mixed or combo drugs, supramolecular particles and various nanoindividuals. Recently much attention has been paid to different strategies of molecular hybridization. In this paper, various molecular combinations were described e.g., drug–drug or drug-non-drug combinations which are expressed in a schematic multi-factor form called a molecular matrix, consisting of four factors: association mode, connection method, and the number of elements and linkers. One of the most popular trends is to create small–small molecule combinations such as different hybrids, codrugs, drug–drug conjugates (DDCs and small-large molecule combinations such as antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs, polymer-drug conjugates (PDCs or different prodrugs and macromolecular therapeutics. A review of the structural possibilities of active framework combinations indicates that a wide range of potentially effective novel-type compounds can be formed. What is particularly important is that new therapeutics can be obtained in fast, efficient, and selective methods using current trends in chemical synthesis and the design of drugs such as the “Lego” concept or rational green approach.

  10. Therapeutic effect of Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 1190-fermented milk on chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Cecilia; Medici, Marta; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2010-04-07

    To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus) CRL 1190 fermented milk on chronic gastritis in Balb/c mice. Balb/c mice were fed with the fermented milk for 7 d after inducing gastritis with acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA, 400 mg/kg body weight per day for 10 d). Omeprazole was included in this study as a positive therapeutic control. The gastric inflammatory activity was evaluated from gastric histology and inflammation score, number of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-gamma (INFgamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) cytokine-producing cells in the gastric mucosa, and thickness of the mucus layer. Animals receiving treatment with the EPS-producing S. thermophilus CRL 1190 fermented milk showed a conserved gastric mucosa structure similar to that of healthy animals. Inflammation scores of the fermented milk-treated mice were lower than those of mice in the gastritis group (0.2 + or - 0.03 vs 2.0 + or - 0.6, P mucus gel layer (2.2 + or - 0.6 vs 1.0 + or - 0.3; 5.1 + or - 0.8 vs 1.5 + or - 0.4 in the corpus and antrum mucosa, respectively, P milk suspension of the purified EPS from S. thermophilus CRL1190 was also effective as therapy for gastritis. This study suggests that fermented milk with S. thermophilus CRL 1190 and/or its EPS could be used in novel functional foods as an alternative natural therapy for chronic gastritis induced by ASA.

  11. Assessment of therapeutic effect in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism using bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaida, Hayato; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Baba, Kenkichi; Okuda, Seiya; Hayabuchi, Naofumi; Nishida, Hidemi; Hiromatsu, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    The semi-quantitative method of bone scintigraphy [bone to soft tissue (B/ST) ratio] has been used in diagnosing and evaluating systemic metabolic bone diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate of the therapeutic effect of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHP). The subjects were ten hemodialysis patients with SHP. Seven patients underwent parathyroidectomy (PTX), and 22-Oxacalcitoriol (derivative of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 ) (OCT) was given to three patients. Bone scintigraphy and blood tests [intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and deoxypridinoline (DPYD)] were performed before and after treatment. Regions of interest were drown around cranium, lumbar vertebrae, femoral neck and soft tissue of left medial thigh to calculate the B/ST ratio. The B/ST ratios of cranium, lumbar vertebrae, and femoral neck were reduced significantly after PTX (cranium, p=0.0079, lumbar vertebrae, p=0.0282, femoral neck, p=0.0252). Intact PTH, ALP, Ca, P, BALP and DPYD levels were reduced significantly after PTX (intact PTH, p=0.003, Ca, p=0.0005, P, p=0.0393, ALP, p=0.005 1, DPYD, p=0.0232, BALP, p=0.0324). After OCT administration, the B/ST ratio of each bony region showed tendency to diminish, although not significantly. Intact PTH levels were reduced significantly, although ALP, BALP, and DPYD levels were not. Ca and P levels were increased significantly because of the medicinal action of OCT. The B/ST ratio of cranium may be non-invasive method and have potential in evaluating the therapeutic effect of SHP. (author)

  12. The Effect of Therapeutic Clowning on Handwashing Technique and Microbial Colonization in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arıkan, Duygu; Gürarslan Baş, Nazan; Kurudirek, Fatma; Baştopcu, Ayşe; Uslu, Hakan

    2018-05-15

    This study aimed to determine the effect of therapeutic clowning on handwashing technique and microbial colonization in preschool children. This randomized controlled trial was conducted using pre-test and post-test experimental and control groups. The study was conducted between March and June 2016 in two kindergartens in eastern Turkey. The study was completed with a total of 195 students, including 90 students in the experimental group and 105 students in the control group. A questionnaire was used for data collection. This questionnaire included sections about the subjects' descriptive characteristics and the results of the bacterial cultures of their hand swabs. For the collection of these swabs, the subjects were informed in advance, and samples were collected at predetermined times. The swabs were analyzed to determine the bacterial colonization of the subjects' hands. Clowns and video activities were used as intervention tools in the study. In the post-test, the microbial growth was ≤10 3 in 68.9% and >10 3 in 31.1% of the subjects in the experimental group. In contrast, the growth was ≤10 3 in 34.3% and >10 3 in 65.7% of the control group subjects. The difference in the post-test microbial growths of the two groups was statistically significant (p < .000). The hygienic handwashing technique taught in the therapeutic clowning and videos reduced the bacterial colonization on the preschool children's hands by 50%. Moreover, this method was effective in reducing the growth rate of coliform bacteria that indicate undesirable, poor hygiene of the hands. Considering these results, we recommend that pediatric healthcare professionals use entertaining methods such as those involving clowns to teach and guide children regarding hygienic handwashing techniques. © 2018 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Effect of yogic education system and modern education system on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, R; Nagendra, H R; Bhatt, Ramachandra

    2009-01-01

    Sustained attention is a vital function mediated by the right frontoparietal cortex. The Six Letter Cancellation Task (SLCT) measures sustained attention. Development of sustained attention in a yoga-based education system compared to a modern one is the theme of the present study. To compare the effectiveness of the Modern Education System (MES) and the Gurukula Education System (GES) in developing sustained attention. Forty nine boys (11-13 years) were selected from two residential schools, one MES and the other GES, providing similar ambiance and daily routines. The boys were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The GES educational program is based around integrated yoga modules while the MES provides a conventional modern education program. Sustained attention was assessed using the SLCT at the start and end of an academic year. Within groups, the pre-post test differences were significant for both groups. However, the between groups result showed improvement in the GES group compared to the MES group at a P < 0.001 significance level. The study suggests that both MES and GES improve sustained attention in school boys, but GES is more effective.

  14. Meta-analysis of the Effectiveness of Educational and Therapeutic Interventions on the Four Classes of Learning Disorders

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    Javad Mesrabadi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Learning disorders is one of the most common problems of students, which attracted the attention of many psychologists and many studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of various interventions on different classes of learning disorder. The present study aimed to conclude general conclusions about the effectiveness of various educational and therapeutic interventions and the discovery of possible moderating variables. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve the research purpose by using meta-analysis method, quantitative results of 128 selected researches which were obtained according to the criteria for entering and leaving and using keywords were used. In total, 623 primary effect sizes were obtained and analyzed by using CMA2 software. Results: The results of the analysis showed that amount of combined effect size of the educational and therapeutic interventions on learning disorders was 1.13, and after dividing into multiple predecessor and consequence variables, the amounts of the combined effect size for educational interventions and therapeutic interventions for overall class of learning disabilities were respectively 0.74 and 1.26, for reading disorder 0.87 and 1.01, for writing disorder 1.20 and 1.22, and for mathematical disorder 1.29 and 1.26 that all of these effects size were significant (p≤0.001. Also, the results of independent t-test showed that the difference in the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions on reading disorder and educational interventions on mathematical disorder is significant (p≤0.001. Conclusion: Based on the size of the effects obtained, it can be said that educational and therapeutic interventions have a very high effect on learning disabilities, and the use of therapeutic interventions for reading disorder and educational interventions for mathematical disorder is more effective.

  15. The nerve protection and in vivo therapeutic effect of Acalypha indica extract in frogs

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    Ernie H. Purwaningsih

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To demonstrate nerve protection and/or treatment effect of Acalypha indica Linn. extract on nerve paralysis induced by subcutaneus injection of pancuronium bromide on frog’s back.Methods The study was performed on sixty frogs (Bufo melanostictus Schneider that divided into two groups, i.e. the neuro-protection and neuro-therapy group. Each group was divided further into 6 sub-treatment groups: negative control group treated by water and positive control group treated by piracetam, treatment groups received the extracts 200, 300, 400, 500 mg/kgBW. Pancuronium bromide 0.2% (1 : 20 dilutions were injected subcutaneously as muscle relaxant. The protective effect was studied by giving the extract orally, 1 hour prior to injection; while the therapeutic effect of the extract was studied by 10 minute treatment after injecting pancuronium bromide solution. The parameters measured were the onset and duration of paralysis (in minutes and the recovery time (time needed to recover into normal condition.Results The study showed significantly different protective effect of Acalypha indica Linn. root water extract at 400 and 500 mg/KgBW compared to negative control group and positive control group (piracetam (p < 0.05; while the therapeutic effect was obvious at the dose 200-500 mg/KgBW compared to negative control group (p = 0.000. There was no significant difference compared to positive control group (piracetam, except at 300 mg/KgBW (p = 0.012.Conclusion These results have proven that the water extract of Acalypha indica Linn. root has comparable protective and treatment effect on nerves system, as piracetam, but further studies should be performed to provide more evidences particularly pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on two animal models that commonly used. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:96-102Keywords: Acalypha indica Linn, Bufo melanostictus Schneider, nerve-protection

  16. Therapeutic Effect of Vitex Agnus Castus in Patients with Premenstrual Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadat Torabian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical therapies have been widely used for premenstrual syndrome (PMS, but in all of them side effects are predominant. Herbal remedies rarely have side effects and people have more tendencies toward them than chemical therapies. In this study the therapeutic effect of Vitexagnuscastus on women who had the PMS, in comparison with placebo, were investigated. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, from134 selected patients 128 women suffered from PMS were evaluated (active 62, placebo 66.All patients answered to a self assessment questionnaire about their headache, anger, irritability, depression, breast fullness and bloating and tympani during the premenstrual period before the study. Forty drops of Vitexagnus extract or matching placebo, administrated for 6 days before mensesfor 6 consecutive cycles. Patients answered the self-assessment questionnaires after 6 menstrual cycles, again. Each item rated using a visual analogue scale (VAS. The mean age was 30.77 (SD=4.37 years in the active group and 30.89 (SD=4.02 years in the placebo group.Rank of variables had significantly difference in active and placebo group before and after the study (P<0.0001also we noticed significant differences on the use of VitexAgnus in comparison with placebo (P<0.0001.Vitexagnus can be considered as an effective and well tolerated treatment for the relief of symptoms of mild and moderate PMS.

  17. Therapeutic effect of Vitex agnus castus in patients with premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Mehrangiz; Neghab, Nosrat; Torabian, Saadat

    2012-01-01

    Medical therapies have been widely used for premenstrual syndrome (PMS), but in all of them side effects are predominant. Herbal remedies rarely have side effects and people have more tendencies toward them than chemical therapies. In this study the therapeutic effect of Vitex agnus castus on women who had the PMS, in comparison with placebo, were investigated. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, from 134 selected patients 128 women suffered from PMS were evaluated (active 62, placebo 66). All patients answered to a self assessment questionnaire about their headache, anger, irritability, depression, breast fullness and bloating and tympani during the premenstrual period before the study. Forty drops of Vitex agnus extract or matching placebo, administrated for 6 days before menses for 6 consecutive cycles. Patients answered the self-assessment questionnaires after 6 menstrual cycles, again. Each item rated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The mean age was 30.77 (SD=4.37) years in the active group and 30.89 (SD=4.02) years in the placebo group.Rank of variables had significantly difference in active and placebo group before and after the study (PVitex agnus in comparison with placebo (PVitex agnus can be considered as an effective and well tolerated treatment for the relief of symptoms of mild and moderate PMS.

  18. Determinants of Sustainability and Organisational Effectiveness in Non-Profit Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigates the criteria for organizational effectiveness in non-profit organizations (NPOs with the aim to determine how the elements of sustainability fit within the criteria. To achieve this, the study utilized the research questions: “what criteria do NPOs use to evaluate their effectiveness?” and “how is sustainability embedded in NPO effectiveness?” The research design was interpretivist, adopting focus group interviews to obtain data. Specifically, two focus group interviews were held with the top management of an NPO which revealed that both financial and non-financial criteria were equally essential for NPO effectiveness. This finding is consistent with the literature, although it contradicts the initial assumption of the study that NPO effectiveness was based more on non-financial criteria than financial criteria. The study also found that the effectiveness of an NPO should be viewed in two ways: firstly, “the full achievement of its mandate” and, secondly, “the ability to run business projects to cover cost.” It also emerged that both the ability to cover costs and the achievement of a mandate should be done in a sustainable manner (a sustainable manner is seen as one that is harmonious with the natural and the socio-political environment. The results of this paper present a practical case for the management of NPOs by reiterating that the full achievement of the NPO mandate and the successful running of social projects to generate funds for sustainability are key elements of effectiveness. Given the essential role that NPOs play in developing countries, this study has provided the foundation for more widespread enquiry into the sustainability and effectiveness of NPOs.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic-therapeutic strategies for paediatric visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sergi; Tachfouti, Nabil; Najdi, Adil; Sicuri, Elisa; Picado, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease with a high fatality rate if left untreated. Endemic in Morocco, as well as in other countries in the Mediterranean basin, VL mainly affects children living in rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow (BM) aspirates is used to diagnose VL and meglumine antimoniate (SB) is the first line of treatment. Less invasive, more efficacious and safer alternatives exist. In this study we estimate the cost-effectiveness of alternative diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms for paediatric VL in Morocco. A decision tree was used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of using BM or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as diagnostic tools and/or SB or two liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) regimens: 6-day and 2-day courses to treat VL. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, expressed as cost per death averted, were estimated by comparing costs and effectiveness of the alternative algorithms. A threshold analysis evaluated at which price L-AmB became cost-effective compared with current practices. Implementing RDT and/or L-AmB treatments would be cost-effective in Morocco according to the WHO thresholds. Introducing the 6-day course L-AmB, current second-line treatment, would be highly cost-effective if L-AmB price was below US$100/phial. The 2-day L-AmB treatment, current standard treatment of paediatric VL in France, is highly cost-effective, with L-AmB at its market price (US$165/phial). The results of this study should encourage the implementation of RDT and/or short-course L-AmB treatments for paediatric VL management in Morocco and other North African countries.

  20. [Therapeutic effects on ovulation and reproduction promotion with acupuncture and clomiphene in polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liqing; Cao, Lianying; Xie, Jing; Shi, Yin

    2018-03-12

    To compare the difference in the therapeutic effects on ovulation disorder in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) between the combined therapy of electroacupuncture and clomiphene and the single medication of clomiphene and to explore the effect mechanism. A total of 80 patients of PCOS were randomized into an acupuncture plus medication group (40 cases) and a medication group (40 cases). In the medication group, since the 5th day of menstruation or medicine-withdrawal bleeding, clomiphene was prescribed for oral administration, continuously for 5 days. In the acupuncture plus medication group, the medication was the same as the medication group. Additionally, 30 min electroacupuncture (continuous wave, 2 Hz) was applied to Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), Zigong (EX-CA 1), Dahe (KI 12), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zhongji (CV 3), Diji (SP 8), Shenshu (BL 23), Sanjiaoshu (BL 22) and Ciliao (BL 32), etc. The treatment started on the 5th day of menstruation or medicine-withdrawal bleeding, once every two days, 3 times a week. One cycle of menstruation or 1 month was taken as one course. The treatment cycles were 3 months in the two groups. The level of estradiol (E 2 ) and progesterone (P) in the serum, the endometrial thickness and morphology, ovulation rate and clinical pregnancy rate, as well as the clinical therapeutic effects were compared after treatment in the two groups. Two cases were dropped out because the herbal medicine was taken simultaneously in the acupuncture plus medication group. In the medication group, the medication was discontinued in 3 cases due to gastrointestinal adverse reactions. The total effective rate was 86.8% (33/38) in the acupuncture plus medication group, better than 64.9% (24/37) in the medication group ( P medication group was higher than that in the medication group [(86.8%, 33/38) vs (64.9% 24/37), P medication group was higher than the medication group in tendency, without significant difference [21.1% (8/38) vs 16.2% (6/37), P >0

  1. Empirical Study on the Indicators of Sustainable Performance – the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard, Effect of Strategic Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Radu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable organizational change has an ever increasing importance, leading to the rethinking of the management and systems of performance measurement and monitoring within the companies. As a reaction to current economic phenomena, in the first section of this work we tried to bring out the need for using the couple Balanced Scorecard - Corporate Social Responsibility by companies. Thus, companies involved in sustainable actions must grant a great importance to the impact of environmental, social and economic factors in providing added value, informing the interested parties and reflecting the reporting of sustainable performance. As a consequence, in the second part of the work we present the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard for the implementation of efficient strategies which cumulate the economic, social and environmental aspects as integrating system for sustainable performance and as a new challenge for organizational change. The key performance indicators included in the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard are quantified by the indicators of sustainable development, based on which the empirical research described in the third section of the work was achieved. Through the quantitative analysis of the economic and ecological indicators (Gross Domestic Product per capita, respective, Environmental Performance Index in correlation with the social indicator (Global Competitive Index, we conclude that the implementation of green strategies by companies leads to sustainable economic growth.

  2. Functional electrical stimulation and ankle foot orthoses provide equivalent therapeutic effects on foot drop: A meta-analysis providing direction for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Prenton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the randomized controlled trial evidence for therapeutic effects on walking of functional electrical stimulation and ankle foot orthoses for foot drop caused by central nervous system conditions. Data sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, REHABDATA, PEDro, NIHR Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Scopus and clinicaltrials.gov. Study selection: One reviewer screened titles/abstracts. Two independent reviewers then screened the full articles. Data extraction: One reviewer extracted data, another screened for accuracy. Risk of bias was assessed by 2 independent reviewers using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Data synthesis: Eight papers were eligible; 7 involving participants with stroke and 1 involving participants with cerebral palsy. Two papes reporting different measures from the same trial were grouped, resulting in 7 synthesized randomized controlled trials (n= 464. Meta-analysis of walking speed at final assessment (p = 0.46, for stroke participants (p = 0.54 and after 4–6 weeks’ use (p = 0.49 showed equal improvement for both devices. Conclusion: Functional electrical stimulation and ankle foot orthoses have an equally positive therapeutic effect on walking speed in non-progressive central nervous system diagnoses. The current randomized controlled trial evidence base does not show whether this improvement translates into the user’s own environment or reveal the mechanisms that achieve that change. Future studies should focus on measuring activity, muscle activity and gait kinematics. They should also report specific device details, capture sustained therapeutic effects and involve a variety of central nervous system diagnoses.

  3. Using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling as a tool for prediction of therapeutic effective plasma levels of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christina Kurre; Brennum, Lise Tøttrup; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2008-01-01

    response behaviour correlates well with the relationship between human dopamine D2 receptor occupancy and clinical effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) predictions of therapeutic effective steady-state plasma levels by means of conditioned...... the rat dopamine D2 receptor occupancy levels providing 50% response in the conditioned avoidance response test and the dopamine D2 receptor occupancy levels reported from responding schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotics. Predictions of therapeutically effective steady-state levels...... for sertindole (+dehydrosertindole) and olanzapine were 3-4-fold too high whereas for haloperidol, clozapine and risperidone the predicted steady-state EC50 in conditioned avoidance responding rats correlated well with the therapeutically effective plasma levels observed in patients. Accordingly, the proposed PK...

  4. The Role of Mediators in the Indirect Effects of Religiosity on Therapeutic Compliance in African Migrant HIV-Positive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambet Doue, Constance; Roussiau, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    This research investigates the indirect effects of religiosity (practice and belief) on therapeutic compliance in 81 HIV-positive patients who are migrants from sub-Saharan Africa (23 men and 58 women). Using analyses of mediation and standard multiple regression, including a resampling procedure by bootstrapping, the role of these mediators (magical-religious beliefs and nonuse of toxic substances) was tested. The results show that, through magical-religious beliefs, religiosity has a negative indirect effect, while with the nonuse of toxic substances, religious practice has a positive indirect effect. Beyond religiosity, the role of mediators is highlighted in the interaction with therapeutic compliance.

  5. Therapeutic effects of the joint administration of magnesium aspartate and adenosine monophosphate in gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Pipalova, I.; Kozubik, A.

    1990-01-01

    The joint administration of magnesium aspartate and adenosine monophosphate, injected on days 1 to 4 post radiation, has been found to exert stimulatory effects on the recovery of hemopoietic functions in sublethally gamma-irradiated mice. These therapeutical effects were enhanced in animals protected by peroral administration of cystamine. The treatment scheme used did not modify survival of lethally irradiated mice. The therapeutic effects of magnesium aspartate and adenosine monophosphate in sublethally irradiated mice are explained by the stimulatory action of these drugs on the cell adenylate cyclase system, which influences the erythropoietic functions. (author)

  6. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Lipoic Acid on Memory Deficits Related to Aging and Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Molz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aging process comprises a series of organic alterations, affecting multiple systems, including the nervous system. Aging has been considered the main risk factor for the advance of neurodegenerative diseases, many of which are accompanied by cognitive impairment. Aged individuals show cognitive decline, which has been associated with oxidative stress, as well as mitochondrial, and consequently energetic failure. Lipoic acid (LA, a natural compound present in food and used as a dietary supplement, has been considered a promising agent for the treatment and/or prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. In spite of a number of preclinical studies showing beneficial effects of LA in memory functioning, and pointing to its neuroprotective potential effect, to date only a few studies have examined its effects in humans. Investigations performed in animal models of memory loss associated to aging and neurodegenerative disorders have shown that LA improves memory in a variety of behavioral paradigms. Moreover, cell and molecular mechanisms underlying LA effects have also been investigated. Accordingly, LA displays antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory properties in both in vivo and in vitro studies. In addition, it has been shown that LA reverses age-associated loss of neurotransmitters and their receptors, which can underlie its effects on cognitive functions. The present review article aimed at summarizing and discussing the main studies investigating the effects of LA on cognition as well as its cell and molecular effects, in order to improve the understanding of the therapeutic potential of LA on memory loss during aging and in patients suffering from neurodegenerative disorders, supporting the development of clinical trials with LA.

  7. Stem cells in degenerative orthopaedic pathologies: effects of aging on therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc; Fu, Freddie H; Sekiya, Ichiro; Stolzing, Alexandra; Ochi, Mitsuo; Rodeo, Scott A

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the current evidence on the use of stem cells in the elderly population with degenerative orthopaedic pathologies and to highlight the pathophysiologic mechanisms behind today's therapeutic challenges in stem cell-based regeneration of destructed tissues in the elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA), degenerative disc disease (DDD), and tendinopathies. Clinical and basic science studies that report the use of stem cells in the elderly patients with OA, DDD, and tendinopathies were identified using a PubMed search. The studies published in English have been assessed, and the best and most recent evidence was included in the current study. Evidence suggests that, although short-term results regarding the effects of stem cell therapy in degenerative orthopaedic pathologies can be promising, stem cell therapies do not appear to reverse age-related tissue degeneration. Causes of suboptimal outcomes can be attributed to the decrease in the therapeutic potential of aged stem cell populations and the regenerative capacity of these cells, which might be negatively influenced in an aged microenvironment within the degenerated tissues of elderly patients with OA, DDD, and tendinopathies. Clinical protocols guiding the use of stem cells in the elderly patient population are still under development, and high-level randomized controlled trials with long-term outcomes are lacking. Understanding the consequences of age-related changes in stem cell function and responsiveness of the in vivo microenvironment to stem cells is critical when designing cell-based therapies for elderly patients with degenerative orthopaedic pathologies.

  8. Natural and synthetic retinoids afford therapeutic effects on intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Hideaki; Hijioka, Masanori; Hisatsune, Akinori; Isohama, Yoichiro; Shudo, Koichi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2012-05-15

    We have recently proposed that retinoic acid receptor (NR1B) is a promising target of neuroprotective therapy for intracerebral hemorrhage, since pretreatment of mice with an NR1B1/NR1B2 agonist Am80 attenuated various pathological and neurological abnormalities associated with the disease. In the present study we further addressed the effects of retinoids as potential therapeutic drugs, using a collagenase-induced model of intracerebral hemorrhage. Daily oral administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 5 and 15 mg/kg), a naturally occurring NR1B agonist, from 1 day before collagenase injection significantly inhibited loss of neurons within the hematoma. ATRA in the same treatment regimen also decreased the number of activated microglia/macrophages around the hematoma but did not affect the hematoma volume. ATRA (15 mg/kg) as well as Am80 (5mg/kg) rescued neurons in the central region of hematoma, even when drug administration was started from 6h after induction of intracerebral hemorrhage. However, in this post-treatment regimen, only Am80 significantly decreased the number of activated microglia/macrophages. With regard to neurological deficits, both ATRA (15 mg/kg) and Am80 (5mg/kg) given in the post-treatment regimen improved performance of mice in the beam-walking test and the modified limb-placing test. ATRA and Am80 also significantly attenuated damage of axon tracts as revealed by amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemistry. These results underscore potential therapeutic values of NR1B agonists for intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustaining Engagement and Interest in the Classroom: Effects of the EngageALL Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes an empirical study that tests the motivational and learning effects of an intervention designed to initiate and sustain interest and engagement in high school biology classrooms. Positive effects were demonstrated for conceptual understanding, vocabulary acquisition, and perceptions of the learning experiences. [This article…

  10. Short Intervention, Sustained Effects: Promoting Students’ Math Competence Beliefs, Effort, and Achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brisson, Brigitte Maria; Dicke, Anna Lena; Gaspard, Hanna; Häfner, Isabelle; Flunger, Barbara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412516322; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of two short relevance interventions (writing a text or evaluating quotations about the utility of mathematics) using a sample of 1,916 students in 82 math classrooms in a cluster randomized controlled experiment. Short-term and sustained effects (6

  11. Effect of Corrupt Behavior of the Forestry Bureaucrats on the Forest Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This article show that corrupt bureaucrats do not always result in a negative effect on the forest sustainability. Even under a certain condition, a corrupt behavior may result in a positive effect on the forest sustainability. An inappropriate policy is more important a cause of the forest sustainability than a corrupt behavior. Therefore, fixing this structural mistake needs to be prioritized in combating the forest destruction, for this structural mistake is the real primary cause of the forest destruction in Indonesia. Fixing this structural mistake is much more effective in combating the forest destruction than finding honest bureaucrats. Keywords:     Birokrat, Distortionary, Nondistortionary, Kelestarian, Korup. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  12. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for intravertebral cleft: analysis of therapeutic effects and outcome predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeo Ju [Inha University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Incheon (Korea); Lee, Joon Woo; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Kim, Ki-Jeong; Chung, Sang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Park, Jeong Mi [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    To investigate the short-term therapeutic effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for intravertebral cleft (IVC) and to analyze possible outcome predictors. After retrospective review of spot radiographs during PVP, 23 patients were included in this study. Age, sex, symptom duration, functional status, injected cement volume, and type of approach were evaluated using patients' medical and operative records. The following factors were analyzed on radiographs, MRI, dual bone densitometry, spot radiographs during PVP, and CT: anatomical location of the fracture, bone mineral density, morphology of the fracture, IVC morphology, presence of surrounding non-enhanced area and bone marrow edema, degeneration of adjacent discs, co-existing old compression fractures, patterns of cement opacification, pre-procedural kyphosis, and post-procedural kyphosis correction. Effectiveness was defined as a much-improved state or no pain after 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months. Statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between those factors and therapeutic outcome using Fisher's exact test, Chi-squared test, and the Mann-Whitney U test. Percutaneous vertebroplasty of IVC was effective in 16 out of 23 (69.6%) patients after 1 week and 1 month and 15 out of 23 (65.2%) patients after 2 months. Post-procedural kyphosis correction {>=}5 and poor functional status (full dependency) were more common in the ineffective group after 1 week and 2 months respectively (P = 0.047, P = 0.02). Kyphotic correction {>=}5 was related to pre-procedural kyphosis {>=}15 (P = 0.018). Functional status was related to subsequent fracture (P = 0.005). Other factors were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Percutaneous vertebroplasty on osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF) with IVC was effective in only about 69.6% of patients after the first week and month and in 65.2% of patients after 2 months. Post-procedural kyphosis correction {>=}5 was associated with

  13. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for intravertebral cleft: analysis of therapeutic effects and outcome predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeo Ju; Lee, Joon Woo; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Chung, Sang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Jib; Park, Jeong Mi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the short-term therapeutic effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for intravertebral cleft (IVC) and to analyze possible outcome predictors. After retrospective review of spot radiographs during PVP, 23 patients were included in this study. Age, sex, symptom duration, functional status, injected cement volume, and type of approach were evaluated using patients' medical and operative records. The following factors were analyzed on radiographs, MRI, dual bone densitometry, spot radiographs during PVP, and CT: anatomical location of the fracture, bone mineral density, morphology of the fracture, IVC morphology, presence of surrounding non-enhanced area and bone marrow edema, degeneration of adjacent discs, co-existing old compression fractures, patterns of cement opacification, pre-procedural kyphosis, and post-procedural kyphosis correction. Effectiveness was defined as a much-improved state or no pain after 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months. Statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between those factors and therapeutic outcome using Fisher's exact test, Chi-squared test, and the Mann-Whitney U test. Percutaneous vertebroplasty of IVC was effective in 16 out of 23 (69.6%) patients after 1 week and 1 month and 15 out of 23 (65.2%) patients after 2 months. Post-procedural kyphosis correction ≥5 and poor functional status (full dependency) were more common in the ineffective group after 1 week and 2 months respectively (P = 0.047, P = 0.02). Kyphotic correction ≥5 was related to pre-procedural kyphosis ≥15 (P = 0.018). Functional status was related to subsequent fracture (P = 0.005). Other factors were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Percutaneous vertebroplasty on osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF) with IVC was effective in only about 69.6% of patients after the first week and month and in 65.2% of patients after 2 months. Post-procedural kyphosis correction ≥5 was associated with poor outcomes

  14. Therapeutic effects of various concentrations of lincomycin in drinking water on experimentally transmitted swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, A H

    1978-07-01

    Three experimental studies were conducted in 232 growing pigs (8 to 12 weeks old) to evaluate the therapeutic effects of various concentrations of lincomycin in drinking water, against swine dysentery experimentally transmitted, by oral inoculation or by contact-commingling exposure. Four or 5 concentrations of lincomycin were used in each experiment (132, 66, 33, 16.5 or 0.0 mg/L of drinking water). Medication was initiated 7 to days after exposure and was continued for 6 to 10 days. Both methods of exposure were capable of transmitting the disease successfully. A more marked dose response was noticed in pigs inoculated orally than in pigs that were exposed by contact. All concentrations of lincomycin were effective for the treatment of swine dysentery by oral or by contact exposure. At the smaller concentration of 16.5 mg/L of drinking water, lincomycin was less effective for treating the disease than it was at greater concentrations. The suggested optimal concentration was 33 mg of lincomycin/L of drinking water for the treatment of swine dysentery.

  15. The Effect of Therapeutic Touch on Pain and Fatigue of Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghabati, Nahid; Pour Esmaiel, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    Despite major advances in pain management, cancer pain is managed poorly in 80% of the patients with cancer. Due to deleterious side effects of pharmacology therapy in these people, there is an urgent need for clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions. To examine the effect of therapeutic touch (TT) on the pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, a randomized and three-groups experimental study—experimental (TT), placebo (placebo TT), and control (usual care)—was carried out. Ninety patients undergoing chemotherapy, exhibiting pain and fatigue of cancer, were randomized into one of the three groups in the Cancer Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Pain and fatigue were measured and recorded by participants before and after the intervention for 5 days (once a day). The intervention consisted of 30 min TT given once a day for 5 days between 10:00 a.m. and 10:30 a.m. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain and the Rhoten Fatigue Scale (RFS) were completed for 5 days before and after the intervention by the subjects. The TT (significant) was more effective in decreasing pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy than the usual care group, while the placebo group indicated a decreasing trend in pain and fatigue scores compared with the usual care group. PMID:18955319

  16. Effect of tumor therapeutic irradiation on the mechanical properties of teeth tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraenzel, W.; Gerlach, R.; Hein, H.J.; Schaller, H.G.

    2006-01-01

    Tumor irradiation of the head-neck area is accompanied by the development of a so-called radiation caries in the treated patients. In spite of conservative therapeutic measures, the process results in tooth destruction. The present study investigated the effects of irradiation on the demineralization and remineralization of the dental tissue. For this purpose, retained third molars were prepared and assigned either to a test group, which was exposed to fractional irradiation up to 60 Gy, or to a non-irradiated control group. Irradiated and non-irradiated teeth were then demineralized using acidic hydroxyl-cellulose gel; afterwards the teeth were remineralized using either Bifluorid12 registered or elmex gelee registered . The nanoindentation technique was used to measure the mechanical properties, hardness and elasticity, of the teeth in each of the conditions. The values were compared to the non-irradiated control group. Irradiation decreased dramatically the mechanical parameters of enamel and dentine. In non-irradiated teeth, demineralization had nearly the same effects of irradiation on the mechanical properties. In irradiated teeth, the effects of demineralization were negligible in comparison to non-irradiated teeth. Remineralization with Bifluorid12 registered or elmex gelee registered led to a partial improvement of the mechanical properties of the teeth. The enamel was more positively affected, by remineralization than the dentine. (orig.)

  17. Argan Oil as an Effective Nutri-Therapeutic Agent in Metabolic Syndrome: A Preclinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil El Midaoui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at examining the effects of argan oil on the three main cardiovascular risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome (hypertension, insulin resistance and obesity and on one of its main complications, neuropathic pain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to a drinking solution containing 10% d-glucose or tap water for 12 weeks. The effect of argan oil was compared to that of corn oil given daily by gavage during 12 weeks in glucose-fed rats. Glucose-fed rats showed increases in systolic blood pressure, epididymal fat, plasma levels of triglycerides, leptin, glucose and insulin, insulin resistance, tactile and cold allodynia in association with a rise in superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity in the thoracic aorta, epididymal fat and gastrocnemius muscle. Glucose-fed rats also showed rises in B1 receptor protein expression in aorta and gastrocnemius muscle. Argan oil prevented or significantly reduced all those anomalies with an induction in plasma adiponectin levels. In contrast, the same treatment with corn oil had a positive impact only on triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance. These data are the first to suggest that argan oil is an effective nutri-therapeutic agent to prevent the cardiovascular risk factors and complications associated with metabolic syndrome.

  18. The therapeutic effect of OK-432 (picibanil) sclerotherapy for benign neck cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Gu; Kim, Sun Gon; Lee, Jun Ho; Eun, Young Gyu; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2008-12-01

    In general, benign neck cysts are treated by surgical excision. This can present technical difficulties and frequent recurrences, because of insufficient surgery. Sclerosing agents such as OK-432 have been tested for the nonsurgical treatment of these cysts. We have assessed the efficacy of OK-432 sclerotherapy for benign neck cysts. The study group consisted of 75 patients (42 men, 33 women) diagnosed with and treated for benign neck cysts between March 2001 and December 2007 by intralesional injection of OK-432. The liquid content of each cyst was aspirated as much as possible, and the same volume of OK-432 solution was injected. Patients were assessed by ultrasonography or computerized tomography, and therapeutic outcomes and adverse effects were evaluated by patient age, sex, cyst type, and number of injections. Of the 75 treated patients, 31 (41.3%) showed total shrinkage, seven (9.3%) showed near-total shrinkage (>90% of cyst volume), five (6.6%) showed marked shrinkage (>70% of cyst volume), and 17 (22.7%) showed partial shrinkage (<70% of cyst volume). No response was seen in 15 patients (20%). Despite repeated sclerotherapy, eight patients (10.7%) showed recurrences. Minor adverse effects of therapy included fever, localized pain, and odynophagia but these complications spontaneously disappeared within several days. OK-432 sclerotherapy is a safe and effective primary alternative to surgery in patients with benign neck cysts.

  19. The therapeutic effect of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdar Yousefvand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The glutamatergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. Administration of crocus sativus (Saffron or its constituent, crocin, facilitates the formation of memory. This research investigated the effect of crocin on antagonizing retrograde amnesia induced by ketamine, a glutamatergic receptor antagonist, in rats by shuttle box. Methods: Male Wistar rats were tested to measure their learning behavior in the passive avoidance task. All animals were trained by a 1 mA shock. The drugs were injected immediately after the training was successfully performed. The animals were tested 24h after training to measure Step Through Latency (STL. Results: On the test day, administration of ketamine (12 mg/kg, ip impaired the memory after training. Different doses of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip were injected 30 min after ketamine, but only 2 mg/kg crocin could improve retrograde amnesia and 5 and 10 mg/kg doses did not have any significant effect on retrograde amnesia. Moreover, administration of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip after training had no significant impact on passive avoidance memory by itself. Conclusion: Considering the therapeutic effect of post-training administration of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia, it can be argued that crocin has an interaction with glutamatergic system in formation of passive avoidance memory in rats.

  20. Therapeutic Community Effectiveness on Self-Esteem and Relapse Rate among Drug Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosayyeb Yarmohammadi-Vasel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, the Therapeutic Community(TC has become a widespread treatment alternative for drug addicts. TC have been widely studied with emphasis on thair effectiveness. The aims of the present study was to examined effectiveness of TC on self esteem and decrease of relapse. Materials & Methods: Research Statistics universe constitutes of all the substance abusers who have come to the TC centers of Tehran and Mashad. samples is chosen as stratified sampling of the cities of Tehran & Mashad. This study conducted among 165 substance abuser, examined their drug use 2 years. The study utilized a quasi-experimental design with one group, clients were tested at 3 points in time pretest (at admission time, posttest (3-6 months after treatment and 1-year Follo-up (1-year after treatment using the self esteem questionnaire. Results: The findings show that (a about half (50% the clients were clean at follow-up (b significant linear increases on self esteem After 3 to 6 months of treatment(P<0.05. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that TC could effective approach to increases on self esteem and decrease of relapse.

  1. Breviscapine Injection Improves the Therapeutic Effect of Western Medicine on Angina Pectoris Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Li, Yafeng; Gao, Shoucui; Cheng, Daxin; Zhao, Sihai; Liu, Enqi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of breviscapine injection in combination with Western medicine on the treatment of patients with angina pectoris. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Science Citation Index, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Wanfang Database, the Chongqing VIP Information Database and the China Biomedical Database were searched to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of Western medicine compared to breviscapine injection plus Western medicine on angina pectoris patients. The included studies were analyzed using RevMan 5.1.0 software. The literature search yielded 460 studies, wherein 16 studies matched the selection criteria. The results showed that combined therapy using Breviscapine plus Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone for improving angina pectoris symptoms (OR=3.77, 95% Cl: 2.76~5.15) and also resulted in increased electrocardiogram (ECG) improvement (OR=2.77, 95% Cl: 2.16~3.53). The current evidence suggests that Breviscapine plus Western medicine achieved a superior therapeutic effect compared to Western medicine alone.

  2. Effect of tumor therapeutic irradiation on the mechanical properties of teeth tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraenzel, W. [Dept. of Physics, Martin Luther Univ. Halle (Germany); Gerlach, R. [Univ. Clinic and Policlinic for Radiation Therapy, Martin Luther Univ. Halle (Germany); Hein, H.J. [Univ. Clinic and Policlinic for Orthopaedics and Physical Medicine, Martin Luther Univ. Halle (Germany); Schaller, H.G. [Dept. of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Martin Luther Univ. Halle (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Tumor irradiation of the head-neck area is accompanied by the development of a so-called radiation caries in the treated patients. In spite of conservative therapeutic measures, the process results in tooth destruction. The present study investigated the effects of irradiation on the demineralization and remineralization of the dental tissue. For this purpose, retained third molars were prepared and assigned either to a test group, which was exposed to fractional irradiation up to 60 Gy, or to a non-irradiated control group. Irradiated and non-irradiated teeth were then demineralized using acidic hydroxyl-cellulose gel; afterwards the teeth were remineralized using either Bifluorid12 {sup registered} or elmex gelee {sup registered}. The nanoindentation technique was used to measure the mechanical properties, hardness and elasticity, of the teeth in each of the conditions. The values were compared to the non-irradiated control group. Irradiation decreased dramatically the mechanical parameters of enamel and dentine. In non-irradiated teeth, demineralization had nearly the same effects of irradiation on the mechanical properties. In irradiated teeth, the effects of demineralization were negligible in comparison to non-irradiated teeth. Remineralization with Bifluorid12 {sup registered} or elmex gelee {sup registered} led to a partial improvement of the mechanical properties of the teeth. The enamel was more positively affected, by remineralization than the dentine. (orig.)

  3. Effect of Misoprostol on the Pharmacokinetics of Sustained Release Diclofenac in Myanmar Healthy Male Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Htet Htet Aung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustained release diclofenac (diclofenac SR is the commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Misoprostol, prostaglandin analogue, is the agent that enhances gastrointestinal mucosal defense. Concomitant administration of misoprostol with diclofenac SR can prevent the gastrointestinal side effects of diclofenac SR. Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of misoprostol on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac SR in healthy volunteers. Methods: Crossover study was evaluated in 14 male volunteers. Single oral dose of 100 mg diclofenac SR was concomitantly administered with 200 μg misoprostol with one-week wash out period. Plasma concentrations at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 6 and 10 hrs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as area under concentration-time curve (AUC0-α, peak plasma concentration (Cmax, time to achieve peak plasma concentration (Tmax, absorption half-life (T½(ab, elimination half-life (T1/2(el, absorption rate constant (Kab, and elimination rate constant (Kel were determined. Results: With misoprostol, the mean AUC0-α of diclofenac SR was significantly reduced from 12.11±5.25μg/ mL×hr to 4.17±2.72μg/mL×hr (p0.05. The mean T½(ab was decreased from 0.56±0.23hr to 0.54±0.19hr (p>0.05. The mean Kab were almost the same 1.43±0.54hr-1 and 1.43±0.48hr-1. The mean T1/2(el was decreased from 3.68±1.64hr to 3.03±1.08hr (p>0.05. The mean Kel was increased from 0.21±0.09hr-1 to 0.25±0.09hr-1 (p>0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in the extent of absorption of diclofenac SR when concomitantly administered with misoprostol. Therefore, the dose of diclofenac SR may need to be increased to avoid therapeutic failure of diclofenac SR or concurrent use with misoprostol may need to be changed to other gastroprotective agents.

  4. The Sustainability Analysis Framework: An Effective Knowledge Communication Tool in a Whole of Government Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal Hodgman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the structural formation of the Sustainability Analysis Framework (SAF, which has proved to be an effective knowledge communication tool in the largest state administration in Australia, the Government of New South Wales. The SAF, devised by the author, has been implemented across thirty-eight state agencies and demonstrates that a whole of government Sustainability perspective is achievable. The level of the NSW Government's commitment to this process is evidenced by the fact that it was coordinated at the highest levels of the administration and engaged high-level input from a comprehensive portfolio of its agencies. The SAF's successful deployment across this significant bureaucracy shows that the generally applicable mechanism is effective in data collation, information sharing, knowledge organisation and the communication of Sustainability practice and wisdom. At the heart of the paper is the author's contention that one of the key problems which jeopardises our common future on Earth is the lack of effective tools to communicate Sustainability thinking and practice. In the course of the project, upon which this paper is based, the author identified the need for a visually and conceptually accessible mechanism to accelerate the uptake of Sustainability practice in a whole of organization context. In designing the SAF, which has successfully bridged this knowledge communication gap, the author employed two of humanity's fundamental learning tools – the diagram and the story.

  5. Therapeutic Plasmapheresis. A Gate to an Effective Treatment of Severe Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stefanutti

    2014-07-01

    pregnancy do not exist (6. A further complication of the apheresis issue is represented by the indication of sepsis with multi organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS as the most common cause of death in patients in non-coronary intensive care units. Presently, an effective treatment to reduce mortality in sepsis and MODS patients is still not available. Therapeutic PEX in the management of sepsis and MODS was suggested several years ago and more recently (7, 8. On the other side, even a selective LA technique such as Heparin induced Extracorporeal Lipoprotein Precipitation (H.E.L.P. was used in the treatment of sepsis and it is still on use (9. In conclusion, extracorporeal therapeutic techniques can be clinically helpful in emergency, in deferred urgency and in chronic, long-term use. As these techniques are invasive and relatively complex, appropriate equipment and highly skillful medical and non-medical staff personnel is a necessary complement.   Key words: Therapeutic Plasmapheresis, Plasma Exchange, Lipoprotein Apheresis, Hyperlipidemic Pancreatitis, Acute Pancreatitis, Homozygous- Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Hyper Lp(a lipoproteinemia

  6. Cost-effective therapeutic hypothermia treatment device for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen RH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available John J Kim,1,2 Nathan Buchbinder,1,† Simon Ammanuel,1,4,5,† Robert Kim,1,† Erika Moore,1 Neil O'Donnell,1 Jennifer K Lee,3 Ewa Kulikowicz,3 Soumyadipta Acharya,1 Robert H Allen,1,9 Ryan W Lee,6,7 Michael V Johnston4–81Department of Biomedical Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 2The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 4Kennedy Krieger Institute, 5Hugo W Moser Research Institute, 6Department of Neurology, 7Department of Pediatrics, 8Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; 9Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA†These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Despite recent advances in neonatal care and monitoring, asphyxia globally accounts for 23% of the 4 million annual deaths of newborns, and leads to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Occurring in five of 1000 live-born infants globally and even more in developing countries, HIE is a serious problem that causes death in 25%–50% of affected neonates and neurological disability to at least 25% of survivors. In order to prevent the damage caused by HIE, our invention provides an effective whole-body cooling of the neonates by utilizing evaporation and an endothermic reaction. Our device is composed of basic electronics, clay pots, sand, and urea-based instant cold pack powder. A larger clay pot, lined with nearly 5 cm of sand, contains a smaller pot, where the neonate will be placed for therapeutic treatment. When the sand is mixed with instant cold pack urea powder and wetted with water, the device can extract heat from inside to outside and maintain the inner pot at 17°C for more than 24 hours with monitoring by LED lights and thermistors

  7. Amino acid transport system - A substrate predicts the therapeutic effects of particle radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Uehara

    Full Text Available L-[methyl-11C]Methionine (11C-Met is useful for estimating the therapeutic efficacy of particle radiotherapy at early stages of the treatment. Given the short half-life of 11C, the development of longer-lived 18F- and 123I-labeled probes that afford diagnostic information similar to 11C-Met, are being sought. Tumor uptake of 11C-Met is involved in many cellular functions such as amino acid transport System-L, protein synthesis, and transmethylation. Among these processes, since the energy-dependent intracellular functions involved with 11C-Met are more reflective of the radiotherapeutic effects, we evaluated the activity of the amino acid transport System-A as an another energy-dependent cellular function in order to estimate radiotherapeutic effects. In this study, using a carbon-ion beam as the radiation source, the activity of System-A was evaluated by a specific System-A substrate, alpha-[1-14C]-methyl-aminoisobutyric acid (14C-MeAIB. Cellular growth and the accumulation of 14C-MeAIB or 14C-Met were evaluated over time in vitro in cultured human salivary gland (HSG tumor cells (3-Gy or in vivo in murine xenografts of HSG tumors (6- or 25-Gy before and after irradiation with the carbon-ion beam. Post 3-Gy irradiation, in vitro accumulation of 14C-Met and 14C-MeAIB decreased over a 5-day period. In xenografts of HSG tumors in mice, tumor re-growth was observed in vivo on day-10 after a 6-Gy irradiation dose, but no re-growth was detected after the 25-Gy irradiation dose. Consistent with the growth results, the in vivo tumor accumulation of 14C-MeAIB did not decrease after the 6-Gy irradiation dose, whereas a significant decrease was observed after the 25-Gy irradiation dose. These results indicate that the activity of energy dependent System-A transporter may reflect the therapeutic efficacy of carbon-ion radiotherapy and suggests that longer half-life radionuclide-labeled probes for System-A may also provide widely available probes to

  8. Trials to optimize dosimetry for 153Sm-EDTMP therapy to improve therapeutic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.; Moncayo-Naveda, R.; Oberlandstaetter, M.; Donnemiller, E.; Kendler, D.

    2001-01-01

    In a trial to improve results of therapy with 153 Sm-EDTMP for pain control in patients with disseminated bone metastases dosimetric studies were performed. Out of 30 treated patients 8 were selected for the study at random (5 breast Ca., 3 prostate Ca.). Whole body retention (WBR) of 99m Tc-DPD and 99m Tc-EDTMP was compared with WBR of 153 Sm-EDTMP. Volume of metastases and regional 99 m Tc-phosphonate uptake were assessed by SPECT and conjugated whole body scan data after phantom studies. Effective half-life was estimated also. Clinically results of pain control, side effects and changes of in vitro parameters were followed after therapy for up to 8 months. Therapy was performed in these patients with 55,5 MBq/kg body weight. Results showed an identical pattern of radioactivity distribution on 99 Tc-phosphonate and 153 Sm-EDTMP posttherapy scans, WBR of tracers and therapeutic agent was similar. Tumour volumes were 151-652 mL, count ratios metastases/normal bone 1,72-2,41, so that 6-50% of applied 153 Sm-EDTMP were concentrated in bone lesions. This gave dose estimates of 2,8-13,7 Gy in metastases. Evaluation of clinical results showed that the majority of very good results were observed in patients receiving > 10 Gy (n=3) while with lower doses only 1/4 responded very well. 1 patient was lost to follow-up due to death in the first month after therapy. Moderate and transient myelodepression (platelets) was seen in 3/7 patients without relation to Gy applied. As obviously 153 Sm concentration is not homogenous in bone metastases it can be assumed, that in border zones between tumour and bone 30-40 Gy can be delivered when 10 Gy are calculated for the whole lesion, which would explain the satisfactory therapeutic effect in our study. The dosimetric approach to 153 Sm-EDTMP therapy could necessitate the application of higher amounts of 153 Sm-EDTMP to reach adequate radiation doses in lesions without necessarily increasing risk of myelodepression and with even

  9. Therapeutic application of metallic nanoparticles combined with particle-induced x-ray emission effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Ki; Seo, Seung-Jun [Biomedical Engineering and Radiology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu 705-034 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Hong [Department of Optometry and Visual Sciences, Catholic University of Daegu, Kyungsan 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Jeong [Applied Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyungpuk National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Kye-Ryung [Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Tae-Keun, E-mail: jkkim@cu.ac.kr [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-22

    Metallic nanoparticles (MNP) are able to release localized x-rays when activated with a high energy proton beam by the particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) effect. The exploitation of this phenomenon in the therapeutic irradiation of tumors has been investigated. PIXE-based x-ray emission directed at CT26 tumor cells in vitro, when administered with either gold (average diameter 2 and 13 nm) or iron (average diameter 14 nm) nanoparticles (GNP or SNP), increased with MNP solution concentration over the range of 0.1-2 mg ml{sup -1}. With irradiation by a 45 MeV proton therapy (PT) beam, higher concentrations had a decreased cell survival fraction. An in vivo study in CT26 mouse tumor models with tumor regression assay demonstrated significant tumor dose enhancement, thought to be a result of the PIXE effect when compared to conventional PT without MNP (radiation-only group) using a 45 MeV proton beam (p < 0.02). Those receiving GNP or SNP injection doses of 300 mg kg{sup -1} body weight before proton beam therapy demonstrated 90% or 75% tumor volume reduction (TVR) in 20 days post-PT while the radiation-only group showed only 18% TVR and re-growth of tumor volume after 20 days. Higher complete tumor regression (CTR) was observed in 14-24 days after a single treatment of PT with an average rate of 33-65% for those receiving MNP compared with 25% for the radiation-only group. A lower bound of therapeutic effective MNP concentration range, in vivo, was estimated as 30-79 {mu}g g{sup -1} tissue for both gold and iron nanoparticles. The tumor dose enhancement may compensate for an increase in entrance dose associated with conventional PT when treating large, solid tumors with a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) technique. The use of a combined high energy Bragg peak PT with PIXE generated by MNP, or PIXE alone, may result in new treatment options for infiltrative metastatic tumors and other diffuse inflammatory diseases.

  10. 针灸治疗慢性失眠的疗效研究%Study on the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on chronic insomnia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮经文; 郑佩仪; 胡跃华

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate therapeutic effect of acupuncture on chronic insomnia.Methods Head-acupuncture, galvano-acupuncture, and body acupuncture were used to treat the chronic insomnia. Statistical analysis was conducted therapeutic effect by using self-made Sleep Index Form(FormⅠ ) and the self-made clinical symptoms Form(FormⅡ ). Results P< 0.01. Therapeutic effect after treatment compared with that before treatment. Conclusion Acupuncture is effective in treating insomnia without obvious adverse effects.

  11. A Research on Class Teachers Related to Determining the Effects of Consumers’ Personal Values on Sustainable Consumption Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Karalar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s sources about to running out have been realised as a result of that population increase and economic development to be lived in the twentieth century have caused the transformation from the notion of unlimited economic development to sustainable development notion. Sustainable development is a model that predicts existing generation satisfies their needs without that next generation’s satisfy their need. Projection of sustainable development on marketing area have been actualized by means of coming up with sustainable marketing approach. Sustainable marketing approach predict to create sustainable solutions by adding conformity with eco-system in addition to achieving organizational goals and satisfy consumers’ needs which traditional marketing’s goals. The target of sustainable development notion in regard of consumption is to be accepted sustainable consumption behavior. It requires inquiring factors affecting behavior in question because sustainable consumption pattern to be accepted and spread to the world. In the study examined that individual values affecting sustainable consumption behavior of class teacher who work at elementary schools in Kutahya, Merkez. The findings indicate the significant effect of universalism and security values type in sustainable consumption behavior. Also, it is found that frequency of sustainable consumption behavior is mid-level. The results of this research have significant implications for stakeholders of sustainable consumption and future research.

  12. Free school fruit - Sustained effect three years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Bere (Elling); M.B. Veierød (Marit); Ø. Skare; K.I. Klepp (Knut-Inge)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Norwegian children consume less fruit and vegetables (FV) than recommended. In order to increase the intake, a School Fruit subscription programme is now offered to all Norwegian elementary and junior high schools. This programme has limited effect due to low participation by

  13. Effects of fotemustine or dacarbasine on a melanoma cell line pretreated with therapeutic proton irradiation

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    Privitera Giuseppe

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that HTB140 melanoma cells have shown a poor response to either protons or alkylating agents, the effects of a combined use of these agents have been analysed. Methods Cells were irradiated in the middle of the therapeutic 62 MeV proton spread out Bragg peak (SOBP. Irradiation doses were 12 or 16 Gy and are those frequently used in proton therapy. Four days after irradiation cells were treated with fotemustine (FM or dacarbazine (DTIC. Drug concentrations were 100 and 250 μM, values close to those that produce 50% of growth inhibition. Cell viability, proliferation, survival and cell cycle distribution were assessed 7 days after irradiation that corresponds to more than six doubling times of HTB140 cells. In this way incubation periods providing the best single effects of drugs (3 days and protons (7 days coincided at the same time. Results Single proton irradiations have reduced the number of cells to ~50%. FM caused stronger cell inactivation due to its high toxicity, while the effectiveness of DTIC, that was important at short term, almost vanished with the incubation of 7 days. Cellular mechanisms triggered by proton irradiation differently influenced the final effects of combined treatments. Combination of protons and FM did not improve cell inactivation level achieved by single treatments. A low efficiency of the single DTIC treatment was overcome when DTIC was introduced following proton irradiation, giving better inhibitory effects with respect to the single treatments. Most of the analysed cells were in G1/S phase, viable, active and able to replicate DNA. Conclusion The obtained results are the consequence of a high resistance of HTB140 melanoma cells to protons and/or drugs. The inactivation level of the HTB140 human melanoma cells after protons, FM or DTIC treatments was not enhanced by their combined application.

  14. Full Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Combined with Partial Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibition: Augmented and Sustained Antinociceptive Effects with Reduced Cannabimimetic Side Effects in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Kinsey, Steven G; Liu, Qing-Song; Hruba, Lenka; McMahon, Lance R; Grim, Travis W; Merritt, Christina R; Wise, Laura E; Abdullah, Rehab A; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2015-08-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzymes for the respective endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), produces antinociception but with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Although selective inhibitors of either enzyme often show partial efficacy in various nociceptive models, their combined blockade elicits augmented antinociceptive effects, but side effects emerge. Moreover, complete and prolonged MAGL blockade leads to cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor functional tolerance, which represents another challenge in this potential therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the present study tested whether full FAAH inhibition combined with partial MAGL inhibition would produce sustained antinociceptive effects with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Accordingly, we tested a high dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-​3-​pyridinyl-​4-​[[3-​[[5-​(trifluoromethyl)-​2-​pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-​1-​piperidinecarboxamide; 10 mg/kg) given in combination with a low dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate] (4 mg/kg) in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. This combination of inhibitors elicited profound increases in brain AEA levels (>10-fold) but only 2- to 3-fold increases in brain 2-AG levels. This combination produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects than single enzyme inhibition and did not elicit common cannabimimetic effects (e.g., catalepsy, hypomotility, hypothermia, and substitution for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in the drug-discrimination assay), although these side effects emerged with high-dose JZL184 (i.e., 100 mg/kg). Finally, repeated administration of this combination did not lead to tolerance to its antiallodynic actions in the carrageenan assay or CB1 receptor functional tolerance. Thus, full FAAH inhibition

  15. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Curcumin-Mediated Therapeutic Effects in Type 2 Diabetes and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Wojcik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing prevalence of age-related diseases, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cancer, has become global health and economic problems. Due to multifactorial nature of both diseases, their pathophysiology is not completely understood so far. Compelling evidence indicates that increased oxidative stress, resulting from an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and their clearance by antioxidant defense mechanisms, as well as the proinflammatory state contributes to the development and progression of the diseases. Curcumin (CUR; diferuloylmethane, a well-known polyphenol derived from the rhizomes of turmeric Curcuma longa, has attracted a great deal of attention as a natural compound with beneficial antidiabetic and anticancer properties, partly due to its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. Although this polyphenolic compound is increasingly being recognized for its growing number of protective health effects, the precise molecular mechanisms through which it reduces diabetes- and cancer-related pathological events have not been fully unraveled. Hence, CUR is the subject of intensive research in the fields Diabetology and Oncology as a potential candidate in the treatment of both T2DM and cancer, particularly since current therapeutic options for their treatment are not satisfactory in clinics. In this review, we summarize the recent progress made on the molecular targets and pathways involved in antidiabetic and anticancer activities of CUR that are responsible for its beneficial health effects.

  16. The therapeutic effectiveness of using visual art modalities with the bereaved: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramling, Sandra E

    2018-01-01

    Bereaved individuals are increasingly considered at risk for negative psychological and physiological outcomes. Visual art modalities are often incorporated into grief therapy interventions, and clinical application of art therapy techniques with the bereaved has been widely documented. Although clinicians and recipients of these interventions advocate for their helpfulness in adapting to bereavement, research investigating the efficacy of visual art modalities has produced equivocal results and has not yet been synthesized to establish empirical support across settings. Accordingly, this review critically evaluates the existent literature on the effectiveness of visual art modalities with the bereaved and offers suggestions for future avenues of research. A total of 27 studies were included in the current review. Meta-analysis was not possible because of clinical heterogeneity and insufficient comparable data on outcome measures across studies. A narrative synthesis reports that therapeutic application of visual art modalities was associated with positive changes such as continuing bonds with the deceased and meaning making. Modest and conflicting preliminary evidence was found to support treatment effectiveness in alleviating negative grief symptoms such as general distress, functional impairment, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. PMID:29440940

  17. The therapeutic effectiveness of using visual art modalities with the bereaved: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskittle, Rachel E; Gramling, Sandra E

    2018-01-01

    Bereaved individuals are increasingly considered at risk for negative psychological and physiological outcomes. Visual art modalities are often incorporated into grief therapy interventions, and clinical application of art therapy techniques with the bereaved has been widely documented. Although clinicians and recipients of these interventions advocate for their helpfulness in adapting to bereavement, research investigating the efficacy of visual art modalities has produced equivocal results and has not yet been synthesized to establish empirical support across settings. Accordingly, this review critically evaluates the existent literature on the effectiveness of visual art modalities with the bereaved and offers suggestions for future avenues of research. A total of 27 studies were included in the current review. Meta-analysis was not possible because of clinical heterogeneity and insufficient comparable data on outcome measures across studies. A narrative synthesis reports that therapeutic application of visual art modalities was associated with positive changes such as continuing bonds with the deceased and meaning making. Modest and conflicting preliminary evidence was found to support treatment effectiveness in alleviating negative grief symptoms such as general distress, functional impairment, and symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  18. Novel Therapeutic Effects of Leonurine On Ischemic Stroke: New Mechanisms of BBB Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Yan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Leonurine (also named SCM-198, a compound extracted from Herba leonuri, was effective on the prevention of various cardiovascular and brain diseases. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible therapeutic potential of SCM-198 against ischemia reperfusion injury and underlying mechanisms. In the in vivo transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO rat model, we found that treatment with SCM-198 could decrease infarct volume and improve neurological deficit by protecting against blood-brain barrier (BBB breakdown. In the in vitro model of cell oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R, consistent results were obtained with decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and maintained the BBB integrity. Further study demonstrated that SCM-198 increased the expression of histone deacetylase- (HDAC- 4 which could inhibit NADPH oxidase- (NOX- 4 and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 expression, resulting in the elevation of tight junction proteins, including claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occluden- (ZO- 1. These results indicated SCM-198 protected BBB integrity by regulating the HDAC4/NOX4/MMP-9 tight junction pathway. Our findings provided novel insights into the protective effects and mechanisms of SCM-198 on ischemic stroke, indicating SCM-198 as a new class of potential drug against acute onset of ischemic stroke.

  19. Effects of certain therapeutic factors on facial development in isolated cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smahel, Z

    1989-01-01

    Roentgencephalometry was used during the investigation of the effects of some therapeutic factors on the growth and development of the jaws in 64 adult males with an isolated cleft palate repaired by pushback. The anterior growth of the maxilla was not related to the age at the time of surgery or to orthodontic therapy with removable appliances. A small number of individuals operated during adolescence had also a shorter depth of the maxilla similarly as patients operated upon during early childhood. Anterior crossbite developed mostly in patients with reduced proclination of the upper alveolar process, while, on the contrary, a retrusion of the maxilla played no essential part. This observation proves useful for the prediction of the development of this malocclusion. The angle of sagittal jaw relations does not represent necessarily a valid criterion of the development of the jaws. In the presence of an overbite retrusion of the maxilla is associated with a retroposition of the mandible and thus the angle of sagittal jaw relations remains unchanged. Thus overbite represents an effective mechanism acting on the position of the mandible. A differentiated approach for the determination of the age of choice at the time of palate surgery according to the type and extent of the cleft is proposed.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and concentration-effect relationships of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternant, David; Paintaud, Gilles

    2005-09-01

    Although monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) constitute a major advance in therapeutics, their pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties are not fully understood. Saturable mechanisms are thought to occur in distribution and elimination of mAbs, which are protected from degradation by the Brambell's receptor (FcRn). The binding of mAbs to their target antigen explains part of their nonlinear PK and PD properties. The interindividual variability in mAb PK can be explained by several factors, including immune response against the biodrug and differences in the number of antigenic sites. The concentration-effect relationships of mAbs are complex and dependent on their mechanism of action. Interindividual differences in mAb PD can be explained by factors such as genetics and clinical status. PK and concentration-effect studies are necessary to design optimal dosing regimens. Because of their above-mentioned characteristics, the interindividual variability in their dose-response relationships must be studied by PK-PD modelling.

  1. Clinical therapeutic effects of intravitreal Ranibizumab injection combined laser photocoagulation for macular edema in BRVO

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    Bin Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical therapeutic efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab injection combined grid laser photocoagulation for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion(BRVO. METHODS: Forty-two confirmed cases(42 eyeswith macular edema secondary to BRVO were randomized into 3 groups, each group contained 14 eyes. The ranibizumab group was received intravitreal injection of ranibizumab(0.05mL, the laser group was received grid laser photocoagulation, and the combined group was received a second therapy of grid laser photocoagulation after 1wk of the intravitreal injection of ranibizumab. Recorded the best-corrected visual acuity(BCVAand the central macular thickness(CMTpreoperative and at 1, 3, 6mo after therapy. RESULTS: The BCVA and the CMT had no differences among three groups pretherapy(P>0.05. While BCVA was much better and CMT was reduced significantly posttherapy than pretherapy in all three groups(PPP>0.05. While the BCVA was better and the CMT was thinner in the combined group than ranibizumab group and laser group at every time point(PPCONCLUSION: The intravitreal ranibizumab injection combined grid laser photocoagulation is an effective treatment method for the macular edema secondary to BRVO, it is more effective in improving BCVA than intravitreal ranibizumab or grid laser photocoagulation alone.

  2. Effect of therapeutic doses of enrofloxacin on circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in pigs

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    Pomorska-Mól Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty pigs of similar genetics (PIC were used. Pigs were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (ENRO, n = 10 and control (C, n = 10. From day 0 to day 4, pigs from ENRO group received enrofloxacin at the recommended therapeutic dose. Pigs from C group received PBS instead of enrofloxacin. Blood samples were collected on days 0 (before antibiotic administration, 2, 4 (during antibiotic therapy, 9, and 13 of the study (after enrofloxacin administration. Haematological examination and flow cytometry were used to establish the relative and absolute counts of various leukocyte subsets. Lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by fluorochrom-labelled antibodies according to following definitions: CD3+ (T cells, CD21+ (B cells, CD4+CD8- (helper T cells, Th, CD4-CD8+ (cytolytic T cells, CLT, CD4+CD8+ (cytolytic and memory T cells. The present study revealed the modulating effect of enrofloxacin on the composition of circulating lymphocytes in pigs. Concentration and percentage of CD8+ cells decreased significantly after treatment with enrofloxacin and as a result the absolute CD4/CD8 ratio increased significantly as compared to control group (P < 0.05.These findings should prompt further studies on the practical significance of the results obtained in terms of clinical implications. In view of the results, it cannot be excluded that enrofloxacin may also have immunomodulatory effects on host response to infection.

  3. Therapeutic Effectiveness and Safety of Mesotherapy in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee

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    Liang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of mesotherapy by comparing it with the classic systematic therapy in patients with osteoarthritis (OA. Methods. Sixty patients were included and classified into two groups based on the existence of contraindications for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. These patients were treated with oral NSAIDs (Group A or mesotherapy (Group B. After completing the treatment, the patients were followed up for 6 months. Their clinical features, laboratory results, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC scores were evaluated. Results. A total of 50 patients completed treatment and follow-up. The patients in Group B had significantly fewer gastric acid-related complaints and requested less supplementary treatment for recurrent pain (p<0.05. The patients in both groups exhibited decreased blood viscosity after treatment (p<0.05. WOMAC scores, specifically those for pain and stiffness, were found to be significantly improved after either type of treatment (p<0.05. Mesotherapy also ameliorated physical function (p<0.05. Furthermore, Group B presented with better outcomes than Group A (p<0.05 or p<0.01. Conclusion. Our results suggest that mesotherapy is an effective and safe treatment for patients with OA. Clinicians should consider mesotherapy as an alternative therapy for patients with contraindications for NSAID use.

  4. Therapeutic effect of hydroxychloroquine on colorectal carcinogenesis in experimental murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junlin; Xie, Jiansheng; Xie, Binbin; Li, Yiran; Jiang, Liming; Sui, Xinbing; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Pan, Hongming; Han, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    Chronic inflammation in the intestine is a strong risk factor for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is widely used as an anti-inflammatory drug in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders and various tumors. However, little is known regarding the effects of HCQ on colitis-associated tumorigenesis. In this study, mice treated with HCQ showed a significant reduction in early-stage colitis following azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) administration, as well as a remarkable inhibition of colonic tumorigenesis and tumor growth at late stages of CAC. Mechanistically, the therapeutic effects of HCQ were attributed to inhibition of inflammatory responses and production of mutagenic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in immune cells and subsequent promotion of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, we found that HCQ inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines and ROS in response to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation in macrophages. Our data presented herein may help guide the clinical use of HCQ as a prevention and treatment strategy for CAC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic Effect of Novel Single-Stranded RNAi Agent Targeting Periostin in Eyes with Retinal Neovascularization

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    Takahito Nakama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neovascularization (NV due to retinal ischemia remains one of the principal causes of vision impairment in patients with ischemic retinal diseases. We recently reported that periostin (POSTN may play a role in the development of preretinal fibrovascular membranes, but its role in retinal NV has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of POSTN in the ischemic retinas of a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinal NV. We also studied the function of POSTN on retinal NV using Postn KO mice and human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs in culture. In addition, we used a novel RNAi agent, NK0144, which targets POSTN to determine its effect on the development of retinal NV. Our results showed that the expression of POSTN was increased in the vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and M2 macrophages in ischemic retinas. POSTN promoted the ischemia-induced retinal NV by Akt phosphorylation through integrin αvβ3. NK0144 had a greater inhibitory effect than canonical double-stranded siRNA on preretinal pathological NV in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest a causal relationship between POSTN and retinal NV, and indicate a potential therapeutic role of intravitreal injection of NK0144 for retinal neovascular diseases.

  6. Therapeutic Communities for Addictions: A Review of Their Effectiveness from a Recovery-Oriented Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Colpaert, Kathy; Autrique, Mieke; Rapp, Richard Charles; Pearce, Steve; Broekaert, Eric; Vandevelde, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic communities (TCs) for addictions are drug-free environments in which people with addictive problems live together in an organized and structured way to promote change toward recovery and reinsertion in society. Despite a long research tradition in TCs, the evidence base for the effectiveness of TCs is limited according to available reviews. Since most of these studies applied a selective focus, we made a comprehensive systematic review of all controlled studies that compared the effectiveness of TCs for addictions with that of a control condition. The focus of this paper is on recovery, including attention for various life domains and a longitudinal scope. We searched the following databases: ISI Web of Knowledge (WoS), PubMed, and DrugScope. Our search strategy revealed 997 hits. Eventually, 30 publications were selected for this paper, which were based on 16 original studies. Two out of three studies showed significantly better substance use and legal outcomes among TC participants, and five studies found superior employment and psychological functioning. Length of stay in treatment and participation in subsequent aftercare were consistent predictors of recovery status. We conclude that TCs can promote change regarding various outcome categories. Since recovering addicts often cycle between abstinence and relapse, a continuing care approach is advisable, including assessment of multiple and subjective outcome indicators. PMID:23401669

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabidiol in Hypoxic Ischemic Insult. The Therapeutic Window in Newborn Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Nagat; Ceprian, Maria; Jimenez, Laura; Pazos, M Ruth; Martínez-Orgado, Jose

    2017-01-01

    A relevant therapeutic time window (TTW) is an important criterion for considering the clinical relevance of a substance preventing newborn hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. To test the TTW of the neuroprotective effects of cannabidol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid in a model of newborn HI brain damage. 9-10 day-old C57BL6 mice underwent a HI insult (10% oxygen for 90 min after left carotid artery electrocoagulation). Then, CBD 1 mg/kg or vehicle were administered s.c. 15 min, or 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 or 24 h after the end of the HI insult. Seven days later brain damage was assessed using T2W Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan (ipsilateral hemisphere volume loss, IVHL) and histological studies: Nissl staining (neuropathological score), TUNEL staining (apoptotic damage) and immunohistochemistry with glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte viability) or ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule (microglial activation). CBD administered up to 18 h after HI reduced IHVL and neuropathological score by 60%, TUNEL+ count by 90% and astrocyte damage by 50%. In addition, CBD blunted the HI-induced increase in microglial population. When CBD administration was delayed 24 h, however, the neuroprotective effect was lost in terms of IHVL, apoptosis or astrogliosis reduction. CBD shows a TTW of 18 h when administered to HI newborn mice, which represents a broader TTW than reported for other neuroprotective treatments including hypothermia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Therapeutic effect of Sinapic acid in aluminium chloride induced dementia of Alzheimer's type in rats

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    Souravh Bais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of sinapic acid against Aluminium chloride-induced dementia of Alzheimer's disease (AD type in rat.Methods: The study was designed to induce dementia by chronic exposure of aluminium chloride at a dose of 175 mg/kg, p.o. for a period of 25 days in rats and then divided into different groups, i.e. Treatment group, negative control and two groups of sinapic acid, (at a dose of 20 and 40mg/kg, p.o., where these groups treated and observed till the 35th day of experimental trial. The behavioural, neuronal and biochemical parameters were determined during or end of experiment. Histological changes in the brain were also observed.Results: Aluminium chloride at a dose of 175 mg/kg, o.p. had significantly induced the dementia and sinapic acid, at a dose of 40 mg/kg, p.o., possessed therapeutic effect against Aluminium chloride induced-dementia of AD type in rats.Conclusions: Sinapic acid is a class of compound wide spread in plant kingdom and could be a better source of neutraceuticals in brain disorders. The compound showed an in vivo MAO-A and MAO-B inhibiting activity and their role in Alzheimer's disease type of dementia was unexplored. The article also provides information on acute toxicity of sinapic acid with no toxicological sign on brain with chronic dose of AlCl3.

  9. Structural and functional assessment of intense therapeutic ultrasound effects on partial Achilles tendon transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Rice, Photini S.; Howard, Caitlin C.; Koevary, Jen W.; Danford, Forest; Gonzales, David A.; Vande Geest, Jon; Latt, L. Daniel; Szivek, John A.; Amodei, Richard; Slayton, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Tendinopathies and tendon tears heal slowly because tendons have a limited blood supply. Intense therapeutic ultrasound (ITU) is a treatment modality that creates very small, focal coagula in tissue, which can stimulate a healing response. This pilot study investigated the effects of ITU on rabbit and rat models of partial Achilles tendon rupture. The right Achilles tendons of 20 New Zealand White rabbits and 118 rats were partially transected. Twenty-four hours after surgery, ITU coagula were placed in the tendon and surrounding tissue, alternating right and left legs. At various time points, the following data were collected: ultrasound imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, mechanical testing, gene expression analysis, histology, and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) of sectioned tissue. Ultrasound visualized cuts and treatment lesions. OCT showed the effect of the interventions on birefringence banding caused by collagen organization. MPM showed inflammatory infiltrate, collagen synthesis and organization. By day 14- 28, all tendons had a smooth appearance and histology, MPM and OCT still could still visualize residual healing processes. Few significant results in gene expression were seen, but trends were that ITU treatment caused an initial decrease in growth and collagen gene expression followed by an increase. No difference in failure loads was found between control, cut, and ITU treatment groups, suggesting that sufficient healing had occurred by 14 days to restore all test tissue to control mechanical properties. These results suggest that ITU does not cause harm to tendon tissue. Upregulation of some genes suggests that ITU may increase healing response.

  10. [Relation between dose, plasma concentration and therapeutic effect of theophylline in children with sleep apnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Palomares, C; Ugartechea, J C; Palma-Aguirre, J A; Juárez-Olguín, H; Calderón-Mandujano, B

    1989-12-01

    The plasma concentration of theophylline was determined in twelve children with infantile sleep apnea (average age 48.5 days). The purpose of the study was to correlate concentrations with the dosages given, the therapeutic response and any adverse effects which could arise. In addition, other pharmacokinetic values were found, half-life (t 1/2) and clearance concentrations (Clss). The oral maintenance dose used was 4 mg/kg/24 h. The serum concentration of theophylline was determined by a homogeneous immunoassay enzyme technique (EMIT). A bad correlation was found (r = 0.45) between the oral dosage given and the plasma concentrations found. This was probably due to variations in the clearance of the drug. Yet, plasma concentrations fell between 3.0 and 12.6 micrograms/mL, enough to satisfactorily control apneic episodes in all the children included in the study without undesirable side-effects. Only one patient had some trouble in falling asleep and showed signs of irritability. The half-life was 13.30 +/- 7.46 hours and Clss was 36.64 +/- 12.98 mL/h/kg. In general, our results correlate with those reported in the literature. The accuracy of the pharmacokinetic parameters with two samples is reliable, therefore avoiding the use of multiple sampling in this group of children.

  11. Web thickness determines the therapeutic effect of endoscopic keel placement on anterior glottic web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Shi, Fang; Chen, Min; Yang, Yue; Cheng, Lei; Wu, Haitao

    2017-10-01

    This work is a retrospective analysis to investigate the critical risk factor for the therapeutic effect of endoscopic keel placement on anterior glottic web. Altogether, 36 patients with anterior glottic web undergoing endoscopic lysis and silicone keel placement were enrolled. Their voice qualities were evaluated using the voice handicap index-10 (VHI-10) questionnaire, and improved significantly 3 months after surgery (21.53 ± 3.89 vs 9.81 ± 6.68, P web recurrence during the at least 1-year follow-up. Therefore, patients were classified according to the Cohen classification or web thickness, and the recurrence rates were compared. The distribution of recurrence rates for Cohen type 1 ~ 4 were 28.6, 16.7, 33.3, and 40%, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.461). When classified by web thickness, only 2 of 27 (7.41%) thin type cases relapsed whereas 8 of 9 (88.9%) cases in the thick group reformed webs (P web thickness rather than the Cohen grades. Endoscopic lysis and keel placement is only effective for cases with thin glottic webs. Patients with thick webs should be treated by other means.

  12. Promoting Sustainability: The Effects of Workplace Mindfulness Training

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkiniemi, Jaana-Piia; Heikkilä-Tammi, Kirsi

    2018-01-01

    Mindfulness training is enjoying growing popularity in workplaces. In the current study, the effects of workplace mindfulness training were evaluated using quantitative and qualitative methods. The study’s novelty value arises from the implementation of workplace training among factory employees and the mixed-methods approach to evaluation. The quasi-experimental design with training and control groups included pre- and postmeasurements and four focus group interviews. The results of th...

  13. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  14. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E

    2016-01-01

    of EU-CaRE is to map the efficiency of current CR of the elderly in Europe, and to investigate whether mCR is an effective alternative in terms of efficacy, adherence and sustainability. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EU-CaRE study includes patients aged 65 years or older with ischaemic heart disease or who...... on effectiveness and sustainability of current cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the elderly (EU-CaRE) project consists of an observational study and an open prospective, investigator-initiated multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving mobile telemonitoring guided CR (mCR). OBJECTIVE: The aim...... and sustainability. CONCLUSION: The study will provide important information to improve CR in the elderly. The EU-CaRE RCT is the first European multicentre study of mCR as an alternative for elderly patients not attending usual CR....

  15. Therapeutic effect of terlipressin combined with albumin in 24 patients with hepatorenal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Si

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo observe the therapeutic effect of terlipressin combined with albumin in management of patients with hepatorenal syndrome. MethodsA retrospective study enrolling 46 patients with hepatorenal syndrome from May 2011 to August 2013 was conducted, in which 22 patients were allocated to control group, and 24 patients to treatment group. In addition to conventional treatment, albumin was used in control group, and the patients in treatment group were treated with terlipressin plus albumin. Clinical symptoms, urine volume, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, ascites, and prognosis were observed in the study. The Student′s t test was used for comparison between the two groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of rates. ResultsThe treatment group showed significant improvements in clinical symptoms, while the control group did not. In treatment group, urine volume (ml/24 h increased from (758.5±284.9 to (2277.1±704.8 (P<0.01; serum creatinine level (μmol/L dropped from (234.2±87.2 to (126.8±62.2 (P<0.01; urea nitrogen level (mmol/L dropped from (18.1±6.4 to (10.3±4.5 (P<0.01; body weight (kg dropped from (68.1±3.9 to (646±3.9 (P<0.01; abdominal circumference (cm dropped from (95.0±5.1 to (90.8±4.9 (P<0.01. However, the control group showed no significant changes in urine volume, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, body weight, and abdominal circumference after treatment (P>0.05. There were significant differences in these indices between the two groups after treatment (P<0.05. Significant differences in remission rate and survival rate were observed between the control group and treatment group (P<0.05. ConclusionA combination of terlipressin and albumin has favorable therapeutic effect on hepatorenal syndrome and improves the prognosis of patients with hepatorenal syndrome.

  16. Survivin counteracts the therapeutic effect of microtubule de-stabilizers by stabilizing tubulin polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Hsing-Pang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin is a dual function protein. It inhibits the apoptosis of cells by inhibiting caspases, and also promotes cell growth by stabilizing microtubules during mitosis. Over-expression of survivin has been demonstrated to induce drug-resistance to various chemo-therapeutic agents such as cisplatin (DNA damaging agent and paclitaxel (microtubule stabilizer in cancers. However, survivin-induced resistance to microtubule de-stabilizers such as Vinca alkaloids and Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4-related compounds were seldom demonstrated in the past. Furthermore, the question remains as to whether survivin plays a dominant role in processing cytokinesis or inhibiting caspases activity in cells treated with anti-mitotic compounds. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of survivin on the resistance and susceptibility of human cancer cells to microtubule de-stabilizer-induced cell death. Results BPR0L075 is a CA-4 analog that induces microtubule de-polymerization and subsequent caspase-dependent apoptosis. To study the relationship between the expression of survivin and the resistance to microtubule de-stabilizers, a KB-derived BPR0L075-resistant cancer cell line, KB-L30, was generated for this study. Here, we found that survivin was over-expressed in the KB-L30 cells. Down-regulation of survivin by siRNA induced hyper-sensitivity to BPR0L075 in KB cells and partially re-stored sensitivity to BPR0L075 in KB-L30 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that down-regulation of survivin induced microtubule de-stabilization in both KB and KB-L30 cells. However, the same treatment did not enhance the down-stream caspase-3/-7 activities in BPR0L075-treated KB cells. Translocation of a caspase-independent apoptosis-related molecule, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, from cytoplasm to the nucleus was observed in survivin-targeted KB cells under BPR0L075 treatment. Conclusion In this study, survivin plays an important role in the

  17. Effect of ripple loads on sustained-load cracking in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, P.S.; Meyn, D.A.; Bayles, R.A.; Feng, C.R.; Yoder, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors have extended their study on the effect of the ripple loads on the sustained-load cracking (SLC) behavior of two titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V (an α-β alloy) and Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (a β-α alloy), in an ambient air environment. The methodology which has been used successfully to treat ripple effects on stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is employed again to address the influence of ripple loads on sustained-load cracking. Ripple loads can significantly reduce the apparent sustained load cracking resistance of titanium alloys in a relatively benign environment such as ambient air. For a ripple-load amplitude equal to 5% of the sustained load, the ripple-load cracking thresholds (K IRLC ) of beta-annealed Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-15V-3Cr-3al-3Sn are less than half of the respective sustained-load cracking thresholds (K ISLC ). The extent of ripple-load degradation for these alloys in ambient air -- relative to K ISLC , were found comparable to those observed in a much more aggressive 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution

  18. Can the Clean Development Mechanism attain both cost-effectiveness and sustainable development objectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolshus, Hans H; Vevatne, Jonas; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Aunan, Kristin

    2001-06-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as defined in the Kyoto Protocol, has two objectives: to promote sustainable development in host developing countries, and to improve global cost-effectiveness by assisting developed countries in meeting their Kyoto targets. The aim of this paper is to explore the background of the CDM and discuss to what extent its current design allows it to achieve its dual objective. The first part of the paper is a literature review that includes descriptions of the flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol; the CDM's market potential, and the issues of cost-effectiveness and sustainable development. In the second part of the paper, we discuss to what extent there is a conflict between cost-effectiveness and sustain ability, and whether the two objectives of the CDM can be achieved simultaneously. We develop a set of indicators to evaluate non-carbon benefits of CDM projects on the environment, development, and. equity, and show how these indicators can be used in practice by looking at case studies of CDM project candidates in the energy sector from Brazil and China. We demonstrate that for some CDM projects there is a trade-off between cost-effectiveness, in terms of a low quota price, and a high score on sustain ability indicators. We have reason to believe that the size of the CDM market in some studies is over-estimated since transaction costs and the challenge of promoting sustainable development are not fully accounted for. Also, we find that the proposed set of indicators can be a necessary tool to assure that sustain ability impacts of CDM projects are taken into consideration. (author)

  19. Can the Clean Development Mechanism attain both cost-effectiveness and sustainable development objectives?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolshus, Hans H; Vevatne, Jonas; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Aunan, Kristin

    2001-06-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as defined in the Kyoto Protocol, has two objectives: to promote sustainable development in host developing countries, and to improve global cost-effectiveness by assisting developed countries in meeting their Kyoto targets. The aim of this paper is to explore the background of the CDM and discuss to what extent its current design allows it to achieve its dual objective. The first part of the paper is a literature review that includes descriptions of the flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol; the CDM's market potential, and the issues of cost-effectiveness and sustainable development. In the second part of the paper, we discuss to what extent there is a conflict between cost-effectiveness and sustain ability, and whether the two objectives of the CDM can be achieved simultaneously. We develop a set of indicators to evaluate non-carbon benefits of CDM projects on the environment, development, and. equity, and show how these indicators can be used in practice by looking at case studies of CDM project candidates in the energy sector from Brazil and China. We demonstrate that for some CDM projects there is a trade-off between cost-effectiveness, in terms of a low quota price, and a high score on sustain ability indicators. We have reason to believe that the size of the CDM market in some studies is over-estimated since transaction costs and the challenge of promoting sustainable development are not fully accounted for. Also, we find that the proposed set of indicators can be a necessary tool to assure that sustain ability impacts of CDM projects are taken into consideration. (author)

  20. [Clinical Therapeutic Effect of Oblique Needling with Tuina in Relieving Sacroiliac Joint Injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jia-yi; Li, Yu-xuan; He, Yu-feng; Gan, Lin; Wang, Ai-ming; Tang, Shao-hua; Lu, Fei-yu; Yang, Li-juan; Cat, Xue-ling; Quan, Jian-lin

    2016-04-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of oblique needling in combination with Tuina at the sacroiliac joint for patients experiencing sacroiliac joint injury. One hundred and twenty patients with sacroiliac joint injury were randomized into routine Tuina group and oblique needling combined with Tuina (Acu+ Tuina) group (n = 60 in each group). For patients of the Tuina group, routine Tuina as rotating, pressing-rubbing, digital pressing, articular moving, etc. was manipulated at Shangliao (BL 31), Ciliao (BL 32), Zhongliao (BL 31), Xialiao (BL 30), Huantiao (GB 30), Zhibian (BL 54), Weizhong (BL 40) and sacroiliac joint area. For patients of the Acu+Tuina group, the anatomical points between the bilateral iliac crests and the sacral joints were punctured obliquely with disposable acupuncture needles. The treatment was conducted for 30 min every time, once daily for 3 weeks except weekends. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, concerning intensity of pain, lifting, ability to care for oneself, ability to walk, ability to sit, sexual function, ability to stand, social life, sleep quality, and ability to travel) were employed to evaluate the patients' reactions and functional activity changes before and after the treatment. Following the treatment, of the two 60 patients in the Tuina and Acu + Tuina groups, 12 and 26 cases were cured, 20 and 20 experienced marked improvement, 16 and 11 were effective, 12 and 3 invalid, with the effective rates being 80% and 95%, respectively. The effective rate of the Acu+ Tuina group was significantly superior to that of the Tuina group (Psacroiliac joint region combined with Tuina manipulation is evidently better than simple Tuina in reducing pain and in improving functional activity and life quality in sacroiliac joint injury patients.

  1. Effect of therapeutic interchange on medication reconciliation during hospitalization and upon discharge in a geriatric population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Wang

    Full Text Available Therapeutic interchange of a same class medication for an outpatient medication is a widespread practice during hospitalization in response to limited hospital formularies. However, therapeutic interchange may increase risk of medication errors. The objective was to characterize the prevalence and safety of therapeutic interchange.Secondary analysis of a transitions of care study. We included patients over age 64 admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 2009-2010 with heart failure, pneumonia, or acute coronary syndrome who were taking a medication in any of six commonly-interchanged classes on admission: proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2 blockers, hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS. There was limited electronic medication reconciliation support available. Main measures were presence and accuracy of therapeutic interchange during hospitalization, and rate of medication reconciliation errors on discharge. We examined charts of 303 patients taking 555 medications at time of admission in the six medication classes of interest. A total of 244 (44.0% of medications were therapeutically interchanged to an approved formulary drug at admission, affecting 64% of the study patients. Among the therapeutically interchanged drugs, we identified 78 (32.0% suspected medication conversion errors. The discharge medication reconciliation error rate was 11.5% among the 244 therapeutically interchanged medications, compared with 4.2% among the 311 unchanged medications (relative risk [RR] 2.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-5.19.Therapeutic interchange was prevalent among hospitalized patients in this study and elevates the risk for potential medication errors during and after hospitalization. Improved electronic systems for managing therapeutic interchange and medication reconciliation

  2. Effect of socioeconomic development in the sustainability of the paramo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanco Lopez de Mesa, Jorge Andres

    2011-01-01

    Globalization compromises local communities in their ways to socioeconomic development triggering forms of interaction that are mainly determined by productivism and seldom promoting solidarity and environmental awareness. In this text, the impact of developmental practices in the High-Andean Paramo System of the Antioquia Department are analyzed, in order to estimate the effect of the tunnel of Occidente and associated road infrastructure on welfare and the status of the strategic paramo ecosystem. Multicriteria spatial analysis is adopted to represent the interactions between the environment and development taking into consideration the mobility of crops border, unsatisfied basic needs and the centripetal force of Medellin. Results indicate that the agricultural border advances significantly for the wealthiest municipalities which are also the closest to Medellin. The Paramo System is more prone to experience advance of the border in municipalities benefited by the new road infrastructure because they get richer as they get closer to Medellin.

  3. Effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance and gait of people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Lasa, Susana; Ferriero, Giorgio; Valero, Raquel; Gomez-Muñiz, Fernando; Rabini, Alessia; Varela, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Exercise therapy is an important part of symptomatic and supportive treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). According to the literature, equine-assisted therapies--such as therapeutic horseback riding (THR) and hippotherapy (HT)--are exercise therapies that can have positive physical effects on coordination, muscle tone, postural alignment, stiffness/flexibility, endurance and strength, correcting abnormal movement patterns and improving gait and balance. While HT is known to have a positive effect on balance in PwMS, data about THR are limited. The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of THR on the balance and gait of ambulatory PwMS. Twenty-seven PwMS were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: 12 underwent THR and 15 traditional physiotherapy (for both groups, two series of 10 weekly sessions were performed). Before and after the study period, the following outcome measures were applied: Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Barthel Index, Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA). In addition, patients of the THR group underwent a gait analysis to assess spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction forces. The THR group showed a significant improvement in POMA scores (p<0.005) and two gait parameters: stride time (p<0.04) and ground reaction forces (p<0.01). No statistically significant change was found in the control group. The results of the study show that THR can improve balance and gait of ambulatory PwMS. Findings are preliminary, but promising and in line with the recent literature.

  4. The effects of therapeutic hip exercise with abdominal core activation on recruitment of the hip muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mandy Ky; Chow, Ka Wai; Lai, Alfred Ys; Mak, Noble Kc; Sze, Jason Ch; Tsang, Sharon Mh

    2017-07-21

    lower limb rehabilitation since the increased activation of target hip muscles may enhance the therapeutic effects of hip strengthening exercises.

  5. Comparing the therapeutic effects of finasteride gel and tablet in treatment of the androgenetic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajheydari Zohreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride, a type P-selective 5a-reductase inhibitor, as a causative agent of decreasing dihydroxy testestrone (DHT level, is effective in the treatment of male androgenic alopecia. Aim: We compared the local and oral finasteride in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Method: This is a double blind, randomized clinical trial study of 45 male patients, who were referred with alopecia to the private clinics and departments in Boo-Ali Sina Hospital, in Sari. Patients with male androgenic alopecia were selected according to the history and physical examinations. The patients were randomly divided into two: topical finasteride (A and oral finasteride (B groups. Topical finasteride group (A received a topical gel of 1% finasteride and placebo tablets, while the oral finasteride group (B received finasteride tablets (1 mg and gel base (without drug as placebo for 6 months. The patients were followed by clinical observation and recording of side effects prior to the treatment and at the end of first week, and then by a monthly follow-up. The size of bald area, total hair count, and terminal hair were studied. Data were analyzed by descriptive and Chi-square statistical test. Results: The mean duration of hair loss was 18.8±23.10 months. Each month the terminal hair, size of bald area and hair count between the two groups were compared. There were no significant differences between the two groups as a viewpoint of hair thickness, hair counts and the size of bald area. Serial measurements indicated a significant increase in hair counts and terminal hair counts between the two groups. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the therapeutic effects of both finasteride gel and finasteride tablet were relatively similar to each other.

  6. Therapeutic effects of Hominis placenta herb-acupuncture in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiJung Yeom

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, characterized by leukocyte infiltration, a chronic inflammation of the joint, a pannus formation and the extensive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of synovial tissue proliferation, joint destruction and programmed cell death in rheumatoid joint. In the Korean traditional medicine, Hominis placenta (HP as an herbal solution of herb-acupuncture has been widely used to treat the inflammatory diseases including RA. In order to study the medicinal effect of HP herb-acupuncture on rheumatoid joint, an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA was generated by the injection of 1.5 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emulsified in squalene, to the base of the tail of Spraque-Dawley (SD rats. After onset stage of polyarthritis, HP was daily injected to the Zusanli (ST36 acupuncture points in both of rat lags and the expression patterns of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the knee joint were analyzed using immunostaining and RT-PCR. The HP herb-acupuncture was found to be effective to alleviate the arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats as regards the joint appearance and the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, therapeutic effects of HP herb-acupuncture on the rat with AIA might be related to anti-inflammatory activities of the hurb-acupuncture.

  7. Evaluation of therapeutic effect of low dose naltrexone in experimentally-induced Crohn's disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Dina Ibrahim; Osman, Afaf Sayed; Tolba, Hedayat Mahmoud; Khattab, Aida; Abdel-Salam, Lubna O; Kamel, Mahmoud M

    2016-10-01

    Crohn's disease is a relapsing inflammatory condition afflicting the digestive tract. Drugs used for treatment of Crohn's disease may be associated with serious side effects. Endogenous opioid peptides modulate inflammatory cytokine production. Opioid antagonists have been shown to play a role in healing and repair of tissues. This work was designed to detect the possible beneficial effects of opioid antagonist naltrexone in indomethacin-induced Crohn's disease in rats. Enteritis was induced in male albino rats by two subcutaneous injection of indomethacin in a dose of 7.5mg/kg 24h apart started on day one. Salfasalazine, naltrexone and their combination were administered orally from day one of induction of enteritis to day 10. Disease activity index, serum levels of C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α, macroscopic and microscopic pathological scores and in vitro motility studies were evaluated. Induction of enteritis resulted in significant increase of disease activity index, significant elevation of serum levels of C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α, significant deterioration of pathological scores and significant increase in the mean contractility response of the isolated ileal segments compared with normal untreated rats. Treatment with sulfasalazine, low dose of natrexone or their combination resulted in significant improvement of all measured parameters compared with enteritis group. The current finding could provide new interesting opportunity for developing new therapeutic approaches for treatment of Crohn's disease. Use of naltrexone, especially in small dose, has little side effects making it of interest for treatment of Crohn's disease. Also, it provides the possibility of reduced doses of other drugs if it is used as combined therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A new therapeutic effect of simvastatin revealed by functional improvement in muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Nicholas P; Kim, Min Jeong; Bible, Kenneth L; Adams, Marvin E; Froehner, Stanley C

    2015-10-13

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, degenerative muscle disease with no effective treatment. DMD muscle pathogenesis is characterized by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Statins, cholesterol-lowering drugs, inhibit these deleterious processes in ischemic diseases affecting skeletal muscle, and therefore have potential to improve DMD. However, statins have not been considered for DMD, or other muscular dystrophies, principally because skeletal-muscle-related symptoms are rare, but widely publicized, side effects of these drugs. Here we show positive effects of statins in dystrophic skeletal muscle. Simvastatin dramatically reduced damage and enhanced muscle function in dystrophic (mdx) mice. Long-term simvastatin treatment vastly improved overall muscle health in mdx mice, reducing plasma creatine kinase activity, an established measure of muscle damage, to near-normal levels. This reduction was accompanied by reduced inflammation, more oxidative muscle fibers, and improved strength of the weak diaphragm muscle. Shorter-term treatment protected against muscle fatigue and increased mdx hindlimb muscle force by 40%, a value comparable to current dystrophin gene-based therapies. Increased force correlated with reduced NADPH Oxidase 2 protein expression, the major source of oxidative stress in dystrophic muscle. Finally, in old mdx mice with severe muscle degeneration, simvastatin enhanced diaphragm force and halved fibrosis, a major cause of functional decline in DMD. These improvements were accompanied by autophagy activation, a recent therapeutic target for DMD, and less oxidative stress. Together, our findings highlight that simvastatin substantially improves the overall health and function of dystrophic skeletal muscles and may provide an unexpected, novel therapy for DMD and related neuromuscular diseases.

  9. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation plue previous blood transfusion on rats with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1988-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and blood transfusion on different groups of rats subjected to various doses of total body irradiation (TBI) was studied. In the control group, 80 rats that received TBI of 8,9,10,11 and 12 Gy died between 3∼14 days. In the second group, 67 rats that received the same doses of irradiation were treated with BMT. Except that 8 rats died from lung hemorrhages at 4∼6 days after TBI. 85% of these animals (500/59) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups at 90 days after BMT were 90%, 56%, 56%, 25% and 0% respectively. In the third group, 82 rats receive TBI and blood transfusion prior to BMT. Except that 8 rats subjected to 11∼12 Gy irradiation died from lung hemorrhage at 4∼6 days after BMT, 97% of these animals (72/74) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The 90-day survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups were 93%, 80%, 80%, 60% and 6% respectively. The 90-day survival rate of 50 rats subjected to 9∼11 Gy TBI and treated with blood transfusion and BMT, was 72%, while that 47 rats treated simply with BMT was only 42%. These results showed clearly that previous blood transfusion could increase the rate of hemopoietic engraftment, reduce the incidence if rejection, and raise the survival rate

  10. A novel natural compound from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with therapeutic effects against experimental polymicrobial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Kyun; Park, Yoo Jung; Ko, Min Jung; Wang, Ziyu; Lee, Ha Young; Choi, Young Whan; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-28

    Sepsis is a serious, life-threatening, infectious disease. In this study, we demonstrate that sucrose methyl 3-formyl-4-methylpentanoate (SMFM), a novel natural compound isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.), markedly enhances survival rates by inhibiting lung inflammation in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experimental polymicrobial sepsis model. SMFM strongly reduced bacterial colony units from peritoneal fluid in CLP mice by stimulating the generation of reactive oxygen species. Lymphocyte apoptosis in spleens from CLP mice was also markedly decreased by SMFM administration. SMFM also significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6, in CLP mice. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-6 were also strongly inhibited by SMFM in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that SMFM has therapeutic effects against polymicrobial sepsis that are mediated by enhanced microbial killing and blockage of cytokine storm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Therapeutic effect of frankincense in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease

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    Siamak Beheshti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Frankincense improves memory in different models of learning. However, its influence on models of Alzheimer's disease (AD has not been studied widely. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of frankincense was evaluated in a model of AD induced by i.c.v administration of streptozotocin. Materials and Methods: Under stereotaxic surgery, two guide cannulas were implanted in the lateral ventricles of adult male Wistar rats weighing 230-270 g. One group received streptozotocin (1.5 mg/kg/2μl/side bilaterally on the first and third day of surgery. Another group received artificial cerebro-spinal fluid. Fourteen days after surgery, learning was evaluated using the passive avoidance paradigm. Four other groups of animals received frankincense (50 mg/kg or its solvent after establishment of AD for 21 or 42 consecutive days, and then, memory retrieval was assessed. Results: Streptozotocin increased the number of stimulations required for induction of short-term memory and decreased step-through latency on the test day, significantly (p

  12. Reclamation of Herb Residues Using Probiotics and Their Therapeutic Effect on Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanjing Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residues from herbal medicine processing in pharmaceutical plants create a large amount of waste (herb residues, which consists mainly of environmental pollution and medicinal waste. In order to resolve this problem, probiotics of Bacillus (B. subtilis, Aspergillus (A. oryzae, and Lactobacillus (L. plantarum M3 are selected to reuse herb residue of Jianweixiaoshi tablets (JT, and an antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD mouse model was established to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the herb residue fermentation supernatant. Our results indicated that the fermentation supernatant had scavenged 77.8% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 78% of O2•−, 36.7% of •OH, 39% of Fe2+ chelation, and 716 mg/L reducing power. The inhibition zones for Salmonella (S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, Shigella (Sh. flexneri, Escherichia (E. coli, Listeria (L. monocytogenes, Sh. dysenteriae 301, and Staphylococcus (S. aureus were 17, 14, 19, 18, 20, 19, and 20 mm, respectively. The in vivo results indicated that the fermentation supernatant resulted in a high diarrhea inhibition rate (56%, p<0.05, greatly enhanced the disruption of bacterial diversity caused by antibiotics, and restored the dominant position of L. johnsonii in the treatment and recovery stages. Therefore, the combination of the herb residue and probiotics suggests a potential to explore conversion of these materials for the possible development of therapies for AAD.

  13. Therapeutic Effect of Virtual Reality on Post-Stroke Patients: Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreira da Fonseca, Erika; Ribeiro da Silva, Nildo Manoel; Pinto, Elen Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to check the therapeutic effect of virtual reality associated with conventional physiotherapy on gait balance and the occurrence of falls after a stroke. This was a randomized, blinded clinical trial conducted with post-stroke patients, randomized into two groups-treatment group and control group-and subjected to balance assessments by the Dynamic Gait Index and investigation of falls before and after 20 intervention sessions. Statistically significant difference was considered at P < .05. We selected 30 patients, but there were three segment losses, resulting in a total of 13 patients in the control group and 14 in the treatment group. There was an improvement in gait balance and reduced occurrence of falls in both groups. After intervention, the differences in gait balance in the control group (P = .047) and the reduction in the occurrence of falls in the treatment group (P = .049) were significant. However, in intergroup analysis, there was no difference in the two outcomes. Therapy with games was a useful tool for gait balance rehabilitation in post-stroke patients, with repercussions on the reduction of falls. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adjuvant effects of therapeutic glycolipids administered to a cohort of NKT cell-diverse pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiaga, Bianca L; Whitener, Robert L; Staples, Charles R; Driver, John P

    2014-11-15

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique lymphocyte population that makes important contributions to host defense against numerous microbial pathogens. The powerful immunomodulatory effects of these cells can be exploited in mice by cognate antigens for multiple therapeutic purposes, including for protection from infectious diseases and as adjuvants to improve vaccines against microbial organisms. These applications have potential to treat and prevent infectious diseases in livestock species that express NKT cells, including pigs. In this study, immune tissues from commercial swine of mixed genetic background were compared for NKT cell frequency, cytokine secretion and subset ratios. Pigs were also injected with the model antigen hen-egg lysozyme (HEL) in conjunction with one of three glycosphingolipids, alpha-galactosylceramide (αGC), OCH and C-glycoside that selectively activate NKT cells, to assess the adjuvant potential of each. There was significant variation between individual pigs for all NKT cell parameters measured. The NKT cell agonists elicited HEL-specific immune responses of different quality, but only αGC increased the systemic concentration of NKT cells. Peripheral blood NKT cell frequency measured prior to treatment was a poor predictor of how individual animals responded to NKT cell therapy. However, our results show that although NKT cells vary considerably between pigs, there exists considerable potential to harness these cells to protect swine from infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MUCOLYTIC AGENTS IN PEDIATRICS: RATIONAL SELECTION, THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS AND SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Simonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cough treatment options with mucolytic agents administration at the first several days of acute respiratory tract infections in children. Efficacy of treatment with secretolytic and secretomotoric drugs significantly depends on certain factors. The article contains the criteria of therapeutic efficacy of expectorants. A special attention is given to N-acetylcysteine — a direct acting mucolytic agent, which effect is caused by presence of free sulfhydryl groups, disrupting disulfide bonds between molecules of acid mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins therefore changing the structure of sputum. Acetylcysteine is active against every type of sputum (mucous, muco-purulent, purulent, that is especially important in treatment of bacterial infections, when it is necessary to quickly decrease sputum thickness, eliminate it from the respiratory tract and prevent dissemination of the infection. High efficacy of acetylcysteine is caused by its unique triple action: mucolytic, antioxidant and antitoxic. Mechanism of action of acetylcysteine is discussed in detail. Timely administered treatment will improve sputum discharge and therefore eliminate one of the main factors of bronchial obstruction and decrease the risk of microbial colonization of the respiratory tract. The article also includes indications, contraindications and dosage regimens of acetylcysteine in children. The most common mistakes and specific aspects of mucolytic drugs in pediatrics are listed in the conclusion. 

  16. Therapeutic effect of dioscin on collagen-induced arthritis through reduction of Th1/Th2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yachun; Xing, Enhong; Song, Hongru; Feng, Guiying; Liang, Xiujun; An, Gao; Zhao, Xiaofei; Wang, Mi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the therapeutic effect of dioscin on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Mice model of CIA was induced by chicken collagen II and arthritis index was assessed. After suspension of dioscin (100mg/kg/d) or triptolide was intragastrically administered, the left paw swelling and body weight of each mouse were measured. Then tissue samples were assayed by histopathological analysis. The levels of Th1 and Th2 were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of p-STAT1, p-STAT4 and p-STAT6 was demonstrated by western blot analysis, and T-bet and GATA-3 expression was detected by RT-PCR. The paw swelling and arthritis index were decreased and body weight was increased in the high dose of dioscin group compared to the model group (PTh1/Th2 in the dioscin group (0.82±0.24) and triptolide group (0.99±0.44) was lower than that in the model group (1.84±0.70, PTh1/Th2 cells, which could reduce the expression of p-STAT4, increase the expression of p-STAT6 and GATA3 in the synovial tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biochemical Evaluation of the Therapeutic Effectiveness of Honey in Oral Mucosal Ulcers

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    Nergiz Yılmaz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the therapeutic value of honey in oral mucosal ulcers healing in comparison with Glyceroloxytriester (TGO. We also aimed to biochemically evaluate the healing effects of honey which had been collected from the Blacksea region flora on mucosal ulcers resulting in material loss.Thirty wistar rats (240±30 g were enrolled in this study. Excisional wounds were performed in all rats for animal oral mucosal ulcer model. They were randomly allocated to three groups: group 1 was treated with Apitherapeutic agent or honey (0,1 ml, 2x1, group 2 was treated with TGO (0,1ml, 2x1 locally, Group 3 served as the control group.Following the surgical procedure on day 7, biopsy specimens were taken from right buccal mucosa and on day 14 biopsy specimens were taken from left bucal mucosa in all rats. Afterwards, hydroxy pyroline levels were measured. Data were analyzed statisticallyThere was no statistically significant difference between Group 1 and 2, and also between Group 2 and 3, but there was statistically significant difference between Group 1 and 3 on day 7. There was no statistically significant difference between Group 1, 2 and 3 on day 14.

  18. Clinical review: Balancing the therapeutic, safety, and economic issues underlying effective antipseudomonal carbapenem use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Thomas G

    2008-01-01

    Antipseudomonal carbapenems have played a useful role in our antimicrobial armamentarium for 20 years. However, a review of their use during that period creates concern that their clinical effectiveness is critically dependent on attainment of an appropriate dosing range. Unfortunately, adequate carbapenem dosing is missed for many reasons, including benefit/risk misconceptions, a narrow therapeutic window for imipenem and meropenem (due to an increased rate of seizures at higher doses), increasingly resistant pathogens requiring higher doses than are typically given, and cost containment issues that may limit their use. To improve the use of carbapenems, several initiatives should be considered: increase awareness about appropriate treatment with carbapenems across hospital departments; determine optimal dosing regimens for settings where multidrug resistant organisms are more likely encountered; use of, or combination with, an alternative antimicrobial agent having more favorable pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, or adverse event profile; and administer a newer carbapenem with lower propensity for resistance development (for example, reduced expression of efflux pumps or greater stability against carbapenemases). PMID:18983709

  19. Endovenous treatment of primary varicose veins: an effective and safe therapeutic alternative to stripping?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluner, C.; Fischer, T.; Filimonow, S.; Hamm, B.; Kroencke, T.

    2005-01-01

    Endovenous laser therapy (EVLT) is a new, minimally invasive therapeutic option for treating primary varicose veins and provides an effective and safe alternative to conventional surgical management (stripping). Short-term and intermediate-term outcome is comparable to surgical stripping in terms of elimination of venous reflux (90% - 98%), resolution of visible varices (85%), and improvement of subjective complaints such as sensations of heaviness and tension (96%). Complications occur in 1% - 3% of cases, which is markedly below the rate of conventional surgical management (up to 30%). The intermediate-term incidence of recurrent varicosis in a vein treated by EVLT depends on the laser fluence applied and is reported to range from 7% - 9% compared to 10% - 20% after surgical intervention. Based on a review of the current literature and our own experience, this survey article presents an overview of the indications and contraindications, the technique and pathophysiology of laser-induced venous occlusion, and the results and possible complications of EVLT. (orig.)

  20. Therapeutic effects of flurbiprofen axetil on mesenteric traction syndrome: randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidemasa; Shida, Dai; Tagawa, Kyoko; Iwamoto, Ryo; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takeo

    2017-08-11

    This study aimed to reveal the appropriate timing for the intravenous administration of flurbiprofen axetil for preventing mesenteric traction syndrome (MTS), caused by prostacyclin release. In this prospective, randomized, clinical study, forty-five patients who were undergoing elective surgery for colorectal cancer via laparotomy were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: a preoperative group (n = 16) receiving flurbiprofen axetil directly before surgery; a post-MTS group (n = 14) receiving following MTS onset; and a control group (n = 15) who were not administered flurbiprofen axetil. 6-keto-PGF1α, a stable metabolite of prostacyclin, levels were measured and mean blood pressures were recorded. In the preoperative group, 6-keto-PGF1α levels did not increase, blood pressure levels did not decrease, and no facial flushing was observed. In both the post-MTS and control groups, 6-keto-PGF1α levels increased markedly after mesenteric traction and blood pressure decreased significantly. The post-MTS group exhibited a faster decreasing trend in 6-keto-PGF1α levels and quick restore of the mean blood pressure, and the use of vasopressors and phenylephrine were lower than that in the control group. Even therapeutic administration of flurbiprofen axetil after the onset of MTS has also effects on MTS by suppressing prostacyclin production. Clinical trial number: UMIN000009111 . (Registered 14 October 2012).

  1. Therapeutic effect of increased openness: Investigating mechanism of action in MDMA-assisted psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Mark T; Mithoefer, Michael C; Mithoefer, Ann T; MacAulay, Rebecca K; Jerome, Lisa; Yazar-Klosinski, Berra; Doblin, Rick

    2017-08-01

    A growing body of research suggests that traumatic events lead to persisting personality change characterized by increased neuroticism. Relevantly, enduring improvements in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been found in response to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy. There is evidence that lasting changes in the personality feature of "openness" occur in response to hallucinogens, and that this may potentially act as a therapeutic mechanism of change. The present study investigated whether heightened Openness and decreased Neuroticism served as a mechanism of change within a randomized trial of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) Global Scores and NEO PI-R Personality Inventory (NEO) Openness and Neuroticism Scales served as outcome measures. Results indicated that changes in Openness but not Neuroticism played a moderating role in the relationship between reduced PTSD symptoms and MDMA treatment. Following MDMA-assisted psychotherapy, increased Openness and decreased Neuroticism when comparing baseline personality traits with long-term follow-up traits also were found. These preliminary findings suggest that the effect of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy extends beyond specific PTSD symptomatology and fundamentally alters personality structure, resulting in long-term persisting personality change. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms of psychotherapeutic change.

  2. Therapeutic effects of D-aspartate in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Afraei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is an animal model of multiple sclerosis. EAE is mainly mediated by adaptive and innate immune responses that leads to an inflammatory demyelization and axonal damage. The aim of the present research was to examine the therapeutic efficacy of D-aspartic acid (D-Asp on a mouse EAE model. EAE induction was performed in female C57BL/6 mice by myelin 40 oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35-55 in a complete Freund's adjuvant emulsion, and D-Asp was used to test its efficiency in the reduction of EAE. During the course of study, clinical evaluation was assessed, and on Day 21, post-immunization blood samples were taken from the heart of mice for the evaluation of interleukin 6 and other chemical molecules. The mice were sacrificed, and their brain and cerebellum were removed for histological analysis. Our findings indicated that D-Asp had beneficial effects on EAE by attenuation in the severity and delay in the onset of the disease. Histological analysis showed that treatment with D-Asp can reduce inflammation. Moreover, in D-Asp-treated mice, the serum level of interleukin 6 was significantly lower than that in control animals, whereas the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher. The data indicates that D-Asp possess neuroprotective property to prevent the onset of the multiple sclerosis.

  3. Therapeutic effects of acetylspiramycin and garlicin on cryptosporidiosis among drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Zhu Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis affects humans of all ages, particularly malnourished children and those with compromised immune systems such as HIV/AIDS. This study investigated the therapeutic effects of acetylspiramycin and garlicin on Cryptosporidium infection in institutionalized male drug users receiving rehabilitative treatment. Examination of stool specimens from 903 drug users via modified acid-fast bacilli staining resulted in 172 positive cases. Among them 151 subjects consented to participate in a randomized trial of acetylspiramycin and garlicin in four groups: acetylspiramycin plus garlicin, acetylspiramycin only, garlicin only, and placebo control. The cryptosporidiosis rate was higher in younger subjects with longer drug use history than subjects who are older with shorter history of drug use. After two segments of treatments, 76.2% of the cases achieved negative test results, with the four groups achieving the rates of 92.1%, 76.7%, 72.2%, and 61.8%, respectively (χ2 = 9.517, P = 0.023. These results indicate clinical potential of garlicin in conjunction with acetylspiramycin in treating cryptosporidiosis.

  4. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Amy; Crook, Nathan; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-04-13

    The widespread use of antibiotics in the past 80 years has saved millions of human lives, facilitated technological progress and killed incalculable numbers of microbes, both pathogenic and commensal. Human-associated microbes perform an array of important functions, and we are now just beginning to understand the ways in which antibiotics have reshaped their ecology and the functional consequences of these changes. Mounting evidence shows that antibiotics influence the function of the immune system, our ability to resist infection, and our capacity for processing food. Therefore, it is now more important than ever to revisit how we use antibiotics. This review summarizes current research on the short-term and long-term consequences of antibiotic use on the human microbiome, from early life to adulthood, and its effect on diseases such as malnutrition, obesity, diabetes, and Clostridium difficile infection. Motivated by the consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use, we explore recent progress in the development of antivirulence approaches for resisting infection while minimizing resistance to therapy. We close the article by discussing probiotics and fecal microbiota transplants, which promise to restore the microbiota after damage of the microbiome. Together, the results of studies in this field emphasize the importance of developing a mechanistic understanding of gut ecology to enable the development of new therapeutic strategies and to rationally limit the use of antibiotic compounds.

  5. Effect of repeated oral therapeutic doses of methylphenidate on food intake and growth rate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nausheen; Najam, Rahila

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system stimulants are known to produce anorexia. Previous data suggest that methylphenidate can have variable effects on caloric intake and growth rate. A dose-response study was performed to monitor caloric intake, liquid intake and growth rate in rats following repeated administration of human oral therapeutic doses 2 mg/kg/day, 5mg/kg/day and 8mg/kg/day of methylphenidate. We found that food intake and water intake, increased in all weeks and at all doses used in the study. Growth rate increased more at higher dose (8mg/kg/day) and at low dose (2mg/kg/day) of methylphenidate in 1(st) and 2(nd) week whereas more decreased by the above doses in 3(rd) week, suggesting that food stimulation leads to initial increase in growth rate but long term administration of methylphenidate attenuate growth rate that is not due to modulation of appetite but may be due to anxiety and increased activity produce by stimulants. A possible role of DA, 5HT receptors in modulation of appetite and anxiety is discussed.

  6. Nano-diamonds surface modifications: understanding of electron exchange mechanisms and evidence of a therapeutic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Tristan

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, a therapeutic effect of nano-diamonds (NDs) has been evidenced by investigating the role of NDs surface chemistry on their electronic properties. More precisely, the generation of reactive oxygen species from detonation NDs under ionizing radiation, which could improve current radiotherapy treatments, has been demonstrated. To this end, surface treatments facilitating electron transfer from NDs to their environment, namely hydrogenation and surface graphitization, were developed. Experimental conditions ensuring an efficient hydrogenation by hydrogen plasma were determined under ultrahigh vacuum, before being used to prepare large quantities of NDs in powder phase. A similar procedure was applied to the surface graphitization of NDs, performed by annealing under vacuum at high temperature. The impact of such surface treatments on the electronic interaction properties of NDs has been investigated under ambient air and after dispersion in water. These surface treatments induce a positive Zeta potential to NDs in water, which origin has been discussed. Finally, their interactions with human tumor cells were observed. Radiosensitization of tumor cells using NDs under gamma irradiation was demonstrated, opening new perspectives for NDs in nano-medicine. (author) [fr

  7. Disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism in radiation sickness and its repair under the effect of therapeutic preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshina, G.A.; Silaeva, T.Yu.; Yartsev, E.I.; Yakovlev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of taurin (200mg/kg) in combination with insulin (0.2 IU/kg) on the repair of hormonal activity and of carbohydrate metabolism in an experimentally released radiation sickness was examined. White rats of both sexes weighting 180-200 g were irradiated with a gamma-unit GUM-Co-50 with 700 rad, that corresponds to LDsub(70/30). The preparations were simultaneously administered intraperitoneally every other day altogether 8 times from the 5th day after irradiation. Survival rate in the groups of treated animals was by about 27% higher than in the control. With the administration of therapeutic preparations a repair of the insulin-like plasma activity to the normal levels and a considerable inhibition of liver phosphorylase activity could be observed. Different from insulin action alone a combined use of insulin and taurin led to decrease in blood level of 11-oxycorticosteroids the metabolism of which being essentially impaired by irradiation to the normal value. The restoration of correlation between hormonal activity of adrenal cortex and of the insular apparatus favoured glycogen reproduction in the liver and the decrease in blood-sugar level. Experiments with intact animals as well as in vitro experiments reveal that taurin acts insulin-like

  8. Therapeutic Effect of Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Hypervascular Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Web-based Multicenter Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Jun Hyun; Song, Kyung Sup; Han, Joon Koo

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) as a first treatment course for hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), using nationwide web-based multicenter data in Korea. Eight hundred eighty eight HCC patients who were registered in the internet homepage of primary liver cancer registry (www.plcr.or.kr) from August 2003 to August 2005 were enrolled in this study, and they were investigated till February 2007. The patients were divided into three groups according to the following treatments after first TAE; TAE only, TAE + SL (any surgical resection, transplantation or percutaneous ablation followed), TAE + RC (any radiation therapy or chemotherapy followed). The clinical and tumor characteristics, embolization factors and survival periods were analyzed. The 5-year survival rates of the groups of TAE only, TAE + SL and TAE + RC were 21.6%, 57.4%, and 13.1%, respectively. In all cases and in the TAE only group, more selective and complete embolization increased survival rates. There were tendencies that as smaller tumor and the tumor in earlier stage, more selective and complete embolizations were performed in the TAE only group, and independent prognostic factors of this group were Child-Pugh classification, tumor size and Modified 4th UICC stage. This study is the first nationwide multicenter analysis for TAE using an online registration system in Korea. Selective and complete TAE increases patient's survival, and decisive combined treatment after TAE such as surgical resection, transplantation or percutaneous ablation increases patient's survival.

  9. Therapeutic effects of the smartphones and pads on hyperopia amblyopia of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Hong Dong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of the fine sight training with the smartphones and pads on hyperopia amblyopia of children.METHODS: One hundred and twenty children(120 eyeswith hyperopia amblyopia were randomly divided into two groups in this prospective study. All the children in these two groups received the basic treatments of spectacle correction, penalization therapy and amblyopia trainings. The treatments of red-light blinking and grating as well as traditional fine sight training were used for the children in the control group. However, the smartphones and pads were applied instead of the traditional performances for the fine sight training in the experimental group. Best corrected visual acuity of every child was tested for every 3mo, to observe the time for the visual improvement and efficacy.RESULTS: In comparison with the control group, significant shorter time(80.54±30.87d, PPZ=-2.37, P=0.02.CONCLUSION: The fine sight training with the smartphones and pads can improve vison faster than traditional methods and decrease the time of therapy in children with hyperopia amblyopia, thus providing a new strategy for the treatment of hyperopia amblyopia.

  10. Histomorphometrical analysis on the effects of two therapeutic ultrasound intensities on fracture healing in aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeronimo Rafael Skau

    Full Text Available Introduction Experimental studies conducted in young animals show that therapeutic ultrasound (TUS has been successfully used to shorten the healing time of bone fractures. However, they were not found in the literature, studies comparing the effect of different intensities of UST in aged animals. Objective To test the efficacy of intensity 1.0 W/cm2 and of 0.5 W/cm2 in the consolidation of experimental fracture of the tibia from aged Wistar rats. Materials and methods Three groups of 15 month old rats were submitted to a midshaft osteotomy of the tibia and then, the hind member was immobilized with a metal splint and plaster of Paris, wrapping the knee and ankle joint. One group (L, received ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm2; the other group (I, were exposed to ultrasound at 1.0 W/cm2. One control group (C, did not receive the ultrasound. Fifteen animals (five from each group were euthanatized at the end of the first week and fifteen (five from each group at the end of the third week. The progress of the fracture healing was performed for each group by morphometric analysis of histological sections of the fracture region. Results and conclusion The results showed that fractures treated with ultrasound at 1.0 W/cm2 healed significantly faster than did the fractures treated with ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm2 and the control.

  11. The role of endemic plants in Mauritian traditional medicine - Potential therapeutic benefits or placebo effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummun, Nawraj; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Pynee, Kersley B; Baider, Cláudia; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2018-03-01

    efficacy and safety are, therefore, important. This review reports the scarcity of research on validating the efficacy and safety of medicinal endemic plants. This calls for the use of optimised methodologies to investigate the claims of therapeutic effects resulting from the use of these traditional medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Therapeutic Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Solution on Aplastic Anemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhu Zhao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aplasitc anemia (AA is a bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by an immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic stem cells. Though clinical symptoms could be ameliorated by bone marrow transplantation and/or immunosuppressive therapy, frequent recurrence and especially evolution of clonal hematologic diseases remains problematic clinically. Cytokines such as interferon-γ (INF-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 secreted by autologous T cells are closely related with the development of AA. Hydrogen-rich solution was reported to inhibit the levels of cytokines including INF-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 in vivo in recent studies. This study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich solution on AA in vivo. Methods: AA model was determined in vivo by mice and body weights of the mice were used as the basic physiological index. Peripheral blood cells were calculated to evaluate the hematologic recovery degree. Bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs, tissue histology, as well as CFU-S and CFU-GM forming units were used to evaluate the recovery of bone marrow microenvironment. The ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ cells were examined along with cytokine levels in serum to determine the efficacy of H2-rich solution on the affected immunological functions. Results: Body weight and number of peripheral blood cells were significantly improved for mice in the H2-rich solution treated groups as compared with those with AA. The number of BMNCs and CFUs increased markedly and the bone marrow microenvironment was also improved significantly. The experimental group restrained the cell apoptosis, relieved hyperemia and accelerated tissue repair. The number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells as well as the ratio of CD4/CD8 increased to normal gradually, while the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-6 in serum decreased after H2-rich solution treatment. Conclusion: Our study firstly showed that hydrogen-rich solution accelerated the

  13. The effect of immunomodulators on the immunogenicity of TNF-blocking therapeutic monoclonal antibodies: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieckaert, C.L.; Bartelds, G.M.; Lems, W.F.; Wolbink, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Immunogenicity against these antibodies has been shown to be clinically important: it is associated with shorter response duration because of diminishing concentrations in the blood and with

  14. Development through sustainable tourism and effective policy implementation: Practices of Puerto Princesa City, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazztin Jairum P. Manalo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism has been considered by many local governments as part of their initiatives for economic upliftment. It is one of the major sources of income through the use of their tourist attraction without compromising the natural resources situated within. The enactment and effective implementation of the local government’s policy have achieved a promising efficient outcome for sustainable tourism.. The city of Puerto Princesa had a long history considering its transformation from an environmentally degraded city into one of the major ecotourism sites around the world. Thus, this paper presents the case of Puerto Princesa and its practices as well as economic development by practicing sustainable tourism and effective policy implementation. The City Ordinance No. 163-91 and 640 has improved the lives of the communities by practicing cleanliness and effective waste management their surrounding and tourist destinations. Economic development and benefits from sustainable tourism reflects the city of Puerto Princesa as a role model for Local Government Units. The passing of City Ordinances on Cleanliness drive have played an important role in effective waste management of the city. The key role of having a strong political will in the local government has strongly maintained its best practices for two decades up to the present.

  15. Sustained attention in adult ADHD : time-on-task effects of various measures of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Buggenthin, Rieka; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Thome, Johannes; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    Neuropsychological research on adults with ADHD showed deficits in various aspects of attention. However, the majority of studies failed to explore the change of performance over time, so-called time-on-task effects. As a consequence, little is known about sustained attention performance of adults

  16. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed ...

  17. Regulatory fit effects for injunctive versus descriptive social norms: Evidence from the promotion of sustainable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnyk, V.; Herpen, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers face marketing messages using social norms in many situations where different goals are dominant. This research examines moderating effects of regulatory focus for descriptive and injunctive norms in the promotion of sustainable products. More specifically, it shows that descriptive norms

  18. Sustained Intervention Effects on Older Adults' Attitudes toward Alcohol and Medication Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani, Faika; Allen, Hannah; Schoenberg, Nancy; Martin, Catherine; Clayton, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Background: Older adults are at risk for experiencing alcohol and medication interactions (AMIs) given their concomitant alcohol and medication use. However, there have been limited efforts to develop and evaluate AMI prevention interventions. Purpose: The current study examined sustained intervention effects on older adults' attitudes, awareness,…

  19. Inhibiting the Physiological Stress Effects of a Sustained Attention Task on Shoulder Muscle Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Wixted

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate if a breathing technique could counteract the effects of hyperventilation due to a sustained attention task on shoulder muscle activity. Background: The trend towards higher levels of automation in industry is increasing. Consequently, manufacturing operators often monitor automated process for long periods of their work shift. Prolonged monitoring work requires sustained attention, which is a cognitive process that humans are typically poor at and find stressful. As sustained attention becomes an increasing requirement of manufacturing operators’ job content, the resulting stress experienced could contribute to the onset of many health problems, including work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. Methods: The SART attention test was completed by a group of participants before and after a breathing intervention exercise. The effects of the abdominal breathing intervention on breathing rate, upper trapezius muscle activity and end-tidal CO2 were evaluated. Results: The breathing intervention reduced the moderation effect of end-tidal CO2 on upper trapezius muscle activity. Conclusions: Abdominal breathing could be a useful technique in reducing the effects of sustained attention work on muscular activity. Application: This research can be applied to highly-automated manufacturing industries, where prolonged monitoring of work is widespread and could, in its role as a stressor, be a potential contributor to WRMSDs.

  20. Inhibiting the Physiological Stress Effects of a Sustained Attention Task on Shoulder Muscle Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixted, Fiona; O'Riordan, Cliona; O'Sullivan, Leonard

    2018-01-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate if a breathing technique could counteract the effects of hyperventilation due to a sustained attention task on shoulder muscle activity. The trend towards higher levels of automation in industry is increasing. Consequently, manufacturing operators often monitor automated process for long periods of their work shift. Prolonged monitoring work requires sustained attention, which is a cognitive process that humans are typically poor at and find stressful. As sustained attention becomes an increasing requirement of manufacturing operators' job content, the resulting stress experienced could contribute to the onset of many health problems, including work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). The SART attention test was completed by a group of participants before and after a breathing intervention exercise. The effects of the abdominal breathing intervention on breathing rate, upper trapezius muscle activity and end-tidal CO₂ were evaluated. The breathing intervention reduced the moderation effect of end-tidal CO₂ on upper trapezius muscle activity. Abdominal breathing could be a useful technique in reducing the effects of sustained attention work on muscular activity. This research can be applied to highly-automated manufacturing industries, where prolonged monitoring of work is widespread and could, in its role as a stressor, be a potential contributor to WRMSDs.

  1. Sustainable semiarid dryland production in relation to tillage effects on Hydrology: 1983-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid dryland crop yields with no-till, NT, residue management are often greater than stubble-mulch tillage, SM, as a result of improved soil conditions or water conservation, but knowledge of long-term tillage effects on the comprehensive field hydrology and sustained crop production is needed. ...

  2. Adapting Hypertension Self-Management Interventions to Enhance their Sustained Effectiveness among Urban African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Ameling, Jessica M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; Bone, Lee R.; Levine, David M.; Roter, Debra L.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Noronha, Gary J.; Fagan, Peter J.; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette

    2014-01-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions’ cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community ...

  3. Evolution of the Therapeutic Effects of Induced Local Hypothermia in Neonates with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Basiri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is one of the most important causes of permanent damage to brain tissue that redound to mortality and/or late sequelae such as cerebral palsy or delayed neural development. 15-20 percent of Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE cases die during neonatal period and 25-30 percent of those who survive suffer from neural development problems such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Hypothermia or lowering temperature of brain or total body is a new and promising treatment. The present study was done to assess therapeutic effects of induced local hypothermia in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE among neonates admitted to Fatemieh and Beset hospitals of Hamadan city.Materials & Method: The present study was performed as a randomized clinical trial upon 36 neonates who had inclusion criteria to be imported into the study. In the first 6 hours after birth, the neonates were randomly classified into two 18 person groups. In the control group the neonates were managed with routine treatments consisted of preservative measures and anti-convulsive treatments, if necessary. In the case group the neonates received induced local hypothermia for 6 hours in addition to routine therapeutic managements. The data were analyzed using SPSS Version 13.Results: 72.7% of the neonates of the case and control groups were male. There was no significant difference between the case and control groups in sex, birth weight, gestational age and perinatal obstetric complications. The mean duration of admission was 7.72±4.23 days in the case group and 10.06±5.99 days in the control group with no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.199. The mean time of starting oral feeding was 3.44±3.11 days and 4.53±2.74 days in the control and case groups respectively and this difference was not statistically significant either (P=0.737.The mean time of regaining consciousness was 3.72±3.19 days in the case

  4. India's Proposed Universal Health Coverage Policy: Evidence for Age Structure Transition Effect and Fiscal Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Muttur Ranganathan

    2016-12-01

    India's High Level Expert Group on Universal Health Coverage in 2011 recommended a universal, public-funded and national health coverage policy. As a plausible forward-looking macroeconomic reform in the health sector, this policy proposal on universal health coverage (UHC) needs to be evaluated for age structure transition effect and fiscal sustainability to strengthen its current design and future implementation. Macroeconomic analyses of the long-term implications of age structure transition and fiscal sustainability on India's proposed UHC policy. A new measure of age-specific UHC is developed by combining the age profile of public and private health consumption expenditure by using the National Transfer Accounts methodology. Different projections of age-specific public health expenditure are calculated over the period 2005-2100 to account for the age structure transition effect. The projections include changes in: (1) levels of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows, (2) levels and shape of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows and expenditure converges to that of developed countries (or convergence scenario) based on the Lee-Carter model of forecasting mortality rates, and (3) levels of the expenditure as India moves toward a UHC policy. Fiscal sustainability under each health expenditure projection is determined by using the measures of generational imbalance and sustainability gap in the Generational Accounting methodology. Public health expenditure is marked by age specificities and the elderly population is costlier to support for their healthcare needs in the future. Given the discount and productivity growth rates, the proposed UHC is not fiscally sustainable under India's current fiscal policies except for the convergence scenario. However, if the income elasticity of public expenditure on social welfare and health expenditure is less than one, fiscal sustainability of the UHC policy is attainable in all scenarios of projected public

  5. Effects of therapeutic exercise on masticatory function in patients with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawazoe, Y; Kobayashi, M; Tasaka, T; Tamamoto, M

    1982-01-01

    The slope of the curve relating integrated electromyographic activity of masseter muscle to biting force, the latency of the jaw-jerk reflex, and masticatory performance wee estimated in patients with Duchenne type of progressive muscular dystrophy before and during therapeutic exercise of the somatogenc system. The slope and latency were slightly decreased, and masticatory performance was increased during exercise. These results suggest that therapeutic exercise of the stomatognathic system ...

  6. Effect of propranolol in head tremor: quantitative study following single-dose and sustained drug administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, S; Sasso, E; Negrotti, A; Baratti, M; Fava, R

    1992-12-01

    The effect of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol has been investigated in nine patients suffering from isolated (six patients) or prominent (three patients) essential tremor of the head. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the tremorolytic efficacy of propranolol has been assessed by a quantitative accelerometric method after a single oral dose (120 mg) and following 2 weeks of sustained treatment with two different dosage regimens of the drug (120 and 240 mg daily). As compared with placebo, a significant reduction in tremor magnitude was found following a single oral dose but not on sustained administration of the beta-blocker at either dosage. The results suggest that the efficacy of sustained propranolol on isolated or prominent essential head tremor is less predictable and satisfactory than expected on the basis of the single-dose response, as compared with hand tremor.

  7. Assessing Capacity for Sustainability of Effective Programs and Policies in Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Duggan, Katie; Smith, Carson; Aisaka, Kristelle; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability has been defined as the existence of structures and processes that allow a program to leverage resources to effectively implement and maintain evidence-based public health and is important in local health departments (LHDs) to retain the benefits of effective programs. Explore the applicability of the Program Sustainability Framework in high- and low-capacity LHDs as defined by national performance standards. Case study interviews from June to July 2013. Standard qualitative methodology was used to code transcripts; codes were developed inductively and deductively. Six geographically diverse LHD's (selected from 3 of high and 3 of low capacity) : 35 LHD practitioners. Thematic reports explored the 8 domains (Organizational Capacity, Program Adaptation, Program Evaluation, Communications, Strategic Planning, Funding Stability, Environmental Support, and Partnerships) of the Program Sustainability Framework. High-capacity LHDs described having environmental support, while low-capacity LHDs reported this was lacking. Both high- and low-capacity LHDs described limited funding; however, high-capacity LHDs reported greater funding flexibility. Partnerships were important to high- and low-capacity LHDs, and both described building partnerships to sustain programming. Regarding organizational capacity, high-capacity LHDs reported better access to and support for adequate staff and staff training when compared with low-capacity LHDs. While high-capacity LHDs described integration of program evaluation into implementation and sustainability, low-capacity LHDs reported limited capacity for measurement specifically and evaluation generally. When high-capacity LHDs described program adoption, they discussed an opportunity to adapt and evaluate. Low-capacity LHDs struggled with programs requiring adaptation. High-capacity LHDs described higher quality communication than low-capacity LHDs. High- and low-capacity LHDs described strategic planning, but high

  8. Multiple factor analysis of the therapeutic effect of 131I in treating 783 cases of Graves disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Min; Li Xianfeng; Li Sijin; Chen Haibin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the factors influencing therapeutic effect of 131 I in treating 783 cases of Graves disease. Methods: The values of various indexes were quantized on influencing factors such as age, sex, course of disease, mass of thyroid gland, the absorbed dose of 131 I per gram of thryoid gland, the given dose of 131 I, thyroid 24 h 131 I uptaking percentage, thyroid hormone and thyroid autoantibodys. The assessment of the therapeutic effect was made according to complete remission (including hypothyroidism) and partial remission after 131 I therapy. CMH χ 2 , Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Logistic regression were used to analyze the variable parameters before the treatment. Results: The therapeutic effect of 131 I is significant in the follow-up period (CMH χ 2 =69.21, P 131 I therapy for 12 months. The therapeutic effect was related to such factors as age thyroid mass, the absorbed dose of 131 I per gram of thryoid gland, thyroid 24 h 131 I uptaking percentage, etc (all the values of P 131 I uptaking percentage is higher, thyroid mass is bigger, thyroid gland is with noduses, the given dose of 131 I should be increased. Conversely decreased. (authors)

  9. Usage of model BH6012 two dimensional bone densimeter in the therapeutic effect observation of traditional chinese medicine cured osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jiaxiang; Tang Yahang; Gao Weiling; Chen Hengliang; Pang Jingshun

    1998-01-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a disease characterized by reduced bone mineral, lowered density, weakened strength, etc. A great deal of the illness appeared in the old people, especially old women. The article will deal mainly with two questions: traditional chinese medicine care OP and the usage of two dimensional bone densimeter in the therapeutic effect observation

  10. Effects of a Program of Adapted Therapeutic Horse-Riding in a Group of Autism Spectrum Disorder Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Andrés; Risco, Manuel López; Rubio, Jesús Carlos; Guerrero, Eloisa; García-Peña, Inés Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of horses in therapy has a fairly long history. There are many references to the therapeutic benefits of this activity. Such therapies have been undergoing a boom internationally in recent years. However scientific research into the effective use of this activity in children with autism is still in the early stages of…

  11. Therapeutic Effects of Mechanical Horseback Riding on Gait and Balance Ability in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun Young; Kim, Shin Kyoung; Chung, Jin Sang; Lee, Hyun-Cheol; Lim, Jae Kuk; Lee, Jiwon; Park, Kawn Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of mechanical horseback riding for gait and balance parameters in post-stroke patients. Method This study was a non randomized prospective positive-controlled trial over a 12 week period. From May 2011 to October 2011, 37 stroke patients were recruited from our outpatient clinic and divided into two groups. The control group received the conventional physiotherapy while the intervention group received the conventional physiotherapy along with mechanical horseback riding therapy for 12 weeks. Outcome measurements of gait included the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) and gait part of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (G-POMA) while those of balance included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the balance part of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (B-POMA). These measurements were taken before and after treatment. Results There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics and initial values between the two groups. When comparing baseline and 12 weeks post treatment in each group, the intervention group showed significant improvement on BBS (39.9±5.7 → 45.7±4.8, p=0.001) and B-POMA (10.4±2.6 → 12.6±2.1, p=0.001), but significant improvement on gait parameters. When comparing the groups, the dynamic balance category of BBS in post treatment showed significant difference (p=0.02). Conclusion This study suggests that mechanical horseback riding therapy may be an effective treatment tool for enhancing balance in adults with stroke. PMID:23342307

  12. The therapeutic effects of docosahexaenoic acid on oestrogen/androgen-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Luo, Fei; Zhou, Ying; Du, Xiaoling; Shi, Jiandang; Zhao, Xiaoling; Xu, Yong; Zhu, Yan; Hong, Wei; Zhang, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the major disorders of the urinary system in elderly men. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the main component of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and has nerve protective, anti-inflammatory and tumour-growth inhibitory effects. Here, the therapeutic potential of DHA in treating BPH was investigated. Seal oil effectively prevented the development of prostatic hyperplasia induced by oestradiol/testosterone in a rat model by suppressing the increase of the prostatic index (PI), reducing the thickness of the peri-glandular smooth muscle layer, inhibiting the proliferation of both prostate epithelial and stromal cells, and downregulating the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor α (ERα). An in vitro study showed that DHA inhibited the growth of the human prostate stromal cell line WPMY-1 and the epithelial cell line RWPE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In both cell lines, the DHA arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. In addition, DHA also reduced the expression of ERα and AR in the WPMY-1 and RWPE-1 cells. These results indicate that DHA inhibits the multiplication of prostate stromal and epithelial cells through a mechanism that may involve cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of ERα and AR expression. - Highlights: • Seal oil prevents oestradiol/testosterone (E2/T)-induced BPH in castrated rats. • Seal oil downregulates the expression of oestrogen receptor α(ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) in rat BPH tissues. • DHA inhibits the growth of human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in vitro. • DHA arrests human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in the G2/M phase and downregulates the expression of cyclin B1. • DHA inhibits the expression of ERα and AR in human prostate stromal and epithelial cells.

  13. Therapeutic Effects of Procainamide on Endotoxin-Induced Rhabdomyolysis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Chin; Hii, Hiong-Ping; Tsao, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Shiu-Jen; Ka, Shuk-Man; Liao, Mei-Hui; Wu, Chin-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Overt systemic inflammatory response is a predisposing mechanism for infection-induced skeletal muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Aberrant DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of excessive inflammatory response. The antiarrhythmic drug procainamide is a non-nucleoside inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) used to alleviate DNA hypermethylation. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of procainamide on the syndromes and complications of rhabdomyolysis rats induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rhabdomyolysis animal model was established by intravenous infusion of LPS (5 mg/kg) accompanied by procainamide therapy (50 mg/kg). During the experimental period, the changes of hemodynamics, muscle injury index, kidney function, blood gas, blood electrolytes, blood glucose, and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were examined. Kidneys and lungs were exercised to analyze superoxide production, neutrophil infiltration, and DNMTs expression. The rats in this model showed similar clinical syndromes and complications of rhabdomyolysis including high levels of plasma creatine kinase, acute kidney injury, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. The increases of lung DNMT1 expression and plasma IL-6 concentration were also observed in rhabdomyolysis animals induced by LPS. Treatment with procainamide not only inhibited the overexpression of DNMT1 but also diminished the overproduction of IL-6 in rhabdomyolysis rats. In addition, procainamide improved muscle damage, renal dysfunction, electrolytes disturbance, metabolic acidosis, hypotension, and hypoglycemia in the rats with rhabdomyolysis. Moreover, another DNMT inhibitor hydralazine mitigated hypoglycemia, muscle damage, and renal dysfunction in rhabdomyolysis rats. These findings reveal that therapeutic effects of procainamide could be based on the suppression of DNMT1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine in endotoxin-induced rhabdomyolysis.

  14. Therapeutic Effects of Procainamide on Endotoxin-Induced Rhabdomyolysis in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chin Shih

    Full Text Available Overt systemic inflammatory response is a predisposing mechanism for infection-induced skeletal muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Aberrant DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of excessive inflammatory response. The antiarrhythmic drug procainamide is a non-nucleoside inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 used to alleviate DNA hypermethylation. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of procainamide on the syndromes and complications of rhabdomyolysis rats induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Rhabdomyolysis animal model was established by intravenous infusion of LPS (5 mg/kg accompanied by procainamide therapy (50 mg/kg. During the experimental period, the changes of hemodynamics, muscle injury index, kidney function, blood gas, blood electrolytes, blood glucose, and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels were examined. Kidneys and lungs were exercised to analyze superoxide production, neutrophil infiltration, and DNMTs expression. The rats in this model showed similar clinical syndromes and complications of rhabdomyolysis including high levels of plasma creatine kinase, acute kidney injury, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. The increases of lung DNMT1 expression and plasma IL-6 concentration were also observed in rhabdomyolysis animals induced by LPS. Treatment with procainamide not only inhibited the overexpression of DNMT1 but also diminished the overproduction of IL-6 in rhabdomyolysis rats. In addition, procainamide improved muscle damage, renal dysfunction, electrolytes disturbance, metabolic acidosis, hypotension, and hypoglycemia in the rats with rhabdomyolysis. Moreover, another DNMT inhibitor hydralazine mitigated hypoglycemia, muscle damage, and renal dysfunction in rhabdomyolysis rats. These findings reveal that therapeutic effects of procainamide could be based on the suppression of DNMT1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine in endotoxin-induced rhabdomyolysis.

  15. Therapeutic effect of Sepia ink extract against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair R. Fahmy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients that requires aggressive therapy. Because of the widespread use of antibiotics, corticosteroids, antitumor drugs, and immunosuppressive drugs, the morbidity of IPA is currently increasing. The ink secretion of molluscan species was identified as one of the novel sources of bioactive compounds. So the present study designed to investigate the antifungal and antioxidant effects of Sepia officinalis ink extract against IPA in mice. Eighty neutropenic infected mice were randomly assigned into four main groups (20 mice/group. The 1st group was treated with saline, neutropenic infected, the 2nd group was treated with ink (200 mg/kg and the 3rd group was treated with amphotericin B (150 mg/kg and the 4th group was treated with ink plus amphotericin B (Ink 200 mg/kg and AMB 150 mg/kg. Treatment was started at 24 h after fungal inoculation and was administered for 3 consecutive days. The present study demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of IE against Aspergillus fumigatus. Compared with IPA group; IE-treated, AMB-treated, and AMB + IE-treated animals had a 67.80%, 83.41%, and 72.68% reduction in the pulmonary fungal burden, respectively. Treatment with IE and/or AMB for one and three days significantly decreased MDA and increased GSH and SOD levels in the lung tissues as compared with the infected untreated group. In conclusion, the results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that IE has therapeutic effect against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis via reducing oxidative stress.

  16. The therapeutic effects of docosahexaenoic acid on oestrogen/androgen-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Bioactive Materials Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Luo, Fei [Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin 300211 (China); Zhou, Ying; Du, Xiaoling; Shi, Jiandang; Zhao, Xiaoling [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Bioactive Materials Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Xu, Yong [Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin 300211 (China); Zhu, Yan [Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193 (China); Hong, Wei, E-mail: hongwei@tijmu.edu.cn [Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhang, Ju, E-mail: zhangju@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Bioactive Materials Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the major disorders of the urinary system in elderly men. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the main component of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and has nerve protective, anti-inflammatory and tumour-growth inhibitory effects. Here, the therapeutic potential of DHA in treating BPH was investigated. Seal oil effectively prevented the development of prostatic hyperplasia induced by oestradiol/testosterone in a rat model by suppressing the increase of the prostatic index (PI), reducing the thickness of the peri-glandular smooth muscle layer, inhibiting the proliferation of both prostate epithelial and stromal cells, and downregulating the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor α (ERα). An in vitro study showed that DHA inhibited the growth of the human prostate stromal cell line WPMY-1 and the epithelial cell line RWPE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In both cell lines, the DHA arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. In addition, DHA also reduced the expression of ERα and AR in the WPMY-1 and RWPE-1 cells. These results indicate that DHA inhibits the multiplication of prostate stromal and epithelial cells through a mechanism that may involve cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of ERα and AR expression. - Highlights: • Seal oil prevents oestradiol/testosterone (E2/T)-induced BPH in castrated rats. • Seal oil downregulates the expression of oestrogen receptor α(ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) in rat BPH tissues. • DHA inhibits the growth of human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in vitro. • DHA arrests human prostate stromal and epithelial cells in the G2/M phase and downregulates the expression of cyclin B1. • DHA inhibits the expression of ERα and AR in human prostate stromal and epithelial cells.

  17. Effects of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin in prophylactic and therapeutic doses on the fertility of female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiró-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra; Senefonte, Flávio Renato de Almeida; Ferreira, Cristiane Munaretto; Pereira, Erica Freire de Vasconcelos; Oliveira, Vanessa Marcon de; Menezes, Giovanna Pádoa de; Bósio, Marco Antonio Costa

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of exposure of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in prophylactic and therapeutic doses on the fertility rates of pregnant healthy Wistar rats. Enoxaparin and UFH were administered in prophylactic doses 1 mg/Kg/day 72 UI/Kg/day, and in therapeutic doses at 2 mg/kg/day 400UI/Kg/day. The rats were divided into five groups. The number of live and dead foetuses was quantified. The uterine horns were dissected and the presence of early and late reabsorptions (abortions) was determined. A peffect on fertility with the use of anticoagulant drugs in pregnant healthy Wistar rats.

  18. Preparation of a Sustained-Release Nebulized Aerosol of R-terbutaline Hydrochloride Liposome and Evaluation of Its Anti-asthmatic Effects via Pulmonary Delivery in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingrui; Zhan, Shuyao; Liu, Qing; Su, Hao; Dai, Xi; Wang, Hai; Beng, Huimin; Tan, Wen

    2018-01-01

    An aerosolized liposome formulation for the pulmonary delivery of an anti-asthmatic medication was developed. Asthma treatment usually requires frequent administration of medication for a sustained bronchodilator response. Liposomes are known for their sustained drug release capability and thus would be a suitable delivery system for prolonging the therapeutic effect of anti-asthmatic medication. Liposomes prepared by thin film hydration were loaded with a model drug, R-terbutaline hydrochloride(R-TBH), using an ammonium sulfate-induced transmembrane electrochemical gradient. This technique provided an encapsulation efficiency of up to 71.35% and yielded R-TBH liposomes with a particle size of approximately 145 ± 20 nm. According to stability studies, these R-TBH liposomes should be stored at 4°C before usage. Compared to R-TBH solution, which showed 90.84% release within 8 h, liposomal R-TBH had a cumulative release of 73.53% at 37°C over 192 h. A next generation impactor (NGI) was used to analyze the particle size distribution in the lungs of R-TBH liposome aerosol in vitro at 5°C. The therapeutic efficacy of the nebulized aerosol of the R-TBH liposomes was assessed via pulmonary delivery in guinea pigs. The results showed that, compared to the R-TBH solution group, the R-TBH liposome group had a prolonged anti-asthma effect.

  19. Relation between therapeutic response and side effects induced by methylphenidate as observed by parents and teachers of children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Venkataramana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The desired (therapeutic and undesired (side effects of methylphenidate might have underlying correlations. The aim of this study was to explore the strength and the possible sources of these correlations. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven children with ADHD (6-12 years were administered placebo and methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg in a divided b.i.d. dose, each for a one-week period, in a double-blind, crossover trial. Therapeutic response was assessed using the Conners' Global Index for parents (CGI-Parents and teachers (CGI-Teachers, while side effects were assessed using the Barkley Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS. Results The side effect profile as assessed by the SERS was similar to that of previous studies with insomnia, decreased appetite, and headaches showing significant treatment effects (p Conclusion The greater "mood/anxiety" side effects on methylphenidate and placebo, the less the parents observe improvement of their children while treated with methylphenidate. This suggests that the correlations between "mood/anxiety" side effects and poor response to treatment may be driven by observer effects rather than biological commonalities between therapeutic and side effects of methylphenidate.

  20. Effects of the application of therapeutic massage in children with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González-Sánchez, Blanca; Torres-Piles, Silvia; Martín, Jorge Guerrero; Jiménez-Palomares, María; Bellino, Macarena Núñez

    2017-06-08

    to learn about the effects of the use of therapeutic massage in children with cancer. systematic review of controlled clinical trials The search was conducted in November 2014 in the following databases: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane and PEDro. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials, published in English or Spanish, analyzing the effects of massage on the different stages and types of childhood cancer (between 1 and 18 years old). of 1007 articles found, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Their authors use different massage techniques (Swedish massage, effleurage, petrissage, frictions, pressures), obtaining benefits in the symptoms present during the illness (decrease of pain, nausea, stress, anxiety and increase of white blood cells and neutrophils). therapeutic massage improves the symptoms of children with cancer, but there is a need for more research that may support the effects attributed to it. conocer los efectos del uso del masaje terapéutico en niños con cáncer. revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos controlados la búsqueda se llevó a cabo en noviembre de 2014 en las bases de datos científicas: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane y PEDro. Los criterios de inclusión han sido: ensayos clínicos, publicados en inglés o español, en los que se analizaran los efectos del masaje en las diferentes etapas y tipos de cáncer infantil (entre 1 y 18 años). de 1007 artículos localizados, 7 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Sus autores utilizan diferentes técnicas de masaje (masaje sueco, effleurage, petrissage, fricciones, presiones), obteniendo beneficios en los síntomas presentes durante la enfermedad (disminución del dolor, náuseas, estrés, ansiedad y aumento de glóbulos blancos y neutrófilos). el masaje terapéutico mejora los síntomas de los niños con cáncer, que respalden los efectos que se le atribuyen. conhecer os efeitos do uso da massagem terapêutica em crianças com câncer. revisão sistemática de ensaios cl

  1. Diagnostic and therapeutic path of breast cancer: effectiveness, appropriateness, and costs – results from the DOCMa study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovagnoli MR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli,1 Adriana Bonifacino,2 Cosimo Neglia,3 Marco Benvenuto,3,4 Francesco Vincenzo Sambati,3 Lorenzo Giolli,5 Alessandra Giovagnoli,6 Prisco Piscitelli7,8 1Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, 2Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Sant’Andrea University Hospital, Rome, 3Euro Mediterranean Scientific Biomedical Institute (ISBEM, Brindisi, 4Department of Economics, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, 5eCampus University, Novedrate, 6Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, 7Coleman Ltd, 8IOS, Southern Italy Hospital Institute, Naples, ItalyObjective: An increase in breast cancer incidence has been documented in Italy and in other countries, and some women decide by themselves to undergo diagnostic examinations outside the official screening campaigns. The aim of this paper was to analyze – in terms of effectiveness, appropriate access, and related costs – the path spontaneously followed by a sample of Italian women for the early diagnosis of breast cancer.Subjects and methods: A total of 143 women who consecutively referred themselves to the breast cancer outpatient facilities at the Sant’Andrea University Hospital in Rome from May to June 2007 were enrolled in the study, gave their consent, and were screened according to their individual risk factors for breast cancer. The entire diagnostic and therapeutic path followed in the previous 2 years by each of them, either at Sant’Andrea or in other medical facilities, was reviewed and evaluated in terms of its operative efficiency and fair economic value.Results: The subjects’ mean age was 47.5 years (standard deviation 13.6 years; 55% of the women were <50 years old (28% <40 years, and were thus not included in the official screening campaigns; 97 women (70% were requesting a routine control; and 49% of them had already undergone four to seven examinations before the

  2. Effects of an acute therapeutic or rewarding dose of amphetamine on acquisition of Pavlovian autoshaping and ventral striatal dopamine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuweiler, D R; Athens, J M; Thompson, J M; Vazhayil, S T; Garris, P A

    2018-01-15

    Rewarding doses of amphetamine increase the amplitude, duration, and frequency of dopamine transients in the ventral striatum. Debate continues at the behavioral level about which component of reward, learning or incentive salience, is signaled by these dopamine transients and thus altered in addiction. The learning hypothesis proposes that rewarding drugs result in pathological overlearning of drug-predictive cues, while the incentive sensitization hypothesis suggests that rewarding drugs result in sensitized attribution of incentive salience to drug-predictive cues. Therapeutic doses of amphetamine, such as those used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, are hypothesized to enhance the ventral striatal dopamine transients that are critical for reward-related learning and to enhance Pavlovian learning. However, the effects of therapeutic doses of amphetamine on Pavlovian learning are poorly understood, and the effects on dopamine transients are completely unknown. We determined the effects of an acute pre-training therapeutic or rewarding amphetamine injection on the acquisition of Pavlovian autoshaping in the intact rat. We also determined the effects of these doses on electrically evoked transient-like dopamine signals using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the anesthetized rat. The rewarding dose enhanced the amplitude and duration of DA signals, caused acute task disengagement, impaired learning for several days, and triggered incentive sensitization. The therapeutic dose produced smaller enhancements in DA signals but did not have similar behavioral effects. These results underscore the necessity of more studies using therapeutic doses, and suggest a hybrid learning/incentive sensitization model may be required to explain the development of addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An experimental analysis of the effectiveness and sustainability of a Chinese tutoring package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hang; Miller, L Keith

    2012-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effects of training tutors to use an instructional package to teach pronunciation and translation of the Chinese language. Tutors' correct use of the package increased from 68% of trials to 92% after training, and student correct pronunciation increased from 45% to 90%, with similar effects for translation. Continued use of the package, high social validity, and extended follow-up suggest that use of the package may be sustainable.

  4. Homeopathy and systematics: a systematic analysis of the therapeutic effects of the plant species used in homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharatan, V

    2008-07-01

    The therapeutic effects of the plant species used in homeopathy have never been subjected to systematic analysis. A survey of the various Materiae Medicae shows that over 800 plant species are the source of medicines in homeopathy. As these medicines are considered related to one another with respect to their therapeutic effects for treating similar symptoms, the aim is to classify and map them using the concept of homology. This involves placing the discipline of homeopathy into a comparative framework using these plant medicines as taxa, therapeutic effects as characters, and contemporary cladistic techniques to analyse these relationships. The results are compared using cladograms based on different data sets used in biology (e.g. morphological characters and DNA sequences) to test whether similar cladistic patterns exist among these medicines. By classifying the therapeutic actions, genuine homologies can be distinguished from homoplasies. As this is a comparative study it has been necessary first to update the existing nomenclature of the plant species in the homeopathic literature in line with the current International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

  5. Assessment of therapeutic effect of human choriogonadotropin in a chemical cystitis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Tanik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, female rats induced with chemical cystitis were administered the hormone human choriogonadotropin (HCG, and it was aimed to reveal the usefulness of HCG in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. The materials for this study were 32 Wistar albino female rats. The study groups were formed as follows: the cystitis group (Group 1, the cystitis + HCG protection group (Group 2, the cystitis + HCG treatment group (Group 3, and the control group (Group 4, with eight rats in each group. In this study, blood and urine samples were taken from the rats, they were euthanized, and their bladders were removed for glutathione, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma measurements. It was observed that tissue damage in Group 2 was lower than that in the other two groups. Glutathione levels in Groups 2 and 4 were significantly higher than in Groups 1 and 3 (p = 0.01. Malondialdehyde levels of Groups 2 and 4 were significantly lower than the values in Groups 1 and 3 (p < 0.001. When the cystitis groups were compared in terms of their interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels, the lowest interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were detected in Group 3. It was found that HCG has positive effects on experimental cystitis in rats. This study revealed that HCG should be researched as a therapeutic agent and formed a step for studies to be carried out on this subject.

  6. Neuroprotective and Therapeutic Effect of Caffeine on the Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Induced by Rotenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Salem, Ahmed M; El-Shamy, Karima A; Ahmed, Emad K; Fadl, Nevein N; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-09-03

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of caffeine on rotenone-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rats were divided into control, PD model induced by rotenone (1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 45 days), protected group injected with caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and rotenone for 45 days (during the development of PD model), and treated group injected with caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 45 days after induction of PD model. The data revealed a state of oxidative and nitrosative stress in the midbrain and the striatum of animal model of PD as indicated from the increased lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels and the decreased reduced glutathione level and activities of glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase. Rotenone induced a decrease in acetylcholinesterase and Na + /K + -ATPase activities and an increase in tumor necrosis factor-α level in the midbrain and the striatum. Protection and treatment with caffeine ameliorated the oxidative stress and the changes in acetylcholinesterase and Na + /K + -ATPase activities induced by rotenone in the midbrain and the striatum. This was associated with improvement in the histopathological changes induced in the two areas of PD model. Caffeine protection and treatment restored the depletion of midbrain and striatal dopamine induced by rotenone and prevented decline in motor activities (assessed by open field test) and muscular strength (assessed by traction and hanging tests) and improved norepinephrine level in the two areas. The present study showed that caffeine offered a significant neuroprotection and treatment against neurochemical, histopathological, and behavioral changes in a rotenone-induced rat model of PD.

  7. Comparative therapeutic effects of velaglucerase alfa and imiglucerase in a Gaucher disease mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Hai Xu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease type 1 is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal enzyme, acid beta-glucosidase (GCase. Regular infusions of purified recombinant GCase are the standard of care for reversing hematologic, hepatic, splenic, and bony manifestations. Here, similar in vitro enzymatic properties, and in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD and therapeutic efficacy of GCase were found with two human GCases, recombinant GCase (CHO cell, imiglucerase, Imig and gene-activated GCase (human fibrosarcoma cells, velaglucerase alfa, Vela, in a Gaucher mouse, D409V/null. About 80+% of either enzyme localized to the liver interstitial cells and <5% was recovered in spleens and lungs after bolus i.v. injections. Glucosylceramide (GC levels and storage cell numbers were reduced in a dose (5, 15 or 60 U/kg/wk dependent manner in livers (60-95% and in spleens ( approximately 10-30%. Compared to Vela, Imig (60 U/kg/wk had lesser effects at reducing hepatic GC (p = 0.0199 by 4 wks; this difference disappeared by 8 wks when nearly WT levels were achieved by Imig. Anti-GCase IgG was detected in GCase treated mice at 60 U/kg/wk, and IgE mediated acute hypersensitivity and death occurred after several injections of 60 U/kg/wk (21% with Vela and 34% with Imig. The responses of GC levels and storage cell numbers in Vela- and Imig-treated Gaucher mice at various doses provide a backdrop for clinical applications and decisions.

  8. Therapeutic effects of globular adiponectin in diabetic rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Cui, Fan; Dong, Jing-Jing; You, Guo-Ping; Yang, Xiang-Jiu; Lu, Hua-Dong; Huang, Yan-Ling

    2014-10-28

    To explore the therapeutic role of globular adiponectin (gAd) in high-fat diet/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Seven rats were fed a basic diet (normal control group; NC) during the experiment. Experimental rats (14 rats) were given a high-fat diet for 4 wk and were then injected with STZ to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and NAFLD. Half of the T2DM/NAFLD rats were randomly injected intraperitoneally with gAd for 7 d (gAd-treated group), while the other 7 rats (T2DM/NAFLD group) received 0.9% saline. Plasma biochemical parameters and insulin concentrations were measured. Liver histopathology was examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Insulin receptor expression in the liver was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining, Western blot and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Compared to the control group, the T2DM/NAFLD group had increased levels of glucolipid and decreased levels of insulin. Plasma glucose and lipid levels were decreased in the gAd-treated group, while serum insulin levels increased. The expression of insulin receptor in the T2DM/NAFLD group increased compared with the NC group, and gAd downregulated insulin receptor expression in the livers of T2DM/NAFLD rats. Steatosis of the liver was alleviated in the gAd-treated group compared to the T2DM/NAFLD group (NAS 1.39 ± 0.51 vs 1.92 ± 0.51, P Globular adiponectin exerts beneficial effects in T2DM rats with NAFLD by promoting insulin secretion, mediating glucolipid metabolism, regulating insulin receptor expression and alleviating hepatic steatosis.

  9. Evaluating statistical approaches to leverage large clinical datasets for uncovering therapeutic and adverse medication effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Leena; Carroll, Robert J; Beck, Cole; Mosley, Jonathan D; Roden, Dan M; Denny, Joshua C; Van Driest, Sara L

    2018-04-18

    Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) have been used to discover many genotype-phenotype relationships and have the potential to identify therapeutic and adverse drug outcomes using longitudinal data within electronic health records (EHRs). However, the statistical methods for PheWAS applied to longitudinal EHR medication data have not been established. In this study, we developed methods to address two challenges faced with reuse of EHR for this purpose: confounding by indication, and low exposure and event rates. We used Monte Carlo simulation to assess propensity score (PS) methods, focusing on two of the most commonly used methods, PS matching and PS adjustment, to address confounding by indication. We also compared two logistic regression approaches (the default of Wald vs. Firth's penalized maximum likelihood, PML) to address complete separation due to sparse data with low exposure and event rates. PS adjustment resulted in greater power than propensity score matching, while controlling Type I error at 0.05. The PML method provided reasonable p-values, even in cases with complete separation, with well controlled Type I error rates. Using PS adjustment and the PML method, we identify novel latent drug effects in pediatric patients exposed to two common antibiotic drugs, ampicillin and gentamicin. R packages PheWAS and EHR are available at https://github.com/PheWAS/PheWAS and at CRAN (https://www.r-project.org/), respectively. The R script for data processing and the main analysis is available at https://github.com/choileena/EHR. leena.choi@vanderbilt.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Therapeutic plasma exchange: an effective treatment in ethylene dibromide poisoning cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Naresh; Bharani, Rajesh; Jain, Manish; Argal, Suarabh; Soni, Harish; Kosta, Susmit; Kumar, Ravindra

    2013-10-01

    Ethylene dibromide (EDB) poisoning is very common in Central India and has fatal outcome. EDB is highly protein bound and, therefore, it is suggested that therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) may be useful in removing drug from body shortly after ingestion before EDB metabolizes and causes severe end organ damage. The aim of our study is to find the effect of time of start of TPE on survival outcome of EDB poisoning cases. Fifty-eight cases of EDB poisoning were reviewed from 2007 to 2012 in Department of critical care medicine in tertiary care hospitals at Indore. Five patients were discharged against medical advice and lost to follow up. TPE was done in 47 patients as early as possible and irrespective of appearance of clinical symptoms. TPE was not performed in six cases as they were hypotensive at admission. The patients with EDB poisoning were 15-45 yrs old with 3:2 male to female ratio. Out of 47 who received TPE, 39 patients survived. TPE had started within 24 h of ingestions of EDB in 36 out of 39 survived patients. Survival outcome was nine times higher in patients who received TPE within 24 h than after 24 h of ingestion. Survival rate was increased to 100% in patients where TPE was done within 12 h of ingestion of EDB. Early TPE help to remove plasma protein bound toxin with significant mortality reduction. However, delay in start of TPE after ingestion of poison has significant poor survival outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Therapeutic effects of topical doxycycline in a benzalkonium chloride-induced mouse dry eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Wen-Zhao; Zhu, Zhen-Zhen; Hu, Qian-Qian; Chen, Yan-Feng; He, Hui; Chen, Yong-Xiong; Liu, Zu-Guo

    2014-05-06

    We investigated the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of topical doxycycline in a benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-induced mouse dry eye model. Eye drops containing 0.025%, 0.1% doxycycline or solvent were administered to a BAC-induced dry eye model four times daily. The clinical evaluations, including tear break-up time (BUT), fluorescein staining, inflammatory index, and tear volume, were performed on days 0, 1, 4, 7, and 10. Global specimens were collected on day 10 and processed for immunofluorescent staining, TUNEL, and periodic acid-Schiff assay. The levels of inflammatory mediators in the corneas were determined by real-time PCR. The total and phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were detected by Western blot. Both 0.025% and 0.1% doxycycline treatments resulted in increased BUT, lower fluorescein staining scores, and inflammatory index on days 4, 7, and 10, while no significant change in tear volume was observed. The 0.1% doxycycline-treated group showed more improvements in decreasing fluorescein staining scores, increasing Ki-67-positive cells, and decreasing TUNEL- and keratin-10-positive cells than other groups. The mucin-filled goblet cells in conjunctivas were increased, and the expression of CD11b and levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant in corneas were decreased in both doxycycline-treated groups. In addition, doxycycline significantly reduced the phosphorylation of NF-κB activated in the BAC-treated corneas. Topical doxycycline showed clinical improvements and alleviated ocular surface inflammation on BAC-induced mouse dry eye, suggesting a potential as an anti-inflammatory agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye.

  12. OBSERVATION ON THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF TREATMENT OF 150CASES OF INSOMNIA BY PUNCTURING BODY ACUPOINTS AND OTOPOINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗莲

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper,the therapeutic effect of needling Baihui(GV20)and Sishen-chong(EX-HN1)combined with otopoint Xin(MA-IC),Shenmen,Naodian and pizhixia(MA-AT1)for treatment of insomnia was observed in 150patients.Results showed that the cure rate,effective rate and ineffective rate were84%,13.33%and2.67%respectively.Comparison between Western medicine group and acupuncture group showed a significant difference in the therapeutic effect(P<0.01).It displays that acupuncture can correct the imbalance between excitement and suppression of the cerebral cortex and had effects of tranquilizing and allaying excitement.

  13. International cooperation to improve access to and sustain effectiveness of antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årdal, Christine; Outterson, Kevin; Hoffman, Steven J; Ghafur, Abdul; Sharland, Mike; Ranganathan, Nisha; Smith, Richard; Zorzet, Anna; Cohn, Jennifer; Pittet, Didier; Daulaire, Nils; Morel, Chantal; Rizvi, Zain; Balasegaram, Manica; Dar, Osman A; Heymann, David L; Holmes, Alison H; Moore, Luke S P; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Mendelson, Marc; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2016-01-16

    Securing access to effective antimicrobials is one of the greatest challenges today. Until now, efforts to address this issue have been isolated and uncoordinated, with little focus on sustainable and international solutions. Global collective action is necessary to improve access to life-saving antimicrobials, conserving them, and ensuring continued innovation. Access, conservation, and innovation are beneficial when achieved independently, but much more effective and sustainable if implemented in concert within and across countries. WHO alone will not be able to drive these actions. It will require a multisector response (including the health, agriculture, and veterinary sectors), global coordination, and financing mechanisms with sufficient mandates, authority, resources, and power. Fortunately, securing access to effective antimicrobials has finally gained a place on the global political agenda, and we call on policy makers to develop, endorse, and finance new global institutional arrangements that can ensure robust implementation and bold collective action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  15. Therapeutic effects of radix dipsaci, pyrola herb, and cynomorium songaricum on bone metabolism of ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Meijie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of herbal medicines, such as Radix Dipsaci (RDD, Pyrola Herb (PHD, and Cynomorium songaricum decoction (CSD, on osteoporotic rats induced by ovariectomy (OVX. Methods OVX or sham operations were performed on 69 virgin Wistar rats that were divided into six groups: sham (sham, n = 12, OVX control group (OVX, n = 12, and OVX rats with treatments (diethylstilbestrol, E2, n = 12; RDD, n = 11, PHD, n = 11, and CSD, n = 11. Non-surgical rats served as normal control (NC, n = 12. The treatments began four weeks after surgery and lasted for 12 weeks. Bone mass and bone turnover were analyzed by histomorphometry. Levels of protein expression and mRNA of OPG and RANKL in osteoblasts (OB and bone marrow stromal cells (bMSC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Compared to NC and sham rats, trabecular bone formation was significantly reduced in OVX rats, but restored in E2-treated rats. Treatment with either RDD or PHD enhanced trabecular bone formation remarkably. No significant change of bone formation was observed in CSD-treated rats. OPG expression of protein and mRNA was reduced significantly in OB and bMSC of OVX control rats. RANKL expression of protein and mRNA was increased significantly in OB and bMSC of OVX control rats. These effects were substantially reversed (increased in OPG and decreased in RANKL by treatment with E2, RDD, or PHD in OB and bMSC of OVX rats. No significant changes in either OPG or RANKL expression were observed in OB and bMSC of OVX rats treated with CSD. Conclusions Our study showed that RDD and PHD increased bone formation by stimulating overexpression of OPG and downregulation of RANKL in OB and bMSC. This suggests that RDD and PHD may be used as alternative therapeutic agents for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  16. Chronic effects of therapeutic irradiation for localized prostatic carcinoma on anorectal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeoh, Eric E.K.; Botten, Rochelle; Russo, Antonietta; McGowan, Roz; Fraser, Robert; Roos, Daniel; Penniment, Michael; Borg, Martin; Sun Weiming

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively the prevalence and pathophysiology of anorectal dysfunction following radiation therapy (RTH) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: The following parameters of anorectal function were evaluated in each of 35 patients (aged 55-82 years) with localized prostatic carcinoma treated with RTH either to a dose of 55 Gy/20 fractions/4 weeks (18 patients) or 64 Gy/32 fractions/6.5 weeks (17 patients), before RTH and 4-6 weeks and at a mean (± SD) of 1.4 (± 0.2) years after its completion: (1) anorectal symptoms (questionnaire), (2) anorectal pressures at rest and in response to voluntary squeeze and increases in intra-abdominal pressure (multiport anorectal manometry), (3) rectal sensation (balloon distension) and (4) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound). Results: All but 1 patient completed three series of measurements. RTH had no effect on anal sphincteric morphology. The increase in frequency of defecation and fecal urgency and incontinence scores previously reported in the patients 4-6 weeks after RTH were sustained 1 year later (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.05, cf. baseline, respectively). At this time, 56% (19 of 34), 50% (17 of 34) and 26% (9 of 34) of the patients had increased frequency of defecation, fecal urgency, and incontinence, respectively. Decreases in anal sphincteric pressures at rest and in response to voluntary squeeze recorded in the patients 4-6 weeks after RTH were not sustained 1 year later but the volumes of rectal distension associated with perception of the stimulus and desire to defecate were lower compared with baseline volumes (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), reflecting heightened rectal sensitivity in the patients. There was no difference in measurements between the two radiation dose regimens. Univariate logistical regression analysis was performed on patients who had experienced increased symptom scores or decreases in recorded motor and sensory manometric

  17. Influence of uvA on the erythematogenic and therapeutic effects of uvB irradiation in psoriasis; photoaugmentation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.; Schothorst, A.A.; Suurmond, D.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of repeated exposure to an additive dose of long ultraviolet (uvA) radiation on the erythemogenic and therapeutic effects of middle ultraviolet (uvB) irradiation was investigated in 8 patients with psoriasis. The surface of the backs of these patients was divided into 2 parts, 1 of which received only uvB irradiation 4 times a week and the other uvA + uvB. uvB was provided by Philips TL-12 lamps and uvA by glass-filtered Philips TL-09 lamps. uvA was held constantly at 10 J/cm2, whereas uvB alone were evaluated by 4 tests during the treatment to determine the minimal erythema dose (MED). Test I (at the start of the therapy) showed a photoaugmentative effect which was no longer apparent in Test III (third week). Test III showed a reversal of the ratios of the MEDs of the sites irradiated with the uvA + uvB and uvB (MED A + B/MED B). This is ascribed to the marked pigmentation which appeared after repeated irradiation with the uvA + uvB combination. Comparison showed for the improvement of the psoriasis no distinct differences between uvA + uvB irradiation and uvB alone, but the former had the cosmetic advantage of giving pleasing tan

  18. Enhancing Effective Stakeholder Participation in Local Groundwater Sustainability Planning through Technical Assistance in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, C.; Christian-Smith, J.; Dobbin, K.; Cullen, K.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will share content from UCS's new publication, Getting Involved in Groundwater; A Guide to Effective Engagement in California's Groundwater Sustainability Plans, as well as lessons learned from collaborating with community organizations to provide technical assistance to Groundwater Sustainability Agency (GSA) board members and stakeholders in the San Joaquin Valley on Groundwater Sustainability Plan (GSP) development. California's Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) mandates extensive stakeholder engagement, presenting an opportunity for unincorporated, low-income communities that have historically been affected by but not included in water decisions. However, implementation requires a concerted, thoughtful effort. Through technical assistance and strategic outreach, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is working to ensure stakeholder engagement in GSP development is robust, diverse, and supported by the best science available. UCS created the GSP stakeholder engagement guide to equip GSA members, scientists and interested community members to meaningfully engage in the GSP development process. The guide serves as a technical primer on SGMA's GSP process and as a resource for understanding groundwater management in California. The guide is just one component of a larger effort to overcome barriers to effective engagement in sustainable groundwater management, especially those presented by technical information. In April, UCS co-hosted a technical assistance workshop for GSA and advisory committee members in Visalia, CA with the Community Water Center (CWC), a local environmental justice non-profit. The workshop was well received and UCS and the CWC were invited to host a second workshop in June. To deepen this engagement and provide one-on-one technical assistance, UCS developed a program to match relevant water experts in the UCS Science Network with GSA members or involved community members in need of specific technical support

  19. Effects of Transference Work in the Context of Therapeutic Alliance and Quality of Object Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglend, Per; Hersoug, Anne Grete; Bogwald, Kjell-Petter; Amlo, Svein; Marble, Alice; Sorbye, Oystein; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Ulberg, Randi; Gabbard, Glen O.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Transference interpretation is considered as a core active ingredient in dynamic psychotherapy. In common clinical theory, it is maintained that more mature relationships, as well as a strong therapeutic alliance, may be prerequisites for successful transference work. In this study, the interaction between quality of object relations,…

  20. The Influence of Local Governance: Effects on the Sustainability of Bioenergy Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cavicchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with processes and outcomes of sustainable bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna. It draws on an on-going research project concerning inclusive innovation in forest-based bioenergy and biogas in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Italy. The goal is to explore how local governance impacts on inclusive innovation processes and triple bottom sustainability of bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna and, ultimately, to contribute to the debate on the bioeconomy. It thus compares the case of biogas and forest-based bioenergy production. The study adopts an analytical framework called Grounded Innovation (GRIP and the local governance approach. The study uses qualitative methods and particularly semi-structured interviews and governance analysis. The key results show different outcomes on both inclusive innovation and triple bottom-line dimensions. Biogas has not fostered inclusiveness and triple bottom line sustainability benefits, contrary to forest-based bioenergy. The findings indicate that the minor role of local actors, particularly municipalities, in favour of industrial and national interests may jeopardise the sustainability of biobased industries. Besides, policies limited to financial incentives may lead to a land-acquisition rush, unforeseen local environmental effects and exacerbate conflicts.

  1. Three necessary conditions for establishing effective Sustainable Development Goals in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert V. Norström

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the United Nations-guided process to establish Sustainable Development Goals is to galvanize governments and civil society to rise to the interlinked environmental, societal, and economic challenges we face in the Anthropocene. We argue that the process of setting Sustainable Development Goals should take three key aspects into consideration. First, it should embrace an integrated social-ecological system perspective and acknowledge the key dynamics that such systems entail, including the role of ecosystems in sustaining human wellbeing, multiple cross-scale interactions, and uncertain thresholds. Second, the process needs to address trade-offs between the ambition of goals and the feasibility in reaching them, recognizing biophysical, social, and political constraints. Third, the goal-setting exercise and the management of goal implementation need to be guided by existing knowledge about the principles, dynamics, and constraints of social change processes at all scales, from the individual to the global. Combining these three aspects will increase the chances of establishing and achieving effective Sustainable Development Goals.

  2. Overall Bike Effectiveness as a Sustainability Metric for Bike Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Nugroho Yahya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bike sharing systems (BSS have been widely accepted as an urban transport scheme in many cities around the world. The concept is recently expanded and followed by many cities to offer citizen a “green” and flexible transportation scheme in urban areas. Many works focus on the issues of bike availability while the bike performance, i.e., life cycle issues and its sustainability, for better management has been abandoned. As a consequence, mismanagement of BSS would lead to cost inefficiency and, the worst case, end with operation termination. This study proposes a design science approach by developing an Overall Bike Effectiveness (OBE framework. By incorporating the concept of overall equipment analysis (OEE, the proposed framework is used to measure the bike utilization. Accordingly, the OBE is extended into Theoretical OBE to measure the sustainability of the early-stage of BSS. The framework has been verified and evaluated using a real dataset of BSS. The proposed method provides valuable results for benchmarking, life cycle analysis, system expansion and strategy planning toward sustainability. The paper concludes with a discussion to show the impact of the proposed approach into the real practices of BSS including an outlook toward sustainability of BSS.

  3. Sustainability of University Technology Transfer: Mediating Effect of Inventor’s Technology Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the perspective of knowledge transfer and the technology acceptance model (TAM, this paper constructs a university technology transfer sustainable development model that considers the inventor’s technology service from the perspective of the long-term cooperation of enterprise, and analyzes the mediating effect of the inventor’s technology service on university technology transfer sustainability. By using 270 questionnaires as survey data, it is found that the availability of an inventor’s technology service has a significant positive impact on the attitude tendency and practice tendency of enterprise long-term technological cooperation; enterprise technology absorption capacity and trust between a university and an enterprise also have significant influence on an inventor’s technical service availability. Therefore, the inventor’s technology service acts as a mediator in the relationship between university technology transfer sustainability and influence factors. Universities ought to establish the technology transfer model, which focuses on the inventor’s tacit knowledge transfer service, and promotes the sustainable development of the university.

  4. Exploring the effectiveness of sustainable water management structures in the Upper Pungwe river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyikadzino, B.; Chibisa, P.; Makurira, H.

    The study endeavoured to assess the effectiveness of stakeholder structures and their participation in sustainable water resources management in the Upper Pungwe river basin shared by Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The study sought to assess the level and effectiveness of stakeholder, gender and the vulnerable groups representation in sustainable water resources management as well as the whole stakeholder participation process. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods for data collection and analysis. Sampling data was obtained from 15 stakeholder representatives (councillors) constituting Pungwe Subcatchment Council, 30 water users ranging from small scale to large scale users and professionals in water resources management. Two different questionnaires and three structured interviews were administered during the study. Water permit database, financial reports and other source documents were also analysed. The study established that the sustainability and effectiveness of stakeholder structures and their participation in water resources management is being compromised by lack of stakeholder awareness. Water utilisation is very high in the subcatchment (99%) while women participation is still low (20%). The study therefore recommends the use of quotas for the participation of women in stakeholder structures. Stakeholder structures are encouraged to intensify stakeholder awareness on issues of river protection, efficient water use and pollution control. Further research is recommended to be carried out on the effectiveness of stakeholder structures in combating water pollution and enhancing river protection.

  5. Glucose and caffeine effects on sustained attention: an exploratory fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Grabulosa, Josep M; Adan, Ana; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Núria

    2010-11-01

    Caffeine and glucose can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, neural basis of these effects remain unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of caffeine and glucose on sustained attention, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Forty young right-handed, healthy, low caffeine-consuming subjects participated in the study. In a double-blind, randomised design, subjects received one of the following beverages: vehicle (water, 150 ml); vehicle plus 75 g of glucose; vehicle plus 75 mg of caffeine; vehicle plus 75 g of glucose and 75 mg of caffeine. Participants underwent two scanning fMRI sessions (before and 30 min after of the administration of the beverage). A continuous performance test was used to assess sustained attention. Participants who received combined caffeine and glucose had similar performance to the others but had a decrease in activation in the bilateral parietal and left prefrontal cortex. Since these areas have been related to the sustained attention and working memory processes, results would suggest that combined caffeine and glucose could increase the efficiency of the attentional system. However, more studies using larger samples and different levels of caffeine and glucose are necessary to better understand the combined effects of both substances. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Influence of MHD effects and edge conditions on ITER helium ash accumulation and sustained ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Cohen, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    Dilution of reacting species by build-up of helium ash and its effect on ignition in the ITER tokamak have been studies in a series of simulations with the one-dimensional BALDUR transport code. Thermal diffusivities, obtained from ITER scaling laws and with radial variations observed in JET, gave τ E ∼ 2--4 sec. Refueling of deuterium and tritium maintained constant electron density, while carbon recycling was 100% and the helium ash recycling was varied from 1.0 to 0.5. Including MHD effects, specifically sawteeth and beta limits, we find that ignition can be sustained for 200 seconds with R helium = 0.95. These simulations, the only non-zero-dimensional, time-dependent simulations thus far made for ITER plasmas, emphasize that edge plasma conditions, MHD behavior, and helium particle transport are critical synergistic issues for sustained ignition. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  8. Adapting hypertension self-management interventions to enhance their sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameling, Jessica M; Ephraim, Patti L; Bone, Lee R; Levine, David M; Roter, Debra L; Wolff, Jennifer L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Noronha, Gary J; Fagan, Peter J; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Cooper, Lisa A; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Albert, Michael C; Flynn, Sarah J; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-01-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions' cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community members. The process required substantial time and resources, and the adapted interventions will be tested in a randomized controlled trial.

  9. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally...... sustainable transport. Long-term elasticities tend to be larger than short term elasticities. The long-term elasticities of reward systems are unknown. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Adapting Hypertension Self-Management Interventions to Enhance their Sustained Effectiveness among Urban African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameling, Jessica M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; Bone, Lee R.; Levine, David M.; Roter, Debra L.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Noronha, Gary J.; Fagan, Peter J.; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Cooper, Lisa A.; Aboumatar, Hanan J.; Albert, Michael C.; Flynn, Sarah J.; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2014-01-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions’ cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community members. The process required substantial time and resources, and the adapted interventions will be tested in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24569158

  11. Towards Sustainability: Effective Operations Strategies, Quality Management and Operational Excellence in Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Tornjanski; Sanja Marinković; Željka Jančić

    2017-01-01

    This paper sets out to extend and deepen the understanding the ways toward economic sustainability through efficient and effective growth operations strategies, quality management and operational excellence in banking. In this study we define new quality management practices based on developed conceptual architecture of digital platform for operations function in banking. Additionally, we employ decision making framework consisted of two parts: introduction of new operations services using To...

  12. Nocturnal, every-other-day, online haemodiafiltration: an effective therapeutic alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduell, Francisco; Arias, Marta; Durán, Carlos E; Vera, Manel; Fontseré, Néstor; Azqueta, Manel; Rico, Nayra; Pérez, Nuria; Sentis, Alexis; Elena, Montserrat; Rodriguez, Néstor; Arcal, Carola; Bergadá, Eduardo; Cases, Aleix; Bedini, Jose Luis; Campistol, Josep M

    2012-04-01

    Longer and more frequent dialysis sessions have demonstrated excellent survival and clinical advantages, while online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) provides the most efficient form of dialysis treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of a longer (nocturnal) and more frequent (every-other-day) dialysis schedule with OL-HDF at the same or the highest convective volume. This prospective, in-centre crossover study was carried out in 26 patients, 18 males and 8 females, 49.2±14 years old, on 4-5 h thrice-weekly post-dilution OL-HDF, switched to nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF. Patient inclusion criteria consisted of stable patients with good vascular access and with good prospects for improved occupational, psychological and social rehabilitation. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: Group A received the same convective volume as previously for 6 months followed by a higher convective volume for a further 6 months, while Group B received the same schedule in reverse order. Nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF was well tolerated and 56% of patients who were working during the baseline period continued to work throughout the study with practically no absenteeism. The convective volume was 26.7±2 L at baseline, 27.5±2 with the unchanged volume and 42.9±4 L with the higher volume. eKt/V increased from 1.75±0.4 to 3.37±0.9. Bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine values decreased, while phosphate levels fell markedly with a 90% reduction in phosphate binders. Blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) improved and the use of anti-hypertensive drugs decreased. In both groups, BUN, creatinine and β2-microglobulin reduction ratios improved. Different removal patterns were observed for myoglobin, prolactin and α1-acid glycoprotein. Nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF could be an excellent therapeutic alternative since good tolerance and occupational rehabilitation, marked improvement in dialysis dose

  13. Therapeutic effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Pengyu; Cui Shuang; Luo Jinghua; Qu Chao; Jiang Xin; Qu Yaqin; Dong Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on radiation enteritis. Methods: A total of 52 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the present study. Herein, 46 rats were randomly selected and irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy at their abdomens. Two hours post-irradiation, 23 rats were randomly selected and infused intraperitoneally with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in passage 6 from young-female donor. The other 23 rats were intraperitoneally infused with PBS. The rest 6 rats were set as normal control. During the first 10 days post-irradiation, peripheral blood-samples from irradiated rats were harvested for testing the levels of IL-10 in serum using ELISA assay. Additionally, after isolating the thymic cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the percentages of CD4/CD25/Foxp(3)-positive regulatory T cells in thymus and peripheral blood were tested by flow-cytometry. Finally, infiltration of inflammatory cells and deposition of collagens within irradiated small intestine were analyzed by H&E staining and Masson Trichrome staining, respectively. Based on the MPO-immunohistochemistry staining, the type of infiltrated cells was identified. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for analyzing the survival rate of irradiated rats. Results: During a period of 30 days post-irradiation, the irradiated rats receiving adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells survived longer than those receiving PBS (t = 4.53, P < 0.05). Compared to the irradiated rats with PBS-treatment, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells could elevate the level of IL-10 in serum (7 d: t = 13.93, P < 0.05) and increase the percentages of CD4/CD25/Foxp(3)-positive regulatory T cells in both peripheral blood (3.5 d: t = 7.72, 7 d: t = 11.11, 10 d: t = 6.99, P < 0.05) and thymus (7 d: t = 16.17, 10 d: t = 12.12, P < 0.05). Moreover, infiltration of inflammatory cells and deposition of collagens within irradiated small intestine were mitigated by adipose

  14. Transcriptional Profiling Confirms the Therapeutic Effects of Mast Cell Stabilization in a Dengue Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Juliet; Rathore, Abhay P S; Mantri, Chinmay K; Aman, Siti A B; Nishida, Andrew; St John, Ashley L

    2017-09-15

    There are no approved therapeutics for the treatment of dengue disease despite the global prevalence of dengue virus (DENV) and its mosquito vectors. DENV infections can lead to vascular complications, hemorrhage, and shock due to the ability of DENV to infect a variety of immune and nonimmune cell populations. Increasingly, studies have implicated the host response as a major contributor to severe disease. Inflammatory products of various cell types, including responding T cells, mast cells (MCs), and infected monocytes, can contribute to immune pathology. In this study, we show that the host response to DENV infection in immunocompetent mice recapitulates transcriptional changes that have been described in human studies. We found that DENV infection strongly induced metabolic dysregulation, complement signaling, and inflammation. DENV also affected the immune cell content of the spleen and liver, enhancing NK, NKT, and CD8 + T cell activation. The MC-stabilizing drug ketotifen reversed many of these responses without suppressing memory T cell formation and induced additional changes in the transcriptome and immune cell composition of the spleen, consistent with reduced inflammation. This study provides a global transcriptional map of immune activation in DENV target organs of an immunocompetent host and supports the further development of targeted immunomodulatory strategies to treat DENV disease. IMPORTANCE Dengue virus (DENV), which causes febrile illness, is transmitted by mosquito vectors throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Symptoms of DENV infection involve damage to blood vessels and, in rare cases, hemorrhage and shock. Currently, there are no targeted therapies to treat DENV infection, but it is thought that drugs that target the host immune response may be effective in limiting symptoms that result from excessive inflammation. In this study, we measured the host transcriptional response to infection in multiple DENV target organs

  15. Hsp40 gene therapy exerts therapeutic effects on polyglutamine disease mice via a non-cell autonomous mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Akiko Popiel

    Full Text Available The polyglutamine (polyQ diseases such as Huntington's disease (HD, are neurodegenerative diseases caused by proteins with an expanded polyQ stretch, which misfold and aggregate, and eventually accumulate as inclusion bodies within neurons. Molecules that inhibit polyQ protein misfolding/aggregation, such as Polyglutamine Binding Peptide 1 (QBP1 and molecular chaperones, have been shown to exert therapeutic effects in vivo by crossing of transgenic animals. Towards developing a therapy using these aggregation inhibitors, we here investigated the effect of viral vector-mediated gene therapy using QBP1 and molecular chaperones on polyQ disease model mice. We found that injection of adeno-associated virus type 5 (AAV5 expressing QBP1 or Hsp40 into the striatum both dramatically suppresses inclusion body formation in the HD mouse R6/2. AAV5-Hsp40 injection also ameliorated the motor impairment and extended the lifespan of R6/2 mice. Unexpectedly, we found even in virus non-infected cells that AAV5-Hsp40 appreciably suppresses inclusion body formation, suggesting a non-cell autonomous therapeutic effect. We further show that Hsp40 inhibits secretion of the polyQ protein from cultured cells, implying that it inhibits the recently suggested cell-cell transmission of the polyQ protein. Our results demonstrate for the first time the therapeutic effect of Hsp40 gene therapy on the neurological phenotypes of polyQ disease mice.

  16. R&D Cooperation and Knowledge Spillover Effects for Sustainable Business Innovation in the Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hájek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of research and development (R&D cooperation on the creation of spillover effects for sustainable firms in the chemical industry. We explore the evidence for the origin of knowledge spillovers derived from cooperation amongst firms and universities and R&D organizations as well as to test the influence of internal/external financial support on these effects. The results confirm that when firms acquire knowledge from internal sources, this leads to increased innovation and sustainable performance. We have proved that internal expenditure results in increased internal knowledge spillovers. These findings may be specific for Central and Eastern (CEE transition countries, indicating their efforts to build path-dependent structures based on knowledge institutions and businesses as well as knowledge networks. However, this study also provides a more “global” contribution to the knowledge spillover effect theory. It shows that a firm’s cooperation both with universities and with other firms promotes different types of knowledge spillovers and can affect diverse modes of sustainable activities in innovation.

  17. The Avahan Transition: Effects of Transition Readiness on Program Institutionalization and Sustained Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ozawa

    Full Text Available With declines in development assistance for health and growing interest in country ownership, donors are increasingly faced with the task of transitioning health programs to local actors towards a path to sustainability. Yet there is little available guidance on how to measure and evaluate the success of a transition and its subsequent effects. This study assesses the transition of the Avahan HIV/AIDS prevention program in India to investigate how preparations for transition affected continuation of program activities post-transition.Two rounds of two surveys were conducted and supplemented by data from government and Avahan Computerized Management Information Systems (CMIS. Exploratory factor analysis was used to develop two measures: 1 transition readiness pre-transition, and 2 institutionalization (i.e. integration of initial program systems into organizational procedures and behaviors post-transition. A fixed effects model was built to examine changes in key program delivery outcomes over time. An ordinary least square regression was used to assess the relationship between transition readiness and sustainability of service outcomes both directly, and indirectly through institutionalization.Transition readiness data revealed 3 factors (capacity, alignment and communication, on a 15-item scale with adequate internal consistency (alpha 0.73. Institutionalization was modeled as a unidimensional construct, and a 12-item scale demonstrated moderate internal consistency (alpha 0.60. Coverage of key populations and condom distribution were sustained compared to pre-transition levels (p<0.01. Transition readiness, but not institutionalization, predicted sustained outcomes post-transition. Transition readiness did not necessarily lead to institutionalization of key program elements one year after transition.Greater preparedness prior to transition is important to achieve better service delivery outcomes post-transition. This paper illustrates a

  18. Combined anti-tumor therapeutic effect of targeted gene, hyperthermia, radionuclide brachytherapy in breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daozhen; Tang Qiusha; Xiang Jingying; Xu Fei; Zhang Li; Wang Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antitumor therapeutic effect of combined therapy of magnetic induction heating by nano-magnetic particles, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HSV-tk suicide gene) and internal radiation in mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinoma. Methods: The transfection reagents, plasmids heat shock protein-HSV-tk (pHSP-HSV-tk), ferroso-ferric oxide nano-magnetic fluid flow and 188 Re-ganciclovir-bovine serum albumin-nanopaticles (GCV-BSA-NP) were prepared. The heating experiments in vivo were carried out using ferroso-ferric oxide nano-magnetic fluid flow. Sixty mice tumor models bearing MCF-7 breast carcinoma were established and randomly divided into six groups. Group A was the control group, B was gene transfection therapy group, C was hyperthermia group, D was gene transfection therapy combined with radionuclide brachytherapy group, E was gene therapy combined with hyperthermia group, and F was gene therapy, hyperthermia combined with radionuclide brachytherapy group. The tumor growth, tumor mass and histopathological changes were evaluated. The expression of HSV-tk in the groups of B, D, E and F was detected by RT-PCR. Poisson distribution and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis by SPSS 10.0 software. Results: In the animal heating experiments, the temperature of tumor increased up to 39.6 degree C, 43.2 degree C, and 48.1 degree C quickly with different injected doses (2, 4 and 6 mg respectively) of nano-magnetic particles and maintained for 40 min. The temperature of tumor tissue reduced to 36.8 degree C, 37.5 degree C and 37.8 degree C in 10 min when alternating magnetic field (AMF) stopped. The tumor mass in Groups C ((452.50±30.29) mg), D ((240.98±35.32)mg), E((231.87±27.41) mg) and F ((141.55±23.78) mg) were much lower than that in Group A ((719.12±22.65) mg) (F=800.07, P<0.01), with the most significant treatment effect in Group F.The tumor mass in Group B((684.05±24.02) mg) was higher than

  19. [The effectiveness of therapeutic touch on pain, depression and sleep in patients with chronic pain: clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Ilda Estefani Ribeiro; Baldan, Sueli Santiago; Berton, Ani Fabiana; Pavam, Michele; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes

    2010-12-01

    This research aimed to check the effectiveness of Therapeutic Touch on decreased pain intensity, depression self-assessment scores and improved sleep quality. A clinical before-after trial is presented. The study was carried out at a Basic Health Unit in Fernandópolis, SP-Brazil, involving 30 elderly patients with chronic non-oncologic pain who received 8 sessions of Therapeutic Touch in accordance with the Krieger-Kunz method. The Visual Analogue Scale for pain was applied before and after each session, and Beck Depression Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index before the first and after the last session. Data analysis showed a significant decrease (p Touch was effective to decrease pain intensity and depressive attitudes and symptoms, as well as to improve sleep quality.

  20. Evaluation of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined with radiofrequency capacitive heating on clinical therapeutic effect of metastatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qianli; Ye Qiang; Gu Weizhong; Zhang Jiazhong; Tong Qiangang; Xi Shunfa

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical therapeutic efficacy and adverse efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with radiofrequency capacitive heating (RCH) for metastatic hepatic carcinoma (MHC). Methods: Thirty-nine cases of MHC were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups: study group (n=19) and control group (n=20). Before therapy, the Karnofsky's score of the patients was all beyond 60. Results: The carcinoma growth rate of the study group was -(0.38±0.22), while that of the control group was -(0.13±0.25), showing significant statistical difference (P 0.05). Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of MHC can be further improved by the treatment of TACE combined with radiofrequency capacitive heating without increase of adverse side effects. (authors)

  1. Depressive symptoms as a side effect of the sustained release form of methylphenidate in a 7-year-old boy with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakić Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a clinical entity consisting of a cluster of symptoms including hyperactivity, attention disorder and impulse control disorder group. In the context of ADHD etiology we may say that genetic, clinical and imaging studies point out a disruption of the brain dopamine system, which is corroborated by the clinical effectiveness of stimulant drugs, which increase extracellular dopamine in the brain. Basically, it is a biological and not psychological disorder, which is important both for the comprehension and therapeutical approach to this problem. Today, the best recommended approach regarding children with ADHD is a combination of two therapeutic modalities: pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatment. The first-choice drugs for this disorder belong to the group of sympathomimetics - psychostimulants and atomoxetine (more recently. As the firstchoice therapy, methylphenydate in sustained release form has numerous advantages. Like all drugs, methylphenidate has its unwanted side effects. Most common are: loss of appetite, weight loss, sleeping disorders, irritability, headache. These side effects are well-known and documented in the literature. By analysing the available literature we have found cases of psychiatric side effects such as: psychosis, mania, visual hallucinations, agitation, suicidal ideas. We have not found examples of ADHD in children who use increased dosage of sustained release of methylphenidate leading to depressive symptomatology. On the other side, methylphenidate may be prescribed for off-label use in treatmentresistant cases of depression. Case report. The case of a 7- year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD was on a minimal dose of sustained release form of methylphenidate. After initial titration of the drug, i.e. after raising the dose to the next level the boy developed clinical signs of depression. The treatment was ceased and depressive

  2. [The influence of music on the effectiveness of therapeutic physical exercises in patients with cardiovascular and respiratory pathologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhuraeva, L A; Sadykova, Kh A; Maslova, G V

    1989-01-01

    Medical and pedagogical observation performed during hours of therapeutic exercise in groups of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases patients proved a beneficial effect of music accompaniment. This was most efficient when started from the very onset of the exercise course for the former group of patients and from the second week of the exercise course for the latter patients. It is stated that music should be used differentially at different stages of hospital conditioning.

  3. The therapeutic effects of Cannabis and cannabinoids: An update from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Donald I

    2018-03-01

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine conducted a rapid turn-around comprehensive review of recent medical literature on The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids. The 16-member committee adopted the key features of a systematic review process, conducting an extensive search of relevant databases and considered 10,000 recent abstracts to determine their relevance. Primacy was given to recently published systematic reviews and primary research that studied one of the committee's 11 prioritized health endpoints- therapeutic effects; cancer incidence; cardiometabolic risk; respiratory disease; immune function; injury and death; prenatal, perinatal and postnatal outcomes; psychosocial outcomes; mental health; problem Cannabis use; and Cannabis use and abuse of other substances. The committee developed standard language to categorize the weight of evidence regarding whether Cannabis or cannabinoids use for therapeutic purposes are an effective or ineffective treatment for the prioritized health endpoints of interest. In the Therapeutics chapter reviewed here, the report concluded that there was conclusive or substantial evidence that Cannabis or cannabinoids are effective for the treatment of pain in adults; chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Moderate evidence was found for secondary sleep disturbances. The evidence supporting improvement in appetite, Tourette syndrome, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, cancer, irritable bowel syndrome, epilepsy and a variety of neurodegenerative disorders was described as limited, insufficient or absent. A chapter of the NASEM report enumerated multiple barriers to conducting research on Cannabis in the US that may explain the paucity of positive therapeutic benefits in the published literature to date. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Mathematical Model of the Effect of Immunogenicity on Therapeutic Protein Pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoying; Hickling, Timothy; Kraynov, Eugenia; Kuang, Bing; Parng, Chuenlei; Vicini, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical pharmacokinetic/anti-drug-antibody (PK/ADA) model was constructed for quantitatively assessing immunogenicity for therapeutic proteins. The model is inspired by traditional pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models, and is based on the observed impact of ADA on protein drug clearance. The hypothesis for this work is that altered drug PK contains information about the extent and timing of ADA generation. By fitting drug PK profiles while accounting for ADA-mediated drug cle...

  5. Therapeutic effect of increased openness: Investigating mechanism of action in MDMA-assisted psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Mark T; Mithoefer, Michael C; Mithoefer, Ann T; MacAulay, Rebecca K; Jerome, Lisa; Yazar-Klosinski, Berra; Doblin, Rick

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that traumatic events lead to persisting personality change characterized by increased neuroticism. Relevantly, enduring improvements in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been found in response to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy. There is evidence that lasting changes in the personality feature of ?openness? occur in response to hallucinogens, and that this may potentially act as a therapeutic mechanism of c...

  6. Therapeutic iodine 125 for hyperthyroidism: evidence for a special radiobiological effect on the follicular cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, H.W.; Greig, W.R.; Gillespie, F.C.; Western Regional Hospital Board, Glasgow

    1982-01-01

    An IV perchlorate test was used qualitatively to detect a functional abnormality of the colloid-follicular cell interface in patients given 131 I or 125 I for hyperthyroidism. Radiation damage, manifest as abnormal iodide organification, was more prolonged after 125 I and more often accompanied by unremitting hyperthyroidism than after 131 I. These results conform with theoretical and laboratory data which predict a gradient of deposited radiation across the human follicular cell after therapeutic 125 I. (author)

  7. Effectiveness of multiple therapeutic strategies in neovascular glaucoma patients: A PRISMA-compliant network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zixian; Gong, Jianyang; Liao, Rongfeng; Xu, Shaojun

    2018-04-01

    Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a severe secondary glaucoma with uncontrolled intraocular pressure that leads to serious eye pain and vision loss. Presently, the therapeutic strategies for NVG are diverse, but the therapeutic effects are still not ideal. We performed a network analysis to assess the effect of multiple therapeutic strategies on the treatment of NVG patients. We searched public electronic databases through April 2017 using the following keywords "neovascular glaucoma," "iris neovascularization," "hemorrhagic glaucoma," and "random" without language restrictions. The outcome considered in the present analysis was treatment success rate. A network meta-analysis and multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression were used to compare regimens. We included 27 articles assessing a total of 1884 NVG patients in our analysis. According to the network analysis, interferon and mitomycin plus trabeculectomy (94.9%), glaucoma valve implantation (86.9%), and iris photocoagulation plus trabeculectomy (81.9%) were the most likely to improve treatment success rate in NVG patients. The multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that glaucoma valve, bevacizumab, interferon, cyclophotocoagulation, trabeculectomy, iris photocoagulation, ranibizumab, and mitomycin had advantages in terms of improving treatment success rate in NVG patients. However, the application of retinal photocoagulation and vitrectomy reduced patient treatment success rate. The regimen including mitomycin, interferon, and trabeculectomy was the most likely to improve the treatment success rate in NVG patients. The application of glaucoma valve and bevacizumab were more beneficial for improving patient treatment success rate as a surgery and as an agent, respectively.

  8. Assessing capacity for sustainability of effective programs and policies in local health departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Duggan, Katie; Smith, Carson; Aisaka, Kristelle; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Context Sustainability has been defined as the existence of structures and processes that allow a program to leverage resources to effectively implement and maintain evidence-based public health and is important in local health departments (LHDs) to retain the benefits of effective programs. Objective Explore the applicability of the Program Sustainability Framework in high- and low-capacity LHDs as defined by national performance standards. Design Case study interviews from June-July 2013. Standard qualitative methodology was used to code transcripts; codes were developed inductively and deductively. Setting Six geographically diverse LHD’s (selected from three high- and three low-capacity) Participants 35 LHD practitioners Main Outcome Measures Thematic reports explored the eight domains (Organizational Capacity, Program Adaptation, Program Evaluation, Communications, Strategic Planning, Funding Stability, Environmental Support, and Partnerships) of the Program Sustainability Framework. Results High-capacity LHDs described having environmental support, while low-capacity LHDs reported this was lacking. Both high- and low-capacity LHDs described limited funding; however, high-capacity LHDs reported greater funding flexibility. Partnerships were important to high- and low-capacity LHDs, and both described building partnerships to sustain programming. Regarding organizational capacity, high-capacity LHDs reported better access to and support for adequate staff and staff training compared to low-capacity LHDs. While high-capacity LHDs described integration of program evaluation into implementation and sustainability, low-capacity LHDs reported limited capacity for measurement specifically and evaluation generally. When high-capacity LHDs described program adoption, they discussed an opportunity to adapt and evaluate. Low-capacity LHDs struggled with programs requiring adaptation. High-capacity LHDs described higher quality communication than low-capacity LHDs. High

  9. [Study on effects of low frequency pulse plus auricular point magnetic therapy on electrogastrogram and clinical therapeutic effect in the patient of functional dyspepsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Gang; Yao, Shu-Kun

    2007-04-01

    To compare therapeutic effects of low frequency pulse plus auricular point magnetic therapy and prepulsid on functional dyspepsia (FD). Fifty cases of FD were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. The treatment group were treated with low frequency pulse stimulation on Zhongwan (CV 12), Weishu (BL 21), Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST 36), with Fenglong (ST 40) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) selected according to syndrome differentiation, once a day, 30 min each session. The control group were treated with oral administration of prepulsid. Five days constituted one course. The scores of symptoms and parameters of electrogastrogram (EGG) before and after treatment and the therapeutic effect were investigated. After treatment, the symptom scores significantly decreased (P magnetic therapy can significantly improve the clinical symptoms and gastric activities in the patient of FD, with a better therapeutic effect than prepulsid.

  10. Diffused and sustained inhibitory effects of intestinal electrical stimulation on intestinal motility mediated via sympathetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaotuan; Yin, Jieyun; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2014-06-01

    The aims were to investigate the energy-dose response effect of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) on small bowel motility, to compare the effect of forward and backward IES, and to explore the possibility of using intermittent IES and mechanism of IES on intestinal motility. Five dogs implanted with a duodenal cannula and one pair of intestinal serosal electrodes were studied in five sessions: 1) energy-dose response study; 2) forward IES; 3) backward IES; 4) intermittent IES vs. continuous IES; 5) administration of guanethidine. The contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine were recorded. The duration of sustained effect after turning off IES was manually calculated. 1) IES with long pulse energy dose dependently inhibited contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine (p intestine depended on the energy of IES delivered (p intestine. 5) Guanethidine blocked the inhibitory effect of IES on intestinal motility. IES with long pulses inhibits small intestinal motility; the effect is energy-dose dependent, diffused, and sustained. Intermittent IES has the same efficacy as the continuous IES in inhibiting small intestinal motility. Forward and backward IES have similar inhibitory effects on small bowel motility. This IES-induced inhibitory effect is mediated via the sympathetic pathway. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  11. International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Sustaining Improvements Globally. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this conference is to review and assess ways of further improving the effectiveness of regulatory systems for nuclear facilities and activities for both nuclear safety and nuclear security. The action items in the summary presented by the President of the conference held in 2013 in Ottawa, the lessons of the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the discussions at other international conferences and at international experts’ meetings conducted within the framework of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, as well as the CNS and the principles outlined in the Vienna Declaration on Nuclear Safety, will continue to have a significant impact on regulatory systems. All the aforementioned need to be taken into account to sustain improvements to regulatory systems. The expected outcomes of the conference are: - Enhanced safety and security of nuclear installations worldwide; - Challenges in regulating radiation sources and radioactive waste addressed; - Enhanced international cooperation for sustaining regulatory effectiveness; - Strengthened and sustained regulatory competence for nuclear safety and security; and - Strategies and actions for the future identified, as well as issues for consideration by governments, regulatory bodies and international organizations.

  12. Effects of Population Growth and Climate Variability on Sustainable Groundwater in Mali, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lutz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is increasingly relied on as a source of potable water in developing countries, but factors such as population growth, development, and climate variability, pose potential challenges for ongoing sustainable supply. The effect of these factors on the groundwater system was considered in four scenarios using a numerical model to represent the Bani area of Mali, West Africa. By 2040, population growth, climate variability, and development as urbanization, agriculture, and industry creates scenarios in which groundwater extraction is an increasingly larger percentage of the groundwater system. Consumption from agriculture and industry increases extraction rates from less than 1 to 3.8% of mean annual precipitation, which will likely affect the groundwater system. For instance, concentrated pumping in local areas may result in water level declines. The results of this study contribute to an ongoing evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources in West Africa.

  13. Effect of impurities and ripple upon power regulation in self-sustained tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Tokamak power reactors will likely operate in a self sustained heating mode where additional power losses are introduced to permit higher levels of alpha particle heating (and thus higher levels of total fusion power) at thermal equilibrium. Illustrative 0-dimensional calculations are made to assess requirements for power regulation of self sustained tokamak plasmas by the use of impurity radiation. Effects of impurities upon allowable fuel density and thermal stability are determined. Requirements are calculated for passive thermal stability control by temperature driven radial motion in the presence of ripple transport losses; it appears that stability might be attained over a relatively wide temperature range with a small amount of ripple transport loss. Requirements for power regulation by the use of ripple transport are also determined

  14. Comparison of semiquantitative fluorescence imaging and PET tracer uptake in mesothelioma models as a monitoring system for growth and therapeutic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yuriko; Furukawa, Takako; Arano, Yasushi; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Various techniques are available for in vivo imaging, and precise understanding of their characteristics is essential for effective use of the imaging results. We established human mesothelioma cell lines expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) and examined their fluorescence intensity and uptake of positron emission tomography (PET) tracer analogs to compare their characteristics and assess their usefulness in the evaluation of therapeutics. Method: A human mesothelioma cell line was stably transfected to express RFP. Fluorescence, cell number and protein amount were measured during cell growth and treatment with cytotoxic reagents. In in vivo experiments, RFP-expressing cells were injected subcutaneously or into the pleural cavity of nude mice, and fluorescence images were taken with or without pemetrexed treatment. The uptake of [ 3 H]3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ([ 3 H]FLT) and [ 14 C]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([ 14 C]FDG) under treatment with the above reagents in vitro and in vivo were examined. Results: Strong correlation was observed between fluorescence intensity and total cell number with or without cytotoxic treatment. The uptake of [ 3 H]FLT and [ 14 C]FDG decreased rapidly after the initiation of treatment with actinomycin D or cycloheximide. When treated with pemetrexed, the uptake of [ 3 H]FLT temporarily increased. The cells formed subcutaneous and orthotopic tumors, with fluorescence intensity correlating with tumor volume. The correlation was sustained under pemetrexed treatment. The uptake of [ 3 H]FLT in vivo increased significantly early after pemetrexed treatment. Conclusion: Fluorescence imaging could be used to semiquantitatively monitor tumor size, whereas PET could be used to monitor tumor response to therapeutic treatments, and especially, FLT might be a good marker of the response to anti-folate chemotherapeutics

  15. Comparison of semiquantitative fluorescence imaging and PET tracer uptake in mesothelioma models as a monitoring system for growth and therapeutic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yuriko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba, 260-8675 (Japan); Furukawa, Takako [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida, Fukui, 910-1193 (Japan); Arano, Yasushi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba, 260-8675 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida, Fukui, 910-1193 (Japan); Saga, Tsuneo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Introduction: Various techniques are available for in vivo imaging, and precise understanding of their characteristics is essential for effective use of the imaging results. We established human mesothelioma cell lines expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) and examined their fluorescence intensity and uptake of positron emission tomography (PET) tracer analogs to compare their characteristics and assess their usefulness in the evaluation of therapeutics. Method: A human mesothelioma cell line was stably transfected to express RFP. Fluorescence, cell number and protein amount were measured during cell growth and treatment with cytotoxic reagents. In in vivo experiments, RFP-expressing cells were injected subcutaneously or into the pleural cavity of nude mice, and fluorescence images were taken with or without pemetrexed treatment. The uptake of [{sup 3}H]3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ([{sup 3}H]FLT) and [{sup 14}C]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 14}C]FDG) under treatment with the above reagents in vitro and in vivo were examined. Results: Strong correlation was observed between fluorescence intensity and total cell number with or without cytotoxic treatment. The uptake of [{sup 3}H]FLT and [{sup 14}C]FDG decreased rapidly after the initiation of treatment with actinomycin D or cycloheximide. When treated with pemetrexed, the uptake of [{sup 3}H]FLT temporarily increased. The cells formed subcutaneous and orthotopic tumors, with fluorescence intensity correlating with tumor volume. The correlation was sustained under pemetrexed treatment. The uptake of [{sup 3}H]FLT in vivo increased significantly early after pemetrexed treatment. Conclusion: Fluorescence imaging could be used to semiquantitatively monitor tumor size, whereas PET could be used to monitor tumor response to therapeutic treatments, and especially, FLT might be a good marker of the response to anti-folate chemotherapeutics.

  16. Alkali-Activated Mortars for Sustainable Building Solutions: Effect of Binder Composition on Technical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Attanasio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the construction sector in the use of sustainable binders as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement, the production of which is highly impacting on the environment, due to high carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption. Alkali-activated binders, especially those resulting from low-cost industrial by-products, such as coal fly ash or metallurgical slag, represent a sustainable option for cement replacement, though their use is more challenging, due to some technological issues related to workability or curing conditions. This paper presents sustainable alkali-activated mortars cured in room conditions and based on metakaolin, fly ash, and furnace slag (both by-products resulting from local sources and relevant blends, aiming at their real scale application in the building sector. The effect of binder composition—gradually adjusted taking into consideration technical and environmental aspects (use of industrial by-products in place of natural materials in the view of resources saving—on the performance (workability, compressive strength of different mortar formulations, is discussed in detail. Some guidelines for the design of cement-free binders are given, taking into consideration the effect of each investigated alumino-silicate component. The technical feasibility to produce the mortars with standard procedures and equipment, the curing in room conditions, the promising results achieved in terms of workability and mechanical performance (from 20.0 MPa up to 52.0 MPa, confirm the potential of such materials for practical applications (masonry mortars of class M20 and Md. The cement-free binders resulting from this study can be used as reference for the development of mortars and concrete formulations for sustainable building materials production.

  17. How can plant genetic engineering contribute to cost-effective fish vaccine development for promoting sustainable aquaculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Lössl, Andreas G; Martinussen, Inger; Daniell, Henry

    2013-09-01

    Aquaculture, the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 % of the world's food fish (FAO in The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO, Rome, 2010). The global aquaculture production of food fish reached 62.7 million tonnes in 2011 and is continuously increasing with an estimated production of food fish of 66.5 million tonnes in 2012 (a 9.4 % increase in 1 year, FAO, www.fao.org/fishery/topic/16140 ). Aquaculture is not only important for sustainable protein-based food fish production but also for the aquaculture industry and economy worldwide. Disease prevention is the key issue to maintain a sustainable development of aquaculture. Widespread use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the accumulation of antibiotics in the environment, resulting in water and soil pollution. Thus, vaccination is the most effective and environmentally-friendly approach to combat diseases in aquaculture to manage fish health. Furthermore, when compared to >760 vaccines against human diseases, there are only about 30 fish vaccines commercially available, suggesting the urgent need for development and cost-effective production of fish vaccines for managing fish health, especially in the fast growing fish farming in Asia where profit is minimal and therefore given high priority. Plant genetic engineering has made significant contributions to production of biotech crops for food, feed, valuable recombinant proteins etc. in the past three decades. The use of plants for vaccine production offers several advantages such as low cost, safety and easy scaling up. To date a large number of plant-derived vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins have been produced for human health, of which a few have been made commercially available. However, the development of animal vaccines in plants, especially fish vaccines by genetic engineering, has not yet been addressed. Therefore, there is a need to exploit

  18. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed...... by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly...

  19. Effectiveness of Financial and Fiscal Instruments for Promoting Sustainable Renewable Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dombrovski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The new EU target of achieving 80-95% emission reductions by 2050 calls for novel energy policy solutions. Previous research has failed to evaluate the influence of all relevant elements of energy policy on technology-specific sustainable renewable energy diffusion. This paper adds to existing research by studying the effectiveness of financial and fiscal instruments on diffusion, additionally controlling for potential political, economic, social, and environmental drivers. These drivers are analysed for 26 EU countries over the period 1990-2011. The main results show that feed-in tariffs, quotas, and tenders effectively promote wind technologies. Other explanatory variables have technology- and model-dependent impacts.

  20. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of hydroxyapatite particles labeled with Ho166 in rats with acute and chronic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Lopez, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of an intraarticular injection of hydroxyapatite particles labeled with Holmium-166 ( Ho 166 HA) was evaluated. For this evaluation 72 antigen-induced arthritis rats; the arthritis was induced by an intraarticular injection of a suspension of ovoalbumin and Freund's adjuvant complete. The 72 rats were divided in three groups: control group, acute arthritis group and chronic arthritis group. The evaluation of the therapeutic effect was achieved by the measuring of the perimeter of the arthritic knee joint in different days after the intraarticular injection of 0,5 μCi of Ho 166 -HA (day 0, 4, 9, 14, 19, 30). Also a biological distribution study was done at 4, 24 and 48 hours in different organs, through the counting of its radiation. The results of the biological distribution showed that a very high percent of the injected activity remains inside the joint, with minimal activity in other organs, which indicates that the extra articular leakage is very low. The evaluation of the articular perimeter, demonstrated that Ho 166 -HA has a therapeutic effect , which was shown by comparing the control group (6.42 ±0.43 cm right knee; 6.14 ±0.31 cm left knee) with the acute arthritis group (5.11 ±0.3 cm right knee; 4.95 ±0.39 cm left knee) with significantly statistical values (p≤0,01); also the control group was compared with the chronic arthritis group (5.6 ±0.56 cm right knee; 5.47 ±0.51 cm left knee), with significantly statistical values (p≤0,01). This therapeutic effect was evident too when evaluating the measure of the articular perimeter in acute and chronic arthritis groups through the time with significantly statistical values (p≤0,01). In conclusion the hydroxyapatite particles labeled with Holmium-166 are biologically stable in vivo and have a therapeutic effect in the treatment of acute and chronic arthritis in rats [es

  1. The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance in community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homnick, Tamara D; Henning, Kim M; Swain, Charlene V; Homnick, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    Equine assisted activities (hippotherapy and therapeutic riding) improve balance in patients with disabilities such as cerebral palsy, but have not been systematically studied in older adults, at risk of falls due to balance deficits. We conducted a 10-week, single blind, controlled trial of the effect of a therapeutic horseback riding course on measures of balance in community-dwelling adults 65 years and older. Nine riders and six controls completed the trial. Controls were age matched to riders and all participants were recruited from the local community. Both groups showed improvements in balance during the trial, but did not reach statistical significance. Sample size was small, participants had relatively high initial balance scores, and controls tended to increase their physical activities, likely influencing outcomes. No adverse events occurred and the supervised therapeutic riding program appeared to be a safe and effective form of exercise to improve balance in older adults. A power analysis was performed to estimate numbers of participants needed for a larger study. © The Author(s) 2012.

  2. Cyber stalking victimisation of women: Evaluating the effectiveness of current laws in India from restorative justice and therapeutic jurisprudential perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Victimisation of women through cyber stalking is one of the most serious crimes against women. Many countries including India have developed laws regulating cyber stalking. This article argues that since both, restorative justice (RJ and therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ are victim oriented, the issue of cyber stalking of women may be dealt with by RJ process and the laws in this regard must be analysed by the legal actors with a background in RJ and TJ philosophy. India had earlier taken up therapeutic punishment policy to enforce rights of the accused. But the modern principles of TJ have still not been considered in the RJ background in cyber stalking cases. This article therefore examines whether RJ and TJ principles can replace retributive principles for cyber stalking victimisation. It also examines the Indian cyber stalking law from RJ and TJ perspectives to assess its effectiveness for victims.

  3. Experimental Methodology used by Cell Cultures Laboratory from INRMFB to assess the therapeutic effect of natural factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study design on cell cultures allows the direct biological evaluation at the cellular level, of the therapeutic effect that natural factors can play over the organism.Techniques for obtaining cell cultures requires a complex and laborious task that starts from live tissue sampling, continuous with isolation of cells and their preparation for sowing a culture plate. This preparation involves mechanical and enzymatic action from the researcher on biological material. Derived cell cultures are monitored morphologically by high-performance inverted biological microscope, with video camera for image acquisition. In the final stage, the cells are scraped, and through biochemical and molecular techniques, the therapeutic efficiency hypothesis of the investigated natural factor is verified experimentally. The cell cultures can be crioconservated in special containers with liquid nitrogen.

  4. The Differential Effect of Sustained Operations on Psychomotor Skills of Helicopter Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G

    2018-06-01

    Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill requiring constant control inputs from pilots. A deterioration in psychomotor performance of a helicopter pilot may be detrimental to operational safety. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that psychomotor performance deteriorates over time during sustained operations and that the effect is more pronounced in the feet than the hands. The subjects were helicopter pilots conducting sustained multicrew offshore flight operations in a demanding environment. The remote flight operations involved constant workload in hot environmental conditions with complex operational tasking. Over a period of 6 d 10 helicopter pilots were tested. At the completion of daily flying duties, a helicopter-specific screen-based compensatory tracking task measuring tracking accuracy (over a 5-min period) tested both hands and feet. Data were compared over time and tested for statistical significance for both deterioration and differential effect. A statistically significant deterioration of psychomotor performance was evident in the pilots over time for both hands and feet. There was also a statistically significant differential effect between the hands and the feet in terms of tracking accuracy. The hands recorded a 22.6% decrease in tracking accuracy, while the feet recorded a 39.9% decrease in tracking accuracy. The differential effect may be due to prioritization of limb movement by the motor cortex due to factors such as workload-induced cognitive fatigue. This may result in a greater reduction in performance in the feet than the hands, posing a significant risk to operational safety.McMahon TW, Newman DG. The differential effect of sustained operations on psychomotor skills of helicopter pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):496-502.

  5. The role of international sustainable development law principles in enabling effective renewable energy policy – a South African perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Barnard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is universally accepted that renewable energy is an important contributing factor towards the promotion of sustainable development. The implementation of renewable energy needs to be regulated in an effective manner which in turn necessitates the formulation of law and policy geared towards sustainable development. Recent policy developments in South Africa propose to facilitate the promotion of sustainable development through the implementation of renewable energy, among others. In terms of existing energy policy in South-Africa, the interconnectivity of renewable energy and sustainable development is evident. Most notably, the White Paper on Renewable Energy of 2003 promotes increased access to affordable renewable energy in order to contribute to sustainable development. Moreover, the 2008 first review of the National Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South-Africa of 2005 states that in order for the country’s renewable energy policy to be considered sustainable, it needs to facilitate development in the social, economic and environmental spheres. Notwithstanding, attaining the goal of sustainable development depends on whether all its effecting principles are catered for in the policy developments. Accordingly, in order to ascertain whether South-African law and policy can successfully facilitate/enable sustainable development via the implementation of renewable energy, a specific methodology is proposed. In terms of the New Delhi Declaration of 2002 there are 7 principles of international law effecting sustainable development. These principles will be used as criteria in a principled assessment of South-African renewable energy law and policy in order to establish whether the goal of promoting sustainable development would be effected through the national policy developments.

  6. Experts’ Perceptions of the Effects of Forest Biomass Harvesting on Sustainability in the Alpine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Grilli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In the EU political agenda, the use of forest biomass for energy has grown rapidly and significantly, in order to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions and reduce the energy dependence on fossil fuels of European member countries. The target of the EU climate and energy package is to raise the share of renewable energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20% in 2020 (Directive 2009/28/EC. With regards to biomass energy, the supply of forest wood biomass is expected to rise by 45% (reference period: 2006-2020, in response to increasing demand for renewable sources. The increase of forest biomass supply could have both positive and negative effects on several forest ecosystem services (ESs and local development. These effects should be assessed in a proper manner and taken into account when formulating management strategies. The aim of the paper is to assess the environmental, economic and social sustainability of forest biomass harvesting for energy, using the Figure of Merit (FoM approach. Materials and Methods: Sustainability was assessed through a set of four indicators: two focused on experts’ opinions regarding the effects of forest biomass harvesting and the other two focused on the cost-benefit analysis (potential energy obtained and costs for wood chips. The research was developed through four case studies located in the Alpine Region. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered face-to-face to 32 selected experts. The perceived effects of forest biomass harvesting for energy on ESs and local development were evaluated by experts using a 5-point Likert scale (from “quite negative effect” to “quite positive effect”. Results: All experts agree that forest biomass harvesting has a positive effect on forest products provision and local economic development (employment of local workforce, local entrepreneurship and market diversification, while the effects on other ESs are controversial (e

  7. Combination therapy of potential gene to enhance oral cancer therapeutic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-regulation related to uncontrolled cell division and promotes progression in tumor. Over-expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been detected in oral cancer cells. EGFR-targeting agents are potential therapeutic modalities for treating oral cancer based on our in vitro study. Liposome nanotechnology is used to encapsulate siRNA and were modified with target ligand to receptors on the surface of tumor cells. We used EGFR siRNA to treat oral cancer in vitro.

  8. Therapeutic effectiveness of epicranial nerve blocks on post-traumatic syndrome from head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Caputi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The autor describes the case of a 53-year-old woman suffering from headache and dizziness, sometimes nausea, tinnitus in the right ear, and diffuse scalp allodynia following an occupational accident involving a head injury. Hyposensitizing treatment by anesthetic blockade at the emergence points of the epicranial nerves, which were hyperalgesic to fi nger pressure, rapidly controlled the allodynia and eventually the headache. Unexpectedly, the patient also reported reduced dizziness and resolution of the tinnitus. The unforeseen outcome highlights the unpredictable therapeutic potential of a simple and modestly invasive procedure. The neuropathophysiological interpretation is consequently very interesting.

  9. Therapeutic Effect of Ligustilide-Stimulated Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in a Mouse Thromboembolic Stroke Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kang; Fu, Ru-Huei; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Shih-Yin; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Huang, Pi-Chun; Lin, Po-Cheng; Chang, Fu-Kuei; Liu, Shih-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a result of cerebral ischemia that triggers a cascade of both physiological and biochemical events. No effective treatment is available for stroke; however, stem cells have the potential to rescue tissue from the effects of stroke. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an abundant source of adult stem cells; therefore, ADSC therapy can be considered as a future strategy for regenerative medicine. However, more research is required to improve the effectiveness of transplanted ADSCs as a treatment for stroke in the mouse stroke model. Ligustilide, isolated from the herb Angelica sinensis, exhibits a protective effect on neurons and inhibits inflammation. We also demonstrated that ligustilide treatment increases the expression levels of homing factors such as SDF-1 and CXCR4. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of ADSC transplantation and ligustilide treatment in a mouse thromboembolic stroke model by behavioral tests, including beam walking, locomotor activity, and rotarod analysis. ADSCs pretreated with ligustilide were transplanted into the brains of stroke mice. The results showed that the therapeutic effect of ADSCs pretreated with ligustilide was better than that of ADSCs without ligustilide pretreatment. There was no difference between the recovery of mice treated by ADSC transplantation combined with subcutaneous ligustilide injection and that of mice treated only with ADSCs. The TUNEL assay showed fewer apoptotic cells in the brains of mice transplanted with ADSCs pretreated with ligustilide as well as in those without pretreatment. In summary, pretreatment of ADSCs with ligustilide improves the therapeutic efficacy of ADSC transplantation. The results of this study will help improve stem cell therapies being developed for future clinical applications.

  10. Effect of Economic Vulnerability on Competitive Advantages, Enterprise Performance and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Mamun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of economic vulnerability upon competitive advantages, performance, and sustainability of micro-enterprises owned and managed by micro-entrepreneurs who participate in varied development initiatives in Peninsular Malaysia. Upon adopting the cross-sectional design, data were randomly collected from selected 300 micro-entrepreneurs from the eKasih program (national poverty data bank located in four states of Peninsular Malaysia. The quantitative data were collected by conducting structured interview sessions with the respondents held from September until November 2017. The findings revealed that the state of economic vulnerability among the respondents had a significantly negative effect on the aspects of competitive advantages, performance, and sustainability among micro-enterprises in Peninsular Malaysia. Despite of the widely acknowledged and empirically examined effects of socioeconomic antecedents upon micro-enterprise performance, the focus on the effect of a more comprehensive measure of socioeconomic condition, that is, economic vulnerability, among low-income households appears to be scant. Hence, the outcomes of this study are able to provide critical insights for development organizations pertaining to development programs and their effectiveness on economically vulnerable, particularly among low-income households in Peninsular Malaysia.

  11. Predicted effects of prescribed burning and harvesting on forest recovery and sustainability in southwest Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Charles T

    2006-12-01

    A model-based analysis of the effect of prescribed burning and forest thinning or clear-cutting on stand recovery and sustainability was conducted at Fort Benning, GA, in the southeastern USA. Two experiments were performed with the model. In the first experiment, forest recovery from degraded soils was predicted for 100 years with or without prescribed burning. In the second experiment simulations began with 100 years of predicted stand growth, then forest sustainability was predicted for an additional 100 years under different combinations of prescribed burning and forest harvesting. Three levels of fire intensity (low, medium, and high), that corresponded to 17%, 33%, and 50% consumption of the forest floor C stock by fire, were evaluated at 1-, 2-, and 3-year fire return intervals. Relative to the control (no fire), prescribed burning with a 2- or 3-year return interval caused only a small reduction in predicted steady state soil C stocks (burns did adversely impact forest recovery and sustainability (after harvesting) on less sandy soils, but not on more sandy soils that had greater N availability. Higher intensity and frequency of ground fires increased the chance that tree biomass would not return to pre-harvest levels. Soil N limitation was indicated as the cause of unsustainable forests when prescribed burns were too frequent or too intense to permit stand recovery.

  12. Potential long-term effects of a mind-body intervention for women with major depressive disorder: sustained mental health improvements with a pilot yoga intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention,