WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained space exploration

  1. Product Lifecycle Management and Sustainable Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of product lifecycle management (PLM) in the general aerospace industry, its use and development at NASA and at Marshall Space Flight Center, and how the use of PLM can lead to sustainable space exploration.

  2. NASA Ames Sustainability Initiatives: Aeronautics, Space Exploration, and Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grymes, Rosalind A.

    2015-01-01

    In support of the mission-specific challenges of aeronautics and space exploration, NASA Ames produces a wealth of research and technology advancements with significant relevance to larger issues of planetary sustainability. NASA research on NexGen airspace solutions and its development of autonomous and intelligent technologies will revolutionize both the nation's air transporation systems and have applicability to the low altitude flight economy and to both air and ground transporation, more generally. NASA's understanding of the Earth as a complex of integrated systems contributes to humanity's perception of the sustainability of our home planet. Research at NASA Ames on closed environment life support systems produces directly applicable lessons on energy, water, and resource management in ground-based infrastructure. Moreover, every NASA campus is a 'city'; including an urbanscape and a workplace including scientists, human relations specialists, plumbers, engineers, facility managers, construction trades, transportation managers, software developers, leaders, financial planners, technologists, electricians, students, accountants, and even lawyers. NASA is applying the lessons of our mission-related activities to our urbanscapes and infrastructure, and also anticipates a leadership role in developing future environments for living and working in space.

  3. Exploring Sustainability Using images from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Loris; Salmon, Jennifer; Burns, Courtney

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability is the integrating theme of grade 8 science at Dwight D. Eisenhower in Wyckoff, New Jersey. With a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), sustainability establishes relevance for students, connects course work to current news topics, and ties together trimester explorations of earth science, physical science, and life science. Units are organized as problem-based learning units centered on disciplinary core ideas. Sustainability education empowers students to think about human and natural systems on a broader scale as they collaboratively seek solutions to scientific or engineering problems. The STEM-related sustainability issues encompass both global and local perspectives. Through problem solving, students acquire and demonstrate proficiency in the three-dimensions of Next Generation Science Standards (disciplinary core ideas, science and engineering practices, and crosscutting concepts). During the earth science trimester, students explore causes, effects, and mitigation strategies associated with urban heat islands and climate change. As a transition to a trimester of chemistry (physical science), students investigate the sustainability of mobile phone technology from raw materials mining to end-of-life disposal. Students explore natural resource conservation strategies in the interdisciplinary context of impacts on the economy, society, and environment. Sustainability creates a natural context for chemical investigations of ocean-atmosphere interactions such as ocean acidification. Students conclude the eighth grade with an investigation of heredity and evolution. Sustainability challenges embedded in genetics studies include endangered species management (California condors) and predicting the effects of climate change on populations in specific environments (Arctic and Antarctic regions). At Dwight D. Eisenhower Middle School, science students have access to a variety of web-enabled devices (e.g., Chromebooks

  4. Commercialization is Required for Sustainable Space Exploration and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.; Olson, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Space Exploration policy outlines an exciting new direction in space for human and robotic exploration and development beyond low Earth orbit. Pressed by this new visionary guidance, human civilization will be able to methodically build capabilities to move off Earth and into the solar system in a step-by-step manner, gradually increasing the capability for humans to stay longer in space and move further away from Earth. The new plans call for an implementation that would create an affordable and sustainable program in order to span over generations of explorers, each new generation pushing back the boundaries and building on the foundations laid by the earlier. To create a sustainable program it is important to enable and encourage the development of a selfsupporting commercial space industry leveraging both traditional and non-traditional segments of the industrial base. Governments will not be able to open the space frontier on their own because their goals change over relatively short timescales and because the large costs associated with human spaceflight cannot be sustained. A strong space development industrial sector is needed that can one day support the needs of commercial space enterprises as well as provide capabilities that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other national space agencies can buy to achieve their exploration goals. This new industrial space sector will someday provide fundamental capabilities like communications, power, logistics, and even cargo and human space transportation, just as commercial companies are able to provide these services on Earth today. To help develop and bolster this new space industrial sector, NASA and other national space agencies can enable and facilitate it in many ways, including reducing risk by developing important technologies necessary for commercialization of space, and as a paying customer, partner, or anchor tenant. This transition from all or mostly government

  5. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Explorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule

  6. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering Directorate, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This briefing will demonstrate how the MSFC Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions and how that strategy aligns with the Agency and Center systems engineering policies and processes. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized, and engineering the next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the aerospace and automotive industry for many years, for spacecraft applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment. PLM enables better solutions using fewer resources by making lifecycle considerations in an integrative decision-making process.

  7. Space exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris Moore

    2012-01-01

      Here, Moore presents a year in review on space exploration programs. This 2012 NASA's strategy of stimulating the development of commercial capabilities to launch crew and cargo to the ISS began to pay off...

  8. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the automotive industry for many years, for aerospace applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment by making lifecycle considerations variables in an iterative decision-making process. This paper combines the perspectives of the founding father of PLM, along with the experience of Engineering leaders who are implementing these processes and practices real-time. As the nation moves from an industrial-based society to one where information is a valued commodity, future NASA programs and projects will benefit from the experience being gained today for the exploration missions of tomorrow.

  9. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  10. A Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture that Supports a System of Systems Approach to Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Steve; Orr, Jim; O'Neil, Graham

    2004-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture based on a highly modular "systems of systems" infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is absolutely essential for an affordable and sustainable space exploration program. This architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimum sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the space shuttle program are applied to help define and refine the model.

  11. Shuttle Shortfalls and Lessons Learned for the Sustainment of Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Much debate and national soul searching has taken place over the value of the Space Shuttle which first flew in 1981 and which is currently scheduled to be retired in 2010. Originally developed post-Saturn Apollo to emphasize affordability and safety, the reusable Space Shuttle instead came to be perceived as economically unsustainable and lacking the technology maturity to assure safe, routine access to low earth orbit (LEO). After the loss of two crews, aboard Challenger and Columbia, followed by the decision to retire the system in 2010, it is critical that this three decades worth of human space flight experience be well understood. Understanding of the past is imperative to further those goals for which the Space Shuttle was a stepping-stone in the advancement of knowledge. There was significant reduction in life cycle costs between the Saturn Apollo and the Space Shuttle. However, the advancement in life cycle cost reduction from Saturn Apollo to the Space Shuttle fell far short of its goal. This paper will explore the reasons for this shortfall. Shortfalls and lessons learned can be categorized as related to design factors, at the architecture, element and sub-system levels, as well as to programmatic factors, in terms of goals, requirements, management and organization. Additionally, no review of the Space Shuttle program and attempt to take away key lessons would be complete without a strategic review. That is, how do national space goals drive future space transportation development strategies? The lessons of the Space Shuttle are invaluable in all respects - technical, as in design, program-wise, as in organizational approach and goal setting, and strategically, within the context of the generational march toward an expanded human presence in space. Beyond lessons though (and the innumerable papers, anecdotes and opinions published on this topic) this paper traces tangible, achievable steps, derived from the Space Shuttle program experience, that must be

  12. Engineering America's Current and Future Space Transportation Systems: 50 Years of Systems Engineering Innovation for Sustainable Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States' (U.S.) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to' construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (Figure 1). The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair Lunar Lander and the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation (Figure 2), as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. These activities also will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development work being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments

  13. SpaceExplorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard

    2007-01-01

    Web pages are designed to be displayed on a single screen, but as more and more screens are being introduced in our surroundings a burning question becomes how to design, interact, and display web pages on multiple devices and displays. In this paper I present the SpaceExplorer prototype, which...

  14. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  15. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Space Exploration: Resource Processing, Mission-Enabling Technologies, and Lessons for Sustainability on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit andor on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.

  16. SUSTAINABILITY OF DIGITAL PUBLIC SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Hudák

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modern digital public spaces are evolving from being mostly the provider of ICT and internet connection to institutions that provide complex range of services and support for the community. With this shift in their focus new challenges are emerging, among others their sustainability.Methodology/Approach: We build on and extend the methodology of Digital Cooperatives project. Within this project, survey on 59 digital public spaces from 12 EU countries was conducted. These digital public spaces were examined in 21 areas, some of them relating to their sustainability. We further analyse the sustainability issue of these digital public spaces.Findings: We identified three main issues affecting sustainability of digital public spaces – budgeting, services and community. Digital public spaces mostly rely on public funding and have limited diversification of their funds, which increases a risk when one source of funding drops out. They also have to build a strong community of users, supporters, which will make use of their capacities and helps co-create new services and thus strengthen and improve the community itself.Originality/Value of paper: Research in this paper is based on the collection of best practices from various EU countries in the field of digital public spaces. Recommendations based on these practices could help the creation of new, and in current digital public spaces.

  17. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  18. Stepping stones toward global space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C.

    2011-06-01

    Several nations are currently engaging in or planning for robotic and human space exploration programs that target the Moon, Mars and near-Earth asteroids. These ambitious plans to build new space infrastructures, transport systems and space probes will require international cooperation if they are to be sustainable and affordable. Partnerships must involve not only established space powers, but also emerging space nations and developing countries; the participation of these new space actors will provide a bottom-up support structure that will aid program continuity, generate more active members in the space community, and increase public awareness of space activities in both developed and developing countries. The integration of many stakeholders into a global space exploration program represents a crucial element securing political and programmatic stability. How can the evolving space community learn to cooperate on a truly international level while engaging emerging space nations and developing countries in a meaningful way? We propose a stepping stone approach toward a global space exploration program, featuring three major elements: (1) an international Earth-based field research program preparing for planetary exploration, (2) enhanced exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) enabling exploration and (3) a worldwide CubeSat program supporting exploration. An international Earth-based field research program can serve as a truly global exploration testbed that allows both established and new space actors to gain valuable experience by working together to prepare for future planetary exploration missions. Securing greater exploitation of the ISS is a logical step during its prolonged lifetime; ISS experiments, partnerships and legal frameworks are valuable foundations for exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Cooperation involving small, low-cost missions could be a major stride toward exciting and meaningful participation from emerging space nations

  19. Space Exploration: Issues Concerning the Vision for Space Exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Marcia S

    2006-01-01

    .... The President invited other countries to join. Most of the funding for this Vision for Space Exploration is to be redirected from other NASA activities, including terminating the space shuttle program in 2010, and ending U.S...

  20. Building Strategic Capabilities for Sustained Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, M.; Hufenbach, B.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss a lunar exploration architecture that addresses the strategic objective of providing access to the lunar surface. This access enables the most exciting part of the lunar exploration: building a sustained infrastructure on the lunar surface.

  1. Continuing to Build a Community Consensus on the Future of Human Space Flight: Report of the Fourth Community Workshop on Achievability and Sustainability of Human Exploration of Mars (AM IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Baker, John; Beaty, David; Carberry, Chris; Craig, Mark; Davis, Richard M.; Drake, Bret G.; Cassady, Joseph; Hays, Lindsay; Hoffman, Stephen J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    To continue to build broadly based consensus on the future of human space exploration, the Fourth Community Workshop on Achievability and Sustainability of Human Exploration of Mars (AM IV), organized by Explore Mars, Inc. and the American Astronautical Society, was held at the Double Tree Inn in Monrovia, CA., December 68, 2016. Approximately 60 invited professionals from the industrial and commercial sectors, academia, and NASA, along with international colleagues, participated in the workshop. These individuals were chosen to be representative of the breadth of interests in astronaut and robotic Mars exploration.

  2. Nuclear Energy in Space Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear space programs under development by the Atomic Energy Commission are reviewed including the Rover Program, systems for nuclear rocket propulsion and, the SNAP Program, systems for generating electric power in space. The letters S-N-A-P stands for Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power. Some of the projected uses of nuclear systems in space are briefly discussed including lunar orbit, lunar transportation from lunar orbit to lunar surface and base stations; planetary exploration, and longer space missions. The limitations of other sources of energy such as solar, fuel cells, and electric batteries are discussed. The excitement and visionary possibilities of the Age of Space are discussed.

  3. NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    deWeek, Oliver; Evans, William A.; Parrish, Joe; James, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    As NASA has embarked on a new Vision for Space Exploration, there is new energy and focus around the area of manned space exploration. These activities encompass the design of new vehicles such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the identification of commercial opportunities for space transportation services, as well as continued operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Reaching the Moon and eventually Mars with a mix of both robotic and human explorers for short term missions is a formidable challenge in itself. How to achieve this in a safe, efficient and long-term sustainable way is yet another question. The challenge is not only one of vehicle design, launch, and operations but also one of space logistics. Oftentimes, logistical issues are not given enough consideration upfront, in relation to the large share of operating budgets they consume. In this context, a group of 54 experts in space logistics met for a two-day workshop to discuss the following key questions: 1. What is the current state-of the art in space logistics, in terms of architectures, concepts, technologies as well as enabling processes? 2. What are the main challenges for space logistics for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars, at the intersection of engineering and space operations? 3. What lessons can be drawn from past successes and failures in human space flight logistics? 4. What lessons and connections do we see from terrestrial analogies as well as activities in other areas, such as U.S. military logistics? 5. What key advances are required to enable long-term success in the context of a future interplanetary supply chain? These proceedings summarize the outcomes of the workshop, reference particular presentations, panels and breakout sessions, and record specific observations that should help guide future efforts.

  4. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapp, Neal; Fry, Dan; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during a deep space exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between research and operations . The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun

  5. Ethics and the Space Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, W.

    2002-01-01

    Ethics is not a word often encountered at meetings of space activists or in work groups planning a space future. Yet, the planning of space exploration ought to have ethical dimensions because space workers are not disconnected from the remainder of society in either their professional disciplines, in their institutions, or in the subject matter they choose to study. As a scientist, I have been trained in the schema of research. Although the scientific method is noted for its system of self -correction in the form of peer review, sharing of information, and repeatability of new findings, the enterprise of universal knowledge still depends heavily on an ethical system rooted in honesty in the reporting of findings and in the processing of data. As a government employee, I receive annual "ethical training". However, the training consists almost entirely of reminders to obey various laws governing the activities and the external relationships of government employees. For 20 years l have been involved in discussions of possible futures for human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit. Many scenarios ranging from lunar landing to Martian settlement have been discussed without any mention of possible ethical issues. l remember hearing Apollo astronaut Harrison Schmitt once remark that space exploration was attractive because technology can be employed in its purest form in the conquest of space. His point was that the challenge was Man against Nature, a struggle in which the consequences or side effects of technology was not an issue. To paraphrase, in space you do not need an environmental impact study. I wish to analyze this proposition with regard to contexts in which people initiate, or plan to initiate, activities in space. Depending on the situation, space can be viewed as a laboratory, as a frontier, as a resource, as an environment, or as a location to conduct business. All of these associations and contexts also are found in our everyday activities on Earth

  6. From space exploration to commercialisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tkatchova, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration has captured the imagination and dreams of many scientists, engineers and visionaries.The ISS is being built by five ISS partners; NASA, RSA, ESA, CSA and JAXA. ISS commercialisation is the process by which ISS products and services are sold to private companies, without

  7. Food Production for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia

    2017-01-01

    The desire for exploration is deeply ingrained in the human psyche. However, as we push the frontiers of discovery, the challenges we face become equally daunting. The overall goal of this section is to address one of the most critical concerns, How do we reliably feed those humans we send into space? Currently, all supplies consumed by space missions must be sent via exorbitantly expensive rockets that necessarily prevent us from venturing too far from Earth. Astro-agriculture aims to address this problem in several ways. This talk will describe future food production systems for space and focus on the Veggie system on ISS as a way to answer the many questions that remain to enable exploration to Mars and beyond.

  8. Trailblazing Medicine Sustaining Explorers During Interplanetary Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2011-01-01

    To prepare for the day when astronauts leave low-Earth orbit for long-duration exploration missions, space medicine experts must develop a thorough understanding of the effects of microgravity on the human body, as well as ways of mitigating them. To gain a complete understanding of the effects of space on the human body and to create tools and technologies required for successful exploration, space medicince will become an increasingly collaborative discipline incorporating the skills of physicians, biomedical scientists, engineers, and mission planners. Trailblazing Medicine examines the future of space medicine in relation to human space exploration; describes what is necessary to keep a crew alive in space, including the use of surgical robots, surface-based telemedicine, and remote emergency care; discusses bioethical problems such as euthanasia, sex, and precautionary surgery; investigates the medical challenges faced by interplanetary astronauts; details the process of human hibernation.

  9. Power systems for space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipbaugh, Calvin; Solomon, Kenneth A.

    The Outreach Program was designed to solicit creative ideas from academia, research institutions, private enterprises, and the general public and is intended to be helpful in defining promising technical areas and program paths for more detailed study. To the Outreach Program, a number of power system concepts were proposed. In conclusion, there are a number of advanced concepts for space power and propulsion sources that deserve study if we want to expand our ability to not only explore space, but to utilize it. Advanced nuclear concepts and power beaming concepts are two areas worthy of detailed assessments.

  10. Transition Experiments: Exploring societal changes towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.M. van den Bosch (Suzanne)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis presents the outcome of exploratory research on how transition experiments can be used as instruments to further sustainable development. A transition experiment is a specific type of innovation project that is aimed at exploring radically new ways to meet societal

  11. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  12. Nuclear Energy for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system. Fusion and antimatter systems may also be viable in the future

  13. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  14. Kennedy Space Center Five Year Sustainability Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann T.

    2016-01-01

    The Federal Government is committed to following sustainable principles. At its heart, sustainability integrates environmental, societal and economic solutions for present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Building upon its pledge towards environmental stewardship, the Administration generated a vision of sustainability spanning ten goals mandated within Executive Order (EO) 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade. In November 2015, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) responded to this EO by incorporating it into a new release of the NASA Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP). The SSPP recognizes the importance of aligning environmental practices in a manner that preserves, enhances and strengthens NASA's ability to perform its mission indefinitely. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is following suit with KSC's Sustainability Plan (SP) by promoting, maintaining and pioneering green practices in all aspects of our mission. KSC's SP recognizes that the best sustainable solutions use an interdisciplinary, collaborative approach spanning civil servant and contractor personnel from across the Center. This approach relies on the participation of all employees to develop and implement sustainability endeavors connected with the following ten goals: Reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Design, build and maintain sustainable buildings, facilities and infrastructure. Leverage clean and renewable energy. Increase water conservation. Improve fleet and vehicle efficiency and management. Purchase sustainable products and services. Minimize waste and prevent pollution. Implement performance contracts for Federal buildings. Manage electronic equipment and data centers responsibly. Pursue climate change resilience. The KSC SP details the strategies and actions that address the following objectives: Reduce Center costs. center dot Increase energy and water efficiencies. Promote smart

  15. Space - the essential dimension of sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Mogens

    be accumulated as waste being an obstacle for new development. If this circular process can be repeated indefinitely, the development is truly sustainable. However, sustainability involves many aspects, and most importantly the aims of development. That includes the meaning of value and hereby the moral/ethical...... their needs. The articles tries to illustrate how space, as the combination of natural resources, environments and man-made capital, is the basic and most important dimension of sustainability. The article aims at giving an overview of the basic interdependence of natural resource endowment, technological...

  16. Implementing Space Technology into Sustainable Development and Resilience Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Arévalo Yepes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores potential and actual applications of space technology, particularly satellites in the context of sustainable development. The introduction explores the concept of sustainable development from a multilateral perspective and the framework of Rio+20 and the post-2015 development agenda. The paper then introduces space technology and its uses in economic growth, energy, food security, environmental surveillance, including coastal regions, with special emphasis on environmental disasters and the concept of resilience, and the social and welfare uses of humanitarian tele-medicine and tele-education and ways to overcome the digital divide. The conclusion gives recommendations to improve satellite capacity and an analysis of the systemic synergies between space technologies and “green industries” that may lead to tandem growth.

  17. Social Foundations of Human Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Dator, James A

    2012-01-01

    Social Foundations of Human Space Exploration presents a uniquely human perspective on the quest to explore space and to understand the universe through the lens of the arts, humanities, and social sciences. It considers early stories about the universe in various cultures; recent space fiction; the origins and cultural rationale for the space age; experiences of humans in space and their emerging interactions with robots and artificial intelligence; how humans should treat environments and alien life; and the alternative futures of space exploration and settlement.

  18. Participatory Systems Modeling to Explore Sustainable ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decision makers often need assistance in understanding dynamic interactions and linkages among economic, environmental and social systems in coastal watersheds. They also need scientific input to better evaluate potential costs and benefits of alternative policy interventions. The US EPA is applying sustainability science to address these needs. Triple Value (3V) Scoping and Modeling projects bring a systems approach to understand complex environmental problems, incorporate local knowledge, and allow decision-makers to explore policy scenarios. This leads to better understanding of feedbacks and outcomes to both human and environmental systems. The Suffolk County, NY (eastern Long Island) 3V Case uses SES interconnections to explore possible policy options and scenarios for intervention to mitigate the effects of excess nitrogen (N) loading to ground, surface, and estuarine waters. Many of the environmental impacts of N pollution negatively affect social and economic well-being and productivity. Key are loss of enjoyment and recreational use of local beach environments and loss of income and revenues from tourism and local fisheries. Stakeholders generated this Problem Statement: Suffolk County is experiencing widespread degradation to groundwater and the coastal marine environment caused by excess nitrogen. How can local stakeholders and decision makers in Suffolk County arrest and reverse this degradation, restore conditions to support a healthy thriving ecos

  19. Global visions for space exploration education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.

    2010-04-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997 through a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) competition, is a 12-university consortium dedicated to space life science research and education. NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) has partnered with Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) to support NSBRI-NASA's education mission, which is to strengthen the nation's future science workforce through initiatives that communicate space exploration biology research findings to schools; support undergraduate and graduate programs; fund postdoctoral fellowships; and engage national and international audiences in collegial exchanges that promote global visions for space exploration education. This paper describes select MSM-NSBRI-EPOP activities, including scholarly interchanges with audiences in Austria, Canada, France, China, Greece, Italy, Scotland and Spain. The paper also makes the case for a global space exploration education vision that inspires students, engages educators and informs general audiences about the benefits that space exploration holds for life on Earth.

  20. Social Sciences and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between technology and society is a subject of continuing interest, because technological change and its effects confront and challenge society. College students are especially interested in technological change, knowing that they must cope with the pervasive and escalating effect of wide-ranging technological change. The space shuttle represents a technological change. The book's role is to serve as a resource for college faculty and students who are or will be interested in the social science implications of space technology. The book is designed to provide introductory material on a variety of space social topics to help faculty and students pursue teaching, learning, and research. Space technologies, perspectives on individual disciplines (economics, history, international law, philosophy, political science, psychology, and sociology) and interdiscipline approaches are presented.

  1. Space Exploration of Planetary Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Norman F.

    2010-05-01

    This chapter gives a brief overview of the major observational advances in our quantitative knowledge of the intrinsic magnetic fields of the 8 planets, except Earth, from Mercury to Neptune, since “The Space Age” began on 4 October 1957 with the USSR launching of the world’s first artificial satellite SPUTNIK I.

  2. Mind: explore the space inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barve, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    When caught in the dilemma of career choice, a critical conversation helped the writer crystallize the decision to plunge into the field of mental health. The decision just not only kindled interest in psychiatry but passion to study the science of the mind despite the fact that in earlier times psychiatry mainly catered to patients with chronic schizophrenia and uncontrolled bipolar disorder. Weathering the curious glances of colleagues the writer pursued to explore the field of the science of the mind. Not restricting himself to classical trends in private practice, he explored every opportunity to reach out to the common man through writing articles in popular newspapers and also ran a TV Show to respond to people's queries on mental health. He further ventured into training and development of young MBA aspirants and trained himself into an international coach and facilitator. The science of Behavioural Economics beckons him now.

  3. Lunar exploration and development--a sustainable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A long-term goal of space exploration is the development of a lunar settlement that will not only be largely self-sufficient but also contribute to the economy of the Earth-Moon system. Proposals for lunar mining and materials processing developments, as well as tourism-based applications, have appeared in the literature for many years. However, so great are the technical and financial difficulties associated with sustained lunar development that, more than 30 years after the end of the Apollo programme, there have been no practical advances towards this goal. While this may soon be remedied by a series of proposed unmanned orbiters, landers and rovers, the philosophy of lunar exploration and development remains the same as it has for decades: conquer, exploit, and ignore the consequences. By contrasting the well-recognised problems of Earth orbital debris and the barely recognised issue of intentional spacecraft impacts on the lunar surface, this paper illustrates the need for a new model for lunar exploration and development. This new paradigm would assign a value to the lunar environment and provide a balance between protection and exploitation, creating, in effect, a philosophy of sustainable development for the Moon. It is suggested that this new philosophy should be an integral part of any future strategy for lunar colonisation. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lunar exploration and development—A sustainable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark

    2005-07-01

    A long-term goal of space exploration is the development of a lunar settlement that will not only be largely self-sufficient but also contribute to the economy of the Earth Moon system. Proposals for lunar mining and materials processing developments, as well as tourism-based applications, have appeared in the literature for many years. However, so great are the technical and financial difficulties associated with sustained lunar development that, more than 30 years after the end of the Apollo programme, there have been no practical advances towards this goal. While this may soon be remedied by a series of proposed unmanned orbiters, landers and rovers, the philosophy of lunar exploration and development remains the same as it has for decades: conquer, exploit, and ignore the consequences. By contrasting the well-recognised problems of Earth orbital debris and the barely recognised issue of intentional spacecraft impacts on the lunar surface, this paper illustrates the need for a new model for lunar exploration and development. This new paradigm would assign a value to the lunar environment and provide a balance between protection and exploitation, creating, in effect, a philosophy of sustainable development for the Moon. It is suggested that this new philosophy should be an integral part of any future strategy for lunar colonisation.

  5. Technology transfer from the space exploration initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1991-06-14

    Space exploration has demonstrated that it stimulates the national economy by creating new and improved products, increased employment, and provides a stimulus to education. The exploration of the Moon and Mars under the Space Exploration Initiative has the potential of accelerating this stimulates to the economy. It is difficult to identify all of the concrete ways this will be accomplished. However, many areas can be identified. The space exploration building blocks of power, propulsion, spacecraft, robotics, rovers, mining and manufacturing, communications, navigation, habitats, life support and infrastructures are reviewed to identify possible technology areas. For example, better means for working in hazardous areas and handling hazardous waste are potential outcomes of this initiative. Methods to produce higher quality goods and improve America`s competitiveness in manufacturing will undoubtedly evolve from the need to produce products that must last many years in the harsh environments of space and planetary surfaces. Some ideas for technology transfer are covered in this paper.

  6. Technology transfer from the space exploration initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1991-06-14

    Space exploration has demonstrated that it stimulates the national economy by creating new and improved products, increased employment, and provides a stimulus to education. The exploration of the Moon and Mars under the Space Exploration Initiative has the potential of accelerating this stimulates to the economy. It is difficult to identify all of the concrete ways this will be accomplished. However, many areas can be identified. The space exploration building blocks of power, propulsion, spacecraft, robotics, rovers, mining and manufacturing, communications, navigation, habitats, life support and infrastructures are reviewed to identify possible technology areas. For example, better means for working in hazardous areas and handling hazardous waste are potential outcomes of this initiative. Methods to produce higher quality goods and improve America's competitiveness in manufacturing will undoubtedly evolve from the need to produce products that must last many years in the harsh environments of space and planetary surfaces. Some ideas for technology transfer are covered in this paper.

  7. Multiprocessor systems on chip design space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Kempf, Torsten; Leupers, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive introduction to the design challenges of MPSoC platforms focuses on early space exploration and defines an iterative methodology to increase the abstraction level, enabling the evaluation of design decisions earlier in the design process.

  8. Pioneers in Astronomy and Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The pioneers of astronomy and space exploration have advanced humankind's understanding of the universe. These individuals include earthbound theorists such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Galileo, as well as those who put their lives on the line travelling into the great unknown. Readers chronicle the lives of individuals positioned at the vanguard of astronomical discovery, laying the groundwork for space exploration past, present, and yet to come.

  9. Globalisation and Education for Sustainable Development: Exploring the Global in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Stefan L.; Östman, Leif O.

    2016-01-01

    The article explores education for sustainable development (ESD) as a policy concept in different spaces and how it is re-articulated as part of a process of globalisation. The objective is to explore empirically an alternative set of logics in order to conceive of this process of globalisation. With this objective in mind, the article…

  10. Exploring the Aesthetics of Sustainable Fashion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    , sustainable fashion. In programming the didactical setting for the students’ projects, several aesthetics must be considered: the aesthetic codes of the textile and fashion design discipline, both in terms of materials and expression, deriving from within the design practice itself and the aesthetic codes...... of mediated expressions seen in e.g. fashion magazines which create a frame of aestheticization influencing how fashion expressions are valued. In this tension between internal aesthetics and external aestheticization, the students are set out to create a new design expression for sustainable design which...

  11. Exploring the Aesthetics of Sustainable Fashion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    of mediated expressions seen in e.g. fashion magazines which create a frame of aestheticization influencing how fashion expressions are valued. In this tension between internal aesthetics and external aestheticization, the students are set out to create a new design expression for sustainable design which......, sustainable fashion. In programming the didactical setting for the students’ projects, several aesthetics must be considered: the aesthetic codes of the textile and fashion design discipline, both in terms of materials and expression, deriving from within the design practice itself and the aesthetic codes...

  12. NASA Space Launch System: A Cornerstone Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    Exploration Coordination Group, which represents 14 of the world's space agencies. In addition, this paper will detail this new rocket's capability to support missions beyond the human exploration roadmap, including robotic precursor missions to other worlds or uniquely high-mass space operation facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS Program is currently building a global infrastructure asset that will provide robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for exploration.

  13. NASA's Space Launch System: A Cornerstone Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, which represents 12 of the world's space agencies. In addition, this paper will detail this new rocket's capability to support missions beyond the human exploration roadmap, including robotic precursor missions to other worlds or uniquely high-mass space operation facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS Program is currently building a global infrastructure asset that will provide robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for exploration.

  14. Shape space exploration of constrained meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2011-12-12

    We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc. © 2011 ACM.

  15. Shape space exploration of constrained meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2011-01-01

    We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc.

  16. Exploring the Aesthetics of Sustainable Fashion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    This working paper is a discussion of different notions and conceptions of aesthetics that may be at play when developing new design. The empirical case of the paper derives from the context of design education in a module aimed at the development of a new design expression for contemporary......, sustainable fashion. In programming the didactical setting for the students’ projects, several aesthetics must be considered: the aesthetic codes of the textile and fashion design discipline, both in terms of materials and expression, deriving from within the design practice itself and the aesthetic codes...... of mediated expressions seen in e.g. fashion magazines which create a frame of aestheticization influencing how fashion expressions are valued. In this tension between internal aesthetics and external aestheticization, the students are set out to create a new design expression for sustainable design which...

  17. Exploring the Aesthetics of Sustainable Fashion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    , sustainable fashion. In programming the didactical setting for the students’ projects, several aesthetics must be considered: the aesthetic codes of the textile and fashion design discipline, both in terms of materials and expression, deriving from within the design practice itself and the aesthetic codes...... of mediated expressions seen in e.g. fashion magazines which create a frame of aestheticization influencing how fashion expressions are valued. In this tension between internal aesthetics and external aestheticization, the students are set out to create a new design expression for sustainable design which......This working paper is a discussion of different notions and conceptions of aesthetics that may be at play when developing new design. The empirical case of the paper derives from the context of design education in a module aimed at the development of a new design expression for contemporary...

  18. Energy Production for Sustainable Planetary Explorations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our basic approach is to use a photoelectrochemical cell operated under simulated Mars conditions. The light source will be solar simulator with a wide spectrum of...

  19. The development of sustainable food consumption : exploring drivers of sustainable food consumption from a consumer perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruhn, Alina; Hesselroth, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a growing concern for the natural environment. In turn, that has led to a change in consumer behaviour and their willingness to consume sustainable food products. Although, what drives consumers to sustainable food products today, remains. The purpose of this study is to explore changes in sustainable food consumption, and the drivers behind these changes from a consumer perspective. To do so, drivers behind sustainable consumption was first identified fro...

  20. Different spaces : Exploring Facebook as heterotopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rymarczuk, R.; Derksen, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space of Facebook, and use Michel Foucault’s concept of heterotopia to describe it. We show that the heterotopic nature of Facebook explains not only much of its attraction, but even more the discomfort that many people, users as well as non–users, experience in it.

  1. Graph Subsumption in Abstract State Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambon, Eduardo; Rensink, Arend; Wijs, A.; Bosnacki, D.; Edelkamp, S.

    In this paper we present the extension of an existing method for abstract graph-based state space exploration, called neighbourhood abstraction, with a reduction technique based on subsumption. Basically, one abstract state subsumes another when it covers more concrete states; in such a case, the

  2. Space Weather Status for Exploration Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Dan J.; Lee, Kerry; Zapp, Neal; Barzilla, Janet; Dunegan, Audrey; Johnson, Steve; Stoffle, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and in free space, for example, may differ by orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for the ability to conduct exploration operations. We present a current status of developing operational concepts for manned exploration and expectations for asset viability and available predictive and characterization toolsets.

  3. Novelty Search for Soft Robotic Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); D. Hennes; D. Izzo; A. Visser

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe use of soft robots in future space exploration is still a far-fetched idea, but an attractive one. Soft robots are inherently compliant mechanisms that are well suited for locomotion on rough terrain as often faced in extra-planetary environments. Depending on the particular

  4. Space exploration - Present and future challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Our future deep-space exploration faces many daunting challenges, but three of them loom high above the rest: physiological debilitation, radiation sickness and psychological stress. Many measures are presently being developed to reduce these difficulties. However, in the long run, two important new developments are required: abundant supply of power, and advanced space propulsion. The future looks bright, however. While the road is a long one, it is now well defined and many exciting explorations are within near-term reach.BiographyDr. Chang-Diaz graduated from MIT in the field of applied plasma physics and fusion research. He has been a NASA space shuttle astronaut on seven missions between 1986 and 2002. As director of the ASP Laboratory in Houston, he continues research on plasma rockets.For more details: see www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/chang.htmlNote: Tea and coffee will be served at 16:00 hrs.

  5. Exploring Space Physics Concepts Using Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, N. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM), a Science and Technology Center (STC) funded by the National Science Foundation, has the goal of developing a suite of integrated physics based computer models of the space environment that can follow the evolution of a space weather event from the Sun to the Earth. In addition to the research goals, CISM is also committed to training the next generation of space weather professionals who are imbued with a system view of space weather. This view should include an understanding of both helio-spheric and geo-space phenomena. To this end, CISM offers a yearly Space Weather Summer School targeted to first year graduate students, although advanced undergraduates and space weather professionals have also attended. This summer school uses a number of innovative pedagogical techniques including devoting each afternoon to a computer lab exercise that use results from research quality simulations and visualization techniques, along with ground based and satellite data to explore concepts introduced during the morning lectures. These labs are suitable for use in wide variety educational settings from formal classroom instruction to outreach programs. The goal of this poster is to outline the goals and content of the lab materials so that instructors may evaluate their potential use in the classroom or other settings.

  6. Technology Applications that Support Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Holderman, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Several enabling technologies have been identified that would provide significant benefits for future space exploration. In-Space demonstrations should be chosen so that these technologies will have a timely opportunity to improve efficiencies and reduce risks for future spaceflight. An early window exists to conduct ground and flight demonstrations that make use of existing assets that were developed for the Space Shuttle and the Constellation programs. The work could be mostly performed using residual program civil servants, existing facilities and current commercial launch capabilities. Partnering these abilities with the emerging commercial sector, along with other government agencies, academia and with international partners would provide an affordable and timely approach to get the launch costs down for these payloads, while increasing the derived benefits to a larger community. There is a wide scope of varied technologies that are being considered to help future space exploration. However, the cost and schedule would be prohibitive to demonstrate all these in the near term. Determining which technologies would yield the best return in meeting our future space needs is critical to building an achievable Space Architecture that allows exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit. The best mix of technologies is clearly to be based on our future needs, but also must take into account the availability of existing assets and supporting partners. Selecting those technologies that have complimentary applications will provide the most knowledge, with reasonable cost, for future use The plan is to develop those applications that not only mature the technology but actually perform a useful task or mission. These might include such functions as satellite servicing, a propulsion stage, processing lunar regolith, generating and transmitting solar power, cryogenic fluid transfer and storage and artificial gravity. Applications have been selected for assessment for future

  7. The potential of space exploration for education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shair, Fredrick H.

    1993-11-01

    Space exploration and observations from space offer unique opportunities with respect to education. Recent technical advances have significantly increased the width and sensitivity of the electromagnetic spectrum window through which we are able to 'see' the universe. Observations from space have forced a realization that the earth is a beautiful, complex, and interconnected system. Space astronomy and the remote sensing of objects throughout our solar system have the potential of providing unique educational opportunities. Modern technologies have significantly reduced the cost of collecting, transmitting and processing data. Consequently, we are entering an age where it is possible to open up the process of discovery to almost everyone - and especially to young people throughout the world.

  8. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Sharmi; Barr, Yael; Kerstman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA s Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the "Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember." This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this risk. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to define the set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur during exploration space flight missions. The list was derived from the International Space Station Medical Checklist, the Shuttle Medical Checklist, in-flight occurrence data from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, and NASA subject matter experts. The list of conditions was further prioritized for eight specific design reference missions with the assistance of the ExMC Advisory Group. The purpose of the SMEMCL is to serve as an evidence-based foundation for the conditions that could affect a crewmember during flight. This information is used to ensure that the appropriate medical capabilities are available for exploration missions.

  9. The YES2 Experience : Towards Sustainable Space Transportation using Tethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heide, E.J.; Kruijff, M.; Ockels, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Today there is no common vision on sustainable space transportation. Rockets expel gasses and solid rockets often small particles. These have negative effect on the environment, but it is not understood to what extent. With ever growing demand for access to space, sustainable technology developments

  10. Exotic propulsion systems - A space exploration imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloulakos, V. E.

    1992-07-01

    Treatment is given to the need for and use of unusual propulsion systems in the forthcoming development of space vehicles. The requirements of lunar and Martian outposts are set forth, and the expected delta velocities, vehicle masses, and specific energy levels are listed. Exotic propulsion systems are considered that can provide the specific impulse levels needed for the scenarios discussed. Discussed are antimatter propulsion, teleportation, and antigravity machines, and the theoretical and practical implications of their development and use are mentioned. The use of antiprotons in medical treatment and materials processing is explained and extended to the propulsion application. The paper demonstrates the potential of exotic propulsion systems to contribute to space exploration.

  11. Enabling the space exploration initiative: NASA's exploration technology program in space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    Space power requirements for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, including the results of a NASA 90-day study and reports by the National Research Council, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), NASA, the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, and the Synthesis Group. The space power requirements for the SEI robotic missions, lunar spacecraft, Mars spacecraft, and human missions are summarized. Planning for exploration technology is addressed, including photovoltaic, chemical and thermal energy conversion; high-capacity power; power and thermal management for the surface, Earth-orbiting platform and spacecraft; laser power beaming; and mobile surface systems.

  12. NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

  13. Human exploration of space and power development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron

    1991-01-01

    Reasons for mounting the Space Exploration Initiative, the variables facing U.S. planners, and the developmental technologies that will be needed to support this initiative are discussed. The three more advanced technological approaches in the field of power generation described include a lunar-based solar power system, a geosynchronous-based earth orbit solar power satellite system, and the utilization of helium-3/deuterium fusion reaction to create a nuclear fuel cycle. It is noted that the major elements of the SEI will include a heavy-lift launch vehicle, a transfer vehicle and a descent/ascent vehicle for use on lunar missions and adaptable to Mars exploration.

  14. Robots Explore the Farthest Reaches of Earth and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    "We were the first that ever burst/Into that silent sea," the title character recounts in Samuel Taylor Coleridge s opus Rime of the Ancient Mariner. This famous couplet is equally applicable to undersea exploration today as surface voyages then, and has recently been applied to space travel in the title of a chronicle of the early years of human space flight ("Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961-1965"), companion to the +n the Shadow of the Moon book and movie. The parallel is certainly fitting, considering both fields explore unknown, harsh, and tantalizingly inhospitable environments. For starters, exploring the Briny Deep and the Final Frontier requires special vehicles, and the most economical and safest means for each employ remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). ROVs have proven the tool of choice for exploring remote locations, allowing scientists to explore the deepest part of the sea and the furthest reaches of the solar system with the least weight penalty, the most flexibility and specialization of design, and without the need to provide for sustaining human life, or the risk of jeopardizing that life. Most NASA probes, including the historic Voyager I and II spacecraft and especially the Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, feature remote operation, but new missions and new planetary environments will demand new capabilities from the robotic explorers of the future. NASA has an acute interest in the development of specialized ROVs, as new lessons learned on Earth can be applied to new environments and increasingly complex missions in the future of space exploration.

  15. Micro and Nano Systems for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, Harish

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of micro and nano systems in Space exploration. Included are: an explanation of the rationales behind nano and micro technologies for space exploration, a review of how the devices are fabricated, including details on lithography with more information on Electron Beam (E-Beam) lithography, and X-ray lithography, a review of micro gyroscopes and inchworm Microactuator as examples of the use of MicroElectoMechanical (MEMS) technology. Also included is information on Carbon Nanotubes, including a review of the CVD growth process. These micro-nano systems have given rise to the next generation of miniature X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence instruments, mass spectrometers, and terahertz frequency vacuum tube oscillators and amplifiers, scanning electron microscopes and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope. The nanotechnology has also given rise to coating technology, such as silicon nanotip anti-reflection coating.

  16. Global Aspects of the Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Hugh L.

    1959-01-01

    The interest of man in outer space began long ago among uncivilized peoples to whom the face of the sky was clock and almanac; the celestial bodies, objects of worship. Exploration was at first by visual observation, later aided by armillary spheres and quadrants, and still later by more precise measuring instruments, telescopes, and spectroscopes. The information obtained was that borne by the light that was transmitted from the distant celestial object through the atmosphere to the observing instrument on the ground. In recent years the light waves have been supplemented by radio waves as carriers of information from the stars and planets. Men of many nations have contributed through the centuries to the exploration of space by the methods of astronomy. The history of advances in astronomical knowledge and technique includes the records of Chinese, Babylonians, Greeks, Arabians, and of nearly every nation of the modern world. International cooperation was early recognized as essential and beneficial; the countless number of the stars and the vastness of space present mankind with a truly global task. The picture of the universe obtained by the astronomers early stirred the imagination of men to speculate about the existence of life elsewhere in the universe, about means of communication with distant stars, and in the last centuries about the possibility of the travel of man to the moon and planets. Some sought to apply the science and engineering of their day to describe the vehicles to be used. For example, Jules Verne published in 1865 in "From the Earth to the Moon" a description of a gun-launched projectile carrying passengers to orbit the moon. Today we have taken the first steps to bring this inspired vision to reality. The exploration of space by unmanned vehicles carrying scientific apparatus began on October 4, 1957; exploration by man will follow in due course.

  17. NASA'S Space Launch System Mission Capabilities for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventual landings on Mars, NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS is a foundational capability for NASA’s future plans for exploration, along with the Orion crew vehicle and upgraded ground systems at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO), greater mass-to-orbit capability than any contemporary launch vehicle. The vehicle will then be evolved into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO, greater even than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle’s potential range of utilization. This presentation will discuss the potential opportunities this vehicle poses for the planetary sciences community, relating the vehicle’s evolution to practical implications for mission capture. As this paper will explain, SLS will be a global launch infrastructure asset, employing sustainable solutions and technological innovations to deliver capabilities for space exploration to power human and robotic systems beyond our Moon and in to

  18. International Space Education Outreach: Taking Exploration to the Global Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Lichtenberger, L. A.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Garner, L. C.; Barfus, J. R.; Nazarenko, V. I.

    2005-01-01

    With the development of the International Space Station and the need for international collaboration for returning to the moon and developing a mission to Mars, NASA has embarked on developing international educational programs related to space exploration. In addition, with the explosion of educational technology, linking students on a global basis is more easily accomplished. This technology is bringing national and international issues into the classroom, including global environmental issues, the global marketplace, and global collaboration in space. We present the successes and lessons learned concerning international educational and public outreach programs that we have been involved in for NASA as well as the importance of sustaining these international peer collaborative programs for the future generations. These programs will undoubtedly be critical in enhancing the classroom environment and will affect the achievements in and attitudes towards science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

  19. Human space exploration - From surviving to performing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles; Bukley, Angelia P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper explores the evolution of human spaceflight by examining the space programs of the United States, Russia, including the former Soviet Union, and China. A simple analysis of the numbers of humans who have flown into space, the durations of the missions flown, and the accumulated flight time of the individuals reveals that spaceflight is decidedly male-dominated and that approximately one out of six individuals flown was a non-career astronaut. In addition, 31 individuals have accumulated long-duration flight experience equivalent to a round trip to Mars. An examination of the evolution of spacecraft that have made these missions possible indicates that the time to accomplish the first four to five flights of a new human space vehicle has increased from less than one year to nearly 10 years.

  20. Sustainable Outreach: Lessons Learned from Space Update and Discovery Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.

    2009-12-01

    sponsors, but the customers (typically school districts or museums) will pay a reasonable price for quality equipment to show them on. Creating an innovative, exciting product at an affordable price is certainly key to sustainability. If space permits, we will put up a dome as a demo in the poster session. The software and the dome will be on view at the "Exploration Station" the Sunday before AGU.

  1. Ethics and public integrity in space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstone, Adam F.

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) work to support ethics and public integrity in human space exploration. Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) to protect an organization's reputation has become widespread in the private sector. Government ethics law and practice is integral to a government entity's ERM by managing public sector reputational risk. This activity has also increased on the international plane, as seen by the growth of ethics offices in UN organizations and public international financial institutions. Included in this area are assessments to ensure that public office is not used for private gain, and that external entities are not given inappropriate preferential treatment. NASA has applied rules supporting these precepts to its crew since NASA's inception. The increased focus on public sector ethics principles for human activity in space is important because of the international character of contemporary space exploration. This was anticipated by the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement for the International Space Station (ISS), which requires a Code of Conduct for the Space Station Crew. Negotiations among the ISS Partners established agreed-upon ethics principles, now codified for the United States in regulations at 14 C.F.R. § 1214.403. Understanding these ethics precepts in an international context requires cross-cultural dialogue. Given NASA's long spaceflight experience, a valuable part of this dialogue is understanding NASA's implementation of these requirements. Accordingly, this paper will explain how NASA addresses these and related issues, including for human spaceflight and crew, as well as the development of U.S. Government ethics law which NASA follows as a U.S. federal agency. Interpreting how the U.S. experience relates constructively to international application involves parsing out which dimensions relate to government ethics requirements that the international partners have integrated into the

  2. Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckun, Serdar

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

  3. ISRU Propellant Selection for Space Exploration Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical propulsion remains the only viable solution as technically matured technology for the near term human space transportation to Lunar and Mars. Current mode of space travel requires us to "take everything we will need", including propellant for the return trip. Forcing the mission designers to carry propellant for the return trip limits payload mass available for mission operations and results in a large and costly (and often unaffordable) design. Producing propellant via In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) will enable missions with chemical propulsion by the "refueling" of return-trip propellant. It will reduce vehicle propellant mass carrying requirement by over 50%. This mass reduction can translates into increased payload to enhance greater mission capability, reduces vehicle size, weight and cost. It will also reduce size of launch vehicle fairing size as well as number of launches for a given space mission and enables exploration missions with existing chemical propulsion. Mars remains the ultimate destination for Human Space Exploration within the Solar System. The Mars atmospheric consist of 95% carbon dioxide (CO2) and the presence of Ice (water) was detected on Mars surfaces. This presents a basic chemical building block for the ISRU propellant manufacturing. However, the rationale for the right propellant to produce via ISRU appears to be limited to the perception of "what we can produce" as oppose to "what is the right propellant". Methane (CH4) is often quoted as a logical choice for Mars ISRU propellant, however; it is believed that there are better alternatives available that can result in a better space transportation architecture. A system analysis is needed to determine on what is the right propellant choice for the exploration vehicle. This paper examines the propellant selection for production via ISRU method on Mars surfaces. It will examine propellant trades for the exploration vehicle with resulting impact on vehicle performance, size

  4. In-Space Manufacturing: Pioneering a Sustainable Path to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki

    2015-01-01

    ISM is responsible for developing the on-demand manufacturing capabilities that will be required for affordable, sustainable operations during Exploration Missions (in-transit and on-surface) to destinations such as Mars. This includes advancing the needed technologies, as well as establishing the skills & processes (such as certification and characterization) that will enable the technologies to go from novel to institutionalized. These technologies are evolving rapidly due to terrestrial markets. ISM is leveraging this commercial development to develop these capabilities within a realistic timeframe and budget. ISM utilizes the International Space Station (ISS) as a test-bed to adapt these technologies for microgravity operations and evolve the current operations mindset from earth-reliant to earth-independent.

  5. Spaces for sustainable innovation: solar photovoltaic electricity in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Adrian; Kern, Florian; Raven, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41331927X; Verhees, Bram

    2014-01-01

    This paper engages with recent research concerning the roles of niche spaces in the strategic management of sustainable innovations. Whilst a growing body of empirical investigation looks to developments within these spaces, it is surprising how little pauses to consider how the spaces themselves

  6. Radiation shielding for future space exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Joel Michael

    Scope and Method of Study. The risk to space crew health and safety posed by exposure to space radiation is regarded as a significant obstacle to future human space exploration. To countermand this risk, engineers and designers in today's aerospace community will require detailed knowledge of a broad range of possible materials suitable for the construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats that provide adequate protection from a harmful space radiation environment. This knowledge base can be supplied by developing an experimental method that provides quantitative information about a candidate material's space radiation shielding efficacy with the understanding that (1) shielding is currently the only practical countermeasure to mitigate the effects of space radiation on human interplanetary missions, (2) any mass of a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat necessarily alters the incident flux of ionizing radiation on it, and (3) the delivery of mass into LEO and beyond is expensive and therefore may benefit from the possible use of novel multifunctional materials that could in principle reduce cost as well as ionizing radiation exposure. The developed method has an experimental component using CR-39 PNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD that exposes candidate space radiation shielding materials of varying composition and depth to a representative sample of the GCR spectrum that includes 1 GeV 1H and 1 GeV/n 16O, 28Si, and 56Fe heavy ion beams at the BNL NSRL. The computer modeling component of the method used the Monte Carlo radiation transport code FLUKA to account for secondary neutrons that were not easily measured in the laboratory. Findings and Conclusions. This study developed a method that quantifies the efficacy of a candidate space radiation shielding material relative to the standard of polyethylene using a combination of experimental and computer modeling techniques. The study used established radiation dosimetry techniques to present an empirical

  7. Simulating Autonomous Telecommunication Networks for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui, John S.; Jennings, Esther H.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, most interplanetary telecommunication systems require human intervention for command and control. However, considering the range from near Earth to deep space missions, combined with the increase in the number of nodes and advancements in processing capabilities, the benefits from communication autonomy will be immense. Likewise, greater mission science autonomy brings the need for unscheduled, unpredictable communication and network routing. While the terrestrial Internet protocols are highly developed their suitability for space exploration has been questioned. JPL has developed the Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) tool to help characterize network designs and protocols. The results will allow future mission planners to better understand the trade offs of communication protocols. This paper discusses various issues with interplanetary network and simulation results of interplanetary networking protocols.

  8. Exploring work-related issues on corporate sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoro, C M; Bolis, I; Sznelwar, L I

    2015-01-01

    In a research project about work-related issues and corporate sustainability conducted in Brazil, the goal was to better understand how work-related issues were addressed in the corporate context. Particularly, there are some specific initiatives that serve as guides to organizational decisions, which make their performance indicators for the context of corporate sustainability. 1) To explore the presence of work-related issues and their origins in corporate sustainability approach, analyzing a) corporate disclosures; b) sustainability guidelines that are identified as relevant in corporate disclosures; c) documents that are related to sustainable development and also identified as key-documents for these guidelines and initiatives. 2) To present the activity-centered ergonomics and psychodynamics of work contributions to work-related issues in a corporate sustainability approach. An exploratory study based on multiple sources of evidence that were performed from 2012 to 2013, including interviews with companies that engaged in corporate sustainability and document analysis using the content analysis approach. Work-related issues have been presented since the earliest sustainable development documents. It is feasible to construct an empirical framework for work-related issues and corporate sustainability approaches. 1) Although some authors argue that corporate sustainability has its roots based only on the environmental dimension, there is strong empirical evidence showing that social dimension aspects such as work-related issues have been present since the beginning. 2) Some indicators should be redesigned to more precisely translate the reality of some workplaces, particularly those indicators related to organizational design and mental health.

  9. Generic strategies for chemical space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jakob L; Flamm, Christoph; Merkle, Daniel; Stadler, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    The chemical universe of molecules reachable from a set of start compounds by iterative application of a finite number of reactions is usually so vast, that sophisticated and efficient exploration strategies are required to cope with the combinatorial complexity. A stringent analysis of (bio)chemical reaction networks, as approximations of these complex chemical spaces, forms the foundation for the understanding of functional relations in Chemistry and Biology. Graphs and graph rewriting are natural models for molecules and reactions. Borrowing the idea of partial evaluation from functional programming, we introduce partial applications of rewrite rules. A framework for the specification of exploration strategies in graph-rewriting systems is presented. Using key examples of complex reaction networks from carbohydrate chemistry we demonstrate the feasibility of this high-level strategy framework. While being designed for chemical applications, the framework can also be used to emulate higher-level transformation models such as illustrated in a small puzzle game.

  10. Envisioning Cognitive Robots for Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stoica, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive robots in the context of space exploration are envisioned with advanced capabilities of model building, continuous planning/re-planning, self-diagnosis, as well as the ability to exhibit a level of 'understanding' of new situations. An overview of some JPL components (e.g. CASPER, CAMPOUT) and a description of the architecture CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) that combines these in the context of a cognitive robotic system operating in a various scenarios are presented. Finally, two examples of typical scenarios of a multi-robot construction mission and a human-robot mission, involving direct collaboration with humans is given.

  11. Education for sustainable development (ESD) : exploring theoretical and practical challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Frans Meijers; Helen Kopnina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to explore the challenges posed by the conceptual framework and diversity of practice of education for sustainable development (ESD). The implications of plurality of ESD perspectives and methodological approaches as well variations in ESD practice will be addressed.

  12. Communication Regarding Sustainability: Conceptual Perspectives and Exploration of Societal Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rieckmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability issues are typically characterized by high complexity and uncertainty. In light of this, communication plays a crucial role in coping with these challenges. The previous debate on sustainability communication has largely focused on how to communicate sustainability issues to others. Sustainability communication, however, involves more than sender oriented communication to persuade others (“communication of sustainability”; it also embraces processes of dialogue and discourse (“communication about sustainability”. Based on this distinction, we develop a typology of communication modes, including communication for sustainability. Inspired by the notion of functional communication systems, we explore sustainability communication in six societal subsystems, applying the typology of communication modes. Drawing mostly on examples from Germany, we find a shift from “communication of” towards “communication about” sustainability in most subsystems. While communication subsystems have a tendency towards operational closure, a variety of interlinkages exist. We discuss three key areas of “opening up” communication subsystems, leading to transdisciplinarity, societal deliberation and governance, each meeting one of sustainability’s core challenges.

  13. Study of space reactors for exploration missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cliquet, Elisa; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Masson, Frederic, E-mail: elisa.cliquet@cnes.fr, E-mail: frederic.masson@cnes.fr [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales (CNES), Paris (France); Roux, Jean-Pierre; Paris, Nicolas; Cazale, Brice; Manifacier, Laurent, E-mail: jean-pierre.roux@areva.com [AREVA TA, Aix en Provence, (France); Poinot-Salanon, Christine, E-mail: christine.poinot@cea.fr [Comissariado a l' Energie Atomique et Aux Energies alternatives (CEA), Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear propulsion has been studied for many decades. The power density of nuclear fission is much higher than chemical process, and for missions to outer solar system requiring several hundred of kilowatts, or for flexible manned missions to Mars requiring several megawatts, nuclear electric propulsion might be the only option offering a reasonable mass in low earth orbit. Despite the existence of low power experiences - SNAP10 in the 60's or Buk/Topaz in the 60-80's - no high power reactor has been developed: investment cost, long term time frame, high technological challenges and radioactive hazards are the main challenges we must overtake. However, it seems reasonable to look at the technical challenges that have to be overcome for a next generation of nuclear electric systems for space exploration. This paper will present some recent studies going on in France, on space reactors for exploration. Three classes of power have been considered: 10kWe, 100kWe, and several megawatts. Available data from previous studies and developments performed in Russia, USA], and Europe, have been collected and gave us a large overview of potential technical solutions. This was the starting point of a trade-off analysis aiming at the selection of the best options, with regards to the technological readiness level in France and Europe. The resulting preliminary designs will be presented and critical technologies needing maturation activities will be highlighted. (author)

  14. United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well

  15. Tourism partnerships in protected areas: exploring contributions to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfueller, Sharron L; Lee, Diane; Laing, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Partnerships between natural-area managers and the tourism industry have been suggested to contribute to sustainability in protected areas. This article explores how important sustainability outcomes of partnerships are to their members, how well they are realised and the features of partnerships leading to their achievement. In 21 case studies in Australia, interviews (n = 97) and surveys (n = 100) showed that of 14 sustainability outcomes, improved understanding of protected areas values and improved biodiversity conservation were the most important. Other highly ranked outcomes were greater respect for culture, heritage, and/or traditions; improved quality of environmental conditions; social benefits to local communities; and improved economic viability of the protected area. Scores for satisfaction with outcomes were, like those for importance, all high but were less than those for importance for the majority, with improvement in quality of environmental conditions showing the largest gap. The satisfaction score exceeded that for importance only for increased competitiveness of the protected area as a tourist destination. "Brown" aspects of sustainability, i.e., decreased waste or energy use, were among the lowest-scoring outcomes for both importance and satisfaction. The most important factor enabling sustainability outcomes was provision of benefits to partnership members. Others were increased financial support, inclusiveness, supportive organisational and administrative arrangements, direct involvement of decision makers, partnership maturity, creation of new relationships, decreased conflict, and stimulation of innovation. Improving sustainability outcomes, therefore, requires maintaining these partnership attributes and also increasing emphasis on reducing waste and resource use.

  16. Tourism Partnerships in Protected Areas: Exploring Contributions to Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfueller, Sharron L.; Lee, Diane; Laing, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Partnerships between natural-area managers and the tourism industry have been suggested to contribute to sustainability in protected areas. This article explores how important sustainability outcomes of partnerships are to their members, how well they are realised and the features of partnerships leading to their achievement. In 21 case studies in Australia, interviews ( n = 97) and surveys ( n = 100) showed that of 14 sustainability outcomes, improved understanding of protected areas values and improved biodiversity conservation were the most important. Other highly ranked outcomes were greater respect for culture, heritage, and/or traditions; improved quality of environmental conditions; social benefits to local communities; and improved economic viability of the protected area. Scores for satisfaction with outcomes were, like those for importance, all high but were less than those for importance for the majority, with improvement in quality of environmental conditions showing the largest gap. The satisfaction score exceeded that for importance only for increased competitiveness of the protected area as a tourist destination. "Brown" aspects of sustainability, i.e., decreased waste or energy use, were among the lowest-scoring outcomes for both importance and satisfaction. The most important factor enabling sustainability outcomes was provision of benefits to partnership members. Others were increased financial support, inclusiveness, supportive organisational and administrative arrangements, direct involvement of decision makers, partnership maturity, creation of new relationships, decreased conflict, and stimulation of innovation. Improving sustainability outcomes, therefore, requires maintaining these partnership attributes and also increasing emphasis on reducing waste and resource use.

  17. Sustainable Cultural Tourism in Urban Destinations: Does Space Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibon Aranburu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers and tourism developers must understand visitors’ mobility behavior and how they consume space and tourism resources in order to set up sustainable cultural tourism destinations. With this in mind, it should also be pointed out that the mobility patterns of tourists in urban destinations are mainly located in the city center (spatial centrality, the analysis of which enables us to define “how central” the resources (museums, monuments, etc. are and what the interactions between them are. Comprehending which factors influence visitors’ urban mobility behavior is key to understanding tourists’ consumption of space and their connections with the tourism assets of the city. Furthermore, when tourists visit a destination, they make a mental representation of the destination, constructing a mental map of it. Thus, tourists consume not only spaces but also the image of a city/destination. Moreover, the latter influences the former. The quality of surrounding architecture and urbanism plays a crucial role in enhancing the experiential value of a destination and influencing space consumption preferences. Clearly, visitors are more likely to use/consume environments that are easily navigated and mentally legible. In order to explore these patterns, a real experiment was performed based on visitor behavior in the city of Bilbao. In addition, the central places of Bilbao were determined and an analysis of the spatial interaction between cultural sites was performed, making use of a new methodology based on GPS technologies, network analysis, and surveys. This methodology is the main contribution of this work. The results suggest that (1 easy mobility (walkability, accessibility, different transport modes of the visited space facilitates the tourist experience; (2 simple and eligible mental maps of the city that are easily perceived by visitors facilitate the rapid consumption of the tourist destination; and (3 the centrality of the

  18. Benefits of Microalgae for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrecchia, Angelique; Bebout, Brad M.; Murphy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Algae have long been known to offer a number of benefits to support long duration human space exploration. Algae contain proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, and lipids needed for human consumption, and can be produced using waste streams, while consuming carbon dioxide, and producing oxygen. In comparison with higher plants, algae have higher growth rates, fewer environmental requirements, produce far less "waste" tissue, and are resistant to digestion and/or biodegradation. As an additional benefit, algae produce many components (fatty acids, H2, etc.) which are useful as biofuels. On Earth, micro-algae survive in many harsh environments including low humidity, extremes in temperature, pH, and as well as high salinity and solar radiation. Algae have been shown to survive inmicro-gravity, and can adapt to high and low light intensity while retaining their ability to perform nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis. Studies have demonstrated that some algae are resistant to the space radiation environment, including solar ultraviolet radiation. It remains to be experimentally demonstrated, however, that an algal-based system could fulfil the requirements for a space-based Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) under comparable spaceflight power, mass, and environmental constraints. Two specific challenges facing algae cultivation in space are that (i) conventional growth platforms require large masses of water, which in turn require a large amount of propulsion fuel, and (ii) most nutrient delivery mechanisms (predominantly bubbling) are dependent on gravity. To address these challenges, we have constructed a low water biofilm based bioreactor whose operation is enabled by capillary forces. Preliminary characterization of this Surface Adhering BioReactor (SABR) suggests that it can serve as a platform for cultivating algae in space which requires about 10 times less mass than conventional reactors without sacrificing growth rate. Further work is necessary to

  19. Space Resource Utilization: Near-Term Missions and Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration Plans: A primary goal of all major space faring nations is to explore space: from the Earth with telescopes, with robotic probes and space telescopes, and with humans. For the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this pursuit is captured in three important strategic goals: 1. Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere, 2. Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system (especially the surface of Mars), and 3. Create innovative new space technologies for exploration, science, and economic future. While specific missions and destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative for NASA that it foster the development and implementation of new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is the development of technologies and systems to identify, extract, and use resources in space instead of bringing everything from Earth. To reduce the development and implementation costs for space resource utilization, often called In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), it is imperative to work with terrestrial mining companies to spin-in/spin-off technologies and capabilities, and space mining companies to expand our economy beyond Earth orbit. In the last two years, NASA has focused on developing and implementing a sustainable human space exploration program with the ultimate goal of exploring the surface of Mars with humans. The plan involves developing technology and capability building blocks critical for sustained exploration starting with the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion crew spacecraft and utilizing the International Space Station as a springboard into the solar system. The evolvable plan develops and expands human exploration in phases starting with missions that are reliant on Earth, to

  20. Space Sustainment: A New Approach for America in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    permeate all aspects of US policy, yet the history of American activity in space seems to indicate otherwise. Accessing and exploiting space involves...highly specialized technologies, astronomi - cally high costs, and considerable risk of failure. In the formative years for space, these...No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing

  1. Exploring the relationship between boredom and sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkovsky, Ela; Merrifield, Colleen; Goldberg, Yael; Danckert, James

    2012-08-01

    Boredom is a common experience, prevalent in neurological and psychiatric populations, yet its cognitive characteristics remain poorly understood. We explored the relationship between boredom proneness, sustained attention and adult symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results showed that high boredom-prone individuals (HBP) performed poorly on measures of sustained attention and showed increased symptoms of ADHD and depression. The results also showed that HBP individuals can be characterised as either apathetic-in which the individual is unconcerned with his/her environment, or as agitated-in which the individual is motivated to engage in meaningful activities, although attempts to do so fail to satisfy. Apathetic boredom proneness was associated with attention lapses, whereas agitated boredom proneness was associated with decreased sensitivity to errors of sustained attention, and increased symptoms of adult ADHD. Our results suggest there is a complex relationship between attention and boredom proneness.

  2. Space exploration, Mars, and the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Robert; Solomon, David

    2007-04-01

    When human beings venture back to the moon and then on to Mars in the coming decade or so, we will be riding on the accumulated data and experience from approximately 50 years of manned space exploration. Virtually every organ system functions differently in the absence of gravity, and some of these changes are maladaptive. From a biologic perspective, long duration spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit presents many unique challenges. Astronauts traveling to Mars will live in the absence of gravity for more than 1 year en route and will have to transition between weightlessness and planetary gravitational forces at the beginning, middle, and end of the mission. We discuss some of what is known about the effects of spaceflight on nervous system function, with emphasis on the neuromuscular and vestibular systems because success of a Mars mission will depend on their proper functioning.

  3. Biological Based Risk Assessment for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposures from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) - made up of high-energy protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, and solar particle events (SPEs) - comprised largely of low- to medium-energy protons are the primary health concern for astronauts for long-term space missions. Experimental studies have shown that HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation, making risk assessments for cancer and degenerative risks, such as central nervous system effects and heart disease, highly uncertain. The goal for space radiation protection at NASA is to be able to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessments for Mars exploration to be small enough to ensure acceptable levels of risks are not exceeded and to adequately assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as shielding or biological countermeasures. We review the recent BEIR VII and UNSCEAR-2006 models of cancer risks and their uncertainties. These models are shown to have an inherent 2-fold uncertainty as defined by ratio of the 95% percent confidence level to the mean projection, even before radiation quality is considered. In order to overcome the uncertainties in these models, new approaches to risk assessment are warranted. We consider new computational biology approaches to modeling cancer risks. A basic program of research that includes stochastic descriptions of the physics and chemistry of radiation tracks and biochemistry of metabolic pathways, to emerging biological understanding of cellular and tissue modifications leading to cancer is described.

  4. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop on Sustainable Initial Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. J.; Cooke, Doug; Hopkins, Joshua; Perino, Maria A.; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget assumptions and with sustained international participation. In response to this idea, a distinguished group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December, 2013. Participants reviewed and discussed scenarios for affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station over the coming decade as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and a usable definition of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop.

  5. Space Resource Utilization: Near-Term Missions and Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of all major space faring nations is to explore space: from the Earth with telescopes, with robotic probes and space telescopes, and with humans. For the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this pursuit is captured in three important strategic goals: 1. Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere, 2. Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system (especially the surface of Mars), and 3. Create innovative new space technologies for exploration, science, and economic future. While specific missions and destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative for NASA that it foster the development and implementation of new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is the development of technologies and systems to identify, extract, and use resources in space instead of bringing everything from Earth. To reduce the development and implementation costs for space resource utilization, often called In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), it is imperative to work with terrestrial mining companies to spin-in/spin-off technologies and capabilities, and space mining companies to expand our economy beyond Earth orbit. In the last two years, NASA has focused on developing and implementing a sustainable human space exploration program with the ultimate goal of exploring the surface of Mars with humans. The plan involves developing technology and capability building blocks critical for sustained exploration starting with the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion crew spacecraft and utilizing the International Space Station as a springboard into the solar system. The evolvable plan develops and expands human exploration in phases starting with missions that are reliant on Earth, to performing ever more challenging and

  6. Using an Outdoor Learning Space to Teach Sustainability and Material Processes in HE Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Richard; Stoltenberg, Einar; Jennings, Trent

    2016-01-01

    This "case study" of two jewellery workshops, used outdoor learning spaces to explore both its impact on learning outcomes and to introduce some key principles of sustainable working methodologies and practices. Using the beach as the classroom, academics and students from a Norwegian and Scottish (HE) product design exchange programme…

  7. Impact of International Cooperation for Sustaining Space-Science Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Jani, Karan

    2016-01-01

    Space-science programs provide a wide range of application to a nation's key sectors of development: science-technology infrastructure, education, economy and national security. However, the cost of sustaining a space-science program has discouraged developing nations from participating in space activities, while developed nations have steadily cut down their space-science budget in past decade. In this study I investigate the role of international cooperation in building ambitious space-science programs, particularly in the context of developing nations. I devise a framework to quantify the impact of international collaborations in achieving the space-science goals as well as in enhancing the key sectors of development of a nation. I apply this framework on two case studies, (i) Indian Space Research Organization - a case of space-science program from a developing nation that has historically engaged in international collaborations, and (ii) International Space Station - a case for a long term collaboration ...

  8. Sustainability: an evolutionary concept analysis. Exploring nursing's role within the sustainability movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kimberly

    2014-04-01

    This paper aimed to explore the evolution of the concept of sustainability to facilitate further knowledge development in the discipline of nursing. The concept of 'sustainability' emerged in the 1950s as a result of the environmental movement. The concept has been adapted by the discipline of management and is increasingly discussed in the context of health care. The concept remains ambiguous in the discipline of nursing, resulting in a struggle to articulate the role of nursing in the sustainability movement. Rodgers evolutionary method of concept analysis was used. Literature was searched from 1987-2011, including English, peer reviewed texts in the databases CINAHL and ABI/INFORM global. Two book chapters and grey literature were also included. References were read and analysed according to antecedents, attributes, consequences, surrogate terms and related terms. Defining antecedents, attributes and consequences highlight the complexity and diversity of the concept. Attributes include: sustainability as a condition of change, as process, as outcome, as dependent of multiple stakeholders, and as social consciousness. 'Sustainability' is a fragile concept highly dependent on the processes and stakeholders involved in its fruition. There is a distinct difference in the level of concept clarity between the disciplines of management and nursing. The complexities associated with the concept of 'Sustainability' have led to its ambiguity. Nursing must, however, work to further clarify the concept to fully understand nursing's potential role in the sustainability movement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Energy Storage Technology Development for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of human exploration systems. Improving battery performance and safety for human missions enhances a number of exploration systems, including un-tethered extravehicular activity suits and transportation systems including landers and rovers. Similarly, improved fuel cell and electrolyzer systems can reduce mass and increase the reliability of electrical power, oxygen, and water generation for crewed vehicles, depots and outposts. To achieve this, NASA is developing non-flow-through proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks, and electrolyzers coupled with low permeability membranes for high pressure operation. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments over the past year include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale non-flow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. NASA is also developing advanced lithium-ion battery cells, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiatedmixed- metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety.

  10. Exploring Exploration: A Tutorial Introduction to Embedded Systems Design Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimentel, A.D.

    As embedded systems grow more complex and as new applications such as IoT require many design constraints, sophisticated design space exploration techniques are essential in order to find the best compromise between different design goals and their tradeoff. This tutorial gives a structured insight

  11. Fragile Social Norms: (Un Sustainable Exploration of Forest Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decio Zylbersztajn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaustion of natural resources is a central problem in the international agenda. The particular case of Amazon forest is at the top on the international environmental debate. Two related problems are keys to be considered in the discussion of sustainable development in this region. First the predatory use of the natural resources of the forest mainly timber and genetic resources. Second the recognition of the existence of a population of around 20 million inhabitants in the region defined as “Legal Amazon Area”, aiming the improvement on the living conditions, enhancement of income level and acceleration of development. How to match both objectives is a puzzle faced by the present generation.The region is populated by initiatives of international non-governmental-organizations, most of them carrying good intentions but lacking the necessary knowledge on local formal and informal institutions to find ways to reach sustainable development. The result is the accelerated process of natural resources depletion, and social disorganization. The case of the production of Brazilian Nuts stands as a corollary of the lack of an institutional structure of property rights that does not provide incentives for sustainable development. The opposite effect is being observed as a result of the fragility of observable institutional arrangements.The case provides the counterfactual for the analysis of Ostrom (1990; 2008, where she presents virtuous cases of sustainable exploration of natural resources, mostly based on informal but solid institutions.

  12. Entrepreneurship And Business Management - Exploring Linkages For Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Serah K Mbetwa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs have emerged as market leaders in todays business world amidst the numerous economic turmoil constantly affecting economies on a global scale. This research paper is on entrepreneurship and business management and its linkages to other business stakeholders. The research paper therefore discusses entrepreneurship and business management exploring the linkages to available financing and potential institutions for startup capital by linking entrepreneurs to the government financiers and the public clientele. It is believed that this can bring about achievement of sustainable development goals translating into sustainable development and hence economic growth. The idea of funding is echoed by Robert Rice 2016 An entrepreneur without funding is like a musician with no instruments. Sustainability and entrepreneurship sustainopreneurship is made possible with availability of information on linkages between entrepreneurs and financial lending institutions as well as government policy. It is hoped that the research will add to the existing knowledge and help entrepreneurs with funding options for their business ideas to come to life. Findings show that the government financial lending institutions and the public are the major linkages between entrepreneurship and business management and are critical for attaining sustainable development goals and achieving economic growth.

  13. Public spaces and urban sustainability in the tropical built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Y. M.; Kozlowski, M.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainability is an overarching sense of responsibility towards the future. On a city-wide level, urban sustainability incorporates a wide body of changes especially as they relate to the built environment, all of which intended at creating a livable place. This paper discusses existing public spaces in view of their achievement against a set of criteria for the built environment. The paper introduces performance design criteria for the tropical built environment. The key findings indicate that long-term strategies, guidance and directions for the city and region can achieve development which corresponds to local climate, synergies and provide a higher proportion of public spaces that offer something for everyone.

  14. Sabatier Methanation Reactor for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Karen; Goldblatt, Loel; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Harris, Danny

    2005-01-01

    adequately addressing these issues will be presented. The Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction process will greatly benefit any of the extended duration human exploration missions because of the tremendous savings of consumables realized. Any of these mission scenarios, be they transit or surface based, must consider closing the life support loops in order to make the mission achievable, let alone affordable. Carbon dioxide reduction technology will be necessary for future outpost habitats, and the technology needs to be proven viable in a space application. The Sabatier methanation reaction is also a desirable method for producing propellant from the Mars atmosphere. The common system could be designed to accept carbon dioxide from an indoor air revitalization loop concentrator, or from an outdoor atmosphere compressor. Carbon dioxide reduction validation is but one step in the spiral development of the in-situ propellant production system desired for future planetary exploration.

  15. Science and Exploration Deep Space Gateway Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a workshop whose outcome is a publically disseminated product that articulates SMD investigations and HEOMD Life Science research, including international collaborations, that are made possible by the new opportunities in space that result from the Deep Space Gateway.

  16. Manifesto for a Safe and Sustainable Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgobba, T.; Menzel, A.-P.; Jakhu, R.; Pelton, J.

    The human adventure in space is now more than a half century old. A total of about 6000 liftoffs have taken place and some 500 people have flown into space, but in the process a number of fatalities have occurred--both in space and on the ground. Furthermore, space traffic is becoming chaotic and the orbital environment is increasingly polluted by debris. The Technical Committees of the IAASS have spent a great deal of time to develop a “Manifesto” to express the goals and objectives that all space faring countries should collectively embrace to ensure that in future the space adventure will not be brought to a sudden halt by unacceptable risks. This newly launched “Manifesto for Safe and Sustainable Outer Space”, as presented at the end of this article encapsulates the urgent appeal, by concerned space safety scientists, technicians, and legal experts that make up the IAASS, to policy makers and stakeholders around the globe to build consensus around a shared vision of a safe and sustainable space. Over time this Manifesto may be refined and augmented but the six objectives of the Manifesto represent a good starting point for an overdue debate on organizing outer space as a precious global asset.

  17. C-QWIPs for space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K. K.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Forrai, D. P.; Sun, J.; Endres, D.

    2011-05-01

    We have extended our investigation of corrugated quantum well infrared photodetector focal plane arrays (C-QWIP FPAs) into the far infrared regime. Specifically, we are developing the detectors for the thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) used in the NASA Landsat Data Continuity Mission. This mission requires infrared detection cutoff at 12.5 μm and FPAs operated at ˜43 K. To maintain a low dark current in these extended wavelengths, we adopted a low doping density of 0.6 × 10 18 cm -3 and a bound-to-bound state detector in one of the designs. The internal absorption quantum efficiency η is calculated to be 25.4% for a pixel pitch of 25 μm and 60 periods of QWs. With a pixel fill factor of 80% and a substrate transmission of 70.9%, the external η is 14.4%. To yield the theoretical conversion efficiency CE, the photoconductive gain was measured and is 0.25 at 5 V, from which CE is predicted to be 3.6%. This value is in agreement with the 3.5% from the FPA measurement. Meanwhile, the dark current is measured to be 2.1 × 10 -6 A/cm 2 at 43 K. For regular infrared imaging above 8 μm, the FPA will have a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 16 mK at 2 ms integration time in the presence of 260 read noise electrons, and it increases to 22 mK at 51 K. The highest operability of the tested FPAs is 99.967%. With the CE agreement, we project the FPA performance in the far infrared regime up to 30-μm cutoff, which will be useful for the Jupiter-Europa deep space exploration. In this work, we also investigated the C-QWIP optical coupling when the detector substrate is thinned.

  18. Autonomy Needs and Trends in Deep Space Exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Richard J

    2003-01-01

    ...: increased efficiency in the return of quality science products, reduction of mission costs, and the launching of a new era of solar system exploration characterized by sustained presence, in-situ...

  19. Exploring interspace: open space opportunities in dense urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Kathleen E. Dickhut

    1995-01-01

    Using ideas from landscape ecology, this paper explores how small open spaces can aid urban forestry efforts in dense urban areas. A case study in Chicago illustrates the physical and social lessons learned in dealing with these spaces.

  20. Multifunctional, Nanostructured Metal Rubber Protective Films for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has developed revolutionary nanostructured, yet macroscale, multifunctional Metal RubberTM films. In support of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration, low...

  1. Global change - Geoengineering and space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Geoengineering options and alternatives are proposed for mitigating the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer. Geoengineering options were discussed by the National Academy of Science Panel on the Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. Several of the ideas conveyed in their published report are space-based or depend on space systems for implementation. Among the geoengineering options using space that are discussed include the use of space power systems as an alternative to fossil fuels for generating electricity, the use of lunar He-3 to aid in the development of fusion energy, and the establishment of a lunar power system for solar energy conversion and electric power beaming back to earth. Other geoengineering options are discussed. They include the space-based modulation of hurricane forces and two space-based approaches in dealing with ozone layer depletion. The engineering challenges and policy implementation issues are discussed for these geongineering options.

  2. Physics Education Launched from Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroaki; Kijima, Masachika; Ishizuka, Wataru

    We have cooperated with some schools and performed several activities. The feature of our plan is to make the "space" a keyword and let students understand the importance and the fun of physics. We have practiced our plan, and it has turned out to be effective for schoolchild, high school students, and for college students. In this paper we report on the contents of our activities, and present some methods of physics education related to basic space science and space technology, to make physics more interesting.

  3. Investigating public space exploration support in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entradas, Marta; Miller, Steve

    2010-10-01

    Space agencies such as NASA and ESA have ambitious long-term programmes that mark the beginning of a new era in space exploration where humans will land on Mars; an era requiring public support and, therefore, more consideration for public opinion. Empirical research shows that there are substantial differences in the level of understanding of space exploration among the general public. Studying audiences appears to be crucial to inform public engagement and communication strategies as well as policy debate. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in the UK in 2008 at two science outreach events, the Royal Society Exhibition in London and the National Space Centre in Leicester, to investigate the motivations, beliefs, political preferences and attitudes towards space exploration of this audience. A sample of 744 respondents was collected. The analysis shows that the British public who come to outreach and engagement activities support space exploration but have some reservations about considering the advancement of UK space activities to be of national interest. Yet, when asked about means of exploring space, the majority agrees that space should be explored using both mankind and machines, ranking "generating new scientific knowledge and advancing human culture" as the most important reason for continuing investment in space research. Although the greater number of supporters says that more than the current government funding should be allocated to civil space activities, concerns about risk and value appear to influence this view.

  4. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high power (high thrust) electric propulsion system featuring an iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET). The system to be...

  5. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program, Busek Co. Inc. tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high flow iodine feed system,...

  6. Individualized Fatigue Meter for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To ensure mission success, astronauts must maintain a high level of performance even when work-rest schedules result in chronic sleep restriction and circadian...

  7. Systems Engineering for Space Exploration Medical Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Reilly, Jeffrey; Rubin, David; Urbina, Michelle; Hailey, Melinda; Hanson, Andrea; Burba, Tyler; McGuire, Kerry; Cerro, Jeffrey; Middour, Chris; hide

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration missions that reach destinations beyond low Earth orbit, such as Mars, will present significant new challenges to crew health management. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is applying systems engineering principles and practices to accomplish its goals. This paper discusses the structured and integrative approach that is guiding the medical system technical development. Assumptions for the required levels of care on exploration missions, medical system goals, and a Concept of Operations are early products that capture and clarify stakeholder expectations. Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques are then applied to define medical system behavior and architecture. Interfaces to other flight and ground systems, and within the medical system are identified and defined. Initial requirements and traceability are established, which sets the stage for identification of future technology development needs. An early approach for verification and validation, taking advantage of terrestrial and near-Earth exploration system analogs, is also defined to further guide system planning and development.

  8. Nanophotonic biosensor for space exploration (PBSA instrument)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, S.; Parro, V.; Nestler, J.; Geidel, S.; Martins, R.; Cuesta, F.; Elvira, J. G.; Sousa, A.

    2017-11-01

    One of the biggest challenges of Astrobiology is the search for clear signs of present or past life on other planetary bodies. Thus, this poster will describe the project "Photonic Biosensor for Space Application" (PBSA, www.pbsa-fp7.eu) founded by the Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry (DG ENTR) within the European Commission and managed by the Unit S2 (Space Research) of the Research European Agency (REA).

  9. Visions for Space Exploration: ILS Issues and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the logistic issues that the Vision for Space Exploration will entail. There is a review of the vision and the timeline for the return to the moon that will lead to the first human exploration of Mars. The lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS) and other such missions are also reviewed.

  10. A Compositional Sweep-Line State Space Exploration Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Mailund, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    State space exploration is a main approach to verification of finite-state systems. The sweep-line method exploits a certain kind of progress present in many systems to reduce peak memory usage during state space exploration. We present a new sweep-line algorithm for a compositional setting where...

  11. Exploring Engaged Spaces in Community-University Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ceri; Gant, Nick; Millican, Juliet; Wolff, David; Prosser, Bethan; Laing, Stuart; Hart, Angie

    2016-01-01

    The Community University Partnership Programme (CUPP) has been operating at the University of Brighton for the past 10 years. This article explores the different types of space we think need to exist to support a variety of partnership and engaged work. We therefore explore our understandings of shared or "engaged" spaces as a physical,…

  12. Sustainability, Learning and Capability: Exploring Questions of Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. H. Scott

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that sustainable development makes best sense as a social learning process that brings tangible and useful outcomes in terms of understanding and skills, and also reinforces the motivation and capability for further learning. Thus, there are always balances to be struck between a broad-based, wide-ranging education and a more specialist one; between a focus on ideas themselves, and on their application in social or economic contexts; and between keeping ideas separate, and integrating them. This paper will explore the nature of such balances, and the issues to bear in mind when striking them, focusing on schools, university and college contexts within the United Kingdom.

  13. Integrated Network Architecture for Sustained Human and Robotic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Gary; Cesarone, Robert; Deutsch, Leslie; Edwards, Charles; Soloff, Jason; Ely, Todd; Cook, Brian; Morabito, David; Hemmati, Hamid; Piazolla, Sabino; hide

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Enterprise is planning a series of human and robotic missions to the Earth's moon and to Mars. These missions will require communication and navigation services. This paper1 sets forth presumed requirements for such services and concepts for lunar and Mars telecommunications network architectures to satisfy the presumed requirements. The paper suggests that an inexpensive ground network would suffice for missions to the near-side of the moon. A constellation of three Lunar Telecommunications Orbiters connected to an inexpensive ground network could provide continuous redundant links to a polar lunar base and its vicinity. For human and robotic missions to Mars, a pair of areostationary satellites could provide continuous redundant links between Earth and a mid-latitude Mars base in conjunction with the Deep Space Network augmented by large arrays of 12-m antennas on Earth.

  14. Space Exploration and the Benefits to Mankind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, T.L.; Freitag, R.; Schneider, W.C.

    1990-10-01

    Paper presented at the 41st Congress of the International Astronautical Federation in Dresden, GDR in October 1990. This paper analyzes the past challenges of the space program's multi-national cooperative agreements and examines the challenges of the future as we quickly become a global society. Cross Reference ESD-T1.

  15. Science and Exploration Workshop: A Forum to Articulate Science Enabled by Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, J. F.; Niles, P. B.; Weber, R. C.; Needham, D. H.

    2017-02-01

    This talk outlines a plan to coordinate existing efforts that leverage human exploration and robotic investigations in a crucial step towards improving crew safety and enhancing science returns during upcoming space exploration operations.

  16. NASA EXPLORATION VEHICLE - 2018: A space odyssey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    While NASA's $100bn (L58bn) plan to fly four astronauts to the Moon for a seven-day visit in 2018 will be the first manned lunar mission since 1972, a new craft called the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV...

  17. The Lunar Space Tug: A sustainable bridge between low Earth orbits and the Cislunar Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, M.; Paissoni, C. A.; Viola, N.; Denaro, A.; Gargioli, E.; Massobrio, F.

    2017-09-01

    The International Space Station is the first space human outpost and over the last 15 years, it has represented a peculiar environment where science, technology and human innovation converge together in a unique microgravity and space research laboratory. With the International Space Station entering the second part of its life and its operations running steadily at nominal pace, the global space community is starting planning how the human exploration could move further, beyond Low-Earth-Orbit. According to the Global Exploration Roadmap, the Moon represents the next feasible path-way for advances in human exploration towards the nal goal, Mars. Based on the experience of the ISS, one of the most widespread ideas is to develop a Cislunar Station in preparation of long duration missions in a deep space environment. Cislunar space is de ned as the area of deep space under the influence of Earth-Moon system, including a set of special orbits, e.g. Earth-Moon Libration points and Lunar Retrograde Orbit. This habitat represents a suitable environment for demonstrating and testing technologies and capabilities in deep space. In order to achieve this goal, there are several crucial systems and technologies, in particular related to transportation and launch systems. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is a reusable transportation capsule designed to provide crew transportation in deep space missions, whereas NASA is developing the Space Launch System, the most powerful rocket ever built, which could provide the necessary heavy-lift launch capability to support the same kind of missions. These innovations would allow quite-fast transfers from Earth to the Cislunar Station and vice versa, both for manned and unmanned missions. However, taking into account the whole Concept of Operations for both the growth and sustainability of the Cislunar Space Station, the Lunar Space Tug can be considered as an additional, new and fundamental element for the mission architecture. The

  18. Future spacecraft propulsion systems. Enabling technologies for space exploration. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czysz, Paul A. [St. Louis Univ., MO (United States). Oliver L. Parks Endowed Chair in Aerospace Engineering; Bruno, Claudio [Univ. degli Studi di Roma (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica e Aeronautica

    2009-07-01

    In this second edition of Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems, the authors demonstrate the need to break free from the old established concepts of expendable rockets, using chemical propulsion, and to develop new breeds of launch vehicle capable of both launching payloads into orbit at a dramatically reduced cost and for sustained operations in low-Earth orbit. The next steps to establishing a permanent 'presence' in the Solar System beyond Earth are the commercialisation of sustained operations on the Moon and the development of advanced nuclear or high-energy space propulsion systems for Solar System exploration out to the boundary of interstellar space. In the future, high-energy particle research facilities may one day yield a very high-energy propulsion system that will take us to the nearby stars, or even beyond. Space is not quiet: it is a continuous series of nuclear explosions that provide the material for new star systems to form and provide the challenge to explore. This book provides an assessment of the industrial capability required to construct and operate the necessary spacecraft. Time and distance communication and control limitations impose robotic constraints. Space environments restrict human sustained presence and put high demands on electronic, control and materials systems. This comprehensive and authoritative book puts spacecraft propulsion systems in perspective, from earth orbit launchers to astronomical/space exploration vehicles. It includes new material on fusion propulsion, new figures and updates and expands the information given in the first edition. (orig.)

  19. Earth Observation from Space - The Issue of Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrieu, Sylvie; Nelson, Ross F.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing scientists work under assumptions that should not be taken for granted and should, therefore, be challenged. These assumptions include the following: 1. Space, especially Low Earth Orbit (LEO), will always be available to governmental and commercial space entities that launch Earth remote sensing missions. 2. Space launches are benign with respect to environmental impacts. 3. Minimization of Type 1 error, which provides increased confidence in the experimental outcome, is the best way to assess the significance of environmental change. 4. Large-area remote sensing investigations, i.e. national, continental, global studies, are best done from space. 5. National space missions should trump international, cooperative space missions to ensure national control and distribution of the data products. At best, all of these points are arguable, and in some cases, they're wrong. Development of observational space systems that are compatible with sustainability principles should be a primary concern when Earth remote sensing space systems are envisioned, designed, and launched. The discussion is based on the hypothesis that reducing the environmental impacts of thedata acquisition step,which is at the very beginning of the information streamleading to decision and action, will enhance coherence in the information streamand strengthen the capacity of measurement processes to meet their stated functional goal, i.e. sustainable management of Earth resources. We suggest that unconventional points of view should be adopted and when appropriate, remedial measures considered that could help to reduce the environmental footprint of space remote sensing and of Earth observation and monitoring systems in general. This article discusses these five assumptions inthe contextof sustainablemanagementof Earth's resources. Takingeachassumptioninturn,we find the following: (1) Space debris may limit access to Low Earth Orbit over the next decades. (2) Relatively speaking, given

  20. Exploring a Large Space of Small Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barros, Gabriella; Togelius, Julian

    We explore the soundness and playability of randomly generated games expressed in the Video Game Description Language (VGDL). A grammar is defined for VGDL, which is able to express a large variety of simple arcade-like games, and random expansions of this grammar are fed to a VGDL interpreter...... and played with off the shelf agents. We see this work as the first step towards generating complete, playable games....

  1. Exploring the governance and politics of transformations towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patterson, James; Schulz, Karsten; Vervoort, J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314503625; van der Hel, S.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/397095260; Widerberg, O.E.; Adler, Carolina; Hurlbert, Margot; Anderton, Karen; Sethi, Mahendra; Barau, Aliyu

    2017-01-01

    The notion of ‘transformations towards sustainability’ takes an increasingly central position in global sustainability research and policy discourse in recent years. Governance and politics are central to understanding and analysing transformations towards sustainability. However, despite receiving

  2. Toolbox for tomorrow. Exploring and designing sustainable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saraph, Anupam

    1994-01-01

    The exercise to construct a toolbox for operating on change and sustainability was undertaken out of the concerns voiced over the last two decades about the rapidly reorganising world which seems to move away from promising to sustain the human race (and much else). The pressures on sustaining

  3. Opportunities and challenges of international coordination efforts in space exploration - the DLR perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Andrea

    The German Aerospace Center and German Space Agency DLR has defined internationalisation one of the four pillars of its corporate strategy. Driven by global challenges, national space agencies like DLR are seeking partnerships to contribute to essential societal needs, such as human welfare, sustainability of life, economic development, security, culture and knowledge. All partnerships with both traditional and non-traditional partners must reflect a balanced approach between national requirements and needs of the international community. In view of the challenges emerging from this complexity, endeavours like space exploration must be built on mutual cooperation especially in a challenging political environment. Effective and efficient exploitation of existing expertise, human resources, facilities and infrastructures require consolidated actions of stakeholders, interest groups and authorities. This basic principle applies to any space exploration activity. DLR is among the agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) from its beginning in 2007. The strategic goals of DLR regarding space exploration correspond to the purpose of ISECG as a forum to share objectives and plans to take concrete steps towards partnerships for a globally coordinated effort in space exploration. DLR contributes to ISECG publications especially the “Global Exploration Roadmap” and the “Benefits stemming from Space Exploration” to see those messages reflected that support cooperation with internal and external exploration stakeholders in science and technology and communication with those in politics and society. DLR provides input also to other groups engaging in space exploration. However, taking into account limited resources and expected results, the effectiveness of multiple coordination and planning mechanisms needs to be discussed.

  4. Cross-cultural management supporting global space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Schrogl, K. U.; Logsdon, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    A new era of space exploration has begun that may soon expand into a global endeavor mainly driven by socio-economic motives. Currently the main space powers, namely the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, Canada as well as new rising space powers China and India, are pursuing national exploration programs to explore robotically and later with humans the Earth-Moon-Mars space. New axes of partnerships and cooperation mechanisms have emerged in the last decades. However, in order to achieve highly ambitious goals such as establishing human bases on the Moon, journeys to Mars and the construction of new infrastructures in space, international space cooperation has to be optimized to reduce costs and reap the benefits of worldwide expertise. Future ambitious space exploration endeavors are a long-term undertaking that could influence countries to look beyond their own interests and see the advantages that a larger program can bring. This paper provides new concepts for managing global space exploration in the framework of cross-cultural management, an element often neglected in the planning of future partnerships.

  5. Development and Demonstration of Sustainable Surface Infrastructure for Moon/Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.; Picard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human exploration of the Moon and Mars to be practical, affordable, and sustainable, future missions must be able to identify and utilize resources at the site of exploration. The ability to characterize, extract, processes, and separate products from local material, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can provide significant reductions in launch mass, logistics, and development costs while reducing risk through increased mission flexibility and protection as well as increased mission capabilities in the areas of power and transportation. Making mission critical consumables like propellants, fuel cell reagents and life support gases, as well as in-situ crew/hardware protection and energy storage capabilities can significantly enhance robotic and human science and exploration missions, however other mission systems need to be designed to interface with and utilize these in-situ developed products and services from the start or the benefits will be minimized or eliminated. This requires a level of surface and transportation system development coordination not typically utilized during early technology and system development activities. An approach being utilized by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Canadian Space Agency has been to utilize joint analogue field demonstrations to focus technology development activities to demonstrate and integrate new and potentially game changing. mission critical capabilities that would enable an affordable and sustainable surface infrastructure for lunar and Mars robotic and human exploration. Two analogue field tests performed in November 2008 and February 2010 demonstrated first generation capabilities for lunar resource prospecting, exploration site preparation, and oxygen extraction from regolith while initiating integration with mobility, science, fuel cell power, and propulsion disciplines. A third analogue field test currently planned for June 2012 will continue and expand

  6. Biofertilizers and sustainable agriculture: exploring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igiehon, Nicholas O; Babalola, Olubukola O

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide agricultural food production has to double in 2050 so as to feed the global increasing population while reducing dependency on conventional chemical fertilizers plus pesticides. To accomplish this objective, there is the need to explore the several mutualistic interactions between plant roots and rhizosphere microbiome. Biofertilization is the process of boosting the abundance of microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the natural plant rhizosphere which depicts a beneficial alternative to chemical fertilization practices. Mineral nutrients uptake by AMF are plausible by means of transporters coded for by different genes and example include phosphate transporter. These fungi can be produced industrially using plant host and these, including the possibility of AMF contamination by other microorganism, are factors militating against large scale production of AMF. AMF isolates can be inoculated in the greenhouse or field, and it has been shown that AMF survival and colonization level were enhanced in soybeans grown on land that was previously cultivated with the same plant. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is now used to gain insight into how AMF interact with indigenous AMF and screen for beneficial microbial candidates. Besides application as biofertilizers, novel findings on AMF that could contribute to maintenance of agricultural development include AMF roles in controlling soil erosion, enhancing phytoremediation, and elimination of other organisms that may be harmful to crops through common mycelia network. The combination of these potentials when fully harnessed under agricultural scenario will help to sustain agriculture and boost food security globally.

  7. Human Exploration Missions - Maturing Technologies to Sustain Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Chiaki; Koch, Bernhard; Reese, Terrence G.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will be long duration with abort scenarios of days to months. Providing crews with the essentials of life such as clean air and potable water means recycling human metabolic wastes back to useful products. Individual technologies are under development for such things as CO2 scrubbing, recovery of O2 from CO2, turning waste water into potable water, and so on. But in order to fully evaluate and mature technologies fully they must be tested in a relevant, high-functionality environment; a systems environment where technologies are challenged with real human metabolic wastes. It is for this purpose that an integrated systems ground testing capability at the Johnson Space Center is being readied for testing. The relevant environment will include deep space habitat human accommodations, sealed atmosphere of 8 psi total pressure and 32% oxygen concentration, life support systems (food, air, water), communications, crew accommodations, medical, EVA, tools, etc. Testing periods will approximate those of the expected missions (such as a near Earth asteroid, Earth ]Moon L2 or L1, the moon, and Mars). This type of integrated testing is needed not only for research and technology development but later during the mission design, development, test, and evaluation phases of preparing for the mission.

  8. Exploring the Living Learning Laboratory: An Approach to Strengthen Campus Sustainability Initiatives by Using Sustainability Science Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Irina Safitri

    Purpose: The paper aims to explore and analyse the potential of campus living learning laboratory (LLL) as an integrated mechanism to provide the innovative and creative teaching and learning experiences, robust research output and strengthening the campus sustainability initiatives by using the sustainability science approach.…

  9. Urban Space Explorer: A Visual Analytics System for Urban Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karduni, Alireza; Cho, Isaac; Wessel, Ginette; Ribarsky, William; Sauda, Eric; Dou, Wenwen

    2017-01-01

    Understanding people's behavior is fundamental to many planning professions (including transportation, community development, economic development, and urban design) that rely on data about frequently traveled routes, places, and social and cultural practices. Based on the results of a practitioner survey, the authors designed Urban Space Explorer, a visual analytics system that utilizes mobile social media to enable interactive exploration of public-space-related activity along spatial, temporal, and semantic dimensions.

  10. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection (ESA2C) and Curation Facility for Exploration Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. L.; Rumsey, M. S.; Manick, K.; Gill, S.-J.; Mavris, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.; Duvet, L.

    2017-09-01

    The ESA2C will support current and future technology development activities that are required for human and robotic exploration of Mars, Phobos, Deimos, C-Type Asteroids and the Moon.The long-term goal of this work is to produce a useful, useable and sustainable resource for engineers and scientists developing technologies for ESA space exploration missions.

  11. Brazilian Women Entrepreneurs: Exploring Sustainability as a Strategy for Developing Resilient Business Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M Anna Church

    2017-01-01

    .... Building upon the conceptual framework of sustainability principles in business, and applying a qualitative phenomenological study, we explored the perceptions of Brazilian women entrepreneurs...

  12. Will the US remain the real leader of human space exploration? A comparative assessment of space exploration policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimard, Max

    2012-06-01

    Human space exploration is at a turning point which should find its outcome during the coming decade: Shuttle is being retired, ISS will be exploited up to 2020 minimum. Today the US exploration plans are sucked down into political battles, Europe and Japan are nearly nowhere, Russia's plans are hazy, China's ambitions are clear and implemented, and new actors such as India are raising their profile. In this uncertain environment, the question might be asked: who will be the leaders of human space exploration in 10-15 years from now? The assumption of the paper is that some key enabling factors are essential for a country to play a substantial role in human space exploration: There should be some long term political stability or continuity The domain should be high in the political agenda of the country's decision makers The global budget environment of the country should be positive Space should not be too much competed by other budget "catchers" The paper will propose a tentative comparison of the main space faring countries plans, ambitions and likely positioning, for human space exploration. Starting from the today situation and recent past evolutions, we will try to establish future trends for these key factors, and through that to identify which countries might be the most dynamically engaged in human space exploration.

  13. 76 FR 41307 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee; Joint Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee; Joint... they are attending the NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee joint... they are attending the Space Operations Committee and Exploration Committee joint meeting in NASA...

  14. A Sweep-Line Method for State Space Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Mailund, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We present a state space exploration method for on-the-fly verification. The method is aimed at systems for which it is possible to define a measure of progress based on the states of the system. The measure of progress makes it possible to delete certain states on-the-fly during state space...... of the method on a number of Coloured Petri Net models, and give a first evaluation of its practicality by means of an implementation based on the Design/CPN state space tool. Our experiments show significant reductions in both space and time used during state space exploration. The method is not specific...... generation, since these states can never be reached again. This in turn reduces the memory used for state space storage during the task of verification. Examples of progress measures are sequence numbers in communication protocols and time in certain models with time. We illustrate the application...

  15. Space Manifold Dynamics Novel Spaceways for Science and Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Perozzi, Ettore

    2010-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the outcomes resulting from applying the dynamical systems approach to space mission design, a topic referred to as "Space Manifold Dynamics" (SMD). It is a natural follow-on to the international workshop "Novel Spaceways for Scientific and Exploration Missions," which was held in October 2007 at the Telespazio Fucino Space Centre (Italy) under the auspices of the Space OPS Academy. The benefits and drawbacks of using the Lagrangian points and the associated trajectories for present and future space missions are discussed. The related methods and algorithms are also described in detail. Each topic is presented in articles that were written as far as possible to be self consistent; the use of introductory sections and of extended explanations is included in order to address the different communities potentially interested in SMD: space science, the aerospace industry, manned and unmanned exploration, celestial mechanics, and flight dynamics.

  16. Exploring the Dialogic Space of Public Participation in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    in public misconceptions of science. This paper uses the dialogic space proposed by Callon et al. to explore relationships between public and science. The dialogic space spans collective versus scientific dimensions. The collective (or public) is constituted by aggregation (opinion polls) or by composition...

  17. In-Space Manufacturing at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center: Enabling Technologies for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Quincy; Johnston, Mallory; Ordonez, Erick; Ryan, Rick; Prater, Tracie; Werkeiser, Niki

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is currently engaged in a number of in-space manufacturing(ISM)activities that have the potential to reduce launch costs, enhance crew safety, and provide the capabilities needed to undertake long duration spaceflight safely and sustainably.

  18. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

  19. Scenario-based design space exploration of MPSoCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, P.; Pimentel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Early design space exploration (DSE) is a key ingredient in system-level design of MPSoC-based embedded systems. The state of the art in this field typically still explores systems under a single, fixed application workload. In reality, however, the applications are concurrently executing and

  20. Private equity investments beyond Earth orbits: Can space exploration be the new frontier for private investments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathurin, Jeph; Peter, Nicolas

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 can be considered an important milestone for space activities. First, on January 14, 2004 President Bush announced a new vision for human and robotic space exploration named "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery". This new space exploration policy called for "a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond" and seeks also to "promote international and commercial participation in space exploration to further US scientific, security, and economic interests". Secondly, the satellite industry has experienced a trend of private investment fund acquisitions. Five of six major fixed and mobile satellite service providers in the world have been partly or entirely sold to conventional financial investors. These transactions have taken place despite the background noise of overcapacity, stagnant growth and declining operating margins satellite services sector. Over the last 18 months, we have seen a total of approximately US $12B dollars in private equity transactions in the satellite sector. Finally, the Ansari X prize has been won opening the possibility of the personal spaceflight revolution. This paper seeks to provide some insights into the nature, timing and a rationale for these investments in the space sector. Then, an attempt is made to analyze the potential that space exploration might present for traditional financial investors.

  1. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration - Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Josette

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to the most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by JPL. A brief background of JPL's history is presented, and the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft, is described. Results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are discussed. Consideration is given to the atmosphere, rings, satellites, and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The impact of spray research on space exploration is briefly discussed. An overview of future missions and new NASA policies is also presented.

  2. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration - Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Josette

    1993-04-01

    Attention is given to the most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by JPL. A brief background of JPL's history is presented, and the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft, is described. Results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are discussed. Consideration is given to the atmosphere, rings, satellites, and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The impact of spray research on space exploration is briefly discussed. An overview of future missions and new NASA policies is also presented.

  3. Intelligent Systems: Shaping the Future of Aeronautics and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Lohn, Jason; Kaneshige, John

    2004-01-01

    Intelligent systems are nature-inspired, mathematically sound, computationally intensive problem solving tools and methodologies that have become important for NASA's future roles in Aeronautics and Space Exploration. Intelligent systems will enable safe, cost and mission-effective approaches to air& control, system design, spacecraft autonomy, robotic space exploration and human exploration of Moon, Mars, and beyond. In this talk, we will discuss intelligent system technologies and expand on the role of intelligent systems in NASA's missions. We will also present several examples of which some are highlighted m this extended abstract.

  4. The Opportunity in Commercial Approaches for Future NASA Deep Space Exploration Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, NASA released a report assessing the market for commercial crew and cargo services to low Earth orbit (LEO). The report stated that NASA had spent a few hundred million dollars in the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program on the portion related to the development of the Falcon 9 launch vehicle. Yet a NASA cost model predicted the cost would have been significantly more with a non-commercial cost-plus contracting approach. By 2016 a NASA request for information stated it must "maximize the efficiency and sustainability of the Exploration Systems development programs", as "critical to free resources for reinvestment...such as other required deep space exploration capabilities." This work joins the previous two events, showing the potential for commercial, public private partnerships, modeled on programs like COTS, to reduce the cost to NASA significantly for "...other required deep space exploration capabilities." These other capabilities include landers, stages and more. We mature the concept of "costed baseball cards", adding cost estimates to NASA's space systems "baseball cards." We show some potential costs, including analysis, the basis of estimates, data sources and caveats to address a critical question - based on initial assessment, are significant agency resources justified for more detailed analysis and due diligence to understand and invest in public private partnerships for human deep space exploration systems? The cost analysis spans commercial to cost-plus contracting approaches, for smaller elements vs. larger, with some variation for lunar or Mars. By extension, we delve briefly into the potentially much broader significance of the individual cost estimates if taken together as a NASA investment portfolio where public private partnership are stitched together for deep space exploration. How might multiple improvements in individual systems add up to NASA human deep space exploration achievements, realistically, affordably

  5. Exploring Australian health promotion and environmental sustainability initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health.

  6. Exploring Culturally Sustaining Writing Pedagogy in Urban Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Rebecca; Vaughan, Andrea; Machado, Emily

    2017-01-01

    We examine how culturally sustaining pedagogy that fosters linguistic and cultural pluralism might be taken up in writing instruction. Using data collected through semistructured interviews with nine urban elementary and middle school writing teachers, we document teachers' conceptualizations and enactments of culturally sustaining writing…

  7. The Importance of the United Nations Guidelines for the Long-Term Sustainability of Space Activities and Other International Initiatives to Promote Space Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Delgado López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sustainability of space activities is an emerging issue to which actors in the global space community –including governments, agencies, and industry– are devoting increasing amounts of attention and resources. Considering the sustainability of space activities involves taking into account the present population of space debris, the size of the debris population in the most commonly-used Earth orbits in the future, and the possibility of collision events between objects in space. Addressing space debris and other threats to space sustainability involves both technological and political solutions. The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (copuos has led a major effort to define such solutions and has established a working group tasked with the development of non-binding long-term sustainability (lts guidelines. This article includes an overview of the concept of space sustainability, a discussion of the need, development, and current status of the lts guidelines, as well as an analysis of some of the guidelines themselves. It concludes with a broader discussion of space as an area without state sovereignty – one of the key aspects that have influenced the development of non-binding measures to address the space sustainability challenge. In this context, and given the governance questions that arise from the interaction between states and non-state actors in this domain, this discussion should be of interest to international relations scholars and practitioners.

  8. The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Seigo; Roach, Allana-Nicole; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Riley, Danny A.; Gonda, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) might countermeasure various space-caused disorders so as to maintain astronauts' homeostasis. If this were achievable, the HSCT could promote human exploration of deep space. Using animal models of disorders (hindlimb suspension unloading system and beta-thalassemia), the HSCT was tested for muscle loss, immunodeficiency and space anemia. The results indicate feasibility of HSCT for these disorders. To facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs were optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

  9. Exploring the relationship between sustainability and university curricula: a small-scale study

    OpenAIRE

    Baughan, P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the concept of sustainability and wather there is a case for sustainability issues to be incorporated into university curricula, within the context of a single university. After discussing selected literature on sustainability, the main body of the work reports on a small-scale study undertaken at City University London by the author. Four members of staff were interviewed and invited to give their views on what sustainability is, and whether it should be incorporated into ...

  10. A Flexible Path for Human and Robotic Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsmeyer, David J.; Landis, Robert; Merrill, Raymond Gabriel; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Falck, Robert D.; Adams, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    During the summer of 2009, a flexible path scenario for human and robotic space exploration was developed that enables frequent, measured, and publicly notable human exploration of space beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The formulation of this scenario was in support of the Exploration Beyond LEO subcommittee of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee that was commissioned by President Obama. Exploration mission sequences that allow humans to visit a wide number of inner solar system destinations were investigated. The scope of destinations included the Earth-Moon and Earth-Sun Lagrange points, near-Earth objects (NEOs), the Moon, and Mars and its moons. The missions examined assumed the use of Constellation Program elements along with existing launch vehicles and proposed augmentations. Additionally, robotic missions were envisioned as complements to human exploration through precursor missions, as crew emplaced scientific investigations, and as sample gathering assistants to the human crews. The focus of the flexible path approach was to gain ever-increasing operational experience through human exploration missions ranging from a few weeks to several years in duration, beginning in deep space beyond LEO and evolving to landings on the Moon and eventually Mars.

  11. Exploring Gamification Techniques and Applications for Sustainable Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Letiţia Negruşa; Valentin Toader; Aurelian Sofică; Mihaela Filofteia Tutunea; Rozalia Veronica Rus

    2015-01-01

    Tourism is perceived as an appropriate solution for pursuing sustainable economic growth due to its main characteristics. In the context of sustainable tourism, gamification can act as an interface between tourists (clients), organisations (companies, NGOs, public institutions) and community, an interface built in a responsible and ethical way. The main objective of this study is to identify gamification techniques and applications used by organisations in the hospitality and tourism industry...

  12. Exploring Gamification Techniques and Applications for Sustainable Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Letiţia Negruşa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is perceived as an appropriate solution for pursuing sustainable economic growth due to its main characteristics. In the context of sustainable tourism, gamification can act as an interface between tourists (clients, organisations (companies, NGOs, public institutions and community, an interface built in a responsible and ethical way. The main objective of this study is to identify gamification techniques and applications used by organisations in the hospitality and tourism industry to improve their sustainable activities. The first part of the paper examines the relationship between gamification and sustainability, highlighting the links between these two concepts. The second part identifies success stories of gamification applied in hospitality and tourism and reviews gamification benefits by analysing the relationship between tourism organisations and three main tourism stakeholders: tourists, tourism employees and local community. The analysis is made in connection with the main pillars of sustainability: economic, social and environmental. This study is positioning the role of gamification in the tourism and hospitality industry and further, into the larger context of sustainable development.

  13. NASA Ames and Future of Space Exploration, Science, and Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Pushing the frontiers of aeronautics and space exploration presents multiple challenges. NASA Ames Research Center is at the forefront of tackling these issues, conducting cutting edge research in the fields of air traffic management, entry systems, advanced information technology, intelligent human and robotic systems, astrobiology, aeronautics, space, earth and life sciences and small satellites. Knowledge gained from this research helps ensure the success of NASA's missions, leading us closer to a world that was only imagined as science fiction just decades ago.

  14. Complexity in Simplicity: Flexible Agent-based State Space Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob Illum; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new flexible framework for state space exploration based on cooperating agents. The idea is to let various agents with different search patterns explore the state space individually and communicate information about fruitful subpaths of the search tree to each other....... That way very complex global search behavior is achieved with very simple local behavior. As an example agent behavior, we propose a novel anytime randomized search strategy called frustration search. The effectiveness of the framework is illustrated in the setting of priced timed automata on a number...

  15. Space Resources Development: The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-Term Commercialization of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2000-01-01

    In a letter to the NASA Administrator, Dan Goldin, in January of 1999, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) stated the following . OMB recommends that NASA consider commercialization in a broader context than the more focused efforts to date on space station and space shuttle commercialization. We suggest that NASA examine architectures that take advantage of a potentially robust future commercial infrastructure that could dramatically lower the cost of future human exploration." In response to this letter, the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise launched the BEDS Technology & Commercialization Initiative (HTCI) to link technology and system development for human exploration with the commercial development of space to emphasize the "D" (Development) in BEDS. The development of technologies and capabilities to utilize space resources is the first of six primary focus areas in this program. It is clear that Space Resources Development (SRD) is key for both long-term human exploration of our solar system and to the long-term commercialization of space since: a) it provides the technologies, products, and raw materials to support efficient space transportation and in-space construction and manufacturing, and b) it provides the capabilities and infrastructure to allow outpost growth, self-sufficiency, and commercial space service and utility industry activities.

  16. Definition and use of Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment: A novel approach to generate, explore and decide on sustainable solutions for wicked problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijp, Michiel C; Posthuma, Leo; Wintersen, Arjen; Devilee, Jeroen; Swartjes, Frank A

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment (SfSA), provides practical guidance formatted as a versatile process framework, and illustrates its utility for solving a wicked environmental management problem. Society faces complex and increasingly wicked environmental problems for which sustainable solutions are sought. Wicked problems are multi-faceted, and deriving of a management solution requires an approach that is participative, iterative, innovative, and transparent in its definition of sustainability and translation to sustainability metrics. We suggest to add the use of a solution-focused approach. The SfSA framework is collated from elements from risk assessment, risk governance, adaptive management and sustainability assessment frameworks, expanded with the 'solution-focused' paradigm as recently proposed in the context of risk assessment. The main innovation of this approach is the broad exploration of solutions upfront in assessment projects. The case study concerns the sustainable management of slightly contaminated sediments continuously formed in ditches in rural, agricultural areas. This problem is wicked, as disposal of contaminated sediment on adjacent land is potentially hazardous to humans, ecosystems and agricultural products. Non-removal would however reduce drainage capacity followed by increased risks of flooding, while contaminated sediment removal followed by offsite treatment implies high budget costs and soil subsidence. Application of the steps in the SfSA-framework served in solving this problem. Important elements were early exploration of a wide 'solution-space', stakeholder involvement from the onset of the assessment, clear agreements on the risk and sustainability metrics of the problem and on the interpretation and decision procedures, and adaptive management. Application of the key elements of the SfSA approach eventually resulted in adoption of a novel sediment management policy. The stakeholder

  17. Low Gravity Materials Science Research for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Semmes, Edmund B.; Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Cook, Mary Beth; Wargo, Michael J.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    2004-01-01

    On January 14, 2004, the President of the United States announced a new vision for the United States civil space program. The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has the responsibility to implement this new vision. The President also created a Presidential Commission 'to obtain recommendations concerning implementation of the new vision for space exploration.' The President's Commission recognized that achieving the exploration objectives would require significant technical innovation, research, and development in focal areas defined as 'enabling technologies.' Among the 17 enabling technologies identified for initial focus were advanced structures; advanced power and propulsion; closed-loop life support and habitability; extravehicular activity system; autonomous systems and robotics; scientific data collection and analysis; biomedical risk mitigation; and planetary in situ resource utilization. The Commission also recommended realignment of NASA Headquarters organizations to support the vision for space exploration. NASA has aggressively responded in its planning to support the vision for space exploration and with the current considerations of the findings and recommendations from the Presidential Commission. This presentation will examine the transformation and realignment activities to support the vision for space exploration that are underway in the microgravity materials science program. The heritage of the microgravity materials science program, in the context of residence within the organizational structure of the Office of Biological and Physical Research, and thematic and sub-discipline based research content areas, will be briefly examined as the starting point for the ongoing transformation. Overviews of future research directions will be presented and the status of organizational restructuring at NASA Headquarters, with respect to influences on the microgravity materials science program, will be discussed

  18. Benefits to society from space exploration and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Stephen E.

    Many obvious benefits to society from the exploration and use of outer space have been reported. The conviction that such benefits exist is what motivates national governments to provide funding for national space programs. There is a well known litany of improvements in space applications and space science, as well as the benefits to technology development and basic research in physical sciences. These are the generally visible and often discussed benefits. There are also numerous indirect and less well known benefits that accrue to society. The stimulation of electronics miniaturization, for example, contributes to improvements in medicine, manufacturing processes, and many new forms of automation. New materials development provides advances in aeronautical, maritime and terrestrial transportation and communication systems. In the past 30 years, these developments have also: (1) stimulated improved and expanded educational and research programs: (2) created new organizations: (3) generated jobs: and (4) fostered new forms and sources of national and personal pride and prestige. Rarely is there articulation of the more metaphysical aspects of the philosophical and psychological benefits of the exploration and use of space for society. While this paper touches on many primary, secondary and tertiary physical and industrial benefits, it also deals with the more ephemeral and philosophical benefits that are infrequently explored. Although fascinating stories of courageous development programs in astronautics can be told of programs in Argentina, Brazil, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico and other countries, there is perhaps no story as dramatic as the story of India as it undertook and pursued major space program development over the past 30 years. Examined in some detail, the story of India indicates clearly how participation in space exploration and use produces benefits to a national society as well as to the international soceity of mankind. Creation of a success spiral

  19. Exploring the sustainability of composting as a solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste composting has emerged as an innovative approach to managing solid waste in various regions of the world. However, the sustainability of this approach to solid waste management has been sparsely investigated in the study area. This paper reviews composting case studies in Nigeria with the aim of providing ...

  20. Land Use Policies For Sustainable Development : exploring Integrated Assessment Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNeill, D.; Nesheim, I.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    The urgent need to enhance sustainable development in developing countries has never been greater: poverty levels are growing, land conversions are uncontrolled, and there is rapid loss of biodiversity through land use change. This timely book highlights the need for integrated assessment tools for

  1. Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogniat Guy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.

  2. Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Bossuet

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.

  3. An Empirical Exploration, Typology, and Definition of Corporate Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Max Bergman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between business and society is evolving. On the one hand, social, environmental, and long-term economic issues subsumed under the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development are inspiring intergovernmental organizations, governments, NGOs, NPOs, foundations, and civic society to legislate and regulate corporate behavior toward a greater concern for the wellbeing of groups, regions, or entire societies. On the other, a growing trend toward protectionism, nationalism, and populism may be the consequence or expression of a dissatisfaction with the perceived dissociation of the private sector from society. As a form of self-regulation, corporate responsibility deals with the complex responsibilities businesses have toward society. However, it tends to be hampered by an emphasis on theology and philosophy-based business ethics, which are difficult to integrate into day-to-day business operations or to translate between national or corporate cultures. In this article, we argue that corporate sustainability could be a more useful concept to help improve on how government, the private sector, and academia understand the links between business and society, and how to translate the interdependence between business and society from one culture to another. For this purpose, we empirically analyzed the relevant academic literature on corporate sustainability, using Content Configuration Analysis. Our analyses revealed three conceptual types and nine subtypes of corporate sustainability. Based on their assessment, we suggest conceptual preferences and a definition of corporate sustainability, which fulfil criteria that may render the concept more useful to global political and socioeconomic negotiations among stakeholder groups for the long-term benefit of business and society.

  4. Towards system level runtime design space exploration of reconfigurable architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigdel, K.; Thompson, M.; Pimentel, A.D.; Bertels, K.

    2008-01-01

    The ever increasing intricacy of the systems and the increasing use of reconfigurble heterogeneous devices significantly enlarges the design complexity of the modern embedded systems. As a result, to create a good design, it is essential to perform Design Space Exploration( DSE) at various design

  5. The sweep-line state space exploration method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars M.; Mailund, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The sweep-line method exploits intrinsic progress in concurrent systems to alleviate the state explosion problem in explicit state model checking. The concept of progress makes it possible to delete states from the memory during state space exploration and thereby reduce peak memory usage...

  6. Knowledge Sharing at NASA: Extending Social Constructivism to Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindgren, Tina M.

    2008-01-01

    Social constructivism provides the framework for exploring communities of practice and storytelling at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in this applied theory paper. A brief overview of traditional learning and development efforts as well as the current knowledge sharing initiative is offered. In addition, a conceptual plan…

  7. Super earth explorer: a coronagraphic off-axis space telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, D.; Keller, C.U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824550

    2009-01-01

    The Super-Earth Explorer is an Off-Axis Space Telescope (SEE-COAST) designed for high contrast imaging. Its scientific objective is to make the physico-chemical characterization of exoplanets possibly down to 2 Earth radii. For that purpose it will analyze the spectral and polarimetric properties of

  8. Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biringer, K.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Bartine, D.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Buden, D. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Foreman, J. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Harrison, S. (Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  10. Exploring a sustainable world : research and education on sustainable development at Utrecht University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsma, M.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Utrecht University contributed to the COPERNICUS charter by bundling its broad expertise on sustainability issues in the Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation. The Copernicus Institute seeks to contribute to the development of knowledge and techniques as well as methods

  11. Future exploration of the asteroids. [by space probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D.; Niehoff, J.

    1979-01-01

    Future possibilities for the further study of the asteroids are reviewed, with particular attention paid to space missions for their direct exploration. The role of traditional ground-based and earth orbiting techniques is examined briefly, and it is concluded that although astronomical techniques are presently at their peak, and despite the opportunities provided by the Infrared Astronomical satellite, the Space Telescope and Spacelab Infrared Telescope Facility, the next major step will require direct exploration by space probes to obtain information on asteroid surface chemistry, geology and bulk properties. Various mission modes and propulsion systems for a first multi-target asteroid mission are discussed, including flyby, rendezvous, landing and sample return, and ion-drive propulsion systems. Science payloads for a basic rendezvous mission are considered, and target selection for multi-asteroid flyby tours and rendezvous tours is discussed. Consideration is also given to sample return missions for the evaluation of the asteroid as potential resources.

  12. A Management Model for International Participation in Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Patrick J.; Pease, Gary M.; Tyburski, Timothy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an engineering management model for NASA's future space exploration missions based on past experiences working with the International Partners of the International Space Station. The authors have over 25 years of combined experience working with the European Space Agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Canadian Space Agency, Italian Space Agency, Russian Space Agency, and their respective contractors in the design, manufacturing, verification, and integration of their elements electric power system into the United States on-orbit segment. The perspective presented is one from a specific sub-system integration role and is offered so that the lessons learned from solving issues of technical and cultural nature may be taken into account during the formulation of international partnerships. Descriptions of the types of unique problems encountered relative to interactions between international partnerships are reviewed. Solutions to the problems are offered, taking into consideration the technical implications. Through the process of investigating each solution, the important and significant issues associated with working with international engineers and managers are outlined. Potential solutions are then characterized by proposing a set of specific methodologies to jointly develop spacecraft configurations that benefits all international participants, maximizes mission success and vehicle interoperability while minimizing cost.

  13. Sustainability, accountability and corporate governance: Exploring multinationals' reporting practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid increase in accountability pressures on particularly large global companies. The increased call for transparency comes from two different angles, which show some (potential) convergence in terms of topics and audiences: accountability requirements in the context of corporate governance, which expand to staff-related, ethical aspects; and sustainability reporting that has broadened from environment only to social and financial issues. This article examines to wha...

  14. The Deep Space Network: A Radio Communications Instrument for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Stelzried, C. T.; Noreen, G. K.; Slobin, S. D.; Petty, S. M.; Trowbridge, D. L.; Donnelly, H.; Kinman, P. W.; Armstrong, J. W.; Burow, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is to serve as a communications instrument for deep space exploration, providing communications between the spacecraft and the ground facilities. The uplink communications channel provides instructions or commands to the spacecraft. The downlink communications channel provides command verification and spacecraft engineering and science instrument payload data.

  15. NASA's Space Launch System: A New Capability for Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other high-priority payloads into deep space. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with human missions beyond the Moon and then go on to transport astronauts or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. This paper will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability, and will detail the progress that has already been made toward a first launch in 2017. This paper will also explore the requirements needed for human missions to deep-space destinations and for game-changing robotic science missions, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions, along with the evolution strategy that will increase that capability. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and

  16. NASA Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's program for the civilian exploration of space is a challenge to scientists and engineers to help maintain and further develop the United States' position of leadership in a focused sphere of space activity. Such an ambitious plan requires the contribution and further development of many scientific and technological fields. One research area essential for the success of these space exploration programs is Intelligent Robotic Systems. These systems represent a class of autonomous and semi-autonomous machines that can perform human-like functions with or without human interaction. They are fundamental for activities too hazardous for humans or too distant or complex for remote telemanipulation. To meet this challenge, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) has established an Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE). The Center was created with a five year $5.5 million grant from NASA submitted by a team of the Robotics and Automation Laboratories. The Robotics and Automation Laboratories of RPI are the result of the merger of the Robotics and Automation Laboratory of the Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering (ECSE) and the Research Laboratory for Kinematics and Robotic Mechanisms of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, and Mechanics (ME,AE,&M), in 1987. This report is an examination of the activities that are centered at CIRSSE.

  17. The role of nuclear reactors in space exploration and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, R.J.

    2000-07-01

    The United States has launched more than 20 radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) into space over the past 30 yr but has launched only one nuclear reactor, and that was in 1965. Russia has launched more than 30 reactors. The RTGs use the heat of alpha decay of {sup 238}Pu for power and typically generate <1 kW of electricity. Apollo, Pioneer, Voyager, Viking, Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini all used RTGs. Space reactors use the fission energy of {sup 235}U; typical designs are for 100 to 1000 kW of electricity. The only US space reactor launch (SNAP-10A) was a demonstration mission. One reason for the lack of space reactor use by the United States was the lack of space missions that required high power. But, another was the assumed negative publicity that would accompany a reactor launch. The net result is that all space reactor programs after 1970 were terminated before an operating space reactor could be developed, and they are now many years from recovering the ability to build them. Two major near-term needs for space reactors are the human exploration of Mars and advanced missions to and beyond the orbit of Jupiter. To help obtain public acceptance of space reactors, one must correct some of the misconceptions concerning space reactors and convey the following facts to the public and to decision makers: Space reactors are 1000 times smaller in power and size than a commercial power reactor. A space reactor at launch is only as radioactive as a pile of dirt 60 m (200 ft) across. A space reactor contains no plutonium at launch. It does not become significantly radioactive until it is turned on, and it will be engineered so that no launch accident can turn it on, even if that means fueling it after launch. The reactor will not be turned on until it is in a high stable orbit or even on an earth-escape trajectory for some missions. The benefits of space reactors are that they give humanity a stairway to the planets and perhaps the stars. They open a new

  18. Explorations in Teaching Sustainable Design: A Studio Experience in Interior Design/Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel, Meltem O.

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that a design studio can be a dynamic medium to explore the creative potential of the complexity of sustainability from its technological to social ends. The study seeks to determine the impact of an interior design/architecture studio experience that was initiated to teach diverse meanings of sustainability and to engage the…

  19. Transforming sustainable development: Exploring religion-sensitive approaches in Light Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    Addressed is the meaning of the Light Development concept, a combination of the Integral development and the Sustainable development. By exploring different sustainable development projects in Sri Lanka, Egypt and South Africa it examines the concept in a practical and theoretical manner.

  20. Exploration of sustainable development by applying green economy indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yungkun; Chen, Chia-Yon; Hsieh, Tsuifang

    2011-11-01

    Following the global trend of sustainable development, development of green economy is the best way of slowing the negative ecological and environmental impact. This research establishes the Taiwan's green economic indicators based on the ecological footprint and energy analysis. The results are as follows: Taiwan's ecological footprint in 2008 intensity index was at 4.364; ecological overshoot index was at 3.364, showing that Taiwan's ecological system is in overload state. Moreover, this study utilizes energy analysis model to study the sustainable development of Taiwan. Findings showed that total energy use in 2008 was 3.14 × 10(23) sej (solar energy joule, sej), energy of renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22) sej, energy of nonrenewable resources was 2.26 × 10(23) sej, energy of products from renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22)sej, energy of currency flow was 8.02 × 10(22) sej and energy of wastes flow was 6.55 × 10(22) sej. Taiwan's energy per capita and the utilization rate of energy is lower while the environmental loading rate is significantly higher comparing to some other countries. The foregoing findings indicate that Taiwan currently belongs to an economic development pattern based on high resource consumption. The economic development is mainly established on the exploitation and utilization of nonrenewable resources. Therefore, Taiwan should change the development pattern, regulate the industrial structure, promote the utilization rate of resources, develop green pollution-free products, and enhance the sustainable development of ecological economic system.

  1. Human Space Exploration: The Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission in ways that promote leadership in space and economic expansion on the new frontier. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed, to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. The Vision commits NASA and the nation to an agenda of exploration that also includes robotic exploration and technology development, while building on lessons learned over 50 years of hard-won experience. Why the Moon? Many questions about the Moon's potential resources and how its history is linked to that of Earth were spurred by the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment for extended expeditions. The Moon also will serve as a training ground before embarking on the longer, more difficult trip to Mars. NASA plans to build a lunar outpost at one of the lunar poles, learn to live off the land, and reduce dePendence on Earth for longer missions. America needs to extend its ability to survive in hostile environments close to our home planet before astronauts will reach Mars, a planet very much like Earth. NASA has worked with scientists to define lunar exploration goals and is addressing the opportunities for a range of scientific study on Mars. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on common hardware, shared knowledge, and unique experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I

  2. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost

  3. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Hefner, Keith; Hitt, David

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventually landings on Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. The vehicle will be able to deliver greater mass to orbit than any contemporary launch vehicle. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads.

  4. Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for Space and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Ray, Robert E.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's newly named Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to mature and develop the avionic and processor technologies required to fulfill NASA's goals for future space and lunar exploration. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the individual AAPS technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of the project's recent technology advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the project's plans for the coming year.

  5. Exploration of the Future – a Key to Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatroslav Zovko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history people were fascinated and curious about the future. The future was, and still is seen as a key for prosperous development in all aspects of the society. As such, new discipline is developed – future studies.This paper discusses the discipline of future studies and its role in the society and science. Future studies are analyzed in the context of sustainable development. It is argued that future studies and sustainable development are complementary in nature. Based on analysis of most developed countries in the world, that spend the greatest portion of their budget on research, development and science in comparison to the rest of the world, there is a conclusive link between investments in research, development and science, and the recognition of the importance of thinking about the future. Those countries started to formalize their future orientation in many respected research centres and universities through their educational programs and research. That situation poses the need for other, less well off countries, to follow up.

  6. Exploration of space with a mobile platform and limited sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Pečavar, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This thesis will discuss the development of application for systematic exploration of space on iRobot Roomba robotic vacuum cleaner. The goal of development of application was to improve the basic operation of Roomba vacuum cleaner. Basic operation works unplanned within preprogrammed behaviors. The application for controlling the Roomba vacuum cleaner with the use of serial interface was developed with the help of Robot Operating System (ROS) environment and systematic pattern of behavior. T...

  7. Molpher: a software framework for systematic chemical space exploration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoksza, D.; Škoda, P.; Voršilák, M.; Svozil, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2014) ISSN 1758-2946 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010212; GA ČR(CZ) GAP202/11/0968; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-29032P Keywords : Chemical space exploration * De-novo design * In silico ligand design * Chemical biology tools Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.547, year: 2014

  8. Space Exploration Technologies Developed through Existing and New Research Partnerships Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The Space Partnership Development Program of NASA has been highly successful in leveraging commercial research investments to the strategic mission and applied research goals of the Agency through industry academic partnerships. This program is currently undergoing an outward-looking transformation towards Agency wide research and discovery goals that leverage partnership contributions to the strategic research needed to demonstrate enabling space exploration technologies encompassing both robotic spacecraft missions and human space flight. New Space Partnership Initiatives with incremental goals and milestones will allow a continuing series of accomplishments to be achieved throughout the duration of each initiative, permit the "lessons learned" and capabilities acquired from previous implementation steps to be incorporated into subsequent phases of the initiatives, and allow adjustments to be made to the implementation of the initiatives as new opportunities or challenges arise. An Agency technological risk reduction roadmap for any required technologies not currently available will identify the initiative focus areas for the development, demonstration and utilization of space resources supporting the production of power, air, and water, structures and shielding materials. This paper examines the successes to date, lessons learned, and programmatic outlook of enabling sustainable exploration and discovery through governmental, industrial, academic, and international partnerships. Previous government and industry technology development programs have demonstrated that a focused research program that appropriately shares the developmental risk can rapidly mature low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technologies to the demonstration level. This cost effective and timely, reduced time to discovery, partnership approach to the development of needed technological capabilities addresses the dual use requirements by the investing partners. In addition, these partnerships

  9. Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle; Preece, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The global thirst for vegetable oil can be regarded as one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st Century and interest has intensified with the prospect of biofuels. Palm oil has risen to become the dominant player on the vegetable oil market – and the main recipient of environmental...... scrutiny. Focusing specifically on the Malaysian context, this paper analyses the major environmental, social and economic impacts associated with palm oil production. Drawing on recently published research, publicly available data and a comparison made with a recent sustainability initiative undertaken...... by the hydropower industry – an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector – it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative and one...

  10. Framework for the Parametric System Modeling of Space Exploration Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, David R.; Hoffman, Jim; Olds, Aaron D.; Seal, Mike D., II

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for performing architecture definition and assessment prior to, or during, program formulation that utilizes a centralized, integrated architecture modeling framework operated by a small, core team of general space architects. This framework, known as the Exploration Architecture Model for IN-space and Earth-to-orbit (EXAMINE), enables: 1) a significantly larger fraction of an architecture trade space to be assessed in a given study timeframe; and 2) the complex element-to-element and element-to-system relationships to be quantitatively explored earlier in the design process. Discussion of the methodology advantages and disadvantages with respect to the distributed study team approach typically used within NASA to perform architecture studies is presented along with an overview of EXAMINE s functional components and tools. An example Mars transportation system architecture model is used to demonstrate EXAMINE s capabilities in this paper. However, the framework is generally applicable for exploration architecture modeling with destinations to any celestial body in the solar system.

  11. PSExplorer: whole parameter space exploration for molecular signaling pathway dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Thai Quang; Lee, Doheon

    2010-10-01

    Mathematical models of biological systems often have a large number of parameters whose combinational variations can yield distinct qualitative behaviors. Since it is intractable to examine all possible combinations of parameters for non-trivial biological pathways, it is required to have a systematic strategy to explore the parameter space in a computational way so that dynamic behaviors of a given pathway are estimated. We present PSExplorer, a computational tool for exploring qualitative behaviors and key parameters of molecular signaling pathways. Utilizing the Latin hypercube sampling and a clustering technique in a recursive paradigm, the software enables users to explore the whole parameter space of the models to search for robust qualitative behaviors. The parameter space is partitioned into sub-regions according to behavioral differences. Sub-regions showing robust behaviors can be identified for further analyses. The partitioning result presents a tree structure from which individual and combinational effects of parameters on model behaviors can be assessed and key factors of the models are readily identified. The software, tutorial manual and test models are available for download at the following address: http://gto.kaist.ac.kr/∼psexplorer.

  12. Exploring the relationship between sustainability and project success - conceptual model and expected relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Silvius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is one of the most important challenges of our time. Companies are integrating sustainability in their marketing, communication and their actions. Sustainability has more recently also been linked to project management. The logic behind this link is that sustainability needs change and projects are realizing change. Several studies explored how the concept of sustainability impact project management. The research project reported in this paper elaborates on these works by studying how sustainability affects project success. Project managers, logically, strive for project success and considering sustainability may influence this success. Based upon a review of relevant literature, the paper develops a conceptual model that provides a more detailed understanding of how considering different dimensions of sustainability may affect the individual criteria of project success. The study also provides a conceptual mapping of the different relationships between dimensions of sustainability and criteria of project success. This mapping shows that the most positive relationships are expected for the relationship between sustainability and the success criteria stakeholder satisfaction, future readiness and controlled project execution. The expected relationship between considering sustainability and completing the project on schedule and within budget is uncertain.

  13. Security Policy for a Generic Space Exploration Communication Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Vaden, Karl R.

    2016-01-01

    This document is one of three. It describes various security mechanisms and a security policy profile for a generic space-based communication architecture. Two other documents accompany this document- an Operations Concept (OpsCon) and a communication architecture document. The OpsCon should be read first followed by the security policy profile described by this document and then the architecture document. The overall goal is to design a generic space exploration communication network architecture that is affordable, deployable, maintainable, securable, evolvable, reliable, and adaptable. The architecture should also require limited reconfiguration throughout system development and deployment. System deployment includes subsystem development in a factory setting, system integration in a laboratory setting, launch preparation, launch, and deployment and operation in space.

  14. Interactive Building Design Space Exploration Using Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen; Østergård, Torben

    2017-01-01

    in combination with the interactive parallel coordinate plot (PCP). The latter is an effective tool to explore stochastic simulations and to find high-performing building designs. The proposed methods help decision makers to focus their attention to the most important design parameters when exploring......Monte Carlo simulations combined with regionalized sensitivity analysis provide the means to explore a vast, multivariate design space in building design. Typically, sensitivity analysis shows how the variability of model output relates to the uncertainties in models inputs. This reveals which...... simulation inputs are most important and which have negligible influence on the model output. Popular sensitivity methods include the Morris method, variance-based methods (e.g. Sobol’s), and regression methods (e.g. SRC). However, all these methods only address one output at a time, which makes it difficult...

  15. Sustainability in Higher Education: An explorative approach on sustainable behavior in two universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Juárez Nájera (Margarita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on identifying psychological factors related to personality features which can influence sustainable behavior of individuals in higher educational institutions (HEI), as well as to present the areas where these individuals work, and in which higher education for

  16. Modern Gemini-Approach to Technology Development for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold

    2010-01-01

    In NASA's plan to put men on the moon, there were three sequential programs: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. The Gemini program was used to develop and integrate the technologies that would be necessary for the Apollo program to successfully put men on the moon. We would like to present an analogous modern approach that leverages legacy ISS hardware designs, and integrates developing new technologies into a flexible architecture This new architecture is scalable, sustainable, and can be used to establish human exploration infrastructure beyond low earth orbit and into deep space.

  17. Exploring the sustainability of estonian forestry: the socioeconomic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbel-Piirsalu, Evelin; Bäcklund, Ann-Katrin

    2009-03-01

    Forestry as an important industry has both direct as well as indirect effects on the Estonian economy. It is therefore essential that it is sustainably managed so that it can continue to contribute to the economy in the future. The first aim of this article is to establish the situation regarding felling and regeneration in Estonia. As the available forestry statistics display discrepancies and lack consistency, it was as a necessary first step to gather information about and analyze the validity and reliability of the prime data to make the data sets useful for comparison over time and establish the current trends in Estonian forestry. However, with the help of interviews we are able to show that economic instability in Estonia brings with it increased logging rates and hinders investments into regeneration and maintenance. The problems are particularly pronounced in private forestry. Second, the article seeks to explain the socioeconomic reasons behind this situation. Economic problems among private owners, a liberal forestry policy, together with rapid land reform and weak enforcement of forestry legislation are some of the reasons that can explain the forestry trends in Estonia.

  18. Teachers' Initial and Sustained Use of an Instructional Assistive Technology Tool: Exploring the Mitigating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Flanagan, Sara; Heutsche, Anne; Okolo, Cynthia M.; Englert, Carol Sue

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research project explored factors that mitigated teachers implementing an instructional assistive technology and factors that mitigated its sustained use. Specifically, it explored these issues in relation to a social studies based instructional assistive technology (Virtual History Museum [VHM]), which was originally implemented…

  19. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS will propel the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.

  20. Community gardens as learning spaces for sustainable food practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercauteren, C.; Quist, J.N.; Van Bueren, E.M.; Veen, E.

    2013-01-01

    Urban agriculture is an emerging topic and it is widely argued that it has considerable potential for sustainable consumption and production. Community gardening is a promising type of urban agriculture and questions have been raised like whether it has additional benefits for sustainable lifestyles

  1. Sustainable development, energy and climate. Exploring synergies and tradeoffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Garg, A. (eds.)

    2006-11-15

    This report summarizes the results of the Development, Energy and Climate Project that has been managed by the UNEP Risoe Centre on behalf of UNEP DTIE. The project is a partnership between the UNEP Risoe Centre and centers of excellence in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Senegal and South Africa. The focus of this report is on the energy sector mitigation assessments that have been carried out in the countries. In addition to this work, the project has also included adaptation focused case studies that explore climate change impacts on the energy sector and infrastructure. The report includes a short introduction to the project and its approach and summaries of the six country studies. This is followed by an assessment of cross country results that gives a range of key indicators of the relationship between economic growth, energy, and local and global pollutants. Furthermore, energy access and affordability for households are considered as major social aspects of energy provision. The country study results that are included in this report are a short summary of some of the main findings and do not provide all details of the work that has been undertaken. Some of the countries in particular those with fast growing economies and energy sectors such as Brazil, China, India and South Africa have conducted general scenario analysis of the energy sector and explored some policies in more depth, while the country studies for Bangladesh and Senegal where the energy sector is less developed have focused more on specific issues related to energy access and the electricity sector. (au)

  2. Sustainability is possible despite greed - Exploring the nexus between profitability and sustainability in common pool resource systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Friedrich Burkhard von der; Kirley, Michael; Miller, Tim

    2017-05-23

    The sustainable use of common pool resources has become a significant global challenge. It is now widely accepted that specific mechanisms such as community-based management strategies, institutional responses such as resource privatization, information availability and emergent social norms can be used to constrain individual 'harvesting' to socially optimal levels. However, there is a paucity of research focused specifically on aligning profitability and sustainability goals. In this paper, an integrated mathematical model of a common pool resource game is developed to explore the nexus between the underlying costs and benefits of harvesting decisions and the sustainable level of a shared, dynamic resource. We derive optimal harvesting efforts analytically and then use numerical simulations to show that individuals in a group can learn to make harvesting decisions that lead to the globally optimal levels. Individual agents make their decision based on signals received and a trade-off between economic and ecological sustainability. When the balance is weighted towards profitability, acceptable economic and social outcomes emerge. However, if individual agents are solely driven by profit, the shared resource is depleted in the long run - sustainability is possible despite some greed, but too much will lead to over-exploitation.

  3. Potential Uses of Deep Space Cooling for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Joe; Sweterlitsch, Jeff; Swickrath, Micahel J.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all exploration missions envisioned by NASA provide the capability to view deep space and thus to reject heat to a very low temperature environment. Environmental sink temperatures approach as low as 4 Kelvin providing a natural capability to support separation and heat rejection processes that would otherwise be power and hardware intensive in terrestrial applications. For example, radiative heat transfer can be harnessed to cryogenically remove atmospheric contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Long duration differential temperatures on sunlit versus shadowed sides of the vehicle could be used to drive thermoelectric power generation. Rejection of heat from cryogenic propellant could counter temperature increases thus avoiding the need to vent propellants. These potential uses of deep space cooling will be addressed in this paper with the benefits and practical considerations of such approaches.

  4. Introduction to the session on `Human Space Exploration'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messidoro, P.

    When Schiaparelli tried to interpret the surface of Mars as it appeared from his telescope, in particular with reference to the famous "channels", he formulated the hypothesis that they would have been the product of some intelligent Mars population. Today we know that this interpretation was not correct, but we would like to consider his idea as a sort of vision for a future when the humankind will export our civilization on Mars. In fact the objective of the international plans of "Space Exploration" is exactly to land the humans on Mars to start its colonization. Although a new approach is proposed which includes International Space Station, Moon, Asteroids, etc. in a sort of "flexible path" to look for "new worlds in the Solar System where is possible for the humankind to live and operate", it is confirmed that the "final destination" is Mars.

  5. Progress report on nuclear propulsion for space exploration and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    NASA is continuing its work in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) on nuclear propulsion - both nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). The focus of the NTP studies remains on piloted and cargo missions to Mars (with precursor missions to the moon) although studies are under way to examine the potential uses of NTP for science missions. The focus of the NEP studies has shifted to space science missions with consideration of combining a science mission with an earlier demonstration of NEP using the SP-100 space nuclear reactor power system. Both NTP and NEP efforts are continuing in 1993 to provide a good foundation for science and exploration planners. Both NTP and NEP provide a very important transportation resource and in a number of cases enable missions that could not otherwise be accomplished.

  6. Building on 50 Years of Systems Engineering Experience for a New Era of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul K.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States (US) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair lunar lander, as well as the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Shuttle's propulsion elements and is managing the design and development of the Ares rockets, along with a host of other engineering assignments in the field of scientific space exploration. Specifically, the Marshall Center's Engineering Directorate houses the skilled workforce and unique facilities needed to build capable systems upon the foundation laid by the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle programs. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level testing activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural

  7. Micro-Logistics Analysis for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, William; Stromgren, Chel; Galan, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, logistics analysis for space missions has focused on the delivery of elements and goods to a destination. This type of logistics analysis can be referred to as "macro-logistics". While the delivery of goods is a critical component of mission analysis, it captures only a portion of the constraints that logistics planning may impose on a mission scenario. The other component of logistics analysis concerns the local handling of goods at the destination, including storage, usage, and disposal. This type of logistics analysis, referred to as "micro-logistics", may also be a primary driver in the viability of a human lunar exploration scenario. With the rigorous constraints that will be placed upon a human lunar outpost, it is necessary to accurately evaluate micro-logistics operations in order to develop exploration scenarios that will result in an acceptable level of system performance.

  8. Exploring the Design Space of Shape-Changing Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Nørgaard, Mie

    2015-01-01

    -changing interfaces is a growing area in HCI design research and that authors often shy away from articulating the special qualities brought to a design by using changing shape to communicate information, we set out to explore shape changing interfaces through a series of sketching experiments through the support...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call “Imagined Physics.” This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  9. Exploring the design space of shape-changing objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie; Merritt, Timothy Robert; Rasmussen, Majken

    2013-01-01

    -changing interfaces is a growing area in HCI design research and that authors often shy away from articulating the special qualities brought to a design by using changing shape to communicate information, we set out to explore shape changing interfaces through a series of sketching experiments through the support...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call "Imagined Physics." This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  10. Interactive Building Design Space Exploration Using Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen; Østergård, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations combined with regionalized sensitivity analysis provide the means to explore a vast, multivariate design space in building design. Typically, sensitivity analysis shows how the variability of model output relates to the uncertainties in models inputs. This reveals which...... simulation inputs are most important and which have negligible influence on the model output. Popular sensitivity methods include the Morris method, variance-based methods (e.g. Sobol’s), and regression methods (e.g. SRC). However, all these methods only address one output at a time, which makes it difficult...

  11. Design space pruning through hybrid analysis in system-level design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system archi- tectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size

  12. Building long-term constituencies for space exploration: The challenge of raising public awareness and engagement in the United States and in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Billings, L.

    2010-08-01

    Space exploration is a multifaceted endeavor and will be a "grand challenge" of the 21st century. It has already become an element of the political agenda of a growing number of countries worldwide. However, the public is largely unaware of space exploration activities and in particular does not perceive any personal benefit. In order to achieve highly ambitious space exploration goals to explore robotically and with humans the inner solar system, space agencies must improve and expand their efforts to inform and raise the awareness of the public about what they are doing, and why. Therefore adopting new techniques aiming at informing and engaging the public using participatory ways, new communication techniques to reach, in particular, the younger generation will be a prerequisite for a sustainable long-term exploration program: as they will enable it and carry most of the associated financial burden. This paper presents an environmental analysis of space exploration in the United States and Europe and investigates the current branding stature of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). We discuss how improved market research and new branding methods can increase public space awareness and improve the image of NASA and ESA. We propose a new participatory approach to engage the public as major stakeholder (along governments, the industrial space sector and the science community) that may provide sufficient resources for and sustainability of a long-term space exploration program.

  13. GIS oriented analysis of tourist time-space patterns to support sustainable tourism development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, van der W.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Tourism and tourism development create major changes in the environment. To determine their impact on environmental sustainability, it is necessary to understand tourist behaviour. Time, space and context are important components in describing tourist time-space behaviour. Tourist time-space

  14. Exploring themes and challenges in developing sustainable supply chains – A complexity theory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Maisam

    in developing sustainable supply chain activities from theoretical and empirical perspectives. Six research studies (RS) were designed and carried out. Two explored the patterns of the themes and challenges in making supply chains environmentally and socially sustainable in general (RS1, RS2). One explored...... freight transport (RS3), one, urban freight distribution (RS4), and one, logistical services (RS5) in particular. RS6 explored a complexity theory perspective (CTP) on managing, governing, and developing sustainable supply chains activities. A CTP was chosen because of its applicability and ability...... information), and identifying their patterns of associations. After assessing the quality of the synthesized knowledge, the results were communicated to several target groups through several communication channels. In RS1, five major themes and challenges were identified in making supply chains...

  15. The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Seigo; Roach, Allana-Nicole; Ramsahai, Shweta; Kim, Bak C.; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Riley, Danny A.; Gonda, Steven R.

    2004-02-01

    Astronauts experience severe/invasive disorders caused by space environments. These include hematological and cardiac abnormalities, bone and muscle losses, immunodeficiency, neurological disorders and cancer. Exploiting the extraordinary plasticity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which differentiate not only to all types of blood cells, but also to various tissues, including muscle, bone, skin, liver, and neuronal cells, we advanced a hypothesis that some of the space-caused disorders might be amenable to hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) so as to maintain astronauts' homeostasis. If this were achievable, the HSCT could promote human exploration of deep space. Using mouse models of human anemia (β-thalassemia) and spaceflight (hindlimb suspension unloading system), we have obtained feasibility results of HSCT for space anemia, muscle loss, and immunodeficiency. For example, the β-thalassemic mice were successfully transplanted with isologous HSCs, resulting in chimerism of hemoglobin species and alleviation of the hemoglobinopathy. In the case of HSCT for muscle loss, β-galactosidase-marked HSCs, which were prepared from β-galactosidase-transgenic mice, were detected by the X-gal wholemount staining procedure in the hindlimbs of unloaded mice following transplantation. Histochemical and physical analyses indicated structural contribution of HSCs to the muscle. To investigate HSCT for immunodeficiency, β-galactosidase-transformed Escherichia coli was used as the reporter bacteria, and infected to control and the hindlimb suspended mice. Results of the X-gal stained tissues indicated that the HSCT could help eliminate the E. coli infection. In an effort to facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs has been optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

  16. Synthetic Biology as an Enabling Technology for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and by re-supply. Thus materials brought from Earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches, a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because life can replicate and repair itself, and perform a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology enhances and expands life's evolved repertoire. Using organisms as feedstock, additive manufacturing through bioprinting will make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. This new approach and the resulting novel products will enable human exploration and settlement on Mars, while providing new manufacturing approaches for life on Earth.

  17. MODERN ROUTES TO EXPLORE CONCRETE’S COMPLEX PORE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on discrete element computer-simulation of concrete. It is argued on the basis of stochastic heterogeneity theory that modern concurrent-algorithm-based systems should be employed for the assessment of pore characteristics underlying durability performance of cementitious materials. The SPACE system was developed at Delft University of Technology for producing realistic schematizations of realcrete for a wide range of other particle packing problems, involving aggregate and fresh cement, and for the purpose of exploring characteristics in the hardened state of concrete, including of the pore network structure because of obvious durability problems. Since structure-sensitive properties are involved, schematization of reality should explicitly deal with the configuration of the cement particles in the fresh state. The paper concentrates on the stereological and mathematical morphology operations executed to acquire information on particle size, global porosity, and on distribution of porosity and of the connected pore fraction as a result of the near neighbourhood of aggregate grains. Goal is to provide information obtained along different exploration routes of concrete's pore space for setting up a pore network modelling approach. This type of methodological papers is scarce in concrete technology, if not missing at all. Technical publications that report on obtained results in our investigations are systematically referred to.

  18. Vision of Space Exploration Possibilities and limits of a human space conquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev

    Few generations of a schoolboys, which later become active and productive space researchers, have been brought up on a science fiction books. These books told us about travels to other Galaxies with velocities larger then velocity of light, meetings with friendly aliens (necessarily with communistic mentalities in Soviet Union books), star wars with ugly space monsters (in the western hemisphere books), etc. Beginning of Space age (4/10/1957) opened the door to a magic box, full of scientific discoveries, made mostly by robotic satellites and spacecraft. However, already the first human space trips clearly demonstrated that space is vigorously hostile to a human beings. Space medicine during the years since Gagarin flight, made an outstanding progress in supporting human presence at orbital stations, but the radiation hazards and problem of hypomagnetism are still opened and there is no visible path to their solution. So the optimistic slogan of 60-ies “Space is Our Place” is not supported by an almost half a century practice. Space never will be a comfortable place for soft and vulnerable humans? There is a general consensus that man will be on Mars during this century (or even its first part). This is very difficult but task it seems to be realistic after the significant advance of modern technologies will be made. But, is there any real need for humans to travel beyond the Mars orbit or to the inner regions of the Solar system? Will the age of Solar system exploration comes to its logical as it was described by Stanislav Lem in his famous book “Return from stars”? The author of this talk has more questions than answers, and thinks that PEX1 Panel on Exploration is just a right place to discuss these usually by passed topics.

  19. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimerly F.

    2016-01-01

    A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of propelling the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.

  20. Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then

  1. Trajectory Design and Orbital Dynamics of Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. H.

    2013-05-01

    The term of deep space exploration is used for the exploration in which a probe, unlike an earth satellite, escapes from the Earth's gravitation field, and conducts the exploration of celestial bodies within or away from the solar system. As the progress of aerospace science and technology, the exploration of the Moon and other planets of the solar system has attracted more and more attention throughout the world since late 1990s. China also accelerated its progress of the lunar exploration in recent years. Its first lunar-orbiting spacecraft, Chang'e 1, was successfully launched on 2007 October 24. It then achieved the goals of accurate maneuver and lunar orbiting, acquired a large amount of scientific data and a full lunar image, and finally impacted the Moon under control. On 2010 October 1, China launched Chang'e 2 with success, which obtained a full lunar image with a higher resolution and a high-definition image of the Sinus Iridum, and completed multiple extended missions such as orbiting the Lagrangian point L2, laying the groundwork for future deep space exploration. As the first phase of the three main operational phases (orbiting, landing, return) of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, the successful launches and flights of Chang'e 1 and Chang'e 2 are excellent applications of the orbit design of both the Earth-Moon transfer orbit and the circumlunar orbit, yet not involving the design of the entire trajectory consisting of the Earth-Moon transfer orbit, the circumlunar orbit, and the return orbit, which is produced particularly for sample return spacecraft. This paper studies the entire orbit design of the lunar sample return spacecraft which would be employed in both the third phase of the lunar exploration program and the human lunar landing program, analyzes the dynamic characteristics of the orbit, and works out the launch windows based on specific conditions. The results are universally applicable, and could serve as the basis of the orbit

  2. Growing Beyond Earth; Students Exploring Plant Varieties for Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzinger, Marion; Massa, Gioia

    2017-01-01

    Future space exploration and long duration space flight will pose an array of challenges to the health and wellbeing of astronauts. Since 2015, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (FTBG), in partnership with NASA's Veggie team, has been testing edible crops for space flight potential through a series of citizen science experiments. FTBG's interest in classroom-based science projects, along with NASA's successful operation of the Veggie system aboard the International Space Station (ISS), led to a NASA-FTBG partnership that gave rise to the Growing Beyond Earth STEM Initiative (GBE). Established in 2015, GBE now involves 131 middle and high school classrooms in South Florida, all conducting simultaneous plant science experiments. The results of those experiments (both numeric and visual) are directly shared with the space food production researchers at KSC. Through this session, we will explore the successful classroom implementation and integration into the curriculum, how the data is being used and the impact of the project on participating researchers, teachers, and students. Participating schools were supplied with specialized LED-lit growth chambers, mimicking the Veggie system on ISS, for growing edible plants under similar physical and environmental constraints. Research protocols were provided by KSC scientists, while edible plant varieties were selected mainly by the botanists at FTBG. In a jointly-led professional development workshop, participating teachers were trained to conduct GBE experiments in their classrooms. Teachers were instructed to not only teach basic botany concepts, but to also demonstrate practical applications of math, physics and chemistry. As experiments were underway, students shared data on plant germination, growth, and health in an online spreadsheet. Results from the students research show a promising selection of new plant candidates for possible further testing. Over a two year period, more than 5000 South Florida students, ages

  3. Application of Emerging Pharmaceutical Technologies for Therapeutic Challenges of Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    An important requirement of therapeutics for extended duration exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit will be the development of pharmaceutical technologies suitable for sustained and preventive health care in remote and adverse environmental conditions. Availability of sustained, stable and targeted delivery pharmaceuticals for preventive health of major organ systems including gastrointestinal, hepato-renal, musculo-skeletal and immune function are essential to offset adverse effects of space environment beyond low Earth orbit. Specifically, medical needs may include multi-drug combinations for hormone replacement, radiation protection, immune enhancement and organ function restoration. Additionally, extended stability of pharmaceuticals dispensed in space must be also considered in future drug development. Emerging technologies that can deliver stable and multi-therapy pharmaceutical preparations and delivery systems include nanotechnology based drug delivery platforms, targeted-delivery systems in non-oral and non-parenteral formulation matrices. Synthetic nanomaterials designed with molecular precision offer defined structures, electronics, and chemistries to be efficient drug carriers with clear advantages over conventional materials of drug delivery matricies. Nano-carrier materials like the bottle brush polymers may be suitable for systemic delivery of drug cocktails while Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles or (SPIONS) have great potential to serve as carriers for targeted drug delivery to a specific site. These and other emerging concepts of drug delivery and extended shelf-life technologies will be reviewed in light of their application to address health-care challenges of exploration missions. Innovations in alternate treatments for sustained immune enhancement and infection control will be also discussed.

  4. Sustainability Science Education in Africa: Negotiating Indigenous Ways of Living with Nature in the Third Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, George E.; Mhango, Ndalapa; Phiri, Absalom; Lanier, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    In response to global climate change, loss of biodiversity, and the immense human impact on the carrying capacity of the earth systems, attention has been given to sustainable development worldwide. In this paper, we explore the emerging field of sustainability science within the context of the socio-cultural milieu of Malawi, a sub-Saharan…

  5. Exploring lexical co-occurrence space using HiDEx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoul, Cyrus; Westbury, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Hyperspace analog to language (HAL) is a high-dimensional model of semantic space that uses the global co-occurrence frequency of words in a large corpus of text as the basis for a representation of semantic memory. In the original HAL model, many parameters were set without any a priori rationale. We have created and publicly released a computer application, the High Dimensional Explorer (HiDEx), that makes it possible to systematically alter the values of these parameters to examine their effect on the co-occurrence matrix that instantiates the model. We took an empirical approach to understanding the influence of the parameters on the measures produced by the models, looking at how well matrices derived with different parameters could predict human reaction times in lexical decision and semantic decision tasks. New parameter sets give us measures of semantic density that improve the model's ability to predict behavioral measures. Implications for such models are discussed.

  6. Enabling Science and Deep Space Exploration through Space Launch System (LSL) Secondary Payload Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jody; Pelfrey, Joseph; Norris, George

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in almost 40 years, a NASA human-rated launch vehicle has completed its Critical Design Review (CDR). By reaching this milestone, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion spacecraft are on the path to launch a new era of deep space exploration. NASA is making investments to expand science and exploration capability of the SLS by developing the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the mission trajectory. Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1), currently planned for launch no earlier than July 2018, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS. The EM-1 launch will include thirteen 6U Cubesat small satellites that will be deployed beyond low earth orbit. By providing an earth-escape trajectory, opportunities are created for advancement of small satellite subsystems, including deep space communications and in-space propulsion. This SLS capability also creates low-cost options for addressing existing Agency strategic knowledge gaps and affordable science missions. A new approach to payload integration and mission assurance is needed to ensure safety of the vehicle, while also maintaining reasonable costs for the small payload developer teams. SLS EM-1 will provide the framework and serve as a test flight, not only for vehicle systems, but also payload accommodations, ground processing, and on-orbit operations. Through developing the requirements and integration processes for EM-1, NASA is outlining the framework for the evolved configuration of secondary payloads on SLS Block upgrades. The lessons learned from the EM-1 mission will be applied to processes and products developed for future block upgrades. In the heavy-lift configuration of SLS, payload accommodations will increase for secondary opportunities including small satellites larger than the traditional Cubesat class payload. The payload mission concept of operations, proposed payload capacity of SLS, and the payload requirements for launch and

  7. Exploring pathways for sustainable water management in river deltas in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Middelkoop, H.; Offermans, A.; van Beek, Eelco; van Deursen, W.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring adaptation pathways into an uncertain future can support decisionmaking in achieving sustainable water management in a changing environment. Our objective is to develop and test a method to identify such pathways by including dynamics from natural variability and the interaction between

  8. Exploring biophysical potential and sustainability of wheat cultivation in Uruguay at the national level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, S.; Engelen, van V.W.P.; Molfino, J.H.; Resink, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is presented that explores soil survey information at the national level (1:1 M), generating sustainability indicators for wheat cultivation in Uruguay. Potential yields were calculated for simplified crop production situations under several constraints, such as limitation of water

  9. A Preliminary Exploration of the Relationships between Student-Created OER Sustainability, and Students Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, David; Webb, Ashley; Weston, Sarah; Tonks, DeLaina

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between open educational resources (OER) created by students for use by other students, the long-term sustainability of the movement toward OER, and the success of students who use OER created by other students as part of their core curricular materials. We begin by providing definitions and a broader context…

  10. Exploring a Pluralist Understanding of Learning for Sustainability and Its Implications for Outdoor Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Susanne C.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores a pluralist understanding of learning for sustainability in educational theory and relates it to outdoor education practice. In brief, this kind of learning can be described as a deep engagement with an individual's multiple identities and the personal location in diverse geo-physical and socio-cultural surroundings. I…

  11. Exploring accounting and sustainable development hybridisation in the UK public sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, I.; Grubnic, S.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Owen, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between accounting and sustainable development in two public sector contexts in the United Kingdom. By employing Miller et al.’s (2008) extended notion of hybridisation, the paper investigates transformations associated with practices, processes and expertises

  12. Competencies in Education for Sustainable Development: Exploring the Student Teachers’ Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Cebrián

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of higher education, over 100 universities have signed international declarations and have committed to embed sustainability within their operations, outreach, education and research. However, despite the declaration of good intentions and policy developments at the national, regional and international level, little has been achieved in terms of embedding education for sustainable development holistically in the curriculum. To date, a number of research studies have focused on the perceptions and views of university students in relation to sustainable development knowledge, skills and competencies; however, few studies have focused on student teachers’ perceptions of education for sustainable development. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions and views of a group of thirty-two student teachers in relation to education for sustainable development competencies. The research instrument used was a questionnaire. This study provides evidence on the education for sustainable development (ESD competencies that student teachers would prioritize in a school project related to ESD: acquisition of knowledge and practical skills related to nature and natural sciences, to the detriment of other types of learning, such as the promotion of ethical values, positive attitudes towards sustainability and the management of emotions among their future primary school students. Existing ESD theoretical frameworks need to become more alive and integrated within the existing teacher education curriculum to promote the awareness and development of ESD competencies amongst student teachers.

  13. Science on the Moon: The Wailing Wall of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas

    Science on and from the Moon has important implications for expanding human knowledge and understanding, a prospect for the 21st Century that has been under discussion for at least the past 25 years [1-3]. That having been said, however, there remain many issues of international versus national priorities, strategy, economy, and politics that come into play. The result is a very complex form of human behavior where science and exploration take center stage, but many other important human options are sacrificed. To renew this dialogue about the Moon, it seems we are already rushing pell-mell into it as has been done in the past. The U.S., Japan, China, India, and Russia either have sent or plan to send satellites and robotic landers there at this time. What does a return to the Moon mean, why are we doing this now, who should pay for it, and how? The only semblance of such a human enterprise seems to be the LHC currently coming online at CERN. Can it be used as a model of international collaboration rather than a sports or military event focused on national competition? Who decides and what is the human sacrifice? There are compelling arguments for establishing science on the Moon as one of the primary goals for returning to the Moon and venturing beyond. A number of science endeavors will be summarized, beyond lunar and planetary science per se. These include fundamental physics experiments that are background-limited by the Earth's magnetic dipole moment and noise produced by its atmosphere and seismic interior. The Moon is an excellent platform for some forms of astronomy. Other candidate Moon-based experiments vary from neutrino and gravitational wave astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic-ray calorimeters, to space physics and fundamental physics such as proton decay. The list goes on and includes placing humans in a hostile environment to study the long-term effects of space weather. The list is long, and even newer ideas will come from this COSPAR

  14. Launch and Assembly Reliability Analysis for Human Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Grant; Gelito, Justin; Stromgren, Chel; Cirillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2012-01-01

    NASA's future human space exploration strategy includes single and multi-launch missions to various destinations including cis-lunar space, near Earth objects such as asteroids, and ultimately Mars. Each campaign is being defined by Design Reference Missions (DRMs). Many of these missions are complex, requiring multiple launches and assembly of vehicles in orbit. Certain missions also have constrained departure windows to the destination. These factors raise concerns regarding the reliability of launching and assembling all required elements in time to support planned departure. This paper describes an integrated methodology for analyzing launch and assembly reliability in any single DRM or set of DRMs starting with flight hardware manufacturing and ending with final departure to the destination. A discrete event simulation is built for each DRM that includes the pertinent risk factors including, but not limited to: manufacturing completion; ground transportation; ground processing; launch countdown; ascent; rendezvous and docking, assembly, and orbital operations leading up to trans-destination-injection. Each reliability factor can be selectively activated or deactivated so that the most critical risk factors can be identified. This enables NASA to prioritize mitigation actions so as to improve mission success.

  15. Crew Roles and Interactions in Scientific Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2013-01-01

    Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human spaceflight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future spaceflight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future spaceflights.

  16. Sustainability: an Approach in Planning to Raise the Quality of Life Through Open Space Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Y. Khobragade

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A presentation of the notion of sustainable development through the eye of a town planner, by elucidating how open space development would change the character of the city and augment towards harmony in the socio-environmental chords of sustainable development. It is an attempt to put forward awareness about the sustainability and environmental risk to ultimately reconcile ecological, social and economic factors of society. It is an attempt to reflect on socio-environmental dimension of the open space planning by addressing urban metamorphosis.

  17. Sustained Operations in Confined-Space Military Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delleman, Nico J; Colaciuri, Véronique; Wiederkehr, Emeric; Valk, Pierre J.L

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports 2 baseline studies and 1 experiment performed in a confined-space military vehicle concerning the effects on fitness and performance of time in a sitting posture and workstation characteristics...

  18. Exploration of Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Therapy in Canadian Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beinum, Amanda; Hornby, Laura; Ramsay, Tim; Ward, Roxanne; Shemie, Sam D; Dhanani, Sonny

    2016-05-01

    The process of controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD) is strongly connected with the process of withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. In addition to impacting cDCD success, actions comprising withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy have implications for quality of palliative care. We examined pilot study data from Canadian intensive care units to explore current practices of life-sustaining therapy withdrawal in nondonor patients and described variability in standard practice. Secondary analysis of observational data collected for Determination of Death Practices in Intensive Care pilot study. Four Canadian adult intensive care units. Patients ≥18 years in whom a decision to withdraw life-sustaining therapy was made and substitute decision makers consented to study participation. Organ donors were excluded. None. Prospective observational data on interventions withdrawn, drugs administered, and timing of life-sustaining therapy withdrawal was available for 36 patients who participated in the pilot study. Of the patients, 42% died in ≤1 hour; median length of time to death varied between intensive care units (39-390 minutes). Withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy processes appeared to follow a general pattern of vasoactive drug withdrawal followed by withdrawal of mechanical ventilation and extubation in most sites but specific steps varied. Approaches to extubation and weaning of vasoactive drugs were not consistent. Protocols detailing the process of life-sustaining therapy withdrawal were available for 3 of 4 sites and also exhibited differences across sites. Standard practice of life-sustaining therapy withdrawal appears to differ between selected Canadian sites. Variability in withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy may have a potential impact both on rates of cDCD success and quality of palliative care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Science on the Moon: The Wailing Wall of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Science on and from the Moon has important implications for expanding human knowledge and understanding, a prospect for the 21st Century that has been under discussion for at least the past 25 years. That having been said, however, there remain many issues of international versus national priorities, strategy, economy, and politics that come into play. The result is a very complex form of human behavior where science and exploration take center stage, but many other important human options are sacrificed. To renew this dialogue about the Moon, it seems we are already rushing pell-mell into it as has been done in the past. The U.S., Japan, China, India, and Russia either have sent or plan to send satellites and robotic landers there at this time. What does a return to the Moon mean, why are we doing this now, who should pay for it, and how? The only semblance of such a human enterprise seems to be the LHC currently coming online at CERN. Can it be used as a model of international collaboration rather than a sports or military event focused on national competition? Who decides and what is the human sacrifice? There are compelling arguments for establishing science on the Moon as one of the primary goals for returning to the Moon and venturing beyond. A number of science endeavors will be summarized, beyond lunar and planetary science per se. These include fundamental physics experiments that are background-limited by the Earth's magnetic dipole moment and noise produced by its atmosphere and seismic interior. The Moon is an excellent platform for some forms of astronomy. Other candidate Moon-based experiments vary from neutrino and gravitational wave astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic-ray calorimeters, to space physics and fundamental physics such as proton decay. The list goes on and includes placing humans in a hostile environment to study the long-term effects of space weather. The list is long, and even newer ideas will come from this COSPAR conference

  20. Exploring sustainability transitions in households: insights from real-life experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedeker, Carolin; Buhl, Johannes; Greiff, Kathrin; Hasselkuß, Marco; Liedtke, Christa; Lukas, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    Societal transformation towards sustainable consumption and production, especially in urban areas, is a key challenge. The design and implementation of sustainable product service systems (PSS) might be the initial point, in which private households play a major role. The Sustainable LivingLab research infrastructure was developed as an experimental setting for investigating consumption and production patterns in private households, especially to explore socio-technical innovations which are helpful to guide sustainability transitions. The suggested presentation describes results of several real-life experiments conducted in German households, e.g. the project SusLabNRW (North-Rhine Westphalia as part of the European SusLabNWE-Project), the EnerTransRuhr project as well as the PATHWAYS project that explore patterns of action, time use, social practices and the related resource use in private households. The presentation gives an overview of the employed methods and analysed data (qualitative interviews, social network analysis, survey on household activities and inventories and a sustainability assessment (resource profiles - MIPS household analysis). Households' resource consumption was calculated in all fields of activity to analyse social practices' impact. The presentation illustrates how aggregated data can inform scenario analysis and concludes with an outlook onto transition pathways at household level and socio-technical innovations in the fields of housing, nutrition and mobility.

  1. Biofuels and the role of space in sustainable innovation journeys☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Sujatha; Mohr, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the lessons that should be learnt from how biofuels have been envisioned from the aftermath of the oil shocks of the 1970s to the present, and how these visions compare with biofuel production networks emerging in the 2000s. Working at the interface of sustainable innovation journey research and geographical theories on the spatial unevenness of sustainability transition projects, we show how the biofuels controversy is linked to characteristics of globalised industrial agricultural systems. The legitimacy problems of biofuels cannot be addressed by sustainability indicators or new technologies alone since they arise from the spatial ordering of biofuel production. In the 1970–80s, promoters of bioenergy anticipated current concerns about food security implications but envisioned bioenergy production to be territorially embedded at national or local scales where these issues would be managed. Where the territorial and scalar vision was breached, it was to imagine poorer countries exporting higher-value biofuel to the North rather than the raw material as in the controversial global biomass commodity chains of today. However, controversy now extends to the global impacts of national biofuel systems on food security and greenhouse gas emissions, and to their local impacts becoming more widely known. South/South and North/North trade conflicts are also emerging as are questions over biodegradable wastes and agricultural residues as global commodities. As assumptions of a food-versus-fuel conflict have come to be challenged, legitimacy questions over global agri-business and trade are spotlighted even further. In this context, visions of biofuel development that address these broader issues might be promising. These include large-scale biomass-for-fuel models in Europe that would transform global trade rules to allow small farmers in the global South to compete, and small-scale biofuel systems developed to address local energy needs in the

  2. Biofuels and the role of space in sustainable innovation journeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Sujatha; Mohr, Alison

    2014-02-15

    This paper aims to identify the lessons that should be learnt from how biofuels have been envisioned from the aftermath of the oil shocks of the 1970s to the present, and how these visions compare with biofuel production networks emerging in the 2000s. Working at the interface of sustainable innovation journey research and geographical theories on the spatial unevenness of sustainability transition projects, we show how the biofuels controversy is linked to characteristics of globalised industrial agricultural systems. The legitimacy problems of biofuels cannot be addressed by sustainability indicators or new technologies alone since they arise from the spatial ordering of biofuel production. In the 1970-80s, promoters of bioenergy anticipated current concerns about food security implications but envisioned bioenergy production to be territorially embedded at national or local scales where these issues would be managed. Where the territorial and scalar vision was breached, it was to imagine poorer countries exporting higher-value biofuel to the North rather than the raw material as in the controversial global biomass commodity chains of today. However, controversy now extends to the global impacts of national biofuel systems on food security and greenhouse gas emissions, and to their local impacts becoming more widely known. South/South and North/North trade conflicts are also emerging as are questions over biodegradable wastes and agricultural residues as global commodities. As assumptions of a food-versus-fuel conflict have come to be challenged, legitimacy questions over global agri-business and trade are spotlighted even further. In this context, visions of biofuel development that address these broader issues might be promising. These include large-scale biomass-for-fuel models in Europe that would transform global trade rules to allow small farmers in the global South to compete, and small-scale biofuel systems developed to address local energy needs in the

  3. Adequacy or otherwise of cemetery space for sustainable human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adequacy or otherwise of cemetery space in Benin City was assessed in 2014, based on population projected from the 2006 census figures. The area of each cemetery was determined by running a Global Positioning System (GPS) traverse round each, which gave a total of 11.979 Ha. At a rate of 0.5 Ha of cemetery ...

  4. Standardized Modular Power Interfaces for Future Space Explorations Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies show that future human explorations missions are composed of multi-vehicle assemblies with interconnected electric power systems. Some vehicles are often intended to serve as flexible multi-purpose or multi-mission platforms. This drives the need for power architectures that can be reconfigured to support this level of flexibility. Power system developmental costs can be reduced, program wide, by utilizing a common set of modular building blocks. Further, there are mission operational and logistics cost benefits of using a common set of modular spares. These benefits are the goals of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project. A common set of modular blocks requires a substantial level of standardization in terms of the Electrical, Data System, and Mechanical interfaces. The AMPS project is developing a set of proposed interface standards that will provide useful guidance for modular hardware developers but not needlessly constrain technology options, or limit future growth in capability. In 2015 the AMPS project focused on standardizing the interfaces between the elements of spacecraft power distribution and energy storage. The development of the modular power standard starts with establishing mission assumptions and ground rules to define design application space. The standards are defined in terms of AMPS objectives including Commonality, Reliability-Availability, Flexibility-Configurability and Supportability-Reusability. The proposed standards are aimed at assembly and sub-assembly level building blocks. AMPS plans to adopt existing standards for spacecraft command and data, software, network interfaces, and electrical power interfaces where applicable. Other standards including structural encapsulation, heat transfer, and fluid transfer, are governed by launch and spacecraft environments and bound by practical limitations of weight and volume. Developing these mechanical interface standards is more difficult but

  5. The Future of Human Space Exploration: Toward Cooperation or Competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    ELDO European Launch Development Organization ERA European Robotic Arm ESA European Space Agency ESOC European Space Operations Centre ESRO...Patterns of International Cooperation in Space, The Chinese Space Program: A Mystery Within a Maze , and ―Will China overtake America in space?‖ In...six member permanent crew originally planned.83 Canada was called on again for its advanced robotics . Unlike the other partners, Canada would not

  6. Lunar Relay Satellite Network for Space Exploration: Architecture, Technologies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Slywczak, Richard A.; Bose, Prasanta; Bergamo, Marcos; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. A key objective of these missions is to grow, through a series of launches, a system of systems infrastructure with the capability for safe and sustainable autonomous operations at minimum cost while maximizing the exploration capabilities and science return. An incremental implementation process will enable a buildup of the communication, navigation, networking, computing, and informatics architectures to support human exploration missions in the vicinities and on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars. These architectures will support all space and surface nodes, including other orbiters, lander vehicles, humans in spacesuits, robots, rovers, human habitats, and pressurized vehicles. This paper describes the integration of an innovative MAC and networking technology with an equally innovative position-dependent, data routing, network technology. The MAC technology provides the relay spacecraft with the capability to autonomously discover neighbor spacecraft and surface nodes, establish variable-rate links and communicate simultaneously with multiple in-space and surface clients at varying and rapidly changing distances while making optimum use of the available power. The networking technology uses attitude sensors, a time synchronization protocol and occasional orbit-corrections to maintain awareness of its instantaneous position and attitude in space as well as the orbital or surface location of its communication clients. A position-dependent data routing capability is used in the communication relay satellites to handle the movement of data among any of multiple clients (including Earth) that may be simultaneously in view; and if not in view, the relay will temporarily store the data from a client source and download it when the destination client comes into view. The integration of the MAC and data routing networking technologies would enable a relay

  7. Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2011-01-01

    Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

  8. Charting a Path Toward a Sustainable ROK Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Korea Multi-purpose Satellite KSLV Korea Space Launch Vehicle KSR Korea Sounding Rocket LEO low-earth orbit MOST Ministry of Science and Technology...science and technology development, announced that it “successfully launched a small satellite in low-earth orbit (LEO) on January 30, 2013,”3 plans...and place in orbit communications satellites , another to foster indigenous technology, starting with small satellites and launching them into low

  9. Secondary Payload Opportunities on NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Enable Science and Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jody; Pelfrey, Joseph; Norris, George

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in almost 40 years, a NASA human-rated launch vehicle has completed its Critical Design Review (CDR). With this milestone, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion spacecraft are on the path to launch a new era of deep space exploration. This first launch of SLS and the Orion Spacecraft is planned no later than November 2018 and will fly along a trans-lunar trajectory, testing the performance of the SLS and Orion systems for future missions. NASA is making investments to expand the science and exploration capability of the SLS by developing the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the mission trajectory. Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will include thirteen 6U Cubesat small satellites to be deployed beyond low earth orbit. By providing an earth-escape trajectory, opportunities are created for the advancement of small satellite subsystems, including deep space communications and in-space propulsion. This SLS capability also creates low-cost options for addressing existing Agency strategic knowledge gaps and affordable science missions. A new approach to payload integration and mission assurance is needed to ensure safety of the vehicle, while also maintaining reasonable costs for the small payload developer teams. SLS EM-1 will provide the framework and serve as a test flight, not only for vehicle systems, but also payload accommodations, ground processing, and on-orbit operations. Through developing the requirements and integration processes for EM-1, NASA is outlining the framework for the evolved configuration of secondary payloads on SLS Block upgrades. The lessons learned from the EM-1 mission will be applied to processes and products developed for future block upgrades. In the heavy-lift configuration of SLS, payload accommodations will increase for secondary opportunities including small satellites larger than the traditional Cubesat class payload. The payload mission concept of operations, proposed payload

  10. Importance of Actors and Agency in Sustainability Transitions: A Systematic Exploration of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Britt Fischer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of actors and agency in the literature on sustainability transitions. We reviewed 386 journal articles on transition management and sustainability transitions listed in Scopus from 1995 to 2014. We investigate the thesis that actors have been neglected in this literature in favor of more abstract system concepts. Results show that this thesis cannot be confirmed on a general level. Rather, we find a variety of different approaches, depending on the systemic level, for clustering actors and agency as niche, regime, and landscape actors; the societal realm; different levels of governance; and intermediaries. We also differentiate between supporting and opposing actors. We find that actor roles in transitions are erratic, since their roles can change over the course of time, and that actors can belong to different categories. We conclude by providing recommendations for a comprehensive typology of actors in sustainability transitions.

  11. Ecological Footprints and Lifestyle Archetypes: Exploring Dimensions of Consumption and the Transformation Needed to Achieve Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Moore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The global urban transition increasingly positions cities as important influencers in determining sustainability outcomes. Urban sustainability literature tends to focus on the built environment as a solution space for reducing energy and materials demand; however, equally important is the consumption characteristics of the people who occupy the city. While size of dwelling and motor vehicle ownership are partially influenced by urban form, they are also influenced by cultural and socio-economic characteristics. Dietary choices and purchases of consumable goods are almost entirely driven by the latter. Using international field data that document urban ways of living, I develop lifestyle archetypes coupled with ecological footprint analysis to develop consumption benchmarks in the domains of: food, buildings, consumables, transportation, and water that correspond to various levels of demand on nature’s services. I also explore the dimensions of transformation that would be needed in each of these domains for the per capita consumption patterns of urban dwellers to achieve ecological sustainability. The dimensions of transformation needed commensurate with ecological carrying capacity include: a 73% reduction in household energy use, a 96% reduction in motor vehicle ownership, a 78% reduction in per capita vehicle kilometres travelled, and a 79% reduction in air kilometres travelled.

  12. Exploring Life Support Architectures for Evolution of Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Stambaugh, Imelda C.

    2015-01-01

    Life support system architectures for long duration space missions are often explored analytically in the human spaceflight community to find optimum solutions for mass, performance, and reliability. But in reality, many other constraints can guide the design when the life support system is examined within the context of an overall vehicle, as well as specific programmatic goals and needs. Between the end of the Constellation program and the development of the "Evolvable Mars Campaign", NASA explored a broad range of mission possibilities. Most of these missions will never be implemented but the lessons learned during these concept development phases may color and guide future analytical studies and eventual life support system architectures. This paper discusses several iterations of design studies from the life support system perspective to examine which requirements and assumptions, programmatic needs, or interfaces drive design. When doing early concept studies, many assumptions have to be made about technology and operations. Data can be pulled from a variety of sources depending on the study needs, including parametric models, historical data, new technologies, and even predictive analysis. In the end, assumptions must be made in the face of uncertainty. Some of these may introduce more risk as to whether the solution for the conceptual design study will still work when designs mature and data becomes available.

  13. Hotel architecture from the perspective of sustainability and space hospitality : a study on the application of the concepts of sustainability and hospitality space in hotel projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josildete Pereira Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This present study aims to discuss the concept of both sustainability and hospitality into the context of city contemporary architecture which, in a certain way had been reinterpreted or asked in what is concerned to the concept of environmental sustainability. In this sense, the main goal of the research was to analyze two hotel projects in Santa Catarina, Brazil, been one of them configured as a small sized one and the other as a big hotel, where all the mentioned conditions had been manifested in a tight way and even had not been systematized into one of the hotel architecture samples, as a reference of sustainable and hospitable architecture. The methodology characterized by an initial bibliographic study, as well as documentary study, followed by a field research characterized by an intensive direct observation, as well as a group and systematic one, also considered both observation and questionnaires application (Marconi & Lakatos, 2006 and it tried to rescue the history of hotel architecture in order to identify environmental sustainability contents, as well as hospitality ones, concerned to the constructed spaces, so that it would be possible, in a following moment, to analyze the hotel samples selected, which do manifest all the mentioned conditions. It was realized that considering its realities and sizes, both studied hotels do count with actions and elements that may be considered sustainable, as well as friendly environmental actions, what, doubtless, do provide hospitality in a certain way. Similarly, both hotels still have potentialities to be developed.

  14. Is there sustainable entrepreneurship in the wine industry? Exploring Sicilian wineries participating in the SOStain program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Schimmenti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change and the accelerating depletion of natural resources have contributed to increase discussions about the role of private enterprises in reversing negative environmental trends. Rather than focusing on profit maximization, policy makers and consumers pressure groups expect firms to meet a triple-bottom line of economic, environmental and social value creation. Hence sustainable entrepreneurship has received recently increasing interest as a phenomenon and a research topic. More recently, the concept of sustainability has been taken seriously in the Italian wine industry. The organizational challenge for entrepreneurship is to better integrate social and environmental performance into the economic business logic. The aim of this manuscript is to illustrate, through a descriptive approach, the adaptation of the wine industry to the new scenario of sustainable entrepreneurship. To reach this goal we carried out an explorative analysis of 3 Sicilian wineries involved in the SOStain program, which aims at the improvement of sustainability in the wine industry. The findings of the analysis show the existence of sustainability-driven entrepreneurship, in which the wineries undertake to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life for the workforce, their families, the local and global community as well as future generations.

  15. Exploring SETAC's roles in the global dialogue on sustainability--an opening debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Ron; Kapustka, Larry; Stahl, Cynthia; Fava, Jim; Lavoie, Emma; Robertson, Cory; Sanderson, Hans; Scott, Heidi; Seager, Tom; Vigon, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A combination platform-debate session was held at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America annual meeting in Boston (November 2011). The session was organized by members of the Advisory Group on Sustainability, newly formed and approved as a global entity by the SETAC World Council just prior to the meeting. The platform portion of the session provided a historical backdrop for the debate that was designed to explore SETAC's role in the sustainability dialogue. The debate portion presented arguments for and against the proposition that "Science is the primary contribution of SETAC to the global dialogue on sustainability." Although the debate was not designed to achieve a definitive sustainability policy for SETAC, the audience clearly rejected the proposition, indicating a desire from the SETAC membership for an expanded role in global sustainability forums. This commentary details the key elements of the session, identifies the contribution the Advisory Group will have at the World Congress in Berlin (May 2012), and invites interested persons to become active in the Advisory Group. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  16. Exploring Reasons for the Resistance to Sustainable Management within Non-Profit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Heinrich Daub

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The numerous empirical and conceptual studies that have been conducted over recent years concerning the social responsibility of enterprises and their contributions towards sustainable development have given very little consideration to non-profit organizations (NPOs. This is surprising, because NPOs are confronted with very similar challenges to profit-orientated enterprises regarding their evolution into sustainable organizations. This paper is a preliminary conceptual study and explores the question of why the corporate social responsibility, or corporate sustainability, of NPOs has to date been both neglected by research establishments and also extensively ignored by the NPOs during their day-to-day practical management. The example of church and pastoral institutions in Germany is used to demonstrate the extent to which they take account of ecological and social aspects in their management systems and processes and, thus, implement sustainable management within their day-to-day practice. The paper concludes with some proposals for further empirical and conceptual research projects, which are designed to analyze developments within NPOs with relation to the integration of sustainability into their management systems and processes.

  17. Exploration of the equilibrium operating space for NSTX-Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, S. P.; Andre, R.; Menard, J. E.

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores a range of high-performance equilibrium scenarios achievable with neutral beam heating in the NSTX-Upgrade device (Menard J.E. 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 083015). NSTX-Upgrade is a substantial upgrade to the existing NSTX device (Ono M. et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557), with significantly higher toroidal field and solenoid capabilities, and three additional neutral beam sources with significantly larger current-drive efficiency. Equilibria are computed with free-boundary TRANSP, allowing a self-consistent calculation of the non-inductive current-drive sources, the plasma equilibrium and poloidal-field coil currents, using the realistic device geometry. The thermal profiles are taken from a variety of existing NSTX discharges, and different assumptions for the thermal confinement scalings are utilized. The no-wall and ideal-wall n = 1 stability limits are computed with the DCON code. The central and minimum safety factors are quite sensitive to many parameters: they generally increase with large outer plasma-wall gaps and higher density, but can have either trend with the confinement enhancement factor. In scenarios with strong central beam current drive, the inclusion of non-classical fast-ion diffusion raises qmin, decreases the pressure peaking, and generally improves the global stability, at the expense of a reduction in the non-inductive current-drive fraction; cases with less beam current drive are largely insensitive to additional fast-ion diffusion. The non-inductive current level is quite sensitive to the underlying confinement and profile assumptions. For instance, for BT = 1.0 T and Pinj = 12.6 MW, the non-inductive current level varies from 875 kA with ITER-98y,2 thermal confinement scaling and narrow thermal profiles to 1325 kA for an ST specific scaling expression and broad profiles. Scenarios are presented which can be sustained for 8-10 s, or (20-30) τCR, at βN = 3.8-4.5. The value of qmin can be controlled at either fixed non

  18. Is There "Space" for International Baccalaureate? A Case Study Exploring Space and the Adoption of the IB Middle Year Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Henri Lefebvre (1991) wrote, "[representational] space is alive: it speaks" (p. 42). This article explores how we might "listen" to space in education by examining the role of space in one school's decision to adopt the International Baccalaureate's Middle Years Programme [IB MYP]. It builds upon recent scholarship that applies…

  19. SLS-Derived Lab- Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand M.; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in the works and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Transportation, entry, landing, and surface operations have been successfully demonstrated for robotic missions. However, for human missions, there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), are the unanswered questions concerning long duration exploration Beyond low Earth Orbit (BEO). The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside of earth's protective geo-magnetic field, they cannot be resolved on Earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at a relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 m and 4.3 m diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems. The solutions to these problems are not obvious; they require integrated, iterative

  20. Marshall Space Flight Center - Launching the Future of Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Alisa; Shivers, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Topics include: NASA Centers around the country, launching a legacy (Explorer I), Marshall's continuing role in space exploration, MSFC history, lifting from Earth, our next mission STS 133, Space Shuttle propulsion systems, Space Shuttle facts, Space Shuttle and the International Space Station, technologies/materials originally developed for the space program, astronauts come from all over, potential future missions and example technologies, significant accomplishments, living and working in space, understanding our world, understanding worlds beyond, from exploration to innovation, inspiring the next generation, space economy, from exploration to opportunity, new program assignments, NASA's role in education, and images from deep space including a composite of a galaxy with a black hole, Sagittarius A, Pillars of Creation, and an ultra deep field

  1. Exploring the chemical space of influenza neuraminidase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttapat Anuwongcharoen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fight against the emergence of mutant influenza strains has led to the screening of an increasing number of compounds for inhibitory activity against influenza neuraminidase. This study explores the chemical space of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs, which provides an opportunity to obtain further molecular insights regarding the underlying basis of their bioactivity. In particular, a large set of 347 and 175 NAIs against influenza A and B, respectively, was compiled from the literature. Molecular and quantum chemical descriptors were obtained from low-energy conformational structures geometrically optimized at the PM6 level. The bioactivities of NAIs were classified as active or inactive according to their half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50 value in which IC50 < 1µM and ≥ 10µM were defined as active and inactive compounds, respectively. Interpretable decision rules were derived from a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR model established using a set of substructure descriptors via decision tree analysis. Univariate analysis, feature importance analysis from decision tree modeling and molecular scaffold analysis were performed on both data sets for discriminating important structural features amongst active and inactive NAIs. Good predictive performance was achieved as deduced from accuracy and Matthews correlation coefficient values in excess of 81% and 0.58, respectively, for both influenza A and B NAIs. Furthermore, molecular docking was employed to investigate the binding modes and their moiety preferences of active NAIs against both influenza A and B neuraminidases. Moreover, novel NAIs with robust binding fitness towards influenza A and B neuraminidase were generated via combinatorial library enumeration and their binding fitness was on par or better than FDA-approved drugs. The results from this study are anticipated to be beneficial for guiding the rational drug design of novel NAIs for treating influenza

  2. Green spaces – a key resources for urban sustainability. The GreenKeys approach for developing green spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Smaniotto Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the principles of sustainable development all urban development programmes set down ideas and ideals to develop our cities in a more long-lasting way, especially concerning the environment and the social dimension. These programmes result from a process of searching for and then offering a better quality of life. Green space assumes a key role for improving the quality of urban life - not only because of their ecological and environmental functions but also of their relevance for public health, societal well-being and economic benefits they can provide. Urban green spaces are therefore key resources for sustainable cities. Starting with this principle the GreenKeys Project developed a methodology to approach better green space qualities. Then if we are unable to demonstrate effectively the value that green spaces deliver we risk green spaces remaining on the periphery of public policy priorities and unable to attract more resources. The article presents and discusses the results and outcomes of the GreenKeys Project. Especially the GreenKeys proposal for supporting the formulation of an Urban Green Space Strategy is widely discussed.

  3. Multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity: Fundamental research and strategic research for exploration of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is preparing to undertake science-driven exploration missions. The NASA Exploration Team's vision is a cascade of stepping stones. The stepping-stone will build the technical capabilities needed for each step with multi-use technologies and capabilities. An Agency-wide technology investment and development program is necessary to implement the vision. The NASA Exploration Team has identified a number of areas where significant advances are needed to overcome all engineering and medical barriers to the expansion of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Closed-loop life support systems and advanced propulsion and power technologies are among the areas requiring significant advances from the current state-of-the-art. Studies conducted by the National Academy of Science's National Research Council and Workshops organized by NASA have shown that multiphase flow and phase change play a crucial role in many of these advanced technology concepts. Lack of understanding of multiphase flow, phase change, and interfacial phenomena in the microgravity environment has been a major hurdle. An understanding of multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity is, therefore, critical to advancing many technologies needed. Recognizing this, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) has initiated a strategic research thrust to augment the ongoing fundamental research in fluid physics and transport phenomena discipline with research especially aimed at understanding key multiphase flow related issues in propulsion, power, thermal control, and closed-loop advanced life support systems. A plan for integrated theoretical and experimental research that has the highest probability of providing data, predictive tools, and models needed by the systems developers to incorporate highly promising multiphase-based technologies is currently in preparation. This plan is being developed with inputs from scientific community, NASA mission planners and industry personnel

  4. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) is a specialized spacesuit designed to keep astronauts healthy during long-duration space exploration missions and...

  5. High-Efficiency Reliable Stirling Generator for Space Exploration Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs advanced power-conversion technologies to improve the efficiency and reliability of power conversion for space exploration missions. We propose to develop...

  6. An Approach to Distributed State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Petrucci, Laure

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach and associated computer tool support for conducting distributed state space exploration for Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs). The distributed state space exploration is based on the introduction of a coordinating process and a number of worker processes. The worker processes...... Tools. This makes the distributed state space exploration and analysis largely transparent to the analyst. We illustrate the use of the developed tool on an example....

  7. "Festival of Flight Special": Opening Space for Next Generation Explorers. NASA CONNECT[TM]. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Program will ultimately move from the explorations of the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle missions to a new period of pioneering in which people and businesses are more routinely traveling, working, and living in space. (Author/NB)

  8. Enhancing the Meaningfulness of Work for Astronauts on Long Duration Space Exploration Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Thomas W; Sytine, Anton; Brady, Ashley; Wilkes, Russ; Pittman, Rebecca; Jennings, Kristen; Goguen, Kandice

    2017-08-01

    Numerous authors have identified the stressors likely to be encountered on long duration space exploration missions (e.g., to Mars), including the possibility of significant crises, separation from family, boredom/monotony, and interpersonal conflict. Although many authors have noted that meaningful work may be beneficial for astronauts on these missions, none have detailed the sources of meaningful work for astronauts and how these sources may differ between astronauts. The present article identifies how engagement in meaningful work during long duration missions may mitigate the adverse effects of demands and increase the potential for benefits resulting from the missions. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nine NASA personnel, including astronauts, flight directors, and flight surgeons. Questions addressed sources of meaning for astronauts, characteristics of tasks that enhance vs. detract from meaning, and recommendations for enhancing meaning. Personnel mentioned contributing to humanity and the next generation, contributing to the mission, and exploration as the most meaningful aspects of their work. Characteristics of tasks that enhanced meaning included using a variety of skills, feeling personal control over their schedule, autonomy in the execution of tasks, and understanding the importance of the experiments conducted on the mission. Top recommendations to sustain meaning were insuring social needs were met through such activities as the strategic use of social media, giving astronauts autonomy as well as structure, and conducting training during transit. Implications are addressed for tailoring meaning-based interventions for astronauts participating on long duration missions and assessing the effectiveness of these interventions.Britt TW, Sytine A, Brady A, Wilkes R, Pittman R, Jennings K, Goguen K. Enhancing the meaningfulness of work for astronauts on long duration space exploration missions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):779-783.

  9. Modular, Fault-Tolerant Electronics Supporting Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AeroAstro's innovative design approach for implementing reconfigurable electronics frees the spacecraft designer to concentrate on the mission at hand with...

  10. Exploration of the topology of chemical spaces with network measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krein, Michael P; Sukumar, N

    2011-11-17

    Discontinuous changes in molecular structure (resulting from continuous transformations of molecular coordinates) lead to changes in chemical properties and biological activities that chemists attempt to describe through structure-activity or structure-property relationships (QSAR/QSPR). Such relationships are commonly envisioned in a continuous high-dimensional space of numerical descriptors, referred to as chemistry space. The choice of descriptors defining coordinates within chemistry space and the choice of similarity metrics thus influence the partitioning of this space into regions corresponding to local structural similarity. These are the regions (known as domains of applicability) most likely to be successfully modeled by a structure-activity relationship. In this work the network topology and scaling relationships of chemistry spaces are first investigated independent of a specific biological activity. Chemistry spaces studied include the ZINC data set, a qHTS PubChem bioassay, as well as the space of protein binding sites from the PDB. The characteristics of these networks are compared and contrasted with those of the bioassay SALI subnetwork, which maps discontinuities or cliffs in the structure-activity landscape. Mapping the locations of activity cliffs and comparing the global characteristics of SALI subnetworks with those of the underlying chemistry space networks generated using different representations, can guide the choice of a better representation. A higher local density of SALI edges with a particular representation indicates a more challenging structure-activity relationship using that fingerprint in that region of chemistry space.

  11. Transformative Learning for a Sustainable Future: An Exploration of Pedagogies for Change at an Alternative College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Blake

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Educators and policy makers have long recognised the central role that education can play in creating a more sustainable and equitable world. Yet some question whether current processes across mainstream higher education prepare learners sufficiently to graduate with the capabilities or motivation to shape and create a future that is life-sustaining. This paper presents findings from a qualitative research project carried out by Plymouth University in association with Schumacher College, Devon, UK. Schumacher College is an alternative, civil society college, owned by the Dartington Hall Trust that claims to provide transformative learning opportunities within a broad context of sustainability. The study explored the nature and application of transformative learning as a pedagogical approach to advance change towards sustainability. If learners claimed transformational learning experiences, the research asked whether, and to what extent, this transformation could be attributed to the pedagogies employed at the College. The paper begins by setting out the broad background to the relationship between marginal and mainstream educational settings, and definitions and theoretical underpinnings of transformative learning, and then leads into the research design and findings. The potential for transformative pedagogies to be applied to and employed within the wider higher education (HE sector is then discussed, and the overall findings and conclusions are presented.

  12. Planetary boundaries: exploring the safe operating space for humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johan Rockström; Will Steffen; Kevin Noone; Asa Persson; F. Stuart Chapin; Eric Lambin; Timothy M. Lenton; Marten Scheffer; Carl Folke; Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Björn Nykvist; Cynthia A. de Wit; Terry Hughes; Sander van der Leeuw; Henning Rodhe; Sverker Sörlin; Peter K. Snyder; Robert Costanza; Uno Svedin; Malin Falkenmark; Louise Karlberg; Robert W. Corell; Victoria J. Fabry; James Hansen; Brian Walker; Diana Liverman; Katherine Richardson; Paul Crutzen; Jonathan. Foley

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt global environmental change can no longer be excluded. We propose a new approach to global sustainability in which we define planetary boundaries within which we expect that humanity can operate safely. Transgressing one or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due...

  13. Sustainable development and social learning: Re-contextualising the space of orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Terri

    2016-10-01

    In the lead-up to the 2007 Australian federal election, Labor candidate Kevin Rudd described climate change as the "great moral challenge of our generation". In the years since then, the heat in Australia has been rising - in terms of both temperature and climate politics -, but government action has slowed down. Endorsement of economic growth is prioritised, with only intermittent recognition of environmental costs. At grassroots level, citizens' attitudes are influenced by social norms. This kind of social learning is a major constraint on sustainability. Therefore, it seems useful to consider how educators might help build sustainable futures. To understand how historical context entangles social learning in ways that complicate policies associated with Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and practices of Education for Sustainability (EfS), the author of this paper draws on the concept of "space of orientation". Focusing on adult education, she traces the contradiction between "globalisation" and "sustainability" through policy logics, relational practices in Australian adult education and the "necessary utopia" which provides a point of reference for making futures. She argues that spaces of orientation are a critical resource in this era of intensifying conflicts of interest between economic priorities of globalisation and environmental priorities intended to slow global warming, because they mediate context and orient learning in ways that clear a path towards sustainability through the entangled histories of this present.

  14. Space-Inspired Trailers Encourage Exploration on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Architect Garret Finney joined Johnson Space Center's Habitability Design Center to work on creating comfortable, efficiently designed crew quarters for the ISS. Drawing directly on that experience, Finney founded Houston-based Cricket and set about creating unique, versatile recreational trailers that incorporate space habitat principles and features.

  15. Measuring the Value of AI in Space Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, B.; Parr, J.; Diamond, B.; Pittman, B.; Rasky, D.

    2017-10-01

    FDL is tackling knowledge gaps useful to the space program by forming small teams of industrial partners, cutting-edge AI researchers and space science domain experts, and tasking them to solve problems that are important to NASA as well as humanity's future.

  16. Finding Space for Education for Sustainable Development in the Enterprise Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgitt, David

    2006-01-01

    The promotion of education for sustainable development (ESD) is likely to be constrained by its compatibility with other missions and objectives of higher education institutions (HEIs). Finding space for ESD in the Enterprise Economy invites consideration of opportunities for increasing the visibility and audibility of environmental messages in HE…

  17. Multi-Objective Design Space Exploration of Embedded System Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter

    2006-01-01

    on local memory sizes and interface buffer sizes. Our approach allows for mapping onto a fixed platform or onto a flexible platform where architectural changes are explored during the mapping. We demonstrate our approach through an exploration of a smart phone, where five task graphs with a total of 530...

  18. Multi-Objective Design Space Exploration of Embedded System Platfoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter

    on local memory sizes and interface buffer sizes. Our approach allows for mapping onto a fixed platform or onto a flexible platform where architectural changes are explored during the mapping. We demonstrate our approach through an exploration of a smart phone, where five task graphs with a total of 530...

  19. Bold endeavors: behavioral lessons from polar and space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuster, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Anecdotal comparisons frequently are made between expeditions of the past and space missions of the future. Spacecraft are far more complex than sailing ships, but from a psychological perspective, the differences are few between confinement in a small wooden ship locked in the polar ice cap and confinement in a small high-technology ship hurtling through interplanetary space. This paper discusses some of the behavioral lessons that can be learned from previous expeditions and applied to facilitate human adjustment and performance during future space expeditions of long duration.

  20. Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery...

  1. Space Communication and Navigation Testbed Communications Technology for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard

    2013-01-01

    NASA developed and launched an experimental flight payload (referred to as the Space Communication and Navigation Test Bed) to investigate software defined radio, networking, and navigation technologies, operationally in the space environment. The payload consists of three software defined radios each compliant to NASAs Space Telecommunications Radio System Architecture, a common software interface description standard for software defined radios. The software defined radios are new technology developed by NASA and industry partners. The payload is externally mounted to the International Space Station truss and available to NASA, industry, and university partners to conduct experiments representative of future mission capability. Experiment operations include in-flight reconfiguration of the SDR waveform functions and payload networking software. The flight system communicates with NASAs orbiting satellite relay network, the Tracking, Data Relay Satellite System at both S-band and Ka-band and to any Earth-based compatible S-band ground station.

  2. Prevention of Renal Stone Complications in Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIM 1. Refine ultrasound probes to detect, reposition, and fragment kidney stones. Task 1.1. Select imaging probe for stone repositioning. Clinical trials are...

  3. SCONES: Secure Content-Oriented Networking for Exploring Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We envision a secure content-oriented internetwork as a natural generalization of the cache-and-forward architecture inherent in delay-tolerant networks. Using our...

  4. Modular, Fault-Tolerant Electronics Supporting Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern electronic systems tolerate only as many point failures as there are redundant system copies, using mere macro-scale redundancy. Fault Tolerant Electronics...

  5. High Performance Arm for an Exploration Space Suit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design (FFD) proposes to develop and deliver an advanced pressure garment arm with low torque and high Range of Motion (ROM), and increased...

  6. A Reliable Electronic Package for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed program will develop an hermetic, CTE matched, thermal shock resistant ceramic packaging technology that will facilitate the operation of Si and SiGe...

  7. Advancing sustainability through urban green space: cultural ecosystem services, equity, and social determinants of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Lincoln Larson; Jessica Yun

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants...

  8. Exploration of the Barriers to Implementing Different Types of Sustainability Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Raphaëlle Marie Marianne; Bey, Niki; Boks, Casper

    2016-01-01

    on the focus of the approach being implemented, is not addressed. The aim of this paper is i) to explore the barriers related to implementing different types of sustainability approaches and ii) to look for indications of similarities and differences across types of approaches. The research builds on data...... about the barriers, collected from a sample of twenty-two empirical studies in academic research and additional reports. The findings show that performance measurement systems and access to industry-specific information, benchmark or reference cases are common areas of difficulty across all types...

  9. Sustainability reporting in public sector organisations: Exploring the relation between the reporting process and organisational change management for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Ana Rita; Lozano, Rodrigo; Ceulemans, Kim; Ramos, Tomás B

    2017-05-01

    Sustainability Reporting has become a key element in different organisations. Although there have been a number of academic publications discussing the adoption of sustainability reports in the public sector, their numbers have been quite low when compared to those focussing on corporate reports. Additionally, there has been little research on the link between sustainability reporting in Public Sector Organisations (PSOs) and Organisational Change Management for Sustainability (OCMS). This paper focuses on the contribution of sustainability reporting to OCMS. A survey was sent to all PSOs that have published at least one sustainability report based on the GRI guidelines. The study provides a critical analysis of the relation between sustainability reporting and OCMS in PSOs, including the drivers for reporting, the impacts on organisation change management, and the role of stakeholders in the process. Despite still lagging in sustainability reporting journey, PSOs are starting to use sustainability reporting as a communication tool, and this could drive organisational changes for sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Calibrating space: exploration is important for allothetic and idiothetic navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whishaw, I Q; Brooks, B L

    1999-01-01

    Allothetic and idiothetic navigation strategies rely on very different cues and computational procedures. Allothetic navigation uses the relationships between external cues (visual, auditory, and olfactory) and mapping or geometrical calculations to locate places. Idiothetic navigation relies on cues generated by self-movement (proprioceptive cues or cues from optic, auditory, and olfactory flow, or efference copy of motor commands) and path integration to locate a present location and/or a starting point. Whereas it is theorized that exploratory behavior is used by animals to create a central representation of allothetic cues, it is unclear whether exploration plays a role in idiothetic navigation. Computational models suggest that either a reference frame, calibrated by exploration, or vector addition, without reference to exploration, could support path integration. The present study evaluated the contribution of exploration in these navigation strategies by comparing its contribution to the solution of both allothetic and idiothetic navigation problems. In two experiments, rats were trained to forage on an open table for large food pellets, which they then carried to a refuge to eat. Once trained, they were given probe trials from novel locations in either normal light, which permits the use of allothetic cues, or in infrared light, which requires the use of idiothetic cues. When faced with a new problem in either lighting condition, the rats first explored the foraging table before navigating directly home with the food. That exploration is equally important for allothetic and idiothetic navigation, suggests that both navigation strategies require a calibrated representation of the environment.

  11. Using Chip Multithreading to Speed Up Scenario-Based Design Space Exploration: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, P.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Early design space exploration (DSE) is a key element of system-level design of complex embedded systems, helping designers to make design decisions during the early design phases. For early DSE, where the design space is vast, it is crucial that the exploration process is as efficient as possible.

  12. The Space Elevator and Its Promise for Next Generation Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubscher, Bryan E.

    2006-01-01

    Bryan E. Laubscher received his Ph.D. in physics in 1994 from the University of New Mexico with a concentration in astrophysics. He is currently on entrepreneurial leave from Los Alamos National Laboratory where he is a project leader and he has worked in various capacities for 16 years. His past projects include LANL's portion of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Magdalena Ridge Observatory and a project developing concepts and technologies for space situational awareness. Over the years Bryan has participated in research in astronomy, lidar, non-linear optics, space mission design, space-borne instrumentation design and construction, spacecraft design, novel electromagnetic detection concepts and technologies, detector/receiver system development, spectrometer development, interferometry and participated in many field experiments. Bryan led space elevator development at LANL until going on entrepreneurial leave in 2006. On entrepreneurial leave, Bryan is starting a company to build the strongest materials ever created. These materials are based upon carbon nanotubes, the strongest structures known in nature and the first material identified with sufficient strength-to-weight properties to build a space elevator.

  13. GSFC Information Systems Technology Developments Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Peter; Dennehy, Cornelius; Mosier, Gary; Smith, Dan; Rykowski, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration will guide NASA's future human and robotic space activities. The broad range of human and robotic missions now being planned will require the development of new system-level capabilities enabled by emerging new technologies. Goddard Space Flight Center is actively supporting the Vision for Space Exploration in a number of program management, engineering and technology areas. This paper provides a brief background on the Vision for Space Exploration and a general overview of potential key Goddard contributions. In particular, this paper focuses on describing relevant GSFC information systems capabilities in architecture development; interoperable command, control and communications; and other applied information systems technology/research activities that are applicable to support the Vision for Space Exploration goals. Current GSFC development efforts and task activities are presented together with future plans.

  14. Exploring implementation and sustainability of models of care: can theory help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Della A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Research on new models of care in health service provision is complex, as is the introduction and embedding of such models, and positive research findings are only one factor in whether a new model of care will be implemented. In order to understand why this is the case, research design must not only take account of proposed changes in the clinical encounter, but the organisational context that must sustain and normalise any changed practices. We use two case studies where new models of maternity care were implemented and evaluated via randomised controlled trials (RCTs to discuss how (or whether the use of theory might inform implementation and sustainability strategies. The Normalisation Process Model is proposed as a suitable theoretical framework, and a comparison made using the two case studies – one where a theoretical framework was used, the other where it was not. Context and approach In the maternity sector there is considerable debate about which model of care provides the best outcomes for women, while being sustainable in the organisational setting. We explore why a model of maternity care – team midwifery (where women have a small group of midwives providing their care – that was implemented and tested in an RCT was not continued after the RCT’s conclusion, despite showing the same or better outcomes for women in the intervention group compared with women allocated to usual care. We then discuss the conceptualisation and rationale leading to the use of the ‘Normalisation Process Model' as an aid to exploring aspects of implementation of a caseload midwifery model (where women are allocated a primary midwife for their care that has recently been evaluated by RCT. Discussion We demonstrate how the Normalisation Process Model was applied in planning of the evaluation phases of the RCT as a means of exploring the implementation of the caseload model of care. We argue that a theoretical understanding of

  15. A Catalyst toward Sustainability? Exploring Social Learning and Social Differentiation Approaches with the Agricultural Poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Shaw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging sustainability challenges, such as food security, livelihood development and climate change, require innovative and experimental ways of linking science, policy and practice at all scales. This requires the development of processes that integrate diverse knowledge to generate adaptive development strategies into the future. Social learning is emerging as a promising way to make these linkages. If and how social learning approaches are being applied in practice among smallholder farming families—the bulk of the world’s food producers, requires specific attention. In this paper we use a case study approach to explore social learning among the agricultural poor. Five key evaluative factors: context assessment, inclusive design and management, facilitating learning, mobilizing knowledge and assessing outcomes, are used to analyze nine projects and programs in (or affiliated with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR. We explore three main questions: (1 in what contexts and in what ways are socially differentiated and marginalized groups enrolled in the learning process? (2 what, if any, are the additional benefits to social learning when explicitly using strategies to include socially differentiated groups? and (3 what are the benefits and trade-offs of applying these approaches for development outcomes? The findings suggest that, in the agricultural development context, social learning projects that include socially differentiated groups and create conditions for substantive two-way learning enhance the relevance and legitimacy of knowledge and governance outcomes, increasing the potential for accelerating sustainable development outcomes.

  16. In-Space Propulsion Technologies for Robotic Exploration of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Meyer, Rae Ann; Frame, Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Supporting NASA's Science Mission Directorate, the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing the next generation of space propulsion technologies for robotic, deep-space exploration. Recent technological advancements and demonstrations of key, high-payoff propulsion technologies have been achieved and will be described. Technologies under development and test include aerocapture, solar electric propulsion, solar sail propulsion, and advanced chemical propulsion.

  17. Metamaterial-Backed Conformal Antennas for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The high-permittivity substrate (er = 10.2) allows individual antenna patches to be made smaller and also mimics substrates (Si, SiC, GaAs, InP, GaN) used in MMIC...

  18. Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration Leading to Human Exploration: Results from the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper will provide a summary and analysis of the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop all-day session on "Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration, Leading to Human Exploration", held at Fucino Space Center, Italy on June 12th, 2015. The session was primarily intended to explore how robotic missions and robotics technologies more generally can help lead to human exploration missions. The session included a wide range of presentations that were roughly grouped into (1) broader background, conceptual, and high-level operations concepts presentations such as the International Space Exploration Coordination Group Roadmap, followed by (2) more detailed narrower presentations such as rover autonomy and communications. The broader presentations helped to provide context and specific technical hooks, and helped lay a foundation for the narrower presentations on more specific challenges and technologies, as well as for the discussion that followed. The discussion that followed the presentations touched on key questions, themes, actions and potential international collaboration opportunities. Some of the themes that were touched on were (1) multi-agent systems, (2) decentralized command and control, (3) autonomy, (4) low-latency teleoperations, (5) science operations, (6) communications, (7) technology pull vs. technology push, and (8) the roles and challenges of operations in early human architecture and mission concept formulation. A number of potential action items resulted from the workshop session, including: (1) using CCSDS as a further collaboration mechanism for human mission operations, (2) making further contact with subject matter experts, (3) initiating informal collaborative efforts to allow for rapid and efficient implementation, and (4) exploring how SpaceOps can support collaboration and information exchange with human exploration efforts. This paper will summarize the session and provide an overview of the above subjects as they emerged from the SpaceOps 2015

  19. Scalable partitioning and exploration of chemical spaces using geometric hashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debojyoti; Guha, Rajarshi; Jurs, Peter C; Chen, Ting

    2006-01-01

    Virtual screening (VS) has become a preferred tool to augment high-throughput screening(1) and determine new leads in the drug discovery process. The core of a VS informatics pipeline includes several data mining algorithms that work on huge databases of chemical compounds containing millions of molecular structures and their associated data. Thus, scaling traditional applications such as classification, partitioning, and outlier detection for huge chemical data sets without a significant loss in accuracy is very important. In this paper, we introduce a data mining framework built on top of a recently developed fast approximate nearest-neighbor-finding algorithm(2) called locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) that can be used to mine huge chemical spaces in a scalable fashion using very modest computational resources. The core LSH algorithm hashes chemical descriptors so that points close to each other in the descriptor space are also close to each other in the hashed space. Using this data structure, one can perform approximate nearest-neighbor searches very quickly, in sublinear time. We validate the accuracy and performance of our framework on three real data sets of sizes ranging from 4337 to 249 071 molecules. Results indicate that the identification of nearest neighbors using the LSH algorithm is at least 2 orders of magnitude faster than the traditional k-nearest-neighbor method and is over 94% accurate for most query parameters. Furthermore, when viewed as a data-partitioning procedure, the LSH algorithm lends itself to easy parallelization of nearest-neighbor classification or regression. We also apply our framework to detect outlying (diverse) compounds in a given chemical space; this algorithm is extremely rapid in determining whether a compound is located in a sparse region of chemical space or not, and it is quite accurate when compared to results obtained using principal-component-analysis-based heuristics.

  20. Exploring Heart and Lung Function in Space: ARMS Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Andre; Cork, Michael; LeGouic, Marine

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Respiratory Monitoring System (ARMS) is a suite of monitoring instruments and supplies used to study the heart, lungs, and metabolism. Many experiments sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA) will be conducted using ARMS during STS-107. The near-weightless environment of space causes the body to undergo many physiological adaptations, and the regulation of blood pressure is no exception. Astronauts also experience a decrease in blood volume as an adaptation to microgravity. Reduced blood volume may not provide enough blood pressure to the head during entry or landing. As a result, astronauts often experience light-headedness, and sometimes even fainting, when they stand shortly after returning to Earth. To help regulate blood pressure and heart rate, baroreceptors, sensors located in artery walls in the neck and near the heart, control blood pressure by sending information to the brain and ensuring blood flow to organs. These mechanisms work properly in Earth's gravity but must adapt in the microgravity environment of space. However, upon return to Earth during entry and landing, the cardiovascular system must readjust itself to gravity, which can cause fluctuation in the control of blood pressure and heart rate. Although the system recovers in hours or days, these occurrences are not easily predicted or understood - a puzzle investigators will study with the ARMS equipment. In space, researchers can focus on aspects of the cardiovascular system normally masked by gravity. The STS-107 experiments using ARMS will provide data on how the heart and lungs function in space, as well as how the nervous system controls them. Exercise will also be combined with breath holding and straining (the Valsalva maneuver) to test how heart rate and blood pressure react to different stresses. This understanding will improve astronauts' cardiopulmonary function after return to Earth, and may well help Earthbound patients who experience similar effects after long

  1. The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Allana Nicole; Brezo, Jelena

    2002-01-01

    Astronauts experience severe/invasive disorders caused by space environments. These include hematological/cardiac abnormalities, bone and muscle losses, immunodeficiency, neurological disorders and cancer. While the cause of these symptoms are not yet fully delineated, one possible explanation could be the inhibition of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) growth and hematopoiesis in space. HSCs differentiate into all types of blood cells, and growing evidence indicates that the HSCs also have the ability to transdifferentiate to various tissues, including muscle, skin, liver, neuronal cells and possibly bone. Therefore, a hypothesis was advanced in this laboratory that the hematopoietic stem cell-based therapy, herein called the hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT), could mitigate some of the disorders described above. Due to the magnitude of this project our laboratory has subdivided it into 3 sections: a) HSCT for space anemia; b) HSCT for muscle and bone losses; and c) HSCT for immunodeficiency. Toward developing the HSCT protocol for space anemia, the HSC transplantation procedure was established using a mouse model of beta thalassemia. In addition, the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture system was used to grow HSCs in space condition. To investigate the HSCT for muscle loss and bone loss, donor HSCs were genetically marked either by transfecting the beta-galactosidase-containing plasmid, pCMV.SPORT-beta-gal or by preparing from b-galactosidase transgenic mice. The transdifferentiation of HSCs to muscle is traced by the reporter gene expression in the hindlimb suspended mice with some positive outcome, as studied by the X-gal staining procedure. The possible structural contribution of HSCs against muscle loss is being investigated histochemically.

  2. Language, Space, Time: Anthropological Tools and Scientific Exploration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Roxana

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the importance of social science disciplines in the scientific exploration of Mars. The importance of language, workspace, and time differences are reviewed. It would appear that the social scientist perspective in developing a completely new workspace, keeping track of new vocabulary and the different time zones (i.e., terrestrial and Martian) was useful.

  3. Achieving And Sustaining Human Exploration of Mars The Fourth Community Workshop (AM IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Beaty, David; Carberry, Chris; Drake, Bret; Hays, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    About a half decade ago, several professionals working mainly in industry on scenarios for initial human exploration of Mars exploration together recognized that, under generally similar assumptions, there was a fair degree of similarity among these scenarios. Moreover, opportunities should be sought for greater community input into NASAs own scenario-building for the future of human space flight. A series of focused community workshops were considered to be effective to critically assess the increasingly sophisticated scenarios. Explore Mars, Inc. the American Astronautical Society agreed to support them. Four workshops to date each involve about sixty professional scientists, engineers, technologists, and strategists from NASA, academia, aerospace corporations, the National Academies, consulting organizations, and potential international partners. Each workshop produced a series of presentations and reports briefed to NASA leadership and other stakeholders.

  4. Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities.

  5. Growing crops for space explorers on the moon, Mars, or in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F B

    1999-01-01

    An option in the long-duration exploration of space, whether on the Moon or Mars or in a spacecraft on its way to Mars or the asteroids, is to utilize a bioregenerative life-support system in addition to the physicochemical systems that will always be necessary. Green plants can use the energy of light to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and add oxygen to it while at the same time synthesizing food for the space travelers. The water that crop plants transpire can be condensed in pure form, contributing to the water purification system. An added bonus is that green plants provide a familiar environment for humans far from their home planet. The down side is that such a bioregenerative life-support system--called a controlled environment life-support system (CELSS) in this paper--must be highly complex and relatively massive to maintain a proper composition of the atmosphere while also providing food. Thus, launch costs will be high. Except for resupply and removal of nonrecycleable substances, such a system is nearly closed with respect to matter but open with respect to energy. Although a CELSS facility is small compared to the Earth's biosphere, it must be large enough to feed humans and provide a suitable atmosphere for them. A functioning CELSS can only be created with the help of today's advanced technology, especially computerized controls. Needed are energy for light, possibly from a nuclear power plant, and equipment to provide a suitable environment for plant growth, including a way to supply plants with the necessary mineral nutrients. All this constitutes the biomass production unit. There must also be food preparation facilities and a means to recycle or dispose of waste materials and there must be control equipment to keep the facility running. Humans are part of the system as well as plants and possibly animals. Human brain power will often be needed to keep the system functional in spite of the best computer-driven controls. The particulars

  6. Exploring Connectivity in Sequence Space of Functional RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chenyu; Pohorille, Andrzej; Popovic, Milena; Ditzler, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of replicable genetic molecules was one of the marking points in the origin of life, evolution of which can be conceptualized as a walk through the space of all possible sequences. A theoretical concept of fitness landscape helps to understand evolutionary processes through assigning a value of fitness to each genotype. Then, evolution of a phenotype is viewed as a series of consecutive, single-point mutations. Natural selection biases evolution toward peaks of high fitness and away from valleys of low fitness. whereas neutral drift occurs in the sequence space without direction as mutations are introduced at random. Large networks of neutral or near-neutral mutations on a fitness landscape, especially for sufficiently long genomes, are possible or even inevitable. Their detection in experiments, however, has been elusive. Although a few near-neutral evolutionary pathways have been found, recent experimental evidence indicates landscapes consist of largely isolated islands. The generality of these results, however, is not clear, as the genome length or the fraction of functional molecules in the genotypic space might have been insufficient for the emergence of large, neutral networks. Thorough investigation on the structure of the fitness landscape is essential to understand the mechanisms of evolution of early genomes. RNA molecules are commonly assumed to play the pivotal role in the origin of genetic systems. They are widely believed to be early, if not the earliest, genetic and catalytic molecules, with abundant biochemical activities as aptamers and ribozymes, i.e. RNA molecules capable, respectively, to bind small molecules or catalyze chemical reactions. Here, we present results of our recent studies on the structure of the sequence space of RNA ligase ribozymes selected through in vitro evolution. Several hundred thousands of sequences active to a different degree were obtained by way of deep sequencing. Analysis of these sequences revealed

  7. Private ground infrastructures for space exploration missions simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchier, Alain

    2010-06-01

    The Mars Society, a private non profit organisation devoted to promote the red planet exploration, decided to implement simulated Mars habitat in two locations on Earth: in northern Canada on the rim of a meteoritic crater (2000), in a US Utah desert, location of a past Jurassic sea (2001). These habitats have been built with large similarities to actual planned habitats for first Mars exploration missions. Participation is open to everybody either proposing experimentations or wishing only to participate as a crew member. Participants are from different organizations: Mars Society, Universities, experimenters working with NASA or ESA. The general philosophy of the work conducted is not to do an innovative scientific work on the field but to learn how the scientific work is affected or modified by the simulation conditions. Outside activities are conducted with simulated spacesuits limiting the experimenter abilities. Technology or procedures experimentations are also conducted as well as experimentations on the crew psychology and behaviour.

  8. Exploring MEDLINE space with random indexing and pathfinder networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Trevor

    2008-11-06

    The integration of disparate research domains is a prerequisite for the success of the translational science initiative. MEDLINE abstracts contain content from a broad range of disciplines, presenting an opportunity for the development of methods able to integrate the knowledge they contain. Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and related methods learn human-like associations between terms from unannotated text. However, their computational and memory demands limits their ability to address a corpus of this size. Furthermore, visualization methods previously used in conjunction with LSA have limited ability to define the local structure of the associative networks LSA learns. This paper explores these issues by (1) processing the entire MEDLINE corpus using Random Indexing, a variant of LSA, and (2) exploring learned associations using Pathfinder Networks. Meaningful associations are inferred from MEDLINE, including a drug-disease association undetected by PUBMED search.

  9. The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, S.

    Departments of Biochemistry &Molecular Biology, Genetics &Human Genetics, Pediatrics &Child Long-duration space missions require countermeasures against severe/invasive disorders in astronauts that are caused by space environments, such as hematological/cardiac abnormalities, bone/muscle losses, immunodeficiency, neurological disorders, and cancer. Some, if not all, of these disorders may be amenable to hematopoietic stem cell therapy and gene therapy. Growing evidence indicates that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess extraordinary plasticity to differentiate not only to all types of blood cells but also to various tissues, including bone, muscle, skin, liver and neuronal cells. Therefore, our working hypothesis is that the hematopoietic stem cell-based therapy, herein called as the hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT), might provide countermeasure/prevention for hematological abnormalities, bone and muscle losses in space, thereby maintaining astronauts' homeostasis. Our expertise lies in recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene therapy for the hemoglobinopathies, -thalassemia and sickle cell disease (Ohi S, Kim BC, J Pharm Sci 85: 274-281, 1996; Ohi S, et al. Grav Space Biol Bull 14: 43, 2000). As the requisite steps in this protocol, we established procedures for purification of HSCs from both mouse and human bone marrow in 1 G. Furthermore, we developed an easily harvestable, long-term liquid suspension culture system, which lasts more than one year, for growing/expanding HSCs without stromal cells. Human globin cDNAs/gene were efficiently expressed from the rAAVs in the mouse HSCs in culture. Additionally, the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture system is being optimized for the HSC growth/expansion. Thus, using these technologies, the above hypothesis is being investigated by the ground-based experiments as follows: 1) -thalassemic mice (C57BL/6-Hbbth/Hbbth, Hbd-minor) are transplanted with normal isologous HSCs to correct the

  10. Predictions of space radiation fatality risk for exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; To, Khiet; Cacao, Eliedonna

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we describe revisions to the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model focusing on updates to probability distribution functions (PDF) representing the uncertainties in the radiation quality factor (QF) model parameters and the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF). We integrate recent heavy ion data on liver, colorectal, intestinal, lung, and Harderian gland tumors with other data from fission neutron experiments into the model analysis. In an earlier work we introduced distinct QFs for leukemia and solid cancer risk predictions, and here we consider liver cancer risks separately because of the higher RBE's reported in mouse experiments compared to other tumors types, and distinct risk factors for liver cancer for astronauts compared to the U.S. population. The revised model is used to make predictions of fatal cancer and circulatory disease risks for 1-year deep space and International Space Station (ISS) missions, and a 940 day Mars mission. We analyzed the contribution of the various model parameter uncertainties to the overall uncertainty, which shows that the uncertainties in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors at high LET due to statistical uncertainties and differences across tissue types and mouse strains are the dominant uncertainty. NASA's exposure limits are approached or exceeded for each mission scenario considered. Two main conclusions are made: 1) Reducing the current estimate of about a 3-fold uncertainty to a 2-fold or lower uncertainty will require much more expansive animal carcinogenesis studies in order to reduce statistical uncertainties and understand tissue, sex and genetic variations. 2) Alternative model assumptions such as non-targeted effects, increased tumor lethality and decreased latency at high LET, and non-cancer mortality risks from circulatory diseases could significantly increase risk estimates to several times higher than the NASA limits.

  11. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Rockström, Johan; Steffen, Will

    2009-01-01

    understanding, we propose quantifications for seven of them. These seven are climate change (CO2 concentration in the atmosphere industrial...... levels); stratospheric ozone (industrial level of 290 Dobson Units); biogeochemical nitrogen (N) cycle (limit industrial and agricultural fixation of N2 to 35 Tg N yr-1) and phosphorus (P) cycle (annual P inflow to oceans not to exceed 10 times the natural...... and management, away from the essentially sectoral analyses of limits to growth aimed at minimizing negative externalities, toward the estimation of the safe space for human development. Planetary boundaries define, as it were, the boundaries of the "planetary playing field" for humanity if we want to be sure...

  12. Performance/Power Space Exploration for Binary64 Division Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The digit-recurrence division algorithm is used in several high-performance processors because it provides good tradeoffs in terms of latency, area and power dissipation. In this work we develop a minimally redundant radix-8 divider for binary64 (double-precision) aiming at obtaining better energ...... efficiency in the performance-per-watt space. The results show that the radix-8 divider, when compared to radix-4 and radix-16 units, requires less energy to complete a division for high clock rates....

  13. Space and man. [planetary exploration and energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, E.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of man's entry into space on changes in economics and technology, politics and law, science, philosophy, and art are considered. A single world economy, extracting from the natural resources of the moon and other cosmic bodies raw materials and energy, will avoid terrestrial limitations and improve society by eliminating the inequalities of economic and social status. However, a spacecraft for interplanetary travel require thermonuclear engines that achieve an escape velocity of 0.1 times the speed of light in order to allow an astronaut stellar expedition corresponding to the active life of a single generation.

  14. Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities. Historically, engineering-dominated organizations have tended to view good Human Factors (HF) as a desire rather than a requirement in system design and development. Our field has made significant gains in the past decade, however; the Department of Defense, for example, now recognizes Human-System Integration (HSI), of which HF is a component, as an integral part of their divisions hardware acquisition processes. And our own agency was far more accepting of HF/HSI requirements during the most recent vehicle systems definition than in any prior cycle. Nonetheless, HF subject matter experts at NASA often find themselves in catch up mode... coping with legacy systems (hardware and software) and procedures that were designed with little regard for the human element, and too often with an attitude of we can deal with any operator issues during training. Our challenge, then, is to segregate the true knowledge gaps in Space Human Factors from the prior failures to incorporate best (or even good) HF design principles. Further, we strive to extract the overarching core HF issues from the point-design-specific concerns that capture the operators (and managers) attention. Generally, our approach embraces a 3M approach to Human Factors: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation. Our first step is to measure human performance, to move from subjective anecdotes to objective, quantified data. Next we model the phenomenon, using appropriate methods in

  15. Exploring Compound Promiscuity Patterns and Multi-Target Activity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Gupta-Ostermann, Disha; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Compound promiscuity is rationalized as the specific interaction of a small molecule with multiple biological targets (as opposed to non-specific binding events) and represents the molecular basis of polypharmacology, an emerging theme in drug discovery and chemical biology. This concise review focuses on recent studies that have provided a detailed picture of the degree of promiscuity among different categories of small molecules. In addition, an exemplary computational approach is discussed that is designed to navigate multi-target activity spaces populated with various compounds. PMID:24688751

  16. EXPLORING COMPOUND PROMISCUITY PATTERNS AND MULTI-TARGET ACTIVITY SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound promiscuity is rationalized as the specific interaction of a small molecule with multiple biological targets (as opposed to non-specific binding events and represents the molecular basis of polypharmacology, an emerging theme in drug discovery and chemical biology. This concise review focuses on recent studies that have provided a detailed picture of the degree of promiscuity among different categories of small molecules. In addition, an exemplary computational approach is discussed that is designed to navigate multi-target activity spaces populated with various compounds.

  17. Pathways to exploration: rationales and approaches for a U.S. program of human space exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board; Space Studies Board; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Committee on National Statistics; Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; National Research Council; National Research Council

    2014-01-01

    .... Today the United States is the major partner in a massive orbital facility - the International Space Station - that is becoming the focal point for the first tentative steps in commercial cargo...

  18. Developing Biological ISRU: Implications for Life Support and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Allen, C. C.; Garrison, D. H.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Galindo, C.; Mckay, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Main findings: 1) supplementing very dilute media for cultivation of CB with analogs of lunar or Martian regolith effectively supported the proliferation of CB; 2) O2 evolution by siderophilic cyanobacteria cultivated in diluted media but supplemented with iron-rich rocks was higher than O2 evolution by same strain in undiluted medium; 3) preliminary data suggest that organic acids produced by CB are involved in iron-rich mineral dissolution; 4) the CB studied can accumulate iron on and in their cells; 4) sequencing of the cyanobacterium JSC-1 genome revealed that this strain possesses molecular features which make it applicable for the cultivation in special photoreactors on Moon and Mars. Conclusion: As a result of pilot studies, we propose, to develop a concept for semi-closed integrated system that uses CB to extract useful elements to revitalize air and produce valuable biomolecules. Such a system could be the foundation of a self-sustaining extraterrestrial outpost (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005; Handford, 2006). A potential advantage of a cyanobacterial photoreactor placed between LSS and ISRU loops is the possibility of supplying these systems with extracted elements and compounds from the regolith. In addition, waste regolith may be transformed into additional products such as methane, biomass, and organic and inorganic soil enrichment for the cultivation of higher plants.

  19. Regenerative Energy Storage System for Space Exploration Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wærnhus Ivar

    2017-01-01

    The breadboard was operated for 1250 hours alternating between electrolyser mode and fuel cell mode with H2/H2O as reactants. During the tests, as long as the mechanical integrity of the system was maintained, no degradation effect was observed. At the end of the test period, the fuel cell was operated for three full cycles (approx. 50 hours with CO/CO2 as reactants. The performance on CO/CO2 was lower than for hydrogen, but sufficient to be used in a compact energy storage system for Mars exploration.

  20. Plants for Human Life Support and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of using plants and algae for human life support in space goes back to testing in the 1950s and 1960. The basis for this is harnessing photosynthesis to generate oxygen, remove and fix carbon dioxide, and produce food. For several decades, NASA conducted studies with crops in controlled environments to assess their requirements for optimum growth. This includes tests with wheat, soybeans, potatoes, lettuce, tomatoes, and other crops. In many ways, these studies have paralleled growing interests in controlled environment agriculture on Earth. For example, NASA operated perhaps the first working example of a vertical agriculture facility in the late 1980s. The facility used recirculating hydroponic systems to conserve water and nutrients, with multiple growing shelves and light banks. NASA also pioneered the use LED lighting for growing plants. Findings from these tests suggest that an area of 20-25 sq m of crops could provide all the O2 for one human, and about 40-50 sq m could provide all the O2 and food. But this is dependent on the amount of light provided. Most of these studies targeted surface settings like habitats on Mars or the Moon. Growing plants in weightless settings, like the International Space Station (ISS) requires different approaches to contain and deliver water to plants, but lettuce, mizuna, pea, and other crops have been grown in small chambers aboard the ISS to provide supplemental fresh food for the astronauts.

  1. Towards Space Exploration of Moon, Mars Neos: Radiation Biological Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther

    2016-07-01

    Radiation has emerged as the most critical issue to be resolved for long-term missions both orbital and interplanetary. Astronauts are constantly exposed to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) of various energies with a low dose rate. Primarily late tissue sequels like genetic alterations, cancer and non-cancer effects, i.e. cataracts and degenerative diseases of e.g. the central nervous system or the cardiovascular system, are the potential risks. Cataracts were observed to occur earlier and more often in astronauts exposed to higher proportions of galactic ions (Cucinotta et al., 2001). Predictions of cancer risk and acceptable radiation exposure in space are subject to many uncertainties including the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation especially heavy ions, dose-rate effects and possible interaction with microgravity and other spaceflight environmental factors. The initial cellular response to radiation exposure paves the way to late sequelae and starts with damage to the DNA which complexity depends on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. Repair of such complex DNA damage is more challenging and requires more time than the repair of simple DNA double strand breaks (DSB) which can be visualized by immunofluorescence staining of the phosphorylated histone 2AX (γH2AX) and might explain the observed prolonged cell cycle arrests induced by high-LET in comparison to low-LET irradiation. Unrepaired or mis-repaired DNA DSB are proposed to be responsible for cell death, mutations, chromosomal aberrations and oncogenic cell transformation. Cell killing and mutation induction are most efficient in an LET range of 90-200 keV/µm. Also the activation of transcription factors such as Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) and gene expression shaping the cellular radiation response depend on the LET with a peak RBE between 90 and 300 keV/µm. Such LET-RBE relationships were observed for cataract and cancer induction by heavy ions in laboratory animals

  2. Exploring the Potential for Sustainable Future Bioenergy Production in the Arkansas-White-Red River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, L.; Jager, H.; Kreig, J.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenergy production in the US has been projected to increase in the next few years and this has raised concerns over environmentally sustainable production. Specifically, there are concerns that managing lands to produce bioenergy feedstocks in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) may have impacts over the water quality in the streams draining these lands and hamper with efforts to reduce the size of the Gulf of Mexico's "Dead Zone" (hypoxic waters). However, with appropriate choice of feedstocks and good conservation practices, bioenergy production systems can be environmentally and economically sustainable. We evaluated opportunities for producing 2nd generation cellulosic feedstocks that are economically sustainable and improve water quality in the Arkansas-White-Red (AWR) river basin, which is major part of the MARB. We generated a future bioenergy landscape by downscaling county-scale projections of bioenergy crop production produced by an economic model, POLYSYS, at a market price of $60 per dry ton and a 1% annual yield increase. Our future bioenergy landscape includes perennial grasses (switchgrass and miscanthus), short-rotated woody crops (poplar and willow) and annual crops (high yield sorghum, sorghum stubble, corn stover and wheat straw). Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) we analyzed changes in water quality and quantity by simulating a baseline scenario with the current landscape (2014 land cover) and a future scenario with the bioenergy landscape. Our results over the AWR indicate decreases in median nutrient and sediment loadings from the baseline scenario. We also explored methods to evaluate if conservation practices (such as reducing fertilizer applications, incorporating filter strips, planting cover crops and moving to a no-till system) can improve water quality, while maintaining biomass yield. We created a series of SWAT simulations with varying levels of conservation practices by crop and present our methods towards

  3. Phyllotaxis instability – exploring the depths of first available space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szpak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of the consequences of the phyllotactic pattern being propagated according to the first available space rule has revealed that all monojugate patterns, with the exception of the main Fibonacci pattern, should become developmentally unstable in their low expressions. This fact explains why the main Fibonacci pattern plays the dominant role among other patterns of spiral phyllotaxis. The probability that the pattern becomes unstable varies for different patterns, which likely makes them more or less frequent, and thus easier or more difficult to encounter in nature. The unstable pattern inevitably transforms into another, as the computer simulations show. Theoretically predicted instability of low order phyllotaxis may be treated as one of the causes of natural ontogenetic transitions, occurring in plants. This, however, still does not explain why in nature some patterns with high order of phyllotaxis also change, quite readily one into the other, in shoot apical meristem’s ontogeny.

  4. Exploring Parameter Space Coverage of Various LISA Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    With the success of LISA Pathfinder, the measurement of gravitational waves in space has taken an important step forward. We conduct an analysis of the measurement abilities of distinctive LISA detector designs, examining how the low-frequency band-edge behavior of the detector sensitivity curve affects measurement capabilities. We are particularly interested in LISA’s ability to measure massive black holes that are merging near the band-edge, with masses in the range of $\\sim 10^6-10^{10}M_\\odot$. We examine the ringdown and insprial detectability over a wide range of Massive Black Hole (MBH) binaries along with a broad palette of possible LISA design parameters.

  5. Peapods: Exploring the inner space of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Hisanori

    2018-02-01

    During the past quarter century, the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has been very much influenced and substantiated by the emergence of real nanometer-scale materials headed by fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene, the so-called nanocarbons. This review article deals with some of the recent progress in the syntheses, characterization, and applications of the hybrid materials composed of nanopeapods (CNTs encapsulating atoms, molecules, nanowires, and nanoribbons). All of these studies are closely related to the characteristic usages of the internal nanospace prepared by the CNTs. Furthermore, the two-dimensional (2D) space prepared by two sheets of graphene has also been used as a 2D template for observing some dynamical phenomena of liquidus materials by transmission electron microscopy even under high-vacuum conditions.

  6. Exploring the design of a lightweight, sustainable and comfortable aircraft seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorikou, A; Vink, P; de Pauw, I C; Braca, A

    2016-07-19

    Making a lightweight seat that is also comfortable can be contradictory because usually comfort improvement means adding a feature (e.g. headrest, adjustable lumbar support, movable armrests, integrated massage systems, etc.), which makes seats heavier. This paper explores the design of an economy class aircraft seat that aims to be lightweight, comfortable and sustainable. Theory about comfort in seats, ergonomics, lightweight design, Biomimicry and Cradle to cradle was studied and resulted in a list of requirements that the new seat should satisfy. The design process resulted in a new seat that is 36% lighter than the reference seat, which showed that a significant weight reduction can be achieved. This was completed by re-designing the backrest and seat pan and integrating their functions into a reduced number of parts. Apart from the weight reduction that helps in reducing the airplane's environmental impact, the seat also satisfies most of the other sustainability requirements such as the use of recyclable materials, design for disassembly, easy to repair. A user test compared the new seat with a premium economy class aircraft seat and the level of comfort was similar. Strong points of the new design were identified such as the lumbar support and the cushioning material, as well as shortcomings on which the seat needs to be improved, like the seat pan length and the first impression. Long term comfort tests are still needed as the seat is meant for long-haul flights.

  7. Exploring R&D Influences on Financial Performance for Business Sustainability Considering Dual Profitability Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao-Yi Shen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of research and development (R&D for business sustainability have gained increasing interests, especially in the high-tech sector. However, the efforts of R&D might cause complex and mixed impacts on the financial results considering the associated expenses. Thus, this study aims to examine how R&D efforts may influence business to improve its financial performance considering the dual objectives: the gross and the net profitability. This research integrates a rough-set-based soft computing technique and multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM methods to explore this complex and yet valuable issue. A group of public listed companies from Taiwan, all in the semiconductor sector, is analyzed as a case study. More than 30 variables are considered, and the adopted soft computing technique retrieves 14 core attributes—for the dual profitability objectives—to form the evaluation model. The importance of R&D for pursuing superior financial prospects is confirmed, and the empirical case demonstrates how to guide an individual company to plan for improvements to achieve its long-term sustainability by this hybrid approach.

  8. Class Explorations in Space: From the Blackboard and History to the Outdoors and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth

    2011-11-01

    Our everyday activities occur so seamlessly in the space around us as to leave us unawares of space, its properties, and our use of it. What might we notice, wonder about and learn through interacting with space exploratively? My seminar class took on that question as an opening for personal and group experiences during this semester. In the process, they observe space locally and in the sky, read historical works of science involving space, and invent and construct forms in space. All these actions arise responsively, as we respond to: physical materials and space; historical resources; our seminar participants, and future learners. Checks, revisions and further developments -- on our findings, geometrical constructions, shared or personal inferences---come about observationally and collaboratively. I teach this seminar as an expression of the research pedagogy of critical exploration, developed by Eleanor Duckworth from the work of Jean Piaget, B"arbel Inhelder and the Elementary Science Study. This practice applies the quest for understanding of a researcher to spontaneous interactions evolving within a classroom. The teacher supports students in satisfying and developing their curiosities, which often results in exploring the subject matter by routes that are novel to both teacher and student. As my students ``mess about'' with geometry, string and chalk at the blackboard, in their notebooks, and in response to propositions in Euclid's Elements, they continually imagine further novel venues for using geometry to explore space. Where might their explorations go in the future? I invite you to hear from them directly!

  9. Exploring the design space of immersive urban analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhutian Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rapid development and wide adoption of immersive head-mounted devices, such as HTC VIVE, Oculus Rift, and Microsoft HoloLens. These immersive devices have the potential to significantly extend the methodology of urban visual analytics by providing critical 3D context information and creating a sense of presence. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to characterize the visualizations in immersive urban analytics. Furthermore, based on our comprehensive and concise model, we contribute a typology of combination methods of 2D and 3D visualizations that distinguishes between linked views, embedded views, and mixed views. We also propose a supporting guideline to assist users in selecting a proper view under certain circumstances by considering visual geometry and spatial distribution of the 2D and 3D visualizations. Finally, based on existing work, possible future research opportunities are explored and discussed.

  10. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, J.; Goodman, E.

    2004-01-01

    To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create...... and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the help of ERCs (ephemeral random constants) in genetic programming, we can also evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components along with the structures. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex...... when they represent mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, we would like...

  11. Exploring Staff-Less Libraries as Social Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Lisa

    Today, public libraries in several countries have introduced staff-less opening hours. The term “staff-less library” refers to a public library that during some of the opening hours are without library staff available to the users, but the library is open for users to enter and use its services....... In staff-less libraries, users need to manage the library on their own. In this paper the following question is explored; how is increased self-management related to users self-governing and to users being governed in the library. In addition, methodological issues and the utilization of interviews...... and observations in relation to the library as place are investigated. The governing of users, or governmentality, is situated at the physical library and the library as place is vital to the research. One early finding discussed in this paper is the notion of the library as meeting place and how users actually...

  12. Sustainable Systems for exploration, stays with increased duration in LEO and Earth application -an overview about life support activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, Klaus; Duenne, Matthias

    Solar system exploration with extended stays in totally closed habitats far away from Earth as well as longer stays in LEO requires intensive preparatory activities. Activities supporting life in a more or less close meaning are essential in this context -on a scientific as well as on a technical level. These needed activities are supporting life by e.g.: i) increasing knowledge about the impact of single and combined effects of different exploration related environmental conditions (e. g. microgravity, radiation, reduced pressure and temperature, lunar soil etc.) on biological systems. This is needed to enable safe life of humans itself as well as safe operating of required bioregenerative life support systems. Thus, different human cell types as well as representatives of bioregenerative life support system protagonists (algae, bacteria as well as higher organisms) needs to be addressed. ii) provision of required consumables (oxygen, food, energy equivalents etc.) on site, mainly via bioregenerative life support systems, Bio-ISRU-units etc. Preparation is needed on a scientific as well as technological level. iii) ensuring reduced negative effects on humans (and partially also equipment), which could be caused by living in a closed habitat in general (and thus being not space related per se): E. g. detection systems for the quality of water and air, antimicrobial and selfhealing as well as anti-icing materials without dangerous hazard substances, psychological health enhancing components etc. Referring payloads for above mentioned investigations (scientific evaluation and technology demonstration) must be developed. Extended stays and extended closure in habitats without the possibility of material transport into and out of the system are leading to the necessity of more autonomous technologies and sustainable processes. Latter one will rely mainly on biological processes and structures, which increases additionally the necessity of an intensive scientific and

  13. From outer space to Earth-The social significance of isolated and confined environment research in human space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Koji; Tachibana, Shoichi; Inoue, Natsuhiko

    2017-11-01

    Human space exploration requires massive budgets every fiscal year. Especially under severe financial constraint conditions, governments are forced to justify to society why spending so much tax revenue for human space exploration is worth the cost. The value of human space exploration might be estimated in many ways, but its social significance and cost-effectiveness are two key ways to gauge that worth. Since these measures should be applied country by country because sociopolitical conditions differ in each country and must be taken into consideration, the study on the social significance of human space exploration must take the coloration of a case-study. This paper, focusing on the case of Japan with surveying Japanese literary and national documents as well as taking its sociopolitical conditions into account, examines the social significance of human space exploration. First, we give an overview of the circumstances surrounding Japan's human space exploration program. Derived from the statements of such relevant parties as scholars, journalists, policy makers, and astronauts, this overview indicates that the main concerns about human space exploration in Japan are its social significance and cost-effectiveness (Section 1). Next, an overview of behavioral science-an essential field for human space exploration (referred to in this paper as space behavioral science) that provides support for astronauts-is presented from the perspective of stress research in isolated and confined environments (Section 2). We then give two examples of where such knowledge from space behavioral science research has been applied to terrestrial isolated and confined environments. One is JAXA's support in 2009 for people who were vulnerable to infection by a new strain of flu and accordingly placed in an isolated and confined facility under the Infectious Disease Law and the Quarantine Law. The other is NASA's support in 2010 for Chilean mine workers who were trapped 700 m

  14. Impact of the Columbia Supercomputer on NASA Space and Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Lawrence, Scott

    2006-01-01

    NASA's 10,240-processor Columbia supercomputer gained worldwide recognition in 2004 for increasing the space agency's computing capability ten-fold, and enabling U.S. scientists and engineers to perform significant, breakthrough simulations. Columbia has amply demonstrated its capability to accelerate NASA's key missions, including space operations, exploration systems, science, and aeronautics. Columbia is part of an integrated high-end computing (HEC) environment comprised of massive storage and archive systems, high-speed networking, high-fidelity modeling and simulation tools, application performance optimization, and advanced data analysis and visualization. In this paper, we illustrate the impact Columbia is having on NASA's numerous space and exploration applications, such as the development of the Crew Exploration and Launch Vehicles (CEV/CLV), effects of long-duration human presence in space, and damage assessment and repair recommendations for remaining shuttle flights. We conclude by discussing HEC challenges that must be overcome to solve space-related science problems in the future.

  15. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhun Fan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the use of ERCs (ephemeral random constants in genetic programming, we can evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components together with the system structures simultaneously. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex when the systems are mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, it is beneficial to generate multiple solutions, allowing the designer more latitude in choosing a model to implement. The approach in this paper is capable of providing a variety of design choices to the designer for further analysis, comparison and trade-off study. The approach is shown to be efficient and effective and is demonstrated in an example of open-ended real-world mechatronic system design application, a typewriter re-design problem.

  16. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhun Fan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: opentopology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the use of ERCs (ephemeral random constants in genetic programming, we can evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components together with the system structures simultaneously. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex when the systems are mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, it is beneficial to generate multiple solutions, allowing the designer more latitude in choosing a model to implement. The approach in this paper is capable of providing a variety of design choices to the designer for further analysis, comparison and trade-off study. The approach is shown to be efficient and effective and is demonstrated in an example of open-ended real-world mechatronic system design application, a typewriter re-design problem.

  17. Exploring Inpatients' Experiences of Healing and Healing Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorissa MacAllister PhD, AIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand a patient’s healing experience it is essential to understand the elements that they, the patient, believes contributed to their healing. Previous research has focused on symptom reducers or contributors through environment such as stress. A person’s experience of healing happens over time not instantaneous. Therefore, in this study, the interviews with patients happened after forty-eight hours of hospitalization. This mixed methods study describes the experiences of seventeen inpatients from two healthcare systems using a phenomenological approach combined with evidence based design evaluation methods to document the setting. The qualitative data was analyzed first for reoccurring themes then further explored and defined through quantitative environmental observations. The seventeen patients defined healing as “getting better/well.” Seventy three statements were recorded about contributors and detractors to healing in the physical environment. Three primary themes emerged from the data as positive influencers of a healing experience: being cared for, being comfortable and experiencing something familiar or like home. These results demonstrate that patients perceive their inpatient healing experience through a supported environment.

  18. Simulation of Trajectories for High Specific Impulse Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Adams, Robert B.; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Difficulties in approximating flight times and deliverable masses for continuous thrust propulsion systems have complicated comparison and evaluation of proposed propulsion concepts. These continuous thrust propulsion systems are of interest to many groups, not the least of which are the electric propulsion and fusion communities. Several charts plotting the results of well-known trajectory simulation codes were developed and are contained in this paper. These charts illustrate the dependence of time of flight and payload ratio on jet power, initial mass, specific impulse and specific power. These charts are intended to be a tool by which people in the propulsion community can explore the possibilities of their propulsion system concepts. Trajectories were simulated using the tools VARITOP and IPOST. VARITOP is a well known trajectory optimization code that involves numerical integration based on calculus of variations. IPOST has several methods of trajectory simulation; the one used in this paper is Cowell's method for full integration of the equations of motion. The analytical method derived in the companion paper was also used to simulate the trajectory. The accuracy of this method is discussed in the paper.

  19. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal, S.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be reduced by application of solar chimney and integrated approaches in buildings for heating, ventilation and space conditioning. It is a sustainable approach for these applications in buildings. The authors are reviewed the concept, various method of evaluation, modelings and performance of solar chimney variables, applications and integrated approaches.

  20. Dawn of a New Space Age: Developing a Global Exploration Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volosin, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Jeff Volosin is an aerospace engineer with over 20 years of experience in the design, development, and operations of both robotic and crewed spacecraft. Mr. Volosin is currently leading the NASA effort to develop and integrate a global exploration strategy which reflects the lunar exploration interests of international space agencies, academia and commercial stakeholders. Prior to joining NASA as a member of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate in 2004, Jeff was an aerospace contractor, serving in a number of leadership positions including: Operations Manager for the NASA Communications Network and Flight Operations Manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, and the NOAA Polar and Geostationary satellite constellations. Earlier in his career, Jeff spent 4 years as a system engineer supporting the Space Exploration Initiative studies on human voyages to the Moon and Mars and also supported the Space Station program as an advanced life support engineer.

  1. The contributions of occupational science to the readiness of long duration deep space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janis; Burr, Macy; Absi, Maria; Telles, Rochelle; Koh, Howard

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces the contributions of occupational science (OS) to the preparation and support of astronauts during long duration space exploration. Given the hostile environment of space, it is not surprising that there is grave deterioration of both physical and mental health when off Earth. However, OS, through occupational therapy (OT), can identify strategies that maintain health and minimize disruptions in task performance for mission success. To determine the gaps in NASA's preparation of astronauts for long duration space exploration and the viable contributions of OT. Because occupational therapists are trained to address deficits and modify environments to support meaningful engagement in occupations, the OT practitioner is well suited to address the disabling conditions astronauts experience in space. A literature review revealing the challenges of deep space travel on humans was completed. A survey was also sent to (N = 170) occupational therapists worldwide to identify opinions about the profession's involvement in deep space exploration. Ninety-seven percent (N = 163) of the participants believed that OS can inform long duration space travel. Approximately ninety-eight percent (N = 166) of respondents believed that OT interventions can be used on space travelers during long duration space flights. OT interventions can be implemented in any phase of space flight to increase the likelihood of mission success and astronaut safety and well-being.

  2. Space Elevators: Building a Permanent Bridge for Space Exploration and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V., Jr.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A space elevator is a physical connection from the surface of the Earth to a geo-stationary orbit above the Earth approximately 35,786 km in altitude. Its center of mass is at the geo-stationary point such that it has a 24-hour orbit, and stays over the same point above the equator as the Earth rotates on its axis. The structure is utilized as a transportation and utility system for moving payloads, power, and gases between the surface of the Earth and space. It makes the physical connection from Earth to space in the same way a bridge connects two cities across a body of' water. The space elevator may be an important concept for the future development of space in the latter part of the 21th century. It has the potential to provide mass-transportation to space in the same way highways, railroads, power lines, and pipelines provide mass-transportation across the Earth's surface. The low energy requirements for moving payloads up and down the elevator make it one of only a few concepts that has the potential of lowering the cost to orbit to less than $10 per kilogram. This paper will summarize the findings from a 1999 NASA workshop on Space Elevators held at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office in the Flight Projects Directorate at MSFC, and was organized in cooperation with the Advanced Space Transportation Program at MSFC and the Advanced Concepts Office in the Office of Space Flight at NASA Headquarters. New concepts will be examined for space elevator construction and a number of issues will be discussed that has helped to bring the space elevator concept out of the realm of science fiction and into the realm of possibility. In conclusion, it appears that the space elevator concept may well he possible in the latter part of the 21st century if proper planning and technology development is emphasized to resolve key issues in the development of this advanced space infrastructure concept.

  3. Perspectives on Sustainability: Exploring the Views of Tenants in Supported Social Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalyn A. V. Robison

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Government policy aimed at curbing carbon emissions often focusses on encouraging individual action, however the effectiveness of this approach has been limited. Investigations of why this might be have included segmentation, to identify different groups who undertake more or less action, and analysis of various “barriers” to action. Those on lower incomes who are not home owners have previously been found to be less engaged in seeking out energy efficiency information. Working with low-income tenants living in supported social housing we conducted three group interviews, accompanied by a 7-item scale measuring general attitude towards the environment. The interviews were aimed at opening up discussion about environmental and energy issues, including exploring more deeply what, for these participants, underlies barriers to conservation behaviours. We found participants to be very willing to engage in conversation and knowledgeable about a range of relevant issues. Barriers explored include: lack of confidence in existing levels of knowledge, habit, self-interest and lack of agency, and in all cases several different perspectives were voiced by participants. Implications for policy, interventions and public engagement are given, including ways to increase dialogue and reflection on sustainability issues for all sectors of society.

  4. The politics and perils of space exploration who will compete, who will dominate?

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Written by a former Aerodynamics Officer on the space shuttle program, this book provides a complete overview of the “new” U. S. space program, which has changed considerably over the past 50 years.The future of space exploration has become increasingly dependent on other countries and private enterprise. Can private enterprise can fill the shoes of NASA and provide the same expertise and safety measures and lessons learned from NASA? In order to tell this story, it is important to understand the politics of space as well as the dangers, why it is so difficult to explore and utilize the resources of space. Some past and recent triumphs and failures will be discussed, pointing the way to a successful space policy that includes taking risks but also learning how to mitigate them.

  5. Fuzzy Adaptive Control for Intelligent Autonomous Space Exploration Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esogbue, Augustine O.

    1998-01-01

    The principal objective of the research reported here is the re-design, analysis and optimization of our newly developed neural network fuzzy adaptive controller model for complex processes capable of learning fuzzy control rules using process data and improving its control through on-line adaption. The learned improvement is according to a performance objective function that provides evaluative feedback; this performance objective is broadly defined to meet long-range goals over time. Although fuzzy control had proven effective for complex, nonlinear, imprecisely-defined processes for which standard models and controls are either inefficient, impractical or cannot be derived, the state of the art prior to our work showed that procedures for deriving fuzzy control, however, were mostly ad hoc heuristics. The learning ability of neural networks was exploited to systematically derive fuzzy control and permit on-line adaption and in the process optimize control. The operation of neural networks integrates very naturally with fuzzy logic. The neural networks which were designed and tested using simulation software and simulated data, followed by realistic industrial data were reconfigured for application on several platforms as well as for the employment of improved algorithms. The statistical procedures of the learning process were investigated and evaluated with standard statistical procedures (such as ANOVA, graphical analysis of residuals, etc.). The computational advantage of dynamic programming-like methods of optimal control was used to permit on-line fuzzy adaptive control. Tests for the consistency, completeness and interaction of the control rules were applied. Comparisons to other methods and controllers were made so as to identify the major advantages of the resulting controller model. Several specific modifications and extensions were made to the original controller. Additional modifications and explorations have been proposed for further study. Some of

  6. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniece Jennings

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1 explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2 examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3 recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice.

  7. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-02-05

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice.

  8. In-Space Assembly Capability Assessment for Potential Human Exploration and Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Arney, Dale C.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Chai, Patrick R.; Hutchinson, Craig D.; Stafford, Matthew A.; Moses, Robert W.; Dempsey, James A.; Rodgers, Erica M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Human missions to Mars present several major challenges that must be overcome, including delivering multiple large mass and volume elements, keeping the crew safe and productive, meeting cost constraints, and ensuring a sustainable campaign. Traditional methods for executing human Mars missions minimize or eliminate in-space assembly, which provides a narrow range of options for addressing these challenges and limits the types of missions that can be performed. This paper discusses recent work to evaluate how the inclusion of in-space assembly in space mission architectural concepts could provide novel solutions to address these challenges by increasing operational flexibility, robustness, risk reduction, crew health and safety, and sustainability. A hierarchical framework is presented to characterize assembly strategies, assembly tasks, and the required capabilities to assemble mission systems in space. The framework is used to identify general mission system design considerations and assembly system characteristics by assembly strategy. These general approaches are then applied to identify potential in-space assembly applications to address each challenge. Through this process, several focus areas were identified where applications of in-space assembly could affect multiple challenges. Each focus area was developed to identify functions, potential assembly solutions and operations, key architectural trades, and potential considerations and implications of implementation. This paper helps to identify key areas to investigate were potentially significant gains in addressing the challenges with human missions to Mars may be realized, and creates a foundation on which to further develop and analyze in-space assembly concepts and assembly-based architectures.

  9. FI3D : Direct-Touch Interaction for the Exploration of 3D Scientific Visualization Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Lingyun; Svetachov, Pjotr; Isenberg, Petra; Everts, Maarten H.; Isenberg, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of FI3D, a direct-touch data exploration technique for 3D visualization spaces. The exploration of three-dimensional data is core to many tasks and domains involving scientific visualizations. Thus, effective data navigation techniques are essential to enable

  10. The Space Science Suitcase—Instruments for Exploring Near-Earth Space from the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, Kjartan; Ostgaard, Nikolai; Tanskanen, Eija

    2009-04-01

    The aurora and other phenomena in near Earth space are becoming a considerable part of the science curriculum in upper secondary school (high school) in Norway. Introducing scientific methods to the young students is an important objective of the education, but experimental experience is mainly restricted to simple laboratory exercises under controlled conditions; observations of uncontrollable natural phenomena are generally left to academic scientists and researchers. The Space Physics Group and The Science Education and Outreach Group at The Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, are constructing a Space Science Suitcase with a set of simple versions of instruments for monitoring solar and geophysical activity in near Earth space. The instruments will be lent to physics classes in upper secondary schools.

  11. Organising a safe space for navigating social-ecological transformations to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Laura; Karpouzoglou, Timothy; Doshi, Samir; Frantzeskaki, Niki

    2015-05-28

    The need for developing socially just living conditions for the world's growing population whilst keeping human societies within a 'safe operating space' has become a modern imperative. This requires transformative changes in the dominant social norms, behaviours, governance and management regimes that guide human responses in areas such as urban ecology, public health, resource security (e.g., food, water, energy access), economic development and biodiversity conservation. However, such systemic transformations necessitate experimentation in public arenas of exchange and a deepening of processes that can widen multi-stakeholder learning. We argue that there is an emergent potential in bridging the sustainability transitions and resilience approaches to create new scientific capacity that can support large-scale social-ecological transformations (SETs) to sustainability globally, not just in the West. In this article, we elucidate a set of guiding principles for the design of a 'safe space' to encourage stronger interactions between these research areas and others that are relevant to the challenges faced. We envisage new opportunities for transdisciplinary collaboration that will develop an adaptive and evolving community of practice. In particular, we emphasise the great opportunity for engaging with the role of emerging economies in facilitating safe space experimentation.

  12. Lost in space: design of experiments and scientific exploration in a Hogarth Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendrem, Dennis W; Lendrem, B Clare; Woods, David; Rowland-Jones, Ruth; Burke, Matthew; Chatfield, Marion; Isaacs, John D; Owen, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    A Hogarth, or 'wicked', universe is an irregular environment generating data to support erroneous beliefs. Here, we argue that development scientists often work in such a universe. We demonstrate that exploring these multidimensional spaces using small experiments guided by scientific intuition alone, gives rise to an illusion of validity and a misplaced confidence in that scientific intuition. By contrast, design of experiments (DOE) permits the efficient mapping of such complex, multidimensional spaces. We describe simulation tools that enable research scientists to explore these spaces in relative safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Known drug space as a metric in exploring the boundaries of drug-like chemical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Amin; Desai, Radha; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2009-12-01

    In this work, marketed drug compounds (or known drug space) were used as a metric to test the principles of eliminating parent structures of the nitrenium ion (aryl-amine/nitro compounds) as well as sulphur and halogen containing molecules from screening compound collections. Molecules containing such moieties and/or atoms have biological and physiochemical properties, which possibly make them less attractive as leads in drug development. It was found that precursors to the nitrenium ion were relatively abundant in known drug space at 14%. Thus, their simple elimination from drug-like chemical space is not advisable. Interestingly, the mutagenic potential of the nitrenium ions is linked to their stability and quantum mechanical calculations can be used to estimate it. Furthermore, 24% of drugs investigated contained sulphur atoms and around 28% were halogenated. As some sulphur containing moieties were abundant whilst others were scarce, it was deduced that it would be more effective to eliminate specific molecular scaffolds rather than all sulphur containing molecules. In conclusion, it has been shown that by statistically analysing known drug space a better understanding of the boundaries of drug-like chemical space was established which can help medicinal chemists in finding rewarding regions of chemical space.

  14. Global risk & global challenges - Space as a game changer for socioeconomic sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Christopher; Karlsson, Evelina; Giannopapa, Christina

    2017-11-01

    The world's societies at the beginning of the 21st century are better off than ever before. (Gapminder, 2015) At the same time, the world is also threatened by global challenges where space as a tool has and can play a pivotal role in meeting those challenges. The challenges range from climate change, over mass unemployment, to terrorism or migration - to name but a few. Space activities have started to respond to this changing world, not only by providing a deeper understanding of our universe, but by using space as an additional sphere and sector, through which humankind can increase and secure its wealth - it is thus game changing in the way we sustain humanity's existence. This paper is meant to capture this development. In the first part, an overview is given on the risks that humankind is facing. The second part describes the way that space can be used as a tool to prevent and manage these risks. The overview in the first part is based on the examination of the most recent reports and overall strategies of key International Governmental Organisations and Non-Governmental Organisations that are involved in agenda-setting, policy formulation and implementation. The second part includes an overview on current activities of the European Space Agency (ESA) that play a role in responding to these risks. To better understand ESA's activities that contain humanity's risks, a standard classification for risks management is used, which distinguishes between four components: Identification, Assessment, Management and Communication (Renn, 2005). The analysis reveals how space activities already today play a pivotal role in all four types of risk management. Space activities contribute very tangible to the management of risks through its space mission, but also in a more indirect way, as providing the technical backbone for stable and reliable cooperation in the international governance arena, and serve as crucial economic stimulator. The overall results show that space

  15. The Sustainable Development Goals and the Global Health Security Agenda: exploring synergies for a sustainable and resilient world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Sulzhan; Taaffe, Jessica

    2017-02-07

    Both the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) represent bold initiatives to address systematically gaps in previous efforts to assure that societies can be resilient when confronted with potentially overwhelming threats to health. Despite their obvious differences, and differing criticisms of both, they shift away from vertical (problem- or disease-specific) to horizontal (comprehensive) solutions. Despite the comprehensiveness of the SDGs, they lack a specific target for global health security. The GHSA focuses primarily on infectious diseases and neglects non-communicable diseases and socioeconomic drivers of health. Even though each agenda has limitations and unique challenges, they are complementary. We discuss ways to understand and implement the two agendas synergistically to hasten progress toward a more sustainable and resilient world.

  16. The Sustainable Development Goals and the Global Health Security Agenda: exploring synergies for a sustainable and resilient world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Sulzhan; Taaffe, Jessica

    2017-05-01

    Both the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) represent bold initiatives to address systematically gaps in previous efforts to assure that societies can be resilient when confronted with potentially overwhelming threats to health. Despite their obvious differences, and differing criticisms of both, they shift away from vertical (problem- or disease-specific) to horizontal (comprehensive) solutions. Despite the comprehensiveness of the SDGs, they lack a specific target for global health security. The GHSA focuses primarily on infectious diseases and neglects non-communicable diseases and socioeconomic drivers of health. Even though each agenda has limitations and unique challenges, they are complementary. We discuss ways to understand and implement the two agendas synergistically to hasten progress toward a more sustainable and resilient world.

  17. Exploring the Relationship Between Business Model Innovation, Corporate Sustainability, and Organisational Values within the Fashion Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum; Gwozdz, Wencke; Hvass, Kerli Kant

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between business model innovation, corporate sustainability, and the underlying organisational values. Moreover, the paper examines how the three dimensions correlate with corporate financial performance. It is concluded that companies...... with innovative business models are more likely to address corporate sustainability and that business model innovation and corporate sustainability alike are typically found in organisations rooted in values of flexibility and discretion. Business model innovation and corporate sustainability thus seem to have...

  18. Ultra Long-Life Spacecraft for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Savio

    2002-01-01

    After decades of Solar System exploration, NASA has almost completed the initial reconnaissance, and has been planning for landing and sample return missions on many planets, satellites, comets, and asteroids. The next logical step of space exploration is to expand the frontier into other missions within and outside the solar system. These missions can easily last for more than 30 to 50 years. Most of the current technologies and spacecraft design techniques are not adequate to support such long life missions. Many breakthrough technologies and non-conventional system architecture have to develop in order to sustain such long life missions.Some of these technologies are being developed by the NASA Exploration Team (neXt). Based on the projected requirements for ultra long life missions, the costs and benefits of the required technologies can be quantified. The ultra long-life space system should have four attributes: long-term survivability, administration of consumable resources, evolvability and adaptability, and low-cost long-term operations of the spacecraft. The discussion of survivability is the focus of this paper. Conventional fault tolerant system design has to tolerate only random failures, which can be handled effectively by dual or triple redundancy for a relatively short time. In contrast, the predominant failure mode in an ultra long-life system is the wear-out of components. All active components in the system are destined to fail before the end of the mission. Therefore, an ultra long-life system would require a large number of redundant components. This would be impractical in conventional fault tolerant systems because their fault tolerance techniques are very inefficient. For instance, a conventional dual-string avionics system duplicates the all the components including the processor, memory, and I/O controllers on a spacecraft. However, when the same component in both strings fail (e.g., the processor), the system will fail although all other

  19. Exploring the Functioning of Decision Space: A Review of the Available Health Systems Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Tamlyn Eslie; Cleary, Susan; McIntyre, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Background: The concept of decision space holds appeal as an approach to disaggregating the elements that may influence decision-making in decentralized systems. This narrative review aims to explore the functioning of decision space and the factors that influence decision space. Methods: A narrative review of the literature was conducted with searches of online databases and academic journals including PubMed Central, Emerald, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Sage. The articles were included in the review based on the criteria that they provided insight into the functioning of decision space either through the explicit application of or reference to decision space, or implicitly through discussion of decision-making related to organizational capacity or accountability mechanisms. Results: The articles included in the review encompass literature related to decentralisation, management and decision space. The majority of the studies utilise qualitative methodologies to assess accountability mechanisms, organisational capacities such as finance, human resources and management, and the extent of decision space. Of the 138 articles retrieved, 76 articles were included in the final review. Conclusion: The literature supports Bossert’s conceptualization of decision space as being related to organizational capacities and accountability mechanisms. These functions influence the decision space available within decentralized systems. The exact relationship between decision space and financial and human resource capacities needs to be explored in greater detail to determine the potential influence on system functioning. PMID:28812832

  20. Exploring the Functioning of Decision Space: A Review of the Available Health Systems Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamlyn Eslie Roman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The concept of decision space holds appeal as an approach to disaggregating the elements that may influence decision-making in decentralized systems. This narrative review aims to explore the functioning of decision space and the factors that influence decision space. Methods A narrative review of the literature was conducted with searches of online databases and academic journals including PubMed Central, Emerald, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Sage. The articles were included in the review based on the criteria that they provided insight into the functioning of decision space either through the explicit application of or reference to decision space, or implicitly through discussion of decision-making related to organizational capacity or accountability mechanisms. Results The articles included in the review encompass literature related to decentralisation, management and decision space. The majority of the studies utilise qualitative methodologies to assess accountability mechanisms, organisational capacities such as finance, human resources and management, and the extent of decision space. Of the 138 articles retrieved, 76 articles were included in the final review. Conclusion The literature supports Bossert’s conceptualization of decision space as being related to organizational capacities and accountability mechanisms. These functions influence the decision space available within decentralized systems. The exact relationship between decision space and financial and human resource capacities needs to be explored in greater detail to determine the potential influence on system functioning.

  1. Exploring the Functioning of Decision Space: A Review of the Available Health Systems Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Tamlyn Eslie; Cleary, Susan; McIntyre, Diane

    2017-02-27

    The concept of decision space holds appeal as an approach to disaggregating the elements that may influence decision-making in decentralized systems. This narrative review aims to explore the functioning of decision space and the factors that influence decision space. A narrative review of the literature was conducted with searches of online databases and academic journals including PubMed Central, Emerald, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Sage. The articles were included in the review based on the criteria that they provided insight into the functioning of decision space either through the explicit application of or reference to decision space, or implicitly through discussion of decision-making related to organizational capacity or accountability mechanisms. The articles included in the review encompass literature related to decentralisation, management and decision space. The majority of the studies utilise qualitative methodologies to assess accountability mechanisms, organisational capacities such as finance, human resources and management, and the extent of decision space. Of the 138 articles retrieved, 76 articles were included in the final review. The literature supports Bossert's conceptualization of decision space as being related to organizational capacities and accountability mechanisms. These functions influence the decision space available within decentralized systems. The exact relationship between decision space and financial and human resource capacities needs to be explored in greater detail to determine the potential influence on system functioning.

  2. NASA Workshop on Technology for Human Robotic Exploration and Development of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, J. C.; Marzwell, N.; Mullins, C. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Howell, J. T.; O'Neil, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Continued constrained budgets and growing interests in the industrialization and development of space requires NASA to seize every opportunity for assuring the maximum return on space infrastructure investments. This workshop provided an excellent forum for reviewing, evaluating, and updating pertinent strategic planning, identifying advanced concepts and high-risk/high-leverage research and technology requirements, developing strategies and roadmaps, and establishing approaches, methodologies, modeling, and tools for facilitating the commercial development of space and supporting diverse exploration and scientific missions. Also, the workshop addressed important topic areas including revolutionary space systems requiring investments in innovative advanced technologies; achieving transformational space operations through the insertion of new technologies; revolutionary science in space through advanced systems and new technologies enabling experiments to go anytime to any location; and, innovative and ambitious concepts and approaches essential for promoting advancements in space transportation. Details concerning the workshop process, structure, and results are contained in the ensuing report.

  3. Space Medicine: Shuttle - Space Station Crew Health and Safety Challenges for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervay, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation combines some views of the shuttle take off, and the shuttle and space station on orbit, and some views of the underwater astronaut training , with a general discussion of Space Medicine. It begins with a discussion of the some of the physiological issues of space flight. These include: Space Motion Sickness (SMS), Cardiovascular, Neurovestibular, Musculoskeletal, and Behavioral/Psycho-social. There is also discussion of the space environment and the issues that are posed including: Radiation, Toxic products and propellants, Habitability, Atmosphere, and Medical events. Included also is a discussion of the systems and crew training. There are also artists views of the Constellation vehicles, the planned lunar base, and extended lunar settlement. There are also slides showing the size of earth in perspective to the other planets, and the sun and the sun in perspective to other stars. There is also a discussion of the in-flight changes that occur in neural feedback that produces postural imbalance and loss of coordination after return.

  4. An International Strategy for Human Exploration of the Moon: The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Junichiro, Kawaguchi; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Schade, Britta; Lorenzoni, Andrea; Curtis, Jeremy; Hae-Dong, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Several ISECG participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon that allow individual and collective goals and objectives to be met. This 18 month study activity culminated with the development of the ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration. The reference architecture is a series of elements delivered over time in a flexible and evolvable campaign. This paper will describe the reference architecture and how it will inform near-term and long-term programmatic planning within interested agencies. The reference architecture is intended to serve as a global point of departure conceptual architecture that enables individual agency investments in technology development and demonstration, International Space Station research and technology demonstration, terrestrial analog studies, and robotic precursor missions to contribute towards the eventual implementation of a human lunar exploration scenario which reflects the concepts and priorities established to date. It also serves to create opportunities for partnerships that will support evolution of this concept and its eventual realization. The ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration (commonly referred to as the lunar gPoD) reflects the agency commitments to finding an effective balance between conducting important scientific investigations of and from the moon, as well as demonstrating and mastering the technologies and capabilities to send humans farther into the Solar System. The lunar gPoD begins with a robust robotic precursor phase that demonstrates technologies and capabilities considered important for the success of the campaign. Robotic missions will inform the human missions and buy down risks. Human exploration will start

  5. Guiding exploration in conformational feature space with Lipschitz underestimation for ab-initio protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaohu; Zhang, Guijun; Zhou, Xiaogen

    2018-02-06

    Computing conformations which are essential to associate structural and functional information with gene sequences, is challenging due to the high dimensionality and rugged energy surface of the protein conformational space. Consequently, the dimension of the protein conformational space should be reduced to a proper level, and an effective exploring algorithm should be proposed. In this paper, a plug-in method for guiding exploration in conformational feature space with Lipschitz underestimation (LUE) for ab-initio protein structure prediction is proposed. The conformational space is converted into ultrafast shape recognition (USR) feature space firstly. Based on the USR feature space, the conformational space can be further converted into Underestimation space according to Lipschitz estimation theory for guiding exploration. As a consequence of the use of underestimation model, the tight lower bound estimate information can be used for exploration guidance, the invalid sampling areas can be eliminated in advance, and the number of energy function evaluations can be reduced. The proposed method provides a novel technique to solve the exploring problem of protein conformational space. LUE is applied to differential evolution (DE) algorithm, and metropolis Monte Carlo(MMC) algorithm which is available in the Rosetta; When LUE is applied to DE and MMC, it will be screened by the underestimation method prior to energy calculation and selection. Further, LUE is compared with DE and MMC by testing on 15 small-to-medium structurally diverse proteins. Test results show that near-native protein structures with higher accuracy can be obtained more rapidly and efficiently with the use of LUE. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The space exploration initiative. Operational efficiency panel space-basing technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Luis R.

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) space basing technology requirements sources; (2) orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) processing heritage; (3) ground processing progression to space processing; (4) technology requirements for space based OTV servicing and maintenance; (5) design and development schedule for OTV's and OTV accommodations/ support hardware; (6) cryogenic technology test program development; (7) cryogenic propellant transfer, storage, and reliquefaction management summary; (8) propellant transfer technology analysis and ground testing; (8) OTV propellant storage depot development critical scaling relationships; (9) flight experiment options; (10) OTV maintenance; (11) automated fault detection/ isolation and system checkout summary; (12) engine replacement; (13) alternative docking operation; (14) OTV/payload integration; and (15) technology criticality and capability assessment. This document is presented in viewgraph form.

  7. The Space Science Suitcase - Instruments for Exploring Space Weather From the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, K.; Ostgaard, N.

    2008-12-01

    The aurora and other phenomena in near Earth space are becoming a considerable part of the science curriculum in upper secondary school (high school - age 16 to 19) in Norway. Introducing scientific methods to the young students is an important task of the education, but experimental science experience is to a great extent restricted to simple laboratory exercises under controlled conditions; observations of uncontrollable natural phenomena are generally left to academic scientists and researchers. The Space Physics Group and The Science Education and Outreach Group at The Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, have constructed a "Space Science Suitcase" with a set of simple versions of instruments for monitoring solar and geophysical activity in near Earth space. The contents of the suitcase are: Two solar telescopes, commercial SLR digital camera with a fisheye lens for photographing the aurora, tri-axial magnetometer, Geiger counter, two spectroscopes, GPS-receiver, a laptop for collecting the pictures and measurements, and a manual with suggestions for some relevant experiments. The suitcase is lent to physics classes in upper secondary schools for 3-4 weeks at each school, allowing the students to do their own quantitative observations of sunspots, magnetic disturbances, optical aurora, background radiation etc. Comparison of these observations with online observations from ground based observatories and satellites is an integrated part of the project. The purpose of the experiment is to promote scientific literacy, bring excitement about space phenomena into the classroom, and, finally, to recruit enthusiastic students to university studies in physic and geophysics in general, and space science in particular.

  8. Development of exploration and monitoring techniques for the sustainable thermal use of the shallow subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    will show that the development of new monitoring and exploration techniques is the prerequisite for the sustainable thermal use of the shallow subsurface in the framework of a geothermal resource management.

  9. Sustainable Shaping of Urban Spaces in the Context of the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Agnieszka Pawłowicz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment is of great importance when it comes to developing a city, as it shapes its spaces, defines its roles and performs climatic and protective functions. Industrialization often requires removing landscape obstacles and vegetation to erect new buildings. An urban planner, though, should be aware of the borders that must not be crossed. Designing new streets and buildings should follow a sustainable growth pattern, if the city landscape and its climatic conditions are to improve for generations to come. This paper discusses the aspects of planning and managing urban spaces in such a way as to provide their users with healthy and comfortable living conditions. The paper is based on a survey conducted to gather the opinions of members of a city community on the environment in which they live.

  10. Parameter space discretization and exploration for conceptual design of Mars in-situ instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Joel David

    New system design processes are changing the way space instrument conceptual designs are generated. Processes are developed for concurrent engineering, and optimizing instrument mass, cost, and volume. However, it is often the case that using these processes generates only point designs, or a fraction of possible design solutions within the parameter space. Parameter space includes design and performance spaces. Design space is the decomposition of a product design into tasks and options. Design parameters of interest constitute the performance space. Furthermore, although the point designs are valid solutions, there are often viable solutions that have not been considered, which may better solve the optimization problem. The hypothesis of this research is that designers exploring the parameter space will find solutions that may not have otherwise been considered. These previously unconsidered solutions may better optimize design parameters than the point designs found with other methods. Current design approaches are summarized, and a GENEration of Space Instrument Systems (GENESIS) parameter space discretization and exploration conceptual design process is described that expands on these approaches. GENESIS combines design approaches, parametric models, database tools, and intelligent agents in a unique manner to discretize and explore instrument parameter space. While generic enough to apply to wide ranges of problems, this research focuses on application to Mars in-situ instruments. In-situ instruments are those that take measurements in contact with or close proximity to the object being measured. These instruments are interesting because they are often under strict mass, cost, and volume constraints, and require unique design solutions to meet these constraints. An instrument design model built around existing Mars in-situ instruments supports GENESIS. Case studies of existing instruments are examined to answer the question, 'Where do existing Mars in

  11. Exploration of upstream and downstream process for microwave assisted sustainable biodiesel production from microalgae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Sahoo, Pradeepta Kumar; Singhal, Shailey; Joshi, Girdhar

    2016-09-01

    The present study explores the integrated approach for the sustainable production of biodiesel from Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. The microalgae were cultivated in 10m(2) open raceway pond at semi-continuous mode with optimum volumetric and areal production of 28.105kg/L/y and 71.51t/h/y, respectively. Alum was used as flocculent for harvesting the microalgae and optimized at different pH. Lipid was extracted using chloroform: methanol (2:1) and having 12.39% of FFA. Effect of various reaction conditions such as effect of catalyst, methanol:lipid ratio, reaction temperature and time on biodiesel yields were studied under microwave irradiation; and 84.01% of biodiesel yield was obtained under optimized reaction conditions. A comparison was also made between the biodiesel productions under conventional heating and microwave irradiation. The synthesized biodiesel was characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FTIR and GC; however, fuel properties of biodiesel were also studied using specified test methods as per ASTM and EN standards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management Using Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskens, L.; Nainggolan, D.; Stringer, L. C.

    2014-11-01

    Scenario analysis constitutes a valuable deployment method for scientific models to inform environmental decision-making, particularly for evaluating land degradation mitigation options, which are rarely based on formal analysis. In this paper we demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modeling framework with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots. Starting with an initial assessment representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat instances of land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are most biophysically appropriate and most financially viable in which locations; we term these the "technology scenarios"; (2) how policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and financial viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these the "policy scenarios"; and (3) how technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these the "global scenarios". Technology scenarios help choose the best technology for a given area in biophysical and financial terms, thereby outlining where policy support may be needed to promote adoption; policy scenarios assess whether a policy alternative leads to a greater extent of technology adoption; while global scenarios demonstrate how implementing technologies may serve wider sustainable development goals. Scenarios are applied to assess spatial variation within study sites as well as to compare across different sites. Our results show significant scope to combat land degradation and raise agricultural productivity at moderate cost. We conclude that scenario assessment can provide informative input to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

  13. Leading sustainable neighbourhoods in Europe: Exploring the key principles and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Medved

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Local projects involving sustainable urban transformation are increasingly prominent in cities and towns, and are often referred to as sustainable neighbourhoods. These initiatives have been described as experiments in urban sustainability and could provide concrete answers to many challenges facing cities and society. This article investigates the design and development of two leading examples of sustainable neighbourhoods that used different implementation strategies: a top-down development in Western Harbour (Swed. Västra Hamnen, Malmö and a bottom-up (participatory approach in Vauban (Freiburg. The article investigates how the initial implementation approach in sustainable urban redevelopment influenced and conditioned the urban design, social sustainability and local governance of the neighbourhoods. The research also focuses on how Vauban and Western Harbour have influenced and disseminated sustainable urban solutions to other urban contexts.

  14. Phase Space Exploration of Acetylene at Energies up to 13,000 Cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David S.; Martens, Jonathan; Herman, Michel; Amyay, Badr

    2011-06-01

    The rotation-vibration Hamiltonian of acetylene is known in detail up to 13,000 Cm-1 in the electronic ground state, allows the calculation of time-dependent dynamics for postulated excitations of certain bright states. Three different measures of phase space exploration are examined including the participation number, Gruebele's dispersion, and the Shannon entropy. The time scales for phase space exploration span the range from 20 fs to 10 ps. The volume of phase space explored by the dynamics increases with energy and the rotational quantum number, J reaching about 90% of the (GOE) statistical limit at 12,000 Cm-1 and J = 100. At low and intermediate J, the extent of phase space exploration is reduced for the local bender and counter-rotator bright states as compared to their normal mode counterparts. However, the phase space exploration of the local mode CH stretch state is similar to that of the corresponding normal mode vibration. These calculations shed light on the applicability of the energy randomization assumption that is at the heart of the Rice-Rampsberger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory of unimolecular reactions.

  15. Integrated Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Technology Demonstration for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Knox, James C.; Parrish, Keith J.; Roman, Monserrate C.; Jan, Darrell L.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the frontiers of deep space continues to be defined by the technological challenges presented by safely transporting a crew to and from destinations of scientific interest. Living and working on that frontier requires highly reliable and efficient life support systems that employ robust, proven process technologies. The International Space Station (ISS), including its environmental control and life support (ECLS) system, is the platform from which humanity's deep space exploration missions begin. The ISS ECLS system Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) subsystem and environmental monitoring (EM) technical architecture aboard the ISS is evaluated as the starting basis for a developmental effort being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) via the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) Project.. An evolutionary approach is employed by the ARREM project to address the strengths and weaknesses of the ISS AR subsystem and EM equipment, core technologies, and operational approaches to reduce developmental risk, improve functional reliability, and lower lifecycle costs of an ISS-derived subsystem architecture suitable for use for crewed deep space exploration missions. The most promising technical approaches to an ISS-derived subsystem design architecture that incorporates promising core process technology upgrades will be matured through a series of integrated tests and architectural trade studies encompassing expected exploration mission requirements and constraints.

  16. Novel Rock Detection Intelligence for Space Exploration Based on Non-Symbolic Algorithms and Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Sule; Beachell, Ronald L.; Veflingstad, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Future space exploration can utilize artificial intelligence as an integral part of next generation space rover technology to make the rovers more autonomous in performing mission objectives. The main advantage of the increased autonomy through a higher degree of intelligence is that it allows for greater utilization of rover resources by reducing the frequency of time consuming communications between rover and earth. In this paper, we propose a space exploration application of our research on a non-symbolic algorithm and concepts model. This model is based on one of the most recent approaches of cognitive science and artificial intelligence research, a parallel distributed processing approach. We use the Mars rovers. Sprit and Opportunity, as a starting point for proposing what rovers in the future could do if the presented model of non-symbolic algorithms and concepts is embedded in a future space rover. The chosen space exploration application for this paper, novel rock detection, is only one of many potential space exploration applications which can be optimized (through reduction of the frequency of rover-earth communications. collection and transmission of only data that is distinctive/novel) through the use of artificial intelligence technology compared to existing approaches.

  17. Exploring options for sustainable farming systems development for vegetable family farmers in Uruguay using a modeling toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Groot, J.C.J.; Aguerre, V.; Abbas, A.; Albin, A.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Chilibroste, P.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Economic and environmental sustainability of family-based vegetable production systems in south Uruguay are seriously compromised after two decades of net decreasing prices and strategies based on specialization and intensification. This paper presents a model-based exploration of alternative

  18. Sustaining a Mature Risk Management Process: Ensuring the International Space Station for a Vibrant Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Michael; Carter-Journet, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) risk management methodology is an example of a mature and sustainable process. Risk management is a systematic approach used to proactively identify, analyze, plan, track, control, communicate, and document risks to help management make risk-informed decisions that increase the likelihood of achieving program objectives. The ISS has been operating in space for over 14 years and permanently crewed for over 12 years. It is the longest surviving habitable vehicle in low Earth orbit history. Without a mature and proven risk management plan, it would be increasingly difficult to achieve mission success throughout the life of the ISS Program. A successful risk management process must be able to adapt to a dynamic program. As ISS program-level decision processes have evolved, so too has the ISS risk management process continued to innovate, improve, and adapt. Constant adaptation of risk management tools and an ever-improving process is essential to the continued success of the ISS Program. Above all, sustained support from program management is vital to risk management continued effectiveness. Risk management is valued and stressed as an important process by the ISS Program.

  19. Sustainable Ammonia Synthesis – Exploring the scientific challenges associated with discovering alternative, sustainable processes for ammonia production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nørskov, Jens [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); ; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Miranda, Raul [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Stack, Robert [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2016-02-18

    Ammonia (NH3) is essential to all life on our planet. Until about 100 years ago, NH3 produced by reduction of dinitrogen (N2) in air came almost exclusively from bacteria containing the enzyme nitrogenase.. DOE convened a roundtable of experts on February 18, 2016. Participants in the Roundtable discussions concluded that the scientific basis for sustainable processes for ammonia synthesis is currently lacking, and it needs to be enhanced substantially before it can form the foundation for alternative processes. The Roundtable Panel identified an overarching grand challenge and several additional scientific grand challenges and research opportunities: -Discovery of active, selective, scalable, long-lived catalysts for sustainable ammonia synthesis. -Development of relatively low pressure (<10 atm) and relatively low temperature (<200 C) thermal processes. -Integration of knowledge from nature (enzyme catalysis), molecular/homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. -Development of electrochemical and photochemical routes for N2 reduction based on proton and electron transfer -Development of biochemical routes to N2 reduction -Development of chemical looping (solar thermochemical) approaches -Identification of descriptors of catalytic activity using a combination of theory and experiments -Characterization of surface adsorbates and catalyst structures (chemical, physical and electronic) under conditions relevant to ammonia synthesis.

  20. Development and Execution of Autonomous Procedures Onboard the International Space Station to Support the Next Phase of Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisert, Susan; Rodriggs, Michael; Moreno, Francisco; Korth, David; Gibson, Stephen; Lee, Young H.; Eagles, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Now that major assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) is complete, NASA's focus has turned to using this high fidelity in-space research testbed to not only advance fundamental science research, but also demonstrate and mature technologies and develop operational concepts that will enable future human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The ISS as a Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) project was established to reduce risks for manned missions to exploration destinations by utilizing ISS as a high fidelity micro-g laboratory to demonstrate technologies, operations concepts, and techniques associated with crew autonomous operations. One of these focus areas is the development and execution of ISS Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) autonomous flight crew procedures intended to increase crew autonomy that will be required for long duration human exploration missions. Due to increasing communications delays and reduced logistics resupply, autonomous procedures are expected to help reduce crew reliance on the ground flight control team, increase crew performance, and enable the crew to become more subject-matter experts on both the exploration space vehicle systems and the scientific investigation operations that will be conducted on a long duration human space exploration mission. These tests make use of previous or ongoing projects tested in ground analogs such as Research and Technology Studies (RATS) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO). Since the latter half of 2012, selected non-critical ISS systems crew procedures have been used to develop techniques for building ISTAR autonomous procedures, and ISS flight crews have successfully executed them without flight controller involvement. Although the main focus has been preparing for exploration, the ISS has been a beneficiary of this synergistic effort and is considering modifying additional standard ISS procedures that may increase crew efficiency, reduce operational costs, and

  1. Architectural Design Space Exploration of an FPGA-based Compressed Sampling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sayed, Mohammad; Koch, Peter; Le Moullec, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    We present the architectural design space exploration of a compressed sampling engine for use in a wireless heart-rate monitoring system. We show how parallelism affects execution time at the register transfer level. Furthermore, two example solutions (modified semi-parallel and full......-parallel) selected from the design space are prototyped on an Altera Cyclone III FPGA platform; in both cases the FPGA resource usage is less than 1% and the maximum frequency is 250 MHz....

  2. Air and Water System (AWS) Design and Technology Selection for the Vision for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry; Kliss, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers technology selection for the crew air and water recycling systems to be used in long duration human space exploration. The specific objectives are to identify the most probable air and water technologies for the vision for space exploration and to identify the alternate technologies that might be developed. The approach is to conduct a preliminary first cut systems engineering analysis, beginning with the Air and Water System (AWS) requirements and the system mass balance, and then define the functional architecture, review the International Space Station (ISS) technologies, and discuss alternate technologies. The life support requirements for air and water are well known. The results of the mass flow and mass balance analysis help define the system architectural concept. The AWS includes five subsystems: Oxygen Supply, Condensate Purification, Urine Purification, Hygiene Water Purification, and Clothes Wash Purification. AWS technologies have been evaluated in the life support design for ISS node 3, and in earlier space station design studies, in proposals for the upgrade or evolution of the space station, and in studies of potential lunar or Mars missions. The leading candidate technologies for the vision for space exploration are those planned for Node 3 of the ISS. The ISS life support was designed to utilize Space Station Freedom (SSF) hardware to the maximum extent possible. The SSF final technology selection process, criteria, and results are discussed. Would it be cost-effective for the vision for space exploration to develop alternate technology? This paper will examine this and other questions associated with AWS design and technology selection.

  3. Building on 50 Years of Mission Operations Experience for a New Era of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Jay F.; Singer, Christopher E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. National Space Policy, I the 14-nation Global Exploration Strategy,2 and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) 2006 Strategic Plan3 provide foundational direction for far-ranging missions, from safely flying the Space Shuttle and completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010, to fielding a next generation space transportation system consisting of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle!Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle!Altair Lunar Lander (fig. 1). Transportation beyond low-Earth orbit will open the frontier for a lunar outpost, where astronauts will harness in-situ resources while exploring this 4 billion-year-old archaeological site, which may hold answers to how the Earth and its satellite were formed. Ultimately, this experience will pave the way for the first human footprint on Mars. In October 2007, NASA" announced assignments for this lunar exploration work.4 The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for designing, developing, testing, and evaluating the Ares I and Ares V, which are Space Shuttle derived launch vehicles, along with a number of lunar tasks. The Marshall Center's Engineering Directorate provides the skilled workforce and unique manufacturing, testing, and operational infrastructure needed to deliver space transportation solutions that meet the requirements stated in the Constellation Architecture Requirements Document (CARD). While defining design reference missions to the Station and the Moon, the CARD includes goals that include reducing recurring and nonrecurring costs, while increasing safety and reliability. For this reason, future systems are being designed with operability considerations and lifecycle expenses as independent variables in engineering trade studies.

  4. The Future of Asset Management for Human Space Exploration: Supply Classification and an Integrated Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Gralla, Erica L.; deWeck, Olivier L.; Shishko, Robert

    2006-01-01

    One of the major logistical challenges in human space exploration is asset management. This paper presents observations on the practice of asset management in support of human space flight to date and discusses a functional-based supply classification and a framework for an integrated database that could be used to improve asset management and logistics for human missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond.

  5. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Stage (NTPS): A Key Space Asset for Human Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Burke, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) has frequently been discussed as a key space asset that can bridge the gap between a sustained human presence on the Moon and the eventual human exploration of Mars. Recently, a human mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) has also been included as a "deep space precursor" to an orbital mission of Mars before a landing is attempted. In his "post-Apollo" Integrated Space Program Plan (1970 to 1990), Wernher von Braun, proposed a reusable Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Stage (NTPS) to deliver cargo and crew to the Moon to establish a lunar base initially before sending human missions to Mars. The NTR was selected because it was a proven technology capable of generating both high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp approx. 900 s)-twice that of today's best chemical rockets. During the Rover and NERVA programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and successfully ground tested. These tests demonstrated the (1) thrust levels; (2) high fuel temperatures; (3) sustained operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability needed for an affordable in-space transportation system. In NASA's Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the "Copernicus" crewed NTR Mars transfer vehicle used three 25 klbf "Pewee" engines-the smallest and highest performing engine tested in the Rover program. Smaller lunar transfer vehicles-consisting of a NTPS with three approx. 16.7 klbf "SNRE-class" engines, an in-line propellant tank, plus the payload-can be delivered to LEO using a 70 t to LEO upgraded SLS, and can support reusable cargo delivery and crewed lunar landing missions. The NTPS can play an important role in returning humans to the Moon to stay by providing an affordable in-space transportation system that can allow initial lunar outposts to evolve into settlements capable of supporting commercial activities. Over the next decade collaborative efforts between NASA and private industry could open up new exploration and commercial

  6. Explaining public support for space exploration funding in America: A multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, François

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies have identified the need to understand what shapes public attitudes toward space policy. I address this gap in the literature by developing a multivariate regression model explaining why many Americans support government spending on space exploration. Using pooled data from the 2006 and 2008 General Social Surveys, the study reveals that spending preferences on space exploration are largely apolitical and associated instead with knowledge and opinions about science. In particular, the odds of wanting to increase funding for space exploration are significantly higher for white, male Babyboomers with a higher socio-economic status, a fondness for organized science, and a post-secondary science education. As such, I argue that public support for NASA's spending epitomizes what Launius termed "Apollo Nostalgia" in American culture. That is, Americans benefitting most from the old social order of the 1960s developed a greater fondness for science that makes them more likely to lament the glory days of space exploration. The article concludes with suggestions for how to elaborate on these findings in future studies.

  7. Performance/price estimates for cortex-scale hardware: a design space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Mazad S; Hammerstrom, Dan

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we revisit the concept of virtualization. Virtualization is useful for understanding and investigating the performance/price and other trade-offs related to the hardware design space. Moreover, it is perhaps the most important aspect of a hardware design space exploration. Such a design space exploration is a necessary part of the study of hardware architectures for large-scale computational models for intelligent computing, including AI, Bayesian, bio-inspired and neural models. A methodical exploration is needed to identify potentially interesting regions in the design space, and to assess the relative performance/price points of these implementations. As an example, in this paper we investigate the performance/price of (digital and mixed-signal) CMOS and hypothetical CMOL (nanogrid) technology based hardware implementations of human cortex-scale spiking neural systems. Through this analysis, and the resulting performance/price points, we demonstrate, in general, the importance of virtualization, and of doing these kinds of design space explorations. The specific results suggest that hybrid nanotechnology such as CMOL is a promising candidate to implement very large-scale spiking neural systems, providing a more efficient utilization of the density and storage benefits of emerging nano-scale technologies. In general, we believe that the study of such hypothetical designs/architectures will guide the neuromorphic hardware community towards building large-scale systems, and help guide research trends in intelligent computing, and computer engineering. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Crew systems: integrating human and technical subsystems for the exploration of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, M. M.; Harrison, A. A.; Summit, J.

    1994-01-01

    Space exploration missions will require combining human and technical subsystems into overall "crew systems" capable of performing under the rigorous conditions of outer space. This report describes substantive and conceptual relationships among humans, intelligent machines, and communication systems, and explores how these components may be combined to complement and strengthen one another. We identify key research issues in the combination of humans and technology and examine the role of individual differences, group processes, and environmental conditions. We conclude that a crew system is, in effect, a social cyborg, a living system consisting of multiple individuals whose capabilities are extended by advanced technology.

  9. Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on immunology research priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jean-Pol, Frippiat; Crucian, Brian E; de Quervain, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system occurs during spaceflight and may represent a crew health risk during exploration missions because astronauts are challenged by many stressors. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the biology of immune modulation under spaceflight conditions in order to be able...... to maintain immune homeostasis under such challenges. In the framework of the THESEUS project whose aim was to develop an integrated life sciences research roadmap regarding human space exploration, experts working in the field of space immunology, and related disciplines, established a questionnaire sent...

  10. Planetary exploration with nanosatellites: a space campus for future technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossart, P.; Mosser, B.; Segret, B.

    2017-09-01

    Planetary exploration is at the eve of a revolution through nanosatellites accompanying larger missions, or freely cruising in the solar system, providing a man-made cosmic web for in situ or remote sensing exploration of the Solar System. A first step is to build a specific place dedicated to nanosatellite development. The context of the CCERES PSL space campus presents an environment for nanosatellite testing and integration, a concurrent engineering facility room for project analysis and science environment dedicated to this task.

  11. Rabbit: A novel approach to find data-races during state-space exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, João Paulo dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Data-races are an important kind of error in concurrent shared-memory programs. Software model checking is a popular approach to find them. This research proposes a novel approach to find races that complements model-checking by efficiently reporting precise warnings during state-space exploration (SSE): Rabbit. It uses information obtained across different paths explored during SSE to predict likely racy memory accesses. We evaluated Rabbit on 33 different scenarios of race, i...

  12. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses to Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Implications for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2018-01-01

    New initiatives to send humans to Mars within the next few decades are illustrative of the resurgence of interest in space travel. However, as with all exploration, there are risks. The Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts.

  13. Space life and biomedical sciences in support of the global exploration roadmap and societal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evetts, S. N.

    2014-08-01

    The human exploration of space is pushing the boundaries of what is technically feasible. The space industry is preparing for the New Space era, the momentum for which will emanate from the commercial human spaceflight sector, and will be buttressed by international solar system exploration endeavours. With many distinctive technical challenges to be overcome, human spaceflight requires that numerous biological and physical systems be examined under exceptional circumstances for progress to be made. To effectively tackle such an undertaking significant intra- and international coordination and collaboration is required. Space life and biomedical science research and development (R & D) will support the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) by enabling humans to 'endure' the extreme activity that is long duration human spaceflight. In so doing the field will discover solutions to some of our most difficult human health issues, and as a consequence benefit society as a whole. This space-specific R&D will drive a significant amount of terrestrial biomedical research and as a result the international community will not only gain benefits in the form of improved healthcare in space and on Earth, but also through the growth of its science base and industry.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNDERGROUND SPACE OF CITIES IN TERMS OF THEIR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyaev Valeriy L’vovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the negative trends in the cities development, especially their territorial "sprawling" contributes to the onset of the global environmental crisis. This call requires setting the city planners mind on noosphere thinking and establishing an adequate system of spatial development of the cities. The formation of compact city models "new urbanism", "smart development" can be considered a progressive response and a world trend. It fully meets the course of integrated urban development of the underground space.In order to overcome the significant gap on this issue between Russia and many foreign countries the urban policy needs to be updated (disclosure of the fundamental principle of sustainable development, methodologies and tools of developing underground urbanity should be developed. The authors propose such a change of the underground space as an integrated spatial and geoenergy resource with the commitment to the strategic evaluation of its development during the entire life cycle of underground construction projects.The co-authors take into account the environmental effects of the proposed development under the direction of modern paradigms of the biosphere compatible, viable and growing cities, as well as the capacity to organize their own groups. As a base model, we take a city as a complex system of natural and man-caused, containing a fiber space where underground space and underground structures is one of the layers. The instrument for this approach implementation may be a biotechnospherical humanitarian balance of the city, including the parameters of underground layers. In addition, the calculations of the information flow (Entropy between the layers is of great importance. The sustainable development of the city is dominated by a stream of negative entropy.On this basis, for the conditions of Moscow the device tools "physical planning" should be used in respect of the characteristics of underground space

  15. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Capability Roadmap Development for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Metcalf, Jordan; Peterson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    NASA is considering a number of future human space exploration mission concepts. Although detailed requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, near-term technology investment decisions need to be guided by the anticipated capabilities needed to enable or enhance the mission concepts. This paper describes a roadmap that NASA has formulated to guide the development of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enhance the long-term operation of the International Space Station (ISS) and enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) human exploration missions. Three generic mission types were defined to serve as a basis for developing a prioritized list of needed capabilities and technologies. Those are 1) a short duration micro gravity mission; 2) a long duration transit microgravity mission; and 3) a long duration surface exploration mission. To organize the effort, ECLSS was categorized into three major functional groups (atmosphere, water, and solid waste management) with each broken down into sub-functions. The ability of existing, flight-proven state-of-the-art (SOA) technologies to meet the functional needs of each of the three mission types was then assessed. When SOA capabilities fell short of meeting the needs, those "gaps" were prioritized in terms of whether or not the corresponding capabilities enable or enhance each of the mission types. The resulting list of enabling and enhancing capability gaps can be used to guide future ECLSS development. A strategy to fulfill those needs over time was then developed in the form of a roadmap. Through execution of this roadmap, the hardware and technologies needed to enable and enhance exploration may be developed in a manner that synergistically benefits the ISS operational capability, supports Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) development, and sustains long-term technology investments for longer duration missions. This paper summarizes NASA s ECLSS capability roadmap

  16. Using Causal Loop Diagramming to Explore the Drivers of the Sustained Functionality of Rural Water Services in Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Neely

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is recognized that international water sector development work has issues with a lack of sustained positive outcomes. A large driver of this outcome is how NGOs work with communities to implement and then manage water services. Many NGOs tend to focus their efforts on improving their reach and organisational growth by continually engaging in new projects. This behaviour is largely driven by short-term donor funding models that reward extended coverage, leaving little focus on sustained outcomes. Similarly, community-based management (CBM schemes often impede sustained services as a result of the community’s limited capacity to operate and maintain the technology. To explore these complicated drivers on water service sustainability, we used causal loop diagramming to analyse the key aspect influencing the combined dynamics between NGOs, donors and CBM. We demonstrate this methodology through a study in Timor-Leste, where we gathered data necessary to develop and apply causal loop diagrams to analyse rural water supply program outcomes. The analysis of these diagrams allowed identification of leverage points used to suggest structural changes for sustained benefits of water services. These structural changes emphasize the importance of increased robustness and reliability of water technology and the associated impact this has on community satisfaction and, conjointly, on water service sustainability.

  17. How Collaborative Business Modeling Can Be Used to Jointly Explore Sustainability Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnertz, Lars; Rohrbeck, René; Knab, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability innovations are characterized by a systemic nature, which can only be developed if multiple firms work together. To jointly identify opportunities and plan such sustainability innovations, new methods and approaches are needed. In this article we describe a case study conducted...

  18. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? An Exploration of Factors That Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher education attainment. Although the cost inputs to…

  19. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? : An Exploration of Factors that Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, A.

    2016-01-01

    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher

  20. Exploring the Role and Value of Creativity in Education for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Orana Jade

    2013-01-01

    Creativity, innovation and divergent thinking are routinely expected to help people envision and implement alternative practices to the status quo. However, these do not feature strongly in the literature on education for sustainability in higher education (HE), and especially graduate competencies or capabilities for sustainability. The paper…

  1. Exploration of the Meaning of Sustainability in Textiles and Apparel Discipline and Prospects for Curriculum Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Anupama

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability is gaining importance because of heightened ecological challenges. The UN declared 2005-2014 as the decade of sustainable development encouraging educational institutions at all levels to nurture ecologically literate individuals. An ecologically literate person has the knowledge necessary to comprehend interrelatedness among…

  2. Assessing sustainability in university curricula: exploring the influence of student numbers and course credits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.; Young, W.

    2013-01-01

    As more universities become interested in, and engaged with, sustainability, there has been a growing need to assess how their curricula addresses sustainable development and its myriad issues. Different tools and assessment exercises have looked at course descriptors; however, the influence of the

  3. Research on the Sustainable Development of Green-Space in Beijing Using the Dynamic Systems Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzheng Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Greater contradiction and conflict among urban green space, the development of social economy and the environment have occurred in Beijing. However, few studies have been conducted that consider the three subsystems as a whole. In this study, we defined sustainable development of green space (SDGS as the coordinated development of the urban green system, social economy, and environment. Based on the datasets from 2000 to 2015, we forecast the SDGS in Beijing under multiple scenarios based on real-world policies using a system dynamics model. We found that the historical SDGS value increased to its highest level in 2012, but declined slightly by 2015. Second, the forecasted SDGS values declined over time in all scenarios, but the decline was greater in scenarios placing a high priority on economic development. In these scenarios, the performance of the indices only improved in certain subsystems. The simulation shows the implementation of the four policies proposed by the government failed to improve the overall level of SDGS in Beijing. This study could provide support for decision-making designed to improve the overall condition of urban green space in Beijing through integrated forecast and scenario simulation.

  4. Exploring space with a microsat: where no microsat has gone before

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jay L.; Liefer, Randall

    1993-09-01

    In January of 1992 representatives of the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) met with the Center for AeroSpace Technology (CAST) at Weber State University to suggest a joint space exploration program. During the following months, several meetings were convened and plans solidified pursuant to begin project JAWSAT (Joint Academy Weber SATellite). The fundamental mission of project JAWSAT is to further the effective use of small, low cost satellites for aerospace education and to conduct valid scientific research in the use of non space rated instrumentation for low cost satellite design.

  5. Exploring an S-matrix for gravitational collapse II a momentum space analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    We complement our earlier position-space exploration of a recently proposed S-matrix for transplanckian scattering by a momentum-space analysis. As in the previous paper, we restrict ourselves to the case of axisymmetric collisions of extended sources. Comparison between the two formulations allows for several cross-checks while showing their complementary advantages. In particular, the momentum-space formulation leads to an easier computation of the emitted-graviton spectra and to an attempt to study the system beyond its critical points into the presumed gravitational-collapse regime.

  6. Exploring the Incorporation of Values for Sustainable Entrepreneurship Teaching/Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Parra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the “United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development”, during the period 2005 to 2014 is to integrate the principles, values and practices of sustainability in all aspects of education. The aim is to stimulate behavior changes, which will allow the creation of an economic, social and environmentally sustainable future. Sustainable entrepreneurial behavior is relevant for carrying out these changes. This paper tries to find the way to promote a sustainable entrepreneurial vision through the incorporation of new values for teaching/learning of potential entrepreneurs from the moment when the idea is born for creating a for-profit, non-profit or hybrid organization. Generating a change of perspective from the beginning of the entrepreneurship process is sought for fostering the birth of organizations that respect the environment and are responsible when confronting social problems, besides being profitable. All this involves a great challenge to all agents implicated in the process.

  7. Exploring drivers and barriers to sustainability green business practices within small medium sized enterprises: primary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Aghelie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently the conducted studies on how SMEs should integrate sustainability align with their core business principle is limited. Most of the discussion on this field is emphasized to address issues for larger organizations and very limited effort on small firms. The drivers and barriers of approaching sustainability practices in SMEs are different from those in large organizations since SMEs lack technical specialist, experience and money required to make such strategy. Since SMEs play a significant role in nation’s economic growth, it is essential to study and find their drivers and barriers toward sustainability business practices constitutes main motivation of this paper. This is a primary finding that aims to understand the SME motivation and barriers that are facing in implementing green sustainable business practices to offer insight look to small firms to find key factors that influence adoption of sustainability business approach within their management practices.

  8. Exercise during long term exposure to space: Value of exercise during space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    There appear to be two general physiological reasons why exercise will be beneficial to space travelers who will experience a weightless and isolated environment for many months or a few years: (1) to alleviate or prevent tissue atrophy (principally bone and muscle), to maintain cardiovascular function, and to prevent deleterious changes in extracellular and cellular fluid volumes and plasma constituents, especially electrolytes; and (2) to maintain whole organism functional physical and physiological status with special reference to neuromuscular coordination (physical skill) and physical fitness (muscle strength and power, flexibility, and aerobic endurance). The latter reason also relates well to the ability of the crew members to resist both general and local fatigue and thus ensure consistent physical performance. Various forms of exercise, performed regularly, could help alleviate boredom and assist the travelers in coping with stress, anxiety, and depression. The type, frequency, duration and intensity of exercise and ways of ensuring that crew members engage in it are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of Composite Structures Technologies for Application to NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (CoSTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Ravi; Wang, Donny; Bohlen, Jim; Fukuda, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    A trade study was conducted to determine the suitability of composite structures for weight and life cycle cost savings in primary and secondary structural systems for crew exploration vehicles, crew and cargo launch vehicles, landers, rovers, and habitats. The results of the trade study were used to identify and rank order composite material technologies that can have a near-term impact on a broad range of exploration mission applications. This report recommends technologies that should be developed to enable usage of composites on Vision for Space Exploration vehicles towards mass and life-cycle cost savings.

  10. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the US Civilian Space Program. Volume 3; Using Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor); Onkst, David H. (Editor); Garber, Stephen J. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important developments of the twentieth century has been the movement of humanity into space with machines and people. The underpinnings of that movement -why it took the shape it did; which individuals and organizations were involved; what factors drove a particular choice of scientific objectives and technologies to be used; and the political, economic, managerial, and international contexts in which the events of the space age unfolded- are all important ingredients of this epoch transition from an earthbound to spacefaring people. This desire to understand the development of spaceflight in the United States sparked this documentary history series. 'Exploring the Unknown' is a multi-volume series containing a selection of key documents in history of the U.S. civil space program. This current volume, Volume III, focusing on the use of space for practical applications, prints 112 key documents on the history of satellite communications, remote sensing of earth, and space as an investment in economic growth, edited for ease of use. Each is introduced by a headnote providing context, bibliographical information, and background information necessary to understanding the document.

  11. Roles of Solar Power from Space for Europe - Space Exploration and Combinations with Terrestrial Solar Plant Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerer, L.; Pipoli, T.; Galvez, A.; Ongaro, F.; Vasile, M.

    The paper presents the prospective roles of SPS concepts for Europe, shows the outcome of recent studies undertaken by ESA's Advanced Concepts Team (ACT) together with European industry and research centres and gives insight into planned activities. The main focus is on the assessment of the principal validity and economic viability of solar power from space concepts in the light of advances in alternative sustainable, clean and potentially abundant solar-based terrestrial concepts. The paper takes into account expected changes in the European energy system (e.g. gradual introduction of hydrogen as energy vector). Special emphasis is given to the possibilities of integrating space and terrestrial solar plants. The relative geographic proximity of areas in North Africa with high average solar irradiation to the European energy consumer market puts Europe in a special position regarding the integration of space and terrestrial solar power concepts. The paper presents a method to optimise such an integration, taking into account different possible orbital constellations, terrestrial locations, plant number and sizes as well as consumer profiles and extends the scope from the European-only to a multi continental approach including the fast growing Chinese electricity market. The work intends to contribute to the discussion on long-term options for the European commitment to worldwide CO2 emission reduction. Cleaner electricity generation and environmentally neutral transport fuels (e.g. solar generated hydrogen) might be two major tools in reaching this goal.

  12. Sustainable Sites Initiative: US updated rating criteria for open spaces design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Valente

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the U.S. Sustainable Sites Initiative, by illustrating and commenting the recent updates of the rating criteria in addition to a number of certified projects, including some sites visited by the author in California. The system is compared with existing tools, as LEED 2009 for Neighborhood Development Rating System, albeit some differences also in scale of interventions. In the work, scientific literature and personal considerations are given about those aspects still not evaluated by the system and its potential wider applicability with regard to directions of research on the topic. The theme fits well in the mainstream of studies dedicated to the design of resilient open spaces, contributing to adaptation and mitigation of climate change.

  13. Design space exploration of a particle filter using higher-0rder functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, Rinse; Kuper, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a design space exploration methodology based on higher-order functions to facilitate the tradeoff between execution time and area usage on FPGAs. Higher-order function are transformed, resulting in parameterized nodes where the amount of parallelism and thereby performance, can

  14. An interactive visualization tool for the analysis of multi-objective embedded systems design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghavi, T.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    The design of today’s embedded systems involves a complex Design Space Exploration (DSE) process. Typically, multiple and conflicting criteria (objectives) should be optimized simultaneously such as performance, power, cost, etc. Usually, Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) are used to

  15. Pruning techniques for multi-objective system-level design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.

    2014-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  16. Workshop on Research for Space Exploration: Physical Sciences and Process Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division of NASA to define contributions the microgravity research community can provide to advance the human exploration of space. Invited speakers and attendees participated in an exchange of ideas to identify issues of interest in physical sciences and process technologies. This workshop was part of a continuing effort to broaden the contribution of the microgravity research community toward achieving the goals of the space agency in human exploration, as identified in the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) strategic plan. The Microgravity program is one of NASA'a major links to academic and industrial basic research in the physical and engineering sciences. At present, it supports close to 400 principal investigators, who represent many of the nation's leading researchers in the physical and engineering sciences and biotechnology. The intent of the workshop provided a dialogue between NASA and this large, influential research community, mission planners and industry technical experts with the goal of defining enabling research for the Human Exploration and Development of Space activities to which the microgravity research community can contribute.

  17. Advanced Space Robotics and Solar Electric Propulsion: Enabling Technologies for Future Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M.; Tadros, A.

    2017-02-01

    Obtaining answers to questions posed by planetary scientists over the next several decades will require the ability to travel further while exploring and gathering data in more remote locations of our solar system. Timely investments need to be made in developing and demonstrating solar electric propulsion and advanced space robotics technologies.

  18. NASA: A generic infrastructure for system-level MP-SoC design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Z.J.; Pimentel, A.D.; Thompson, M.; Bautista, T.; Núñez, A.

    2010-01-01

    System-level simulation and design space exploration (DSE) are key ingredients for the design of multiprocessor system-on-chip (MP-SoC) based embedded systems. The efforts in this area, however, typically use ad-hoc software infrastructures to facilitate and support the system-level DSE experiments.

  19. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  20. A METHODOLOGY FOR DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION OF REAL-TIME LOCATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Passerone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scope of Research. This paper deals with the problem of design space exploration for a particular class of networked embedded systems called Real-Time Location Systems (RTLS. Methods. The paper contains a clear and detailed plan of anongoing research and could be considered as a review, a vision and a statement of objectives. Analytical and formal methods, simulation and automated verification will be involved in the research. Main Results. Analysis of the state of the art (current design flow, existing simulation tools and verification techniques has revealed several limitations for performing efficientdesign space exploration of RTLS, especially for safety-critical applications. The review part of the paper also contains a clear problem statement. The main outcome of this research is the proposed vision of a novel methodology for determining the best-suited technology and its configuration from the space of potential solutions. In particular, it is planned to extend an existing simulation framework and apply automated verification techniques. The latter will be used for checking simulation results and also for exploring different system configuration alternatives, that is, to optimize the design, which is a novel approach. A case study for validating the methodology is also proposed. Practical Significance. The proposed methodology will highly increase the breadth of design space exploration of RTLS as well as the confidence on taken design decisions. It will also contribute to optimizing the design.

  1. Beneath Our Eyes: An Exploration of the Relationship between Technology Enhanced Learning and Socio-Ecological Sustainability in Art and Design Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclater, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    This article uses published research to explore how Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) can help to sustain learning communities to engage in creative exploration and open investigation. It then draws on this research to ask: how could we use TEL to support pedagogies of socio-ecological sustainability in the Art and Design education community?…

  2. Effects of isolation and confinement on humans-implications for manned space explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, J I; Choukèr, A

    2016-06-15

    Human psychology and physiology are significantly altered by isolation and confinement. In light of planned exploration class interplanetary missions, the related adverse effects on the human body need to be explored and defined as they have a large impact on a mission's success. Terrestrial space analogs offer an excellent controlled environment to study some of these stressors during a space mission in isolation without the complex environment of the International Space Station. Participants subjected to these space analog conditions can encounter typical symptoms ranging from neurocognitive changes, fatigue, misaligned circadian rhythm, sleep disorders, altered stress hormone levels, and immune modulatory changes. This review focuses on both the psychological and the physiological responses observed in participants of long-duration spaceflight analog studies, such as Mars500 or Antarctic winter-over. They provide important insight into similarities and differences encountered in each simulated setting. The identification of adverse effects from confinement allows not only the crew to better prepare for but also to design feasible countermeasures that will help support space travelers during exploration class missions in the future. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Space physiology IV: mathematical modeling of the cardiovascular system in space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Sharp, M; Batzel, Jerry Joseph; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Mathematical modeling represents an important tool for analyzing cardiovascular function during spaceflight. This review describes how modeling of the cardiovascular system can contribute to space life science research and illustrates this process via modeling efforts to study postflight orthostatic intolerance (POI), a key issue for spaceflight. Examining this application also provides a context for considering broader applications of modeling techniques to the challenges of bioastronautics. POI, which affects a large fraction of astronauts in stand tests upon return to Earth, presents as dizziness, fainting and other symptoms, which can diminish crew performance and cause safety hazards. POI on the Moon or Mars could be more critical. In the field of bioastronautics, POI has been the dominant application of cardiovascular modeling for more than a decade, and a number of mechanisms for POI have been investigated. Modeling approaches include computational models with a range of incorporated factors and hemodynamic sophistication, and also physical models tested in parabolic and orbital flight. Mathematical methods such as parameter sensitivity analysis can help identify key system mechanisms. In the case of POI, this could lead to more effective countermeasures. Validation is a persistent issue in modeling efforts, and key considerations and needs for experimental data to synergistically improve understanding of cardiovascular responses are outlined. Future directions in cardiovascular modeling include subject-specific assessment of system status, as well as research on integrated physiological responses, leading, for instance, to assessment of subject-specific susceptibility to POI or effects of cardiovascular alterations on muscular, vision and cognitive function.

  4. Exploring sustainable behavior structure in higher education a socio-psychology confirmatory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Juárez-Nájera, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a social-psychology model delineating the factors that may influence in an altruistic manner sustainable behaviour (SB) of students, faculty and administrators in four higher education institutions (HEI) with very different economic and social characteristics. It presents the areas where these individuals work (education and community management), and in which of them education for sustainability is promoted, focusing on four alternative methods of learning: play, art, group therapy, and personnel management. The book is intended for bachelors and graduated students, as well as researchers in social psychology, environmental psychology, conservation psychology, environmental education, education for sustainable development, cross-cultural psychology, and social sciences.

  5. High-temperature nuclear closed Brayton cycle power conversion system for the space exploration initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, D.J. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Company, Garrett Fluid Systems Division, 1300 West Warner Road, Tempe, Arizona 85284-2896 (US))

    1991-01-05

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) has stated goals of colonizing the moon and conducting manned exploration of the planet Mars. Unlike previous ventures into space, both manned and unmanned, large quantities of electrical power will be required to provide the energy for lunar base sustenance and for highly efficient propulsion systems for the long trip to mars and return. Further, the requirement for electrical power of several megawatts will necessitate the use of nuclear reactor driven power conversion systems. This paper discusses a particle bed reactor closed Brayton cycle space power system that uses advanced materials technology to achieve a high-temperature, low-specific-weight modular system capable of providing the requisite electrical power for both a lunar base and a Mars flight vehicle propulsion system.

  6. Measuring sustainable accessibility potential using the mobility infrastructure's network configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, J.; Read, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an exploration into the analysis of public transport networks using space syntax approaches combined with concepts of sustainable accessibility. Present urban development policy aims to achieve sustainable mobility patterns, shifting mobility to soft transportation modes such as

  7. Exploring canopy structure and function as a potential mechanism of sustain carbon sequestration in aging forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotis, A. T.; Curtis, P.; Ricart, R.

    2013-12-01

    The notion that old-growth forests reach carbon neutrality has recently been challenged, but the mechanisms responsible for continued productivity have remained elusive. Increases in canopy structural complexity, defined by high horizontal and vertical variability in leaf distribution (rugosity), has been proposed as a mechanism for sustained high rates of above ground net primary production (ANPPw) in forests up to ~170 years by enhancing light use efficiency (LUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, a detailed understanding of how rugosity affects resource distribution within and among trees leading to greater LUE and NUE is not known. We propose that leaves in high rugosity plots receive greater photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) than leaves in low rugosity plots, causing shifts from shade- to sun- adapted leaves into deeper portions of the canopy, which is thought to increase the photosynthetic capacity of individuals and lead to higher carbon assimilation in forests. The goal of this research was to: 1) quantify different canopy structural characteristics using a portable canopy LiDAR (PCL) and; 2) assess how these structural characteristics affect resource distribution and subsequent changes in leaf morphological, physiological and biochemical traits in three broadleaf species (e.g., Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra and Fagus grandifolia) and one conifer species (e.g., Pinus strobus) at different levels in the canopy in plots with similar leaf are index (LAI) but highly contrasting rugosity levels. We found that gap fraction had a strong positive correlation with rugosity. High rugosity plots had a bimodal distribution of LAI that was concentrated at the top and bottom of the canopy with an open midstory (between 10-50% of total canopy height) whereas low rugosity plots had a more even distribution of leaves. Leaf mass per area (LMA) of all broadleaved species had a strong positive correlation with cumulative gap fraction (P. strobus had a relatively

  8. Environmental Controls and Life Support System Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, Imelda C.; Rodriguez, Branelle; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

  9. Scalable and near-optimal design space exploration for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kritikakou, Angeliki; Goutis, Costas

    2014-01-01

    This book describes scalable and near-optimal, processor-level design space exploration (DSE) methodologies.  The authors present design methodologies for data storage and processing in real-time, cost-sensitive data-dominated embedded systems.  Readers will be enabled to reduce time-to-market, while satisfying system requirements for performance, area, and energy consumption, thereby minimizing the overall cost of the final design.   • Describes design space exploration (DSE) methodologies for data storage and processing in embedded systems, which achieve near-optimal solutions with scalable exploration time; • Presents a set of principles and the processes which support the development of the proposed scalable and near-optimal methodologies; • Enables readers to apply scalable and near-optimal methodologies to the intra-signal in-place optimization step for both regular and irregular memory accesses.

  10. To Boldly Go: America's Next Era in Space. Machine Consciousness and the Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Dr. France Cordova, NASA's Chief Scientist, chaired this meeting, another part of the NASA Administrator's Seminar Series. She introduced Administrator Daniel S. Goldin, who welcomed the attendees, and noted that the two speakers have a running feud regarding the possibility of creating robots that can 'think'. Dr. Cordova then introduced the first speaker, Dr. Roger Penrose of the Mathematical Institute at Oxford in the U.K. His primary interests are in mathematics, physics, information systems technology, and artificial intelligence. He thinks that robots cannot be made to 'think' and that consciousness is not computable. Dr. Hans Moravec, who spoke next, has opinions and activities that are related to, but substantially different from those of Dr. Penrose. Dr. Moravec believes that he can build a robot that can act based on the deductions that it will make. To mimic human thinking capabilities, he figures that a robot ultimately will need to be able to handle ten trillion computations per second. He predicts that his goal of building a 'thinking' robot will be met in the 2030-2040 time period. He pointed out that he already has built a car that successfully drove itself from Washington, DC to San Diego, CA. He commented that a human being, was ready to take over driving the car, if necessary, but there was no need. The robots envisioned by Dr. Moravec would not only be able to 'think', but also would have human-like emotions, and ultimately would be able to reproduce. The discussion that followed raised questions about the morality of sending human-like robots into outer space. Also a concern was expressed that human-like robots might perceive humans as a threat and become dangerous to people.

  11. Exploring the use of tools for urban sustainability in European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the main findings from case studies analysed within the Practical Evaluation Tools for Urban Sustainability (PETUS) project, about the practical use of tools for sustainable urban development in European cities. The paper looks across 60 case studies and identifies the main...... drivers for using tools, the benefits gained by using them and discusses why, in genera, there is limited use of available tools. The main question raised by the PETUS project was, ' why are so few tools for urban sustainability being used, when so many are available?' Recent years have shown a growing...... number of theoretical tools to assess and evaluate urban sustainability. However, experience also shows that only a few of such tools are being used in practice. The paper outlines the motivations for actors to use tools, the benefits achieved and the barriers for using tools. From this, different...

  12. Limited By Cost: The Case Against Humans In The Scientific Exploration Of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Andrew J.

    2001-11-01

    Human space flight represents a heady mix of bravery and drama which can be inspirational to nations and to humankind but at huge economic cost. Due to the current high launch costs only a handful of people have ventured beyond low Earth orbit and walked on the Moon, propelled by aspirations related more to the Cold War than to science. Problems with reusable launch vehicle development mean that severe launch cost limitations will exist for some time. Meanwhile, cheaper robotic probes have visited all the planets except Pluto, flown by comets, landed on Mars, Venus and an asteroid, have probed Jupiter's atmosphere and studied the Universe beyond our own solar system with telescopes. Using these data we are determining mankind's place in the Universe. Public interest in the historic Eros landing eclipsed a simultaneous space walk at the fledgling International Space Station and the Mars Pathfinder landing generated hundreds of millions of website hits in a few days. Given the fact that hundreds of Mars missions could be flown for the still-escalating cost of the International Space Station, the unsuitability of human bodies for deep space exploration, and the advances in 3-d and virtual reality techniques, we discuss whether human exploration needs a place in a realistic, useful and inspirational space programme.

  13. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy as a Counter-Measure for Human Exploration of Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, S.; Roach, A.-N.; Ramsahai, S.; Kim, B. C.; Fitzgerald, W.; Riley, D. A.; Gonda, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    Human exploration of deep space depends, in part, on our ability to counter severe/invasive disorders that astronauts experience in space environments. The known symptoms include hematological/cardiac abnormalities,bone and muscle losses, immunodeficiency, neurological disorders, and cancer. Exploiting the extraordinary plasticity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which differentiate not only to all types of blood cells, but also to various tissues, we have advanced a hypothesis that ome of the space-caused disorders maybe amenable to hematopoietis stem cell therapy(HSCT) so as to maintain promote human exploration of deep space. Using mouse models of human anemia beta-thaiassemia) as well as spaceflight (hindlimb unloading system), we have obtained feasibility results of HSCT for space anemia, muscle loss, and immunodeficiency. For example, in the case of HSCT for muscle loss, the beta-galactosidese marked HSCs were detected in the hindlimbs of unloaded mouse following transplantation by -X-gal wholemaunt staining procedure. Histochemicaland physical analyses indicated structural contribution of HSCs to the muscle. HSCT for immunodeficiency was investigated ising beta-galactosidese gene-tagged Escherichia coli as the infectious agent. Results of the X-gal staining procedure indicated the rapeutic role of the HSCT. To facilitate the HSCT in space, growth of HSCs were optimized in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture systems, including Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB).

  14. Exploring Your Universe at UCLA: Steps to Developing and Sustaining a Large STEM Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, I. S.; Vican, L.; Sitarski, B.; Jewitt, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Public STEM events are an excellent method to implement informal education and for scientists and educators to interact with their community. The benefits of such events are twofold. First and foremost, science enthusiasts and students both young and old, in particular, are exposed to STEM in a way that is accessible, fun, and not as stringent as may be presented in classrooms where testing is an underlying goal. Second, scientists and educators are given the opportunity to engage with the public and share their science to an audience who may not have a scientific background, thereby encouraging scientists to develop good communication practices and skills. In 2009 graduate student members of Astronomy Live!, an outreach organization in the UCLA Department of Physics and Astronomy, started a free and public event on the campus that featured a dozen hands-on outreach activities. The event, though small at the time, was a success and it was decided to make it an annual occurrence. Thus, Exploring Your Universe (EYU) was born. Primarily through word of mouth, the event has grown every year, both in number of attendees and number of volunteers. In 2009, approximately 1000 people attended and 20 students volunteered over the course of an eight-hour day. In 2014, participation was at an all-time high with close to 6000 attendees and over 400 volunteers from all departments in the Division of Physical Sciences (plus many non-divisional departments and institutes, as well as non-UCLA organizations). The event, which is the largest STEM event at UCLA and one of the largest in Los Angeles, now features near 100 hands-on activities that span many STEM fields. EYU has been featured by the UCLA news outlets, Daily Bruin and UCLA Today, and is often lauded as their favorite event of the year by attendees and volunteers alike. The event is entirely student-run, though volunteers include faculty, staff, researchers and students alike. As the event has grown, new systems for

  15. A Cis-Lunar Propellant Infrastructure for Flexible Path Exploration and Space Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a space infrastructure concept that exploits lunar water for propellant production and delivers it to users in cis-lunar space. The goal is to provide responsive economical space transportation to destinations beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) and enable in-space commerce. This is a game changing concept that could fundamentally affect future space operations, provide greater access to space beyond LEO, and broaden participation in space exploration. The challenge is to minimize infrastructure development cost while achieving a low operational cost. This study discusses the evolutionary development of the infrastructure from a very modest robotic operation to one that is capable of supporting human operations. The cis-lunar infrastructure involves a mix of technologies including cryogenic propellant production, reusable lunar landers, propellant tankers, orbital transfer vehicles, aerobraking technologies, and electric propulsion. This cislunar propellant infrastructure replaces Earth-launched propellants for missions beyond LEO. It enables users to reach destinations with smaller launchers or effectively multiplies the user s existing payload capacity. Users can exploit the expanded capacity to launch logistics material that can then be traded with the infrastructure for propellants. This mutually beneficial trade between the cis-lunar infrastructure and propellant users forms the basis of in-space commerce.

  16. Exploring the Obstacles and the Limits of Sustainable Development. A Theoretical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Carmen Roșca

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The term “sustainable” or “sustainability” is currently used so much and in so many fields that it has become basically part of our everyday lives. It has been connected and linked to almost everything related to our living, to our lifestyle: energy, transport, housing, diet, clothing etc. But what does the term “sustainable” really mean? Many people may have heard about sustainable development or sustainability and may have even tried to have a sustainable living but their efforts might not be enough. The present paper is meant to bring forward a few of the limits of “sustainability” concept. Moreover, it is focused on revealing some arguments from the “other side” along with disagreements regarding some of the principles of “sustainable development” and even critics related to its progress, to its achievements. Another purpose of this paper is to draw attention over some of the issues and obstacles which may threaten the future of sustainability. The paper is also meant to highlight the impact that some stakeholders might have on the evolution of sustainable development due to their financial power, on a global scale.

  17. Mars Wars: The Rise and Fall of the Space Exploration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Thor

    2007-08-01

    The rise of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and its eventual demise represents one of the landmark episodes in the history of the American space program ranking with the creation of NASA, the decision to go to the Moon, the post-Apollo planning process, and the space station decision. The story of this failed initiative is one shaped by key protagonists and critical battles. It is a tale of organizational, cultural, and personal confrontation. Organizational skirmishes involved the Space Council versus NASA, the White House versus congressional appropriators, and the Johnson Space Center versus the rest of the space agency all seeking control of the national space policy process. Cultural struggles pitted the increasingly conservative engineering ethos of NASA against the faster, better, cheaper philosophy of a Space Council looking for innovative solutions to technical problems. Personality clashes matched Vice President Dan Quayle and Space Council Executive Secretary Mark Albrecht against NASA Administrator Dick Truly and Johnson Space Center Director Aaron Cohen. In the final analysis, the demise of SEI was a classic example of a defective decision-making process one that lacked adequate high-level policy guidance, failed to address critical fiscal constraints, developed inadequate programmatic alternatives, and garnered no congressional support. Some space policy experts have argued that SEI was doomed to fail, due primarily to the immense budgetary pressures facing the nation during the early 1990's. This book will argue, however, that the failure of the initiative was not predetermined; instead, it was the result of a deeply flawed policy process that failed to develop (or even consider) policy options that may have been politically acceptable given the existing political environment.

  18. Improved Understanding of Space Radiation Effects on Exploration Electronics by Advanced Modeling of Nanoscale Devices and Novel Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA space exploration missions will use nanometer-scale electronic technologies which call for a shift in how radiation effects in such devices and materials...

  19. ESSC-ESF Position Paper: Science-Driven Scenario for Space Exploration: Report from the European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worms, Jean-Claude; Lammer, Helmut; Barucci, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In 2005 the then ESA Directorate for Human Spaceflight, Microgravity and Exploration (D-HME) commissioned a study from the European Science Foundation's (ESF) European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC) to examine the science aspects of the Aurora Programme in preparation for the December...... in NASA's budget that was taking place at that time; e.g., the postponement sine die of the Mars Sample Return mission. At the time of this study, ESSC made it clear to ESA that the timeline imposed prior to the Berlin Conference had not allowed for a proper consultation of the relevant science community......'s exploration programme, dubbed "Emergence and co-evolution of life with its planetary environments," focusing on those targets that can ultimately be reached by humans, i.e., Mars, the Moon, and Near Earth Objects. Mars was further recognized as the focus of that programme, with Mars sample return...

  20. URBAN GREEN SPACES – BASIC ELEMENTS IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. CASE STUDY: THE CITY OF CLUJ NAPOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA COZEA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces- basic elements in sustainable tourism and urban development. Due to their multiple functions within the cities: landscape function, aesthetical, sanitary, utilitary, economic, protection, educational, scientific and social function, green spaces need to be extended, arranged and valorized in the most efficient ways. An average value of the green space surface per invididual has been established. Sustainable urban development involves the execution of works on lands, premises and buildings, as well as the adoption of social measures for the psychical and psychological confort of the population and for a rational development and arrangement of urban areas. The tourism potential of urban green space derives from the valorization of its biological and aesthetical function, the harmonisation and beautification of urban architectural complexes as well as from its specific urbanism elements.

  1. Learning from Regional Sustainable Development in The Netherlands: Explorations from a Learning History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske Smulders-Dane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This case report is about a regional land-use planning project in the Netherlands. Initiated by the province of Gelderland and Radboud University (RU, the project aimed to create “Communities of Ownership” (CoO’s, local associations of townspeople who would engage in collaborative vision-building related to sustainable land development. The guiding conceptual model was “The Natural Step” (TNS, a systems-level approach to sustainability. We describe the land-use project and the learning history we constructed to help project managers and facilitators learn from the different perspectives that project actors conveyed. The learning history indicated that the project had limited success. We discuss four factors shaping the project’s results and the lessons learned related to those factors. The first lesson concerns the importance of a shared vision for sustainability among stakeholder groups. The second focuses on the preconditions necessary to work with The Natural Step effectively in certain contexts. Lesson three is about what it takes for a learning history to serve as a catalyst for collective learning and project improvement. Lesson four sheds light on the importance of respecting differences in stakeholders’ levels of sustainability awareness. We speculate that these differences may have shared characteristics with the kind of developmental differences that constructivist stage theorists of human development have articulated. Finally, we discuss the implications of our analysis for the leadership of sustainability initiatives.

  2. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  3. Service Areas of Local Urban Green Spaces: AN Explorative Approach in Arroios, Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, R.; Gonçalves, A. B.; Ramos, I. L.

    2016-09-01

    The identification of service areas of urban green spaces and areas with lack of these is increasingly necessary within city planning and management, as it translates into important indicators for the assessment of quality of life. In this setting, it is important to evaluate the attractiveness and accessibility dynamics through a set of attributes, taking into account the local reality of the territory under study. This work presents an operational methodology associated with these dynamics in local urban green spaces, assisting in the planning and management of this type of facilities. The methodology is supported firstly on questionnaire surveys and then on network analysis, processing spatial data in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. In the case study, two local green spaces in Lisbon were selected, on a local perspective explorative approach. Through field data, it was possible to identify service areas for both spaces, and compare the results with references in the literature. It was also possible to recognise areas with lack of these spaces. The difficulty to evaluate the dynamics of real individuals in their choices of urban green spaces and the respective route is a major challenge to the application of the methodology. In this sense it becomes imperative to develop different instruments and adapt them to other types of urban green spaces.

  4. Single Step to Orbit; a First Step in a Cooperative Space Exploration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusignan, Bruce; Sivalingam, Shivan

    1999-01-01

    At the end of the Cold War, disarmament planners included a recommendation to ease reduction of the U.S. and Russian aerospace industries by creating cooperative scientific pursuits. The idea was not new, having earlier been suggested by Eisenhower and Khrushchev to reduce the pressure of the "Military Industrial Complex" by undertaking joint space exploration. The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) proposed at the end of the Cold War by President Bush and Premier Gorbachev was another attempt to ease the disarmament process by giving the bloated war industries something better to do. The engineering talent and the space rockets could be used for peaceful pursuits, notably for going back to the Moon and then on to Mars with human exploration and settlement. At the beginning of this process in 1992 staff of the Stanford Center for International Cooperation in Space attended the International Space University in Canada, met with Russian participants and invited a Russian team to work with us on a joint Stanford-Russian Mars Exploration Study. A CIA student and Airforce and Navy students just happened to join the Stanford course the next year and all students were aware that the leader of the four Russian engineers was well versed in Russian security. But, as long as they did their homework, they were welcome to participate with other students in defining the Mars mission and the three engineers they sent were excellent. At the end of this study we were invited to give a briefing to Dr. Edward Teller at Stanford's Hoover Institution of War and Peace. We were also encouraged to hold a press conference on Capitol Hill to introduce the study to the world. At a pre-conference briefing at the Space Council, we were asked to please remind the press that President Bush had asked for a cooperative exploration proposal not a U.S. alone initiative. The Stanford-Russian study used Russia's Energia launchers, priced at $300 Million each. The mission totaled out to $71.5 Billion

  5. Multi-Dielectric Brownian Dynamics and Design-Space-Exploration Studies of Permeation in Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siksik, May; Krishnamurthy, Vikram

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a multi-dielectric Brownian dynamics simulation framework for design-space-exploration (DSE) studies of ion-channel permeation. The goal of such DSE studies is to estimate the channel modeling-parameters that minimize the mean-squared error between the simulated and expected "permeation characteristics." To address this computational challenge, we use a methodology based on statistical inference that utilizes the knowledge of channel structure to prune the design space. We demonstrate the proposed framework and DSE methodology using a case study based on the KcsA ion channel, in which the design space is successfully reduced from a 6-D space to a 2-D space. Our results show that the channel dielectric map computed using the framework matches with that computed directly using molecular dynamics with an error of 7%. Finally, the scalability and resolution of the model used are explored, and it is shown that the memory requirements needed for DSE remain constant as the number of parameters (degree of heterogeneity) increases.

  6. Exploring Organizational Antecedents for Sustainable Product Development for International Tour Operating Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    The development of sustainable products or services is defined by Maxwell as the process of making products or services in a more sustainable way (production) throughout their entire life cycle, from conception to the end-of-life (Maxwell & van der Vorst, 2003). Essentially, sustainable products...... or services are alternatives to existing ones, but of a superior quality, providing the same function to the customer, being more cost-effective, while also generating less harm on the surrounding environments or societies. The emphasis is on securing the efficiency of inputs and outputs is all actions along...... and the use phase, or even at the end-of-life phase of a product (Mont, 2002; Roy, 2000). New and under development, the area of product-service systems is increasingly gaining acceptance from companies (Manzini & Jégou, 2003)....

  7. A New Frontier Beckons: Space Exploration in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell W.; Gruener, John

    1999-01-01

    Throughout recorded history, small groups of explorers have Pushed back the edge of the frontier and opened up new territories for others to follow. As the 20th Century closes, history will record that in the 1960's humankind opened the vast frontier beyond Earth's atmosphere. Although the Apollo program blazed a trail of exploration to the Moon, the development of space has only reached into low Earth orbit. The Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs, and the communication and scientific satellite networks established in orbit around the Earth, are all stepping stones that will enable explorers to venture once again beyond our home planet. Exploration is difficult. It is difficult for the people and machines that travel in extreme environments and endure harsh conditions, and it is difficult for the national leaders who must champion and fund the programs that lead to discovery and reward. Christopher Columbus spent many years meeting with the Kings of Portugal, England, and France only to see his dream of sailing west into the vast Atlantic with ships and crew. discredited. Queen Isabella of Spain was willing to look beyond the many problems plaguing her own shores and see the potential reward for her investment in the future. The voyages of Columbus set the stage for more Spanish explorers, who turned Spain into a great world power. The Apollo program and the unpiloted Lunar Orbiter, Surveyor, Mariner and Viking spacecraft that NASA launched in the 1966's &1970's were our country's first investment, in the exploration of the solar system. These human and robotic missions rewarded us with the first close views of the lunar and martian surfaces, and laid before our eyes territories as vast as all the continents of Earth combined. The Lunar Prospector, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, and Mars Pathfinder and Global Surveyor missions are continuing our scientific conquest of the inner solar system, leading the way for humans to follow.

  8. You Pretty Little Flocker: Exploring the Aesthetic State Space of Creative Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Artificial life models constitute a rich compendium of tools for the generative arts; complex, self-organizing, emergent behaviors have great interactive and generative potential. But how can we go beyond simply visualizing scientific simulations and manipulate these models for use in design and creative art contexts? You Pretty Little Flocker is a proof-of-concept study in expanding and exploring the aesthetic state space of a model for generative design. A modified version of Reynolds' flocking algorithm (1987) is described in which the space of possible images is extended and navigable in a way that at once provides user control and maintains generative autonomy.

  9. An open-source job management framework for parameter-space exploration: OACIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Y.; Uchitane, T.; Ito, N.

    2017-11-01

    We present an open-source software framework for parameter-space exporation, named OACIS, which is useful to manage vast amount of simulation jobs and results in a systematic way. Recent development of high-performance computers enabled us to explore parameter spaces comprehensively, however, in such cases, manual management of the workflow is practically impossible. OACIS is developed aiming at reducing the cost of these repetitive tasks when conducting simulations by automating job submissions and data management. In this article, an overview of OACIS as well as a getting started guide are presented.

  10. Trends in sensorimotor research and countermeasures for exploration-class space flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eShelhamer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in the area of sensorimotor and neurovestibular function has played an important role in enabling human space flight. This role, however, is changing. One of the key aspects of sensorimotor function relevant to this role will build on its widespread connections with other physiological and psychological systems in the body. The firm knowledge base in this area can provide a strong platform to explore these interactions, which can also provide for the development of effective and efficient countermeasures to the deleterious effects of space flight.

  11. Exploring the triplet parameters space to optimise the final focus of the FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2141109; Abelleira, Jose; Seryi, Andrei; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    One of the main challenges when designing final focus systems of particle accelerators is maximising the beam stay clear in the strong quadrupole magnets of the inner triplet. Moreover it is desirable to keep the quadrupoles in the triplet as short as possible for space and costs reasons but also to reduce chromaticity and simplify corrections schemes. An algorithm that explores the triplet parameter space to optimise both these aspects was written. It uses thin lenses as a first approximation and MADX for more precise calculations. In cooperation with radiation studies, this algorithm was then applied to design an alternative triplet for the final focus of the Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh).

  12. A TT&C Performance Simulator for Space Exploration and Scientific Satellites - Architecture and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, G.; Faletra, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the TT&C performance simulator toolkit developed internally at Thales Alenia Space Italia (TAS-I) to support the design of TT&C subsystems for space exploration and scientific satellites. The simulator has a modular architecture and has been designed using a model-based approach using standard engineering tools such as MATLAB/SIMULINK and mission analysis tools (e.g. STK). The simulator is easily reconfigurable to fit different types of satellites, different mission requirements and different scenarios parameters. This paper provides a brief description of the simulator architecture together with two examples of applications used to demonstrate some of the simulator’s capabilities.

  13. Developments in Radiation-Hardened Electronics Applicable to the Vision for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Patrick , Marshall C.; Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Exploration (RHESE) project develops the advanced technologies required to produce radiation hardened electronics, processors, and devices in support of the anticipated requirements of NASA's Constellation program. Methods of protecting and hardening electronics against the encountered space environment are discussed. Critical stages of a spaceflight mission that are vulnerable to radiation-induced interruptions or failures are identified. Solutions to mitigating the risk of radiation events are proposed through the infusion of RHESE technology products and deliverables into the Constellation program's spacecraft designs.

  14. Human exploration of space: A review of NASA's 90-day study and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stever, H. Guyford; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.; Gavin, Joseph G.; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Levinthal, Elliott C.; Mar, James W.; Mcelroy, John H.; Mcruer, Duane T.; Merrell, William J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) examines the NASA Report of the 90-Day Study on Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, and alternative concepts. Included in this paper, prepared for the National Space Council, are the answers to a challenging set of questions posed by the Vice President. Concerns addressed include: the appropriate pace, the scope of human exploration, the level of long-term support required, the technology development available and needed, the feasibility of long-duration human spaceflight in a low-gravity environment, scientific objectives, and other considerations such as costs and risks.

  15. The Living Soil: Exploring Soil Science and Sustainable Agriculture with Your Guide, The Earthworm. Unit I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Eldon C.; And Others

    This instructional packet introduces students to soil biology, ecology, and specific farming practices that promote sustainable agriculture. It helps students to discover the role of earthworms in improving the environment of all other soil-inhabiting organisms and in making the soil more fertile. The activities (classroom as well as outdoor)…

  16. The Sustainable Office. An exploration of the potential for factor 20 environmental improvement of office accommodation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development is the goal of a balance between economy and the environment, whilst establishing a better spread prosperity across the world. In order to make this possible, the environmental load of our commodities needs to be reduced by a factor of 20. This factor 20 can also be

  17. Exergy landscapes: Exploration of second-law thinking towards sustainable landscape design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Dobbelsteen, van den A.; Koh, J.

    2011-01-01

    Depletion of fossil fuels and climate change necessitate a transition to sustainable energy systems that make efficient use of renewable energy sources. During recent decades, the Second Law of Thermodynamics has helped to increase energy efficiencies. More recently, the disciplines of building

  18. Exploring the Priorities of Teacher Education Related Policies: An Education for Sustainable Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, Hayley; Sinnes, Astrid; Gjøtterud, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) for many is considered to be a "quality education" in its own right. There also exist many debates around the semantics and implications of such an education, however this study acknowledges the greater intentions of ESD and thus deems it necessary to analyze to what degree teacher education…

  19. Data and models for exploring sustainability of human well-being in global environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deffuant, G.; Alvarez, I.; Barreteau, O.; Vries, de B.; Edmonds, B.; Gilbert, N.; Gotts, N.; Jabot, F.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Hilden, M.; Kolditz, O.; Murray-Rust, D.; Rouge, C.; Smits, P.

    2012-01-01

    This position paper proposes a vision for the research activity about sustainability in global environmental change (GEC) taking place in the FuturICT flagship project. This activity will be organised in an "Exploratory", gathering a core network of European scientists from ICT, social simulation,

  20. Exploring sustainable practices with trigger-products : A case of staying warm at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, S.C.; De Jong, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Heating of dwellings forms a significant portion of societies energy use and is increasing. One way of approaching the problem from a sustainable design point of view is to offer thermal comfort in a more energy efficient way. However, the idea of offering comfort to passive receptors (i.e. people)

  1. Provider Strategies and the Greening of Consumption Practices: Exploring the Role of Companies in Sustainable Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, G.; Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Making consumption practices more sustainable means incorporating new ideas, information and products into existing consumption routines of citizen-consumers. For a successful incorporation process it is crucial that companies, as main providers of new products and services, develop an active

  2. Exploring options for sustainable development of vegetable farms in South Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti Moro, S.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords:land use system, modeling, farming system, future-oriented studies, vegetables,

    The sustainable development of vegetable farms in South Uruguay requires the development of farming systems that contribute

  3. Reflexive project management in high-ambition projects : Exploring the competencies for managing innovative sustainable designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeber, A.; Vermeulen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Aristotelian notion of phronèsis inspired innovative work in the realm of project management as well as in literature on sustainability and societal transformations. We argue that both literatures may benefit from a dialogue between the two, especially in view of outlining project

  4. Sustainable employability for older workers: an explorative survey of belgian companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Mathieu; Kuipers, Yoline; Vriesacker, Bart; Peeters, Ilse; Mortelmans, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) is developing an online e-guide, which will provide tips and practical information for each EU country (in their national language(s)) on ageing and occupational health and safety. The e-guide will be launched in 2016 as part of the EU-OSHA campaign on Healthy Workplaces for all ages. The e-guide will present evidence, tools and practical examples of how companies can take action and effectively promote sustainable employability. As part of the development of the e-guide, a cross-sectional study was conducted to survey Belgian employers in April 2015 to determine their specific needs concerning older workers' occupational health and safety issues. Researchers from Milieu Ltd. (Brussels, Belgium), the consultancy company coordinating the e-guide project, and Mensura Occupational Health Services (Brussels, Belgium) developed a 13-item questionnaire. The survey addressed the needs and importance given to sustainable employability of older workers in Belgian companies and evaluated corporate knowledge regarding relevant national policies. The questionnaire was distributed electronically to the management of 22,084 private-sector companies affiliated with Mensura. Ten percent (n = 2133) of recipients opened the e-mail, and 37 % (n = 790) of these completed the questionnaire. In 89 % of the responding companies, sustainable employability of workers aged ≥55 years plays an important role; 70 % have no active sustainable employability policy/initiative; 18 % experience difficulties promoting sustainable employability; and 86 % indicate no need for support to promote sustainable employability. Respondents noted the following health complaints among workers aged ≥55 years: work-related health problems (31 %), stress (26 %), work agreements/type of work (17 %), work/life balance (15 %), and career development and/or training (9 %). Topics concerning health and well-being of workers aged ≥55

  5. Formal and Informal Methods for Multi-Core Design Space Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Kempf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a tool-supported methodology for design-space exploration for embedded systems. It provides means to define high-level models of applications and multi-processor architectures and evaluate the performance of different deployment (mapping, scheduling strategies while taking uncertainty into account. We argue that this extension of the scope of formal verification is important for the viability of the domain.

  6. Building a Better NASA Workforce: Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) announced by President George W. Bush in 2004 sets NASA and the nation on a bold path to return to the Moon and one day put a human on Mars. The long-term endeavor represented by the VSE is, however, subject to the constraints imposed by annual funding. Given that the VSE may take tens of years to implement,…

  7. Sustainable Cities and the Contribution of Historical Urban Green Spaces: A Case Study of Historical Persian Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Rostami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing populations and rapid worldwide urbanization are recognized as constituting one of the most complex processes in the world and have raised concerns about the sustainability of cities. Sustainable development, a widely accepted strategic framework in city planning, singles out urban green spaces as a primary solution for addressing these issues. Growing empirical evidences indicate that the presence of natural areas contributes to a better quality of life in many ways. Urban green spaces serve as places of identity, memory, and belonging; enrich human life with meaning and emotions by providing important social and psychological benefits; and enhance the quality of life of citizens, which is a key component of sustainability. Despite our understanding of the benefits of urban green spaces, little is known about the benefits of historical urban green spaces. To highlight their importance with regard to environmental sustainability and citizens’ well-being, this study analyzes a number of historical Persian gardens that are still actively used by urban residents. The findings suggest that historical Persian gardens could accommodate many social functions and address many of the psychological issues relating to urban dwelling. It has been generally acknowledged that sense of community and place attachment is pivotal to creating sustainable urban environments. Historical gardens as physical components can cohesively weave together many parts of cities of any cities while providing places for public congregation as well as attracting a variety of local economic activities. All these attributes can make historical Persian gardens as a valuable municipal resource and a key ingredient for city’s living sustainability.

  8. Solar Energetic Particles Events and Human Exploration: Measurements in a Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, L.; Berrilli, F.; Casolino, M.; Del Moro, D.; Forte, R.; Giovannelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Picozza, P.; Rizzo, A.; Scardigli, S.; Sparvoli, R.; Zeitlin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Solar activity is the source of Space Weather disturbances. Flares, CME and coronal holes modulate physical conditions of circumterrestrial and interplanetary space and ultimately the fluxes of high-energy ionized particles, i.e., solar energetic particle (SEP) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) background. This ionizing radiation affects spacecrafts and biological systems, therefore it is an important issue for human exploration of space. During a deep space travel (for example the trip to Mars) radiation risk thresholds may well be exceeded by the crew, so mitigation countermeasures must be employed. Solar particle events (SPE) constitute high risks due to their impulsive high rate dose. Forecasting SPE appears to be needed and also specifically tailored to the human exploration needs. Understanding the parameters of the SPE that produce events leading to higher health risks for the astronauts in deep space is therefore a first priority issue. Measurements of SPE effects with active devices in LEO inside the ISS can produce important information for the specific SEP measured, relative to the specific detector location in the ISS (in a human habitat with a shield typical of manned space-crafts). Active detectors can select data from specific geo-magnetic regions along the orbits, allowing geo-magnetic selections that best mimic deep space radiation. We present results from data acquired in 2010 - 2012 by the detector system ALTEA inside the ISS (18 SPEs detected). We compare this data with data from the detector Pamela on a LEO satellite, with the RAD data during the Curiosity Journey to Mars, with GOES data and with several Solar physical parameters. While several features of the radiation modulation are easily understood by the effect of the geomagnetic field, as an example we report a proportionality of the flux in the ISS with the energetic proton flux measured by GOES, some features appear more difficult to interpret. The final goal of this work is to find the

  9. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  10. Space Technologies for Enhancing the Resilience and Sustainability of Indigenous Reindeer Husbandry in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris S.; Sleptsov, Yuri A.; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathlesen, Svein D.

    2005-01-01

    To adapt successfully to the major changes - climate, environment, economic, social and industrial - which have taken place across the Arctic. in recent years, indigenous communities such as reindeer herders must become increasingly empowered with the best available technologies to add to their storehouse of traditional knowledge. Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters critical to the characterization of pasture quality and migratory routes, such as vegetation distribution, snow cover, infrastructure development, and pasture damages due to fires. This paper describes a series of remote sensing capabilities, which are useful to reindeer husbandry, and gives the results of the first year of a project, "Reindeer Mapper", which is a remote sensing and GIs-based system to bring together space technologies with indigenous knowledge for sustainable reindeer husbandry in the Russian Arctic. In this project, reindeer herders and scientists are joining together to utilize technologies to create a system for collecting and sharing space-based and indigenous knowledge in the Russian Arctic. The "Reindeer Mapper" system will help make technologies more readily available to the herder community for observing, data collection and analysis, monitoring, sharing, communications, and dissemination of information - to be integrated with traditional, local knowledge. This paper describes some of the technologies which comprise the system including an intranet system to enable to the team members to work together and share information electronically, remote sensing data for monitoring environmental parameters important to reindeer husbandry (e.g., SAR, Landsat, AVHRR, MODIS), indigenous knowledge about important environmental parameters, acquisition of ground- based measurements, and the integration of all useful data sets for more informed decision-making.

  11. Space, place and the midwife: exploring the relationship between the birth environment, neurobiology and midwifery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn; Homer, Caroline S E; Davis, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Research indicates that midwives and their practice are influenced by space and place and that midwives practice differently in different places. It is possible that one mechanism through which space and place influence midwifery practice is via neurobiological responses such as the production and release of oxytocin, which can be triggered by experiences and perceptions of the physical environment. To articulate the significance of space and place to midwifery and explore the relationship between the birth environment, neurobiology and midwifery practice. Quality midwifery care requires the facilitation of trusting social relationships and the provision of emotionally sensitive care to childbearing women. The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in human social and emotional behaviour by increasing trust, reducing stress and heightening empathy, reciprocity and generosity. Through its role as a trigger for oxytocin release, the birth environment may play a direct role in the provision of quality midwifery care. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Population, Reproduction and IVF in New Caledonia: Exploring Sociocultural and Caring Dimensions of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Jane Marks

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Both sustainability and sustainable development have multiple meanings that are underpinned by diverse normative visions. Nonetheless, sustainable development is currently centre-stage at the global level. The main goal of this paper is to critically examine these important concepts, in particular their social and cultural dimensions, and to make a conceptual offering: that of ‘caring sustainable development.’ This way of thinking about sustainable development aims to grapple in a situated way with the different normative underpinnings of sustainability in order to support the building of a common future. The paper briefly examines populations, reproduction (both biological and sociocultural and human in vitro fertilization (IVF, as important sites for thinking about caring sustainable development. It draws on research in New Caledonia examining which populations and which sociocultural social practices are encouraged or sustained, or not. It finds that historically there are many examples of things and people being neglected and not cared for, or being encouraged to ‘develop’ in problematic ways. By contrast, recent practices associated with IVF suggest ways forward that would enable caring sustainable development. Résumé La durabilité et le développement durable ont des significations multiples, qui sont sous-tendues par diverses visions normatives. Néanmoins, le développement durable occupe actuellement une place centrale sur le plan mondial. Le but principal de cet article est d’examiner de manière critique ces concepts importants, en particulier leurs dimensions sociales et culturelles, et de faire une contribution conceptuelle qui est celle de la notion du ‘care dans le développement durable ’. Cette façon de penser au développement durable vise à aborder ces différents fondements normatifs, de façon localisée, pour soutenir la construction à long terme d’un futur commun. L’article examine ensuite

  13. Team Composition Issues for Future Space Exploration: A Review and Directions for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne T; Brown, Shanique G; Abben, Daniel R; Outland, Neal B

    2015-06-01

    Future space exploration, such as a mission to Mars, will require space crews to live and work in extreme environments unlike those of previous space missions. Extreme conditions such as prolonged confinement, isolation, and expected communication time delays will require that crews have a higher level of interpersonal compatibility and be able to work autonomously, adapting to unforeseen challenges in order to ensure mission success. Team composition, or the configuration of member attributes, is an important consideration for maximizing crewmember well-being and team performance. We conducted an extensive search to find articles about team composition in long-distance space exploration (LDSE)-analogue environments, including a search of databases, specific relevant journals, and by contacting authors who publish in the area. We review the team composition research conducted in analogue environments in terms of two paths through which team composition is likely to be related to LDSE mission success, namely by 1) affecting social integration, and 2) the team processes and emergent states related to team task completion. Suggestions for future research are summarized as: 1) the need to identify ways to foster unit-level social integration within diverse crews; 2) the missed opportunity to use team composition variables as a way to improve team processes, emergent states, and task completion; and 3) the importance of disentangling the effect of specific team composition variables to determine the traits (e.g., personality, values) that are associated with particular risks (e.g., subgrouping) to performance.

  14. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use for Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between -Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications, and is an example of industry and government cooperation that leads to novel inventions. Device development involves three energy generation and consumption projects: 1) a low mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; 2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and 3) a new approach to building supercapacitors. These three technologies - energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting) - represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies will be useful for lightweight power generation that enables inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and facilitates surface operations. The PV device model is a two-sphere, light-trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. All three components may be printed in line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the threedimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. MSFC is testing the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh space and lunar surface environments, and available results will be reported. Unlike many traditional light sources, this device does not contain toxic compounds, and the LED component has passed stringent off-gassing tests required for potential manifesting on spacecraft such as the International Space

  15. Parallel symbolic state-space exploration is difficult, but what is the alternative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Ciardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available State-space exploration is an essential step in many modeling and analysis problems. Its goal is to find the states reachable from the initial state of a discrete-state model described. The state space can used to answer important questions, e.g., "Is there a dead state?" and "Can N become negative?", or as a starting point for sophisticated investigations expressed in temporal logic. Unfortunately, the state space is often so large that ordinary explicit data structures and sequential algorithms cannot cope, prompting the exploration of (1 parallel approaches using multiple processors, from simple workstation networks to shared-memory supercomputers, to satisfy large memory and runtime requirements and (2 symbolic approaches using decision diagrams to encode the large structured sets and relations manipulated during state-space generation. Both approaches have merits and limitations. Parallel explicit state-space generation is challenging, but almost linear speedup can be achieved; however, the analysis is ultimately limited by the memory and processors available. Symbolic methods are a heuristic that can efficiently encode many, but not all, functions over a structured and exponentially large domain; here the pitfalls are subtler: their performance varies widely depending on the class of decision diagram chosen, the state variable order, and obscure algorithmic parameters. As symbolic approaches are often much more efficient than explicit ones for many practical models, we argue for the need to parallelize symbolic state-space generation algorithms, so that we can realize the advantage of both approaches. This is a challenging endeavor, as the most efficient symbolic algorithm, Saturation, is inherently sequential. We conclude by discussing challenges, efforts, and promising directions toward this goal.

  16. Telecommunications, navigation and information management concept overview for the Space Exploration Initiative program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jerome A.; Stephens, Elaine; Barton, Gregg

    An overview is provided of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts for telecommunications, information systems, and navigation (TISN), and engineering and architecture issues are discussed. The SEI program data system is reviewed to identify mission TISN interfaces, and reference TISN concepts are described for nominal, degraded, and mission-critical data services. The infrastructures reviewed include telecommunications for robotics support, autonomous navigation without earth-based support, and information networks for tracking and data acquisition. Four options for TISN support architectures are examined which relate to unique SEI exploration strategies. Detailed support estimates are given for: (1) a manned stay on Mars; (2) permanent lunar and Martian settlements; short-duration missions; and (4) systematic exploration of the moon and Mars.

  17. Attitudes of Citizens towards Urban Parks and Green Spaces for Urban Sustainability: The Case of Gyeongsan City, Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chang Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban parks and green spaces support a wide array of species and play an important role in long-term sustainability. This study analyzed the needs and attitudes of citizens towards urban parks and green spaces in order to provide information for setting the future direction of urban sustainability to maximize quality of life. A questionnaire survey was conducted to analyze the general characteristics of respondents and their awareness of parks and spaces. First, the results indicate that the main purpose of visiting parks was relaxation and walking. Second, the type of parks visited most frequently by the respondents was pocket parks around home. Third, the main reason for going to the frequently visited parks was “close to home”. Fourth, the major reason for visiting parks infrequently was “improper park management”. Fifth, the desired types of urban parks were relaxation parks close to natural rivers. Sixth, citizens wanted to participate in the expansion projects of parks and green spaces through non-profit civic organizations or volunteer activities. Further research with a comparative analysis among different cities will be necessary to generalize Korean attitudes to urban parks and green spaces for urban sustainability.

  18. Competitive space demand accelerator and its impacts on importance and sustainability of competitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A determined effort of companies to improve their potential of success-ability through a development of their own competitiveness is very significantly reflected in the nature of their competitive environment. A question can be asked: what changes are introduced and what their mechanism is. The main objective of this article has been to define a theoretical background to a principle of a competitive space demands accelerator and its impacts on deterioration and sustainability of competitive advantages. The methodology used is based upon a success-ability concept. The success-ability concept describes behavior of companies in the way which – from the point of an approach to competitiveness development – is able to identify specific features, frequently neglected by conventional approaches. Presented paper defines a mechanism of growing level of demands of competitive environment especially in the context of three key factors – company, its competitors and customers and their needs. The paper explains a paradox - an endeavor to gain higher level of advantage results in a rapid deterioration of new, achieved level of such advantage, in the sense of a lead over competitors, practically very soon after securing of such advantage.

  19. Exploring mechanisms for mobilising industrial sustainability models across different industrial locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ole Morten Noel Brings

    2009-01-01

    Industrial symbiosis is a model of sustainability which suggests that agglomerations of industries can achieve considerable environmental benefits by engaging in inter-organisational waste recycling, energy cascading and water recovery. This article considers how such a complex inter......-organisational model for environmental management can be mobilised across different industrial localities. It is suggested that companies engaged in industrial symbiosis activities at one production locality may be more inclined to engage in symbiotic activities when entering a new production locality. The industrial...... symbiosis model may in this way be mobilised across industrial localities as part of the global corporate search for marked access and cost reductions. This suggestion is supported by an illustrative case study shedding some light on the mechanisms for mobilising sustainability models across localities....

  20. Exploring life cycle-based sustainability indicators for building structural frames in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. M. Oliveira

    Full Text Available This paper aims at advancing on the validation of indicators of building concrete frames' sustainability from an integrated, life cycle perspective. A case study approach investigates (i feasibility of comparing sustainability performance of different flooring systems; and (ii similarity between environmental indicators trends for a typical flooring system and corresponding whole superstructure. Three residential buildings are analyzed, using either prestressed concrete flat (PCF slabs or reinforced concrete waffle (RCW slabs and flat beams exposed to a marine environment. SimaPro 7.3 supports calculation of the environmental indicators. Service life estimation is used to ensure functional equivalence and to form a basis for life cycle costing. PCF slabs showed best functional/technical and economic results but were outperformed by RCW slabs' environmental results. Most environmental indicators showed the same trend for both typical floor and whole superstructure.