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Sample records for sustained speech sound

  1. Auditory and visual sustained attention in children with speech sound disorder.

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    Cristina F B Murphy

    Full Text Available Although research has demonstrated that children with specific language impairment (SLI and reading disorder (RD exhibit sustained attention deficits, no study has investigated sustained attention in children with speech sound disorder (SSD. Given the overlap of symptoms, such as phonological memory deficits, between these different language disorders (i.e., SLI, SSD and RD and the relationships between working memory, attention and language processing, it is worthwhile to investigate whether deficits in sustained attention also occur in children with SSD. A total of 55 children (18 diagnosed with SSD (8.11 ± 1.231 and 37 typically developing children (8.76 ± 1.461 were invited to participate in this study. Auditory and visual sustained-attention tasks were applied. Children with SSD performed worse on these tasks; they committed a greater number of auditory false alarms and exhibited a significant decline in performance over the course of the auditory detection task. The extent to which performance is related to auditory perceptual difficulties and probable working memory deficits is discussed. Further studies are needed to better understand the specific nature of these deficits and their clinical implications.

  2. Language related differences of the sustained response evoked by natural speech sounds.

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    Christina Siu-Dschu Fan

    Full Text Available In tonal languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, the pitch contour of vowels discriminates lexical meaning, which is not the case in non-tonal languages such as German. Recent data provide evidence that pitch processing is influenced by language experience. However, there are still many open questions concerning the representation of such phonological and language-related differences at the level of the auditory cortex (AC. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG, we recorded transient and sustained auditory evoked fields (AEF in native Chinese and German speakers to investigate language related phonological and semantic aspects in the processing of acoustic stimuli. AEF were elicited by spoken meaningful and meaningless syllables, by vowels, and by a French horn tone. Speech sounds were recorded from a native speaker and showed frequency-modulations according to the pitch-contours of Mandarin. The sustained field (SF evoked by natural speech signals was significantly larger for Chinese than for German listeners. In contrast, the SF elicited by a horn tone was not significantly different between groups. Furthermore, the SF of Chinese subjects was larger when evoked by meaningful syllables compared to meaningless ones, but there was no significant difference regarding whether vowels were part of the Chinese phonological system or not. Moreover, the N100m gave subtle but clear evidence that for Chinese listeners other factors than purely physical properties play a role in processing meaningful signals. These findings show that the N100 and the SF generated in Heschl's gyrus are influenced by language experience, which suggests that AC activity related to specific pitch contours of vowels is influenced in a top-down fashion by higher, language related areas. Such interactions are in line with anatomical findings and neuroimaging data, as well as with the dual-stream model of language of Hickok and Poeppel that highlights the close and reciprocal interaction

  3. Language related differences of the sustained response evoked by natural speech sounds.

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    Fan, Christina Siu-Dschu; Zhu, Xingyu; Dosch, Hans Günter; von Stutterheim, Christiane; Rupp, André

    2017-01-01

    In tonal languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, the pitch contour of vowels discriminates lexical meaning, which is not the case in non-tonal languages such as German. Recent data provide evidence that pitch processing is influenced by language experience. However, there are still many open questions concerning the representation of such phonological and language-related differences at the level of the auditory cortex (AC). Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded transient and sustained auditory evoked fields (AEF) in native Chinese and German speakers to investigate language related phonological and semantic aspects in the processing of acoustic stimuli. AEF were elicited by spoken meaningful and meaningless syllables, by vowels, and by a French horn tone. Speech sounds were recorded from a native speaker and showed frequency-modulations according to the pitch-contours of Mandarin. The sustained field (SF) evoked by natural speech signals was significantly larger for Chinese than for German listeners. In contrast, the SF elicited by a horn tone was not significantly different between groups. Furthermore, the SF of Chinese subjects was larger when evoked by meaningful syllables compared to meaningless ones, but there was no significant difference regarding whether vowels were part of the Chinese phonological system or not. Moreover, the N100m gave subtle but clear evidence that for Chinese listeners other factors than purely physical properties play a role in processing meaningful signals. These findings show that the N100 and the SF generated in Heschl's gyrus are influenced by language experience, which suggests that AC activity related to specific pitch contours of vowels is influenced in a top-down fashion by higher, language related areas. Such interactions are in line with anatomical findings and neuroimaging data, as well as with the dual-stream model of language of Hickok and Poeppel that highlights the close and reciprocal interaction between

  4. Intelligibility of speech of children with speech and sound disorders

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    Ivetac, Tina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine speech intelligibility of children with primary speech and sound disorders aged 3 to 6 years in everyday life. The research problem is based on the degree to which parents or guardians, immediate family members (sister, brother, grandparents), extended family members (aunt, uncle, cousin), child's friends, other acquaintances, child's teachers and strangers understand the speech of children with speech sound disorders. We examined whether the level ...

  5. Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children

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    Williams, A. Lynn, Ed.; McLeod, Sharynne, Ed.; McCauley, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With detailed discussion and invaluable video footage of 23 treatment interventions for speech sound disorders (SSDs) in children, this textbook and DVD set should be part of every speech-language pathologist's professional preparation. Focusing on children with functional or motor-based speech disorders from early childhood through the early…

  6. Speech versus singing: Infants choose happier sounds

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    Marieve eCorbeil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants’ attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4-13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech versus hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children’s song spoken versus sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children’s song versus a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age.

  7. SUSTAINABILITY IN THE BOWELS OF SPEECHES

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    Jadir Mauro Galvao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The theme of sustainability has not yet achieved the feat of make up as an integral part the theoretical medley that brings out our most everyday actions, often visits some of our thoughts and permeates many of our speeches. The big event of 2012, the meeting gathered Rio +20 glances from all corners of the planet around that theme as burning, but we still see forward timidly. Although we have no very clear what the term sustainability closes it does not sound quite strange. Associate with things like ecology, planet, wastes emitted by smokestacks of factories, deforestation, recycling and global warming must be related, but our goal in this article is the least of clarifying the term conceptually and more try to observe as it appears in speeches of such conference. When the competent authorities talk about sustainability relate to what? We intend to investigate the lines and between the lines of these speeches, any assumptions associated with the term. Therefore we will analyze the speech of the People´s Summit, the opening speech of President Dilma and emblematic speech of the President of Uruguay, José Pepe Mujica.

  8. Precision of working memory for speech sounds.

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    Joseph, Sabine; Iverson, Paul; Manohar, Sanjay; Fox, Zoe; Scott, Sophie K; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Memory for speech sounds is a key component of models of verbal working memory (WM). But how good is verbal WM? Most investigations assess this using binary report measures to derive a fixed number of items that can be stored. However, recent findings in visual WM have challenged such "quantized" views by employing measures of recall precision with an analogue response scale. WM for speech sounds might rely on both continuous and categorical storage mechanisms. Using a novel speech matching paradigm, we measured WM recall precision for phonemes. Vowel qualities were sampled from a formant space continuum. A probe vowel had to be adjusted to match the vowel quality of a target on a continuous, analogue response scale. Crucially, this provided an index of the variability of a memory representation around its true value and thus allowed us to estimate how memories were distorted from the original sounds. Memory load affected the quality of speech sound recall in two ways. First, there was a gradual decline in recall precision with increasing number of items, consistent with the view that WM representations of speech sounds become noisier with an increase in the number of items held in memory, just as for vision. Based on multidimensional scaling (MDS), the level of noise appeared to be reflected in distortions of the formant space. Second, as memory load increased, there was evidence of greater clustering of participants' responses around particular vowels. A mixture model captured both continuous and categorical responses, demonstrating a shift from continuous to categorical memory with increasing WM load. This suggests that direct acoustic storage can be used for single items, but when more items must be stored, categorical representations must be used.

  9. Speech endpoint detection with non-language speech sounds for generic speech processing applications

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    McClain, Matthew; Romanowski, Brian

    2009-05-01

    Non-language speech sounds (NLSS) are sounds produced by humans that do not carry linguistic information. Examples of these sounds are coughs, clicks, breaths, and filled pauses such as "uh" and "um" in English. NLSS are prominent in conversational speech, but can be a significant source of errors in speech processing applications. Traditionally, these sounds are ignored by speech endpoint detection algorithms, where speech regions are identified in the audio signal prior to processing. The ability to filter NLSS as a pre-processing step can significantly enhance the performance of many speech processing applications, such as speaker identification, language identification, and automatic speech recognition. In order to be used in all such applications, NLSS detection must be performed without the use of language models that provide knowledge of the phonology and lexical structure of speech. This is especially relevant to situations where the languages used in the audio are not known apriori. We present the results of preliminary experiments using data from American and British English speakers, in which segments of audio are classified as language speech sounds (LSS) or NLSS using a set of acoustic features designed for language-agnostic NLSS detection and a hidden-Markov model (HMM) to model speech generation. The results of these experiments indicate that the features and model used are capable of detection certain types of NLSS, such as breaths and clicks, while detection of other types of NLSS such as filled pauses will require future research.

  10. Spectral integration in speech and non-speech sounds

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    Jacewicz, Ewa

    2005-04-01

    Spectral integration (or formant averaging) was proposed in vowel perception research to account for the observation that a reduction of the intensity of one of two closely spaced formants (as in /u/) produced a predictable shift in vowel quality [Delattre et al., Word 8, 195-210 (1952)]. A related observation was reported in psychoacoustics, indicating that when the components of a two-tone periodic complex differ in amplitude and frequency, its perceived pitch is shifted toward that of the more intense tone [Helmholtz, App. XIV (1875/1948)]. Subsequent research in both fields focused on the frequency interval that separates these two spectral components, in an attempt to determine the size of the bandwidth for spectral integration to occur. This talk will review the accumulated evidence for and against spectral integration within the hypothesized limit of 3.5 Bark for static and dynamic signals in speech perception and psychoacoustics. Based on similarities in the processing of speech and non-speech sounds, it is suggested that spectral integration may reflect a general property of the auditory system. A larger frequency bandwidth, possibly close to 3.5 Bark, may be utilized in integrating acoustic information, including speech, complex signals, or sound quality of a violin.

  11. When speech sounds like music.

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    Falk, Simone; Rathcke, Tamara; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2014-08-01

    Repetition can boost memory and perception. However, repeating the same stimulus several times in immediate succession also induces intriguing perceptual transformations and illusions. Here, we investigate the Speech to Song Transformation (S2ST), a massed repetition effect in the auditory modality, which crosses the boundaries between language and music. In the S2ST, a phrase repeated several times shifts to being heard as sung. To better understand this unique cross-domain transformation, we examined the perceptual determinants of the S2ST, in particular the role of acoustics. In 2 Experiments, the effects of 2 pitch properties and 3 rhythmic properties on the probability and speed of occurrence of the transformation were examined. Results showed that both pitch and rhythmic properties are key features fostering the transformation. However, some properties proved to be more conducive to the S2ST than others. Stable tonal targets that allowed for the perception of a musical melody led more often and quickly to the S2ST than scalar intervals. Recurring durational contrasts arising from segmental grouping favoring a metrical interpretation of the stimulus also facilitated the S2ST. This was, however, not the case for a regular beat structure within and across repetitions. In addition, individual perceptual abilities allowed to predict the likelihood of the S2ST. Overall, the study demonstrated that repetition enables listeners to reinterpret specific prosodic features of spoken utterances in terms of musical structures. The findings underline a tight link between language and music, but they also reveal important differences in communicative functions of prosodic structure in the 2 domains.

  12. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds

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    Carine eSignoret

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo words and complex non phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2 that was followed by a two alternative forced choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo words were better detected than non phonological stimuli (complex sounds, presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  13. Subtyping Children with Speech Sound Disorders by Endophenotypes

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    Lewis, Barbara A.; Avrich, Allison A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined associations of 5 endophenotypes (i.e., measurable skills that are closely associated with speech sound disorders and are useful in detecting genetic influences on speech sound production), oral motor skills, phonological memory, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and speeded naming, with 3 clinical criteria…

  14. The effects of bilingualism on children's perception of speech sounds

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    Brasileiro, I.

    2009-01-01

    The general topic addressed by this dissertation is that of bilingualism, and more specifically, the topic of bilingual acquisition of speech sounds. The central question in this study is the following: does bilingualism affect children’s perceptual development of speech sounds? The term bilingual

  15. The influence of environmental sound training on the perception of spectrally degraded speech and environmental sounds.

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    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Gygi, Brian; Ho, Kim Thien N

    2012-06-01

    Perceptual training with spectrally degraded environmental sounds results in improved environmental sound identification, with benefits shown to extend to untrained speech perception as well. The present study extended those findings to examine longer-term training effects as well as effects of mere repeated exposure to sounds over time. Participants received two pretests (1 week apart) prior to a week-long environmental sound training regimen, which was followed by two posttest sessions, separated by another week without training. Spectrally degraded stimuli, processed with a four-channel vocoder, consisted of a 160-item environmental sound test, word and sentence tests, and a battery of basic auditory abilities and cognitive tests. Results indicated significant improvements in all speech and environmental sound scores between the initial pretest and the last posttest with performance increments following both exposure and training. For environmental sounds (the stimulus class that was trained), the magnitude of positive change that accompanied training was much greater than that due to exposure alone, with improvement for untrained sounds roughly comparable to the speech benefit from exposure. Additional tests of auditory and cognitive abilities showed that speech and environmental sound performance were differentially correlated with tests of spectral and temporal-fine-structure processing, whereas working memory and executive function were correlated with speech, but not environmental sound perception. These findings indicate generalizability of environmental sound training and provide a basis for implementing environmental sound training programs for cochlear implant (CI) patients.

  16. A homology sound-based algorithm for speech signal interference

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    Jiang, Yi-jiao; Chen, Hou-jin; Li, Ju-peng; Zhang, Zhan-song

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at secure analog speech communication, a homology sound-based algorithm for speech signal interference is proposed in this paper. We first split speech signal into phonetic fragments by a short-term energy method and establish an interference noise cache library with the phonetic fragments. Then we implement the homology sound interference by mixing the randomly selected interferential fragments and the original speech in real time. The computer simulation results indicated that the interference produced by this algorithm has advantages of real time, randomness, and high correlation with the original signal, comparing with the traditional noise interference methods such as white noise interference. After further studies, the proposed algorithm may be readily used in secure speech communication.

  17. Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception

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    Matz Larsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel and the target sound (speech were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal ("just follow conversation" or JFC level when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps.

  18. Effect of gap detection threshold on consistency of speech in children with speech sound disorder.

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    Sayyahi, Fateme; Soleymani, Zahra; Akbari, Mohammad; Bijankhan, Mahmood; Dolatshahi, Behrooz

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined the relationship between gap detection threshold and speech error consistency in children with speech sound disorder. The participants were children five to six years of age who were categorized into three groups of typical speech, consistent speech disorder (CSD) and inconsistent speech disorder (ISD).The phonetic gap detection threshold test was used for this study, which is a valid test comprised six syllables with inter-stimulus intervals between 20-300ms. The participants were asked to listen to the recorded stimuli three times and indicate whether they heard one or two sounds. There was no significant difference between the typical and CSD groups (p=0.55), but there were significant differences in performance between the ISD and CSD groups and the ISD and typical groups (p=0.00). The ISD group discriminated between speech sounds at a higher threshold. Children with inconsistent speech errors could not distinguish speech sounds during time-limited phonetic discrimination. It is suggested that inconsistency in speech is a representation of inconsistency in auditory perception, which causes by high gap detection threshold. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Between-Word Simplification Patterns in the Continuous Speech of Children with Speech Sound Disorders

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    Klein, Harriet B.; Liu-Shea, May

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to identify and describe between-word simplification patterns in the continuous speech of children with speech sound disorders. It was hypothesized that word combinations would reveal phonological changes that were unobserved with single words, possibly accounting for discrepancies between the intelligibility of…

  20. The Clinical Practice of Speech and Language Therapists with Children with Phonologically Based Speech Sound Disorders

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    Oliveira, Carla; Lousada, Marisa; Jesus, Luis M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders (SSD) represent a large number of speech and language therapists' caseloads. The intervention with children who have SSD can involve different therapy approaches, and these may be articulatory or phonologically based. Some international studies reveal a widespread application of articulatory based approaches in…

  1. Visual feedback of tongue movement for novel speech sound learning

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    William F Katz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation training studies have yielded important information concerning the processing of audiovisual (AV information. Second language (L2 learners show increased reliance on bottom-up, multimodal input for speech perception (compared to monolingual individuals. However, little is known about the role of viewing one’s own speech articulation processes during speech training. The current study investigated whether real-time, visual feedback for tongue movement can improve a speaker’s learning of non-native speech sounds. An interactive 3D tongue visualization system based on electromagnetic articulography (EMA was used in a speech training experiment. Native speakers of American English produced a novel speech sound (/ɖ̠/; a voiced, coronal, palatal stop before, during, and after trials in which they viewed their own speech movements using the 3D model. Talkers’ productions were evaluated using kinematic (tongue-tip spatial positioning and acoustic (burst spectra measures. The results indicated a rapid gain in accuracy associated with visual feedback training. The findings are discussed with respect to neural models for multimodal speech processing.

  2. Severe Speech Sound Disorders: An Integrated Multimodal Intervention

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    King, Amie M.; Hengst, Julie A.; DeThorne, Laura S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study introduces an integrated multimodal intervention (IMI) and examines its effectiveness for the treatment of persistent and severe speech sound disorders (SSD) in young children. The IMI is an activity-based intervention that focuses simultaneously on increasing the "quantity" of a child's meaningful productions of target words…

  3. Applications of Hilbert Spectral Analysis for Speech and Sound Signals

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    Huang, Norden E.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed, and the natural applications are to speech and sound signals. The key part of the method is the Empirical Mode Decomposition method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). An IMF is defined as any function having the same numbers of zero-crossing and extrema, and also having symmetric envelopes defined by the local maxima and minima respectively. The IMF also admits well-behaved Hilbert transform. This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. Since the decomposition is based on the local characteristic time scale of the data, it is applicable to nonlinear and nonstationary processes. With the Hilbert transform, the Intrinsic Mode Functions yield instantaneous frequencies as functions of time, which give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. This method invention can be used to process all acoustic signals. Specifically, it can process the speech signals for Speech synthesis, Speaker identification and verification, Speech recognition, and Sound signal enhancement and filtering. Additionally, as the acoustical signals from machinery are essentially the way the machines are talking to us. Therefore, the acoustical signals, from the machines, either from sound through air or vibration on the machines, can tell us the operating conditions of the machines. Thus, we can use the acoustic signal to diagnosis the problems of machines.

  4. Implications of diadochokinesia in children with speech sound disorder.

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    Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein; Pagan-Neves, Luciana de Oliveira; Alves, Renata Ramos; Barrozo, Tatiane Faria

    2013-01-01

    To verify the performance of children with and without speech sound disorder in oral motor skills measured by oral diadochokinesia according to age and gender and to compare the results by two different methods of analysis. Participants were 72 subjects aged from 5 years to 7 years and 11 months divided into four subgroups according to the presence of speech sound disorder (Study Group and Control Group) and age (6 years and 5 months). Diadochokinesia skills were assessed by the repetition of the sequences 'pa', 'ta', 'ka' and 'pataka' measured both manually and by the software Motor Speech Profile®. Gender was statistically different for both groups but it did not influence on the number of sequences per second produced. Correlation between the number of sequences per second and age was observed for all sequences (except for 'ka') only for the control group children. Comparison between groups did not indicate differences between the number of sequences per second and age. Results presented strong agreement between the values of oral diadochokinesia measured manually and by MSP. This research demonstrated the importance of using different methods of analysis on the functional evaluation of oro-motor processing aspects of children with speech sound disorder and evidenced the oro-motor difficulties on children aged under than eight years old.

  5. The speech perception skills of children with and without speech sound disorder.

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    Hearnshaw, Stephanie; Baker, Elise; Munro, Natalie

    To investigate whether Australian-English speaking children with and without speech sound disorder (SSD) differ in their overall speech perception accuracy. Additionally, to investigate differences in the perception of specific phonemes and the association between speech perception and speech production skills. Twenty-five Australian-English speaking children aged 48-60 months participated in this study. The SSD group included 12 children and the typically developing (TD) group included 13 children. Children completed routine speech and language assessments in addition to an experimental Australian-English lexical and phonetic judgement task based on Rvachew's Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System (SAILS) program (Rvachew, 2009). This task included eight words across four word-initial phonemes-/k, ɹ, ʃ, s/. Children with SSD showed significantly poorer perceptual accuracy on the lexical and phonetic judgement task compared with TD peers. The phonemes /ɹ/ and /s/ were most frequently perceived in error across both groups. Additionally, the phoneme /ɹ/ was most commonly produced in error. There was also a positive correlation between overall speech perception and speech production scores. Children with SSD perceived speech less accurately than their typically developing peers. The findings suggest that an Australian-English variation of a lexical and phonetic judgement task similar to the SAILS program is promising and worthy of a larger scale study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Polysyllable Speech Accuracy and Predictors of Later Literacy Development in Preschool Children with Speech Sound Disorders

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    Masso, Sarah; Baker, Elise; McLeod, Sharynne; Wang, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine if polysyllable accuracy in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSD) was related to known predictors of later literacy development: phonological processing, receptive vocabulary, and print knowledge. Polysyllables--words of three or more syllables--are important to consider because unlike…

  7. Transfer Effect of Speech-sound Learning on Auditory-motor Processing of Perceived Vocal Pitch Errors.

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    Chen, Zhaocong; Wong, Francis C K; Jones, Jeffery A; Li, Weifeng; Liu, Peng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-17

    Speech perception and production are intimately linked. There is evidence that speech motor learning results in changes to auditory processing of speech. Whether speech motor control benefits from perceptual learning in speech, however, remains unclear. This event-related potential study investigated whether speech-sound learning can modulate the processing of feedback errors during vocal pitch regulation. Mandarin speakers were trained to perceive five Thai lexical tones while learning to associate pictures with spoken words over 5 days. Before and after training, participants produced sustained vowel sounds while they heard their vocal pitch feedback unexpectedly perturbed. As compared to the pre-training session, the magnitude of vocal compensation significantly decreased for the control group, but remained consistent for the trained group at the post-training session. However, the trained group had smaller and faster N1 responses to pitch perturbations and exhibited enhanced P2 responses that correlated significantly with their learning performance. These findings indicate that the cortical processing of vocal pitch regulation can be shaped by learning new speech-sound associations, suggesting that perceptual learning in speech can produce transfer effects to facilitating the neural mechanisms underlying the online monitoring of auditory feedback regarding vocal production.

  8. A Pilot Investigation of Speech Sound Disorder Intervention Delivered by Telehealth to School-Age Children

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    Sue Grogan-Johnson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth, or conventional side-by-side intervention.  Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002. Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting. Keywords:  Telehealth, telerehabilitation, videoconferencing, speech sound disorder, speech therapy, speech-language pathology; E-Helper

  9. Sound quality measures for speech in noise through a commercial hearing aid implementing digital noise reduction.

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    Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2005-05-01

    This brief report discusses the affect of digital noise reduction (DNR) processing on aided speech recognition and sound quality measures in 14 adults fitted with a commercial hearing aid. Measures of speech recognition and sound quality were obtained in two different speech-in-noise conditions (71 dBA speech, +6 dB SNR and 75 dBA speech, +1 dB SNR). The results revealed that the presence or absence of DNR processing did not impact speech recognition in noise (either positively or negatively). Paired comparisons of sound quality for the same speech in noise signals, however, revealed a strong preference for DNR processing. These data suggest that at least one implementation of DNR processing is capable of providing improved sound quality, for speech in noise, in the absence of improved speech recognition.

  10. Speech Abilities in Preschool Children with Speech Sound Disorder with and without Co-Occurring Language Impairment

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    Macrae, Toby; Tyler, Ann A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared preschool children with co-occurring speech sound disorder (SSD) and language impairment (LI) to children with SSD only in their numbers and types of speech sound errors. Method: In this post hoc quasi-experimental study, independent samples t tests were used to compare the groups in the standard score from different…

  11. Toward a Model of Pediatric Speech Sound Disorders (SSD) for Differential Diagnosis and Therapy Planning

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    Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Bernardus; Maas, Edwin; van Lieshout, Pascal; Maassen, Ben; Terband, Hayo

    2016-01-01

    The classification and differentiation of pediatric speech sound disorders (SSD) is one of the main questions in the field of speech- and language pathology. Terms for classifying childhood and SSD and motor speech disorders (MSD) refer to speech production processes, and a variety of methods of

  12. Does seeing an Asian face make speech sound more accented?

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    Zheng, Yi; Samuel, Arthur G

    2017-08-01

    Prior studies have reported that seeing an Asian face makes American English sound more accented. The current study investigates whether this effect is perceptual, or if it instead occurs at a later decision stage. We first replicated the finding that showing static Asian and Caucasian faces can shift people's reports about the accentedness of speech accompanying the pictures. When we changed the static pictures to dubbed videos, reducing the demand characteristics, the shift in reported accentedness largely disappeared. By including unambiguous items along with the original ambiguous items, we introduced a contrast bias and actually reversed the shift, with the Asian-face videos yielding lower judgments of accentedness than the Caucasian-face videos. By changing to a mixed rather than blocked design, so that the ethnicity of the videos varied from trial to trial, we eliminated the difference in accentedness rating. Finally, we tested participants' perception of accented speech using the selective adaptation paradigm. After establishing that an auditory-only accented adaptor shifted the perception of how accented test words are, we found that no such adaptation effect occurred when the adapting sounds relied on visual information (Asian vs. Caucasian videos) to influence the accentedness of an ambiguous auditory adaptor. Collectively, the results demonstrate that visual information can affect the interpretation, but not the perception, of accented speech.

  13. Developmental changes in brain activation involved in the production of novel speech sounds in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-01

    Older children are more successful at producing unfamiliar, non-native speech sounds than younger children during the initial stages of learning. To reveal the neuronal underpinning of the age-related increase in the accuracy of non-native speech production, we examined the developmental changes in activation involved in the production of novel speech sounds using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Healthy right-handed children (aged 6-18 years) were scanned while performing an overt repetition task and a perceptual task involving aurally presented non-native and native syllables. Productions of non-native speech sounds were recorded and evaluated by native speakers. The mouth regions in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas were activated more significantly during the repetition task relative to the perceptual task. The hemodynamic response in the left inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis (IFG pOp) specific to non-native speech sound production (defined by prior hypothesis) increased with age. Additionally, the accuracy of non-native speech sound production increased with age. These results provide the first evidence of developmental changes in the neural processes underlying the production of novel speech sounds. Our data further suggest that the recruitment of the left IFG pOp during the production of novel speech sounds was possibly enhanced due to the maturation of the neuronal circuits needed for speech motor planning. This, in turn, would lead to improvement in the ability to immediately imitate non-native speech. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mechanisms underlying speech sound discrimination and categorization in humans and zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgering, Merel A.; ten Cate, Carel; Vroomen, Jean

    Speech sound categorization in birds seems in many ways comparable to that by humans, but it is unclear what mechanisms underlie such categorization. To examine this, we trained zebra finches and humans to discriminate two pairs of edited speech sounds that varied either along one dimension (vowel

  15. Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Communication Disorders across Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children explores both multilingual and multicultural aspects of children with speech sound disorders. The 30 chapters have been written by 44 authors from 16 different countries about 112 languages and dialects. The book is designed to translate research into clinical practice. It is divided into…

  16. Dynamic Assessment of Phonological Awareness for Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Ford, Mikenzi Bentley

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to examine the relationships between performance on a nonverbal phoneme deletion task administered in a dynamic assessment format with performance on measures of phoneme deletion, word-level reading, and speech sound production that required verbal responses for school-age children with speech sound disorders (SSDs).…

  17. Neural Correlates of Phonological Processing in Speech Sound Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Jean A.; Chen, Xu; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Lewis, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Speech sound disorders (SSD) are the largest group of communication disorders observed in children. One explanation for these disorders is that children with SSD fail to form stable phonological representations when acquiring the speech sound system of their language due to poor phonological memory (PM). The goal of this study was to examine PM in…

  18. Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,…

  19. Identifying Residual Speech Sound Disorders in Bilingual Children: A Japanese-English Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Seki, Ayumi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe (a) the assessment of residual speech sound disorders (SSDs) in bilinguals by distinguishing speech patterns associated with second language acquisition from patterns associated with misarticulations and (b) how assessment of domains such as speech motor control and phonological awareness can provide a more complete…

  20. The Prevalence of Stuttering, Voice, and Speech-Sound Disorders in Primary School Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, David H.; McLeod, Sharynne; Reilly, Sheena

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were threefold: to report teachers' estimates of the prevalence of speech disorders (specifically, stuttering, voice, and speech-sound disorders); to consider correspondence between the prevalence of speech disorders and gender, grade level, and socioeconomic status; and to describe the level of support provided to…

  1. Speech sound disorder at 4 years: prevalence, comorbidities, and predictors in a community cohort of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Patricia; Morgan, Angela; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Ttofari Eecen, Kyriaki; Wake, Melissa; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-06-01

    The epidemiology of preschool speech sound disorder is poorly understood. Our aims were to determine: the prevalence of idiopathic speech sound disorder; the comorbidity of speech sound disorder with language and pre-literacy difficulties; and the factors contributing to speech outcome at 4 years. One thousand four hundred and ninety-four participants from an Australian longitudinal cohort completed speech, language, and pre-literacy assessments at 4 years. Prevalence of speech sound disorder (SSD) was defined by standard score performance of ≤79 on a speech assessment. Logistic regression examined predictors of SSD within four domains: child and family; parent-reported speech; cognitive-linguistic; and parent-reported motor skills. At 4 years the prevalence of speech disorder in an Australian cohort was 3.4%. Comorbidity with SSD was 40.8% for language disorder and 20.8% for poor pre-literacy skills. Sex, maternal vocabulary, socio-economic status, and family history of speech and language difficulties predicted SSD, as did 2-year speech, language, and motor skills. Together these variables provided good discrimination of SSD (area under the curve=0.78). This is the first epidemiological study to demonstrate prevalence of SSD at 4 years of age that was consistent with previous clinical studies. Early detection of SSD at 4 years should focus on family variables and speech, language, and motor skills measured at 2 years. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  2. Preschool Speech Error Patterns Predict Articulation and Phonological Awareness Outcomes in Children with Histories of Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Method: Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were followed up…

  3. Perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds during speech categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilp, Christian E; Assgari, Ashley A

    2018-02-28

    Speech perception is heavily influenced by surrounding sounds. When spectral properties differ between earlier (context) and later (target) sounds, this can produce spectral contrast effects (SCEs) that bias perception of later sounds. For example, when context sounds have more energy in low-F 1 frequency regions, listeners report more high-F 1 responses to a target vowel, and vice versa. SCEs have been reported using various approaches for a wide range of stimuli, but most often, large spectral peaks were added to the context to bias speech categorization. This obscures the lower limit of perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds, i.e., when SCEs begin to bias speech categorization. Listeners categorized vowels (/ɪ/-/ɛ/, Experiment 1) or consonants (/d/-/g/, Experiment 2) following a context sentence with little spectral amplification (+1 to +4 dB) in frequency regions known to produce SCEs. In both experiments, +3 and +4 dB amplification in key frequency regions of the context produced SCEs, but lesser amplification was insufficient to bias performance. This establishes a lower limit of perceptual sensitivity where spectral differences across sounds can bias subsequent speech categorization. These results are consistent with proposed adaptation-based mechanisms that potentially underlie SCEs in auditory perception. Recent sounds can change what speech sounds we hear later. This can occur when the average frequency composition of earlier sounds differs from that of later sounds, biasing how they are perceived. These "spectral contrast effects" are widely observed when sounds' frequency compositions differ substantially. We reveal the lower limit of these effects, as +3 dB amplification of key frequency regions in earlier sounds was enough to bias categorization of the following vowel or consonant sound. Speech categorization being biased by very small spectral differences across sounds suggests that spectral contrast effects occur

  4. Sustainable Acoustic Metasurfaces for Sound Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound attenuation with conventional acoustic materials is subject to the mass law and requires massive and bulky structures at low frequencies. A possible alternative solution is provided by the use of metamaterials, which are artificial materials properly engineered to obtain properties and characteristics that it is not possible to find in natural materials. Theory and applications of metamaterials, already consolidated in electromagnetism, can be extended to acoustics; in particular, they can be applied to improve the properties of acoustical panels. The design of acoustic metasurfaces that could effectively control transmitted sound in unconventional ways appears a significant subject to be investigated, given its wide-ranging possible applications. In this contribution, we investigate the application of a metasurface-inspired technique to achieve the acoustical insulation of an environment. The designed surface has subwavelength thickness and structuring and could be realized with cheap, lightweight and sustainable materials. We present a few examples of such structures and analyze their acoustical behavior by means of full-wave simulations.

  5. Polysyllable Speech Accuracy and Predictors of Later Literacy Development in Preschool Children With Speech Sound Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masso, Sarah; Baker, Elise; McLeod, Sharynne; Wang, Cen

    2017-07-12

    The aim of this study was to determine if polysyllable accuracy in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSD) was related to known predictors of later literacy development: phonological processing, receptive vocabulary, and print knowledge. Polysyllables-words of three or more syllables-are important to consider because unlike monosyllables, polysyllables have been associated with phonological processing and literacy difficulties in school-aged children. They therefore have the potential to help identify preschoolers most at risk of future literacy difficulties. Participants were 93 preschool children with SSD from the Sound Start Study. Participants completed the Polysyllable Preschool Test (Baker, 2013) as well as phonological processing, receptive vocabulary, and print knowledge tasks. Cluster analysis was completed, and 2 clusters were identified: low polysyllable accuracy and moderate polysyllable accuracy. The clusters were significantly different based on 2 measures of phonological awareness and measures of receptive vocabulary, rapid naming, and digit span. The clusters were not significantly different on sound matching accuracy or letter, sound, or print concept knowledge. The participants' poor performance on print knowledge tasks suggested that as a group, they were at risk of literacy difficulties but that there was a cluster of participants at greater risk-those with both low polysyllable accuracy and poor phonological processing.

  6. International aspirations for speech-language pathologists' practice with multilingual children with speech sound disorders: development of a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Bowen, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for the speech-language pathology profession in many cultures is to address the mismatch between the "linguistic homogeneity of the speech-language pathology profession and the linguistic diversity of its clientele" (Caesar & Kohler, 2007, p. 198). This paper outlines the development of the Multilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Position Paper created to guide speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') facilitation of multilingual children's speech. An international expert panel was assembled comprising 57 researchers (SLPs, linguists, phoneticians, and speech scientists) with knowledge about multilingual children's speech, or children with speech sound disorders. Combined, they had worked in 33 countries and used 26 languages in professional practice. Fourteen panel members met for a one-day workshop to identify key points for inclusion in the position paper. Subsequently, 42 additional panel members participated online to contribute to drafts of the position paper. A thematic analysis was undertaken of the major areas of discussion using two data sources: (a) face-to-face workshop transcript (133 pages) and (b) online discussion artifacts (104 pages). Finally, a moderator with international expertise in working with children with speech sound disorders facilitated the incorporation of the panel's recommendations. The following themes were identified: definitions, scope, framework, evidence, challenges, practices, and consideration of a multilingual audience. The resulting position paper contains guidelines for providing services to multilingual children with speech sound disorders (http://www.csu.edu.au/research/multilingual-speech/position-paper). The paper is structured using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children and Youth Version (World Health Organization, 2007) and incorporates recommendations for (a) children and families, (b) SLPs' assessment and intervention, (c) SLPs' professional

  7. Is the Speech Transmission Index (STI) a robust measure of sound system speech intelligibility performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Although RaSTI is a good indicator of the speech intelligibility capability of auditoria and similar spaces, during the past 2-3 years it has been shown that RaSTI is not a robust predictor of sound system intelligibility performance. Instead, it is now recommended, within both national and international codes and standards, that full STI measurement and analysis be employed. However, new research is reported, that indicates that STI is not as flawless, nor robust as many believe. The paper highlights a number of potential error mechanisms. It is shown that the measurement technique and signal excitation stimulus can have a significant effect on the overall result and accuracy, particularly where DSP-based equipment is employed. It is also shown that in its current state of development, STI is not capable of appropriately accounting for a number of fundamental speech and system attributes, including typical sound system frequency response variations and anomalies. This is particularly shown to be the case when a system is operating under reverberant conditions. Comparisons between actual system measurements and corresponding word score data are reported where errors of up to 50 implications for VA and PA system performance verification will be discussed.

  8. Cognitive Bias for Learning Speech Sounds From a Continuous Signal Space Seems Nonlinguistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine van der Ham

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When learning language, humans have a tendency to produce more extreme distributions of speech sounds than those observed most frequently: In rapid, casual speech, vowel sounds are centralized, yet cross-linguistically, peripheral vowels occur almost universally. We investigate whether adults’ generalization behavior reveals selective pressure for communication when they learn skewed distributions of speech-like sounds from a continuous signal space. The domain-specific hypothesis predicts that the emergence of sound categories is driven by a cognitive bias to make these categories maximally distinct, resulting in more skewed distributions in participants’ reproductions. However, our participants showed more centered distributions, which goes against this hypothesis, indicating that there are no strong innate linguistic biases that affect learning these speech-like sounds. The centralization behavior can be explained by a lack of communicative pressure to maintain categories.

  9. Experience with speech sounds is not necessary for cue trading by budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Flaherty

    Full Text Available The influence of experience with human speech sounds on speech perception in budgerigars, vocal mimics whose speech exposure can be tightly controlled in a laboratory setting, was measured. Budgerigars were divided into groups that differed in auditory exposure and then tested on a cue-trading identification paradigm with synthetic speech. Phonetic cue trading is a perceptual phenomenon observed when changes on one cue dimension are offset by changes in another cue dimension while still maintaining the same phonetic percept. The current study examined whether budgerigars would trade the cues of voice onset time (VOT and the first formant onset frequency when identifying syllable initial stop consonants and if this would be influenced by exposure to speech sounds. There were a total of four different exposure groups: No speech exposure (completely isolated, Passive speech exposure (regular exposure to human speech, and two Speech-trained groups. After the exposure period, all budgerigars were tested for phonetic cue trading using operant conditioning procedures. Birds were trained to peck keys in response to different synthetic speech sounds that began with "d" or "t" and varied in VOT and frequency of the first formant at voicing onset. Once training performance criteria were met, budgerigars were presented with the entire intermediate series, including ambiguous sounds. Responses on these trials were used to determine which speech cues were used, if a trading relation between VOT and the onset frequency of the first formant was present, and whether speech exposure had an influence on perception. Cue trading was found in all birds and these results were largely similar to those of a group of humans. Results indicated that prior speech experience was not a requirement for cue trading by budgerigars. The results are consistent with theories that explain phonetic cue trading in terms of a rich auditory encoding of the speech signal.

  10. Emergence of category-level sensitivities in non-native speech sound learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eMyers

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of development, speech sounds that are contrastive in one’s native language tend to become perceived categorically: that is, listeners are unaware of variation within phonetic categories while showing excellent sensitivity to speech sounds that span linguistically meaningful phonetic category boundaries. The end stage of this developmental process is that the perceptual systems that handle acoustic-phonetic information show special tuning to native language contrasts, and as such, category-level information appears to be present at even fairly low levels of the neural processing stream. Research on adults acquiring non-native speech categories offers an avenue for investigating the interplay of category-level information and perceptual sensitivities to these sounds as speech categories emerge. In particular, one can observe the neural changes that unfold as listeners learn not only to perceive acoustic distinctions that mark non-native speech sound contrasts, but also to map these distinctions onto category-level representations. An emergent literature on the neural basis of novel and non-native speech sound learning offers new insight into this question. In this review, I will examine this literature in order to answer two key questions. First, where in the neural pathway does sensitivity to category-level phonetic information first emerge over the trajectory of speech sound learning? Second, how do frontal and temporal brain areas work in concert over the course of non-native speech sound learning? Finally, in the context of this literature I will describe a model of speech sound learning in which rapidly-adapting access to categorical information in the frontal lobes modulates the sensitivity of stable, slowly-adapting responses in the temporal lobes.

  11. Auditory spatial attention to speech and complex non-speech sounds in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskey, Laura N; Allen, Paul D; Bennetto, Loisa

    2017-08-01

    One of the earliest observable impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a failure to orient to speech and other social stimuli. Auditory spatial attention, a key component of orienting to sounds in the environment, has been shown to be impaired in adults with ASD. Additionally, specific deficits in orienting to social sounds could be related to increased acoustic complexity of speech. We aimed to characterize auditory spatial attention in children with ASD and neurotypical controls, and to determine the effect of auditory stimulus complexity on spatial attention. In a spatial attention task, target and distractor sounds were played randomly in rapid succession from speakers in a free-field array. Participants attended to a central or peripheral location, and were instructed to respond to target sounds at the attended location while ignoring nearby sounds. Stimulus-specific blocks evaluated spatial attention for simple non-speech tones, speech sounds (vowels), and complex non-speech sounds matched to vowels on key acoustic properties. Children with ASD had significantly more diffuse auditory spatial attention than neurotypical children when attending front, indicated by increased responding to sounds at adjacent non-target locations. No significant differences in spatial attention emerged based on stimulus complexity. Additionally, in the ASD group, more diffuse spatial attention was associated with more severe ASD symptoms but not with general inattention symptoms. Spatial attention deficits have important implications for understanding social orienting deficits and atypical attentional processes that contribute to core deficits of ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1405-1416. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sound localization and speech identification in the frontal median plane with a hear-through headset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Christensen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    signals can be superimposed via earphone reproduction. An important aspect of the hear-through headset is its transparency, i.e. how close to real life can the electronically amplied sounds be perceived. Here we report experiments conducted to evaluate the auditory transparency of a hear-through headset...... prototype by comparing human performance in natural, hear-through, and fully occluded conditions for two spatial tasks: frontal vertical-plane sound localization and speech-on-speech spatial release from masking. Results showed that localization performance was impaired by the hear-through headset relative...... to the natural condition though not as much as in the fully occluded condition. Localization was affected the least when the sound source was in front of the listeners. Different from the vertical localization performance, results from the speech task suggest that normal speech-on-speech spatial release from...

  13. Intervention efficacy and intensity for children with speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa M

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians do not have an evidence base they can use to recommend optimum intervention intensity for preschool children who present with speech sound disorder (SSD). This study examined the effect of dose frequency on phonological performance and the efficacy of the multiple oppositions approach. Fifty-four preschool children with SSD were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions. Two intervention conditions received the multiple oppositions approach either 3 times per week for 8 weeks (P3) or once weekly for 24 weeks (P1). A control (C) condition received a storybook intervention. Percentage of consonants correct (PCC) was evaluated at 8 weeks and after 24 sessions. PCC gain was examined after a 6-week maintenance period. The P3 condition had a significantly better phonological outcome than the P1 and C conditions at 8 weeks and than the P1 condition after 24 weeks. There were no significant differences between the P1 and C conditions. There was no significant difference between the P1 and P3 conditions in PCC gain during the maintenance period. Preschool children with SSD who received the multiple oppositions approach made significantly greater gains when they were provided with a more intensive dose frequency and when cumulative intervention intensity was held constant.

  14. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder in speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; Pagan-Neves, Luciana de Oliveira; Vilela, Nadia; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of auditory information for the acquisition and organization of phonological rules, the assessment of (central) auditory processing contributes to both the diagnosis and targeting of speech therapy in children with speech sound disorders. To study phonological measures and (central) auditory processing of children with speech sound disorder. Clinical and experimental study, with 21 subjects with speech sound disorder aged between 7.0 and 9.11 years, divided into two groups according to their (central) auditory processing disorder. The assessment comprised tests of phonology, speech inconsistency, and metalinguistic abilities. The group with (central) auditory processing disorder demonstrated greater severity of speech sound disorder. The cutoff value obtained for the process density index was the one that best characterized the occurrence of phonological processes for children above 7 years of age. The comparison among the tests evaluated between the two groups showed differences in some phonological and metalinguistic abilities. Children with an index value above 0.54 demonstrated strong tendencies towards presenting a (central) auditory processing disorder, and this measure was effective to indicate the need for evaluation in children with speech sound disorder. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Phonological Encoding in Speech-Sound Disorder: Evidence from a Cross-Modal Priming Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Benjamin; Krause, Miriam O. P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Psycholinguistic models of language production provide a framework for determining the locus of language breakdown that leads to speech-sound disorder (SSD) in children. Aims: To examine whether children with SSD differ from their age-matched peers with typical speech and language development (TD) in the ability phonologically to…

  16. Parental Beliefs and Experiences Regarding Involvement in Intervention for Their Child with Speech Sound Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts Pappas, Nicole; McAllister, Lindy; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-01-01

    Parental beliefs and experiences regarding involvement in speech intervention for their child with mild to moderate speech sound disorder (SSD) were explored using multiple, sequential interviews conducted during a course of treatment. Twenty-one interviews were conducted with seven parents of six children with SSD: (1) after their child's initial…

  17. Do Irrelevant Sounds Impair the Maintenance of All Characteristics of Speech in Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, D.; Gaudrain, E.; Lebrun-Guillaud, G.; Sheppard, F.; Tomescu, I. M.; Schnider, A.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that maintaining in memory some attributes of speech, such as the content or pitch of an interlocutor's message, is markedly reduced in the presence of background sounds made of spectrotemporal variations. However, experimental paradigms showing this interference have only focused on one attribute of speech at a time,…

  18. Balancing speech intelligibility versus sound exposure in selection of personal hearing protection equipment for Chinook aircrews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Rots, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Aircrews are often exposed to high ambient sound levels, especially in military aviation. Since long-term exposure to such noise may cause hearing damage, selection of adequate hearing protective devices is crucial. Such devices also affect speech intelligibility. When speech

  19. Speech Sound Disorders in Preschool Children: Correspondence between Clinical Diagnosis and Teacher and Parent Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Linda J.; McLeod, Sharynne; McAllister, Lindy; McCormack, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to assess the level of correspondence between parent and teacher report of concern about young children's speech and specialist assessment of speech sound disorders (SSD). A sample of 157 children aged 4-5 years was recruited in preschools and long day care centres in Victoria and New South Wales (NSW). SSD was assessed…

  20. Profile of Australian Preschool Children with Speech Sound Disorders at Risk for Literacy Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Crowe, Kathryn; Masso, Sarah; Baker, Elise; McCormack, Jane; Wren, Yvonne; Roulstone, Susan; Howland, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Speech sound disorders are a common communication difficulty in preschool children. Teachers indicate difficulty identifying and supporting these children. The aim of this research was to describe speech and language characteristics of children identified by their parents and/or teachers as having possible communication concerns. 275 Australian 4-…

  1. Profile of Australian preschool children with speech sound disorders at risk for literacy difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, S.; Crowe, K.; Masso, S.; Baker, E.; McCormack, J.; Wren, Y.; Roulstone, S.; Howland, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Speech sound disorders are a common communication difficulty in preschool children. Teachers indicate difficulty identifying and supporting these children.\\ud \\ud Aim: To describe speech and language characteristics of children identified by their parents and/or teachers as having possible communication concerns.\\ud \\ud Method: 275 Australian 4- to 5-year-old children from 45 preschools whose parents and teachers were concerned about their talking participated in speech-language p...

  2. Intensive treatment with ultrasound visual feedback for speech sound errors in childhood apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Preston

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound imaging is an adjunct to traditional speech therapy that has shown to be beneficial in the remediation of speech sound errors. Ultrasound biofeedback can be utilized during therapy to provide clients additional knowledge about their tongue shapes when attempting to produce sounds that are in error. The additional feedback may assist children with childhood apraxia of speech in stabilizing motor patterns, thereby facilitating more consistent and accurate productions of sounds and syllables. However, due to its specialized nature, ultrasound visual feedback is a technology that is not widely available to clients. Short-term intensive treatment programs are one option that can be utilized to expand access to ultrasound biofeedback. Schema-based motor learning theory suggests that short-term intensive treatment programs (massed practice may assist children in acquiring more accurate motor patterns. In this case series, three participants ages 10-14 diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech attended 16 hours of speech therapy over a two-week period to address residual speech sound errors. Two participants had distortions on rhotic sounds, while the third participant demonstrated lateralization of sibilant sounds. During therapy, cues were provided to assist participants in obtaining a tongue shape that facilitated a correct production of the erred sound. Additional practice without ultrasound was also included. Results suggested that all participants showed signs of acquisition of sounds in error. Generalization and retention results were mixed. One participant showed generalization and retention of sounds that were treated; one showed generalization but limited retention; and the third showed no evidence of generalization or retention. Individual characteristics that may facilitate generalization are discussed. Short-term intensive treatment programs using ultrasound biofeedback may result in the acquisition of more accurate motor

  3. Use of Authentic-Speech Technique for Teaching Sound Recognition to EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sersen, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to test an authentic-speech technique for improving the sound-recognition skills of EFL (English as a foreign language) students at Roi-Et Rajabhat University. The secondary objective was to determine the correlation, if any, between students' self-evaluation of sound-recognition progress and the actual…

  4. Patterns and risk factors associated with speech sounds and language disorders in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, H.; Ghayas, M.S.; Madiha, A.

    2013-01-01

    To observe the patterns of speech sounds and language disorders. To find out associated risk factors of speech sounds and language disorders. Background: Communication is the very essence of modern society. Communication disorders impacts quality of life. Patterns and factors associated with speech sounds and language impairments were explored. The association was seen with different environmental factors. Methodology: The patients included in the study were 200 whose age ranged between two and sixteen years presented in speech therapy clinic OPD Mayo Hospital. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire assessed the patient's bio data, socioeconomic background, family history of communication disorders and bilingualism. It was a descriptive study and was conducted through cross-sectional survey. Data was analysed by SPSS version 16. Results: Results reveal Language disorders were relatively more prevalent in males than those of speech sound disorders. Bilingualism was found as having insignificant effect on these disorders. It was concluded from this study that the socioeconomic status and family history were significant risk factors. Conclusion: Gender, socioeconomic status, family history can play as risk for developing speech sounds and language disorders. There is a grave need to understand patterns of communication disorders in the light of Pakistani society and culture. It is recommended to conduct further studies to determine risk factors and patterns of these impairments. (author)

  5. Cross-Modal Correspondence between Brightness and Chinese Speech Sound with Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Hirata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Phonetic symbolism is the phenomenon of speech sounds evoking images based on sensory experiences; it is often discussed with cross-modal correspondence. By using Garner's task, Hirata, Kita, and Ukita (2009 showed the cross-modal congruence between brightness and voiced/voiceless consonants in Japanese speech sound, which is known as phonetic symbolism. In the present study, we examined the effect of the meaning of mimetics (lexical words whose sound reflects its meaning, like “ding-dong” in Japanese language on the cross-modal correspondence. We conducted an experiment with Chinese speech sounds with or without aspiration using Chinese people. Chinese vocabulary also contains mimetics but the existence of aspiration doesn't relate to the meaning of Chinese mimetics. As a result, Chinese speech sounds with aspiration, which resemble voiceless consonants, were matched with white color, whereas those without aspiration were matched with black. This result is identical to its pattern in Japanese people and consequently suggests that cross-modal correspondence occurs without the effect of the meaning of mimetics. The problem that whether these cross-modal correspondences are purely based on physical properties of speech sound or affected from phonetic properties remains for further study.

  6. Sound frequency affects speech emotion perception: results from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Sydney L; Lewenstein, Ari D; Basurto, Julian; Winnik, Sean; Loui, Psyche

    2015-01-01

    Congenital amusics, or "tone-deaf" individuals, show difficulty in perceiving and producing small pitch differences. While amusia has marked effects on music perception, its impact on speech perception is less clear. Here we test the hypothesis that individual differences in pitch perception affect judgment of emotion in speech, by applying low-pass filters to spoken statements of emotional speech. A norming study was first conducted on Mechanical Turk to ensure that the intended emotions from the Macquarie Battery for Evaluation of Prosody were reliably identifiable by US English speakers. The most reliably identified emotional speech samples were used in Experiment 1, in which subjects performed a psychophysical pitch discrimination task, and an emotion identification task under low-pass and unfiltered speech conditions. Results showed a significant correlation between pitch-discrimination threshold and emotion identification accuracy for low-pass filtered speech, with amusics (defined here as those with a pitch discrimination threshold >16 Hz) performing worse than controls. This relationship with pitch discrimination was not seen in unfiltered speech conditions. Given the dissociation between low-pass filtered and unfiltered speech conditions, we inferred that amusics may be compensating for poorer pitch perception by using speech cues that are filtered out in this manipulation. To assess this potential compensation, Experiment 2 was conducted using high-pass filtered speech samples intended to isolate non-pitch cues. No significant correlation was found between pitch discrimination and emotion identification accuracy for high-pass filtered speech. Results from these experiments suggest an influence of low frequency information in identifying emotional content of speech.

  7. Sound frequency affects speech emotion perception: Results from congenital amusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney eLolli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusics, or tone-deaf individuals, show difficulty in perceiving and producing small pitch differences. While amusia has marked effects on music perception, its impact on speech perception is less clear. Here we test the hypothesis that individual differences in pitch perception affect judgment of emotion in speech, by applying band-pass filters to spoken statements of emotional speech. A norming study was first conducted on Mechanical Turk to ensure that the intended emotions from the Macquarie Battery for Evaluation of Prosody (MBEP were reliably identifiable by US English speakers. The most reliably identified emotional speech samples were used in in Experiment 1, in which subjects performed a psychophysical pitch discrimination task, and an emotion identification task under band-pass and unfiltered speech conditions. Results showed a significant correlation between pitch discrimination threshold and emotion identification accuracy for band-pass filtered speech, with amusics (defined here as those with a pitch discrimination threshold > 16 Hz performing worse than controls. This relationship with pitch discrimination was not seen in unfiltered speech conditions. Given the dissociation between band-pass filtered and unfiltered speech conditions, we inferred that amusics may be compensating for poorer pitch perception by using speech cues that are filtered out in this manipulation.

  8. Crossmodal deficit in dyslexic children: practice affects the neural timing of letter-speech sound integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko eŽarić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A failure to build solid letter-speech sound associations may contribute to reading impairments in developmental dyslexia. Whether this reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds changes over time within individual children and how this relates to behavioral gains in reading skills remains unknown. In this research, we examined changes in event-related potential (ERP measures of letter-speech sound integration over a 6-month period during which 9-year-old dyslexic readers (n=17 followed a training in letter-speech sound coupling next to their regular reading curriculum. We presented the Dutch spoken vowels /a/ and /o/ as standard and deviant stimuli in one auditory and two audiovisual oddball conditions. In one audiovisual condition (AV0, the letter ‘a’ was presented simultaneously with the vowels, while in the other (AV200 it was preceding vowel onset for 200 ms. Prior to the training (T1, dyslexic readers showed the expected pattern of typical auditory mismatch responses, together with the absence of letter-speech sound effects in a late negativity (LN window. After the training (T2, our results showed earlier (and enhanced crossmodal effects in the LN window. Most interestingly, earlier LN latency at T2 was significantly related to higher behavioral accuracy in letter-speech sound coupling. On a more general level, the timing of the earlier mismatch negativity (MMN in the simultaneous condition (AV0 measured at T1, significantly related to reading fluency at both T1 and T2 as well as with reading gains. Our findings suggest that the reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds in dyslexic children may show moderate improvement with reading instruction and training and that behavioral improvements relate especially to individual differences in the timing of this neural integration.

  9. Nonlinear frequency compression: effects on sound quality ratings of speech and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Vijay; Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality.

  10. The influence of meaning on the perception of speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanina, Nina; Phillips, Colin; Idsardi, William

    2006-07-25

    As part of knowledge of language, an adult speaker possesses information on which sounds are used in the language and on the distribution of these sounds in a multidimensional acoustic space. However, a speaker must know not only the sound categories of his language but also the functional significance of these categories, in particular, which sound contrasts are relevant for storing words in memory and which sound contrasts are not. Using magnetoencephalographic brain recordings with speakers of Russian and Korean, we demonstrate that a speaker's perceptual space, as reflected in early auditory brain responses, is shaped not only by bottom-up analysis of the distribution of sounds in his language but also by more abstract analysis of the functional significance of those sounds.

  11. Comparing Feedback Types in Multimedia Learning of Speech by Young Children With Common Speech Sound Disorders: Research Protocol for a Pretest Posttest Independent Measures Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubé, Wendy; Carding, Paul; Flanagan, Kieran; Kaufman, Jordy; Armitage, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders benefit from feedback about the accuracy of sounds they make. Home practice can reinforce feedback received from speech pathologists. Games in mobile device applications could encourage home practice, but those currently available are of limited value because they are unlikely to elaborate "Correct"/"Incorrect" feedback with information that can assist in improving the accuracy of the sound. This protocol proposes a "Wizard of Oz" experiment that aims to provide evidence for the provision of effective multimedia feedback for speech sound development. Children with two common speech sound disorders will play a game on a mobile device and make speech sounds when prompted by the game. A human "Wizard" will provide feedback on the accuracy of the sound but the children will perceive the feedback as coming from the game. Groups of 30 young children will be randomly allocated to one of five conditions: four types of feedback and a control which does not play the game. The results of this experiment will inform not only speech sound therapy, but also other types of language learning, both in general, and in multimedia applications. This experiment is a cost-effective precursor to the development of a mobile application that employs pedagogically and clinically sound processes for speech development in young children.

  12. Comparing Feedback Types in Multimedia Learning of Speech by Young Children With Common Speech Sound Disorders: Research Protocol for a Pretest Posttest Independent Measures Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubé, Wendy; Carding, Paul; Flanagan, Kieran; Kaufman, Jordy; Armitage, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders benefit from feedback about the accuracy of sounds they make. Home practice can reinforce feedback received from speech pathologists. Games in mobile device applications could encourage home practice, but those currently available are of limited value because they are unlikely to elaborate “Correct”/”Incorrect” feedback with information that can assist in improving the accuracy of the sound. This protocol proposes a “Wizard of Oz” experiment that aims to provide evidence for the provision of effective multimedia feedback for speech sound development. Children with two common speech sound disorders will play a game on a mobile device and make speech sounds when prompted by the game. A human “Wizard” will provide feedback on the accuracy of the sound but the children will perceive the feedback as coming from the game. Groups of 30 young children will be randomly allocated to one of five conditions: four types of feedback and a control which does not play the game. The results of this experiment will inform not only speech sound therapy, but also other types of language learning, both in general, and in multimedia applications. This experiment is a cost-effective precursor to the development of a mobile application that employs pedagogically and clinically sound processes for speech development in young children. PMID:29674986

  13. Comparing Feedback Types in Multimedia Learning of Speech by Young Children With Common Speech Sound Disorders: Research Protocol for a Pretest Posttest Independent Measures Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Doubé

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with speech sound disorders benefit from feedback about the accuracy of sounds they make. Home practice can reinforce feedback received from speech pathologists. Games in mobile device applications could encourage home practice, but those currently available are of limited value because they are unlikely to elaborate “Correct”/”Incorrect” feedback with information that can assist in improving the accuracy of the sound. This protocol proposes a “Wizard of Oz” experiment that aims to provide evidence for the provision of effective multimedia feedback for speech sound development. Children with two common speech sound disorders will play a game on a mobile device and make speech sounds when prompted by the game. A human “Wizard” will provide feedback on the accuracy of the sound but the children will perceive the feedback as coming from the game. Groups of 30 young children will be randomly allocated to one of five conditions: four types of feedback and a control which does not play the game. The results of this experiment will inform not only speech sound therapy, but also other types of language learning, both in general, and in multimedia applications. This experiment is a cost-effective precursor to the development of a mobile application that employs pedagogically and clinically sound processes for speech development in young children.

  14. Knockdown of Dyslexia-Gene Dcdc2 Interferes with Speech Sound Discrimination in Continuous Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, Tracy Michelle; Booker, Anne B; Chen, Fuyi; Sloan, Andrew M; Carraway, Ryan S; Rennaker, Robert L; LoTurco, Joseph J; Kilgard, Michael P

    2016-04-27

    Dyslexia is the most common developmental language disorder and is marked by deficits in reading and phonological awareness. One theory of dyslexia suggests that the phonological awareness deficit is due to abnormal auditory processing of speech sounds. Variants in DCDC2 and several other neural migration genes are associated with dyslexia and may contribute to auditory processing deficits. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that RNAi suppression of Dcdc2 in rats causes abnormal cortical responses to sound and impaired speech sound discrimination. In the current study, rats were subjected in utero to RNA interference targeting of the gene Dcdc2 or a scrambled sequence. Primary auditory cortex (A1) responses were acquired from 11 rats (5 with Dcdc2 RNAi; DC-) before any behavioral training. A separate group of 8 rats (3 DC-) were trained on a variety of speech sound discrimination tasks, and auditory cortex responses were acquired following training. Dcdc2 RNAi nearly eliminated the ability of rats to identify specific speech sounds from a continuous train of speech sounds but did not impair performance during discrimination of isolated speech sounds. The neural responses to speech sounds in A1 were not degraded as a function of presentation rate before training. These results suggest that A1 is not directly involved in the impaired speech discrimination caused by Dcdc2 RNAi. This result contrasts earlier results using Kiaa0319 RNAi and suggests that different dyslexia genes may cause different deficits in the speech processing circuitry, which may explain differential responses to therapy. Although dyslexia is diagnosed through reading difficulty, there is a great deal of variation in the phenotypes of these individuals. The underlying neural and genetic mechanisms causing these differences are still widely debated. In the current study, we demonstrate that suppression of a candidate-dyslexia gene causes deficits on tasks of rapid stimulus processing

  15. Lexical and phonological variability in preschool children with speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, Toby; Tyler, Ann A; Lewis, Kerry E

    2014-02-01

    The authors of this study examined relationships between measures of word and speech error variability and between these and other speech and language measures in preschool children with speech sound disorder (SSD). In this correlational study, 18 preschool children with SSD, age-appropriate receptive vocabulary, and normal oral motor functioning and hearing were assessed across 2 sessions. Experimental measures included word and speech error variability, receptive vocabulary, nonword repetition (NWR), and expressive language. Pearson product–moment correlation coefficients were calculated among the experimental measures. The correlation between word and speech error variability was slight and nonsignificant. The correlation between word variability and receptive vocabulary was moderate and negative, although nonsignificant. High word variability was associated with small receptive vocabularies. The correlations between speech error variability and NWR and between speech error variability and the mean length of children's utterances were moderate and negative, although both were nonsignificant. High speech error variability was associated with poor NWR and language scores. High word variability may reflect unstable lexical representations, whereas high speech error variability may reflect indistinct phonological representations. Preschool children with SSD who show abnormally high levels of different types of speech variability may require slightly different approaches to intervention.

  16. The role of high-level processes for oscillatory phase entrainment to speech sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt eZoefel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Constantly bombarded with input, the brain has the need to filter out relevant information while ignoring the irrelevant rest. A powerful tool may be represented by neural oscillations which entrain their high-excitability phase to important input while their low-excitability phase attenuates irrelevant information. Indeed, the alignment between brain oscillations and speech improves intelligibility and helps dissociating speakers during a cocktail party. Although well-investigated, the contribution of low- and high-level processes to phase entrainment to speech sound has only recently begun to be understood. Here, we review those findings, and concentrate on three main results: (1 Phase entrainment to speech sound is modulated by attention or predictions, likely supported by top-down signals and indicating higher-level processes involved in the brain’s adjustment to speech. (2 As phase entrainment to speech can be observed without systematic fluctuations in sound amplitude or spectral content, it does not only reflect a passive steady-state ringing of the cochlea, but entails a higher-level process. (3 The role of intelligibility for phase entrainment is debated. Recent results suggest that intelligibility modulates the behavioral consequences of entrainment, rather than directly affecting the strength of entrainment in auditory regions. We conclude that phase entrainment to speech reflects a sophisticated mechanism: Several high-level processes interact to optimally align neural oscillations with predicted events of high relevance, even when they are hidden in a continuous stream of background noise.

  17. Working memory span in Persian-speaking children with speech sound disorders and normal speech development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Mohamad Reza; Ghorbani, Ali; Rashedi, Vahid; Jalilevand, Nahid; Kamali, Mohamad

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare working memory span in Persian-speaking preschool children with speech sound disorder (SSD) and their typically speaking peers. Additionally, the study aimed to examine Non-Word Repetition (NWR), Forward Digit Span (FDS) and Backward Digit Span (BDS) in four groups of children with varying severity levels of SSD. The participants in this study comprised 35 children with SSD and 35 typically developing (TD) children -matched for age and sex-as a control group. The participants were between the age range of 48 and 72 months. Two components of working memory including phonological loop and central executive were compared between two groups. We used two tasks (NWR and FDS) to assess phonological loop component, and one task (BDS) to assess central executive component. Percentage of correct consonants (PCC) was used to calculate the severity of SSD. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in all tasks that assess working memory (p working memory between the various severity groups indicated significant differences between different severities of both NWR and FDS tasks among the SSD children (p  0.05). The result showed that PCC scores in TD children were associated with NWR (p  0.05). The working memory skills were weaker in SSD children, in comparison to TD children. In addition, children with varying levels of severity of SSD differed in terms of NWR and FSD, but not BDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Office noise: Can headphones and masking sound attenuate distraction by background speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahncke, Helena; Björkeholm, Patrik; Marsh, John E; Odelius, Johan; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2016-11-22

    Background speech is one of the most disturbing noise sources at shared workplaces in terms of both annoyance and performance-related disruption. Therefore, it is important to identify techniques that can efficiently protect performance against distraction. It is also important that the techniques are perceived as satisfactory and are subjectively evaluated as effective in their capacity to reduce distraction. The aim of the current study was to compare three methods of attenuating distraction from background speech: masking a background voice with nature sound through headphones, masking a background voice with other voices through headphones and merely wearing headphones (without masking) as a way to attenuate the background sound. Quiet was deployed as a baseline condition. Thirty students participated in an experiment employing a repeated measures design. Performance (serial short-term memory) was impaired by background speech (1 voice), but this impairment was attenuated when the speech was masked - and in particular when it was masked by nature sound. Furthermore, perceived workload was lowest in the quiet condition and significantly higher in all other sound conditions. Notably, the headphones tested as a sound-attenuating device (i.e. without masking) did not protect against the effects of background speech on performance and subjective work load. Nature sound was the only masking condition that worked as a protector of performance, at least in the context of the serial recall task. However, despite the attenuation of distraction by nature sound, perceived workload was still high - suggesting that it is difficult to find a masker that is both effective and perceived as satisfactory.

  19. Technology management for environmentally sound and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, S.M.J.

    1992-01-01

    With the evolutionary change in the production activities of human societies, the concept of development has also been changing. In the recent years the emphasis has been on the environmentally sound and sustainable development. The environmentally sound and sustainable development can be obtained through judicious use of technology. Technology as a resource transformer has emerged as the most important factor which can constitute to economic growth. But technology is not an independent and autonomous force, it is only an instrument which needs to be used carefully, properly and appropriately which necessitates technology management. (author)

  20. Introduction. The perception of speech: from sound to meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian C J; Tyler, Lorraine K; Marslen-Wilson, William

    2008-03-12

    Spoken language communication is arguably the most important activity that distinguishes humans from non-human species. This paper provides an overview of the review papers that make up this theme issue on the processes underlying speech communication. The volume includes contributions from researchers who specialize in a wide range of topics within the general area of speech perception and language processing. It also includes contributions from key researchers in neuroanatomy and functional neuro-imaging, in an effort to cut across traditional disciplinary boundaries and foster cross-disciplinary interactions in this important and rapidly developing area of the biological and cognitive sciences.

  1. Evolution of non-speech sound memory in postlingual deafness: implications for cochlear implant rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, D S; Giraud, A L; Truy, E; Lee, H J

    2011-07-01

    Neurofunctional patterns assessed before or after cochlear implantation (CI) are informative markers of implantation outcome. Because phonological memory reorganization in post-lingual deafness is predictive of the outcome, we investigated, using a cross-sectional approach, whether memory of non-speech sounds (NSS) produced by animals or objects (i.e. non-human sounds) is also reorganized, and how this relates to speech perception after CI. We used an fMRI auditory imagery task in which sounds were evoked by pictures of noisy items for post-lingual deaf candidates for CI and for normal-hearing subjects. When deaf subjects imagined sounds, the left inferior frontal gyrus, the right posterior temporal gyrus and the right amygdala were less activated compared to controls. Activity levels in these regions decreased with duration of auditory deprivation, indicating declining NSS representations. Whole brain correlations with duration of auditory deprivation and with speech scores after CI showed an activity decline in dorsal, fronto-parietal, cortical regions, and an activity increase in ventral cortical regions, the right anterior temporal pole and the hippocampal gyrus. Both dorsal and ventral reorganizations predicted poor speech perception outcome after CI. These results suggest that post-CI speech perception relies, at least partially, on the integrity of a neural system used for processing NSS that is based on audio-visual and articulatory mapping processes. When this neural system is reorganized, post-lingual deaf subjects resort to inefficient semantic- and memory-based strategies. These results complement those of other studies on speech processing, suggesting that both speech and NSS representations need to be maintained during deafness to ensure the success of CI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting the perceived sound quality of frequency-compressed speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Huber

    Full Text Available The performance of objective speech and audio quality measures for the prediction of the perceived quality of frequency-compressed speech in hearing aids is investigated in this paper. A number of existing quality measures have been applied to speech signals processed by a hearing aid, which compresses speech spectra along frequency in order to make information contained in higher frequencies audible for listeners with severe high-frequency hearing loss. Quality measures were compared with subjective ratings obtained from normal hearing and hearing impaired children and adults in an earlier study. High correlations were achieved with quality measures computed by quality models that are based on the auditory model of Dau et al., namely, the measure PSM, computed by the quality model PEMO-Q; the measure qc, computed by the quality model proposed by Hansen and Kollmeier; and the linear subcomponent of the HASQI. For the prediction of quality ratings by hearing impaired listeners, extensions of some models incorporating hearing loss were implemented and shown to achieve improved prediction accuracy. Results indicate that these objective quality measures can potentially serve as tools for assisting in initial setting of frequency compression parameters.

  3. Natural resources and environmentally sound sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastizzi-Ferencic, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article summarizes the activities of the United Nations Department of Technical Co-operation for Development (UNDTCD), which has been active for over 40 years in assisting developing countries to make the fullest possible use of their natural resources. Energy, water and mineral resources must be developed, and the impacts of the development on the environment must be mitigated. The importance of protecting supplies of fresh water, the central part occupied by the mining industry in developing countries, and the proper role of energy sources for sustainable development are all discussed

  4. [Non-speech oral motor treatment efficacy for children with developmental speech sound disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ygual-Fernandez, A; Cervera-Merida, J F

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of speech disorders by means of speech therapy two antagonistic methodological approaches are applied: non-verbal ones, based on oral motor exercises (OME), and verbal ones, which are based on speech processing tasks with syllables, phonemes and words. In Spain, OME programmes are called 'programas de praxias', and are widely used and valued by speech therapists. To review the studies conducted on the effectiveness of OME-based treatments applied to children with speech disorders and the theoretical arguments that could justify, or not, their usefulness. Over the last few decades evidence has been gathered about the lack of efficacy of this approach to treat developmental speech disorders and pronunciation problems in populations without any neurological alteration of motor functioning. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association has advised against its use taking into account the principles of evidence-based practice. The knowledge gathered to date on motor control shows that the pattern of mobility and its corresponding organisation in the brain are different in speech and other non-verbal functions linked to nutrition and breathing. Neither the studies on their effectiveness nor the arguments based on motor control studies recommend the use of OME-based programmes for the treatment of pronunciation problems in children with developmental language disorders.

  5. Deficits in Letter-Speech Sound Associations but Intact Visual Conflict Processing in Dyslexia: Results from a Novel ERP-Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Bakos, Sarolta; Landerl, Karin; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    The reading and spelling deficits characteristic of developmental dyslexia (dyslexia) have been related to problems in phonological processing and in learning associations between letters and speech-sounds. Even when children with dyslexia have learned the letters and their corresponding speech sounds, letter-speech sound associations might still be less automatized compared to children with age-adequate literacy skills. In order to examine automaticity in letter-speech sound associations and...

  6. Tutorial and Guidelines on Measurement of Sound Pressure Level in Voice and Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švec, Jan G.; Granqvist, Svante

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Sound pressure level (SPL) measurement of voice and speech is often considered a trivial matter, but the measured levels are often reported incorrectly or incompletely, making them difficult to compare among various studies. This article aims at explaining the fundamental principles behind these measurements and providing guidelines to…

  7. Inferior Frontal Sensitivity to Common Speech Sounds Is Amplified by Increasing Word Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Kenneth I., Jr.; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E.; Keren, Noam I.; Harris, Kelly C.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Dubno, Judy R.; Eckert, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) exhibits increased responsiveness when people listen to words composed of speech sounds that frequently co-occur in the English language (Vaden, Piquado, & Hickok, 2011), termed high phonotactic frequency (Vitevitch & Luce, 1998). The current experiment aimed to further characterize the relation of…

  8. Letter-speech sound learning in children with dyslexia : From behavioral research to clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravena, S.

    2017-01-01

    In alphabetic languages, learning to associate speech-sounds with unfamiliar characters is a critical step in becoming a proficient reader. This dissertation aimed at expanding our knowledge of this learning process and its relation to dyslexia, with an emphasis on bridging the gap between

  9. A Survey of University Professors Teaching Speech Sound Disorders: Nonspeech Oral Motor Exercises and Other Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Maggie M.; Lof, Gregory L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to obtain and organize information from instructors who teach course work on the subject of children's speech sound disorders (SSD) regarding their use of teaching resources, involvement in students' clinical practica, and intervention approaches presented to students. Instructors also reported if they…

  10. Estimation of sound pressure levels of voiced speech from skin vibration of the neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, JG; Titze, IR; Popolo, PS

    How accurately can sound pressure levels (SPLs) of speech be estimated from skin vibration of the neck? Measurements using a small accelerometer were carried out in 27 subjects (10 males and 17 females) who read Rainbow and Marvin Williams passages in soft, comfortable, and loud voice, while skin

  11. Reading Skills of Students with Speech Sound Disorders at Three Stages of Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skebo, Crysten M.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison Avrich; Stein, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with…

  12. Speech-Sound Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Short, Elizabeth J.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Avrich, Allison A.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of speech-sound disorders (SSD) with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the severity of the SSD and the mode of transmission of SSD within the pedigrees of children with SSD. Participants and Methods: The participants were 412 children who were enrolled…

  13. Early Intervening for Students with Speech Sound Disorders: Lessons from a School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mire, Stephen P.; Montgomery, Judy K.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of early intervening services was introduced into public school systems with the implementation of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004. This article describes a program developed for students with speech sound disorders that incorporated concepts of early intervening services, response to…

  14. Nonspeech Oral Motor Treatment Issues Related to Children with Developmental Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines nonspeech oral motor treatments (NSOMTs) in the population of clients with developmental speech sound disorders. NSOMTs are a collection of nonspeech methods and procedures that claim to influence tongue, lip, and jaw resting postures; increase strength; improve muscle tone; facilitate range of motion; and develop…

  15. Children with Speech Sound Disorders at School: Challenges for Children, Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Graham R.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2017-01-01

    Teachers play a major role in supporting children's educational, social, and emotional development although may be unprepared for supporting children with speech sound disorders. Interviews with 34 participants including six focus children, their parents, siblings, friends, teachers and other significant adults in their lives highlighted…

  16. Music and language expertise influence the categorization of speech and musical sounds: behavioral and electrophysiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Klein, Carina; Kühnis, Jürg; Liem, Franziskus; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we used high-density EEG to evaluate whether speech and music expertise has an influence on the categorization of expertise-related and unrelated sounds. With this purpose in mind, we compared the categorization of speech, music, and neutral sounds between professional musicians, simultaneous interpreters (SIs), and controls in response to morphed speech-noise, music-noise, and speech-music continua. Our hypothesis was that music and language expertise will strengthen the memory representations of prototypical sounds, which act as a perceptual magnet for morphed variants. This means that the prototype would "attract" variants. This so-called magnet effect should be manifested by an increased assignment of morphed items to the trained category, by a reduced maximal slope of the psychometric function, as well as by differential event-related brain responses reflecting memory comparison processes (i.e., N400 and P600 responses). As a main result, we provide first evidence for a domain-specific behavioral bias of musicians and SIs toward the trained categories, namely music and speech. In addition, SIs showed a bias toward musical items, indicating that interpreting training has a generic influence on the cognitive representation of spectrotemporal signals with similar acoustic properties to speech sounds. Notably, EEG measurements revealed clear distinct N400 and P600 responses to both prototypical and ambiguous items between the three groups at anterior, central, and posterior scalp sites. These differential N400 and P600 responses represent synchronous activity occurring across widely distributed brain networks, and indicate a dynamical recruitment of memory processes that vary as a function of training and expertise.

  17. Aging affects hemispheric asymmetry in the neural representation of speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, T J; Nicol, T; Kraus, N

    2000-01-15

    Hemispheric asymmetries in the processing of elemental speech sounds appear to be critical for normal speech perception. This study investigated the effects of age on hemispheric asymmetry observed in the neurophysiological responses to speech stimuli in three groups of normal hearing, right-handed subjects: children (ages, 8-11 years), young adults (ages, 20-25 years), and older adults (ages > 55 years). Peak-to-peak response amplitudes of the auditory cortical P1-N1 complex obtained over right and left temporal lobes were examined to determine the degree of left/right asymmetry in the neurophysiological responses elicited by synthetic speech syllables in each of the three subject groups. In addition, mismatch negativity (MMN) responses, which are elicited by acoustic change, were obtained. Whereas children and young adults demonstrated larger P1-N1-evoked response amplitudes over the left temporal lobe than over the right, responses from elderly subjects were symmetrical. In contrast, MMN responses, which reflect an echoic memory process, were symmetrical in all subject groups. The differences observed in the neurophysiological responses were accompanied by a finding of significantly poorer ability to discriminate speech syllables involving rapid spectrotemporal changes in the older adult group. This study demonstrates a biological, age-related change in the neural representation of basic speech sounds and suggests one possible underlying mechanism for the speech perception difficulties exhibited by aging adults. Furthermore, results of this study support previous findings suggesting a dissociation between neural mechanisms underlying those processes that reflect the basic representation of sound structure and those that represent auditory echoic memory and stimulus change.

  18. Multisensory integration of speech sounds with letters vs. visual speech : only visual speech induces the mismatch negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, J.J.; Keetels, M.N.; Vroomen, J.H.M.

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the vision of lip movements can alter the perception of auditory speech syllables (McGurk effect). While there is ample evidence for integration of text and auditory speech, there are only a few studies on the orthographic equivalent of the McGurk effect.

  19. Detecting Parkinson's disease from sustained phonation and speech signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Vaiciukynas

    Full Text Available This study investigates signals from sustained phonation and text-dependent speech modalities for Parkinson's disease screening. Phonation corresponds to the vowel /a/ voicing task and speech to the pronunciation of a short sentence in Lithuanian language. Signals were recorded through two channels simultaneously, namely, acoustic cardioid (AC and smart phone (SP microphones. Additional modalities were obtained by splitting speech recording into voiced and unvoiced parts. Information in each modality is summarized by 18 well-known audio feature sets. Random forest (RF is used as a machine learning algorithm, both for individual feature sets and for decision-level fusion. Detection performance is measured by the out-of-bag equal error rate (EER and the cost of log-likelihood-ratio. Essentia audio feature set was the best using the AC speech modality and YAAFE audio feature set was the best using the SP unvoiced modality, achieving EER of 20.30% and 25.57%, respectively. Fusion of all feature sets and modalities resulted in EER of 19.27% for the AC and 23.00% for the SP channel. Non-linear projection of a RF-based proximity matrix into the 2D space enriched medical decision support by visualization.

  20. Speech abilities in preschool children with speech sound disorder with and without co-occurring language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, Toby; Tyler, Ann A

    2014-10-01

    The authors compared preschool children with co-occurring speech sound disorder (SSD) and language impairment (LI) to children with SSD only in their numbers and types of speech sound errors. In this post hoc quasi-experimental study, independent samples t tests were used to compare the groups in the standard score from different tests of articulation/phonology, percent consonants correct, and the number of omission, substitution, distortion, typical, and atypical error patterns used in the production of different wordlists that had similar levels of phonetic and structural complexity. In comparison with children with SSD only, children with SSD and LI used similar numbers but different types of errors, including more omission patterns ( p < .001, d = 1.55) and fewer distortion patterns ( p = .022, d = 1.03). There were no significant differences in substitution, typical, and atypical error pattern use. Frequent omission error pattern use may reflect a more compromised linguistic system characterized by absent phonological representations for target sounds (see Shriberg et al., 2005). Research is required to examine the diagnostic potential of early frequent omission error pattern use in predicting later diagnoses of co-occurring SSD and LI and/or reading problems.

  1. When Does Speech Sound Disorder Matter for Literacy? The Role of Disordered Speech Errors, Co-Occurring Language Impairment and Family Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Carroll, Julia M.; Leavett, Ruth; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study considers the role of early speech difficulties in literacy development, in the context of additional risk factors. Method: Children were identified with speech sound disorder (SSD) at the age of 3½ years, on the basis of performance on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology. Their literacy skills were…

  2. CNTNAP2 Is Significantly Associated With Speech Sound Disorder in the Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-Jing; Wang, Yue-Ping; Yang, Wen-Zhu; Sun, Hong-Wei; Ma, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Ya-Ru

    2015-11-01

    Speech sound disorder is the most common communication disorder. Some investigations support the possibility that the CNTNAP2 gene might be involved in the pathogenesis of speech-related diseases. To investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CNTNAP2 gene, 300 unrelated speech sound disorder patients and 200 normal controls were included in the study. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms were amplified and directly sequenced. Significant differences were found in the genotype (P = .0003) and allele (P = .0056) frequencies of rs2538976 between patients and controls. The excess frequency of the A allele in the patient group remained significant after Bonferroni correction (P = .0280). A significant haplotype association with rs2710102T/+rs17236239A/+2538976A/+2710117A (P = 4.10e-006) was identified. A neighboring single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs10608123, was found in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs2538976, and the genotypes exactly corresponded to each other. The authors propose that these CNTNAP2 variants increase the susceptibility to speech sound disorder. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs10608123 and rs2538976 may merge into one single-nucleotide polymorphism. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150ms after sound onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, T; Alho, K; Alku, P; Holi, M; Sinkkonen, J; Virtanen, J; Bertrand, O; Näätänen, R

    1999-04-06

    Hemispheric specialization of human speech processing has been found in brain imaging studies using fMRI and PET. Due to the restricted time resolution, these methods cannot, however, determine the stage of auditory processing at which this specialization first emerges. We used a dense electrode array covering the whole scalp to record the mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) automatically elicited by occasional changes in sounds, which ranged from non-phonetic (tones) to phonetic (vowels). MMN can be used to probe auditory central processing on a millisecond scale with no attention-dependent task requirements. Our results indicate that speech processing occurs predominantly in the left hemisphere at the early, pre-attentive level of auditory analysis.

  4. The Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Children and Arabic Speech Sound Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruaa Osama Hariri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with Attention-Deficiency/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD often have co-existing learning disabilities and developmental weaknesses or delays in some areas including speech (Rief, 2005. Seeing that phonological disorders include articulation errors and other forms of speech disorders, studies pertaining to children with ADHD symptoms who demonstrate signs of phonological disorders in their native Arabic language are lacking. The purpose of this study is to provide a description of Arabic language deficits and to present a theoretical model of potential associations between phonological language deficits and ADHD. Dodd and McCormack’s (1995 four subgroups classification of speech disorder and the phonological disorders pertaining to the Arabic language provided by a Saudi Institute for Speech and Hearing are examined within the theoretical framework. Since intervention may improve articulation and focuses a child’s attention on the sound structure of words, findings in this study are based on the assumption that children with ADHD may acquire phonology for their Arabic language in the same way, and following the same developmental stages as intelligible children. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses have proven that the ADHD group analyzed in this study had indeed failed to acquire most of their Arabic consonants as they should have. Keywords: speech sound disorder, attention-deficiency/hyperactive, developmental disorder, phonological disorder, language disorder/delay, language impairment

  5. Speech-language pathologists' practices regarding assessment, analysis, target selection, intervention, and service delivery for children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, Sharynne; Baker, Elise

    2014-01-01

    A survey of 231 Australian speech-language pathologists (SLPs) was undertaken to describe practices regarding assessment, analysis, target selection, intervention, and service delivery for children with speech sound disorders (SSD). The participants typically worked in private practice, education, or community health settings and 67.6% had a waiting list for services. For each child, most of the SLPs spent 10-40 min in pre-assessment activities, 30-60 min undertaking face-to-face assessments, and 30-60 min completing paperwork after assessments. During an assessment SLPs typically conducted a parent interview, single-word speech sampling, collected a connected speech sample, and used informal tests. They also determined children's stimulability and estimated intelligibility. With multilingual children, informal assessment procedures and English-only tests were commonly used and SLPs relied on family members or interpreters to assist. Common analysis techniques included determination of phonological processes, substitutions-omissions-distortions-additions (SODA), and phonetic inventory. Participants placed high priority on selecting target sounds that were stimulable, early developing, and in error across all word positions and 60.3% felt very confident or confident selecting an appropriate intervention approach. Eight intervention approaches were frequently used: auditory discrimination, minimal pairs, cued articulation, phonological awareness, traditional articulation therapy, auditory bombardment, Nuffield Centre Dyspraxia Programme, and core vocabulary. Children typically received individual therapy with an SLP in a clinic setting. Parents often observed and participated in sessions and SLPs typically included siblings and grandparents in intervention sessions. Parent training and home programs were more frequently used than the group therapy. Two-thirds kept up-to-date by reading journal articles monthly or every 6 months. There were many similarities with

  6. What does learner speech sound like? A case study on adult learners of isiXhosa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, Jaco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available moved during recording or by a sound/beep that results from the press of a button and an obstruction of the device microphone. • Low volume: Speech is too soft to understand what is being said. • Whispering: Speaker whispers during recording. • Laughter...-processing categories. If any of these categories were marked for a particular utterance, the utterance was discarded. The event categories were combined as follows: • Option 1: Empty, Whispering, Laughter, Background speech, Transcription mismatch • Option 2: Empty...

  7. Speech, Sound and Music Processing: Embracing Research in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    classical music and its impact in cognitive science are the focus of discussion. Eminent scientist from the USA, Japan, Sweden, France, Poland, Taiwan, India and other European and Asian countries have delivered state-of-the-art lectures in these areas every year at different places providing an opportunity......The Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval (CMMR) 2011 conference was the 8th event of this international series, and the first that took place outside Europe. Since its beginnings in 2003, this conference has been co-organized by the Laboratoire de M´ecanique et d’Acoustique in Marseille, France......, and the Department of Architecture, Design and Media Technology (ad:mt), University of Aalborg, Esbjerg, Denmark, and has taken place in France, Italy, Spain, and Denmark. Historically, CMMR offers a cross-disciplinary overview of current music information retrieval and sound modeling activities and related topics...

  8. Atypical central auditory speech-sound discrimination in children who stutter as indexed by the mismatch negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansson-Verkasalo, E.; Eggers, K.; Järvenpää, A.; Suominen, K.; Van Den Bergh, B.R.H.; de Nil, L.; Kujala, T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent theoretical conceptualizations suggest that disfluencies in stuttering may arise from several factors, one of them being atypical auditory processing. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether speech sound encoding and central auditory discrimination, are

  9. Listening to an audio drama activates two processing networks, one for all sounds, another exclusively for speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Boldt

    Full Text Available Earlier studies have shown considerable intersubject synchronization of brain activity when subjects watch the same movie or listen to the same story. Here we investigated the across-subjects similarity of brain responses to speech and non-speech sounds in a continuous audio drama designed for blind people. Thirteen healthy adults listened for ∼19 min to the audio drama while their brain activity was measured with 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. An intersubject-correlation (ISC map, computed across the whole experiment to assess the stimulus-driven extrinsic brain network, indicated statistically significant ISC in temporal, frontal and parietal cortices, cingulate cortex, and amygdala. Group-level independent component (IC analysis was used to parcel out the brain signals into functionally coupled networks, and the dependence of the ICs on external stimuli was tested by comparing them with the ISC map. This procedure revealed four extrinsic ICs of which two-covering non-overlapping areas of the auditory cortex-were modulated by both speech and non-speech sounds. The two other extrinsic ICs, one left-hemisphere-lateralized and the other right-hemisphere-lateralized, were speech-related and comprised the superior and middle temporal gyri, temporal poles, and the left angular and inferior orbital gyri. In areas of low ISC four ICs that were defined intrinsic fluctuated similarly as the time-courses of either the speech-sound-related or all-sounds-related extrinsic ICs. These ICs included the superior temporal gyrus, the anterior insula, and the frontal, parietal and midline occipital cortices. Taken together, substantial intersubject synchronization of cortical activity was observed in subjects listening to an audio drama, with results suggesting that speech is processed in two separate networks, one dedicated to the processing of speech sounds and the other to both speech and non-speech sounds.

  10. Sound and speech detection and classification in a Health Smart Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, A; Noury, N; Vacher, M; Glasson, H; Seri, J F

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in medicine increase life expectancy in the world and create a new bottleneck at the entrance of specialized and equipped institutions. To allow elderly people to stay at home, researchers work on ways to monitor them in their own environment, with non-invasive sensors. To meet this goal, smart homes, equipped with lots of sensors, deliver information on the activities of the person and can help detect distress situations. In this paper, we present a global speech and sound recognition system that can be set-up in a flat. We placed eight microphones in the Health Smart Home of Grenoble (a real living flat of 47m(2)) and we automatically analyze and sort out the different sounds recorded in the flat and the speech uttered (to detect normal or distress french sentences). We introduce the methods for the sound and speech recognition, the post-processing of the data and finally the experimental results obtained in real conditions in the flat.

  11. Perceptions of The Seriousness of Mispronunciations of English Speech Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moedjito Moedjito

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to investigate Indonesian EFL teachers’ and native English speakers’ perceptions of mispronunciations of English sounds by Indonesian EFL learners. For this purpose, a paper-form questionnaire consisting of 32 target mispronunciations was distributed to Indonesian secondary school teachers of English and also to native English speakers. An analysis of the respondents’ perceptions has discovered that 14 out of the 32 target mispronunciations are pedagogically significant in pronunciation instruction. A further analysis of the reasons for these major mispronunciations has reconfirmed the prevalence of interference of learners’ native language in their English pronunciation as a major cause of mispronunciations. It has also revealed Indonesian EFL teachers’ tendency to overestimate the seriousness of their learners’ pronunciations. Based on these findings, the study makes suggestions for better English pronunciation teaching in Indonesia or other EFL countries.

  12. Hemispheric lateralization in an analysis of speech sounds. Left hemisphere dominance replicated in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, S; Gunji, A; Yabe, H; Oiwa, S; Akahane-Yamada, R; Kakigi, R; Näätänen, R

    2000-09-01

    Evoked magnetic responses to speech sounds [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M. Vainio, P. Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.] were recorded from 13 Japanese subjects (right-handed). Infrequently presented vowels ([o]) among repetitive vowels ([e]) elicited the magnetic counterpart of mismatch negativity, MMNm (Bilateral, nine subjects; Left hemisphere alone, three subjects; Right hemisphere alone, one subject). The estimated source of the MMNm was stronger in the left than in the right auditory cortex. The sources were located posteriorly in the left than in the right auditory cortex. These findings are consistent with the results obtained in Finnish [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M.Vainio, P.Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.][T. Rinne, K. Alho, P. Alku, M. Holi, J. Sinkkonen, J. Virtanen, O. Bertrand and R. Näätänen, Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150 ms after sound onset. Neuroreport, 10 (1999) 1113-1117.] and English [K. Alho, J.F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko and R.J. Ilmoniemi, Hemispheric lateralization in preattentive processing of speech sounds. Neurosci. Lett., 258 (1998) 9-12.] subjects. Instead of the P1m observed in Finnish [M. Tervaniemi, A. Kujala, K. Alho, J. Virtanen, R.J. Ilmoniemi and R. Näätänen, Functional specialization of the human auditory cortex in processing phonetic and musical sounds: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 9 (1999) 330-336.] and English [K. Alho, J. F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko

  13. Oral and Hand Movement Speeds Are Associated with Expressive Language Ability in Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with speech sound disorder have generalized slowed motor speeds. It evaluated associations among oral and hand motor speeds and measures of speech (articulation and phonology) and language (receptive vocabulary, sentence comprehension, sentence imitation), in 11 children with moderate to severe SSD…

  14. How Should Children with Speech Sound Disorders be Classified? A Review and Critical Evaluation of Current Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, R.; Knight, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with speech sound disorders (SSD) form a heterogeneous group who differ in terms of the severity of their condition, underlying cause, speech errors, involvement of other aspects of the linguistic system and treatment response. To date there is no universal and agreed-upon classification system. Instead, a number of…

  15. The phonological memory profile of preschool children who make atypical speech sound errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Rebecca; Eadie, Patricia; Rickard Liow, Susan; Dodd, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Previous research indicates that children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have underlying phonological memory deficits. The SSD population, however, is diverse. While children who make consistent atypical speech errors (phonological disorder/PhDis) are known to have executive function deficits in rule abstraction and cognitive flexibility, little is known about their memory profile. Sixteen monolingual preschool children with atypical speech errors (PhDis) were matched individually to age-and-gender peers with typically developing speech (TDS). The two groups were compared on forward recall of familiar words (pointing response), reverse recall of familiar words (pointing response), and reverse recall of digits (spoken response) and a receptive vocabulary task. There were no differences between children with TDS and children with PhDis on forward recall or vocabulary tasks. However, children with TDS significantly outperformed children with PhDis on the two reverse recall tasks. Findings suggest that atypical speech errors are associated with impaired phonological working memory, implicating executive function impairment in specific subtypes of SSD.

  16. Comparing Measures of Voice Quality from Sustained Phonation and Continuous Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerratt, Bruce R.; Kreiman, Jody; Garellek, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The question of what type of utterance--a sustained vowel or continuous speech--is best for voice quality analysis has been extensively studied but with equivocal results. This study examines whether previously reported differences derive from the articulatory and prosodic factors occurring in continuous speech versus sustained phonation.…

  17. Bilateral capacity for speech sound processing in auditory comprehension: evidence from Wada procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, G; Okada, K; Barr, W; Pa, J; Rogalsky, C; Donnelly, K; Barde, L; Grant, A

    2008-12-01

    Data from lesion studies suggest that the ability to perceive speech sounds, as measured by auditory comprehension tasks, is supported by temporal lobe systems in both the left and right hemisphere. For example, patients with left temporal lobe damage and auditory comprehension deficits (i.e., Wernicke's aphasics), nonetheless comprehend isolated words better than one would expect if their speech perception system had been largely destroyed (70-80% accuracy). Further, when comprehension fails in such patients their errors are more often semantically-based, than-phonemically based. The question addressed by the present study is whether this ability of the right hemisphere to process speech sounds is a result of plastic reorganization following chronic left hemisphere damage, or whether the ability exists in undamaged language systems. We sought to test these possibilities by studying auditory comprehension in acute left versus right hemisphere deactivation during Wada procedures. A series of 20 patients undergoing clinically indicated Wada procedures were asked to listen to an auditorily presented stimulus word, and then point to its matching picture on a card that contained the target picture, a semantic foil, a phonemic foil, and an unrelated foil. This task was performed under three conditions, baseline, during left carotid injection of sodium amytal, and during right carotid injection of sodium amytal. Overall, left hemisphere injection led to a significantly higher error rate than right hemisphere injection. However, consistent with lesion work, the majority (75%) of these errors were semantic in nature. These findings suggest that auditory comprehension deficits are predominantly semantic in nature, even following acute left hemisphere disruption. This, in turn, supports the hypothesis that the right hemisphere is capable of speech sound processing in the intact brain.

  18. IEP goals for school-age children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Tambyraja, Sherine R; Justice, Laura M; Redle, Erin E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the current state of practice for writing Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals for children with speech sound disorders (SSDs). IEP goals for 146 children receiving services for SSDs within public school systems across two states were coded for their dominant theoretical framework and overall quality. A dichotomous scheme was used for theoretical framework coding: cognitive-linguistic or sensory-motor. Goal quality was determined by examining 7 specific indicators outlined by an empirically tested rating tool. In total, 147 long-term and 490 short-term goals were coded. The results revealed no dominant theoretical framework for long-term goals, whereas short-term goals largely reflected a sensory-motor framework. In terms of quality, the majority of speech production goals were functional and generalizable in nature, but were not able to be easily targeted during common daily tasks or by other members of the IEP team. Short-term goals were consistently rated higher in quality domains when compared to long-term goals. The current state of practice for writing IEP goals for children with SSDs indicates that theoretical framework may be eclectic in nature and likely written to support the individual needs of children with speech sound disorders. Further investigation is warranted to determine the relations between goal quality and child outcomes. (1) Identify two predominant theoretical frameworks and discuss how they apply to IEP goal writing. (2) Discuss quality indicators as they relate to IEP goals for children with speech sound disorders. (3) Discuss the relationship between long-term goals level of quality and related theoretical frameworks. (4) Identify the areas in which business-as-usual IEP goals exhibit strong quality.

  19. Irrelevant sound disrupts speech production: exploring the relationship between short-term memory and experimentally induced slips of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoru; Baddeley, Alan

    2004-10-01

    To explore the relationship between short-term memory and speech production, we developed a speech error induction technique. The technique, which was adapted from a Japanese word game, exposed participants to an auditory distractor word immediately before the utterance of a target word. In Experiment 1, the distractor words that were phonologically similar to the target word led to a greater number of errors in speaking the target than did the dissimilar distractor words. Furthermore, the speech error scores were significantly correlated with memory span scores. In Experiment 2, memory span scores were again correlated with the rate of the speech errors that were induced from the task-irrelevant speech sounds. Experiment 3 showed a strong irrelevant-sound effect in the serial recall of nonwords. The magnitude of the irrelevant-sound effects was not affected by phonological similarity between the to-be-remembered nonwords and the irrelevant-sound materials. Analysis of recall errors in Experiment 3 also suggested that there were no essential differences in recall error patterns between the dissimilar and similar irrelevant-sound conditions. We proposed two different underlying mechanisms in immediate memory, one operating via the phonological short-term memory store and the other via the processes underpinning speech production.

  20. A sparse neural code for some speech sounds but not for others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Scharinger

    Full Text Available The precise neural mechanisms underlying speech sound representations are still a matter of debate. Proponents of 'sparse representations' assume that on the level of speech sounds, only contrastive or otherwise not predictable information is stored in long-term memory. Here, in a passive oddball paradigm, we challenge the neural foundations of such a 'sparse' representation; we use words that differ only in their penultimate consonant ("coronal" [t] vs. "dorsal" [k] place of articulation and for example distinguish between the German nouns Latz ([lats]; bib and Lachs ([laks]; salmon. Changes from standard [t] to deviant [k] and vice versa elicited a discernible Mismatch Negativity (MMN response. Crucially, however, the MMN for the deviant [lats] was stronger than the MMN for the deviant [laks]. Source localization showed this difference to be due to enhanced brain activity in right superior temporal cortex. These findings reflect a difference in phonological 'sparsity': Coronal [t] segments, but not dorsal [k] segments, are based on more sparse representations and elicit less specific neural predictions; sensory deviations from this prediction are more readily 'tolerated' and accordingly trigger weaker MMNs. The results foster the neurocomputational reality of 'representationally sparse' models of speech perception that are compatible with more general predictive mechanisms in auditory perception.

  1. Differential Diagnosis of Speech Sound Disorder (Phonological Disorder): Audiological Assessment beyond the Pure-tone Audiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadou, Vasiliki Vivian; Chermak, Gail D; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2015-04-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, diagnosis of speech sound disorder (SSD) requires a determination that it is not the result of other congenital or acquired conditions, including hearing loss or neurological conditions that may present with similar symptomatology. To examine peripheral and central auditory function for the purpose of determining whether a peripheral or central auditory disorder was an underlying factor or contributed to the child's SSD. Central auditory processing disorder clinic pediatric case reports. Three clinical cases are reviewed of children with diagnosed SSD who were referred for audiological evaluation by their speech-language pathologists as a result of slower than expected progress in therapy. Audiological testing revealed auditory deficits involving peripheral auditory function or the central auditory nervous system. These cases demonstrate the importance of increasing awareness among professionals of the need to fully evaluate the auditory system to identify auditory deficits that could contribute to a patient's speech sound (phonological) disorder. Audiological assessment in cases of suspected SSD should not be limited to pure-tone audiometry given its limitations in revealing the full range of peripheral and central auditory deficits, deficits which can compromise treatment of SSD. American Academy of Audiology.

  2. What characterizes changing-state speech in affecting short-term memory? An EEG study on the irrelevant sound effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Weisz, Nathan; Bertrand, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The irrelevant sound effect (ISE) describes reduced verbal short-term memory during irrelevant changing-state sounds which consist of different and distinct auditory tokens. Steady-state sounds lack such changing-state features and do not impair performance. An EEG experiment (N=16) explored the distinguishing neurophysiological aspects of detrimental changing-state speech (3-token sequence) compared to ineffective steady-state speech (1-token sequence) on serial recall performance. We analyzed evoked and induced activity related to the memory items as well as spectral activity during the retention phase. The main finding is that the behavioral sound effect was exclusively reflected by attenuated token-induced gamma activation most pronounced between 50-60 Hz and 50-100 ms post-stimulus onset. Changing-state speech seems to disrupt a behaviorally relevant ongoing process during target presentation (e.g., the serial binding of the items). Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Learning foreign sounds in an alien world: videogame training improves non-native speech categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung-joo; Holt, Lori L

    2011-01-01

    Although speech categories are defined by multiple acoustic dimensions, some are perceptually weighted more than others and there are residual effects of native-language weightings in non-native speech perception. Recent research on nonlinguistic sound category learning suggests that the distribution characteristics of experienced sounds influence perceptual cue weights: Increasing variability across a dimension leads listeners to rely upon it less in subsequent category learning (Holt & Lotto, 2006). The present experiment investigated the implications of this among native Japanese learning English /r/-/l/ categories. Training was accomplished using a videogame paradigm that emphasizes associations among sound categories, visual information, and players' responses to videogame characters rather than overt categorization or explicit feedback. Subjects who played the game for 2.5h across 5 days exhibited improvements in /r/-/l/ perception on par with 2-4 weeks of explicit categorization training in previous research and exhibited a shift toward more native-like perceptual cue weights. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Differences between the production of [s] and [ʃ] in the speech of adults, typically developing children, and children with speech sound disorders: An ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Danira Tavares; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the criteria that are used in ultrasound to measure the differences between the tongue contours that produce [s] and [ʃ] sounds in the speech of adults, typically developing children (TDC), and children with speech sound disorder (SSD) with the phonological process of palatal fronting. Overlapping images of the tongue contours that resulted from 35 subjects producing the [s] and [ʃ] sounds were analysed to select 11 spokes on the radial grid that were spread over the tongue contour. The difference was calculated between the mean contour of the [s] and [ʃ] sounds for each spoke. A cluster analysis produced groups with some consistency in the pattern of articulation across subjects and differentiated adults and TDC to some extent and children with SSD with a high level of success. Children with SSD were less likely to show differentiation of the tongue contours between the articulation of [s] and [ʃ].

  5. A systematic review and classification of interventions for speech-sound disorder in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Yvonne; Harding, Sam; Goldbart, Juliet; Roulstone, Sue

    2018-05-01

    Multiple interventions have been developed to address speech sound disorder (SSD) in children. Many of these have been evaluated but the evidence for these has not been considered within a model which categorizes types of intervention. The opportunity to carry out a systematic review of interventions for SSD arose as part of a larger scale study of interventions for primary speech and language impairment in preschool children. To review systematically the evidence for interventions for SSD in preschool children and to categorize them within a classification of interventions for SSD. Relevant search terms were used to identify intervention studies published up to 2012, with the following inclusion criteria: participants were aged between 2 years and 5 years, 11 months; they exhibited speech, language and communication needs; and a primary outcome measure of speech was used. Studies that met inclusion criteria were quality appraised using the single case experimental design (SCED) or PEDro-P, depending on their methodology. Those judged to be high quality were classified according to the primary focus of intervention. The final review included 26 studies. Case series was the most common research design. Categorization to the classification system for interventions showed that cognitive-linguistic and production approaches to intervention were the most frequently reported. The highest graded evidence was for three studies within the auditory-perceptual and integrated categories. The evidence for intervention for preschool children with SSD is focused on seven out of 11 subcategories of interventions. Although all the studies included in the review were good quality as defined by quality appraisal checklists, they mostly represented lower-graded evidence. Higher-graded studies are needed to understand clearly the strength of evidence for different interventions. © 2018 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  6. Psychometric characteristics of single-word tests of children's speech sound production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipsen, Peter; Ogiela, Diane A

    2015-04-01

    Our understanding of test construction has improved since the now-classic review by McCauley and Swisher (1984). The current review article examines the psychometric characteristics of current single-word tests of speech sound production in an attempt to determine whether our tests have improved since then. It also provides a resource that clinicians may use to help them make test selection decisions for their particular client populations. Ten tests published since 1990 were reviewed to determine whether they met the 10 criteria set out by McCauley and Swisher (1984), as well as 7 additional criteria. All of the tests reviewed met at least 3 of McCauley and Swisher's (1984) original criteria, and 9 of 10 tests met at least 5 of them. Most of the tests met some of the additional criteria as well. The state of the art for single-word tests of speech sound production in children appears to have improved in the last 30 years. There remains, however, room for improvement.

  7. Acoustic analyses of speech sounds and rhythms in Japanese- and English-learning infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko eYamashita

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore developmental changes, in terms of spectral fluctuations and temporal periodicity with Japanese- and English-learning infants. Three age groups (15, 20, and 24 months were selected, because infants diversify phonetic inventories with age. Natural speech of the infants was recorded. We utilized a critical-band-filter bank, which simulated the frequency resolution in adults’ auditory periphery. First, the correlations between the critical-band outputs represented by factor analysis were observed in order to see how the critical bands should be connected to each other, if a listener is to differentiate sounds in infants’ speech. In the following analysis, we analyzed the temporal fluctuations of factor scores by calculating autocorrelations. The present analysis identified three factors observed in adult speech at 24 months of age in both linguistic environments. These three factors were shifted to a higher frequency range corresponding to the smaller vocal tract size of the infants. The results suggest that the vocal tract structures of the infants had developed to become adult-like configuration by 24 months of age in both language environments. The amount of utterances with periodic nature of shorter time increased with age in both environments. This trend was clearer in the Japanese environment.

  8. A randomized controlled trial on the beneficial effects of training letter-speech sound integration on reading fluency in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraga González, G.; Žarić, G.; Tijms, J.; Bonte, M.; Blomert, L.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    A recent account of dyslexia assumes that a failure to develop automated letter-speech sound integration might be responsible for the observed lack of reading fluency. This study uses a pre-test-training-post-test design to evaluate the effects of a training program based on letter-speech sound

  9. Evidence for the treatment of co-occurring stuttering and speech sound disorder: A clinical case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unicomb, Rachael; Hewat, Sally; Spencer, Elizabeth; Harrison, Elisabeth

    2017-06-01

    There is a paucity of evidence to guide treatment for children with co-occurring stuttering and speech sound disorder. Some guidelines suggest treating the two disorders simultaneously using indirect treatment approaches; however, the research supporting these recommendations is over 20 years old. In this clinical case series, we investigate whether these co-occurring disorders could be treated concurrently using direct treatment approaches supported by up-to-date, high-level evidence, and whether this could be done in an efficacious, safe and efficient manner. Five pre-school-aged participants received individual concurrent, direct intervention for both stuttering and speech sound disorder. All participants used the Lidcombe Program, as manualised. Direct treatment for speech sound disorder was individualised based on analysis of each child's sound system. At 12 months post commencement of treatment, all except one participant had completed the Lidcombe Program, and were less than 1.0% syllables stuttered on samples gathered within and beyond the clinic. These four participants completed Stage 1 of the Lidcombe Program in between 14 and 22 clinic visits, consistent with current benchmark data for this programme. At the same assessment point, all five participants exhibited significant increases in percentage of consonants correct and were in alignment with age-expected estimates of this measure. Further, they were treated in an average number of clinic visits that compares favourably with other research on treatment for speech sound disorder. These preliminary results indicate that young children with co-occurring stuttering and speech sound disorder may be treated concurrently using direct treatment approaches. This method of service delivery may have implications for cost and time efficiency and may also address the crucial need for early intervention in both disorders. These positive findings highlight the need for further research in the area and contribute to

  10. Learning to Produce Syllabic Speech Sounds via Reward-Modulated Neural Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlaumont, Anne S.; Finnegan, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    At around 7 months of age, human infants begin to reliably produce well-formed syllables containing both consonants and vowels, a behavior called canonical babbling. Over subsequent months, the frequency of canonical babbling continues to increase. How the infant’s nervous system supports the acquisition of this ability is unknown. Here we present a computational model that combines a spiking neural network, reinforcement-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity, and a human-like vocal tract to simulate the acquisition of canonical babbling. Like human infants, the model’s frequency of canonical babbling gradually increases. The model is rewarded when it produces a sound that is more auditorily salient than sounds it has previously produced. This is consistent with data from human infants indicating that contingent adult responses shape infant behavior and with data from deaf and tracheostomized infants indicating that hearing, including hearing one’s own vocalizations, is critical for canonical babbling development. Reward receipt increases the level of dopamine in the neural network. The neural network contains a reservoir with recurrent connections and two motor neuron groups, one agonist and one antagonist, which control the masseter and orbicularis oris muscles, promoting or inhibiting mouth closure. The model learns to increase the number of salient, syllabic sounds it produces by adjusting the base level of muscle activation and increasing their range of activity. Our results support the possibility that through dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity, the motor cortex learns to harness its natural oscillations in activity in order to produce syllabic sounds. It thus suggests that learning to produce rhythmic mouth movements for speech production may be supported by general cortical learning mechanisms. The model makes several testable predictions and has implications for our understanding not only of how syllabic vocalizations develop

  11. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder on the severity of speech-sound disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Nadia; Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; Pagan-Neves, Luciana de Oliveira; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede

    2016-02-01

    To identify a cutoff value based on the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index that could indicate the likelihood of a child with a speech-sound disorder also having a (central) auditory processing disorder . Language, audiological and (central) auditory processing evaluations were administered. The participants were 27 subjects with speech-sound disorders aged 7 to 10 years and 11 months who were divided into two different groups according to their (central) auditory processing evaluation results. When a (central) auditory processing disorder was present in association with a speech disorder, the children tended to have lower scores on phonological assessments. A greater severity of speech disorder was related to a greater probability of the child having a (central) auditory processing disorder. The use of a cutoff value for the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index successfully distinguished between children with and without a (central) auditory processing disorder. The severity of speech-sound disorder in children was influenced by the presence of (central) auditory processing disorder. The attempt to identify a cutoff value based on a severity index was successful.

  12. Predictive Brain Mechanisms in Sound-to-Meaning Mapping during Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Bingjiang; Ge, Jianqiao; Niu, Zhendong; Tan, Li Hai; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2016-10-19

    Spoken language comprehension relies not only on the identification of individual words, but also on the expectations arising from contextual information. A distributed frontotemporal network is known to facilitate the mapping of speech sounds onto their corresponding meanings. However, how prior expectations influence this efficient mapping at the neuroanatomical level, especially in terms of individual words, remains unclear. Using fMRI, we addressed this question in the framework of the dual-stream model by scanning native speakers of Mandarin Chinese, a language highly dependent on context. We found that, within the ventral pathway, the violated expectations elicited stronger activations in the left anterior superior temporal gyrus and the ventral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for the phonological-semantic prediction of spoken words. Functional connectivity analysis showed that expectations were mediated by both top-down modulation from the left ventral IFG to the anterior temporal regions and enhanced cross-stream integration through strengthened connections between different subregions of the left IFG. By further investigating the dynamic causality within the dual-stream model, we elucidated how the human brain accomplishes sound-to-meaning mapping for words in a predictive manner. In daily communication via spoken language, one of the core processes is understanding the words being used. Effortless and efficient information exchange via speech relies not only on the identification of individual spoken words, but also on the contextual information giving rise to expected meanings. Despite the accumulating evidence for the bottom-up perception of auditory input, it is still not fully understood how the top-down modulation is achieved in the extensive frontotemporal cortical network. Here, we provide a comprehensive description of the neural substrates underlying sound-to-meaning mapping and demonstrate how the dual-stream model functions in the modulation of

  13. Acquired Apraxia of Speech: The Effects of Repeated Practice and Rate/Rhythm Control Treatments on Sound Production Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambaugh, Julie L.; Nessler, Christina; Cameron, Rosalea; Mauszycki, Shannon C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation was designed to elucidate the effects of repeated practice treatment on sound production accuracy in individuals with apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia. A secondary purpose was to determine if the addition of rate/rhythm control to treatment provided further benefits beyond those achieved with repeated practice.…

  14. Sound of mind : electrophysiological and behavioural evidence for the role of context, variation and informativity in human speech processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nixon, Jessie Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Spoken communication involves transmission of a message which takes physical form in acoustic waves. Within any given language, acoustic cues pattern in language-specific ways along language-specific acoustic dimensions to create speech sound contrasts. These cues are utilized by listeners to

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Persistent Speech Sound Disorder at Eight Years Old: Findings from a Population Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Yvonne; Miller, Laura L.; Peters, Tim J.; Emond, Alan; Roulstone, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and predictors of persistent speech sound disorder (SSD) in children aged 8 years after disregarding children presenting solely with common clinical distortions (i.e., residual errors). Method: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (Boyd et al., 2012) were used.…

  16. Working memory in school-age children with and without a persistent speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Hogan, Tiffany P; Bernthal, John E

    2017-03-17

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of working memory processes as a possible cognitive underpinning of persistent speech sound disorders (SSD). Forty school-aged children were enrolled; 20 children with persistent SSD (P-SSD) and 20 typically developing children. Children participated in three working memory tasks - one to target each of the components in Baddeley's working memory model: phonological loop, visual spatial sketchpad and central executive. Children with P-SSD performed poorly only on the phonological loop tasks compared to their typically developing age-matched peers. However, mediation analyses revealed that the relation between working memory and a P-SSD was reliant upon nonverbal intelligence. These results suggest that co-morbid low-average nonverbal intelligence are linked to poor working memory in children with P-SSD. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  17. Kinematic Analysis of Speech Sound Sequencing Errors Induced by Delayed Auditory Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cler, Gabriel J; Lee, Jackson C; Mittelman, Talia; Stepp, Cara E; Bohland, Jason W

    2017-06-22

    Delayed auditory feedback (DAF) causes speakers to become disfluent and make phonological errors. Methods for assessing the kinematics of speech errors are lacking, with most DAF studies relying on auditory perceptual analyses, which may be problematic, as errors judged to be categorical may actually represent blends of sounds or articulatory errors. Eight typical speakers produced nonsense syllable sequences under normal and DAF (200 ms). Lip and tongue kinematics were captured with electromagnetic articulography. Time-locked acoustic recordings were transcribed, and the kinematics of utterances with and without perceived errors were analyzed with existing and novel quantitative methods. New multivariate measures showed that for 5 participants, kinematic variability for productions perceived to be error free was significantly increased under delay; these results were validated by using the spatiotemporal index measure. Analysis of error trials revealed both typical productions of a nontarget syllable and productions with articulatory kinematics that incorporated aspects of both the target and the perceived utterance. This study is among the first to characterize articulatory changes under DAF and provides evidence for different classes of speech errors, which may not be perceptually salient. New methods were developed that may aid visualization and analysis of large kinematic data sets. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5103067.

  18. Focal versus distributed temporal cortex activity for speech sound category assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Sophie; Chambon, Valérian; Tyrand, Rémi; Seeck, Margitta; Karkar, Sami; van de Ville, Dimitri; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2018-01-01

    Percepts and words can be decoded from distributed neural activity measures. However, the existence of widespread representations might conflict with the more classical notions of hierarchical processing and efficient coding, which are especially relevant in speech processing. Using fMRI and magnetoencephalography during syllable identification, we show that sensory and decisional activity colocalize to a restricted part of the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG). Next, using intracortical recordings, we demonstrate that early and focal neural activity in this region distinguishes correct from incorrect decisions and can be machine-decoded to classify syllables. Crucially, significant machine decoding was possible from neuronal activity sampled across different regions of the temporal and frontal lobes, despite weak or absent sensory or decision-related responses. These findings show that speech-sound categorization relies on an efficient readout of focal pSTG neural activity, while more distributed activity patterns, although classifiable by machine learning, instead reflect collateral processes of sensory perception and decision. PMID:29363598

  19. Infant speech-sound discrimination testing: effects of stimulus intensity and procedural model on measures of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozza, R J

    1987-06-01

    Performance of infants in a speech-sound discrimination task (/ba/ vs /da/) was measured at three stimulus intensity levels (50, 60, and 70 dB SPL) using the operant head-turn procedure. The procedure was modified so that data could be treated as though from a single-interval (yes-no) procedure, as is commonly done, as well as if from a sustained attention (vigilance) task. Discrimination performance changed significantly with increase in intensity, suggesting caution in the interpretation of results from infant discrimination studies in which only single stimulus intensity levels within this range are used. The assumptions made about the underlying methodological model did not change the performance-intensity relationships. However, infants demonstrated response decrement, typical of vigilance tasks, which supports the notion that the head-turn procedure is represented best by the vigilance model. Analysis then was done according to a method designed for tasks with undefined observation intervals [C. S. Watson and T. L. Nichols, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 59, 655-668 (1976)]. Results reveal that, while group data are reasonably well represented across levels of difficulty by the fixed-interval model, there is a variation in performance as a function of time following trial onset that could lead to underestimation of performance in some cases.

  20. Investigating the neural correlates of voice versus speech-sound directed information in pre-school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Maria Raschle

    Full Text Available Studies in sleeping newborns and infants propose that the superior temporal sulcus is involved in speech processing soon after birth. Speech processing also implicitly requires the analysis of the human voice, which conveys both linguistic and extra-linguistic information. However, due to technical and practical challenges when neuroimaging young children, evidence of neural correlates of speech and/or voice processing in toddlers and young children remains scarce. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 20 typically developing preschool children (average age  = 5.8 y; range 5.2-6.8 y to investigate brain activation during judgments about vocal identity versus the initial speech sound of spoken object words. FMRI results reveal common brain regions responsible for voice-specific and speech-sound specific processing of spoken object words including bilateral primary and secondary language areas of the brain. Contrasting voice-specific with speech-sound specific processing predominantly activates the anterior part of the right-hemispheric superior temporal sulcus. Furthermore, the right STS is functionally correlated with left-hemispheric temporal and right-hemispheric prefrontal regions. This finding underlines the importance of the right superior temporal sulcus as a temporal voice area and indicates that this brain region is specialized, and functions similarly to adults by the age of five. We thus extend previous knowledge of voice-specific regions and their functional connections to the young brain which may further our understanding of the neuronal mechanism of speech-specific processing in children with developmental disorders, such as autism or specific language impairments.

  1. The effect of F0 contour on the intelligibility of speech in the presence of interfering sounds for Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Yang, Hongying; Wu, Xihong; Moore, Brian C J

    2018-02-01

    In Mandarin Chinese, the fundamental frequency (F0) contour defines lexical "Tones" that differ in meaning despite being phonetically identical. Flattening the F0 contour impairs the intelligibility of Mandarin Chinese in background sounds. This might occur because the flattening introduces misleading lexical information. To avoid this effect, two types of speech were used: single-Tone speech contained Tones 1 and 0 only, which have a flat F0 contour; multi-Tone speech contained all Tones and had a varying F0 contour. The intelligibility of speech in steady noise was slightly better for single-Tone speech than for multi-Tone speech. The intelligibility of speech in a two-talker masker, with the difference in mean F0 between the target and masker matched across conditions, was worse for the multi-Tone target in the multi-Tone masker than for any other combination of target and masker, probably because informational masking was maximal for this combination. The introduction of a perceived spatial separation between the target and masker, via the precedence effect, led to better performance for all target-masker combinations, especially the multi-Tone target in the multi-Tone masker. In summary, a flat F0 contour does not reduce the intelligibility of Mandarin Chinese when the introduction of misleading lexical cues is avoided.

  2. Evaluation of Speech Recognition of Cochlear Implant Recipients Using Adaptive, Digital Remote Microphone Technology and a Speech Enhancement Sound Processing Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jace; Morais, Mila; Schafer, Erin; Agrawal, Smita; Koch, Dawn

    2015-05-01

    Cochlear implant recipients often experience difficulty with understanding speech in the presence of noise. Cochlear implant manufacturers have developed sound processing algorithms designed to improve speech recognition in noise, and research has shown these technologies to be effective. Remote microphone technology utilizing adaptive, digital wireless radio transmission has also been shown to provide significant improvement in speech recognition in noise. There are no studies examining the potential improvement in speech recognition in noise when these two technologies are used simultaneously. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits and limitations associated with the simultaneous use of a sound processing algorithm designed to improve performance in noise (Advanced Bionics ClearVoice) and a remote microphone system that incorporates adaptive, digital wireless radio transmission (Phonak Roger). A two-by-two way repeated measures design was used to examine performance differences obtained without these technologies compared to the use of each technology separately as well as the simultaneous use of both technologies. Eleven Advanced Bionics (AB) cochlear implant recipients, ages 11 to 68 yr. AzBio sentence recognition was measured in quiet and in the presence of classroom noise ranging in level from 50 to 80 dBA in 5-dB steps. Performance was evaluated in four conditions: (1) No ClearVoice and no Roger, (2) ClearVoice enabled without the use of Roger, (3) ClearVoice disabled with Roger enabled, and (4) simultaneous use of ClearVoice and Roger. Speech recognition in quiet was better than speech recognition in noise for all conditions. Use of ClearVoice and Roger each provided significant improvement in speech recognition in noise. The best performance in noise was obtained with the simultaneous use of ClearVoice and Roger. ClearVoice and Roger technology each improves speech recognition in noise, particularly when used at the same time

  3. Musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing are linked through sensitivity to pitch and spectral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Bublitz, Dennis; Brooks, Patricia J

    2015-05-01

    Is the observed link between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing due to enhanced sensitivity to acoustic features underlying both musical and linguistic processing? To address this question, native English speakers (N = 118) discriminated Norwegian tonal contrasts and Norwegian vowels. Short tones differing in temporal, pitch, and spectral characteristics were used to measure sensitivity to the various acoustic features implicated in musical and speech processing. Musical ability was measured using Gordon's Advanced Measures of Musical Audiation. Results showed that sensitivity to specific acoustic features played a role in non-native speech-sound processing: Controlling for non-verbal intelligence, prior foreign language-learning experience, and sex, sensitivity to pitch and spectral information partially mediated the link between musical ability and discrimination of non-native vowels and lexical tones. The findings suggest that while sensitivity to certain acoustic features partially mediates the relationship between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing, complex tests of musical ability also tap into other shared mechanisms. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Musicians' Enhanced Neural Differentiation of Speech Sounds Arises Early in Life: Developmental Evidence from Ages 3 to 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L.; O'Connell, Samantha; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The perception and neural representation of acoustically similar speech sounds underlie language development. Music training hones the perception of minute acoustic differences that distinguish sounds; this training may generalize to speech processing given that adult musicians have enhanced neural differentiation of similar speech syllables compared with nonmusicians. Here, we asked whether this neural advantage in musicians is present early in life by assessing musically trained and untrained children as young as age 3. We assessed auditory brainstem responses to the speech syllables /ba/ and /ga/ as well as auditory and visual cognitive abilities in musicians and nonmusicians across 3 developmental time-points: preschoolers, school-aged children, and adults. Cross-phase analyses objectively measured the degree to which subcortical responses differed to these speech syllables in musicians and nonmusicians for each age group. Results reveal that musicians exhibit enhanced neural differentiation of stop consonants early in life and with as little as a few years of training. Furthermore, the extent of subcortical stop consonant distinction correlates with auditory-specific cognitive abilities (i.e., auditory working memory and attention). Results are interpreted according to a corticofugal framework for auditory learning in which subcortical processing enhancements are engendered by strengthened cognitive control over auditory function in musicians. PMID:23599166

  5. Sensitivity of cortical auditory evoked potential detection for hearing-impaired infants in response to short speech sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Van Dun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs are an emerging tool for hearing aid fitting evaluation in young children who cannot provide reliable behavioral feedback. It is therefore useful to determine the relationship between the sensation level of speech sounds and the detection sensitivity of CAEPs.

    Design and methods: Twenty-five sensorineurally hearing impaired infants with an age range of 8 to 30 months were tested once, 18 aided and 7 unaided. First, behavioral thresholds of speech stimuli /m/, /g/, and /t/ were determined using visual reinforcement orientation audiometry (VROA. Afterwards, the same speech stimuli were presented at 55, 65, and 75 dB SPL, and CAEP recordings were made. An automatic statistical detection paradigm was used for CAEP detection.

    Results: For sensation levels above 0, 10, and 20 dB respectively, detection sensitivities were equal to 72 ± 10, 75 ± 10, and 78 ± 12%. In 79% of the cases, automatic detection p-values became smaller when the sensation level was increased by 10 dB.

    Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the presence or absence of CAEPs can provide some indication of the audibility of a speech sound for infants with sensorineural hearing loss. The detection of a CAEP provides confidence, to a degree commensurate with the detection probability, that the infant is detecting that sound at the level presented. When testing infants where the audibility of speech sounds has not been established behaviorally, the lack of a cortical response indicates the possibility, but by no means a certainty, that the sensation level is 10 dB or less.

  6. A Novel Real-Time Speech Summarizer System for the Learning of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Wen Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As the number of speech and video documents increases on the Internet and portable devices proliferate, speech summarization becomes increasingly essential. Relevant research in this domain has typically focused on broadcasts and news; however, the automatic summarization methods used in the past may not apply to other speech domains (e.g., speech in lectures. Therefore, this study explores the lecture speech domain. The features used in previous research were analyzed and suitable features were selected following experimentation; subsequently, a three-phase real-time speech summarizer for the learning of sustainability (RTSSLS was proposed. Phase One involved selecting independent features (e.g., centrality, resemblance to the title, sentence length, term frequency, and thematic words and calculating the independent feature scores; Phase Two involved calculating the dependent features, such as the position compared with the independent feature scores; and Phase Three involved comparing these feature scores to obtain weighted averages of the function-scores, determine the highest-scoring sentence, and provide a summary. In practical results, the accuracies of macro-average and micro-average for the RTSSLS were 70% and 73%, respectively. Therefore, using a RTSSLS can enable users to acquire key speech information for the learning of sustainability.

  7. Neural Correlates of Early Sound Encoding and their Relationship to Speech-in-Noise Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B. J. Coffey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Speech-in-noise (SIN perception is a complex cognitive skill that affects social, vocational, and educational activities. Poor SIN ability particularly affects young and elderly populations, yet varies considerably even among healthy young adults with normal hearing. Although SIN skills are known to be influenced by top-down processes that can selectively enhance lower-level sound representations, the complementary role of feed-forward mechanisms and their relationship to musical training is poorly understood. Using a paradigm that minimizes the main top-down factors that have been implicated in SIN performance such as working memory, we aimed to better understand how robust encoding of periodicity in the auditory system (as measured by the frequency-following response contributes to SIN perception. Using magnetoencephalograpy, we found that the strength of encoding at the fundamental frequency in the brainstem, thalamus, and cortex is correlated with SIN accuracy. The amplitude of the slower cortical P2 wave was previously also shown to be related to SIN accuracy and FFR strength; we use MEG source localization to show that the P2 wave originates in a temporal region anterior to that of the cortical FFR. We also confirm that the observed enhancements were related to the extent and timing of musicianship. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that basic feed-forward sound encoding affects SIN perception by providing better information to later processing stages, and that modifying this process may be one mechanism through which musical training might enhance the auditory networks that subserve both musical and language functions.

  8. Use of a Deep Recurrent Neural Network to Reduce Wind Noise: Effects on Judged Speech Intelligibility and Sound Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mahmoud; Goehring, Tobias; Zakis, Justin; Turner, Richard E.; Moore, Brian C. J.

    2018-01-01

    Despite great advances in hearing-aid technology, users still experience problems with noise in windy environments. The potential benefits of using a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) for reducing wind noise were assessed. The RNN was trained using recordings of the output of the two microphones of a behind-the-ear hearing aid in response to male and female speech at various azimuths in the presence of noise produced by wind from various azimuths with a velocity of 3 m/s, using the “clean” speech as a reference. A paired-comparison procedure was used to compare all possible combinations of three conditions for subjective intelligibility and for sound quality or comfort. The conditions were unprocessed noisy speech, noisy speech processed using the RNN, and noisy speech that was high-pass filtered (which also reduced wind noise). Eighteen native English-speaking participants were tested, nine with normal hearing and nine with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment. Frequency-dependent linear amplification was provided for the latter. Processing using the RNN was significantly preferred over no processing by both subject groups for both subjective intelligibility and sound quality, although the magnitude of the preferences was small. High-pass filtering (HPF) was not significantly preferred over no processing. Although RNN was significantly preferred over HPF only for sound quality for the hearing-impaired participants, for the results as a whole, there was a preference for RNN over HPF. Overall, the results suggest that reduction of wind noise using an RNN is possible and might have beneficial effects when used in hearing aids. PMID:29708061

  9. Use of a Deep Recurrent Neural Network to Reduce Wind Noise: Effects on Judged Speech Intelligibility and Sound Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mahmoud; Goehring, Tobias; Zakis, Justin; Turner, Richard E; Moore, Brian C J

    2018-01-01

    Despite great advances in hearing-aid technology, users still experience problems with noise in windy environments. The potential benefits of using a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) for reducing wind noise were assessed. The RNN was trained using recordings of the output of the two microphones of a behind-the-ear hearing aid in response to male and female speech at various azimuths in the presence of noise produced by wind from various azimuths with a velocity of 3 m/s, using the "clean" speech as a reference. A paired-comparison procedure was used to compare all possible combinations of three conditions for subjective intelligibility and for sound quality or comfort. The conditions were unprocessed noisy speech, noisy speech processed using the RNN, and noisy speech that was high-pass filtered (which also reduced wind noise). Eighteen native English-speaking participants were tested, nine with normal hearing and nine with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment. Frequency-dependent linear amplification was provided for the latter. Processing using the RNN was significantly preferred over no processing by both subject groups for both subjective intelligibility and sound quality, although the magnitude of the preferences was small. High-pass filtering (HPF) was not significantly preferred over no processing. Although RNN was significantly preferred over HPF only for sound quality for the hearing-impaired participants, for the results as a whole, there was a preference for RNN over HPF. Overall, the results suggest that reduction of wind noise using an RNN is possible and might have beneficial effects when used in hearing aids.

  10. Narrative Ability of Children With Speech Sound Disorders and the Prediction of Later Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Rachel L.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Avrich, Allison A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The main purpose of this study was to examine how children with isolated speech sound disorders (SSDs; n = 20), children with combined SSDs and language impairment (LI; n = 20), and typically developing children (n = 20), ages 3;3 (years;months) to 6;6, differ in narrative ability. The second purpose was to determine if early narrative ability predicts school-age (8–12 years) literacy skills. Method This study employed a longitudinal cohort design. The children completed a narrative retelling task before their formal literacy instruction began. The narratives were analyzed and compared for group differences. Performance on these early narratives was then used to predict the children’s reading decoding, reading comprehension, and written language ability at school age. Results Significant group differences were found in children’s (a) ability to answer questions about the story, (b) use of story grammars, and (c) number of correct and irrelevant utterances. Regression analysis demonstrated that measures of story structure and accuracy were the best predictors of the decoding of real words, reading comprehension, and written language. Measures of syntax and lexical diversity were the best predictors of the decoding of nonsense words. Conclusion Combined SSDs and LI, and not isolated SSDs, impact a child’s narrative abilities. Narrative retelling is a useful task for predicting which children may be at risk for later literacy problems. PMID:21969531

  11. Reading Skills of Students With Speech Sound Disorders at Three Stages of Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skebo, Crysten M.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison Avrich; Stein, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without language impairment (LI) were compared to students without histories of SSD or LI (typical language; TL). Method In a cross-sectional design, students ages 7;0 (years; months) to 17;9 completed tests that measured reading, language, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills. Results For the TL group, phonological awareness predicted decoding at early elementary school, and overall language predicted reading comprehension at early elementary school and both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and high school. For the SSD-only group, vocabulary predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at early elementary school, and overall language predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and decoding at high school. For the SSD and LI group, overall language predicted decoding at all 3 literacy stages and reading comprehension at early elementary school and middle school, and vocabulary predicted reading comprehension at high school. Conclusion Although similar skills contribute to reading across the age span, the relative importance of these skills changes with children’s literacy stages. PMID:23833280

  12. Sustained Magnetic Responses in Temporal Cortex Reflect Instantaneous Significance of Approaching and Receding Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik R Bach

    Full Text Available Rising sound intensity often signals an approaching sound source and can serve as a powerful warning cue, eliciting phasic attention, perception biases and emotional responses. How the evaluation of approaching sounds unfolds over time remains elusive. Here, we capitalised on the temporal resolution of magnetoencephalograpy (MEG to investigate in humans a dynamic encoding of perceiving approaching and receding sounds. We compared magnetic responses to intensity envelopes of complex sounds to those of white noise sounds, in which intensity change is not perceived as approaching. Sustained magnetic fields over temporal sensors tracked intensity change in complex sounds in an approximately linear fashion, an effect not seen for intensity change in white noise sounds, or for overall intensity. Hence, these fields are likely to track approach/recession, but not the apparent (instantaneous distance of the sound source, or its intensity as such. As a likely source of this activity, the bilateral inferior temporal gyrus and right temporo-parietal junction emerged. Our results indicate that discrete temporal cortical areas parametrically encode behavioural significance in moving sound sources where the signal unfolded in a manner reminiscent of evidence accumulation. This may help an understanding of how acoustic percepts are evaluated as behaviourally relevant, where our results highlight a crucial role of cortical areas.

  13. Effects of Active and Passive Hearing Protection Devices on Sound Source Localization, Speech Recognition, and Tone Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Brown

    Full Text Available Hearing protection devices (HPDs such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1 sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2 speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3 tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive, including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions.

  14. Not all sounds sound the same: Parkinson's disease affects differently emotion processing in music and in speech prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, César F; Garrett, Carolina; Castro, São Luís

    2013-01-01

    Does emotion processing in music and speech prosody recruit common neurocognitive mechanisms? To examine this question, we implemented a cross-domain comparative design in Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-four patients and 25 controls performed emotion recognition tasks for music and spoken sentences. In music, patients had impaired recognition of happiness and peacefulness, and intact recognition of sadness and fear; this pattern was independent of general cognitive and perceptual abilities. In speech, patients had a small global impairment, which was significantly mediated by executive dysfunction. Hence, PD affected differently musical and prosodic emotions. This dissociation indicates that the mechanisms underlying the two domains are partly independent.

  15. Effects of Audio-Visual Integration on the Detection of Masked Speech and Non-Speech Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Henderson, Rachel; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    Integration of simultaneous auditory and visual information about an event can enhance our ability to detect that event. This is particularly evident in the perception of speech, where the articulatory gestures of the speaker's lips and face can significantly improve the listener's detection and identification of the message, especially when that…

  16. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Intervention Delivered by Educators for Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Baker, Elise; McCormack, Jane; Wren, Yvonne; Roulstone, Sue; Crowe, Kathryn; Masso, Sarah; White, Paul; Howland, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of computer-assisted input-based intervention for children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The Sound Start Study was a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Seventy-nine early childhood centers were invited to participate, 45 were recruited, and 1,205 parents and educators of 4- and…

  17. Reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds in dyslexic children scales with individual differences in reading fluency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko Žarić

    Full Text Available The acquisition of letter-speech sound associations is one of the basic requirements for fluent reading acquisition and its failure may contribute to reading difficulties in developmental dyslexia. Here we investigated event-related potential (ERP measures of letter-speech sound integration in 9-year-old typical and dyslexic readers and specifically test their relation to individual differences in reading fluency. We employed an audiovisual oddball paradigm in typical readers (n = 20, dysfluent (n = 18 and severely dysfluent (n = 18 dyslexic children. In one auditory and two audiovisual conditions the Dutch spoken vowels/a/and/o/were presented as standard and deviant stimuli. In audiovisual blocks, the letter 'a' was presented either simultaneously (AV0, or 200 ms before (AV200 vowel sound onset. Across the three children groups, vowel deviancy in auditory blocks elicited comparable mismatch negativity (MMN and late negativity (LN responses. In typical readers, both audiovisual conditions (AV0 and AV200 led to enhanced MMN and LN amplitudes. In both dyslexic groups, the audiovisual LN effects were mildly reduced. Most interestingly, individual differences in reading fluency were correlated with MMN latency in the AV0 condition. A further analysis revealed that this effect was driven by a short-lived MMN effect encompassing only the N1 window in severely dysfluent dyslexics versus a longer MMN effect encompassing both the N1 and P2 windows in the other two groups. Our results confirm and extend previous findings in dyslexic children by demonstrating a deficient pattern of letter-speech sound integration depending on the level of reading dysfluency. These findings underscore the importance of considering individual differences across the entire spectrum of reading skills in addition to group differences between typical and dyslexic readers.

  18. On the Perception of Speech Sounds as Biologically Significant Signals1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the major evidence and arguments currently available to support the view that human speech perception may require the use of specialized neural mechanisms for perceptual analysis. Experiments using synthetically produced speech signals with adults are briefly summarized and extensions of these results to infants and other organisms are reviewed with an emphasis towards detailing those aspects of speech perception that may require some need for specialized species-specific processors. Finally, some comments on the role of early experience in perceptual development are provided as an attempt to identify promising areas of new research in speech perception. PMID:399200

  19. The Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children and Arabic Speech Sound Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ruaa Osama

    2016-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficiency/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) often have co-existing learning disabilities and developmental weaknesses or delays in some areas including speech (Rief, 2005). Seeing that phonological disorders include articulation errors and other forms of speech disorders, studies pertaining to children with ADHD symptoms who…

  20. Reconceptualizing Practice with Multilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders: People, Practicalities and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The speech and language therapy profession is required to provide services to increasingly multilingual caseloads. Much international research has focused on the challenges of speech and language therapists' (SLTs) practice with multilingual children. Aims: To draw on the experience and knowledge of experts in the field to: (1)…

  1. Banquet speech: nuclear power, competition and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    The essential ingredients of sustainable development are economics and efficiency in the use of energy and materials, and in the prevention, disposal and recycling of wastes. Nuclear power will continue to be an important means of electricity generation for the foreseeable future but the extent to which this will be the case depends on the nuclear industry resolving public concerns over environmental, health and safety risks, and competing successfully with other generating technologies. In the final analysis, the future of nuclear power will be determined primarily by economic considerations. (UK)

  2. Speech on the general states of enterprises and the sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In this speech the author points out two main recommendations. The first message concerns the necessity of a whole mobilization in favor of the sustainable development, from the government policy and the enterprises management to the human behavior. He presents then three main axis to heighten the enterprises (reinforce the information on the environmental and social impact of the economic activities, the development of sustainable investments, the development of the environmental sponsorship). The second message concerns the necessity to place the environment in the economic growth by the development of the ecology and the eco-technology. (A.L.B.)

  3. Reverberation impairs brainstem temporal representations of voiced vowel sounds: challenging periodicity-tagged segregation of competing speech in rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eSayles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The auditory system typically processes information from concurrently active sound sources (e.g., two voices speaking at once, in the presence of multiple delayed, attenuated and distorted sound-wave reflections (reverberation. Brainstem circuits help segregate these complex acoustic mixtures into auditory objects. Psychophysical studies demonstrate a strong interaction between reverberation and fundamental-frequency (F0 modulation, leading to impaired segregation of competing vowels when segregation is on the basis of F0 differences. Neurophysiological studies of complex-sound segregation have concentrated on sounds with steady F0s, in anechoic environments. However, F0 modulation and reverberation are quasi-ubiquitous.We examine the ability of 129 single units in the ventral cochlear nucleus of the anesthetized guinea pig to segregate the concurrent synthetic vowel sounds /a/ and /i/, based on temporal discharge patterns under closed-field conditions. We address the effects of added real-room reverberation, F0 modulation, and the interaction of these two factors, on brainstem neural segregation of voiced speech sounds. A firing-rate representation of single-vowels’ spectral envelopes is robust to the combination of F0 modulation and reverberation: local firing-rate maxima and minima across the tonotopic array code vowel-formant structure. However, single-vowel F0-related periodicity information in shuffled inter-spike interval distributions is significantly degraded in the combined presence of reverberation and F0 modulation. Hence, segregation of double-vowels’ spectral energy into two streams (corresponding to the two vowels, on the basis of temporal discharge patterns, is impaired by reverberation; specifically when F0 is modulated. All unit types (primary-like, chopper, onset are similarly affected. These results offer neurophysiological insights to perceptual organization of complex acoustic scenes under realistically challenging

  4. Intervention for bilingual speech sound disorders: A case study of an isiXhosa-English-speaking child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, Kate; Pascoe, Michelle

    2018-03-19

     Bilingualism is common in South Africa, with many children acquiring isiXhosa as a home language and learning English from a young age in nursery or crèche. IsiXhosa is a local language, part of the Bantu language family, widely spoken in the country. Aims: To describe changes in a bilingual child's speech following intervention based on a theoretically motivated and tailored intervention plan. Methods and procedures: This study describes a female isiXhosa-English bilingual child, named Gcobisa (pseudonym) (chronological age 4 years and 2 months) with a speech sound disorder. Gcobisa's speech was assessed and her difficulties categorised according to Dodd's (2005) diagnostic framework. From this, intervention was planned and the language of intervention was selected. Following intervention, Gcobisa's speech was reassessed. Outcomes and results: Gcobisa's speech was categorised as a consistent phonological delay as she presented with gliding of/l/in both English and isiXhosa, cluster reduction in English and several other age appropriate phonological processes. She was provided with 16 sessions of intervention using a minimal pairs approach, targeting the phonological process of gliding of/l/, which was not considered age appropriate for Gcobisa in isiXhosa when compared to the small set of normative data regarding monolingual isiXhosa development. As a result, the targets and stimuli were in isiXhosa while the main language of instruction was English. This reflects the language mismatch often faced by speech language therapists in South Africa. Gcobisa showed evidence of generalising the target phoneme to English words. Conclusions and implications: The data have theoretical implications regarding bilingual development of isiXhosa-English, as it highlights the ways bilingual development may differ from the monolingual development of this language pair. It adds to the small set of intervention studies investigating the changes in the speech of bilingual

  5. Intervention for bilingual speech sound disorders: A case study of an isiXhosa–English-speaking child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Rossouw

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bilingualism is common in South Africa, with many children acquiring isiXhosa as a home language and learning English from a young age in nursery or crèche. IsiXhosa is a local language, part of the Bantu language family, widely spoken in the country.   Aims: To describe changes in a bilingual child’s speech following intervention based on a theoretically motivated and tailored intervention plan.   Methods and procedures: This study describes a female isiXhosa–English bilingual child, named Gcobisa (pseudonym (chronological age 4 years and 2 months with a speech sound disorder. Gcobisa’s speech was assessed and her difficulties categorised according to Dodd’s (2005 diagnostic framework. From this, intervention was planned and the language of intervention was selected. Following intervention, Gcobisa’s speech was reassessed.   Outcomes and results: Gcobisa’s speech was categorised as a consistent phonological delay as she presented with gliding of/l/in both English and isiXhosa, cluster reduction in English and several other age appropriate phonological processes. She was provided with 16 sessions of intervention using a minimal pairs approach, targeting the phonological process of gliding of/l/, which was not considered age appropriate for Gcobisa in isiXhosa when compared to the small set of normative data regarding monolingual isiXhosa development. As a result, the targets and stimuli were in isiXhosa while the main language of instruction was English. This reflects the language mismatch often faced by speech language therapists in South Africa. Gcobisa showed evidence of generalising the target phoneme to English words.   Conclusions and implications: The data have theoretical implications regarding bilingual development of isiXhosa–English, as it highlights the ways bilingual development may differ from the monolingual development of this language pair. It adds to the small set of intervention studies

  6. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  7. A Change of a Consonant Status: the Bedouinisation of the [j] Sound in the Speech of Kuwaitis: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsen A. Dashti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In light of sociolinguist phonological change, the following study investigates the [j] sound in the speech of Kuwaitis as the predominant form and characterizes the sedentary population which is made up of both the indigenous and non-indigenous group; while [ʤ] is the realisation of the Bedouins who are also a part of the indigenous population. Although [ʤ] is the classical variant, it has, for some time, been regarded by Kuwaitis as the stigmatized form and the [j] as the one that carries prestige. This study examines the change of status of [j] and [ʤ] in the speech of Kuwaitis. The main hypothesis is that [j] no longer carries prestige. To test this hypothesis, 40 Kuwaitis of different gender, ages, educational background, and social networks were spontaneously chosen to be interviewed. Their speech was phonetically transcribed and accordingly was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Results indicate that the [j] variant is undergoing change of status and that the social parameters and the significant political and social changes, that Kuwait has undergone recently, have triggered this linguistic shift.

  8. Transient and sustained cortical activity elicited by connected speech of varying intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiitinen Hannu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robustness of speech perception in the face of acoustic variation is founded on the ability of the auditory system to integrate the acoustic features of speech and to segregate them from background noise. This auditory scene analysis process is facilitated by top-down mechanisms, such as recognition memory for speech content. However, the cortical processes underlying these facilitatory mechanisms remain unclear. The present magnetoencephalography (MEG study examined how the activity of auditory cortical areas is modulated by acoustic degradation and intelligibility of connected speech. The experimental design allowed for the comparison of cortical activity patterns elicited by acoustically identical stimuli which were perceived as either intelligible or unintelligible. Results In the experiment, a set of sentences was presented to the subject in distorted, undistorted, and again in distorted form. The intervening exposure to undistorted versions of sentences rendered the initially unintelligible, distorted sentences intelligible, as evidenced by an increase from 30% to 80% in the proportion of sentences reported as intelligible. These perceptual changes were reflected in the activity of the auditory cortex, with the auditory N1m response (~100 ms being more prominent for the distorted stimuli than for the intact ones. In the time range of auditory P2m response (>200 ms, auditory cortex as well as regions anterior and posterior to this area generated a stronger response to sentences which were intelligible than unintelligible. During the sustained field (>300 ms, stronger activity was elicited by degraded stimuli in auditory cortex and by intelligible sentences in areas posterior to auditory cortex. Conclusions The current findings suggest that the auditory system comprises bottom-up and top-down processes which are reflected in transient and sustained brain activity. It appears that analysis of acoustic features occurs

  9. Quality of Mobile Phone and Tablet Mobile Apps for Speech Sound Disorders: Protocol for an Evidence-Based Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Lisa M; Morris, Meg E; Erickson, Shane; Serry, Tanya A

    2016-11-29

    Although mobile apps are readily available for speech sound disorders (SSD), their validity has not been systematically evaluated. This evidence-based appraisal will critically review and synthesize current evidence on available therapy apps for use by children with SSD. The main aims are to (1) identify the types of apps currently available for Android and iOS mobile phones and tablets, and (2) to critique their design features and content using a structured quality appraisal tool. This protocol paper presents and justifies the methods used for a systematic review of mobile apps that provide intervention for use by children with SSD. The primary outcomes of interest are (1) engagement, (2) functionality, (3) aesthetics, (4) information quality, (5) subjective quality, and (6) perceived impact. Quality will be assessed by 2 certified practicing speech-language pathologists using a structured quality appraisal tool. Two app stores will be searched from the 2 largest operating platforms, Android and iOS. Systematic methods of knowledge synthesis shall include searching the app stores using a defined procedure, data extraction, and quality analysis. This search strategy shall enable us to determine how many SSD apps are available for Android and for iOS compatible mobile phones and tablets. It shall also identify the regions of the world responsible for the apps' development, the content and the quality of offerings. Recommendations will be made for speech-language pathologists seeking to use mobile apps in their clinical practice. This protocol provides a structured process for locating apps and appraising the quality, as the basis for evaluating their use in speech pathology for children in English-speaking nations. ©Lisa M Furlong, Meg E Morris, Shane Erickson, Tanya A Serry. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 29.11.2016.

  10. Anterior paracingulate and cingulate cortex mediates the effects of cognitive load on speech sound discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, Silvia P; Millman, Rebecca E; Hymers, Mark; Mattys, Sven L

    2018-06-11

    Perceiving speech while performing another task is a common challenge in everyday life. How the brain controls resource allocation during speech perception remains poorly understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the effect of cognitive load on speech perception by examining brain responses of participants performing a phoneme discrimination task and a visual working memory task simultaneously. The visual task involved holding either a single meaningless image in working memory (low cognitive load) or four different images (high cognitive load). Performing the speech task under high load, compared to low load, resulted in decreased activity in pSTG/pMTG and increased activity in visual occipital cortex and two regions known to contribute to visual attention regulation-the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the paracingulate and anterior cingulate gyrus (PaCG, ACG). Critically, activity in PaCG/ACG was correlated with performance in the visual task and with activity in pSTG/pMTG: Increased activity in PaCG/ACG was observed for individuals with poorer visual performance and with decreased activity in pSTG/pMTG. Moreover, activity in a pSTG/pMTG seed region showed psychophysiological interactions with areas of the PaCG/ACG, with stronger interaction in the high-load than the low-load condition. These findings show that the acoustic analysis of speech is affected by the demands of a concurrent visual task and that the PaCG/ACG plays a role in allocating cognitive resources to concurrent auditory and visual information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Using ILD or ITD Cues for Sound Source Localization and Speech Understanding in a Complex Listening Environment by Listeners with Bilateral and with Hearing-Preservation Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Louise H.; Dorman, Michael F.; Yost, William A.; Cook, Sarah J.; Gifford, Rene H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of interaural time differences and interaural level differences in (a) sound-source localization, and (b) speech understanding in a cocktail party listening environment for listeners with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) and for listeners with hearing-preservation CIs. Methods: Eleven bilateral listeners with MED-EL…

  12. "When He's around His Brothers ... He's Not so Quiet": The Private and Public Worlds of School-Aged Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Daniel, Graham; Barr, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Children interact with people in context: including home, school, and in the community. Understanding children's relationships within context is important for supporting children's development. Using child-friendly methodologies, the purpose of this research was to understand the lives of children with speech sound disorder (SSD) in context.…

  13. Contributions of Letter-Speech Sound Learning and Visual Print Tuning to Reading Improvement: Evidence from Brain Potential and Dyslexia Training Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraga González, G.; Žarić, G.; Tijms, J.; Bonte, M.; van der Molen, M.W.

    We use a neurocognitive perspective to discuss the contribution of learning letter-speech sound (L-SS) associations and visual specialization in the initial phases of reading in dyslexic children. We review findings from associative learning studies on related cognitive skills important for

  14. Differential Diagnosis of Speech Sound Disorders in Danish-speaking Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Marit Carolin; Fox-Boyer, Anette

    in selecting the right intervention approach to resolve the SSD. Different quantitative and qualitative measurements are currently used to subgroup children with SSD. A quantitative method of classifying children is by accuracy of their productions. According to this approach, the severity of children’s SSD...... and clinical decision-making about the need for intervention should not be based on the quantitative approach only. A qualitative classification approach is needed for a distinct subgrouping of children with SSD whereas PCC-A can be used as additional information about the severity of the SSD. Keywords: speech...... is classified by calculating the percentage of correctly produced consonants (i.e. percentage consonants correct, PCC-A) (Shriberg et al., 1997). Alternatively, a qualitative approach seeks to ascertain which types of phonological processes are present in children’s speech, i.e. developmental or idiosyncratic...

  15. AGGLOMERATIVE CLUSTERING OF SOUND RECORD SPEECH SEGMENTS BASED ON BAYESIAN INFORMATION CRITERION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Kydashev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the detailed description of agglomerative clustering system implementation for speech segments based on Bayesian information criterion. Numerical experiment results with different acoustic features, as well as the full and diagonal covariance matrices application are given. The error rate DER equal to 6.4% for audio records of radio «Svoboda» was achieved by means of designed system.

  16. The neural basis of speech sound discrimination from infancy to adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Partanen, Eino

    2013-01-01

    Rapid processing of speech is facilitated by neural representations of native language phonemes. However, some disorders and developmental conditions, such as developmental dyslexia, can hamper the development of these neural memory traces, leading to language delays and poor academic achievement. While the early identification of such deficits is paramount so that interventions can be started as early as possible, there is currently no systematically used ecologically valid paradigm for the ...

  17. Musical and linguistic expertise influence pre-attentive and attentive processing of non-speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Céline; Kujala, Teija; Besson, Mireille

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was two-fold. Our first goal was to determine whether linguistic expertise influences the pre-attentive [as reflected by the Mismatch Negativity - (MMN)] and the attentive processing (as reflected by behavioural discrimination accuracy) of non-speech, harmonic sounds. The second was to directly compare the effects of linguistic and musical expertise. To this end, we compared non-musician native speakers of a quantity language, Finnish, in which duration is a phonemically contrastive cue, with French musicians and French non-musicians. Results revealed that pre-attentive and attentive processing of duration deviants was enhanced in Finn non-musicians and French musicians compared to French non-musicians. By contrast, MMN in French musicians was larger than in both Finns and French non-musicians for frequency deviants, whereas no between-group differences were found for intensity deviants. By showing similar effects of linguistic and musical expertise, these results argue in favor of common processing of duration in music and speech. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  18. A multigenerational family study of oral and hand motor sequencing ability provides evidence for a familial speech sound disorder subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate phenotypic expressions of speech sound disorder (SSD) in multigenerational families with evidence of familial forms of SSD. Method Members of five multigenerational families (N = 36) produced rapid sequences of monosyllables and disyllables and tapped computer keys with repetitive and alternating movements. Results Measures of repetitive and alternating motor speed were correlated within and between the two motor systems. Repetitive and alternating motor speeds increased in children and decreased in adults as a function of age. In two families with children who had severe speech deficits consistent with disrupted praxis, slowed alternating, but not repetitive, oral movements characterized most of the affected children and adults with a history of SSD, and slowed alternating hand movements were seen in some of the biologically related participants as well. Conclusion Results are consistent with a familial motor-based SSD subtype with incomplete penetrance, motivating new clinical questions about motor-based intervention not only in the oral but also the limb system. PMID:21909176

  19. Cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2-year-olds’ speech-sound discrimination: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2014-02-01

    This preliminary investigation explored potential cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2-year-olds’ speech-sound discrimination by using the toddler change/ no-change procedure and examined whether modifications would result in a procedure that can be used consistently with younger 2-year-olds. Twenty typically developing 2-year-olds completed the newly modified toddler change/no-change procedure. Behavioral tests and parent report questionnaires were used to measure several cognitive and linguistic constructs. Stepwise linear regression was used to relate discrimination sensitivity to the cognitive and linguistic measures. In addition, discrimination results from the current experiment were compared with those from 2-year-old children tested in a previous experiment. Receptive vocabulary and working memory explained 56.6% of variance in discrimination performance. Performance was not different on the modified toddler change/no-change procedure used in the current experiment from in a previous investigation, which used the original version of the procedure. The relationship between speech discrimination and receptive vocabulary and working memory provides further evidence that the procedure is sensitive to the strength of perceptual representations. The role for working memory might also suggest that there are specific subject-related, nonsensory factors limiting the applicability of the procedure to children who have not reached the necessary levels of cognitive and linguistic development.

  20. The sound of feelings: electrophysiological responses to emotional speech in alexithymia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Sophia Goerlich

    Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in the cognitive processing of emotions (cognitive dimension and in the experience of emotions (affective dimension. Previous research focused mainly on visual emotional processing in the cognitive alexithymia dimension. We investigated the impact of both alexithymia dimensions on electrophysiological responses to emotional speech in 60 female subjects.During unattended processing, subjects watched a movie while an emotional prosody oddball paradigm was presented in the background. During attended processing, subjects detected deviants in emotional prosody. The cognitive alexithymia dimension was associated with a left-hemisphere bias during early stages of unattended emotional speech processing, and with generally reduced amplitudes of the late P3 component during attended processing. In contrast, the affective dimension did not modulate unattended emotional prosody perception, but was associated with reduced P3 amplitudes during attended processing particularly to emotional prosody spoken in high intensity.Our results provide evidence for a dissociable impact of the two alexithymia dimensions on electrophysiological responses during the attended and unattended processing of emotional prosody. The observed electrophysiological modulations are indicative of a reduced sensitivity to the emotional qualities of speech, which may be a contributing factor to problems in interpersonal communication associated with alexithymia.

  1. An exploratory study of the influence of load and practice on segmental and articulatory variability in children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Janet; Goffman, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory treatment study used phonetic transcription and speech kinematics to examine changes in segmental and articulatory variability. Nine children, ages 4 to 8 years old, served as participants, including two with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), five with speech sound disorder (SSD) and two who were typically developing. Children practised producing agent + action phrases in an imitation task (low linguistic load) and a retrieval task (high linguistic load) over five sessions. In the imitation task in session one, both participants with CAS showed high degrees of segmental and articulatory variability. After five sessions, imitation practice resulted in increased articulatory variability for five participants. Retrieval practice resulted in decreased articulatory variability in three participants with SSD. These results suggest that short-term speech production practice in rote imitation disrupts articulatory control in children with and without CAS. In contrast, tasks that require linguistic processing may scaffold learning for children with SSD but not CAS.

  2. Sound production treatment for acquired apraxia of speech: Effects of blocked and random practice on multisyllabic word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambaugh, Julie; Nessler, Christina; Wright, Sandra; Mauszycki, Shannon; DeLong, Catharine

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of practice schedule, blocked vs random, on outcomes of a behavioural treatment for acquired apraxia of speech (AOS), Sound Production Treatment (SPT). SPT was administered to four speakers with chronic AOS and aphasia in the context of multiple baseline designs across behaviours and participants. Treatment was applied to multiple sound errors within three-to-five syllable words. All participants received both practice schedules: SPT-Random (SPT-R) and SPT-Blocked (SPT-B). Improvements in accuracy of word production for trained items were found for both treatment conditions for all participants. One participant demonstrated better maintenance effects associated with SPT-R. Response generalisation to untreated words varied across participants, but was generally modest and unstable. Stimulus generalisation to production of words in sentence completion was positive for three of the participants. Stimulus generalisation to production of phrases was positive for two of the participants. Findings provide additional efficacy data regarding SPT's effects on articulation of treated items and extend knowledge of the treatment's effects when applied to multiple targets within multisyllabic words.

  3. THE ROLE OF EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN PROMOTING ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN BRĂGARU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important development banks which finances private initiatives in the Central and Eastern Europe countries is the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD. EBRD as international financial institution plays a very important role in the development of many sectors such as agribusiness, energy efficiency, financial institutions, manufacturing, municipal and environmental infrastructure, natural resources, power and energy, property and tourism, telecommunications, information technology and media, transport. Its objectives aim to promote transition to market economies by investing mainly in the private sector, to mobilize significant foreign direct investment, to support privatization, restructuring and better municipal services to improve people’s lives and to encourage environmentally sound and sustainable development. The present scientific article focuses on the last objective respectively the bank commitment to promote environmentally sound and sustainable development and shortly presents EBRD environmental policy because EBRD, unlike other development banks, has strong and imperative regulations regarding this issue. This is why all the EBRD potential beneficiaries must prove that their projects are environmentally sound.

  4. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  5. Sound of Silence: Comparison of ICT and speech deprivation among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihana Brkljačić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was twofold: to describe self-reported habits of ICT use in every-day life and to analyze feelings and behavior triggered by ICT and speech deprivation. The study was conducted on three randomly selected groups of students with different tasks: Without Speaking (W/S group (n=10 spent a day without talking to anyone; Without Technology (W/T group (n=13 spent a day without using any kind of ICT, while the third group was a control group (n=10 and had no restrictions. The participants’ task in all groups was to write a diary detailing their feelings, thoughts and behaviors related to their group’s conditions. Before the experiment, students reported their ICT related habits. Right after groups were assigned, they reported their task-related impressions. During the experiment, participants wrote diary records at three time-points. All participants used ICT on a daily basis, and most were online all the time. Dominant ICT activities were communication with friends and family, studying, followed by listening to music and watching films. Speech deprivation was a more difficult task compared to ICT deprivation, resulting in more drop-outs and more negative emotions. However, participants in W/S expected the task to be difficult, and some of them actually reported positive experiences, but for others it was a very difficult, lonesome and terrifying experience. About half of the students in W/T claimed that the task was more difficult than they had expected, and some of them realized that they are dysfunctional without technology, and probably addicted to it.

  6. De novo microdeletion of BCL11A is associated with severe speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Matsushita, Mark; Oda, Kaori; Raskind, Wendy

    2014-08-01

    In 10 cases of 2p15p16.1 microdeletions reported worldwide to date, shared phenotypes included growth retardation, craniofacial and skeletal dysmorphic traits, internal organ defects, intellectual disability, nonverbal or low verbal status, abnormal muscle tone, and gross motor delays. The size of the deletions ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 Mb, where the smallest deletion involved the BCL11A, PAPOLG, and REL genes. Here we report on an 11-year-old male with a heterozygous de novo 0.2 Mb deletion containing a single gene, BCL11A, and a phenotype characterized by childhood apraxia of speech and dysarthria in the presence of general oral and gross motor dyspraxia and hypotonia as well as expressive language and mild intellectual delays. BCL11A is situated within the dyslexia susceptibility candidate region 3 (DYX3) candidate region on chromosome 2. The present case is the first to involve a single gene within the microdeletion region and a phenotype restricted to a subset of the traits observed in other cases with more extensive deletions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Exploring the relationship between nature sounds, connectedness to nature, mood and willingness to buy sustainable food: A retail field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendrup, Sara; Hunter, Erik; Isgren, Ellinor

    2016-05-01

    Nature sounds are increasingly used by some food retailers to enhance in-store ambiance and potentially even influence sustainable food choices. An in-store, 2 × 3 between-subject full factorial experiment conducted on 627 customers over 12 days tested whether nature sound directly and indirectly influenced willingness to buy (WTB) sustainable foods. The results show that nature sounds positively and directly influence WTB organic foods in groups of customers (men) that have relatively low initial intentions to buy. Indirectly, we did not find support for the effect of nature sound on influencing mood or connectedness to nature (CtN). However, we show that information on the product's sustainability characteristics moderates the relationship between CtN and WTB in certain groups. Namely, when CtN is high, sustainability information positively moderated WTB both organic and climate friendly foods in men. Conversely, when CtN was low, men expressed lower WTB organic and climate friendly foods than identical, albeit conventionally labelled products. Consequently, our study concludes that nature sounds might be an effective, yet subtle in-store tool to use on groups of consumers who might otherwise respond negatively to more overt forms of sustainable food information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Discrimination and preference of speech and non-speech sounds in autism patients%孤独症患者言语及非言语声音辨识和偏好特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王崇颖; 江鸣山; 徐旸; 马斐然; 石锋

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the discrimination and preference of speech and non-speech sounds in autism patients. Methods: Ten people (5 children vs. 5 adults) diagnosed with autism according to the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Version ( DSM-Ⅳ) were selected from database of Nankai University Center for Behavioural Science. Together with 10 healthy controls with matched age, people with autism were tested by three experiments on speech sounds, pure tone and intonation which were recorded and modified by Praat, a voice analysis software. Their discrimination and preference were collected orally. The exact probability values were calculated. Results: The results showed that there were no significant differences on the discrimination of speech sounds, pure tone and intonation between autism patients and controls ( P > 0. 05) while controls preferred speech and non-speech sounds with higher pitch than autism ( e. g. , - 100Hz/ +50Hz. 2 vs. 7. P < 0. 05:50Hz/250Hz. 4 vs. 10. P < 0. 05) and autism preferred non-speech sounds with lower pitch ( 100Hz/250Hz. 6 vs. 3.P < 0. 05). No significant difference on the preference of intonation between autism and controls ( P > 0. 05) was found. Conclusion:lt shows that people with autism have impaired auditory processing on speech and non-speech sounds.%目的:探究孤独症患者对言语及非言语声音的辨识和偏好特征.方法:从南开大学医学院行为医学中心患者数据库中选取根据美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)诊断标准确诊的孤独症患者10名(儿童和成年人各5例),选取与年龄匹配的正常对照10名.所有被试均接受由专业的语音软件Praat录制和生成的语音音高、纯音音高和韵律的实验测试,口头报告其对言语及非言语声音的辨识和偏好结果.结果:孤独症患者在语音音高、纯音音高和韵律的辨识上和正常对照组差异无统计学意义(均P>0.05).

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial on The Beneficial Effects of Training Letter-Speech Sound Integration on Reading Fluency in Children with Dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Fraga González

    Full Text Available A recent account of dyslexia assumes that a failure to develop automated letter-speech sound integration might be responsible for the observed lack of reading fluency. This study uses a pre-test-training-post-test design to evaluate the effects of a training program based on letter-speech sound associations with a special focus on gains in reading fluency. A sample of 44 children with dyslexia and 23 typical readers, aged 8 to 9, was recruited. Children with dyslexia were randomly allocated to either the training program group (n = 23 or a waiting-list control group (n = 21. The training intensively focused on letter-speech sound mapping and consisted of 34 individual sessions of 45 minutes over a five month period. The children with dyslexia showed substantial reading gains for the main word reading and spelling measures after training, improving at a faster rate than typical readers and waiting-list controls. The results are interpreted within the conceptual framework assuming a multisensory integration deficit as the most proximal cause of dysfluent reading in dyslexia.ISRCTN register ISRCTN12783279.

  10. Discrimination and streaming of speech sounds based on differences in interaural and spectral cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Marion; Lavandier, Mathieu; Grimault, Nicolas; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-09-01

    Differences in spatial cues, including interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs) and spectral cues, can lead to stream segregation of alternating noise bursts. It is unknown how effective such cues are for streaming sounds with realistic spectro-temporal variations. In particular, it is not known whether the high-frequency spectral cues associated with elevation remain sufficiently robust under such conditions. To answer these questions, sequences of consonant-vowel tokens were generated and filtered by non-individualized head-related transfer functions to simulate the cues associated with different positions in the horizontal and median planes. A discrimination task showed that listeners could discriminate changes in interaural cues both when the stimulus remained constant and when it varied between presentations. However, discrimination of changes in spectral cues was much poorer in the presence of stimulus variability. A streaming task, based on the detection of repeated syllables in the presence of interfering syllables, revealed that listeners can use both interaural and spectral cues to segregate alternating syllable sequences, despite the large spectro-temporal differences between stimuli. However, only the full complement of spatial cues (ILDs, ITDs, and spectral cues) resulted in obligatory streaming in a task that encouraged listeners to integrate the tokens into a single stream.

  11. Comparison between bilateral cochlear implants and Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural cochlear implant: speech perception, sound localization and patient self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Damien; Lautissier, Sylvie; Bosset-Audoit, Amélie; Coriat, Géraldine; Beraha, Max; Maunoury, Antoine; Martel, Jacques; Darrouzet, Vincent; Bébéar, Jean-Pierre; Dauman, René

    2013-01-01

    An alternative to bilateral cochlear implantation is offered by the Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural cochlear implant, which allows stimulation of both cochleae within a single device. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare a group of Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural implant users (denoted BINAURAL group, n = 7) with a group of bilateral adult cochlear implant users (denoted BILATERAL group, n = 6) in terms of speech perception, sound localization, and self-assessment of health status and hearing disability. Speech perception was assessed using word recognition at 60 dB SPL in quiet and in a 'cocktail party' noise delivered through five loudspeakers in the hemi-sound field facing the patient (signal-to-noise ratio = +10 dB). The sound localization task was to determine the source of a sound stimulus among five speakers positioned between -90° and +90° from midline. Change in health status was assessed using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory and hearing disability was evaluated with the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit. Speech perception was not statistically different between the two groups, even though there was a trend in favor of the BINAURAL group (mean percent word recognition in the BINAURAL and BILATERAL groups: 70 vs. 56.7% in quiet, 55.7 vs. 43.3% in noise). There was also no significant difference with regard to performance in sound localization and self-assessment of health status and hearing disability. On the basis of the BINAURAL group's performance in hearing tasks involving the detection of interaural differences, implantation with the Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural implant may be considered to restore effective binaural hearing. Based on these first comparative results, this device seems to provide benefits similar to those of traditional bilateral cochlear implantation, with a new approach to stimulate both auditory nerves. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Children with speech sound disorder: Comparing a non-linguistic auditory approach with a phonological intervention approach to improve phonological skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMurphy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder. A total of 17 children, aged 7-12 years, with speech sound disorder were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2 or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2. The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production and phonological awareness skills. The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (eg. backward masking and frequency discrimination, whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (eg. phonological organisation and awareness. Both interventions consisted of twelve 45-minute sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of nine hours. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills.

  13. Social and environmental sustainability in large-scale coastal zones: Taking an issue-based approach to the implementation of the Prince William Sound sustainable human use framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale J. Blahna; Aaron Poe; Courtney Brown; Clare M. Ryan; H. Randy Gimblett

    2017-01-01

    Following the grounding of the Exxon Valdez in 1989, a sustainable human use framework (human use framework) for Prince William Sound (PWS), AK was developed by the Chugach National Forest after concerns emerged about the social and environmental impacts of expanding human use due to cleanup activities and increased recreation visitation. A practical, issue-based...

  14. Using personal response systems to assess speech perception within the classroom: an approach to determine the efficacy of sound field amplification in primary school classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Deborah A; Backus, Bradford C; Macdonald, Nora K; Rostamzadeh, Niloofar K; Mason, Nisha K; Pandya, Roshni; Marriage, Josephine E; Mahon, Merle H

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of the combined effect of classroom acoustics and sound field amplification (SFA) on children's speech perception within the "live" classroom poses a challenge to researchers. The goals of this study were to determine: (1) Whether personal response system (PRS) hand-held voting cards, together with a closed-set speech perception test (Chear Auditory Perception Test [CAPT]), provide an appropriate method for evaluating speech perception in the classroom; (2) Whether SFA provides better access to the teacher's speech than without SFA for children, taking into account vocabulary age, middle ear dysfunction or ear-canal wax, and home language. Forty-four children from two school-year groups, year 2 (aged 6 years 11 months to 7 years 10 months) and year 3 (aged 7 years 11 months to 8 years 10 months) were tested in two classrooms, using a shortened version of the four-alternative consonant discrimination section of the CAPT. All children used a PRS to register their chosen response, which they selected from four options displayed on the interactive whiteboard. The classrooms were located in a 19th-century school in central London, United Kingdom. Each child sat at their usual position in the room while target speech stimuli were presented either in quiet or in noise. The target speech was presented from the front of the classroom at 65 dBA (calibrated at 1 m) and the presented noise level was 46 dBA measured at the center of the classroom. The older children had an additional noise condition with a noise level of 52 dBA. All conditions were presented twice, once with SFA and once without SFA and the order of testing was randomized. White noise from the teacher's right-hand side of the classroom and International Speech Test Signal from the teacher's left-hand side were used, and the noises were matched at the center point of the classroom (10sec averaging [A-weighted]). Each child's expressive vocabulary age and middle ear status were measured

  15. A study on nonlinear characteristics of speech sound with reference to some languages of North East region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rashmi

    INTRODUCTION : Speech science is, in fact, a sub-discipline of the Nonlinear Dynamical System [2,104 ]. There are two different types of Dynamical System. A Continuous Dynamical System may be defined for the continuous time case, by the equation: x = F (x), where x is a vector of length d, defining a point in a d- dimensional space, F is some function (linear or nonlinear) operating on x, and x is the time derivative of x. This system is deterministic, in that it is possible to completely specify its evolution or flow of trajectories in the d- dimensional space, given the initial starting conditions. A Discrete Dynamical System can be defined as a map [by the process of literations]: Xn+1 = G ( Xn ), where Xn is again a d- length vector at time step n, and G is an operator function. Given an initial state, X0, it is possible to calculate the value of xn for any n > 0. Speech has evolved as a primary form of communication between humans, i.e. speech and hearing are the man's most used means of communication [104, 114]. Analysis of human speech has been a goal of Research during the last few decades [105, 108]. With the rapid development of information technology (IT), the human-machine communication, using natural speech, has received wide attention from both academic and business communities. One highly quantitative approach of characterizing the communications potential of speech is in terms of information theory ideas as introduced by Shannon [C.E. Shannon, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication," Bell System Tech journal, Vol 27, pp623- 656, October, 1968]. According to information theory, speech can be represented in terms of its message content, or information. An alternative way of characterizing speech is in terms of the signal carrying the message information, i.e., the acoustic waveform. Although information theoretic ideas have played a major role in sophisticated communications systems, it is the speech representation based on the waveform, or some

  16. Sustained Firing of Model Central Auditory Neurons Yields a Discriminative Spectro-temporal Representation for Natural Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Carlin, Michael A.; Elhilali, Mounya

    2013-01-01

    The processing characteristics of neurons in the central auditory system are directly shaped by and reflect the statistics of natural acoustic environments, but the principles that govern the relationship between natural sound ensembles and observed responses in neurophysiological studies remain unclear. In particular, accumulating evidence suggests the presence of a code based on sustained neural firing rates, where central auditory neurons exhibit strong, persistent responses to their prefe...

  17. Viewing speech in action: speech articulation videos in the public domain that demonstrate the sounds of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, S.; Beavan, D.; Lawson, E.; Leplâtre, G.; Scobbie, J. M.; Stuart-Smith, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce recently released, publicly available resources, which allow users to watch videos of hidden articulators (e.g. the tongue) during the production of various types of sounds found in the world’s languages. The articulation videos on these resources are linked to a clickable International Phonetic Alphabet chart ([International Phonetic Association. 1999. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. ...

  18. A New Method for Rating Hazard from Intense Sounds: Implications for Hearing Protection, Speech Intelligibility, and Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, G. R

    2005-01-01

    The auditory hazard assessment algorithm for the human (AHAAH), developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, is theoretically based and has been demonstrated to rate hazard from intense sounds much more accurately than existing methods...

  19. Effects of Sound, Vocabulary, and Grammar Learning Aptitude on Adult Second Language Speech Attainment in Foreign Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between different types of language learning aptitude (measured via the LLAMA test) and adult second language (L2) learners' attainment in speech production in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classrooms. Picture descriptions elicited from 50 Japanese EFL learners from varied proficiency levels were analyzed…

  20. Recovering With Acquired Apraxia of Speech: The First 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Katarina L; Shafer, Jennifer N; Harmon, Tyson G; Jacks, Adam

    2016-12-01

    This study was intended to document speech recovery for 1 person with acquired apraxia of speech quantitatively and on the basis of her lived experience. The second author sustained a traumatic brain injury that resulted in acquired apraxia of speech. Over a 2-year period, she documented her recovery through 22 video-recorded monologues. We analyzed these monologues using a combination of auditory perceptual, acoustic, and qualitative methods. Recovery was evident for all quantitative variables examined. For speech sound production, the recovery was most prominent during the first 3 months, but slower improvement was evident for many months. Measures of speaking rate, fluency, and prosody changed more gradually throughout the entire period. A qualitative analysis of topics addressed in the monologues was consistent with the quantitative speech recovery and indicated a subjective dynamic relationship between accuracy and rate, an observation that several factors made speech sound production variable, and a persisting need for cognitive effort while speaking. Speech features improved over an extended time, but the recovery trajectories differed, indicating dynamic reorganization of the underlying speech production system. The relationship among speech dimensions should be examined in other cases and in population samples. The combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis methods offers advantages for understanding clinically relevant aspects of recovery.

  1. [The application of cybernetic modeling methods for the forensic medical personality identification based on the voice and sounding speech characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganov, A Sh; Kir'yanov, P A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present publication was to discuss the possibility of application of cybernetic modeling methods to overcome the apparent discrepancy between two kinds of the speech records, viz. initial ones (e.g. obtained in the course of special investigation activities) and the voice prints obtained from the persons subjected to the criminalistic examination. The paper is based on the literature sources and the materials of original criminalistics expertises performed by the authors.

  2. A Comparison of the Metalinguistic Performance and Spelling Development of Children With Inconsistent Speech Sound Disorder and Their Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Brigid C; Wolter, Julie; Gillon, Gail T

    2017-05-17

    This study explored the specific nature of a spelling impairment in children with speech sound disorder (SSD) in relation to metalinguistic predictors of spelling development. The metalinguistic (phoneme, morphological, and orthographic awareness) and spelling development of 28 children ages 6-8 years with a history of inconsistent SSD were compared to those of their age-matched (n = 28) and reading-matched (n = 28) peers. Analysis of the literacy outcomes of children within the cohort with persistent (n = 18) versus resolved (n = 10) SSD was also conducted. The age-matched peers outperformed the SSD group on all measures. Children with SSD performed comparably to their reading-matched peers on metalinguistic measures but exhibited lower spelling scores. Children with persistent SSD generally had less favorable outcomes than children with resolved SSD; however, even children with resolved SSD performed poorly on normative spelling measures. Children with SSD have a specific difficulty with spelling that is not commensurate with their metalinguistic and reading ability. Although low metalinguistic awareness appears to inhibit these children's spelling development, other factors should be considered, such as nonverbal rehearsal during spelling attempts and motoric ability. Integration of speech-production and spelling-intervention goals is important to enhance literacy outcomes for this group.

  3. "When he's around his brothers … he's not so quiet": the private and public worlds of school-aged children with speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Daniel, Graham; Barr, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Children interact with people in context: including home, school, and in the community. Understanding children's relationships within context is important for supporting children's development. Using child-friendly methodologies, the purpose of this research was to understand the lives of children with speech sound disorder (SSD) in context. Thirty-four interviews were undertaken with six school-aged children identified with SSD, and their siblings, friends, parents, grandparents, and teachers. Interview transcripts, questionnaires, and children's drawings were analyzed to reveal that these children experienced the world in context dependent ways (private vs. public worlds). Family and close friends typically provided a safe, supportive environment where children could be themselves and participate in typical childhoods. In contrast, when out of these familiar contexts, the children often were frustrated, embarrassed, and withdrawn, their relationships changed, and they were unable to get their message across in public contexts. Speech-language pathology assessment and intervention could be enhanced by interweaving the valuable insights of children, siblings, friends, parents, teachers, and other adults within children's worlds to more effectively support these children in context. 1. Recognize that children with SSD experience the world in different ways, depending on whether they are in private or public contexts. 2. Describe the changes in the roles of family and friends when children with SSD are in public contexts. 3. Discover the position of the child as central in Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model. 4. Identify principles of child-friendly research. 5. Recognize the importance of considering the child in context during speech-language pathology assessment and intervention. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustainable Product Development Through a Life-Cycle Approach to Product and Service Creation (Keynote speech)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    . These two schools of environmental re-search practice are mirrored in the way in which industry approaches environmental problems. Since the definition in 1987 of Sustainable Development [2] efforts have been made to relate the goals and ideals of sustainabil-ity to the domain of product development, thus...... adding new dimensions, such as social and moral values, to the original agenda of environmental improvement. The redefinition of the role of the product developer, from environmentally conscious product de-veloper to sustainably aware product developer has led to new insights into the way in which...... products are developed and used ¿ and to where environmental effects occur in the lifetime of a product. The role of the product developer is thus more complex in relation to sustainability, as the focus for improvement of a product may not (and very often does not) lie in the physical artefactual...

  5. Effects of Blocked and Random Practice Schedule on Outcomes of Sound Production Treatment for Acquired Apraxia of Speech: Results of a Group Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambaugh, Julie L; Nessler, Christina; Wright, Sandra; Mauszycki, Shannon C; DeLong, Catharine; Berggren, Kiera; Bailey, Dallin J

    2017-06-22

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of schedule of practice (i.e., blocked vs. random) on outcomes of Sound Production Treatment (SPT; Wambaugh, Kalinyak-Fliszar, West, & Doyle, 1998) for speakers with chronic acquired apraxia of speech and aphasia. A combination of group and single-case experimental designs was used. Twenty participants each received SPT administered with randomized stimuli presentation (SPT-R) and SPT applied with blocked stimuli presentation (SPT-B). Treatment effects were examined with respect to accuracy of articulation as measured in treated and untreated experimental words produced during probes. All participants demonstrated improved articulation of treated items with both practice schedules. Effect sizes were calculated to estimate magnitude of change for treated and untreated items by treatment condition. No significant differences were found for SPT-R and SPT-B relative to effect size. Percent change over the highest baseline performance was also calculated to provide a clinically relevant indication of improvement. Change scores associated with SPT-R were significantly higher than those for SPT-B for treated items but not untreated items. SPT can result in improved articulation regardless of schedule of practice. However, SPT-R may result in greater gains for treated items. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5116831.

  6. Contributions of Letter-Speech Sound Learning and Visual Print Tuning to Reading Improvement: Evidence from Brain Potential and Dyslexia Training Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Fraga González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a neurocognitive perspective to discuss the contribution of learning letter-speech sound (L-SS associations and visual specialization in the initial phases of reading in dyslexic children. We review findings from associative learning studies on related cognitive skills important for establishing and consolidating L-SS associations. Then we review brain potential studies, including our own, that yielded two markers associated with reading fluency. Here we show that the marker related to visual specialization (N170 predicts word and pseudoword reading fluency in children who received additional practice in the processing of morphological word structure. Conversely, L-SS integration (indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN may only remain important when direct orthography to semantic conversion is not possible, such as in pseudoword reading. In addition, the correlation between these two markers supports the notion that multisensory integration facilitates visual specialization. Finally, we review the role of implicit learning and executive functions in audiovisual learning in dyslexia. Implications for remedial research are discussed and suggestions for future studies are presented.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of nonlinear frequency compression on speech recognition and sound quality for adults with mild to moderate hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Marcrum, Steven C; Ricketts, Todd A

    2015-03-01

    While potentially improving audibility for listeners with considerable high frequency hearing loss, the effects of implementing nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) for listeners with moderate high frequency hearing loss are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of activating NFC for listeners who are not traditionally considered candidates for this technology. Participants wore study hearing aids with NFC activated for a 3-4 week trial period. After the trial period, they were tested with NFC and with conventional processing on measures of consonant discrimination threshold in quiet, consonant recognition in quiet, sentence recognition in noise, and acceptableness of sound quality of speech and music. Seventeen adult listeners with symmetrical, mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated. Better ear, high frequency pure-tone averages (4, 6, and 8 kHz) were 60 dB HL or better. Activating NFC resulted in lower (better) thresholds for discrimination of /s/, whose spectral center was 9 kHz. There were no other significant effects of NFC compared to conventional processing. These data suggest that the benefits, and detriments, of activating NFC may be limited for this population.

  8. Visual Speech Fills in Both Discrimination and Identification of Non-Intact Auditory Speech in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; McAlpine, Rachel P.; Abdi, Herve

    2018-01-01

    To communicate, children must discriminate and identify speech sounds. Because visual speech plays an important role in this process, we explored how visual speech influences phoneme discrimination and identification by children. Critical items had intact visual speech (e.g. baez) coupled to non-intact (excised onsets) auditory speech (signified…

  9. Where does sustainable growth end? Inaugural speech; Waar eindigt duurzame groei? Inaugurele rede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlagh, R.

    2010-11-15

    After a brief explanation about several characteristics of capitalism, a number of environmental issues are discussed, paying particular attention to the climate issue. In this context an answer is given to the question what sustainability means and how sustainability can be implemented. A price tag needs to be attached to the use of nature and the environment. Several examples are given in support of the value of scarce nature and how difficult it is to distribute this value evenly. Finally, insight is given in the conditions for sustainable growth as well as the main obstacles. [Dutch] Na een korte uiteenzetting van enkele kenmerken van het kapitalisme wordt een aantal milieuproblemen voor het voetlicht gebracht met speciale aandacht voor het klimaatprobleem. In deze context wordt de vraag beantwoord wat duurzaamheid betekent en hoe duurzaamheid kan worden geimplementeerd. Aan het gebruik van natuur en milieu moet een prijskaartje komen te hangen. Er worden voorbeelden gegeven waaruit blijkt hoe waardevol schaarse natuur is, en hoe moeilijk het is deze waarde eerlijk te verdelen. Tenslotte wordt inzicht gegeven in de voorwaarden voor duurzame groei, en de belangrijkste obstakels.

  10. Human Superior Temporal Gyrus Organization of Spectrotemporal Modulation Tuning Derived from Speech Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullett, Patrick W; Hamilton, Liberty S; Mesgarani, Nima; Schreiner, Christoph E; Chang, Edward F

    2016-02-10

    The human superior temporal gyrus (STG) is critical for speech perception, yet the organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech within the STG is not well understood. Here, to characterize the spatial organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech across human STG, we use high-density cortical surface field potential recordings while participants listened to natural continuous speech. While synthetic broad-band stimuli did not yield sustained activation of the STG, spectrotemporal receptive fields could be reconstructed from vigorous responses to speech stimuli. We find that the human STG displays a robust anterior-posterior spatial distribution of spectrotemporal tuning in which the posterior STG is tuned for temporally fast varying speech sounds that have relatively constant energy across the frequency axis (low spectral modulation) while the anterior STG is tuned for temporally slow varying speech sounds that have a high degree of spectral variation across the frequency axis (high spectral modulation). This work illustrates organization of spectrotemporal processing in the human STG, and illuminates processing of ethologically relevant speech signals in a region of the brain specialized for speech perception. Considerable evidence has implicated the human superior temporal gyrus (STG) in speech processing. However, the gross organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech within the STG is not well characterized. Here we use natural speech stimuli and advanced receptive field characterization methods to show that spectrotemporal features within speech are well organized along the posterior-to-anterior axis of the human STG. These findings demonstrate robust functional organization based on spectrotemporal modulation content, and illustrate that much of the encoded information in the STG represents the physical acoustic properties of speech stimuli. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362014-13$15.00/0.

  11. Sustainable Energy for All. Inaugural speech; Een duurzame energievoorziening voor iedereen. Intreerede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2011-12-07

    According to the author, there is no energy crisis; nor is there an energy shortage. Three observations illustrate this proposition: (1) We are wasting about 98% of our energy; (2) In one hour, the earth receives more energy from the sun than we consume worldwide in one year; and (3) sustainable energy is all around us. Next, the observations are elaborated and a plan is launched to set up a Green Campus: a living lab, an inspiring place where businesses and university can meet and a place where everyone can get an impression of the energy systems of the future. This way the author is hoping to take a next, important step in the realization of his dream, which is a sustainable energy system for all [Dutch] De auteur stelt dat er geen energiecrisis, geen energietekort is. Drie observaties illustreren deze stelling: (1) We verspillen ruwweg 98% van onze energie; (2) In een uur ontvangt de aarde meer energie van de zon, dan we wereldwijd in een jaar verbruiken; en (3) Duurzame energie is overal rond om ons heen. Vervolgens worden de observaties toegelicht en een plan gelanceerd om een Green Campus op te zetten: een living lab, een inspirerende plek waar bedrijven en universiteit elkaar ontmoeten en een plek waar een ieder een beeld kan krijgen op de energiesystemen van de toekomst. Daarmee hoopt de auteur een volgende en belangrijke stap te zetten in de realisatie van zijn droom, een duurzame energievoorziening voor iedereen.

  12. Exploring Australian speech-language pathologists' use and perceptions ofnon-speech oral motor exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbach, Anna F; Rose, Tanya A; Cheah, Mynn

    2018-01-29

    To explore Australian speech-language pathologists' use of non-speech oral motor exercises, and rationales for using/not using non-speech oral motor exercises in clinical practice. A total of 124 speech-language pathologists practising in Australia, working with paediatric and/or adult clients with speech sound difficulties, completed an online survey. The majority of speech-language pathologists reported that they did not use non-speech oral motor exercises when working with paediatric or adult clients with speech sound difficulties. However, more than half of the speech-language pathologists working with adult clients who have dysarthria reported using non-speech oral motor exercises with this population. The most frequently reported rationale for using non-speech oral motor exercises in speech sound difficulty management was to improve awareness/placement of articulators. The majority of speech-language pathologists agreed there is no clear clinical or research evidence base to support non-speech oral motor exercise use with clients who have speech sound difficulties. This study provides an overview of Australian speech-language pathologists' reported use and perceptions of non-speech oral motor exercises' applicability and efficacy in treating paediatric and adult clients who have speech sound difficulties. The research findings provide speech-language pathologists with insight into how and why non-speech oral motor exercises are currently used, and adds to the knowledge base regarding Australian speech-language pathology practice of non-speech oral motor exercises in the treatment of speech sound difficulties. Implications for Rehabilitation Non-speech oral motor exercises refer to oral motor activities which do not involve speech, but involve the manipulation or stimulation of oral structures including the lips, tongue, jaw, and soft palate. Non-speech oral motor exercises are intended to improve the function (e.g., movement, strength) of oral structures. The

  13. Speech on the general states of enterprises and the sustainable development; Discours devant les Etats generaux des entreprises et du developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In this speech the author points out two main recommendations. The first message concerns the necessity of a whole mobilization in favor of the sustainable development, from the government policy and the enterprises management to the human behavior. He presents then three main axis to heighten the enterprises (reinforce the information on the environmental and social impact of the economic activities, the development of sustainable investments, the development of the environmental sponsorship). The second message concerns the necessity to place the environment in the economic growth by the development of the ecology and the eco-technology. (A.L.B.)

  14. Vocal Noise Cancellation From Respiratory Sounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moussavi, Zahra

    2001-01-01

    Although background noise cancellation for speech or electrocardiographic recording is well established, however when the background noise contains vocal noises and the main signal is a breath sound...

  15. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  16. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  17. Cortical activity patterns predict robust speech discrimination ability in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetake, Jai A.; Wolf, Jordan T.; Cheung, Ryan J.; Engineer, Crystal T.; Ram, Satyananda K.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that support speech discrimination in noisy conditions are poorly understood. In quiet conditions, spike timing information appears to be used in the discrimination of speech sounds. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that spike timing is also used to distinguish between speech sounds in noisy conditions that significantly degrade neural responses to speech sounds. We tested speech sound discrimination in rats and recorded primary auditory cortex (A1) responses to speech sounds in background noise of different intensities and spectral compositions. Our behavioral results indicate that rats, like humans, are able to accurately discriminate consonant sounds even in the presence of background noise that is as loud as the speech signal. Our neural recordings confirm that speech sounds evoke degraded but detectable responses in noise. Finally, we developed a novel neural classifier that mimics behavioral discrimination. The classifier discriminates between speech sounds by comparing the A1 spatiotemporal activity patterns evoked on single trials with the average spatiotemporal patterns evoked by known sounds. Unlike classifiers in most previous studies, this classifier is not provided with the stimulus onset time. Neural activity analyzed with the use of relative spike timing was well correlated with behavioral speech discrimination in quiet and in noise. Spike timing information integrated over longer intervals was required to accurately predict rat behavioral speech discrimination in noisy conditions. The similarity of neural and behavioral discrimination of speech in noise suggests that humans and rats may employ similar brain mechanisms to solve this problem. PMID:22098331

  18. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carrier nature of speech; modulation spectrum; spectral dynamics ... the relationships between phonetic values of sounds and their short-term spectral envelopes .... the number of free parameters that need to be estimated from training data.

  19. The Beginnings of Danish Speech Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerbye, Torkil

    , in the light of the rich and complex Danish sound system. The first two studies report on native adults’ perception of Danish speech sounds in quiet and noise. The third study examined the development of language-specific perception in native Danish infants at 6, 9 and 12 months of age. The book points......Little is known about the perception of speech sounds by native Danish listeners. However, the Danish sound system differs in several interesting ways from the sound systems of other languages. For instance, Danish is characterized, among other features, by a rich vowel inventory and by different...... reductions of speech sounds evident in the pronunciation of the language. This book (originally a PhD thesis) consists of three studies based on the results of two experiments. The experiments were designed to provide knowledge of the perception of Danish speech sounds by Danish adults and infants...

  20. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  1. Tipos de erros de fala em crianças com transtorno fonológico em função do histórico de otite média Speech errors in children with speech sound disorders according to otitis media history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée Fiszbein Wertzner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os índices articulatórios quanto aos diferentes tipos de erros e verificar a existência de um tipo de erro preferencial em crianças com transtorno fonológico, em função da presença ou não de histórico de otite média. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo prospectivo e transversal, 21 sujeitos com idade entre 5 anos e 2 meses e 7 anos e 9 meses com diagnóstico de transtorno fonológico. Os sujeitos foram agrupados de acordo com a presença do histórico otite média. O grupo experimental 1 (GE1 foi composto por 14 sujeitos com histórico de otite média e o grupo experimental 2 (GE2 por sete sujeitos que não apresentaram histórico de otite média. Foram calculadas a quantidade de erros de fala (distorções, omissões e substituições e os índices articulatórios. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Os grupos GE1 e GE2 diferiram quanto ao desempenho nos índices na comparação entre as duas provas de fonologia aplicadas. Observou-se em todas as análises que os índices que avaliam as substituições indicaram o tipo de erro mais cometido pelas crianças com transtorno fonológico. CONCLUSÃO: Os índices foram efetivos na indicação da substituição como o erro mais ocorrente em crianças com TF. A maior ocorrência de erros de fala observada na nomeação de figuras em crianças com histórico de otite média indica que tais erros, possivelmente, estão associados à dificuldade na representação fonológica causada pela perda auditiva transitória que vivenciaram.PURPOSE: To describe articulatory indexes for the different speech errors and to verify the existence of a preferred type of error in children with speech sound disorder, according to the presence or absence of otitis media history. METHODS: Participants in this prospective and cross-sectional study were 21 subjects aged between 5 years and 2 months and 7 years and 9 months with speech sound disorder. Subjects were

  2. A efetividade dos testes complementares no acompanhamento da intervenção terapêutica no transtorno fonológico Effectiveness of complementary tests in monitoring therapeutic intervention in speech sound disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée Fiszbein Wertzner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O planejamento e a evolução terapêutica de crianças com transtorno fonológico estão diretamente relacionados à avaliação inicial e aos testes complementares aplicados. Acompanhar a evolução do caso por meio de verificações regulares acrescenta informações importantes à avaliação diagnóstica, o que permite fortalecer achados iniciais a respeito da dificuldade subjacente identificada na avaliação inicial. Assim, no presente estudo de caso verificou-se a efetividade e a eficiência da aplicação do índice de porcentagem de consoantes corretas revisado (PCC-R bem como dos testes complementares de inconsistência de fala, de estimulabilidade e de habilidades metafonológicas no acompanhamento da intervenção terapêutica em crianças com transtorno fonológico. Participaram deste estudo três crianças do gênero masculino. Na data da avaliação inicial o Caso 1 tinha 6 anos e 9 meses de idade, o Caso 2, 8 anos e 10 meses, e o Caso 3, 9 anos e 7 meses. Além da avaliação específica da fonologia, foram aplicados testes complementares que auxiliaram na verificação da dificuldade subjacente específica em cada um dos casos. Desta forma, os sujeitos foram submetidos à avaliação de habilidades metafonológicas, à prova de inconsistência de fala e de estimulabilidade. A análise conjunta dos dados permitiu constatar que os testes selecionados foram efetivos e eficientes tanto para complementar o diagnóstico como para indicar mudanças nos três casos de crianças com transtorno fonológico.Therapeutic planning and evolution of children with speech sound disorders are related to both the initial assessment and to the complementary tests selected to be applied. Monitoring the case by regular evaluations adds important information to the diagnosis, which allows strengthening the initial findings with regards to the underlying deficits identified in the initial evaluation. The aim of this case report was to verify the

  3. Normal Aspects of Speech, Hearing, and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minifie, Fred. D., Ed.; And Others

    This book is written as a guide to the understanding of the processes involved in human speech communication. Ten authorities contributed material to provide an introduction to the physiological aspects of speech production and reception, the acoustical aspects of speech production and transmission, the psychophysics of sound reception, the nature…

  4. What can a string of letters possibly mean when it is not a word? Speech sounds as one answer to the search for meaning in Finnegans Wake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, Cynthia

    2015-02-01

    In his last novel, Finnegans Wake, James Joyce attempted to redirect readers' search for meaning away from traditional paths by using many non-words (combinations, foreign words, neologisms, and onomatopoeic words). Words and non-words in the novel were analyzed in terms of the emotional meanings of their constituent sounds using the model developed by Whissell where motor responses involved in enunciating sounds are associated with their emotional meaning. Significant sound-emotion differences were identified among and within chapters. "Smiling" pleasant long e (as in "tee") was used at higher rates in successive chapters and "sighing" passive AO (as in "Shaun") was used at especially high rates in Chapters 8 ("Anna Livia Plurabelle") and 12 ("Mamalujo"). Sound emotionality is one of the alternative paths to meaning in the novel.

  5. A cross-language study of the speech sounds in Yorùbá and Malay: Implications for Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boluwaji Oshodi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring a language begins with the knowledge of its sounds system which falls under the branch of linguistics known as phonetics. The knowledge of the sound system becomes very important to prospective learners particularly L2 learners whose L1 exhibits different sounds and features from the target L2 because this knowledge is vital in order to internalise the correct pronunciation of words. This study examined and contrasted the sound systems of Yorùbá a Niger-Congo language spoken in Nigeria to that of Malay (Peninsular variety, an Austronesian language spoken in Malaysia with emphasis on the areas of differences. The data for this study were collected from ten participants; five native female Malay speakers who are married to Yorùbá native speakers but live in Malaysia and five Yorùbá native speakers who reside in Nigeria. The findings revealed that speakers from both sides have difficulties with sounds and features in the L2 which are not attested in their L1 and they tended to substitute them for similar ones in their L1 through transfer. This confirms the fact that asymmetry between the sound systems of L1 and L2 is a major source of error in L2 acquisition.

  6. Evaluation of speech reception threshold in noise in young Cochlear™ Nucleus® system 6 implant recipients using two different digital remote microphone technologies and a speech enhancement sound processing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Sergio; Zaccone, Monica; Meli, Aannalisa; Cristofari, Eliana

    2017-12-01

    Children affected by hearing loss can experience difficulties in challenging and noisy environments even when deafness is corrected by Cochlear implant (CI) devices. These patients have a selective attention deficit in multiple listening conditions. At present, the most effective ways to improve the performance of speech recognition in noise consists of providing CI processors with noise reduction algorithms and of providing patients with bilateral CIs. The aim of this study was to compare speech performances in noise, across increasing noise levels, in CI recipients using two kinds of wireless remote-microphone radio systems that use digital radio frequency transmission: the Roger Inspiro accessory and the Cochlear Wireless Mini Microphone accessory. Eleven Nucleus Cochlear CP910 CI young user subjects were studied. The signal/noise ratio, at a speech reception threshold (SRT) value of 50%, was measured in different conditions for each patient: with CI only, with the Roger or with the MiniMic accessory. The effect of the application of the SNR-noise reduction algorithm in each of these conditions was also assessed. The tests were performed with the subject positioned in front of the main speaker, at a distance of 2.5 m. Another two speakers were positioned at 3.50 m. The main speaker at 65 dB issued disyllabic words. Babble noise signal was delivered through the other speakers, with variable intensity. The use of both wireless remote microphones improved the SRT results. Both systems improved gain of speech performances. The gain was higher with the Mini Mic system (SRT = -4.76) than the Roger system (SRT = -3.01). The addition of the NR algorithm did not statistically further improve the results. There is significant improvement in speech recognition results with both wireless digital remote microphone accessories, in particular with the Mini Mic system when used with the CP910 processor. The use of a remote microphone accessory surpasses the benefit of

  7. Language Experience Affects Grouping of Musical Instrument Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Anjali; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Agus, Trevor; Höhle, Barbara; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Language experience clearly affects the perception of speech, but little is known about whether these differences in perception extend to non-speech sounds. In this study, we investigated rhythmic perception of non-linguistic sounds in speakers of French and German using a grouping task, in which complexity (variability in sounds, presence of…

  8. Filtering the Unknown: Speech Activity Detection in Heterogeneous Video Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Wooters, Chuck; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the speech activity detection system that we used for detecting speech regions in the Dutch TRECVID video collection. The system is designed to filter non-speech like music or sound effects out of the signal without the use of predefined non-speech models. Because the system

  9. Effects of Familiarity and Feeding on Newborn Speech-Voice Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiante, A. Grace; Barr, Ronald G.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brant, Rollin; Young, Simon N.

    2013-01-01

    Newborn infants preferentially orient to familiar over unfamiliar speech sounds. They are also better at remembering unfamiliar speech sounds for short periods of time if learning and retention occur after a feed than before. It is unknown whether short-term memory for speech is enhanced when the sound is familiar (versus unfamiliar) and, if so,…

  10. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...

  11. Preliminary study of acoustic analysis for evaluating speech-aid oral prostheses: Characteristic dips in octave spectrum for comparison of nasality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Liang; Hung, Chao-Ho; Chen, Po-Yueh; Chen, Wei-Chang; Hung, Shih-Han

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic analysis is often used in speech evaluation but seldom for the evaluation of oral prostheses designed for reconstruction of surgical defect. This study aimed to introduce the application of acoustic analysis for patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) due to oral surgery and rehabilitated with oral speech-aid prostheses. The pre- and postprosthetic rehabilitation acoustic features of sustained vowel sounds from two patients with VPI were analyzed and compared with the acoustic analysis software Praat. There were significant differences in the octave spectrum of sustained vowel speech sound between the pre- and postprosthetic rehabilitation. Acoustic measurements of sustained vowels for patients before and after prosthetic treatment showed no significant differences for all parameters of fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, noise-to-harmonics ratio, formant frequency, F1 bandwidth, and band energy difference. The decrease in objective nasality perceptions correlated very well with the decrease in dips of the spectra for the male patient with a higher speech bulb height. Acoustic analysis may be a potential technique for evaluating the functions of oral speech-aid prostheses, which eliminates dysfunctions due to the surgical defect and contributes to a high percentage of intelligible speech. Octave spectrum analysis may also be a valuable tool for detecting changes in nasality characteristics of the voice during prosthetic treatment of VPI. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, Alison G; Danielson, D Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F

    2015-11-03

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception-production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants' speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants' tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants' articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral-motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced "impairment" in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral-motor impairments may impact perceptual development.

  13. [Improving speech comprehension using a new cochlear implant speech processor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Deile, J; Kortmann, T; Hoppe, U; Hessel, H; Morsnowski, A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this multicenter clinical field study was to assess the benefits of the new Freedom 24 sound processor for cochlear implant (CI) users implanted with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system. The study included 48 postlingually profoundly deaf experienced CI users who demonstrated speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor on the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) in quiet conditions of at least 80% correct scores and who were able to perform adaptive speech threshold testing using the OLSA in noisy conditions. Following baseline measures of speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor, subjects were upgraded to the Freedom 24 speech processor. After a take-home trial period of at least 2 weeks, subject performance was evaluated by measuring the speech reception threshold with the Freiburg multisyllabic word test and speech intelligibility with the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50 dB and 70 dB in the sound field. The results demonstrated highly significant benefits for speech comprehension with the new speech processor. Significant benefits for speech comprehension were also demonstrated with the new speech processor when tested in competing background noise.In contrast, use of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) did not prove to be a suitably sensitive assessment tool for comparative subjective self-assessment of hearing benefits with each processor. Use of the preprocessing algorithm known as adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) in the Freedom 24 led to additional improvements over the standard upgrade map for speech comprehension in quiet and showed equivalent performance in noise. Through use of the preprocessing beam-forming algorithm BEAM, subjects demonstrated a highly significant improved signal-to-noise ratio for speech comprehension thresholds (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio for 50% speech comprehension scores) when tested with an adaptive procedure using the Oldenburg

  14. Innovative Speech Reconstructive Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Shemshadi

    2003-01-01

    Proper speech functioning in human being, depends on the precise coordination and timing balances in a series of complex neuro nuscular movements and actions. Starting from the prime organ of energy source of expelled air from respirato y system; deliver such air to trigger vocal cords; swift changes of this phonatory episode to a comprehensible sound in RESONACE and final coordination of all head and neck structures to elicit final speech in ...

  15. Speech Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Gibson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most important speech coding standards. Current challenges, future research directions, fundamental limits on performance, and the critical open problem of speech coding for emergency first responders are all discussed.

  16. Fatores causais e aplicação de provas complementares relacionadas à gravidade no transtorno fonológico Causal factors and application of complementary tests in speech sound disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée Fiszbein Wertzner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se o índice de gravidade, que mede a porcentagem de consoantes corretas, distingue as crianças com transtorno fonológico em relação às medidas de estimulabilidade e inconsistência de fala, bem como à presença dos históricos familial e de otite média. MÉTODOS: Participaram da pesquisa 15 sujeitos com idades entre 5 e 7 anos e 11meses, com diagnóstico de transtorno fonológico. O índice Porcentagem de Consoantes Corretas - Revisado (PCC-R foi calculado para as provas de imitação de palavras e de nomeação de figuras, separadamente. A partir destas provas também foi computada a necessidade de aplicação da prova de estimulabilidade, de acordo com os critérios propostos em pesquisas anteriores. A prova de inconsistência de fala permitiu classificar os sujeitos como consistentes ou inconsistentes. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Na comparação entre os valores do PCC-R medido na prova de nomeação e de imitação foi observada diferença em relação à necessidade da aplicação da estimulabilidade. Em relação à prova de inconsistência de fala, não houve evidência desta relação. Não foi verificada diferença no PCC-R considerando-se a presença dos históricos de otite média e familial. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo indica que as crianças que precisaram da aplicação da prova de estimulabilidade apresentaram valores mais baixos de PCC-R. Entretanto, em relação à prova de inconsistência de fala e aos históricos de otite ou familial, o PCC-R não determinou diferenças entre as crianças.PURPOSE: To determine whether the severity index that measures the percentage of consonants correct distinguishes children with speech sound disorders (SSD according to measures of stimulability and speech inconsistency, as well as to the presence of heritability (familial history and history of early recurrent otitis media. METHODS: Participants were 15 subjects aged between 5 and 7

  17. The sound manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  18. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: a case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. Here, we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two non-words that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the non-word stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labelling impairment. These data suggest that while the motor system is not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, it may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available.

  19. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  20. Hearing speech in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Seth-Reino; Borg, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC) testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA) noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN)]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA). The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (Ptempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (Pmusic offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  1. Hearing speech in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth-Reino Ekström

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA. The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (P<.01. Low octave and fast tempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (P<.01 and SPN (P<.05. Subjects with hearing loss had higher masked thresholds than the normal-hearing subjects (P<.01, but there were smaller differences between masking conditions (P<.01. It is pointed out that music offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  2. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  3. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  4. Speech-to-Speech Relay Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Guide Speech to Speech Relay Service Speech-to-Speech (STS) is one form of Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS). TRS is a service that allows persons with hearing and speech disabilities ...

  5. Atypical speech versus non-speech detection and discrimination in 4- to 6- yr old children with autism spectrum disorder: An ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Galilee

    Full Text Available Previous event-related potential (ERP research utilizing oddball stimulus paradigms suggests diminished processing of speech versus non-speech sounds in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. However, brain mechanisms underlying these speech processing abnormalities, and to what extent they are related to poor language abilities in this population remain unknown. In the current study, we utilized a novel paired repetition paradigm in order to investigate ERP responses associated with the detection and discrimination of speech and non-speech sounds in 4- to 6-year old children with ASD, compared with gender and verbal age matched controls. ERPs were recorded while children passively listened to pairs of stimuli that were either both speech sounds, both non-speech sounds, speech followed by non-speech, or non-speech followed by speech. Control participants exhibited N330 match/mismatch responses measured from temporal electrodes, reflecting speech versus non-speech detection, bilaterally, whereas children with ASD exhibited this effect only over temporal electrodes in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, while the control groups exhibited match/mismatch effects at approximately 600 ms (central N600, temporal P600 when a non-speech sound was followed by a speech sound, these effects were absent in the ASD group. These findings suggest that children with ASD fail to activate right hemisphere mechanisms, likely associated with social or emotional aspects of speech detection, when distinguishing non-speech from speech stimuli. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of atypical speech versus non-speech processing in children with ASD when compared with typically developing children matched on verbal age.

  6. Atypical speech versus non-speech detection and discrimination in 4- to 6- yr old children with autism spectrum disorder: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galilee, Alena; Stefanidou, Chrysi; McCleery, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) research utilizing oddball stimulus paradigms suggests diminished processing of speech versus non-speech sounds in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, brain mechanisms underlying these speech processing abnormalities, and to what extent they are related to poor language abilities in this population remain unknown. In the current study, we utilized a novel paired repetition paradigm in order to investigate ERP responses associated with the detection and discrimination of speech and non-speech sounds in 4- to 6-year old children with ASD, compared with gender and verbal age matched controls. ERPs were recorded while children passively listened to pairs of stimuli that were either both speech sounds, both non-speech sounds, speech followed by non-speech, or non-speech followed by speech. Control participants exhibited N330 match/mismatch responses measured from temporal electrodes, reflecting speech versus non-speech detection, bilaterally, whereas children with ASD exhibited this effect only over temporal electrodes in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, while the control groups exhibited match/mismatch effects at approximately 600 ms (central N600, temporal P600) when a non-speech sound was followed by a speech sound, these effects were absent in the ASD group. These findings suggest that children with ASD fail to activate right hemisphere mechanisms, likely associated with social or emotional aspects of speech detection, when distinguishing non-speech from speech stimuli. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of atypical speech versus non-speech processing in children with ASD when compared with typically developing children matched on verbal age.

  7. Speech Intelligibility and Hearing Protector Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    not only affect the listener of speech communication in a noisy environment, HPDs can also affect the speaker . Tufts and Frank (2003) found that...of hearing protection on speech intelligibility in noise. Sound and Vibration . 20(10): 12-14. Berger, E. H. 1980. EARLog #4 – The

  8. Speech masking and cancelling and voice obscuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2013-09-10

    A non-acoustic sensor is used to measure a user's speech and then broadcasts an obscuring acoustic signal diminishing the user's vocal acoustic output intensity and/or distorting the voice sounds making them unintelligible to persons nearby. The non-acoustic sensor is positioned proximate or contacting a user's neck or head skin tissue for sensing speech production information.

  9. Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Apraxia of Speech On this page: What is apraxia of speech? ... about apraxia of speech? What is apraxia of speech? Apraxia of speech (AOS)—also known as acquired ...

  10. The Frame Constraint on Experimentally Elicited Speech Errors in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akie; Inoue, Tomoyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The so-called syllable position effect in speech errors has been interpreted as reflecting constraints posed by the frame structure of a given language, which is separately operating from linguistic content during speech production. The effect refers to the phenomenon that when a speech error occurs, replaced and replacing sounds tend to be in the…

  11. The Tuning of Human Neonates' Preference for Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Hauser, Marc D.; Werker, Janet F.; Martin, Alia

    2010-01-01

    Human neonates prefer listening to speech compared to many nonspeech sounds, suggesting that humans are born with a bias for speech. However, neonates' preference may derive from properties of speech that are not unique but instead are shared with the vocalizations of other species. To test this, thirty neonates and sixteen 3-month-olds were…

  12. Perception of Intersensory Synchrony in Audiovisual Speech: Not that Special

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.

    2011-01-01

    Perception of intersensory temporal order is particularly difficult for (continuous) audiovisual speech, as perceivers may find it difficult to notice substantial timing differences between speech sounds and lip movements. Here we tested whether this occurs because audiovisual speech is strongly paired ("unity assumption"). Participants made…

  13. Results of the Sensory Profile in Children with Suspected Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer Amy J.; Grether, Sandra; Aylward, Christa; deGrauw, Ton; Akers, Rachel; Grasha, Carol; Ishikawa, Keiko; White, Jaye

    2009-01-01

    Speech-sound disorders are common in preschool-age children, and are characterized by difficulty in the planning and production of speech sounds and their combination into words and sentences. The objective of this study was to review and compare the results of the "Sensory Profile" ([Dunn, 1999]) in children with a specific type of speech-sound…

  14. A general auditory bias for handling speaker variability in speech? Evidence in humans and songbirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriengwatana, B.; Escudero, P.; Kerkhoven, A.H.; ten Cate, C.

    2015-01-01

    Different speakers produce the same speech sound differently, yet listeners are still able to reliably identify the speech sound. How listeners can adjust their perception to compensate for speaker differences in speech, and whether these compensatory processes are unique only to humans, is still

  15. Introductory speeches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This CD is multimedia presentation of programme safety upgrading of Bohunice V1 NPP. This chapter consist of introductory commentary and 4 introductory speeches (video records): (1) Introductory speech of Vincent Pillar, Board chairman and director general of Slovak electric, Plc. (SE); (2) Introductory speech of Stefan Schmidt, director of SE - Bohunice Nuclear power plants; (3) Introductory speech of Jan Korec, Board chairman and director general of VUJE Trnava, Inc. - Engineering, Design and Research Organisation, Trnava; Introductory speech of Dietrich Kuschel, Senior vice-president of FRAMATOME ANP Project and Engineering

  16. Common cues to emotion in the dynamic facial expressions of speech and song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Steven R; Thompson, William F; Wanderley, Marcelo M; Palmer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Speech and song are universal forms of vocalization that may share aspects of emotional expression. Research has focused on parallels in acoustic features, overlooking facial cues to emotion. In three experiments, we compared moving facial expressions in speech and song. In Experiment 1, vocalists spoke and sang statements each with five emotions. Vocalists exhibited emotion-dependent movements of the eyebrows and lip corners that transcended speech-song differences. Vocalists' jaw movements were coupled to their acoustic intensity, exhibiting differences across emotion and speech-song. Vocalists' emotional movements extended beyond vocal sound to include large sustained expressions, suggesting a communicative function. In Experiment 2, viewers judged silent videos of vocalists' facial expressions prior to, during, and following vocalization. Emotional intentions were identified accurately for movements during and after vocalization, suggesting that these movements support the acoustic message. Experiment 3 compared emotional identification in voice-only, face-only, and face-and-voice recordings. Emotion judgements for voice-only singing were poorly identified, yet were accurate for all other conditions, confirming that facial expressions conveyed emotion more accurately than the voice in song, yet were equivalent in speech. Collectively, these findings highlight broad commonalities in the facial cues to emotion in speech and song, yet highlight differences in perception and acoustic-motor production.

  17. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  18. Perception of environmental sounds by experienced cochlear implant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Gygi, Brian; Cheng, Min-Yu; Vachhani, Jay; Mulvey, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Environmental sound perception serves an important ecological function by providing listeners with information about objects and events in their immediate environment. Environmental sounds such as car horns, baby cries or chirping birds can alert listeners to imminent dangers as well as contribute to one's sense of awareness and well being. Perception of environmental sounds as acoustically and semantically complex stimuli, may also involve some factors common to the processing of speech. However, very limited research has investigated the abilities of cochlear implant (CI) patients to identify common environmental sounds, despite patients' general enthusiasm about them. This project (1) investigated the ability of patients with modern-day CIs to perceive environmental sounds, (2) explored associations among speech, environmental sounds and basic auditory abilities, and (3) examined acoustic factors that might be involved in environmental sound perception. Design Seventeen experienced postlingually-deafened CI patients participated in the study. Environmental sound perception was assessed with a large-item test composed of 40 sound sources, each represented by four different tokens. The relationship between speech and environmental sound perception, and the role of working memory and some basic auditory abilities were examined based on patient performance on a battery of speech tests (HINT, CNC, and individual consonant and vowel tests), tests of basic auditory abilities (audiometric thresholds, gap detection, temporal pattern and temporal order for tones tests) and a backward digit recall test. Results The results indicated substantially reduced ability to identify common environmental sounds in CI patients (45.3%). Except for vowels, all speech test scores significantly correlated with the environmental sound test scores: r = 0.73 for HINT in quiet, r = 0.69 for HINT in noise, r = 0.70 for CNC, r = 0.64 for consonants and r = 0.48 for vowels. HINT and

  19. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  20. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  1. Corollary discharge provides the sensory content of inner speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Inner speech is one of the most common, but least investigated, mental activities humans perform. It is an internal copy of one's external voice and so is similar to a well-established component of motor control: corollary discharge. Corollary discharge is a prediction of the sound of one's voice generated by the motor system. This prediction is normally used to filter self-caused sounds from perception, which segregates them from externally caused sounds and prevents the sensory confusion that would otherwise result. The similarity between inner speech and corollary discharge motivates the theory, tested here, that corollary discharge provides the sensory content of inner speech. The results reported here show that inner speech attenuates the impact of external sounds. This attenuation was measured using a context effect (an influence of contextual speech sounds on the perception of subsequent speech sounds), which weakens in the presence of speech imagery that matches the context sound. Results from a control experiment demonstrated this weakening in external speech as well. Such sensory attenuation is a hallmark of corollary discharge.

  2. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  3. Speech and Hearing Science in Ancient India--A Review of Sanskrit Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savithri, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The study reviewed Sanskrit books written between 1500 BC and 1904 AD concerning diseases, speech pathology, and audiology. Details are provided of the ancient Indian system of disease classification, the classification of speech sounds, causes of speech disorders, and treatment of speech and language disorders. (DB)

  4. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  5. Part-of-speech effects on text-to-speech synthesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schlunz, GI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of text-to-speech (TTS) systems is to produce natural-sounding synthesised speech. Towards this end various natural language processing (NLP) tasks are performed to model the prosodic aspects of the TTS voice. One of the fundamental...

  6. Educators’ perspectives on facilitating computer-assisted speech intervention in early childhood settings

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, K.; Cumming, T.; McCormack, J.; McLeod, S.; Baker, E.; Wren, Y.; Roulstone, S.; Masso, S.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood educators are frequently called on to support preschool-aged children with speech sound disorders and to engage these children in activities that target their speech production. This study explored factors that acted as facilitators and/or barriers to the provision of computer-based support for children with speech sound disorders (SSD) in early childhood centres. Participants were 23 early childhood educators at 13 centres who participated in the Sound Start Study, a randomiz...

  7. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  8. The relevance of visual information on learning sounds in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Schure, S.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Newborn infants are sensitive to combinations of visual and auditory speech. Does this ability to match sounds and sights affect how infants learn the sounds of their native language? And are visual articulations the only type of visual information that can influence sound learning? This

  9. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2018-01-01

    In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI...

  10. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  11. Stuttering Frequency, Speech Rate, Speech Naturalness, and Speech Effort During the Production of Voluntary Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidow, Jason H; Grossman, Heather L; Edge, Robin L

    2018-05-01

    Voluntary stuttering techniques involve persons who stutter purposefully interjecting disfluencies into their speech. Little research has been conducted on the impact of these techniques on the speech pattern of persons who stutter. The present study examined whether changes in the frequency of voluntary stuttering accompanied changes in stuttering frequency, articulation rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort. In total, 12 persons who stutter aged 16-34 years participated. Participants read four 300-syllable passages during a control condition, and three voluntary stuttering conditions that involved attempting to produce purposeful, tension-free repetitions of initial sounds or syllables of a word for two or more repetitions (i.e., bouncing). The three voluntary stuttering conditions included bouncing on 5%, 10%, and 15% of syllables read. Friedman tests and follow-up Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were conducted for the statistical analyses. Stuttering frequency, articulation rate, and speech naturalness were significantly different between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Speech effort did not differ between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Stuttering frequency was significantly lower during the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition, and speech effort was significantly lower during two of the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition. Due to changes in articulation rate across the voluntary stuttering conditions, it is difficult to conclude, as has been suggested previously, that voluntary stuttering is the reason for stuttering reductions found when using voluntary stuttering techniques. Additionally, future investigations should examine different types of voluntary stuttering over an extended period of time to determine their impact on stuttering frequency, speech rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort.

  12. Using therapeutic sound with progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Schechter, Martin A

    2008-09-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound-broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech-resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics).

  13. Primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngsin; Duffy, Joseph R; Josephs, Keith A

    2013-09-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive language dysfunction. The majority of primary progressive aphasia cases can be classified into three subtypes: nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic variants. Each variant presents with unique clinical features, and is associated with distinctive underlying pathology and neuroimaging findings. Unlike primary progressive aphasia, apraxia of speech is a disorder that involves inaccurate production of sounds secondary to impaired planning or programming of speech movements. Primary progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative form of apraxia of speech, and it should be distinguished from primary progressive aphasia given its discrete clinicopathological presentation. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of these speech and language disorders. The clinical, neuroimaging, and histopathological features of primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech are reviewed in this article. The distinctions among these disorders for accurate diagnosis are increasingly important from a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Recent advances in nonlinear speech processing

    CERN Document Server

    Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos; Esposito, Antonietta; Cordasco, Gennaro; Drugman, Thomas; Solé-Casals, Jordi; Morabito, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in nonlinear speech processing beyond nonlinear techniques. It shows that it exploits heuristic and psychological models of human interaction in order to succeed in the implementations of socially believable VUIs and applications for human health and psychological support. The book takes into account the multifunctional role of speech and what is “outside of the box” (see Björn Schuller’s foreword). To this aim, the book is organized in 6 sections, each collecting a small number of short chapters reporting advances “inside” and “outside” themes related to nonlinear speech research. The themes emphasize theoretical and practical issues for modelling socially believable speech interfaces, ranging from efforts to capture the nature of sound changes in linguistic contexts and the timing nature of speech; labors to identify and detect speech features that help in the diagnosis of psychological and neuronal disease, attempts to improve the effectiveness and performa...

  15. Acoustic analysis of trill sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, N; Yegnanarayana, B; Bhaskararao, Peri

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of steady apical trills--trill sounds produced by the periodic vibration of the apex of the tongue--are studied. Signal processing methods, namely, zero-frequency filtering and zero-time liftering of speech signals, are used to analyze the excitation source and the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract system, respectively. Although it is natural to expect the effect of trilling on the resonances of the vocal tract system, it is interesting to note that trilling influences the glottal source of excitation as well. The excitation characteristics derived using zero-frequency filtering of speech signals are glottal epochs, strength of impulses at the glottal epochs, and instantaneous fundamental frequency of the glottal vibration. Analysis based on zero-time liftering of speech signals is used to study the dynamic resonance characteristics of vocal tract system during the production of trill sounds. Qualitative analysis of trill sounds in different vowel contexts, and the acoustic cues that may help spotting trills in continuous speech are discussed.

  16. Training the Brain to Weight Speech Cues Differently: A Study of Finnish Second-language Users of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Uther, Maria; Latvala, Antti; Vepsalainen, Sara; Iverson, Paul; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Naatanen, Risto

    2010-01-01

    Foreign-language learning is a prime example of a task that entails perceptual learning. The correct comprehension of foreign-language speech requires the correct recognition of speech sounds. The most difficult speech-sound contrasts for foreign-language learners often are the ones that have multiple phonetic cues, especially if the cues are…

  17. THE ONTOGENESIS OF SPEECH DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Braudo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to acquaint the specialists, working with children having developmental disorders, with age-related norms for speech development. Many well-known linguists and psychologists studied speech ontogenesis (logogenesis. Speech is a higher mental function, which integrates many functional systems. Speech development in infants during the first months after birth is ensured by the innate hearing and emerging ability to fix the gaze on the face of an adult. Innate emotional reactions are also being developed during this period, turning into nonverbal forms of communication. At about 6 months a baby starts to pronounce some syllables; at 7–9 months – repeats various sounds combinations, pronounced by adults. At 10–11 months a baby begins to react on the words, referred to him/her. The first words usually appear at an age of 1 year; this is the start of the stage of active speech development. At this time it is acceptable, if a child confuses or rearranges sounds, distorts or misses them. By the age of 1.5 years a child begins to understand abstract explanations of adults. Significant vocabulary enlargement occurs between 2 and 3 years; grammatical structures of the language are being formed during this period (a child starts to use phrases and sentences. Preschool age (3–7 y. o. is characterized by incorrect, but steadily improving pronunciation of sounds and phonemic perception. The vocabulary increases; abstract speech and retelling are being formed. Children over 7 y. o. continue to improve grammar, writing and reading skills. The described stages may not have strict age boundaries, as soon as they are dependent not only on environment, but also on the child’s mental constitution, heredity and character.

  18. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  19. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  20. Bridging the Gap Between Speech and Language: Using Multimodal Treatment in a Child With Apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Cheryl D; Pitterle, Kathleen; Kurtz, Marie; Nakhla, Mark; Todorow, Carlyn

    2016-09-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech is a neurologic speech sound disorder in which children have difficulty constructing words and sounds due to poor motor planning and coordination of the articulators required for speech sound production. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy strongly suspected to have childhood apraxia of speech at 18 months of age who used multimodal communication to facilitate language development throughout his work with a speech language pathologist. In 18 months of an intensive structured program, he exhibited atypical rapid improvement, progressing from having no intelligible speech to achieving age-appropriate articulation. We suspect that early introduction of sign language by family proved to be a highly effective form of language development, that when coupled with intensive oro-motor and speech sound therapy, resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, George E.; Struve, Walter S.; Homer, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  2. Surgical improvement of speech disorder caused by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigusa, Hideto; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Komachi, Taro; Kadosono, Osamu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Saigusa, Makoto; Niimi, Seiji

    2012-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive debilitating neurological disease. ALS disturbs the quality of life by affecting speech, swallowing and free mobility of the arms without affecting intellectual function. It is therefore of significance to improve intelligibility and quality of speech sounds, especially for ALS patients with slowly progressive courses. Currently, however, there is no effective or established approach to improve speech disorder caused by ALS. We investigated a surgical procedure to improve speech disorder for some patients with neuromuscular diseases with velopharyngeal closure incompetence. In this study, we performed the surgical procedure for two patients suffering from severe speech disorder caused by slowly progressing ALS. The patients suffered from speech disorder with hypernasality and imprecise and weak articulation during a 6-year course (patient 1) and a 3-year course (patient 2) of slowly progressing ALS. We narrowed bilateral lateral palatopharyngeal wall at velopharyngeal port, and performed this surgery under general anesthesia without muscle relaxant for the two patients. Postoperatively, intelligibility and quality of their speech sounds were greatly improved within one month without any speech therapy. The patients were also able to generate longer speech phrases after the surgery. Importantly, there was no serious complication during or after the surgery. In summary, we performed bilateral narrowing of lateral palatopharyngeal wall as a speech surgery for two patients suffering from severe speech disorder associated with ALS. With this technique, improved intelligibility and quality of speech can be maintained for longer duration for the patients with slowly progressing ALS.

  3. Neural Entrainment to Speech Modulates Speech Intelligibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riecke, Lars; Formisano, Elia; Sorger, Bettina; Baskent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    Speech is crucial for communication in everyday life. Speech-brain entrainment, the alignment of neural activity to the slow temporal fluctuations (envelope) of acoustic speech input, is a ubiquitous element of current theories of speech processing. Associations between speech-brain entrainment and

  4. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  5. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  6. CASRA+: A Colloquial Arabic Speech Recognition Application

    OpenAIRE

    Ramzi A. Haraty; Omar El Ariss

    2007-01-01

    The research proposed here was for an Arabic speech recognition application, concentrating on the Lebanese dialect. The system starts by sampling the speech, which was the process of transforming the sound from analog to digital and then extracts the features by using the Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC). The extracted features are then compared with the system's stored model; in this case the stored model chosen was a phoneme-based model. This reference model differs from the direc...

  7. The development of speech production in children with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Chapman, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of speech development of children with cleft palate +/- cleft lip. The chapter will begin with a discussion of the impact of clefting on speech. Next, we will provide a brief description of those factors impacting speech development...... for this population of children. Finally, research examining various aspects of speech development of infants and young children with cleft palate (birth to age five) will be reviewed. This final section will be organized by typical stages of speech sound development (e.g., prespeech, the early word stage...

  8. Identifying Deceptive Speech Across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-25

    enough from the truth. Subjects were then interviewed individually in a sound booth to obtain “norming” speech data, pre- interview. We also...e.g. pitch, intensity, speaking rate, voice quality), gender, ethnicity and personality information, our machine learning experiments can classify...Have you ever been in trouble with the police?” vs. open-ended (e.g. “What is the last movie you saw that you really hated ?”) DISTRIBUTION A

  9. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  10. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  11. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  12. Electrophysiological evidence for speech-specific audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, Martijn; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J; Vroomen, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Lip-read speech is integrated with heard speech at various neural levels. Here, we investigated the extent to which lip-read induced modulations of the auditory N1 and P2 (measured with EEG) are indicative of speech-specific audiovisual integration, and we explored to what extent the ERPs were modulated by phonetic audiovisual congruency. In order to disentangle speech-specific (phonetic) integration from non-speech integration, we used Sine-Wave Speech (SWS) that was perceived as speech by half of the participants (they were in speech-mode), while the other half was in non-speech mode. Results showed that the N1 obtained with audiovisual stimuli peaked earlier than the N1 evoked by auditory-only stimuli. This lip-read induced speeding up of the N1 occurred for listeners in speech and non-speech mode. In contrast, if listeners were in speech-mode, lip-read speech also modulated the auditory P2, but not if listeners were in non-speech mode, thus revealing speech-specific audiovisual binding. Comparing ERPs for phonetically congruent audiovisual stimuli with ERPs for incongruent stimuli revealed an effect of phonetic stimulus congruency that started at ~200 ms after (in)congruence became apparent. Critically, akin to the P2 suppression, congruency effects were only observed if listeners were in speech mode, and not if they were in non-speech mode. Using identical stimuli, we thus confirm that audiovisual binding involves (partially) different neural mechanisms for sound processing in speech and non-speech mode. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchler, Michael; Allegro, Silvia; Launer, Stefan; Dillier, Norbert

    2005-12-01

    A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes "clean speech," "speech in noise," "noise," and "music." A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class "speech in noise." Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.

  14. Numerical value biases sound localization

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Edward J.; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perce...

  15. Speech recognition using articulatory and excitation source features

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the contribution of articulatory and excitation source information in discriminating sound units. The authors focus on excitation source component of speech -- and the dynamics of various articulators during speech production -- for enhancement of speech recognition (SR) performance. Speech recognition is analyzed for read, extempore, and conversation modes of speech. Five groups of articulatory features (AFs) are explored for speech recognition, in addition to conventional spectral features. Each chapter provides the motivation for exploring the specific feature for SR task, discusses the methods to extract those features, and finally suggests appropriate models to capture the sound unit specific knowledge from the proposed features. The authors close by discussing various combinations of spectral, articulatory and source features, and the desired models to enhance the performance of SR systems.

  16. Speech cues contribute to audiovisual spatial integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Bishop

    Full Text Available Speech is the most important form of human communication but ambient sounds and competing talkers often degrade its acoustics. Fortunately the brain can use visual information, especially its highly precise spatial information, to improve speech comprehension in noisy environments. Previous studies have demonstrated that audiovisual integration depends strongly on spatiotemporal factors. However, some integrative phenomena such as McGurk interference persist even with gross spatial disparities, suggesting that spatial alignment is not necessary for robust integration of audiovisual place-of-articulation cues. It is therefore unclear how speech-cues interact with audiovisual spatial integration mechanisms. Here, we combine two well established psychophysical phenomena, the McGurk effect and the ventriloquist's illusion, to explore this dependency. Our results demonstrate that conflicting spatial cues may not interfere with audiovisual integration of speech, but conflicting speech-cues can impede integration in space. This suggests a direct but asymmetrical influence between ventral 'what' and dorsal 'where' pathways.

  17. Speech Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several articles addressing topics in speech research are presented. The topics include: exploring the functional significance of physiological tremor: A biospectroscopic approach; differences between experienced and inexperienced listeners to deaf speech; a language-oriented view of reading and its disabilities; Phonetic factors in letter detection; categorical perception; Short-term recall by deaf signers of American sign language; a common basis for auditory sensory storage in perception and immediate memory; phonological awareness and verbal short-term memory; initiation versus execution time during manual and oral counting by stutterers; trading relations in the perception of speech by five-year-old children; the role of the strap muscles in pitch lowering; phonetic validation of distinctive features; consonants and syllable boundaires; and vowel information in postvocalic frictions.

  18. Hate speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Birgitta Nilsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The manifesto of the Norwegian terrorist Anders Behring Breivik is based on the “Eurabia” conspiracy theory. This theory is a key starting point for hate speech amongst many right-wing extremists in Europe, but also has ramifications beyond these environments. In brief, proponents of the Eurabia theory claim that Muslims are occupying Europe and destroying Western culture, with the assistance of the EU and European governments. By contrast, members of Al-Qaeda and other extreme Islamists promote the conspiracy theory “the Crusade” in their hate speech directed against the West. Proponents of the latter theory argue that the West is leading a crusade to eradicate Islam and Muslims, a crusade that is similarly facilitated by their governments. This article presents analyses of texts written by right-wing extremists and Muslim extremists in an effort to shed light on how hate speech promulgates conspiracy theories in order to spread hatred and intolerance.The aim of the article is to contribute to a more thorough understanding of hate speech’s nature by applying rhetorical analysis. Rhetorical analysis is chosen because it offers a means of understanding the persuasive power of speech. It is thus a suitable tool to describe how hate speech works to convince and persuade. The concepts from rhetorical theory used in this article are ethos, logos and pathos. The concept of ethos is used to pinpoint factors that contributed to Osama bin Laden's impact, namely factors that lent credibility to his promotion of the conspiracy theory of the Crusade. In particular, Bin Laden projected common sense, good morals and good will towards his audience. He seemed to have coherent and relevant arguments; he appeared to possess moral credibility; and his use of language demonstrated that he wanted the best for his audience.The concept of pathos is used to define hate speech, since hate speech targets its audience's emotions. In hate speech it is the

  19. Hidden Markov models in automatic speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzoskowicz, Adam

    1993-11-01

    This article describes a method for constructing an automatic speech recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). The author discusses the basic concepts of HMM theory and the application of these models to the analysis and recognition of speech signals. The author provides algorithms which make it possible to train the ASR system and recognize signals on the basis of distinct stochastic models of selected speech sound classes. The author describes the specific components of the system and the procedures used to model and recognize speech. The author discusses problems associated with the choice of optimal signal detection and parameterization characteristics and their effect on the performance of the system. The author presents different options for the choice of speech signal segments and their consequences for the ASR process. The author gives special attention to the use of lexical, syntactic, and semantic information for the purpose of improving the quality and efficiency of the system. The author also describes an ASR system developed by the Speech Acoustics Laboratory of the IBPT PAS. The author discusses the results of experiments on the effect of noise on the performance of the ASR system and describes methods of constructing HMM's designed to operate in a noisy environment. The author also describes a language for human-robot communications which was defined as a complex multilevel network from an HMM model of speech sounds geared towards Polish inflections. The author also added mandatory lexical and syntactic rules to the system for its communications vocabulary.

  20. Speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red

  1. Auditory feedback perturbation in children with developmental speech disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.R.; van Brenk, F.J.; van Doornik-van der Zee, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background/purpose: Several studies indicate a close relation between auditory and speech motor functions in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to compensate and adapt for perturbed auditory feedback in children with SSD compared to

  2. Evaluating signal-to-noise ratios, loudness, and related measures as indicators of airborne sound insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-09-01

    Subjective ratings of the audibility, annoyance, and loudness of music and speech sounds transmitted through 20 different simulated walls were used to identify better single number ratings of airborne sound insulation. The first part of this research considered standard measures such as the sound transmission class the weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) and variations of these measures [H. K. Park and J. S. Bradley, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 208-219 (2009)]. This paper considers a number of other measures including signal-to-noise ratios related to the intelligibility of speech and measures related to the loudness of sounds. An exploration of the importance of the included frequencies showed that the optimum ranges of included frequencies were different for speech and music sounds. Measures related to speech intelligibility were useful indicators of responses to speech sounds but were not as successful for music sounds. A-weighted level differences, signal-to-noise ratios and an A-weighted sound transmission loss measure were good predictors of responses when the included frequencies were optimized for each type of sound. The addition of new spectrum adaptation terms to R(w) values were found to be the most practical approach for achieving more accurate predictions of subjective ratings of transmitted speech and music sounds.

  3. Speech Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Local Cleft/Craniofacial Specialists Booklets & Factsheets College Scholarships School-Age Support Resources Connections Conference View More… ... be delayed during the early years. Articulation problems (difficulties in making certain sounds) may persist in some ...

  4. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  5. Validating a perceptual distraction model using a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user's perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music targets and interferers using a simple loudspeaker setup, consisting of only two...... sound zones within the sound-zone system. Thus, validating the model using a different sound-zone system with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli sets. The results show that the model performance is equally good in both zones, i.e., with both speech- on-music and music-on-speech stimuli...

  6. Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  7. Sixteen-Month-Old Infants' Segment Words from Infant- and Adult-Directed Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Pätzold, Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    One of the first challenges facing the young language learner is the task of segmenting words from a natural language speech stream, without prior knowledge of how these words sound. Studies with younger children find that children find it easier to segment words from fluent speech when the words are presented in infant-directed speech, i.e., the…

  8. Language and Speech Improvement for Kindergarten and First Grade. A Supplementary Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Roberta; And Others

    The 16-unit language and speech improvement handbook for kindergarten and first grade students contains an introductory section which includes a discussion of the child's developmental speech and language characteristics, a sound development chart, a speech and hearing language screening test, the Henja articulation test, and a general outline of…

  9. Perceptual and Acoustic Reliability Estimates for the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A companion paper describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). The SDCS uses perceptual and acoustic data reduction methods to obtain information on a speaker's speech, prosody, and voice. The present paper provides reliability estimates for…

  10. Individual differneces in degraded speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Kathy M.

    One of the lasting concerns in audiology is the unexplained individual differences in speech perception performance even for individuals with similar audiograms. One proposal is that there are cognitive/perceptual individual differences underlying this vulnerability and that these differences are present in normal hearing (NH) individuals but do not reveal themselves in studies that use clear speech produced in quiet (because of a ceiling effect). However, previous studies have failed to uncover cognitive/perceptual variables that explain much of the variance in NH performance on more challenging degraded speech tasks. This lack of strong correlations may be due to either examining the wrong measures (e.g., working memory capacity) or to there being no reliable differences in degraded speech performance in NH listeners (i.e., variability in performance is due to measurement noise). The proposed project has 3 aims; the first, is to establish whether there are reliable individual differences in degraded speech performance for NH listeners that are sustained both across degradation types (speech in noise, compressed speech, noise-vocoded speech) and across multiple testing sessions. The second aim is to establish whether there are reliable differences in NH listeners' ability to adapt their phonetic categories based on short-term statistics both across tasks and across sessions; and finally, to determine whether performance on degraded speech perception tasks are correlated with performance on phonetic adaptability tasks, thus establishing a possible explanatory variable for individual differences in speech perception for NH and hearing impaired listeners.

  11. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  12. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  13. 78 FR 49693 - Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...-Speech Services for Individuals with Hearing and Speech Disabilities, Report and Order (Order), document...] Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities...

  14. Correlational Analysis of Speech Intelligibility Tests and Metrics for Speech Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-04

    sounds, are more prone to masking than the high-energy, wide-spectrum vowels. Such contaminated speech is still audible but not clear. Thus, speech...Science; 2012 June 12–14; Kuala Lumpur ( Malaysia ): New York (NY): IEEE; c2012. p. 676–682. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 47...ARRABITO 1 UNIV OF COLORADO (PDF) K AREHART 1 NASA (PDF) J ALLEN 1 FOOD AND DRUG ADM-DEPT (PDF) OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

  15. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  16. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  17. OLIVE: Speech-Based Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Gauvain, Jean-Luc; den Hartog, Jurgen; den Hartog, Jeremy; Netter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Olive project which aims to support automated indexing of video material by use of human language technologies. Olive is making use of speech recognition to automatically derive transcriptions of the sound tracks, generating time-coded linguistic elements which serve as the

  18. Adaptive RD Optimized Hybrid Sound Coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, N.H. van; Bensa, J.; Christensen, M.G.; Colomes, C.; Edler, B.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, S.H.; Kleijn, W.B.; Kot, V.; Kövesi, B.; Lindblom, J.; Massaloux, D.; Niamut, O.A.; Nordén, F.; Plasberg, J.H.; Vafin, R.; Virette, D.; Wübbolt, O.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, sound codecs have been developed with a particular application in mind, their performance being optimized for specific types of input signals, such as speech or audio (music), and application constraints, such as low bit rate, high quality, or low delay. There is, however, an

  19. From Gesture to Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Gentilucci

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems concerning the evolution of human language is to understand how sounds became associated to meaningful gestures. It has been proposed that the circuit controlling gestures and speech evolved from a circuit involved in the control of arm and mouth movements related to ingestion. This circuit contributed to the evolution of spoken language, moving from a system of communication based on arm gestures. The discovery of the mirror neurons has provided strong support for the gestural theory of speech origin because they offer a natural substrate for the embodiment of language and create a direct link between sender and receiver of a message. Behavioural studies indicate that manual gestures are linked to mouth movements used for syllable emission. Grasping with the hand selectively affected movement of inner or outer parts of the mouth according to syllable pronunciation and hand postures, in addition to hand actions, influenced the control of mouth grasp and vocalization. Gestures and words are also related to each other. It was found that when producing communicative gestures (emblems the intention to interact directly with a conspecific was transferred from gestures to words, inducing modification in voice parameters. Transfer effects of the meaning of representational gestures were found on both vocalizations and meaningful words. It has been concluded that the results of our studies suggest the existence of a system relating gesture to vocalization which was precursor of a more general system reciprocally relating gesture to word.

  20. Phoneme Compression: processing of the speech signal and effects on speech intelligibility in hearing-Impaired listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Goedegebure (Andre)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractHearing-aid users often continue to have problems with poor speech understanding in difficult acoustical conditions. Another generally accounted problem is that certain sounds become too loud whereas other sounds are still not audible. Dynamic range compression is a signal processing

  1. The role of reverberation-related binaural cues in the externalization of speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The perception of externalization of speech sounds was investigated with respect to the monaural and binaural cues available at the listeners’ ears in a reverberant environment. Individualized binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were used to simulate externalized sound sources via headphones....... The measured BRIRs were subsequently modified such that the proportion of the response containing binaural vs monaural information was varied. Normal-hearing listeners were presented with speech sounds convolved with such modified BRIRs. Monaural reverberation cues were found to be sufficient...

  2. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  3. The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro

    2014-09-19

    Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and meaning. We review evidence that, contrary to the traditional view in linguistics, sound symbolism is an important design feature of language, which affects online processing of language, and most importantly, language acquisition. We propose the sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis, claiming that (i) pre-verbal infants are sensitive to sound symbolism, due to a biologically endowed ability to map and integrate multi-modal input, (ii) sound symbolism helps infants gain referential insight for speech sounds, (iii) sound symbolism helps infants and toddlers associate speech sounds with their referents to establish a lexical representation and (iv) sound symbolism helps toddlers learn words by allowing them to focus on referents embedded in a complex scene, alleviating Quine's problem. We further explore the possibility that sound symbolism is deeply related to language evolution, drawing the parallel between historical development of language across generations and ontogenetic development within individuals. Finally, we suggest that sound symbolism bootstrapping is a part of a more general phenomenon of bootstrapping by means of iconic representations, drawing on similarities and close behavioural links between sound symbolism and speech-accompanying iconic gesture. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  5. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  6. Speech Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-31

    629. Mattis, S., French, J. H., & Rapin, I. Dyslexia in children and young adults: Three independent neuropsychological syndromes. Developmental...Knights & D. K. Bakker (Eds.), Neuropsychology ofA learning disorders: Theoretical approaches. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1976. Shankweiler...sounds connected with comfort, discomfort, and hunger . When babbling appears, it is mixed in with cooing but distinguished by its syllable-like

  7. Predicting Prosody from Text for Text-to-Speech Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2012-01-01

    Predicting Prosody from Text for Text-to-Speech Synthesis covers the specific aspects of prosody, mainly focusing on how to predict the prosodic information from linguistic text, and then how to exploit the predicted prosodic knowledge for various speech applications. Author K. Sreenivasa Rao discusses proposed methods along with state-of-the-art techniques for the acquisition and incorporation of prosodic knowledge for developing speech systems. Positional, contextual and phonological features are proposed for representing the linguistic and production constraints of the sound units present in the text. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers working in the area of speech processing.

  8. Speech disorders - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder; Voice disorders; Vocal disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder; Speech disorder - stuttering ... evaluation tools that can help identify and diagnose speech disorders: Denver Articulation Screening Examination Goldman-Fristoe Test of ...

  9. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  10. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  11. Emotionally conditioning the target-speech voice enhances recognition of the target speech under "cocktail-party" listening conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingxi; Bao, Xiaohan; Chen, Jing; Qu, Tianshu; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Under a noisy "cocktail-party" listening condition with multiple people talking, listeners can use various perceptual/cognitive unmasking cues to improve recognition of the target speech against informational speech-on-speech masking. One potential unmasking cue is the emotion expressed in a speech voice, by means of certain acoustical features. However, it was unclear whether emotionally conditioning a target-speech voice that has none of the typical acoustical features of emotions (i.e., an emotionally neutral voice) can be used by listeners for enhancing target-speech recognition under speech-on-speech masking conditions. In this study we examined the recognition of target speech against a two-talker speech masker both before and after the emotionally neutral target voice was paired with a loud female screaming sound that has a marked negative emotional valence. The results showed that recognition of the target speech (especially the first keyword in a target sentence) was significantly improved by emotionally conditioning the target speaker's voice. Moreover, the emotional unmasking effect was independent of the unmasking effect of the perceived spatial separation between the target speech and the masker. Also, (skin conductance) electrodermal responses became stronger after emotional learning when the target speech and masker were perceptually co-located, suggesting an increase of listening efforts when the target speech was informationally masked. These results indicate that emotionally conditioning the target speaker's voice does not change the acoustical parameters of the target-speech stimuli, but the emotionally conditioned vocal features can be used as cues for unmasking target speech.

  12. Validating a perceptual distraction model in a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user’s perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference, e.g., two competing audio sources within the same listening space. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music-on-music stimuli...... using a simple loudspeaker setup, consisting of only two loudspeakers, one for the target sound source and the other for the interfering sound source. Recently, the model was successfully validated in a complex personal sound-zone system with speech-on-music stimuli. Second round of validations were...... conducted by physically altering the sound-zone system and running a set of new listening experiments utilizing two sound zones within the sound-zone system. Thus, validating the model using a different sound-zone system with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli sets. Preliminary results show...

  13. Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    The VDE system developed had the capability of recognizing up to 248 separate words in syntactic structures. 4 The two systems described are isolated...AND SPEAKER RECOGNITION by M.J.Hunt 5 ASSESSMENT OF SPEECH SYSTEMS ’ ..- * . by R.K.Moore 6 A SURVEY OF CURRENT EQUIPMENT AND RESEARCH’ by J.S.Bridle...TECHNOLOGY IN NAVY TRAINING SYSTEMS by R.Breaux, M.Blind and R.Lynchard 10 9 I-I GENERAL REVIEW OF MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF VOICE PROCESSING DR. BRUNO

  14. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  15. The Functional Connectome of Speech Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Fuertinger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, several studies have been directed to understanding the complexity of functional interactions between different brain regions during various human behaviors. Among these, neuroimaging research installed the notion that speech and language require an orchestration of brain regions for comprehension, planning, and integration of a heard sound with a spoken word. However, these studies have been largely limited to mapping the neural correlates of separate speech elements and examining distinct cortical or subcortical circuits involved in different aspects of speech control. As a result, the complexity of the brain network machinery controlling speech and language remained largely unknown. Using graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI (fMRI data in healthy subjects, we quantified the large-scale speech network topology by constructing functional brain networks of increasing hierarchy from the resting state to motor output of meaningless syllables to complex production of real-life speech as well as compared to non-speech-related sequential finger tapping and pure tone discrimination networks. We identified a segregated network of highly connected local neural communities (hubs in the primary sensorimotor and parietal regions, which formed a commonly shared core hub network across the examined conditions, with the left area 4p playing an important role in speech network organization. These sensorimotor core hubs exhibited features of flexible hubs based on their participation in several functional domains across different networks and ability to adaptively switch long-range functional connectivity depending on task content, resulting in a distinct community structure of each examined network. Specifically, compared to other tasks, speech production was characterized by the formation of six distinct neural communities with specialized recruitment of the prefrontal cortex, insula, putamen, and thalamus, which collectively

  16. Temporal modulations in speech and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nai; Patel, Aniruddh D; Chen, Lin; Butler, Henry; Luo, Cheng; Poeppel, David

    2017-10-01

    Speech and music have structured rhythms. Here we discuss a major acoustic correlate of spoken and musical rhythms, the slow (0.25-32Hz) temporal modulations in sound intensity and compare the modulation properties of speech and music. We analyze these modulations using over 25h of speech and over 39h of recordings of Western music. We show that the speech modulation spectrum is highly consistent across 9 languages (including languages with typologically different rhythmic characteristics). A different, but similarly consistent modulation spectrum is observed for music, including classical music played by single instruments of different types, symphonic, jazz, and rock. The temporal modulations of speech and music show broad but well-separated peaks around 5 and 2Hz, respectively. These acoustically dominant time scales may be intrinsic features of speech and music, a possibility which should be investigated using more culturally diverse samples in each domain. Distinct modulation timescales for speech and music could facilitate their perceptual analysis and its neural processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Musical background not associated with self-perceived hearing performance or speech perception in postlingual cochlear-implant users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Christina; Free, Rolien; Maat, Bert; Baskent, Deniz

    In normal-hearing listeners, musical background has been observed to change the sound representation in the auditory system and produce enhanced performance in some speech perception tests. Based on these observations, it has been hypothesized that musical background can influence sound and speech

  18. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  19. Plasticity in the Human Speech Motor System Drives Changes in Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lametti, Daniel R.; Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Neufeld, Emily; Shiller, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of human speech motor learning suggest that learning is accompanied by changes in auditory perception. But what drives the perceptual change? Is it a consequence of changes in the motor system? Or is it a result of sensory inflow during learning? Here, subjects participated in a speech motor-learning task involving adaptation to altered auditory feedback and they were subsequently tested for perceptual change. In two separate experiments, involving two different auditory perceptual continua, we show that changes in the speech motor system that accompany learning drive changes in auditory speech perception. Specifically, we obtained changes in speech perception when adaptation to altered auditory feedback led to speech production that fell into the phonetic range of the speech perceptual tests. However, a similar change in perception was not observed when the auditory feedback that subjects' received during learning fell into the phonetic range of the perceptual tests. This indicates that the central motor outflow associated with vocal sensorimotor adaptation drives changes to the perceptual classification of speech sounds. PMID:25080594

  20. [Evolution of speech and hearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkäranta, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Actual spoken language of man developed only approximately 200,000 to 100,000 years ago. As a result of natural selection, man has developed hearing, which is most sensitive in the frequency regions of 200 to 4000 Hz, corresponding to those of spoken sounds. Functional hearing has been one of the prerequisites for the development of speech, although according to current opinion the language itself may have evolved by mimicking gestures with the so-called mirror neurons. Due to hearing, gesticulation was no longer necessary, and the hands became available for other purposes.

  1. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  2. Rate and rhythm control strategies for apraxia of speech in nonfluent primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beber, Bárbara Costa; Berbert, Monalise Costa Batista; Grawer, Ruth Siqueira; Cardoso, Maria Cristina de Almeida Freitas

    2018-01-01

    The nonfluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia is characterized by apraxia of speech and agrammatism. Apraxia of speech limits patients' communication due to slow speaking rate, sound substitutions, articulatory groping, false starts and restarts, segmentation of syllables, and increased difficulty with increasing utterance length. Speech and language therapy is known to benefit individuals with apraxia of speech due to stroke, but little is known about its effects in primary progressive aphasia. This is a case report of a 72-year-old, illiterate housewife, who was diagnosed with nonfluent primary progressive aphasia and received speech and language therapy for apraxia of speech. Rate and rhythm control strategies for apraxia of speech were trained to improve initiation of speech. We discuss the importance of these strategies to alleviate apraxia of speech in this condition and the future perspectives in the area.

  3. Rate and rhythm control strategies for apraxia of speech in nonfluent primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Costa Beber

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The nonfluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia is characterized by apraxia of speech and agrammatism. Apraxia of speech limits patients' communication due to slow speaking rate, sound substitutions, articulatory groping, false starts and restarts, segmentation of syllables, and increased difficulty with increasing utterance length. Speech and language therapy is known to benefit individuals with apraxia of speech due to stroke, but little is known about its effects in primary progressive aphasia. This is a case report of a 72-year-old, illiterate housewife, who was diagnosed with nonfluent primary progressive aphasia and received speech and language therapy for apraxia of speech. Rate and rhythm control strategies for apraxia of speech were trained to improve initiation of speech. We discuss the importance of these strategies to alleviate apraxia of speech in this condition and the future perspectives in the area.

  4. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S; Miller-Klein, Erik T

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s' standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  5. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S Pope

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient′s bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s′ standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013 with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  6. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S.; Miller-Klein, Erik T.

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s’ standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered. PMID:26780959

  7. An analysis of machine translation and speech synthesis in speech-to-speech translation system

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, K.; Yamagishi, J.; Byrne, W.; King, S.; Tokuda, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the impacts of machine translation and speech synthesis on speech-to-speech translation systems. The speech-to-speech translation system consists of three components: speech recognition, machine translation and speech synthesis. Many techniques for integration of speech recognition and machine translation have been proposed. However, speech synthesis has not yet been considered. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on machine translation and speech synthesis, ...

  8. Aberrant connectivity of areas for decoding degraded speech in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clos, Mareike; Diederen, Kelly M J; Meijering, Anne Lotte; Sommer, Iris E; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-03-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a hallmark of psychotic experience. Various mechanisms including misattribution of inner speech and imbalance between bottom-up and top-down factors in auditory perception potentially due to aberrant connectivity between frontal and temporo-parietal areas have been suggested to underlie AVH. Experimental evidence for disturbed connectivity of networks sustaining auditory-verbal processing is, however, sparse. We compared functional resting-state connectivity in 49 psychotic patients with frequent AVH and 49 matched controls. The analysis was seeded from the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), thalamus, angular gyrus (AG) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) as these regions are implicated in extracting meaning from impoverished speech-like sounds. Aberrant connectivity was found for all seeds. Decreased connectivity was observed between the left MTG and its right homotope, between the left AG and the surrounding inferior parietal cortex (IPC) and the left inferior temporal gyrus, between the left thalamus and the right cerebellum, as well as between the left IFG and left IPC, and dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC). Increased connectivity was observed between the left IFG and the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the left insula and between the left thalamus and the left fusiform gyrus/hippocampus. The predisposition to experience AVH might result from decoupling between the speech production system (IFG, insula and SMA) and the self-monitoring system (DLPFC, VLPFC, IPC) leading to misattribution of inner speech. Furthermore, decreased connectivity between nodes involved in speech processing (AG, MTG) and other regions implicated in auditory processing might reflect aberrant top-down influences in AVH.

  9. Hemispheric asymmetries in speech perception: sense, nonsense and modulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Rosen

    Full Text Available The well-established left hemisphere specialisation for language processing has long been claimed to be based on a low-level auditory specialization for specific acoustic features in speech, particularly regarding 'rapid temporal processing'.A novel analysis/synthesis technique was used to construct a variety of sounds based on simple sentences which could be manipulated in spectro-temporal complexity, and whether they were intelligible or not. All sounds consisted of two noise-excited spectral prominences (based on the lower two formants in the original speech which could be static or varying in frequency and/or amplitude independently. Dynamically varying both acoustic features based on the same sentence led to intelligible speech but when either or both acoustic features were static, the stimuli were not intelligible. Using the frequency dynamics from one sentence with the amplitude dynamics of another led to unintelligible sounds of comparable spectro-temporal complexity to the intelligible ones. Positron emission tomography (PET was used to compare which brain regions were active when participants listened to the different sounds.Neural activity to spectral and amplitude modulations sufficient to support speech intelligibility (without actually being intelligible was seen bilaterally, with a right temporal lobe dominance. A left dominant response was seen only to intelligible sounds. It thus appears that the left hemisphere specialisation for speech is based on the linguistic properties of utterances, not on particular acoustic features.

  10. Speech and Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...

  11. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  12. Optimizing acoustical conditions for speech intelligibility in classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wonyoung

    High speech intelligibility is imperative in classrooms where verbal communication is critical. However, the optimal acoustical conditions to achieve a high degree of speech intelligibility have previously been investigated with inconsistent results, and practical room-acoustical solutions to optimize the acoustical conditions for speech intelligibility have not been developed. This experimental study validated auralization for speech-intelligibility testing, investigated the optimal reverberation for speech intelligibility for both normal and hearing-impaired listeners using more realistic room-acoustical models, and proposed an optimal sound-control design for speech intelligibility based on the findings. The auralization technique was used to perform subjective speech-intelligibility tests. The validation study, comparing auralization results with those of real classroom speech-intelligibility tests, found that if the room to be auralized is not very absorptive or noisy, speech-intelligibility tests using auralization are valid. The speech-intelligibility tests were done in two different auralized sound fields---approximately diffuse and non-diffuse---using the Modified Rhyme Test and both normal and hearing-impaired listeners. A hybrid room-acoustical prediction program was used throughout the work, and it and a 1/8 scale-model classroom were used to evaluate the effects of ceiling barriers and reflectors. For both subject groups, in approximately diffuse sound fields, when the speech source was closer to the listener than the noise source, the optimal reverberation time was zero. When the noise source was closer to the listener than the speech source, the optimal reverberation time was 0.4 s (with another peak at 0.0 s) with relative output power levels of the speech and noise sources SNS = 5 dB, and 0.8 s with SNS = 0 dB. In non-diffuse sound fields, when the noise source was between the speaker and the listener, the optimal reverberation time was 0.6 s with

  13. Internet video telephony allows speech reading by deaf individuals and improves speech perception by cochlear implant users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Mantokoudis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze speech reading through Internet video calls by profoundly hearing-impaired individuals and cochlear implant (CI users. METHODS: Speech reading skills of 14 deaf adults and 21 CI users were assessed using the Hochmair Schulz Moser (HSM sentence test. We presented video simulations using different video resolutions (1280 × 720, 640 × 480, 320 × 240, 160 × 120 px, frame rates (30, 20, 10, 7, 5 frames per second (fps, speech velocities (three different speakers, webcameras (Logitech Pro9000, C600 and C500 and image/sound delays (0-500 ms. All video simulations were presented with and without sound and in two screen sizes. Additionally, scores for live Skype™ video connection and live face-to-face communication were assessed. RESULTS: Higher frame rate (>7 fps, higher camera resolution (>640 × 480 px and shorter picture/sound delay (<100 ms were associated with increased speech perception scores. Scores were strongly dependent on the speaker but were not influenced by physical properties of the camera optics or the full screen mode. There is a significant median gain of +8.5%pts (p = 0.009 in speech perception for all 21 CI-users if visual cues are additionally shown. CI users with poor open set speech perception scores (n = 11 showed the greatest benefit under combined audio-visual presentation (median speech perception +11.8%pts, p = 0.032. CONCLUSION: Webcameras have the potential to improve telecommunication of hearing-impaired individuals.

  14. Early Morphology and Recurring Sound Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    Corpus is a longitudinal corpus of spontaneous Child Speech and Child Directed Speech recorded in the children's homes in interaction with their parents or caretaker and transcribed in CHILDES (MacWhinney 2007 a, b), supplemented by parts of Kim Plunkett's Danish corpus (CHILDES) (Plunkett 1985, 1986...... in creating the typologically characteristic syllable structure of Danish with extreme sound reductions (Rischel 2003, Basbøll 2005) presenting a challenge to the language acquiring child (Bleses & Basbøll 2004). Building upon the Danish CDI-studies as well as on the Odense Twin Corpus and experimental data...

  15. Ultrasound biofeedback treatment for persisting childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Brick, Nickole; Landi, Nicole

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment program that includes ultrasound biofeedback for children with persisting speech sound errors associated with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Six children ages 9-15 years participated in a multiple baseline experiment for 18 treatment sessions during which treatment focused on producing sequences involving lingual sounds. Children were cued to modify their tongue movements using visual feedback from real-time ultrasound images. Probe data were collected before, during, and after treatment to assess word-level accuracy for treated and untreated sound sequences. As participants reached preestablished performance criteria, new sequences were introduced into treatment. All participants met the performance criterion (80% accuracy for 2 consecutive sessions) on at least 2 treated sound sequences. Across the 6 participants, performance criterion was met for 23 of 31 treated sequences in an average of 5 sessions. Some participants showed no improvement in untreated sequences, whereas others showed generalization to untreated sequences that were phonetically similar to the treated sequences. Most gains were maintained 2 months after the end of treatment. The percentage of phonemes correct increased significantly from pretreatment to the 2-month follow-up. A treatment program including ultrasound biofeedback is a viable option for improving speech sound accuracy in children with persisting speech sound errors associated with CAS.

  16. [Modeling developmental aspects of sensorimotor control of speech production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, B J; Birkholz, P; Neuschaefer-Rube, C

    2007-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of the neurophysiology of speech acquisition is important for understanding the developmental aspects of speech perception and production and for understanding developmental disorders of speech perception and production. A computer implemented neural model of sensorimotor control of speech production was developed. The model is capable of demonstrating the neural functions of different cortical areas during speech production in detail. (i) Two sensory and two motor maps or neural representations and the appertaining neural mappings or projections establish the sensorimotor feedback control system. These maps and mappings are already formed and trained during the prelinguistic phase of speech acquisition. (ii) The feedforward sensorimotor control system comprises the lexical map (representations of sounds, syllables, and words of the first language) and the mappings from lexical to sensory and to motor maps. The training of the appertaining mappings form the linguistic phase of speech acquisition. (iii) Three prelinguistic learning phases--i. e. silent mouthing, quasi stationary vocalic articulation, and realisation of articulatory protogestures--can be defined on the basis of our simulation studies using the computational neural model. These learning phases can be associated with temporal phases of prelinguistic speech acquisition obtained from natural data. The neural model illuminates the detailed function of specific cortical areas during speech production. In particular it can be shown that developmental disorders of speech production may result from a delayed or incorrect process within one of the prelinguistic learning phases defined by the neural model.

  17. The Relationship Between Speech, Language, and Phonological Awareness in Preschool-Age Children With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, MaryAnn

    2018-05-03

    A number of intrinsic factors, including expressive speech skills, have been suggested to place children with developmental disabilities at risk for limited development of reading skills. This study examines the relationship between these factors, speech ability, and children's phonological awareness skills. A nonexperimental study design was used to examine the relationship between intrinsic skills of speech, language, print, and letter-sound knowledge to phonological awareness in 42 children with developmental disabilities between the ages of 48 and 69 months. Hierarchical multiple regression was done to determine if speech ability accounted for a unique amount of variance in phonological awareness skill beyond what would be expected by developmental skills inclusive of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. A range of skill in all areas of direct assessment was found. Children with limited speech were found to have emerging skills in print knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness. Speech ability did not predict a significant amount of variance in phonological awareness beyond what would be expected by developmental skills of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. Children with limited speech ability were found to have receptive language and letter-sound knowledge that supported the development of phonological awareness skills. This study provides implications for practitioners and researchers concerning the factors related to early reading development in children with limited speech ability and developmental disabilities.

  18. Varying acoustic-phonemic ambiguity reveals that talker normalization is obligatory in speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Young; Hu, Elly R; Perrachione, Tyler K

    2018-04-01

    The nondeterministic relationship between speech acoustics and abstract phonemic representations imposes a challenge for listeners to maintain perceptual constancy despite the highly variable acoustic realization of speech. Talker normalization facilitates speech processing by reducing the degrees of freedom for mapping between encountered speech and phonemic representations. While this process has been proposed to facilitate the perception of ambiguous speech sounds, it is currently unknown whether talker normalization is affected by the degree of potential ambiguity in acoustic-phonemic mapping. We explored the effects of talker normalization on speech processing in a series of speeded classification paradigms, parametrically manipulating the potential for inconsistent acoustic-phonemic relationships across talkers for both consonants and vowels. Listeners identified words with varying potential acoustic-phonemic ambiguity across talkers (e.g., beet/boat vs. boot/boat) spoken by single or mixed talkers. Auditory categorization of words was always slower when listening to mixed talkers compared to a single talker, even when there was no potential acoustic ambiguity between target sounds. Moreover, the processing cost imposed by mixed talkers was greatest when words had the most potential acoustic-phonemic overlap across talkers. Models of acoustic dissimilarity between target speech sounds did not account for the pattern of results. These results suggest (a) that talker normalization incurs the greatest processing cost when disambiguating highly confusable sounds and (b) that talker normalization appears to be an obligatory component of speech perception, taking place even when the acoustic-phonemic relationships across sounds are unambiguous.

  19. Neurophysiological Evidence That Musical Training Influences the Recruitment of Right Hemispheric Homologues for Speech Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeel Gordon Jantzen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Musicians have a more accurate temporal and tonal representation of auditory stimuli than their non-musician counterparts (Kraus & Chandrasekaran, 2010; Parbery-Clark, Skoe, & Kraus, 2009; Zendel & Alain, 2008; Musacchia, Sams, Skoe, & Kraus, 2007. Musicians who are adept at the production and perception of music are also more sensitive to key acoustic features of speech such as voice onset timing and pitch. Together, these data suggest that musical training may enhance the processing of acoustic information for speech sounds. In the current study, we sought to provide neural evidence that musicians process speech and music in a similar way. We hypothesized that for musicians, right hemisphere areas traditionally associated with music are also engaged for the processing of speech sounds. In contrast we predicted that in non-musicians processing of speech sounds would be localized to traditional left hemisphere language areas. Speech stimuli differing in voice onset time was presented using a dichotic listening paradigm. Subjects either indicated aural location for a specified speech sound or identified a specific speech sound from a directed aural location. Musical training effects and organization of acoustic features were reflected by activity in source generators of the P50. This included greater activation of right middle temporal gyrus (MTG and superior temporal gyrus (STG in musicians. The findings demonstrate recruitment of right hemisphere in musicians for discriminating speech sounds and a putative broadening of their language network. Musicians appear to have an increased sensitivity to acoustic features and enhanced selective attention to temporal features of speech that is facilitated by musical training and supported, in part, by right hemisphere homologues of established speech processing regions of the brain.

  20. The selective role of premotor cortex in speech perception: a contribution to phoneme judgements but not speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Gaskell, M Gareth; Lindsay, Shane; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Several accounts of speech perception propose that the areas involved in producing language are also involved in perceiving it. In line with this view, neuroimaging studies show activation of premotor cortex (PMC) during phoneme judgment tasks; however, there is debate about whether speech perception necessarily involves motor processes, across all task contexts, or whether the contribution of PMC is restricted to tasks requiring explicit phoneme awareness. Some aspects of speech processing, such as mapping sounds onto meaning, may proceed without the involvement of motor speech areas if PMC specifically contributes to the manipulation and categorical perception of phonemes. We applied TMS to three sites-PMC, posterior superior temporal gyrus, and occipital pole-and for the first time within the TMS literature, directly contrasted two speech perception tasks that required explicit phoneme decisions and mapping of speech sounds onto semantic categories, respectively. TMS to PMC disrupted explicit phonological judgments but not access to meaning for the same speech stimuli. TMS to two further sites confirmed that this pattern was site specific and did not reflect a generic difference in the susceptibility of our experimental tasks to TMS: stimulation of pSTG, a site involved in auditory processing, disrupted performance in both language tasks, whereas stimulation of occipital pole had no effect on performance in either task. These findings demonstrate that, although PMC is important for explicit phonological judgments, crucially, PMC is not necessary for mapping speech onto meanings.

  1. Audiovisual Speech Perception in Infancy: The Influence of Vowel Identity and Infants' Productive Abilities on Sensitivity to (Mis)Matches between Auditory and Visual Speech Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Mani, Nivedita; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that infants' audiovisual speech perception is influenced by articulatory experience (Mugitani et al., 2008; Yeung & Werker, 2013). The current study extends these findings by testing if infants' emerging ability to produce native sounds in babbling impacts their audiovisual speech perception. We tested 44 6-month-olds…

  2. Perceptual statistical learning over one week in child speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtsmeier, Peter T; Goffman, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    What cognitive mechanisms account for the trajectory of speech sound development, in particular, gradually increasing accuracy during childhood? An intriguing potential contributor is statistical learning, a type of learning that has been studied frequently in infant perception but less often in child speech production. To assess the relevance of statistical learning to developing speech accuracy, we carried out a statistical learning experiment with four- and five-year-olds in which statistical learning was examined over one week. Children were familiarized with and tested on word-medial consonant sequences in novel words. There was only modest evidence for statistical learning, primarily in the first few productions of the first session. This initial learning effect nevertheless aligns with previous statistical learning research. Furthermore, the overall learning effect was similar to an estimate of weekly accuracy growth based on normative studies. The results implicate other important factors in speech sound development, particularly learning via production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eChristiner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous research on speech imitation, musicality and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Fourty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64 % of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66 % of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi could be explained by working memory together with a singer’s sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and sound memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. 1. Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. 2. Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. 3. The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory short term memory.

  4. The neural basis of sublexical speech and corresponding nonspeech processing: a combined EEG-MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuluvainen, Soila; Nevalainen, Päivi; Sorokin, Alexander; Mittag, Maria; Partanen, Eino; Putkinen, Vesa; Seppänen, Miia; Kähkönen, Seppo; Kujala, Teija

    2014-03-01

    We addressed the neural organization of speech versus nonspeech sound processing by investigating preattentive cortical auditory processing of changes in five features of a consonant-vowel syllable (consonant, vowel, sound duration, frequency, and intensity) and their acoustically matched nonspeech counterparts in a simultaneous EEG-MEG recording of mismatch negativity (MMN/MMNm). Overall, speech-sound processing was enhanced compared to nonspeech sound processing. This effect was strongest for changes which affect word meaning (consonant, vowel, and vowel duration) in the left and for the vowel identity change in the right hemisphere also. Furthermore, in the right hemisphere, speech-sound frequency and intensity changes were processed faster than their nonspeech counterparts, and there was a trend for speech-enhancement in frequency processing. In summary, the results support the proposed existence of long-term memory traces for speech sounds in the auditory cortices, and indicate at least partly distinct neural substrates for speech and nonspeech sound processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parent-child interaction in motor speech therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Jethava, Vibhuti; Pukonen, Margit; Huynh, Anna; Goshulak, Debra; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    This study measures the reliability and sensitivity of a modified Parent-Child Interaction Observation scale (PCIOs) used to monitor the quality of parent-child interaction. The scale is part of a home-training program employed with direct motor speech intervention for children with speech sound disorders. Eighty-four preschool age children with speech sound disorders were provided either high- (2×/week/10 weeks) or low-intensity (1×/week/10 weeks) motor speech intervention. Clinicians completed the PCIOs at the beginning, middle, and end of treatment. Inter-rater reliability (Kappa scores) was determined by an independent speech-language pathologist who assessed videotaped sessions at the midpoint of the treatment block. Intervention sensitivity of the scale was evaluated using a Friedman test for each item and then followed up with Wilcoxon pairwise comparisons where appropriate. We obtained fair-to-good inter-rater reliability (Kappa = 0.33-0.64) for the PCIOs using only video-based scoring. Child-related items were more strongly influenced by differences in treatment intensity than parent-related items, where a greater number of sessions positively influenced parent learning of treatment skills and child behaviors. The adapted PCIOs is reliable and sensitive to monitor the quality of parent-child interactions in a 10-week block of motor speech intervention with adjunct home therapy. Implications for rehabilitation Parent-centered therapy is considered a cost effective method of speech and language service delivery. However, parent-centered models may be difficult to implement for treatments such as developmental motor speech interventions that require a high degree of skill and training. For children with speech sound disorders and motor speech difficulties, a translated and adapted version of the parent-child observation scale was found to be sufficiently reliable and sensitive to assess changes in the quality of the parent-child interactions during

  6. Evaluation of Sound Quality, Boominess and Boxiness in Small Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisser, Adam; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    ratings. The classical bass ratio definitions showed poor correlation with all subjective ratings. The overall sound quality ratings gave different results for speech and music. For speech the preferred mean RT should be as low as possible, whereas for music there was found a preferred range between 0......The acoustics of small rooms has been studied with emphasis on sound quality, boominess and boxiness when the rooms are used for speech or music. Seven rooms with very different characteristics have been used for the study. Subjective listening tests were made using binaural recordings...... of reproduced speech and music. The test results were compared with a large number of objective acoustic parameters based on the frequency-dependent reverberation times measured in the rooms. This has led to the proposal of three new acoustic parameters, which have shown high correlation with the subjective...

  7. Quadcopter Control Using Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, H.; Darma, S.; Soekirno, S.

    2018-04-01

    This research reported a comparison from a success rate of speech recognition systems that used two types of databases they were existing databases and new databases, that were implemented into quadcopter as motion control. Speech recognition system was using Mel frequency cepstral coefficient method (MFCC) as feature extraction that was trained using recursive neural network method (RNN). MFCC method was one of the feature extraction methods that most used for speech recognition. This method has a success rate of 80% - 95%. Existing database was used to measure the success rate of RNN method. The new database was created using Indonesian language and then the success rate was compared with results from an existing database. Sound input from the microphone was processed on a DSP module with MFCC method to get the characteristic values. Then, the characteristic values were trained using the RNN which result was a command. The command became a control input to the single board computer (SBC) which result was the movement of the quadcopter. On SBC, we used robot operating system (ROS) as the kernel (Operating System).

  8. Childhood apraxia of speech and multiple phonological disorders in Cairo-Egyptian Arabic speaking children: language, speech, and oro-motor differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Azza Adel; Shohdi, Sahar; Osman, Dalia Mostafa; Habib, Emad Iskander

    2010-06-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech is a neurological childhood speech-sound disorder in which the precision and consistency of movements underlying speech are impaired in the absence of neuromuscular deficits. Children with childhood apraxia of speech and those with multiple phonological disorder share some common phonological errors that can be misleading in diagnosis. This study posed a question about a possible significant difference in language, speech and non-speech oral performances between children with childhood apraxia of speech, multiple phonological disorder and normal children that can be used for a differential diagnostic purpose. 30 pre-school children between the ages of 4 and 6 years served as participants. Each of these children represented one of 3 possible subject-groups: Group 1: multiple phonological disorder; Group 2: suspected cases of childhood apraxia of speech; Group 3: control group with no communication disorder. Assessment procedures included: parent interviews; testing of non-speech oral motor skills and testing of speech skills. Data showed that children with suspected childhood apraxia of speech showed significantly lower language score only in their expressive abilities. Non-speech tasks did not identify significant differences between childhood apraxia of speech and multiple phonological disorder groups except for those which required two sequential motor performances. In speech tasks, both consonant and vowel accuracy were significantly lower and inconsistent in childhood apraxia of speech group than in the multiple phonological disorder group. Syllable number, shape and sequence accuracy differed significantly in the childhood apraxia of speech group than the other two groups. In addition, children with childhood apraxia of speech showed greater difficulty in processing prosodic features indicating a clear need to address these variables for differential diagnosis and treatment of children with childhood apraxia of speech. Copyright (c

  9. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  10. Prevalence of Speech Disorders in Arak Primary School Students, 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoreza Yavari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The speech disorders may produce irreparable damage to childs speech and language development in the psychosocial view. The voice, speech sound production and fluency disorders are speech disorders, that may result from delay or impairment in speech motor control mechanism, central neuron system disorders, improper language stimulation or voice abuse. Materials and Methods: This study examined the prevalence of speech disorders in 1393 Arakian students at 1 to 6th grades of primary school. After collecting continuous speech samples, picture description, passage reading and phonetic test, we recorded the pathological signs of stuttering, articulation disorder and voice disorders in a special sheet. Results: The prevalence of articulation, voice and stuttering disorders was 8%, 3.5% and%1 and the prevalence of speech disorders was 11.9%. The prevalence of speech disorders was decreasing with increasing of student’s grade. 12.2% of boy students and 11.7% of girl students of primary school in Arak had speech disorders. Conclusion: The prevalence of speech disorders of primary school students in Arak is similar to the prevalence of speech disorders in Kermanshah, but the prevalence of speech disorders in this research is smaller than many similar researches in Iran. It seems that racial and cultural diversity has some effect on increasing the prevalence of speech disorders in Arak city.

  11. Speech intelligibility for normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners in simulated room acoustic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arweiler, Iris; Dau, Torsten; Poulsen, Torben

    Speech intelligibility depends on many factors such as room acoustics, the acoustical properties and location of the signal and the interferers, and the ability of the (normal and impaired) auditory system to process monaural and binaural sounds. In the present study, the effect of reverberation...... on spatial release from masking was investigated in normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners using three types of interferers: speech shaped noise, an interfering female talker and speech-modulated noise. Speech reception thresholds (SRT) were obtained in three simulated environments: a listening room......, a classroom and a church. The data from the study provide constraints for existing models of speech intelligibility prediction (based on the speech intelligibility index, SII, or the speech transmission index, STI) which have shortcomings when reverberation and/or fluctuating noise affect speech...

  12. Mapping Speech Spectra from Throat Microphone to Close-Speaking Microphone: A Neural Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yegnanarayana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech recorded from a throat microphone is robust to the surrounding noise, but sounds unnatural unlike the speech recorded from a close-speaking microphone. This paper addresses the issue of improving the perceptual quality of the throat microphone speech by mapping the speech spectra from the throat microphone to the close-speaking microphone. A neural network model is used to capture the speaker-dependent functional relationship between the feature vectors (cepstral coefficients of the two speech signals. A method is proposed to ensure the stability of the all-pole synthesis filter. Objective evaluations indicate the effectiveness of the proposed mapping scheme. The advantage of this method is that the model gives a smooth estimate of the spectra of the close-speaking microphone speech. No distortions are perceived in the reconstructed speech. This mapping technique is also used for bandwidth extension of telephone speech.

  13. Cross-language and second language speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Ocke-Schwen

    2017-01-01

    in cross-language and second language speech perception research: The mapping issue (the perceptual relationship of sounds of the native and the nonnative language in the mind of the native listener and the L2 learner), the perceptual and learning difficulty/ease issue (how this relationship may or may...... not cause perceptual and learning difficulty), and the plasticity issue (whether and how experience with the nonnative language affects the perceptual organization of speech sounds in the mind of L2 learners). One important general conclusion from this research is that perceptual learning is possible at all...

  14. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  15. Speech and Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to being completely unable to speak or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, ... or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism ...

  16. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  17. The pathways for intelligible speech: multivariate and univariate perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S; Kyong, J S; Rosen, S; Golestani, N; Warren, J E; McGettigan, C; Mourão-Miranda, J; Wise, R J S; Scott, S K

    2014-09-01

    An anterior pathway, concerned with extracting meaning from sound, has been identified in nonhuman primates. An analogous pathway has been suggested in humans, but controversy exists concerning the degree of lateralization and the precise location where responses to intelligible speech emerge. We have demonstrated that the left anterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responds preferentially to intelligible speech (Scott SK, Blank CC, Rosen S, Wise RJS. 2000. Identification of a pathway for intelligible speech in the left temporal lobe. Brain. 123:2400-2406.). A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in Cerebral Cortex used equivalent stimuli and univariate and multivariate analyses to argue for the greater importance of bilateral posterior when compared with the left anterior STS in responding to intelligible speech (Okada K, Rong F, Venezia J, Matchin W, Hsieh IH, Saberi K, Serences JT,Hickok G. 2010. Hierarchical organization of human auditory cortex: evidence from acoustic invariance in the response to intelligible speech. 20: 2486-2495.). Here, we also replicate our original study, demonstrating that the left anterior STS exhibits the strongest univariate response and, in decoding using the bilateral temporal cortex, contains the most informative voxels showing an increased response to intelligible speech. In contrast, in classifications using local "searchlights" and a whole brain analysis, we find greater classification accuracy in posterior rather than anterior temporal regions. Thus, we show that the precise nature of the multivariate analysis used will emphasize different response profiles associated with complex sound to speech processing. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. The Use of Electropalatography in the Treatment of Acquired Apraxia of Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauszycki, Shannon C; Wright, Sandra; Dingus, Nicole; Wambaugh, Julie L

    2016-12-01

    This investigation was designed to examine the effects of an articulatory-kinematic treatment in conjunction with visual biofeedback (VBFB) via electropalatography (EPG) on the accuracy of articulation for acquired apraxia of speech (AOS). A multiple-baseline design across participants and behaviors was used with 4 individuals with chronic AOS and aphasia. Accuracy of target speech sounds in treated and untreated phrases in probe sessions served as the dependent variable. Participants received an articulatory-kinematic treatment in combination with VBFB, which was sequentially applied to 3 stimulus sets composed of 2-word phrases with a target speech sound for each set. Positive changes in articulatory accuracy were observed for participants for the majority of treated speech sounds. Also, there was generalization to untreated phrases for most trained speech sounds. Two participants had better long-term maintenance of treated speech sounds in both trained and untrained stimuli. Findings indicate EPG may be a potential treatment tool for AOS. It appears that individuals with AOS can benefit from VBFB via EPG in improving articulatory accuracy. However, further research is needed to determine if VBFB is more advantageous than behavioral treatments that have been proven effective in improving speech production for speakers with AOS.

  19. Towards parameter-free classification of sound effects in movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Selina; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2005-08-01

    The problem of identifying intense events via multimedia data mining in films is investigated in this work. Movies are mainly characterized by dialog, music, and sound effects. We begin our investigation with detecting interesting events through sound effects. Sound effects are neither speech nor music, but are closely associated with interesting events such as car chases and gun shots. In this work, we utilize low-level audio features including MFCC and energy to identify sound effects. It was shown in previous work that the Hidden Markov model (HMM) works well for speech/audio signals. However, this technique requires a careful choice in designing the model and choosing correct parameters. In this work, we introduce a framework that will avoid such necessity and works well with semi- and non-parametric learning algorithms.

  20. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  1. Free Speech Yearbook 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The 17 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics include: freedom of speech in Marquette Park, Illinois; Nazis in Skokie, Illinois; freedom of expression in the Confederate States of America; Robert M. LaFollette's arguments for free speech and the rights of Congress; the United States…

  2. Do Children Understand the Basic Relationship Between Speech and Writing? The Mow-Motorcycle Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; And Others

    School children (N=218) who have not yet attained moderate reading fluency were tested for their awareness of a fundamental relationship between our writing system and speech: that the sounds of speech are represented in writing. Children were shown a long and short word written on a card (e.g., mow and motorcycle), and asked which word…

  3. Phonetic Category Cues in Adult-Directed Speech: Evidence from Three Languages with Distinct Vowel Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Ferran; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Kajikawa, Sachiyo; Fais, Laurel; Narayan, Chandan R.; Amano, Shigeaki; Werker, Janet F.

    2012-01-01

    Using an artificial language learning manipulation, Maye, Werker, and Gerken (2002) demonstrated that infants' speech sound categories change as a function of the distributional properties of the input. In a recent study, Werker et al. (2007) showed that Infant-directed Speech (IDS) input contains reliable acoustic cues that support distributional…

  4. Error Consistency in Acquired Apraxia of Speech with Aphasia: Effects of the Analysis Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Katarina L.; Cunningham, Kevin T.; Eaton, Catherine Torrington; Jacks, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnostic recommendations for acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) have been contradictory concerning whether speech sound errors are consistent or variable. Studies have reported divergent findings that, on face value, could argue either for or against error consistency as a diagnostic criterion. The purpose of this study was to explain…

  5. Developmental apraxia of speech : deficits in phonetic planning and motor programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Lian

    2003-01-01

    The speech of children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS) is highly unintelligible due to many nonsystematic sound substitutions and distortions. There is ongoing debate about the underlying deficit of the disorder. The ultimate goal of this thesis was to answer this question within the

  6. The influence of spectral characteristics of early reflections on speech intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arweiler, Iris; Buchholz, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    The auditory system takes advantage of early reflections (ERs) in a room by integrating them with the direct sound (DS) and thereby increasing the effective speech level. In the present paper the benefit from realistic ERs on speech intelligibility in diffuse speech-shaped noise was investigated...... ascribed to their altered spectrum compared to the DS and to the filtering by the torso, head, and pinna. No binaural processing other than a binaural summation effect could be observed....

  7. Reducing the Effects of Background Noise during Auditory Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Speech Processing: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparisons between Two Image Acquisition Schemes and Noise Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Graham A.; Hall, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The intense sound generated during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) complicates studies of speech and hearing. This experiment evaluated the benefits of using active noise cancellation (ANC), which attenuates the level of the scanner sound at the participant's ear by up to 35 dB around the peak at 600 Hz. Method: Speech and…

  8. Hearing aid processing of loud speech and noise signals: Consequences for loudness perception and listening comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik

    2007-01-01

    sounds, has found that both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners prefer loud sounds to be closer to the most comfortable loudness-level, than suggested by common non-linear fitting rules. During this project, two listening experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, hearing aid users......Hearing aid processing of loud speech and noise signals: Consequences for loudness perception and listening comfort. Sound processing in hearing aids is determined by the fitting rule. The fitting rule describes how the hearing aid should amplify speech and sounds in the surroundings......, such that they become audible again for the hearing impaired person. The general goal is to place all sounds within the hearing aid users’ audible range, such that speech intelligibility and listening comfort become as good as possible. Amplification strategies in hearing aids are in many cases based on empirical...

  9. Dog-directed speech: why do we use it and do dogs pay attention to it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Aderet, Tobey; Gallego-Abenza, Mario; Reby, David; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2017-01-11

    Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. We found that human speakers used dog-directed speech with dogs of all ages and that the acoustic structure of dog-directed speech was mostly independent of dog age, except for sound pitch which was relatively higher when communicating with puppies. Playback demonstrated that, in the absence of other non-auditory cues, puppies were highly reactive to dog-directed speech, and that the pitch was a key factor modulating their behaviour, suggesting that this specific speech register has a functional value in young dogs. Conversely, older dogs did not react differentially to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. The fact that speakers continue to use dog-directed with older dogs therefore suggests that this speech pattern may mainly be a spontaneous attempt to facilitate interactions with non-verbal listeners. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Sound stream segregation: a neuromorphic approach to solve the "cocktail party problem" in real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Chetan Singh; Wang, Runchun M; Afshar, Saeed; Hamilton, Tara J; Tapson, Jonathan C; Shamma, Shihab A; van Schaik, André

    2015-01-01

    The human auditory system has the ability to segregate complex auditory scenes into a foreground component and a background, allowing us to listen to specific speech sounds from a mixture of sounds. Selective attention plays a crucial role in this process, colloquially known as the "cocktail party effect." It has not been possible to build a machine that can emulate this human ability in real-time. Here, we have developed a framework for the implementation of a neuromorphic sound segregation algorithm in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This algorithm is based on the principles of temporal coherence and uses an attention signal to separate a target sound stream from background noise. Temporal coherence implies that auditory features belonging to the same sound source are coherently modulated and evoke highly correlated neural response patterns. The basis for this form of sound segregation is that responses from pairs of channels that are strongly positively correlated belong to the same stream, while channels that are uncorrelated or anti-correlated belong to different streams. In our framework, we have used a neuromorphic cochlea as a frontend sound analyser to extract spatial information of the sound input, which then passes through band pass filters that extract the sound envelope at various modulation rates. Further stages include feature extraction and mask generation, which is finally used to reconstruct the targeted sound. Using sample tonal and speech mixtures, we show that our FPGA architecture is able to segregate sound sources in real-time. The accuracy of segregation is indicated by the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the segregated stream (90, 77, and 55 dB for simple tone, complex tone, and speech, respectively) as compared to the SNR of the mixture waveform (0 dB). This system may be easily extended for the segregation of complex speech signals, and may thus find various applications in electronic devices such as for sound segregation and

  11. Musical expertise and foreign speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Montes, Eduardo; Hernández-Pérez, Heivet; Chobert, Julie; Morgado-Rodríguez, Lisbet; Suárez-Murias, Carlos; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A; Besson, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the influence of musical expertise on the automatic perception of foreign syllables and harmonic sounds. Participants were Cuban students with high level of expertise in music or in visual arts and with the same level of general education and socio-economic background. We used a multi-feature Mismatch Negativity (MMN) design with sequences of either syllables in Mandarin Chinese or harmonic sounds, both comprising deviants in pitch contour, duration and Voice Onset Time (VOT) or equivalent that were either far from (Large deviants) or close to (Small deviants) the standard. For both Mandarin syllables and harmonic sounds, results were clear-cut in showing larger MMNs to pitch contour deviants in musicians than in visual artists. Results were less clear for duration and VOT deviants, possibly because of the specific characteristics of the stimuli. Results are interpreted as reflecting similar processing of pitch contour in speech and non-speech sounds. The implications of these results for understanding the influence of intense musical training from childhood to adulthood and of genetic predispositions for music on foreign language perception are discussed.

  12. Musical expertise and foreign speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eMartínez-Montes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to investigate the influence of musical expertise on the automatic perception of foreign syllables and harmonic sounds. Participants were Cuban students with high level of expertise in music or in visual arts and with the same level of general education and socio-economic background. We used a multi-feature Mismatch Negativity (MMN design with sequences of either syllables in Mandarin Chinese or harmonic sounds, both comprising deviants in pitch contour, duration and Voice Onset Time (VOT or equivalent that were either far from (Large deviants or close to (Small deviants the standard. For both Mandarin syllables and harmonic sounds, results were clear-cut in showing larger MMNs to pitch contour deviants in musicians than in visual artists. Results were less clear for duration and VOT deviants, possibly because of the specific characteristics of the stimuli. Results are interpreted as reflecting similar processing of pitch contour in speech and non-speech sounds. The implications of these results for understanding the influence of intense musical training from childhood to adulthood and of genetic predispositions for music on foreign language perception is discussed.

  13. Multichannel sound reinforcement systems at work in a learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, John; Campbell, Colin

    2003-04-01

    Many people have experienced the entertaining benefits of a surround sound system, either in their own home or in a movie theater, but another application exists for multichannel sound that has for the most part gone unused. This is the application of multichannel sound systems to the learning environment. By incorporating a 7.1 surround processor and a touch panel interface programmable control system, the main lecture hall at the University of Michigan Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning has been converted from an ordinary lecture hall to a working audiovisual laboratory. The multichannel sound system is used in a wide variety of experiments, including exposure to sounds to test listeners' aural perception of the tonal characteristics of varying pitch, reverberation, speech transmission index, and sound-pressure level. The touch panel's custom interface allows a variety of user groups to control different parts of the AV system and provides preset capability that allows for numerous system configurations.

  14. Assessment and improvement of sound quality in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Meredith T; Jiam, Nicole T; Limb, Charles J

    2017-06-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) have successfully provided speech perception to individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. Recent research has focused on more challenging acoustic stimuli such as music and voice emotion. The purpose of this review is to evaluate and describe sound quality in CI users with the purposes of summarizing novel findings and crucial information about how CI users experience complex sounds. Here we review the existing literature on PubMed and Scopus to present what is known about perceptual sound quality in CI users, discuss existing measures of sound quality, explore how sound quality may be effectively studied, and examine potential strategies of improving sound quality in the CI population. Sound quality, defined here as the perceived richness of an auditory stimulus, is an attribute of implant-mediated listening that remains poorly studied. Sound quality is distinct from appraisal, which is generally defined as the subjective likability or pleasantness of a sound. Existing studies suggest that sound quality perception in the CI population is limited by a range of factors, most notably pitch distortion and dynamic range compression. Although there are currently very few objective measures of sound quality, the CI-MUSHRA has been used as a means of evaluating sound quality. There exist a number of promising strategies to improve sound quality perception in the CI population including apical cochlear stimulation, pitch tuning, and noise reduction processing strategies. In the published literature, sound quality perception is severely limited among CI users. Future research should focus on developing systematic, objective, and quantitative sound quality metrics and designing therapies to mitigate poor sound quality perception in CI users. NA.

  15. Speech and non-speech processing in children with phonological disorders: an electrophysiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Crivellaro Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neurophysiological auditory brainstem responses to clicks and repeated speech stimuli differ between typically developing children and children with phonological disorders. INTRODUCTION: Phonological disorders are language impairments resulting from inadequate use of adult phonological language rules and are among the most common speech and language disorders in children (prevalence: 8 - 9%. Our hypothesis is that children with phonological disorders have basic differences in the way that their brains encode acoustic signals at brainstem level when compared to normal counterparts. METHODS: We recorded click and speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in 18 typically developing children (control group and in 18 children who were clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (research group. The age range of the children was from 7-11 years. RESULTS: The research group exhibited significantly longer latency responses to click stimuli (waves I, III and V and speech stimuli (waves V and A when compared to the control group. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that the abnormal encoding of speech sounds may be a biological marker of phonological disorders. However, these results cannot define the biological origins of phonological problems. We also observed that speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses had a higher specificity/sensitivity for identifying phonological disorders than click-evoked auditory brainstem responses. CONCLUSIONS: Early stages of the auditory pathway processing of an acoustic stimulus are not similar in typically developing children and those with phonological disorders. These findings suggest that there are brainstem auditory pathway abnormalities in children with phonological disorders.

  16. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  17. Speech in spinocerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalling, Ellika; Hartelius, Lena

    2013-12-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias clinically characterized by progressive ataxia, dysarthria and a range of other concomitant neurological symptoms. Only a few studies include detailed characterization of speech symptoms in SCA. Speech symptoms in SCA resemble ataxic dysarthria but symptoms related to phonation may be more prominent. One study to date has shown an association between differences in speech and voice symptoms related to genotype. More studies of speech and voice phenotypes are motivated, to possibly aid in clinical diagnosis. In addition, instrumental speech analysis has been demonstrated to be a reliable measure that may be used to monitor disease progression or therapy outcomes in possible future pharmacological treatments. Intervention by speech and language pathologists should go beyond assessment. Clinical guidelines for management of speech, communication and swallowing need to be developed for individuals with progressive cerebellar ataxia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Automatic analysis of slips of the tongue: Insights into the cognitive architecture of speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick, Matthew; Keshet, Joseph; Gustafson, Erin; Heller, Jordana; Needle, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Traces of the cognitive mechanisms underlying speaking can be found within subtle variations in how we pronounce sounds. While speech errors have traditionally been seen as categorical substitutions of one sound for another, acoustic/articulatory analyses show they partially reflect the intended sound. When "pig" is mispronounced as "big," the resulting /b/ sound differs from correct productions of "big," moving towards intended "pig"-revealing the role of graded sound representations in speech production. Investigating the origins of such phenomena requires detailed estimation of speech sound distributions; this has been hampered by reliance on subjective, labor-intensive manual annotation. Computational methods can address these issues by providing for objective, automatic measurements. We develop a novel high-precision computational approach, based on a set of machine learning algorithms, for measurement of elicited speech. The algorithms are trained on existing manually labeled data to detect and locate linguistically relevant acoustic properties with high accuracy. Our approach is robust, is designed to handle mis-productions, and overall matches the performance of expert coders. It allows us to analyze a very large dataset of speech errors (containing far more errors than the total in the existing literature), illuminating properties of speech sound distributions previously impossible to reliably observe. We argue that this provides novel evidence that two sources both contribute to deviations in speech errors: planning processes specifying the targets of articulation and articulatory processes specifying the motor movements that execute this plan. These findings illustrate how a much richer picture of speech provides an opportunity to gain novel insights into language processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Can you hear me now? Musical training shapes functional brain networks for selective auditory attention and hearing speech in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L Strait

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Even in the quietest of rooms, our senses are perpetually inundated by a barrage of sounds, requiring the auditory system to adapt to a variety of listening conditions in order to extract signals of interest (e.g., one speaker’s voice amidst others. Brain networks that promote selective attention are thought to sharpen the neural encoding of a target signal, suppressing competing sounds and enhancing perceptual performance. Here, we ask: does musical training benefit cortical mechanisms that underlie selective attention to speech? To answer this question, we assessed the impact of selective auditory attention on cortical auditory-evoked response variability in musicians and nonmusicians. Outcomes indicate strengthened brain networks for selective auditory attention in musicians in that musicians but not nonmusicians demonstrate decreased prefrontal response variability with auditory attention. Results are interpreted in the context of previous work from our laboratory documenting perceptual and subcortical advantages in musicians for the hearing and neural encoding of speech in background noise. Musicians’ neural proficiency for selectively engaging and sustaining auditory attention to language indicates a potential benefit of music for auditory training. Given the importance of auditory attention for the development of language-related skills, musical training may aid in the prevention, habilitation and remediation of children with a wide range of attention-based language and learning impairments.

  20. Digital speech processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2014-01-01

    Digital Speech Processing Using Matlab deals with digital speech pattern recognition, speech production model, speech feature extraction, and speech compression. The book is written in a manner that is suitable for beginners pursuing basic research in digital speech processing. Matlab illustrations are provided for most topics to enable better understanding of concepts. This book also deals with the basic pattern recognition techniques (illustrated with speech signals using Matlab) such as PCA, LDA, ICA, SVM, HMM, GMM, BPN, and KSOM.

  1. Metrics for Polyphonic Sound Event Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Mesaros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses various metrics proposed for evaluation of polyphonic sound event detection systems used in realistic situations where there are typically multiple sound sources active simultaneously. The system output in this case contains overlapping events, marked as multiple sounds detected as being active at the same time. The polyphonic system output requires a suitable procedure for evaluation against a reference. Metrics from neighboring fields such as speech recognition and speaker diarization can be used, but they need to be partially redefined to deal with the overlapping events. We present a review of the most common metrics in the field and the way they are adapted and interpreted in the polyphonic case. We discuss segment-based and event-based definitions of each metric and explain the consequences of instance-based and class-based averaging using a case study. In parallel, we provide a toolbox containing implementations of presented metrics.

  2. Learning-induced neural plasticity of speech processing before birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Eino; Kujala, Teija; Näätänen, Risto; Liitola, Auli; Sambeth, Anke; Huotilainen, Minna

    2013-09-10

    Learning, the foundation of adaptive and intelligent behavior, is based on plastic changes in neural assemblies, reflected by the modulation of electric brain responses. In infancy, auditory learning implicates the formation and strengthening of neural long-term memory traces, improving discrimination skills, in particular those forming the prerequisites for speech perception and understanding. Although previous behavioral observations show that newborns react differentially to unfamiliar sounds vs. familiar sound material that they were exposed to as fetuses, the neural basis of fetal learning has not thus far been investigated. Here we demonstrate direct neural correlates of human fetal learning of speech-like auditory stimuli. We presented variants of words to fetuses; unlike infants with no exposure to these stimuli, the exposed fetuses showed enhanced brain activity (mismatch responses) in response to pitch changes for the trained variants after birth. Furthermore, a significant correlation existed between the amount of prenatal exposure and brain activity, with greater activity being associated with a higher amount of prenatal speech exposure. Moreover, the learning effect was generalized to other types of similar speech sounds not included in the training material. Consequently, our results indicate neural commitment specifically tuned to the speech features heard before birth and their memory representations.

  3. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  4. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  5. Infants' preference for native audiovisual speech dissociated from congruency preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Shaw

    Full Text Available Although infant speech perception in often studied in isolated modalities, infants' experience with speech is largely multimodal (i.e., speech sounds they hear are accompanied by articulating faces. Across two experiments, we tested infants' sensitivity to the relationship between the auditory and visual components of audiovisual speech in their native (English and non-native (Spanish language. In Experiment 1, infants' looking times were measured during a preferential looking task in which they saw two simultaneous visual speech streams articulating a story, one in English and the other in Spanish, while they heard either the English or the Spanish version of the story. In Experiment 2, looking times from another group of infants were measured as they watched single displays of congruent and incongruent combinations of English and Spanish audio and visual speech streams. Findings demonstrated an age-related increase in looking towards the native relative to non-native visual speech stream when accompanied by the corresponding (native auditory speech. This increase in native language preference did not appear to be driven by a difference in preference for native vs. non-native audiovisual congruence as we observed no difference in looking times at the audiovisual streams in Experiment 2.

  6. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory.

  7. Recognizing speech in a novel accent: the motor theory of speech perception reframed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin-Frier, Clément; Arbib, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    The motor theory of speech perception holds that we perceive the speech of another in terms of a motor representation of that speech. However, when we have learned to recognize a foreign accent, it seems plausible that recognition of a word rarely involves reconstruction of the speech gestures of the speaker rather than the listener. To better assess the motor theory and this observation, we proceed in three stages. Part 1 places the motor theory of speech perception in a larger framework based on our earlier models of the adaptive formation of mirror neurons for grasping, and for viewing extensions of that mirror system as part of a larger system for neuro-linguistic processing, augmented by the present consideration of recognizing speech in a novel accent. Part 2 then offers a novel computational model of how a listener comes to understand the speech of someone speaking the listener's native language with a foreign accent. The core tenet of the model is that the listener uses hypotheses about the word the speaker is currently uttering to update probabilities linking the sound produced by the speaker to phonemes in the native language repertoire of the listener. This, on average, improves the recognition of later words. This model is neutral regarding the nature of the representations it uses (motor vs. auditory). It serve as a reference point for the discussion in Part 3, which proposes a dual-stream neuro-linguistic architecture to revisits claims for and against the motor theory of speech perception and the relevance of mirror neurons, and extracts some implications for the reframing of the motor theory.

  8. The influence of phonetic dimensions on aphasic speech perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kok, D.A.; Jonkers, R.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with aphasia have more problems detecting small differences between speech sounds than larger ones. This paper reports how phonemic processing is impaired and how this is influenced by speechreading. A non-word discrimination task was carried out with 'audiovisual', 'auditory only' and

  9. Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Continuous Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positional probability of syllables played in recognition of spoken word in continuous Cantonese speech. Because some sounds occur more frequently at the beginning position or ending position of Cantonese syllables than the others, so these kinds of probabilistic information of syllables may cue the locations…

  10. Auditory cortex processes variation in our own speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Sitek

    Full Text Available As we talk, we unconsciously adjust our speech to ensure it sounds the way we intend it to sound. However, because speech production involves complex motor planning and execution, no two utterances of the same sound will be exactly the same. Here, we show that auditory cortex is sensitive to natural variations in self-produced speech from utterance to utterance. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs from ninety-nine subjects while they uttered "ah" and while they listened to those speech sounds played back. Subjects' utterances were sorted based on their formant deviations from the previous utterance. Typically, the N1 ERP component is suppressed during talking compared to listening. By comparing ERPs to the least and most variable utterances, we found that N1 was less suppressed to utterances that differed greatly from their preceding neighbors. In contrast, an utterance's difference from the median formant values did not affect N1. Trial-to-trial pitch (f0 deviation and pitch difference from the median similarly did not affect N1. We discuss mechanisms that may underlie the change in N1 suppression resulting from trial-to-trial formant change. Deviant utterances require additional auditory cortical processing, suggesting that speaking-induced suppression mechanisms are optimally tuned for a specific production.

  11. Auditory Cortex Processes Variation in Our Own Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Kevin R.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Roach, Brian J.; Houde, John F.; Niziolek, Caroline A.; Ford, Judith M.

    2013-01-01

    As we talk, we unconsciously adjust our speech to ensure it sounds the way we intend it to sound. However, because speech production involves complex motor planning and execution, no two utterances of the same sound will be exactly the same. Here, we show that auditory cortex is sensitive to natural variations in self-produced speech from utterance to utterance. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from ninety-nine subjects while they uttered “ah” and while they listened to those speech sounds played back. Subjects' utterances were sorted based on their formant deviations from the previous utterance. Typically, the N1 ERP component is suppressed during talking compared to listening. By comparing ERPs to the least and most variable utterances, we found that N1 was less suppressed to utterances that differed greatly from their preceding neighbors. In contrast, an utterance's difference from the median formant values did not affect N1. Trial-to-trial pitch (f0) deviation and pitch difference from the median similarly did not affect N1. We discuss mechanisms that may underlie the change in N1 suppression resulting from trial-to-trial formant change. Deviant utterances require additional auditory cortical processing, suggesting that speaking-induced suppression mechanisms are optimally tuned for a specific production. PMID:24349399

  12. Monaural and binaural benefit from early reflections for speech intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arweiler, Iris; Buchholz, Jörg; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The auditory system takes advantage of early reflections (ER’s) in a room by integrating them with the direct sound (DS) and thereby increasing the effective speech level. The energy, spectral content and direction of the ER’s are dependent on wall absorptions and room geometries and therefore di...... to investigate if ER processing is a monaural or binaural effect....

  13. Influence of musical training on perception of L2 speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadakata, M.; Zanden, L.D.T. van der; Sekiyama, K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study reports specific cases in which a positive transfer of perceptual ability from the music domain to the language domain occurs. We tested whether musical training enhances discrimination and identification performance of L2 speech sounds (timing features, nasal consonants and

  14. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  15. Speech auditory brainstem response (speech ABR) characteristics depending on recording conditions, and hearing status: an experimental parametric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoun, Idrick; Moulin, Annie; Jeanvoine, Arnaud; Ménard, Mikael; Buret, François; Vollaire, Christian; Scorretti, Riccardo; Veuillet, Evelyne; Berger-Vachon, Christian; Collet, Lionel; Thai-Van, Hung

    2008-11-15

    Speech elicited auditory brainstem responses (Speech ABR) have been shown to be an objective measurement of speech processing in the brainstem. Given the simultaneous stimulation and recording, and the similarities between the recording and the speech stimulus envelope, there is a great risk of artefactual recordings. This study sought to systematically investigate the source of artefactual contamination in Speech ABR response. In a first part, we measured the sound level thresholds over which artefactual responses were obtained, for different types of transducers and experimental setup parameters. A watermelon model was used to model the human head susceptibility to electromagnetic artefact. It was found that impedances between the electrodes had a great effect on electromagnetic susceptibility and that the most prominent artefact is due to the transducer's electromagnetic leakage. The only artefact-free condition was obtained with insert-earphones shielded in a Faraday cage linked to common ground. In a second part of the study, using the previously defined artefact-free condition, we recorded speech ABR in unilateral deaf subjects and bilateral normal hearing subjects. In an additional control condition, Speech ABR was recorded with the insert-earphones used to deliver the stimulation, unplugged from the ears, so that the subjects did not perceive the stimulus. No responses were obtained from the deaf ear of unilaterally hearing impaired subjects, nor in the insert-out-of-the-ear condition in all the subjects, showing that Speech ABR reflects the functioning of the auditory pathways.

  16. Thinking soap But Speaking ‘oaps’. The Sound Preparation Period: Backward Calculation From Utterance to Muscle Innervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Wiedenmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    In this article’s model—on speech and on speech errors, dyscoordinations, and disorders—, the time-course from the muscle innervation impetuses to the utterance of sounds as intended for canonical speech sound sequences is calculated backward. This time-course is shown as the sum of all the known physiological durations of speech sounds and speech gestures that are necessary to produce an utterance. The model introduces two internal clocks, based on positive or negative factors, representing certain physiologically-based time-courses during the sound preparation period (Lautvorspann. The use of these internal clocks show that speech gestures—like other motor activities—work according to a simple serialization principle: Under non-default conditions,
    alterations of the time-courses may cause speech errors of sound serialization, dyscoordinations of sounds as observed during first language acquisition, or speech disorders as pathological cases. These alterations of the time-course are modelled by varying the two internal-clock factors. The calculation of time-courses uses as default values the sound durations of the context-dependent Munich PHONDAT Database of Spoken German (see Appendix 4. As a new, human approach, this calculation agrees mathematically with the approach of Linear Programming / Operations Research. This work gives strong support to the fairly old suspicion (of 1908 of the famous Austrian speech error scientist Meringer [15], namely that one mostly thinks and articulates in a different serialization than is audible from one’s uttered sound sequences.

  17. Statistical representation of sound textures in the impaired auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Many challenges exist when it comes to understanding and compensating for hearing impairment. Traditional methods, such as pure tone audiometry and speech intelligibility tests, offer insight into the deficiencies of a hearingimpaired listener, but can only partially reveal the mechanisms...... that underlie the hearing loss. An alternative approach is to investigate the statistical representation of sounds for hearing-impaired listeners along the auditory pathway. Using models of the auditory periphery and sound synthesis, we aimed to probe hearing impaired perception for sound textures – temporally...

  18. Emotional prosody of task-irrelevant speech interferes with the retention of serial order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattner, Florian; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2018-04-09

    Task-irrelevant speech and other temporally changing sounds are known to interfere with the short-term memorization of ordered verbal materials, as compared to silence or stationary sounds. It has been argued that this disruption of short-term memory (STM) may be due to (a) interference of automatically encoded acoustical fluctuations with the process of serial rehearsal or (b) attentional capture by salient task-irrelevant information. To disentangle the contributions of these 2 processes, the authors investigated whether the disruption of serial recall is due to the semantic or acoustical properties of task-irrelevant speech (Experiment 1). They found that performance was affected by the prosody (emotional intonation), but not by the semantics (word meaning), of irrelevant speech, suggesting that the disruption of serial recall is due to interference of precategorically encoded changing-state sound (with higher fluctuation strength of emotionally intonated speech). The authors further demonstrated a functional distinction between this form of distraction and attentional capture by contrasting the effect of (a) speech prosody and (b) sudden prosody deviations on both serial and nonserial STM tasks (Experiment 2). Although serial recall was again sensitive to the emotional prosody of irrelevant speech, performance on a nonserial missing-item task was unaffected by the presence of neutral or emotionally intonated speech sounds. In contrast, sudden prosody changes tended to impair performance on both tasks, suggesting an independent effect of attentional capture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Effects of irrelevant speech and traffic noise on speech perception and cognitive performance in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Maria; Meis, Markus; Sukowski, Helga; Schick, August

    2007-01-01

    The effects of background noise of moderate intensity on short-term storage and processing of verbal information were analyzed in 6 to 8 year old children. In line with adult studies on "irrelevant sound effect" (ISE), serial recall of visually presented digits was severely disrupted by background speech that the children did not understand. Train noises of equal Intensity however, had no effect. Similar results were demonstrated with tasks requiring storage and processing of heard information. Memory for nonwords, execution of oral instructions and categorizing speech sounds were significantly disrupted by irrelevant speech. The affected functions play a fundamental role in the acquisition of spoken and written language. Implications concerning current models of the ISE and the acoustic conditions in schools and kindergardens are discussed.

  20. Sound-based assistive technology support to hearing, speaking and seeing

    CERN Document Server

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    This book "Sound-based Assistive Technology" explains a technology to help speech-, hearing- and sight-impaired people. They might benefit in some way from an enhancement in their ability to recognize and produce speech or to detect sounds in their surroundings. Additionally, it is considered how sound-based assistive technology might be applied to the areas of speech recognition, speech synthesis, environmental recognition, virtual reality and robots. It is the primary focus of this book to provide an understanding of both the methodology and basic concepts of assistive technology rather than listing the variety of assistive devices developed in Japan or other countries. Although this book presents a number of different topics, they are sufficiently independent from one another that the reader may begin at any chapter without experiencing confusion. It should be acknowledged that much of the research quoted in this book was conducted in the author's laboratories both at Hokkaido University and the University...

  1. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  2. A frequency bin-wise nonlinear masking algorithm in convolutive mixtures for speech segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Tai-Shih; Huang, Ching-Wen; Chou, Wen-Sheng

    2012-05-01

    A frequency bin-wise nonlinear masking algorithm is proposed in the spectrogram domain for speech segregation in convolutive mixtures. The contributive weight from each speech source to a time-frequency unit of the mixture spectrogram is estimated by a nonlinear function based on location cues. For each sound source, a non-binary mask is formed from the estimated weights and is multiplied to the mixture spectrogram to extract the sound. Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are used to simulate convolutive sound mixtures perceived by listeners. Simulation results show our proposed method outperforms convolutive independent component analysis and degenerate unmixing and estimation technique methods in almost all test conditions.

  3. Integrating speech in time depends on temporal expectancies and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Steinberg, Johanna; Tavano, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Sensory information that unfolds in time, such as in speech perception, relies on efficient chunking mechanisms in order to yield optimally-sized units for further processing. Whether or not two successive acoustic events receive a one-unit or a two-unit interpretation seems to depend on the fit between their temporal extent and a stipulated temporal window of integration. However, there is ongoing debate on how flexible this temporal window of integration should be, especially for the processing of speech sounds. Furthermore, there is no direct evidence of whether attention may modulate the temporal constraints on the integration window. For this reason, we here examine how different word durations, which lead to different temporal separations of sound onsets, interact with attention. In an Electroencephalography (EEG) study, participants actively and passively listened to words where word-final consonants were occasionally omitted. Words had either a natural duration or were artificially prolonged in order to increase the separation of speech sound onsets. Omission responses to incomplete speech input, originating in left temporal cortex, decreased when the critical speech sound was separated from previous sounds by more than 250 msec, i.e., when the separation was larger than the stipulated temporal window of integration (125-150 msec). Attention, on the other hand, only increased omission responses for stimuli with natural durations. We complemented the event-related potential (ERP) analyses by a frequency-domain analysis on the stimulus presentation rate. Notably, the power of stimulation frequency showed the same duration and attention effects than the omission responses. We interpret these findings on the background of existing research on temporal integration windows and further suggest that our findings may be accounted for within the framework of predictive coding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Why the Left Hemisphere Is Dominant for Speech Production: Connecting the Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Martin Sussman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from seemingly disparate areas of speech/language research is reviewed to form a unified theoretical account for why the left hemisphere is specialized for speech production. Research findings from studies investigating hemispheric lateralization of infant babbling, the primacy of the syllable in phonological structure, rhyming performance in split-brain patients, rhyming ability and phonetic categorization in children diagnosed with developmental apraxia of speech, rules governing exchange errors in spoonerisms, organizational principles of neocortical control of learned motor behaviors, and multi-electrode recordings of human neuronal responses to speech sounds are described and common threads highlighted. It is suggested that the emergence, in developmental neurogenesis, of a hard-wired, syllabically-organized, neural substrate representing the phonemic sound elements of one’s language, particularly the vocalic nucleus, is the crucial factor underlying the left hemisphere’s dominance for speech production.

  5. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)......An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  6. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  7. Speech disorder prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladis Fornaris-Méndez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language therapy has trafficked from a medical focus until a preventive focus. However, difficulties are evidenced in the development of this last task, because he is devoted bigger space to the correction of the disorders of the language. Because the speech disorders is the dysfunction with more frequently appearance, acquires special importance the preventive work that is developed to avoid its appearance. Speech education since early age of the childhood makes work easier for prevent the appearance of speech disorders in the children. The present work has as objective to offer different activities for the prevention of the speech disorders.

  8. Improving Robustness against Environmental Sounds for Directing Attention of Social Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nicolai Bæk; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-modal system for finding out where to direct the attention of a social robot in a dialog scenario, which is robust against environmental sounds (door slamming, phone ringing etc.) and short speech segments. The method is based on combining voice activity detection (VAD......) and sound source localization (SSL) and furthermore apply post-processing to SSL to filter out short sounds. The system is tested against a baseline system in four different real-world experiments, where different sounds are used as interfering sounds. The results are promising and show a clear improvement....

  9. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  10. Internet Video Telephony Allows Speech Reading by Deaf Individuals and Improves Speech Perception by Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantokoudis, Georgios; Dähler, Claudia; Dubach, Patrick; Kompis, Martin; Caversaccio, Marco D.; Senn, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze speech reading through Internet video calls by profoundly hearing-impaired individuals and cochlear implant (CI) users. Methods Speech reading skills of 14 deaf adults and 21 CI users were assessed using the Hochmair Schulz Moser (HSM) sentence test. We presented video simulations using different video resolutions (1280×720, 640×480, 320×240, 160×120 px), frame rates (30, 20, 10, 7, 5 frames per second (fps)), speech velocities (three different speakers), webcameras (Logitech Pro9000, C600 and C500) and image/sound delays (0–500 ms). All video simulations were presented with and without sound and in two screen sizes. Additionally, scores for live Skype™ video connection and live face-to-face communication were assessed. Results Higher frame rate (>7 fps), higher camera resolution (>640×480 px) and shorter picture/sound delay (<100 ms) were associated with increased speech perception scores. Scores were strongly dependent on the speaker but were not influenced by physical properties of the camera optics or the full screen mode. There is a significant median gain of +8.5%pts (p = 0.009) in speech perception for all 21 CI-users if visual cues are additionally shown. CI users with poor open set speech perception scores (n = 11) showed the greatest benefit under combined audio-visual presentation (median speech perception +11.8%pts, p = 0.032). Conclusion Webcameras have the potential to improve telecommunication of hearing-impaired individuals. PMID:23359119

  11. The Hierarchical Cortical Organization of Human Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Wendy A; Huth, Alexander G; Griffiths, Thomas L; Gallant, Jack L; Theunissen, Frédéric E

    2017-07-05

    Speech comprehension requires that the brain extract semantic meaning from the spectral features represented at the cochlea. To investigate this process, we performed an fMRI experiment in which five men and two women passively listened to several hours of natural narrative speech. We then used voxelwise modeling to predict BOLD responses based on three different feature spaces that represent the spectral, articulatory, and semantic properties of speech. The amount of variance explained by each feature space was then assessed using a separate validation dataset. Because some responses might be explained equally well by more than one feature space, we used a variance partitioning analysis to determine the fraction of the variance that was uniquely explained by each feature space. Consistent with previous studies, we found that speech comprehension involves hierarchical representations starting in primary auditory areas and moving laterally on the temporal lobe: spectral features are found in the core of A1, mixtures of spectral and articulatory in STG, mixtures of articulatory and semantic in STS, and semantic in STS and beyond. Our data also show that both hemispheres are equally and actively involved in speech perception and interpretation. Further, responses as early in the auditory hierarchy as in STS are more correlated with semantic than spectral representations. These results illustrate the importance of using natural speech in neurolinguistic research. Our methodology also provides an efficient way to simultaneously test multiple specific hypotheses about the representations of speech without using block designs and segmented or synthetic speech. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate the processing steps performed by the human brain to transform natural speech sound into meaningful language, we used models based on a hierarchical set of speech features to predict BOLD responses of individual voxels recorded in an fMRI experiment while subjects listened to

  12. The role of gestures in spatial working memory and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Krauss, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    Co-speech gestures traditionally have been considered communicative, but they may also serve other functions. For example, hand-arm movements seem to facilitate both spatial working memory and speech production. It has been proposed that gestures facilitate speech indirectly by sustaining spatial representations in working memory. Alternatively, gestures may affect speech production directly by activating embodied semantic representations involved in lexical search. Consistent with the first hypothesis, we found participants gestured more when describing visual objects from memory and when describing objects that were difficult to remember and encode verbally. However, they also gestured when describing a visually accessible object, and gesture restriction produced dysfluent speech even when spatial memory was untaxed, suggesting that gestures can directly affect both spatial memory and lexical retrieval.

  13. Treating speech subsystems in childhood apraxia of speech with tactual input: the PROMPT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Philip S; Hayden, Deborah A

    2013-11-01

    Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets (PROMPT; Hayden, 2004; Hayden, Eigen, Walker, & Olsen, 2010)-a treatment approach for the improvement of speech sound disorders in children-uses tactile-kinesthetic- proprioceptive (TKP) cues to support and shape movements of the oral articulators. No research to date has systematically examined the efficacy of PROMPT for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Four children (ages 3;6 [years;months] to 4;8), all meeting the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2007) criteria for CAS, were treated using PROMPT. All children received 8 weeks of 2 × per week treatment, including at least 4 weeks of full PROMPT treatment that included TKP cues. During the first 4 weeks, 2 of the 4 children received treatment that included all PROMPT components except TKP cues. This design permitted both between-subjects and within-subjects comparisons to evaluate the effect of TKP cues. Gains in treatment were measured by standardized tests and by criterion-referenced measures based on the production of untreated probe words, reflecting change in speech movements and auditory perceptual accuracy. All 4 children made significant gains during treatment, but measures of motor speech control and untreated word probes provided evidence for more gain when TKP cues were included. PROMPT as a whole appears to be effective for treating children with CAS, and the inclusion of TKP cues appears to facilitate greater effect.

  14. Lip movements affect infants' audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H Henny; Werker, Janet F

    2013-05-01

    Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces (visual [i] and [u]) were presented with a synchronous vowel sound (audio /i/ or /u/). Infants' looking patterns were selectively biased away from the audiovisual matching face when the infants were producing lip movements similar to those needed to produce the heard vowel. Infants' looking patterns returned to those of a baseline condition (no lip movements, looking longer at the audiovisual matching face) when they were producing lip movements that did not match the heard vowel. Experiment 2 confirmed that these sensorimotor effects interacted with the heard vowel, as looking patterns differed when infants produced these same lip movements while seeing and hearing a talking face producing an unrelated vowel (audio /a/). These findings suggest that the development of speech perception and speech production may be mutually informative.

  15. Numerical value biases sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-08

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perceptual judgments of sound location as a function of digit magnitude (1-9). The main finding was that for stimuli presented near the median plane there was a linear left-to-right bias for localizing smaller-to-larger numbers. At lateral locations there was a central-eccentric location bias in the pointing task, and either a bias restricted to the smaller numbers (left side) or no significant number bias (right side). Prior number location also biased subsequent number judgments towards the opposite side. Findings support a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception, with a linear mapping near midline and more complex relations at lateral locations. Results may reflect coding of dedicated spatial channels, with two representing lateral positions in each hemispace, and the midline area represented by either their overlap or a separate third channel.

  16. Cortical representations of communication sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Marc A; Cheung, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    This review summarizes recent research into cortical processing of vocalizations in animals and humans. There has been a resurgent interest in this topic accompanied by an increased number of studies using animal models with complex vocalizations and new methods in human brain imaging. Recent results from such studies are discussed. Experiments have begun to reveal the bilateral cortical fields involved in communication sound processing and the transformations of neural representations that occur among those fields. Advances have also been made in understanding the neuronal basis of interaction between developmental exposures and behavioral experiences with vocalization perception. Exposure to sounds during the developmental period produces large effects on brain responses, as do a variety of specific trained tasks in adults. Studies have also uncovered a neural link between the motor production of vocalizations and the representation of vocalizations in cortex. Parallel experiments in humans and animals are answering important questions about vocalization processing in the central nervous system. This dual approach promises to reveal microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic principles of large-scale dynamic interactions between brain regions that underlie the complex phenomenon of vocalization perception. Such advances will yield a greater understanding of the causes, consequences, and treatment of disorders related to speech processing.

  17. Evaluating standard airborne sound insulation measures in terms of annoyance, loudness, and audibility ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of the merits of standard airborne sound insulation measures with respect to subjective ratings of the annoyance and loudness of transmitted sounds. Subjects listened to speech and music sounds modified to represent transmission through 20 different walls with sound transmission class (STC) ratings from 34 to 58. A number of variations in the standard measures were also considered. These included variations in the 8-dB rule for the maximum allowed deficiency in the STC measure as well as variations in the standard 32-dB total allowed deficiency. Several spectrum adaptation terms were considered in combination with weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) values as well as modifications to the range of included frequencies in the standard rating contour. A STC measure without an 8-dB rule and an R(w) rating with a new spectrum adaptation term were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of speech sounds. R(w) ratings with one of two modified C(tr) spectrum adaptation terms were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of transmitted music sounds. Although some measures were much better predictors of responses to one type of sound than were the standard STC and R(w) values, no measure was remarkably improved for predicting annoyance and loudness ratings of both music and speech sounds.

  18. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M.

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of “speech” on the productive level and “music” on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory. PMID:24319438

  19. Speech Remediation of Long-Term Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty L. McMicken

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research article describes the remediation of moderate stuttering in an adult client who experienced speech dysfluency for more than 40 years. Treatment took place at an urban residential rehabilitation mission where the client was court sentenced for a history of felonies and current narcotic sales and use. In conjunction with the operant conditioning instruction of the rehabilitation mission, the Ryan Fluency Program was implemented along with the initial use of pause time in response to the complex needs of the client. The article provides an overview of the assessment (Fluency Interviews, Criterion Tests and treatment program. At present, 2.5 years post-initiation of treatment, the client has reported and been observed to have achieved smooth, forward-flowing, natural sounding speech throughout his work environment, family interaction, and daily life.

  20. Objective voice and speech analysis of persons with chronic hoarseness by prosodic analysis of speech samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderlein, Tino; Döllinger, Michael; Matoušek, Václav; Nöth, Elmar

    2016-10-01

    Automatic voice assessment is often performed using sustained vowels. In contrast, speech analysis of read-out texts can be applied to voice and speech assessment. Automatic speech recognition and prosodic analysis were used to find regression formulae between automatic and perceptual assessment of four voice and four speech criteria. The regression was trained with 21 men and 62 women (average age 49.2 years) and tested with another set of 24 men and 49 women (48.3 years), all suffering from chronic hoarseness. They read the text 'Der Nordwind und die Sonne' ('The North Wind and the Sun'). Five voice and speech therapists evaluated the data on 5-point Likert scales. Ten prosodic and recognition accuracy measures (features) were identified which describe all the examined criteria. Inter-rater correlation within the expert group was between r = 0.63 for the criterion 'match of breath and sense units' and r = 0.87 for the overall voice quality. Human-machine correlation was between r = 0.40 for the match of breath and sense units and r = 0.82 for intelligibility. The perceptual ratings of different criteria were highly correlated with each other. Likewise, the feature sets modeling the criteria were very similar. The automatic method is suitable for assessing chronic hoarseness in general and for subgroups of functional and organic dysphonia. In its current version, it is almost as reliable as a randomly picked rater from a group of voice and speech therapists.

  1. Collective speech acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, A.W.M.; Tsohatzidis, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    From its early development in the 1960s, speech act theory always had an individualistic orientation. It focused exclusively on speech acts performed by individual agents. Paradigmatic examples are ‘I promise that p’, ‘I order that p’, and ‘I declare that p’. There is a single speaker and a single

  2. Private Speech in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  3. Free Speech Yearbook 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    The 11 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics covered are (1) the United States Supreme Court and communication theory; (2) truth, knowledge, and a democratic respect for diversity; (3) denial of freedom of speech in Jock Yablonski's campaign for the presidency of the United Mine…

  4. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  5. Free Speech. No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    This issue of "Free Speech" contains the following articles: "Daniel Schoor Relieved of Reporting Duties" by Laurence Stern, "The Sellout at CBS" by Michael Harrington, "Defending Dan Schorr" by Tome Wicker, "Speech to the Washington Press Club, February 25, 1976" by Daniel Schorr, "Funds…

  6. Speech intelligibility after gingivectomy of excess palatal tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Balasundaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate any enhancement in speech following gingivectomy of enlarged anterior palatal gingiva. Periodontal literature has documented various conditions, pathophysiology, and treatment modalities of gingival enlargement. Relationship between gingival maladies and speech alteration has received scant attention. This case report describes on altered speech pattern enhancement secondary to the gingivectomy procedure. A systemically healthy 24-year- female patient reported with bilateral anterior gingival enlargement who was provisionally diagnosed as "gingival abscess with inflammatory enlargement" in relation to palatal aspect of the right maxillary canine to left maxillary canine. Bilateral gingivectomy procedure was performed by external bevel incision in relation to anterior palatal gingiva and a large wedge of epithelium and connective tissue was removed. Patient and her close acquaintances noticed a great improvement in her pronunciation and enunciation of sounds like "t", "d", "n", "l", "th", following removal of excess gingival palatal tissue and was also appreciated with visual analog scale score. Exploration of linguistic research documented the significance of tongue-palate contact during speech. Any excess gingival tissue in palatal region brings about disruption in speech by altering tongue-palate contact. Periodontal surgery like gingivectomy may improve disrupted phonetics. Excess gingival palatal tissue impedes on tongue-palate contact and interferes speech. Pronunciation of consonants like "t", "d", "n", "l", "th", are altered with anterior enlarged palatal gingiva. Excision of the enlarged palatal tissue results in improvement of speech.

  7. Unvoiced Speech Recognition Using Tissue-Conductive Acoustic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heracleous Panikos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the use of stethoscope and silicon NAM (nonaudible murmur microphones in automatic speech recognition. NAM microphones are special acoustic sensors, which are attached behind the talker's ear and can capture not only normal (audible speech, but also very quietly uttered speech (nonaudible murmur. As a result, NAM microphones can be applied in automatic speech recognition systems when privacy is desired in human-machine communication. Moreover, NAM microphones show robustness against noise and they might be used in special systems (speech recognition, speech transform, etc. for sound-impaired people. Using adaptation techniques and a small amount of training data, we achieved for a 20 k dictation task a word accuracy for nonaudible murmur recognition in a clean environment. In this paper, we also investigate nonaudible murmur recognition in noisy environments and the effect of the Lombard reflex on nonaudible murmur recognition. We also propose three methods to integrate audible speech and nonaudible murmur recognition using a stethoscope NAM microphone with very promising results.

  8. Unvoiced Speech Recognition Using Tissue-Conductive Acoustic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Saruwatari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the use of stethoscope and silicon NAM (nonaudible murmur microphones in automatic speech recognition. NAM microphones are special acoustic sensors, which are attached behind the talker's ear and can capture not only normal (audible speech, but also very quietly uttered speech (nonaudible murmur. As a result, NAM microphones can be applied in automatic speech recognition systems when privacy is desired in human-machine communication. Moreover, NAM microphones show robustness against noise and they might be used in special systems (speech recognition, speech transform, etc. for sound-impaired people. Using adaptation techniques and a small amount of training data, we achieved for a 20 k dictation task a 93.9% word accuracy for nonaudible murmur recognition in a clean environment. In this paper, we also investigate nonaudible murmur recognition in noisy environments and the effect of the Lombard reflex on nonaudible murmur recognition. We also propose three methods to integrate audible speech and nonaudible murmur recognition using a stethoscope NAM microphone with very promising results.

  9. Human phoneme recognition depending on speech-intrinsic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Bernd T; Jürgens, Tim; Wesker, Thorsten; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2010-11-01

    The influence of different sources of speech-intrinsic variation (speaking rate, effort, style and dialect or accent) on human speech perception was investigated. In listening experiments with 16 listeners, confusions of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) and vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) sounds in speech-weighted noise were analyzed. Experiments were based on the OLLO logatome speech database, which was designed for a man-machine comparison. It contains utterances spoken by 50 speakers from five dialect/accent regions and covers several intrinsic variations. By comparing results depending on intrinsic and extrinsic variations (i.e., different levels of masking noise), the degradation induced by variabilities can be expressed in terms of the SNR. The spectral level distance between the respective speech segment and the long-term spectrum of the masking noise was found to be a good predictor for recognition rates, while phoneme confusions were influenced by the distance to spectrally close phonemes. An analysis based on transmitted information of articulatory features showed that voicing and manner of articulation are comparatively robust cues in the presence of intrinsic variations, whereas the coding of place is more degraded. The database and detailed results have been made available for comparisons between human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognizers (ASR).

  10. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  11. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  12. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  13. Development of Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Assessments of the Modulation Type with Regard to Intelligibility and Sound Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2012-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed; however, further improvements are needed, especially in terms of articulation and sound quality. In this study, the intelligibility and sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulation] were evaluated. The results showed that DSB-TC and transposed speech were more intelligible than DSB-SC speech, and transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to air-conducted speech in terms of sound quality. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  14. Multiple Time-Instances Features of Degraded Speech for Single Ended Quality Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Dubey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of single time-instance features, where entire speech utterance is used for feature computation, is not accurate and adequate in capturing the time localized information of short-time transient distortions and their distinction from plosive sounds of speech, particularly degraded by impulsive noise. Hence, the importance of estimating features at multiple time-instances is sought. In this, only active speech segments of degraded speech are used for features computation at multiple time-instances on per frame basis. Here, active speech means both voiced and unvoiced frames except silence. The features of different combinations of multiple contiguous active speech segments are computed and called multiple time-instances features. The joint GMM training has been done using these features along with the subjective MOS of the corresponding speech utterance to obtain the parameters of GMM. These parameters of GMM and multiple time-instances features of test speech are used to compute the objective MOS values of different combinations of multiple contiguous active speech segments. The overall objective MOS of the test speech utterance is obtained by assigning equal weight to the objective MOS values of the different combinations of multiple contiguous active speech segments. This algorithm outperforms the Recommendation ITU-T P.563 and recently published algorithms.

  15. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  16. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  17. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  18. Speech impairment in Down syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Ray D; Vorperian, Houri K

    2013-02-01

    This review summarizes research on disorders of speech production in Down syndrome (DS) for the purposes of informing clinical services and guiding future research. Review of the literature was based on searches using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, and HighWire Press, as well as consideration of reference lists in retrieved documents (including online sources). Search terms emphasized functions related to voice, articulation, phonology, prosody, fluency, and intelligibility. The following conclusions pertain to four major areas of review: voice, speech sounds, fluency and prosody, and intelligibility. The first major area is voice. Although a number of studies have reported on vocal abnormalities in DS, major questions remain about the nature and frequency of the phonatory disorder. Results of perceptual and acoustic studies have been mixed, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions or even to identify sensitive measures for future study. The second major area is speech sounds. Articulatory and phonological studies show that speech patterns in DS are a combination of delayed development and errors not seen in typical development. Delayed (i.e., developmental) and disordered (i.e., nondevelopmental) patterns are evident by the age of about 3 years, although DS-related abnormalities possibly appear earlier, even in infant babbling. The third major area is fluency and prosody. Stuttering and/or cluttering occur in DS at rates of 10%-45%, compared with about 1% in the general population. Research also points to significant disturbances in prosody. The fourth major area is intelligibility. Studies consistently show marked limitations in this area, but only recently has the research gone beyond simple rating scales.

  19. Deficits in Sequential Processing Manifest in Motor and Linguistic Tasks in a Multigenerational Family with Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Button, Le; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Chapman, Kathy; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a global deficit in sequential processing as candidate endophenotypein a family with familial childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Of 10 adults and 13 children in a three-generational family with speech sound disorder (SSD) consistent with CAS, 3 adults and 6 children had past or present SSD diagnoses. Two…

  20. Speech Recognition with the Advanced Combination Encoder and Transient Emphasis Spectral Maxima Strategies in Nucleus 24 Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Laura K.; Vandali, Andrew E.; Skinner, Margaret W.; Fourakis, Marios S.; Holden, Timothy A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the difficulties faced by cochlear implant (CI) recipients is perception of low-intensity speech cues. A. E. Vandali (2001) has developed the transient emphasis spectral maxima (TESM) strategy to amplify short-duration, low-level sounds. The aim of the present study was to determine whether speech scores would be significantly higher with…

  1. On the Function of Stress Rhythms in Speech: Evidence of a Link with Grouping Effects on Serial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Victor J.

    2006-01-01

    Language learning requires a capacity to recall novel series of speech sounds. Research shows that prosodic marks create grouping effects enhancing serial recall. However, any restriction on memory affecting the reproduction of prosody would limit the set of patterns that could be learned and subsequently used in speech. By implication, grouping…

  2. Influence of directionality and maximal power output on speech understanding with bone anchored hearing implants in single sided deafness

    OpenAIRE

    Krempaska, Silvia; Koval, Juraj; Schmid, Christoph; Pfiffner, Flurin; Kurz, Anja; Kompis, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bone-anchored hearing implants (BAHI) are routinely used to alleviate the effects of the acoustic head shadow in single-sided sensorineural deafness (SSD). In this study, the influence of the directional microphone setting and the maximum power output of the BAHI sound processor on speech understanding in noise in a laboratory setting were investigated. Eight adult BAHI users with SSD participated in this pilot study. Speech understanding in noise was measured using a new Slovak speech-in-noi...

  3. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  4. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  5. Tinnitus (Phantom Sound: Risk coming for future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rewar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The word 'tinnitus' comes from the Latin word tinnire, meaning “to ring” or “a ringing.” Tinnitus is the cognition of sound in the absence of any corresponding external sound. Tinnitus can take the form of continuous buzzing, hissing, or ringing, or a combination of these or other characteristics. Tinnitus affects 10% to 25% of the adult population. Tinnitus is classified as objective and subjective categories. Subjective tinnitus is meaningless sounds that are not associated with a physical sound and only the person who has the tinnitus can hear it. Objective tinnitus is the result of a sound that can be heard by the physician. Tinnitus is not a disease in itself but a common symptom, and because it involves the perception of sound or sounds, it is commonly associated with the hearing system. In fact, various parts of the hearing system, including the inner ear, are often responsible for this symptom. Tinnitus patients, which can lead to sleep disturbances, concentration problems, fatigue, depression, anxiety disorders, and sometimes even to suicide. The evaluation of tinnitus always begins with a thorough history and physical examination, with further testing performed when indicated. Diagnostic testing should include audiography, speech discrimination testing, computed tomography angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography should be performed. All patients with tinnitus can benefit from patient education and preventive measures, and oftentimes the physician's reassurance and assistance with the psychologic aftereffects of tinnitus can be the therapy most valuable to the patient. There are no specific medications for the treatment of tinnitus. Sedatives and some other medications may prove helpful in the early stages. The ultimate goal of neuro-imaging is to identify subtypes of tinnitus in order to better inform treatment strategies.

  6. Musician advantage for speech-on-speech perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    Evidence for transfer of musical training to better perception of speech in noise has been mixed. Unlike speech-in-noise, speech-on-speech perception utilizes many of the skills that musical training improves, such as better pitch perception and stream segregation, as well as use of higher-level

  7. Speech Production and Speech Discrimination by Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli-Olmstead, Tina; Ling, Daniel

    1984-01-01

    Seven hearing impaired children (five to seven years old) assigned to the Speakers group made highly significant gains in speech production and auditory discrimination of speech, while Listeners made only slight speech production gains and no gains in auditory discrimination. Combined speech and auditory training was more effective than auditory…

  8. The role of speech therapy in the therapy of children with central hearing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kasperczuk-Bajda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Central disorders of hearing processing are one of the main causes of school difficulties among children. CAPD is described as incapability of using auditory acoustic sounds with its correct perception within ambit structures. The disorder is often accompanied by such difficulties as dyslexia, specific learning problems or subnormal speech development. Early diagnose of the  disorder and commencing a therapy allows a child a better adjustment to expectations which he or she is exposed to by its environment. The aim of this work is indicating the role and abilities of a speech therapist while treating CAPD children. Aural training is adequate for children with central auditory disorders and in order to be effective it should be long lasting, intensive and adjusted to a child’s individual abilities. Therapy should include both passive listening of sounds and exercises in which the child can actively participate. The aim of speech therapy is to develop auditory skills, speaking, communication and stimulating cognitive potential of a child. Among the auditory exercises conducted by the speech therapist are understanding distorted speech exercises, understanding distorted speech in the presence of a jamming signal, separation and integration of information exercises. localization and lateralization exercises, recognizing sound patterns exercises, recognizing sound sequences exercises, differentiating nonverbal stimuli and phonemes exercises and prosodic training. Therapeutic auditory training that is carried out systematically develops aural and linguistic competences.

  9. The influence of spectral and spatial characteristics of early reflections on speech intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arweiler, Iris; Buchholz, Jörg; Dau, Torsten

    The auditory system employs different strategies to facilitate speech intelligibility in complex listening conditions. One of them is the integration of early reflections (ER’s) with the direct sound (DS) to increase the effective speech level. So far the underlying mechanisms of ER processing have...... of listeners that speech intelligibility improved with added ER energy, but less than with added DS energy. An efficiency factor was introduced to quantify this effect. The difference in speech intelligibility could be mainly ascribed to the differences in the spectrum between the speech signals....... binaural). The direction-dependency could be explained by the spectral changes introduced by the pinna, head, and torso. The results will be important with regard to the influence of signal processing strategies in modern hearing aids on speech intelligibility, because they might alter the spectral...

  10. Assessment of Danish-speaking children’s phonological development and speech disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Marit Carolin; Fox-Boyer, Annette

    2018-01-01

    The identification of speech sounds disorders is an important everyday task for speech and language therapists (SLTs) working with children. Therefore, assessment tools are needed that are able to correctly identify and diagnose a child with a suspected speech disorder and furthermore, that provide...... of the existing speech assessments in Denmark showed that none of the materials fulfilled current recommendations identified in research literature. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe the evaluation of a newly constructed instrument for assessing the speech development and disorders of Danish...... with suspected speech disorder (Clausen and Fox-Boyer, in prep). The results indicated that the instrument showed strong inter-examiner reliability for both populations as well as a high content and diagnostic validity. Hence, the study showed that the LogoFoVa can be regarded as a reliable and valid tool...

  11. Sound stream segregation: a neuromorphic approach to solve the “cocktail party problem” in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Chetan Singh; Wang, Runchun M.; Afshar, Saeed; Hamilton, Tara J.; Tapson, Jonathan C.; Shamma, Shihab A.; van Schaik, André

    2015-01-01

    The human auditory system has the ability to segregate complex auditory scenes into a foreground component and a background, allowing us to listen to specific speech sounds from a mixture of sounds. Selective attention plays a crucial role in this process, colloquially known as the “cocktail party effect.” It has not been possible to build a machine that can emulate this human ability in real-time. Here, we have developed a framework for the implementation of a neuromorphic sound segregation algorithm in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This algorithm is based on the principles of temporal coherence and uses an attention signal to separate a target sound stream from background noise. Temporal coherence implies that auditory features belonging to the same sound source are coherently modulated and evoke highly correlated neural response patterns. The basis for this form of sound segregation is that responses from pairs of channels that are strongly positively correlated belong to the same stream, while channels that are uncorrelated or anti-correlated belong to different streams. In our framework, we have used a neuromorphic cochlea as a frontend sound analyser to extract spatial information of the sound input, which then passes through band pass filters that extract the sound envelope at various modulation rates. Further stages include feature extraction and mask generation, which is finally used to reconstruct the targeted sound. Using sample tonal and speech mixtures, we show that our FPGA architecture is able to segregate sound sources in real-time. The accuracy of segregation is indicated by the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the segregated stream (90, 77, and 55 dB for simple tone, complex tone, and speech, respectively) as compared to the SNR of the mixture waveform (0 dB). This system may be easily extended for the segregation of complex speech signals, and may thus find various applications in electronic devices such as for sound segregation

  12. Sound stream segregation: a neuromorphic approach to solve the ‘cocktail party problem’ in real-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Singh Thakur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The human auditory system has the ability to segregate complex auditory scenes into a foreground component and a background, allowing us to listen to specific speech sounds from a mixture of sounds. Selective attention plays a crucial role in this process, colloquially known as the ‘cocktail party effect’. It has not been possible to build a machine that can emulate this human ability in real-time. Here, we have developed a framework for the implementation of a neuromorphic sound segregation algorithm in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. This algorithm is based on the principles of temporal coherence and uses an attention signal to separate a target sound stream from background noise. Temporal coherence implies that auditory features belonging to the same sound source are coherently modulated and evoke highly correlated neural response patterns. The basis for this form of sound segregation is that responses from pairs of channels that are strongly positively correlated belong to the same stream, while channels that are uncorrelated or anti-correlated belong to different streams. In our framework, we have used a neuromorphic cochlea as a frontend sound analyser to extract spatial information of the sound input, which then passes through band pass filters that extract the sound envelope at various modulation rates. Further stages include feature extraction and mask generation, which is finally used to reconstruct the targeted sound. Using sample tonal and speech mixtures, we show that our FPGA architecture is able to segregate sound sources in real-time. The accuracy of segregation is indicated by the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the segregated stream (90, 77 and 55 dB for simple tone, complex tone and speech, respectively as compared to the SNR of the mixture waveform (0 dB. This system may be easily extended for the segregation of complex speech signals, and may thus find various applications in electronic devices such as for

  13. Whole Word Measures in Bilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Lauren; Goldstein, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Phonological acquisition traditionally has been measured using constructs that focus on segments rather than the whole words. Findings from recent research have suggested whole-word productions be evaluated using measures such as phonological mean length of utterance (pMLU) and the proportion of whole-word proximity (PWP). These measures have been…

  14. Inventions on using sound and speech in GUI

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    Voice Recognition (VR) facilitates a human interaction with the machine. VR may be used to replace the manual task of pushing buttons on a wireless telephone keypad. This is particularly useful when the hands of the user are busy with other activities like driving a car. However, the VRS system has several limitations. The VRS requires lot of training and customization in order to be effectively used by individual users as each individual falls into different voice patterns. Besides the voice...

  15. Indonesian Text-To-Speech System Using Diphone Concatenative Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the design and develop a database of Indonesian diphone synthesis using speech segment of recorded voice to be converted from text to speech and save it as audio file like WAV or MP3. In designing and develop a database of Indonesian diphone there are several steps to follow; First, developed Diphone database includes: create a list of sample of words consisting of diphones organized by prioritizing looking diphone located in the middle of a word if not at the beginning or end; recording the samples of words by segmentation. ;create diphones made with a tool Diphone Studio 1.3. Second, develop system using Microsoft Visual Delphi 6.0, includes: the conversion system from the input of numbers, acronyms, words, and sentences into representations diphone. There are two kinds of conversion (process alleged in analyzing the Indonesian text-to-speech system. One is to convert the text to be sounded to phonem and two, to convert the phonem to speech. Method used in this research is called Diphone Concatenative synthesis, in which recorded sound segments are collected. Every segment consists of a diphone (2 phonems. This synthesizer may produce voice with high level of naturalness. The Indonesian Text to Speech system can differentiate special phonemes like in ‘Beda’ and ‘Bedak’ but sample of other spesific words is necessary to put into the system. This Indonesia TTS system can handle texts with abbreviation, there is the facility to add such words.

  16. Relationship between individual differences in speech processing and cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jinghua; Law, Sam-Po; Fung, Roxana

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that cognitive abilities may play a role in individual differences in speech processing. The present study took advantage of a widespread linguistic phenomenon of sound change to systematically assess the relationships between speech processing and various components of attention and working memory in the auditory and visual modalities among typically developed Cantonese-speaking individuals. The individual variations in speech processing are captured in an ongoing sound change-tone merging in Hong Kong Cantonese, in which typically developed native speakers are reported to lose the distinctions between some tonal contrasts in perception and/or production. Three groups of participants were recruited, with a first group of good perception and production, a second group of good perception but poor production, and a third group of good production but poor perception. Our findings revealed that modality-independent abilities of attentional switching/control and working memory might contribute to individual differences in patterns of speech perception and production as well as discrimination latencies among typically developed speakers. The findings not only have the potential to generalize to speech processing in other languages, but also broaden our understanding of the omnipresent phenomenon of language change in all languages.

  17. (and Sound) of SiMPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkut, Cumhur; Jylhä, Antti; Serafin, Stefania

    application stores. As proposed in the ACM Curriculum report, these application domains are attractive in education, especially in computer science and interaction design. The main question is how to systematically integrate the rapidly evolving knowledge, know-how, tools, and techniques of mobile (audio......) programming and interaction design into university curricula. In this paper, we provide an account of our own development and teaching experience. We highlight the outcomes, which are exploratory applications challenging the state-of-the-art in mobile application development based on non-speech sound...

  18. Combined Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech Treatment (CAAST): effects of a novel therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambaugh, Julie L; Wright, Sandra; Nessler, Christina; Mauszycki, Shannon C

    2014-12-01

    This investigation was designed to examine the effects of a newly developed treatment for aphasia and acquired apraxia of speech (AOS). Combined Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech Treatment (CAAST) targets language and speech production simultaneously, with treatment techniques derived from Response Elaboration Training (Kearns, 1985) and Sound Production Treatment (Wambaugh, Kalinyak-Fliszar, West, & Doyle, 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine whether CAAST was associated with positive changes in verbal language and speech production with speakers with aphasia and AOS. Four participants with chronic aphasia and AOS received CAAST applied sequentially to sets of pictures in the context of multiple baseline designs. CAAST entailed elaboration of participant-initiated utterances, with sound production training applied as needed to the elaborated productions. The dependent variables were (a) production of correct information units (CIUs; Nicholas & Brookshire, 1993) in response to experimental picture stimuli, (b) percentage of consonants correct in sentence repetition, and (c) speech intelligibility. CAAST was associated with increased CIU production in trained and untrained picture sets for all participants. Gains in sound production accuracy and speech intelligibility varied across participants; a modification of CAAST to provide additional speech production treatment may be desirable.

  19. Inner Speech's Relationship With Overt Speech in Poststroke Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Brielle C; Geva, Sharon; Warburton, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-18

    Relatively preserved inner speech alongside poor overt speech has been documented in some persons with aphasia (PWA), but the relationship of overt speech with inner speech is still largely unclear, as few studies have directly investigated these factors. The present study investigates the relationship of relatively preserved inner speech in aphasia with selected measures of language and cognition. Thirty-eight persons with chronic aphasia (27 men, 11 women; average age 64.53 ± 13.29 years, time since stroke 8-111 months) were classified as having relatively preserved inner and overt speech (n = 21), relatively preserved inner speech with poor overt speech (n = 8), or not classified due to insufficient measurements of inner and/or overt speech (n = 9). Inner speech scores (by group) were correlated with selected measures of language and cognition from the Comprehensive Aphasia Test (Swinburn, Porter, & Al, 2004). The group with poor overt speech showed a significant relationship of inner speech with overt naming (r = .95, p speech and language and cognition factors were not significant for the group with relatively good overt speech. As in previous research, we show that relatively preserved inner speech is found alongside otherwise severe production deficits in PWA. PWA with poor overt speech may rely more on preserved inner speech for overt picture naming (perhaps due to shared resources with verbal working memory) and for written picture description (perhaps due to reliance on inner speech due to perceived task difficulty). Assessments of inner speech may be useful as a standard component of aphasia screening, and therapy focused on improving and using inner speech may prove clinically worthwhile. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5303542.

  20. The effect of instantaneous input dynamic range setting on the speech perception of children with the nucleus 24 implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lisa S; Skinner, Margaret W; Holstad, Beth A; Fears, Beverly T; Richter, Marie K; Matusofsky, Margaret; Brenner, Christine; Holden, Timothy; Birath, Amy; Kettel, Jerrica L; Scollie, Susan

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a wider instantaneous input dynamic range (IIDR) setting on speech perception and comfort in quiet and noise for children wearing the Nucleus 24 implant system and the Freedom speech processor. In addition, children's ability to understand soft and conversational level speech in relation to aided sound-field thresholds was examined. Thirty children (age, 7 to 17 years) with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system and the Freedom speech processor with two different IIDR settings (30 versus 40 dB) were tested on the Consonant Nucleus Consonant (CNC) word test at 50 and 60 dB SPL, the Bamford-Kowal-Bench Speech in Noise Test, and a loudness rating task for four-talker speech noise. Aided thresholds for frequency-modulated tones, narrowband noise, and recorded Ling sounds were obtained with the two IIDRs and examined in relation to CNC scores at 50 dB SPL. Speech Intelligibility Indices were calculated using the long-term average speech spectrum of the CNC words at 50 dB SPL measured at each test site and aided thresholds. Group mean CNC scores at 50 dB SPL with the 40 IIDR were significantly higher (p Speech in Noise Test were not significantly different for the two IIDRs. Significantly improved aided thresholds at 250 to 6000 Hz as well as higher Speech Intelligibility Indices afforded improved audibility for speech presented at soft levels (50 dB SPL). These results indicate that an increased IIDR provides improved word recognition for soft levels of speech without compromising comfort of higher levels of speech sounds or sentence recognition in noise.

  1. Environmental Contamination of Normal Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Trevor A.

    1990-01-01

    Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…

  2. Perceived gender in clear and conversational speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booz, Jaime A.

    Although many studies have examined acoustic and sociolinguistic differences between male and female speech, the relationship between talker speaking style and perceived gender has not yet been explored. The present study attempts to determine whether clear speech, a style adopted by talkers who perceive some barrier to effective communication, shifts perceptions of femininity for male and female talkers. Much of our understanding of gender perception in voice and speech is based on sustained vowels or single words, eliminating temporal, prosodic, and articulatory cues available in more naturalistic, connected speech. Thus, clear and conversational sentence stimuli, selected from the 41 talkers of the Ferguson Clear Speech Database (Ferguson, 2004) were presented to 17 normal-hearing listeners, aged 18 to 30. They rated the talkers' gender using a visual analog scale with "masculine" and "feminine" endpoints. This response method was chosen to account for within-category shifts of gender perception by allowing nonbinary responses. Mixed-effects regression analysis of listener responses revealed a small but significant effect of speaking style, and this effect was larger for male talkers than female talkers. Because of the high degree of talker variability observed for talker gender, acoustic analyses of these sentences were undertaken to determine the relationship between acoustic changes in clear and conversational speech and perceived femininity. Results of these analyses showed that mean fundamental frequency (fo) and f o standard deviation were significantly correlated to perceived gender for both male and female talkers, and vowel space was significantly correlated only for male talkers. Speaking rate and breathiness measures (CPPS) were not significantly related for either group. Outcomes of this study indicate that adopting a clear speaking style is correlated with increases in perceived femininity. Although the increase was small, some changes associated

  3. APPRECIATING SPEECH THROUGH GAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario T Carreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Speech and Phoneme Recognition as an Educational Aid for the Deaf and Hearing Impaired (SPREAD application and the ongoing research on its deployment as a tool for motivating deaf and hearing impaired students to learn and appreciate speech. This application uses the Sphinx-4 voice recognition system to analyze the vocalization of the student and provide prompt feedback on their pronunciation. The packaging of the application as an interactive game aims to provide additional motivation for the deaf and hearing impaired student through visual motivation for them to learn and appreciate speech.

  4. Global Freedom of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassme

    2007-01-01

    , as opposed to a legal norm, that curbs exercises of the right to free speech that offend the feelings or beliefs of members from other cultural groups. The paper rejects the suggestion that acceptance of such a norm is in line with liberal egalitarian thinking. Following a review of the classical liberal...... egalitarian reasons for free speech - reasons from overall welfare, from autonomy and from respect for the equality of citizens - it is argued that these reasons outweigh the proposed reasons for curbing culturally offensive speech. Currently controversial cases such as that of the Danish Cartoon Controversy...

  5. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  6. Swahili speech development: preliminary normative data from typically developing pre-school children in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangji, Nazneen; Pascoe, Michelle; Smouse, Mantoa

    2015-01-01

    Swahili is widely spoken in East Africa, but to date there are no culturally and linguistically appropriate materials available for speech-language therapists working in the region. The challenges are further exacerbated by the limited research available on the typical acquisition of Swahili phonology. To describe the speech development of 24 typically developing first language Swahili-speaking children between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional design was used with six groups of four children in 6-month age bands. Single-word speech samples were obtained from each child using a set of culturally appropriate pictures designed to elicit all consonants and vowels of Swahili. Each child's speech was audio-recorded and phonetically transcribed using International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) conventions. Children's speech development is described in terms of (1) phonetic inventory, (2) syllable structure inventory, (3) phonological processes and (4) percentage consonants correct (PCC) and percentage vowels correct (PVC). Results suggest a gradual progression in the acquisition of speech sounds and syllables between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 years. Vowel acquisition was completed and most of the consonants acquired by age 3;0. Fricatives/z, s, h/ were later acquired at 4 years and /θ/and /r/ were the last acquired consonants at age 5;11. Older children were able to produce speech sounds more accurately and had fewer phonological processes in their speech than younger children. Common phonological processes included lateralization and sound preference substitutions. The study contributes a preliminary set of normative data on speech development of Swahili-speaking children. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of phonological development, and may be used as a basis for further normative studies with larger numbers of children and ultimately the development of a contextually relevant assessment of the phonology of Swahili

  7. Speech and orthodontic appliances: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyu; Wan, Jia; You, Lun

    2018-01-23

    Various types of orthodontic appliances can lead to speech difficulties. However, speech difficulties caused by orthodontic appliances have not been sufficiently investigated by an evidence-based method. The aim of this study is to outline the scientific evidence and mechanism of the speech difficulties caused by orthodontic appliances. Randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials, and cohort studies focusing on the effect of orthodontic appliances on speech were included. A systematic search was conducted by an electronic search in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases, complemented by a manual search. The types of orthodontic appliances, the affected sounds, and duration period of the speech disturbances were extracted. The ROBINS-I tool was applied to evaluate the quality of non-randomized studies, and the bias of RCT was assessed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. No meta-analyses could be performed due to the heterogeneity in the study designs and treatment modalities. Among 448 screened articles, 13 studies were included (n = 297 patients). Different types of orthodontic appliances such as fixed appliances, orthodontic retainers and palatal expanders could influence the clarity of speech. The /i/, /a/, and /e/ vowels as well as /s/, /z/, /l/, /t/, /d/, /r/, and /ʃ/ consonants could be distorted by appliances. Although most speech impairments could return to normal within weeks, speech distortion of the /s/ sound might last for more than 3 months. The low evidence level grading and heterogeneity were the two main limitations in this systematic review. Lingual fixed appliances, palatal expanders, and Hawley retainers have an evident influence on speech production. The /i/, /s/, /t/, and /d/ sounds are the primarily affected ones. The results of this systematic review should be interpreted with caution and more high-quality RCTs with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are

  8. Children with dyslexia show a reduced processing benefit from bimodal speech information compared to their typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Männel, Claudia

    2018-01-17

    During information processing, individuals benefit from bimodally presented input, as has been demonstrated for speech perception (i.e., printed letters and speech sounds) or the perception of emotional expressions (i.e., facial expression and voice tuning). While typically developing individuals show this bimodal benefit, school children with dyslexia do not. Currently, it is unknown whether the bimodal processing deficit in dyslexia also occurs for visual-auditory speech processing that is independent of reading and spelling acquisition (i.e., no letter-sound knowledge is required). Here, we tested school children with and without spelling problems on their bimodal perception of video-recorded mouth movements pronouncing syllables. We analyzed the event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) to visual-auditory speech information and compared this response to the MMR to monomodal speech information (i.e., auditory-only, visual-only). We found a reduced MMR with later onset to visual-auditory speech information in children with spelling problems compared to children without spelling problems. Moreover, when comparing bimodal and monomodal speech perception, we found that children without spelling problems showed significantly larger responses in the visual-auditory experiment compared to the visual-only response, whereas children with spelling problems did not. Our results suggest that children with dyslexia exhibit general difficulties in bimodal speech perception independently of letter-speech sound knowledge, as apparent in altered bimodal speech perception and lacking benefit from bimodal information. This general deficit in children with dyslexia may underlie the previously reported reduced bimodal benefit for letter-speech sound combinations and similar findings in emotion perception. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Auditory and Cognitive Factors Underlying Individual Differences in Aided Speech-Understanding among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Humes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to address individual differences in aided speech understanding among a relatively large group of older adults. The group of older adults consisted of 98 adults (50 female and 48 male ranging in age from 60 to 86 (mean = 69.2. Hearing loss was typical for this age group and about 90% had not worn hearing aids. All subjects completed a battery of tests, including cognitive (6 measures, psychophysical (17 measures, and speech-understanding (9 measures, as well as the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing (SSQ self-report scale. Most of the speech-understanding measures made use of competing speech and the non-speech psychophysical measures were designed to tap phenomena thought to be relevant for the perception of speech in competing speech (e.g., stream segregation, modulation-detection interference. All measures of speech understanding were administered with spectral shaping applied to the speech stimuli to fully restore audibility through at least 4000 Hz. The measures used were demonstrated to be reliable in older adults and, when compared to a reference group of 28 young normal-hearing adults, age-group differences were observed on many of the measures. Principal-components factor analysis was applied successfully to reduce the number of independent and dependent (speech understanding measures for a multiple-regression analysis. Doing so yielded one global cognitive-processing factor and five non-speech psychoacoustic factors (hearing loss, dichotic signal detection, multi-burst masking, stream segregation, and modulation detection as potential predictors. To this set of six potential predictor variables were added subject age, Environmental Sound Identification (ESI, and performance on the text-recognition-threshold (TRT task (a visual analog of interrupted speech recognition. These variables were used to successfully predict one global aided speech-understanding factor, accounting for about 60% of the variance.

  10. Speaking with a mirror: engagement of mirror neurons via choral speech and its derivatives induces stuttering inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Joseph; Saltuklaroglu, Tim

    2003-04-01

    'Choral speech', 'unison speech', or 'imitation speech' has long been known to immediately induce reflexive, spontaneous, and natural sounding fluency, even the most severe cases of stuttering. Unlike typical post-therapeutic speech, a hallmark characteristic of choral speech is the sense of 'invulnerability' to stuttering, regardless of phonetic context, situational environment, or audience size. We suggest that choral speech immediately inhibits stuttering by engaging mirror systems of neurons, innate primitive neuronal substrates that dominate the initial phases of language development due to their predisposition to reflexively imitate gestural action sequences in a fluent manner. Since mirror systems are primordial in nature, they take precedence over the much later developing stuttering pathology. We suggest that stuttering may best be ameliorated by reengaging mirror neurons via choral speech or one of its derivatives (using digital signal processing technology) to provide gestural mirrors, that are nature's way of immediately overriding the central stuttering block. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. Algorithmic modeling of the irrelevant sound effect (ISE) by the hearing sensation fluctuation strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Weissgerber, Tobias; Kerber, Stefan; Fastl, Hugo; Hellbrück, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Background sounds, such as narration, music with prominent staccato passages, and office noise impair verbal short-term memory even when these sounds are irrelevant. This irrelevant sound effect (ISE) is evoked by so-called changing-state sounds that are characterized by a distinct temporal structure with varying successive auditory-perceptive tokens. However, because of the absence of an appropriate psychoacoustically based instrumental measure, the disturbing impact of a given speech or nonspeech sound could not be predicted until now, but necessitated behavioral testing. Our database for parametric modeling of the ISE included approximately 40 background sounds (e.g., speech, music, tone sequences, office noise, traffic noise) and corresponding performance data that was collected from 70 behavioral measurements of verbal short-term memory. The hearing sensation fluctuation strength was chosen to model the ISE and describes the percept of fluctuations when listening to slowly modulated sounds (f(mod) background sounds, the algorithm estimated behavioral performance data in 63 of 70 cases within the interquartile ranges. In particular, all real-world sounds were modeled adequately, whereas the algorithm overestimated the (non-)disturbance impact of synthetic steady-state sounds that were constituted by a repeated vowel or tone. Implications of the algorithm's strengths and prediction errors are discussed.

  12. The Prevalence of Speech Disorder in Primary School Students in Yazd-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighah Akhavan Karbasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication disorder is a widespread disabling problems and associated with adverse, long term outcome that impact on individuals, families and academic achievement of children in the school years and affect vocational choices later in adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of speech disorders specifically stuttering, voice, and speech-sound disorders in primary school students in Iran-Yazd. In a descriptive study, 7881 primary school students in Yazd evaluated in view from of speech disorders with use of direct and face to face assessment technique in 2005. The prevalence of total speech disorders was 14.8% among whom 13.8% had speech-sound disorder, 1.2% stuttering and 0.47% voice disorder. The prevalence of speech disorders was higher than in males (16.7% as compared to females (12.7%. Pattern of prevalence of the three speech disorders was significantly different according to gender, parental education and by number of family member. There was no significant difference across speech disorders and birth order, religion and paternal consanguinity. These prevalence figures are higher than more studies that using parent or teacher reports.

  13. Charisma in business speeches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Brem, Alexander; Novák-Tót, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    to business speeches. Consistent with the public opinion, our findings are indicative of Steve Jobs being a more charismatic speaker than Mark Zuckerberg. Beyond previous studies, our data suggest that rhythm and emphatic accentuation are also involved in conveying charisma. Furthermore, the differences...... between Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg and the investor- and customer-related sections of their speeches support the modern understanding of charisma as a gradual, multiparametric, and context-sensitive concept....

  14. Speech spectrum envelope modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vích, Robert; Vondra, Martin

    Vol. 4775, - (2007), s. 129-137 ISSN 0302-9743. [COST Action 2102 International Workshop. Vietri sul Mare, 29.03.2007-31.03.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET301710509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : speech * speech processing * cepstral analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.302, year: 2005

  15. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  16. Thinking Allowed: Use of Egocentric Speech after Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of thinking aloud made by young people who have sustained a severe acquired brain injury (ABI). The phenomenon is compared with the concepts of egocentric speech and inner speech before the form of thinking aloud by pupils with ABI is examined. It is suggested that by using thinking aloud, this group of pupils is able…

  17. Focusing, Sustaining, and Switching Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    Refereed articles Schwartz A and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2013). Dynamic range compression effects spatial selection of speech sounds in normal-hearing...34Foundations of binaural hearing: Why does spatial hearing matter?," Annual Meeting of the Academy of Audiology , Anaheim, CA, 3 April 2013 [invited keynote...Keynote Speaker, Binaural Active Audition Symposium, Kyoto Japan, March 2013 Keynote Speaker, Annual Meeting of the Academy of Audiology , Anaheim, CA

  18. Vulnerability to the Irrelevant Sound Effect in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Marie-France; Hodgetts, Helen M; Lafleur, Martin F; Vincent, Annick; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    An ecologically valid adaptation of the irrelevant sound effect paradigm was employed to examine the relative roles of short-term memory, selective attention, and sustained attention in ADHD. In all, 32 adults with ADHD and 32 control participants completed a serial recall task in silence or while ignoring irrelevant background sound. Serial recall performance in adults with ADHD was reduced relative to controls in both conditions. The degree of interference due to irrelevant sound was greater for adults with ADHD. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between task performance under conditions of irrelevant sound and the extent of attentional problems reported by patients on a clinical symptom scale. The results demonstrate that adults with ADHD exhibit impaired short-term memory and a low resistance to distraction; however, their capacity for sustained attention is preserved as the impact of irrelevant sound diminished over the course of the task. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Speech pattern improvement following gingivectomy of excess palatal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzclaw, Dan; Toscano, Nicholas

    2008-10-01

    Speech disruption secondary to excessive gingival tissue has received scant attention in periodontal literature. Although a few articles have addressed the causes of this condition, documentation and scientific explanation of treatment outcomes are virtually non-existent. This case report describes speech pattern improvements secondary to periodontal surgery and provides a concise review of linguistic and phonetic literature pertinent to the case. A 21-year-old white female with a history of gingival abscesses secondary to excessive palatal tissue presented for treatment. Bilateral gingivectomies of palatal tissues were performed with inverse bevel incisions extending distally from teeth #5 and #12 to the maxillary tuberosities, and large wedges of epithelium/connective tissue were excised. Within the first month of the surgery, the patient noted "changes in the manner in which her tongue contacted the roof of her mouth" and "changes in her speech." Further anecdotal investigation revealed the patient's enunciation of sounds such as "s," "sh," and "k" was greatly improved following the gingivectomy procedure. Palatometric research clearly demonstrates that the tongue has intimate contact with the lateral aspects of the posterior palate during speech. Gingival excess in this and other palatal locations has the potential to alter linguopalatal contact patterns and disrupt normal speech patterns. Surgical correction of this condition via excisional procedures may improve linguopalatal contact patterns which, in turn, may lead to improved patient speech.

  20. Acoustical conditions for speech communication in active elementary school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Bradley, John

    2005-04-01

    Detailed acoustical measurements were made in 34 active elementary school classrooms with typical rectangular room shape in schools near Ottawa, Canada. There was an average of 21 students in classrooms. The measurements were made to obtain accurate indications of the acoustical quality of conditions for speech communication during actual teaching activities. Mean speech and noise levels were determined from the distribution of recorded sound levels and the average speech-to-noise ratio was 11 dBA. Measured mid-frequency reverberation times (RT) during the same occupied conditions varied from 0.3 to 0.6 s, and were a little less than for the unoccupied rooms. RT values were not related to noise levels. Octave band speech and noise levels, useful-to-detrimental ratios, and Speech Transmission Index values were also determined. Key results included: (1) The average vocal effort of teachers corresponded to louder than Pearsons Raised voice level; (2) teachers increase their voice level to overcome ambient noise; (3) effective speech levels can be enhanced by up to 5 dB by early reflection energy; and (4) student activity is seen to be the dominant noise source, increasing average noise levels by up to 10 dBA during teaching activities. [Work supported by CLLRnet.