Edward W. Younkins
Full Text Available This article makes an argument for Atlas Shrugged as a highly unified and integrated novel. All of the sections of the paper explain how integration and unity are embodied in Atlas Shrugged. Part one discusses the philosophical and literary structure of Rand’s masterpiece. The next section is concerned with issues of political economy. Section three then examines Rand’s techniques of characterization and character development as demonstrated in Atlas Shrugged. The following part analyzes the philosophical speeches. The final major part considers Atlas Shrugged as a means for social change. The conclusion then discusses Atlas Shrugged as the manifestation of a fully-integrated philosophical novel.
Suchomel, Timothy J; Taber, Christopher B; Wright, Glenn A
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that load has on the mechanics of the jump shrug. Fifteen track and field and club/intramural athletes (age 21.7 ± 1.3 y, height 180.9 ± 6.6 cm, body mass 84.7 ± 13.2 kg, 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) hang power clean 109.1 ± 17.2 kg) performed repetitions of the jump shrug at 30%, 45%, 65%, and 80% of their 1RM hang power clean. Jump height, peak landing force, and potential energy of the system at jump-shrug apex were compared between loads using a series of 1-way repeated-measures ANOVAs. Statistical differences in jump height (P .05). The greatest magnitudes of jump height, peak landing force, and potential energy of the system at the apex of the jump shrug occurred at 30% 1RM hang power clean and decreased as the external load increased from 45% to 80% 1RM hang power clean. Relationships between peak landing force and potential energy of the system at jump-shrug apex indicate that the landing forces produced during the jump shrug may be due to the landing strategy used by the athletes, especially at lighter loads. Practitioners may prescribe heavier loads during the jump-shrug exercise without viewing landing force as a potential limitation.
Apodaca, Timothy R; Jackson, Kristina M; Borsari, Brian; Magill, Molly; Longabaugh, Richard; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Barnett, Nancy P
To identify individual therapist behaviors which elicit client change talk or sustain talk in motivational interviewing sessions. Motivational interviewing sessions from a single-session alcohol intervention delivered to college students were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC), a therapy process coding system. Participants included 92 college students and eight therapists who provided their treatment. The MISC was used to code 17 therapist behaviors related to the use of motivational interviewing, and client language reflecting movement toward behavior change (change talk), away from behavior change (sustain talk), or unrelated to the target behavior (follow/neutral). Client change talk was significantly more likely to immediately follow individual therapist behaviors [affirm (p=.013), open question (pquestion (pquestions (pquestions (p<.001). Certain individual therapist behaviors within motivational interviewing can either elicit both client change talk and sustain talk or suppress both types of client language. Affirm was the only therapist behavior that both increased change talk and also reduced sustain talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Singh, Ajai R
Holistic understanding is necessary to study intimate nuances of psychological/psychopathological processes; also, individual manifestations and individual approach are laudable goals in treatment and approach. But we cannot forget that major therapeutic advances result when we are able to delineate commonalities and stable symptom clusters that cut across geo-cultural boundaries and are amenable to study and intervention. Even though the purpose and approach of psychiatry, as of all medicine, has to be humane and caring, major therapeutic advancements and aetiologic understandings result only from a scientific methodology that stresses and figures out the commonalities of psychopathological phenomena. It is a mistake to stress individuality so much that commonalities are obliterated. Although stress on the individual's needs has helped psychiatry at times become more humane, it has hurt the task enormously by making some very bright minds question the very scientific basis of psychiatry and its status as a medical discipline. Hence, even as it is necessary to promote holistic and individualistic caring, it is equally necessary to shrug ambivalence and crippling disagreements that can result if individualism in therapy is carried beyond limits. Psychiatry's tradition, and field, will always allow for diversity in its practice, even in its theorising. For, psychopathology has both a personal, deep inner dimension - due to biogenetic and personality factors - and social, manifest/unmanifest, outer dimension - due to the environment. And the practice, and theory, of both are likely to be different, although we do try to amalgamate them in our 'bio-psycho-social' model. Such differences are only manifestations of an intricate network of influences that make for the human condition in health and disease. Psychiatry is the one branch which realises this diversity the most, but equally important for it is to stress its unity: Of purpose - that of reducing individual and
Full Text Available Emotions represent a significant means of nonverbal communication and their expression represents an important aspect of social robots functionality. There are two basic ways of expressing emotions. The first one is based on facial expressions that can be realized by moving a particular part of face or by displaying a picture on the screen that represents a face with characteristic features such as eyebrows, eyes, nose and mouth. Combining them is also possible. The second way of nonverbal communication is based on gestures, especially using arms. This paper presents an optimal synthesis of shrug mechanism for humanoid robots. Based on the set requirements the worm-lever mechanism is proposed. It has 1 DOF and enables simultaneous shrug of both shoulders. It consists of a worm which is meshed with two worm gears having different directions of rotation and two four-bar lever mechanisms whose input links are rigidly connected to the worm gears. Based on the kinematic-dynamic analysis the dynamic model is formed, the objective function is defined, the constraints are prescribed and the optimal synthesis is performed. The maximum torque on the input link of the lever mechanism, the driving torque of the complete worm-lever mechanism, the range of transmission angle and the rotation range of the worm gears are determined. The lever mechanism has high efficiency in all positions because the transmission angle has a high value during the whole movement. The worm mechanism enables a significant reduction of driving torque and has acceptable efficiency. The rotation range of the worm gear is small – the mechanism movement is very quick and therefore the shrug speed is large, which was the basic requirement for realization. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III44008
Alvarez, Ruben P; Chen, Gang; Bodurka, Jerzy; Kaplan, Raphael; Grillon, Christian
Aversive events are typically more debilitating when they occur unpredictably than predictably. Studies in humans and animals indicate that predictable and unpredictable aversive events can induce phasic and sustained fear, respectively. Research in rodents suggests that anatomically related but distinct neural circuits may mediate phasic and sustained fear. We explored this issue in humans by examining threat predictability in three virtual reality contexts, one in which electric shocks were predictably signaled by a cue, a second in which shocks occurred unpredictably but never paired with a cue, and a third in which no shocks were delivered. Evidence of threat-induced phasic and sustained fear was presented using fear ratings and skin conductance. Utilizing recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we were able to conduct whole-brain fMRI at relatively high spatial resolution and still have enough sensitivity to detect transient and sustained signal changes in the basal forebrain. We found that both predictable and unpredictable threat evoked transient activity in the dorsal amygdala, but that only unpredictable threat produced sustained activity in a forebrain region corresponding to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis complex. Consistent with animal models hypothesizing a role for the cortex in generating sustained fear, sustained signal increases to unpredictable threat were also found in anterior insula and a frontoparietal cortical network associated with hypervigilance. In addition, unpredictable threat led to transient activity in the ventral amygdala-hippocampal area and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, as well as transient activation and subsequent deactivation of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, limbic structures that have been implicated in the regulation of emotional behavior and stress responses. In line with basic findings in rodents, these results provide evidence that phasic and sustained fear in humans may
In late April, John D. Lewis, a historian and classicist at Ashland University, flew to Virginia to deliver a lecture at George Mason University about U.S. policy toward Iran. Mr. Lewis is an admirer of the late Ayn Rand, and he shares her belief that democracies should respond to external attacks without much concern for civilian casualties. He…
Baek, Jong-Suep; Choo, Chee Chong; Tan, Nguan Soon; Loo, Say Chye Joachim
Polymeric particulate delivery systems are vastly explored for the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. However, the preparation of polymeric particulate systems with the capability of providing sustained release of two or more drugs is still a challenge. Herein, poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid, 50:50) hollow microparticles co-loaded with doxorubicin and paclitaxel were developed through double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Hollow microparticles were formed through the addition of an osmolyte into the fabrication process. The benefits of hollow over solid microparticles were found to be higher encapsulation efficiency and a more rapid drug release rate. Further modification of the hollow microparticles was accomplished through the introduction of methyl-β-cyclodextrin. With this, a higher encapsulation efficiency of both drugs and an enhanced cumulative release were achieved. Spheroid study further demonstrated that the controlled release of the drugs from the methyl-β-cyclodextrin -loaded hollow microparticles exhibited enhanced tumor regressions of MCF-7 tumor spheroids. Such hollow dual-drug-loaded hollow microparticles with sustained releasing capabilities may have a potential for future applications in cancer therapy.
Full Text Available The overexpression of activated, myristoylated Akt in the midgut of female transgenic Anopheles stephensi results in resistance to infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum but also decreased lifespan. In the present study, the understanding of mitochondria-dependent midgut homeostasis has been expanded to explain this apparent paradox in an insect of major medical importance. Given that Akt signaling is essential for cell growth and survival, we hypothesized that sustained Akt activation in the mosquito midgut would alter the balance of critical pathways that control mitochondrial dynamics to enhance parasite killing at some cost to survivorship. Toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RNOS rise to high levels in the midgut after blood feeding, due to a combination of high NO production and a decline in FOXO-dependent antioxidants. Despite an apparent increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in young females (3 d, energy deficiencies were apparent as decreased oxidative phosphorylation and increased [AMP]/[ATP] ratios. In addition, mitochondrial mass was lower and accompanied by the presence of stalled autophagosomes in the posterior midgut, a critical site for blood digestion and stem cell-mediated epithelial maintenance and repair, and by functional degradation of the epithelial barrier. By 18 d, the age at which An. stephensi would transmit P. falciparum to human hosts, mitochondrial dysfunction coupled to Akt-mediated repression of autophagy/mitophagy was more evident and midgut epithelial structure was markedly compromised. Inhibition of RNOS by co-feeding of the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME at infection abrogated Akt-dependent killing of P. falciparum that begins within 18 h of infection in 3-5 d old mosquitoes. Hence, Akt-induced changes in mitochondrial dynamics perturb midgut homeostasis to enhance parasite resistance and decrease mosquito infective lifespan. Further, quality control of mitochondrial
Kipp, Kristof; Malloy, Philip J; Smith, Jordan C; Giordanelli, Matthew D; Kiely, Michael T; Geiser, Christopher F; Suchomel, Timothy J
Kipp, K, Malloy, PJ, Smith, J, Giordanelli, MD, Kiely, MT, Geiser, CF, and Suchomel, TJ. Mechanical demands of the hang power clean and jump shrug: a joint-level perspective. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 466-474, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint- and load-dependent changes in the mechanical demands of the lower extremity joints during the hang power clean (HPC) and the jump shrug (JS). Fifteen male lacrosse players were recruited from a National Collegiate Athletic Association DI team, and completed 3 sets of the HPC and JS at 30, 50, and 70% of their HPC 1 repetition maximum (1RM HPC) in a counterbalanced and randomized order. Motion analysis and force plate technology were used to calculate the positive work, propulsive phase duration, and peak concentric power at the hip, knee, and ankle joints. Separate 3-way analysis of variances were used to determine the interaction and main effects of joint, load, and lift type on the 3 dependent variables. The results indicated that the mechanics during the HPC and JS exhibit joint-, load-, and lift-dependent behavior. When averaged across joints, the positive work during both lifts increased progressively with external load, but was greater during the JS at 30 and 50% of 1RM HPC than during the HPC. The JS was also characterized by greater hip and knee work when averaged across loads. The joint-averaged propulsive phase duration was lower at 30% than at 50 and 70% of 1RM HPC for both lifts. Furthermore, the load-averaged propulsive phase duration was greater for the hip than the knee and ankle joint. The joint-averaged peak concentric power was the greatest at 70% of 1RM for the HPC and at 30%-50% of 1RM for the JS. In addition, the joint-averaged peak concentric power of the JS was greater than that of the HPC. Furthermore, the load-averaged peak knee and ankle concentric joint powers were greater during the execution of the JS than the HPC. However, the load-averaged power of all joints differed
Gai, Qing-Yan; Jiao, Jiao; Luo, Meng; Wang, Wei; Yao, Li-Ping; Fu, Yu-Jie
A novel biotechnology approach by combining deacetylation biocatalysis with elicitation of immobilized Penicillium canescens (IPC) in Astragalus membranaceus hairy root cultures (AMHRCs) was proposed for the elevated production of astragaloside IV (AG IV). The highest AG IV accumulation was achieved in 36-day-old AMHRCs co-cultured with IPC for 60 h, which resulted in the enhanced production of AG IV by 14.59-fold in comparison with that in control (0.193 ± 0.007 mg/g DW). Meanwhile, AG IV precursors were almost transformed to AG IV by IPC deacetylation. Moreover, expression of genes involved in AG IV biosynthetic pathway was significantly up-regulated in response to IPC elicitation. Also, FTIR and SEM showed that cell wall lignification was enhanced following IPC treatment and root surface was likely to be IPC deacetylation site. Overall, dual roles of IPC (biocatalyst and elicitor) offered an effective and sustainable way for the mass production of AG IV in AMHRCs. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Miller, Queinnise; Kritsonis, William Allan
Over the years women have played crucial roles in societal leadership. Within the past decade more women have emerged in taking positions of leadership in many areas concerning U.S. education in particularly the highest public position in education, Superintendent. Obtaining, sustaining, and maintaining high positions of power for any career woman…
Full Text Available An important feature of a potential vaccine against HIV is the production of broadly neutralising antibodies (BrNAbs capable of potentially blocking infectivity of a diverse array of HIV strains. BrNAbs naturally arise in some HIV infected individuals after several years of infection and their serum IgG can neutralise various HIV strains across different subtypes. We previously showed that vaccination of cows with HIV gp140 AD8 trimers resulted in a high titre of serum IgG against HIV envelope (Env that had strong BrNAb activity. These polyclonal BrNAbs concentrated into the colostrum during the late stage of pregnancy and can be harvested in vast quantities immediately after calving. In this study, we investigated the effect of prolonged HIV gp140 vaccination on bovine colostrum IgG HIV Env-binding and BrNAb activity over subsequent pregnancies. Repeated immunisation led to a maintained high titre of HIV Env specific IgG in the colostrum batches, but this did not increase through repeated cycles. Colostrum IgG from all batches also strongly competed with sCD4 binding to gp140 Env trimer and with human-derived monoclonal VRC01 and b12 BrNAbs that bind the CD4 binding site (CD4bs. Furthermore, competition neutralisation assays using RSC3 Env gp120 protein core and a derivative CD4bs mutant, RSC3 Δ371I/P363N, showed that CD4bs neutralising antibodies contribute to the neutralising activity of all batches of purified bovine colostrum IgG. This result indicates that the high IgG titre/avidity of anti-CD4bs antibodies with BrNAb activity was achieved during the first year of vaccination and was sustained throughout the years of repeated vaccinations in the cow tested. Although IgG of subsequent colostrum batches may have a higher avidity towards the CD4bs, the overall breadth in neutralisation was not enhanced. This implies that the boosting vaccinations over 4 years elicited a polyclonal antibody response that maintained the proportion of both
Lyon, Russ; Lieberman, Jeremy A; Feiner, John; Burch, Shane
This is an animal experiment using transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEP), mechanically elicited electromyography (EMG), and evoked EMG during spinal nerve root retraction in a pig model. To compare the sensitivity of these 3 electrophysiological measures for a constant retraction force applied to an isolated lumbar nerve root for a specific duration of time. The incidence of nerve root injury during lumbar spine surgery ranges from 0.2% to 31%. Direct retraction of spinal nerve roots may cause these injuries, but the amount and duration of force that may safely be applied is not clear. Using an established porcine model, we examined the changes occurring to multimyotomal TcMEPs, mechanically elicited EMGs, and evoked EMGs during continuous retraction of a nerve root at a constant force applied over 10 minutes. TcMEP, mechanically elicited EMG, and evoked EMG responses were recorded from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in 10 experiments. The dominant root innervating the TA was determined with evoked EMG; preretraction TcMEP and nerve root stimulation threshold (NRT) was obtained. The dominant root was retracted at 2 Newton (N) for 10 minutes. TcMEP trials were elicited every minute during retraction. NRT was measured immediately after retraction. TcMEP and NRT were measured after 10 minutes of recovery. RESULTS.: During the 10 minutes of retraction at 2 N, the amplitude of the TA muscle progressively decreased in all trials in a highly significant curvilinear fashion. The mean TcMEP amplitude decreased 59% +/- 14% from baseline values. The mean NRT after 10 minutes of retraction at 2 N rose to 1.8 +/- 0.7 mA (P EMG activity was variable; tonic EMG was observed in only 2 nerve roots (20%). Three electrophysiologic methods were used intraoperatively to assess neural function during retraction of a single nerve root. Retraction produced consistent changes in TcMEPs and evoked EMG. These 2 methods show promise for assessing the limits on the force and duration
Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander
relevance of hedging effects in the lab. We find no evidence for hedging, comparing the standard 'hedging-prone' belief elicitation treatment to a 'hedging-proof' design in a sequential prisoners' dilemma game. Our findings are strengthened by the absence of hedging even in an additional non...
oriented domain analysis ( FODA ) continues that the re- quirements analyst uses the products of domain analysis when implementing a new system [Kang 90, p...5]. Therefore, FODA does have applicability to requirements elicitation, and will be overviewed in this section. All requirements originate with the...information. For example, with FODA both an entity relationship model and features model are created. The entity relationship model is particularly useful
Complexity theory is a useful tool to study computational issues surrounding the elicitation of preferences, as well as the strategic manipulation of elections aggregating together preferences of multiple agents. We study here the complexity of determining when we can terminate eliciting preferences, and prove that the complexity depends on the elicitation strategy. We show, for instance, that it may be better from a computational perspective to elicit all preferences from one agent at a time...
Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage
BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer (grade 5 of 5 in the guinea-pig maximization test) that is used in various industrial and consumer applications. To prevent sensitization to cobalt and elicitation of allergic cobalt dermatitis, information about the elicitation threshold level...... of cobalt is important. OBJECTIVE: To identify the dermatitis elicitation threshold levels in cobalt-allergic individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Published patch test dose-response studies were reviewed to determine the elicitation dose (ED) levels in dermatitis patients with a previous positive patch test...... reaction to cobalt. A logistic dose-response model was applied to data collected from the published literature to estimate ED values. The 95% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of mean doses that can elicit a reaction in 10% (ED(10)) of a population was calculated with Fieller's method. RESULTS...
Background: Previous studies about patients who have undergone ostomy surgery commonly address the issues of the surgery, complications, preoperative counseling, quality of life, and psychosocial changes following surgery. Only a limited number of studies deal with how technical improvements...... in stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements...... in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...
Groß, Anne; Doerr, Joerg (Ed.)
This report captures elicitation guidelines that were used to investigate infor-mation needs regarding requirements specifications. The guidelines include questionnaires that were used in an eye tracking study, a retrospective evaluation in a software engineering course as well as an evaluation conducted within a tutorial.
Any software development process is the combination of multiple development activities and each activity has a vital role in the software development cycle. Requirement Engineering is the main and basic branch of Software Engineering, it has many phases but the most initial phase is Requirement Elicitation. In this phase requirements are gathered for system development. This paper provides a literature review of the requirements engineering processes performed in traditional and ...
Szmalec, Arnaud; Verbruggen, Frederick; Vandierendonck, André; De Baene, Wouter; Verguts, Tom; Notebaert, Wim
Conflict monitoring theory [M.M. Botvinick, T. Braver, D. Barch, C. Carter, J.D. Cohen, Conflict monitoring and cognitive control, Psychol. Rev. 108 (2001) 625-652] assumes that perceptual ambiguity among choice stimuli elicits response conflict in choice reaction. It hence predicts that response conflict is also involved in elementary variants of choice reaction time (RT) tasks, i.e., those variants that, by contrast with the Stroop task or the Go/No-Go task for instance, are rarely associated with cognitive control. In order to test this prediction, an experiment was designed in which participants performed a simple RT task and a regular between-hand 2-choice RT task under three different levels of stimulus ambiguity. The data show that response conflict, as measured by the N2 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP), was elicited in the 2-choice RT task but not in the simple RT task and that the degree of response conflict in the 2-choice RT task was a function of stimulus ambiguity. These results show that response conflict is also present in a regular choice RT task which is traditionally not considered to be a measure of cognitive conflict.
Martin, Tara G; Burgman, Mark A; Fidler, Fiona; Kuhnert, Petra M; Low-Choy, Samantha; McBride, Marissa; Mengersen, Kerrie
Expert knowledge is used widely in the science and practice of conservation because of the complexity of problems, relative lack of data, and the imminent nature of many conservation decisions. Expert knowledge is substantive information on a particular topic that is not widely known by others. An expert is someone who holds this knowledge and who is often deferred to in its interpretation. We refer to predictions by experts of what may happen in a particular context as expert judgments. In general, an expert-elicitation approach consists of five steps: deciding how information will be used, determining what to elicit, designing the elicitation process, performing the elicitation, and translating the elicited information into quantitative statements that can be used in a model or directly to make decisions. This last step is known as encoding. Some of the considerations in eliciting expert knowledge include determining how to work with multiple experts and how to combine multiple judgments, minimizing bias in the elicited information, and verifying the accuracy of expert information. We highlight structured elicitation techniques that, if adopted, will improve the accuracy and information content of expert judgment and ensure uncertainty is captured accurately. We suggest four aspects of an expert elicitation exercise be examined to determine its comprehensiveness and effectiveness: study design and context, elicitation design, elicitation method, and elicitation output. Just as the reliability of empirical data depends on the rigor with which it was acquired so too does that of expert knowledge. ©2011 Australian Governmemt Conservation Biology©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.
Beers, P.J.; Bots, P.G.W.
Constructing interdisciplinary knowledge is particularly difficult because scientific knowledge is situated in its discipline. Researchers must find common ground to share, and this causes high transaction costs. This article reports a method of conceptual analysis to elicit, analyse and compare
Casey, Stephanie C; Bellovin, David I; Felsher, Dean W
Cancer is highly complex. The magnitude of this complexity makes it highly surprising that even the brief suppression of an oncogene can sometimes result in rapid and sustained tumor regression, illustrating that cancers can be 'oncogene addicted' [1-10]. The essential implication is that oncogenes may not only fuel the initiation of tumorigenesis, but in some cases must be excessively activated to maintain a neoplastic state . Oncogene suppression acutely restores normal physiological programs that effectively overrides secondary genetic events and a cancer collapses [12,13]. Oncogene addiction is the description of the dramatic and sustained regression of some cancers upon the specific inactivation of a single oncogene [1-13,14(••),15,16(••)], that can occur through tumor intrinsic [1,2,4,12], but also host immune mechanisms [17-23]. Notably, oncogene inactivation elicits a host immune response that involves specific immune effectors and cytokines that facilitate a remodeling of the tumor microenvironment including the shut down of angiogenesis and the induction of cellular senescence of tumor cells [16(••)]. Hence, immune effectors are not only critically involved in tumor prevention, initiation [17-19], and progression , but also appear to be essential to tumor regression upon oncogene inactivation [21,22(••),23(••)]. Understanding how the inactivation of an oncogene elicits a systemic signal in the host that prompts a deconstruction of a tumor could have important implications. The combination of oncogene-targeted therapy together with immunomodulatory therapy may be ideal for the development of both robust tumor intrinsic and immunological responses, effectively leading to sustained tumor regression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants’ gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15–65 mm base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions.
Jan Willem Bolderdijk
Full Text Available Innovators (i.e., consumers who are the first to adopt an innovation are pivotal for the societal diffusion of sustainable innovations. But when are innovators most influential? Recent work suggests that morally motivated innovators (i.e., consumers who adopt an innovation out of concern for the welfare of others can make fellow consumers who have not yet adopted that innovation feel morally inadequate. As a self-defense mechanism, those fellow consumers might dismiss these innovators and their choices. As a result, ironically, morally motivated innovators might discourage others to adopt sustainable innovations. In an experimental study, we replicate this pattern, but also show that moral innovators can elicit a more positive response as well. Specifically, our results offer initial evidence that morally motivated innovators may be more inspiring than self-interested innovators, provided that their actions do not directly pose a threat to the moral self-concept of observers. In sum, our research sheds empirical light on the conditions under which innovators are likely to facilitate, rather than slow down the transition to a more sustainable society.
Full Text Available Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ, thymohydroquinone (THQ, and thymol (THY. Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2 elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35±0.8, 2.4±0.2, and 2.46±0.5, resp.. Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production.
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd
We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd
We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Harrison, Martínez-Correa and Swarthout  found that the binary lottery procedure works robustly to induce risk neutrality when subjects are given one risk task defined over...... objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...
ences, history of induced abortions, etc. Attempts to elicit direct information on such sensitive, personal or stigmatizing features invariably end up in nonresponse or evasive untruthful response. The college campus men- tioned in the first paragraph is a case in point. Therefore ingenious methods are required to collect data ...
McKenzie, D.; Siegel, M.
Most migration surveys do not ask about the legal status of migrants due to concerns about the sensitivity of this question. List randomization is a technique that has been used in a number of other social science applications to elicit sensitive information. We trial this technique by adding it to
Sebok, Eva; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Warmink, Jord J.; Stisen, Simon; Høgh Jensen, Karsten
The increasing demand on water resources necessitates a more responsible and sustainable water management requiring a thorough understanding of hydrological processes both on small scale and on catchment scale. On catchment scale, the characterization of hydrological processes is often carried out by calculating a water balance based on the principle of mass conservation in hydrological fluxes. Assuming a perfect water balance closure and estimating one of these fluxes as a residual of the water balance is a common practice although this estimate will contain uncertainties related to uncertainties in the other components. Water balance closure on the catchment scale is also an issue in Denmark, thus, it was one of the research objectives of the HOBE hydrological observatory, that has been collecting data in the Skjern river catchment since 2008. Water balance components in the 1050 km2 Ahlergaarde catchment and the nested 120 km2 Holtum catchment, located in the glacial outwash plan of the Skjern catchment, were estimated using a multitude of methods. As the collected data enables the complex assessment of uncertainty of both the individual water balance components and catchment-scale water balances, the expert elicitation approach was chosen to integrate the results of the hydrological observatory. This approach relies on the subjective opinion of experts whose available knowledge and experience about the subject allows to integrate complex information from multiple sources. In this study 35 experts were involved in a multi-step elicitation process with the aim of (1) eliciting average annual values of water balance components for two nested catchments and quantifying the contribution of different sources of uncertainties to the total uncertainty in these average annual estimates; (2) calculating water balances for two catchments by reaching consensus among experts interacting in form of group discussions. To address the complex problem of water balance closure
Alvarez, Mavis Dora
Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...
Morgan, M. G.
Since the early 1990's the author has been involved in the design and execution of six detailed expert elicitations that, among other things, have obtained subjective judgments from experts that reflect their best judgment in the form of subjective probability density functions, about the value of key climate variables, climate impacts and a technology for mitigation (Morgan and Keith, 1995; Morgan Pitelka and Shevliakova, 2001; Morgan, Adams and Keith, 2006; Zickfeld et al, 2007; Curtright, Morgan and Keith, 2008; Zickfeld, Morgan Keith and Frame, in review). This paper builds on that experience to draw insights about the design and use of expert elicitation in the assessment and analysis of climate change and its impacts. Several trends in responses will be noted. Methodological pitfalls will be discussed. Comparisons will be drawn with the consensus-based methods employed by IPCC, which appear to have produced tighter uncertainty bounds than individual elicitation. The paper will close with thoughts on the possible use of expert elicitation in future IPCC assessments. Support for this work is from the Climate Decision Making Center through a cooperative agreement between the National Science Foundation (SES-0345798) and Carnegie Mellon University. References: M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Subjective Judgments by Climate Experts," Environmental Science & Technology, 29(10), 468A-476A, October 1995. M. Granger Morgan, Louis F. Pitelka and Elena Shevliakova, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystems," Climatic Change, 49, 279-307, 2001. M. Granger Morgan, Peter Adams, and David W. Keith, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Aerosol Forcing," Climatic Change, 75, 195-214, 2006. Kirsten Zickfeld, Anders Levermann, Till Kuhlbrodt. Stefan Rahmstorf, M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Expert Judgements on the Response on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to Climate Change," Climatic Change, 82, 235-265, 2007
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nielsen, Niels Asger
of dimensions directed from theories of consumer buying behaviour. Although a number of differences between the techniques are identified in the study, the main findings are that the robustness of the different techniques for attribute elicitation is considerable Udgivelsesdato: JUN......The critical first step for most instruments used in analysing consumer choice and motivation is the identification of product attributes which are important to the consumer and for which there are differences among the available product alternatives. A number of techniques, ranging from...... the complex elicitation of idiosyncratic attributes or simpler picking procedures, has been developed to elicitate such attributes. The purpose of the study presented here is to com-pare attributes of a low involvement product, viz. vegetable oil, elicited by five different techniques on a number...
Liao, Lewis; Corsi, Armando; Lockshin, Larry
Emotion has been an important concept in many areas of consumer research such as judgment, decision-making and advertising. Little research has been done on emotion in packaging adopting the physiological measures used in other areas. This paper draws on past studies in advertising that measure...... emotional responses toward image, colour and font, and apply them to packaging research. The study tests the extent at which packaging can elicit consumers’ spontaneous emotional response for each of those three elements, by using skin conductance, facial electromyography (EMG) and selfassessment scales....... The results show that packaging can elicit an emotional response via different elements. The paper also raises concerns about the accuracy of using selfreport measures of emotional responses to packaging research....
Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Forchhammer, B. H.; Maier, Anja
is to include the large number of users required to represent the entire population. Failure to do so may lead to a solution that is over specialised to fit the needs of only a small subset of users. Both challenges are common in healthcare applications in which the end-user is also care recipient (or patient......). What if instead of trying to engage vastly many users in design activities, we could hear the voice of the patient by tapping into existing channels within the health care service system? Many interactions between healthcare providers and patients involve knowledge transfer. Observing these could...... for pervasive healthcare technology, in which established methods for engaging users to elicit their needs can be difficult or even impossible to apply. In this paper we document our needs elicitation process in a relevant example as a method story, and present our findings and reflections on this as the key...
Full Text Available Utilization of expert effort estimation approach shows promising results when it is applied to software development process. It is based on judgment and decision making process and due to comparative advantages extensively used especially in situations when classic models cannot be accounted for. This becomes even more accentuated in today’s highly dynamical project environment. Confronted with these facts companies are placing ever greater focus on their employees, specifically on their competences. Competences are defined as knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform job assignments. During effort estimation process different underlying expert competences influence the outcome i.e. judgments they express. Special problem here is the elicitation, from an input collection, of those competences that are responsible for accurate estimates. Based on these findings different measures can be taken to enhance estimation process. The approach used in study presented in this paper was targeted at elicitation of expert estimator competences responsible for production of accurate estimates. Based on individual competences scores resulting from performed modeling experts were ranked using weighted scoring method and their performance evaluated. Results confirm that experts with higher scores in competences identified by applied models in general exhibit higher accuracy during estimation process. For the purpose of modeling data mining methods were used, specifically the multilayer perceptron neural network and the classification and regression decision tree algorithms. Among other, applied methods are suitable for the purpose of elicitation as in a sense they mimic the ways human brains operate. Data used in the study was collected from real projects in the company specialized for development of IT solutions in telecom domain. The proposed model, applied methodology for elicitation of expert competences and obtained results give evidence that in
Wu, David W-L; DiGiacomo, Alessandra; Lenkic, Peter J; Wong, Vanessa K; Kingstone, Alan
Previous observational work revealed that transient populations in a sustainable building disposed of waste more accurately when compared to patrons in a non-sustainable building. The current study uses an experimental design to replicate this observed effect and to investigate whether or not the built environment influences motivational factors to impact behavior. We find support that a building designed and built to communicate an atmosphere of sustainability can influence waste disposal behavior. Participants in the sustainable building used the garbage receptacle significantly less and compensated by tending to select the containers and organics receptacle more, which actually resulted in more errors overall. Our findings suggest that building atmospherics can motivate people to recycle more. However, atmospherics alone do not appear to be sufficient to elicit the desired performance outcome.
Firmino, Paulo Renato A.; dos Santos Neto, Ademir B.
In probability elicitation exercises it has been usual to considerer scoring rules (SRs) to measure the performance of experts when inferring about a given unknown, Θ, for which the true value, θ*, is (or will shortly be) known to the experimenter. Mathematically, SRs quantify the discrepancy between f(θ) (the distribution reflecting the expert's uncertainty about Θ) and d(θ), a zero-one indicator function of the observation θ*. Thus, a remarkable characteristic of SRs is to contrast expert's beliefs with the observation θ*. The present work aims at extending SRs concepts and formulas for the cases where Θ is aleatory, highlighting advantages of goodness-of-fit and entropy-like measures. Conceptually, it is argued that besides of evaluating the personal performance of the expert, SRs may also play a role when comparing the elicitation processes adopted to obtain f(θ). Mathematically, it is proposed to replace d(θ) by g(θ), the distribution that model the randomness of Θ, and do also considerer goodness-of-fit and entropylike metrics, leading to SRs that measure the adherence of f(θ) to g(θ). The implications of this alternative perspective are discussed and illustrated by means of case studies based on the simulation of controlled experiments. The usefulness of the proposed approach for evaluating the performance of experts and elicitation processes is investigated.
... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 Part I CLIMATE CHANGE Soils and Sustainable Agriculture: A Review : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Rattan Lal 15 Soils and Food Sufficiency...
Dam, van Y.K.
In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the
Coppersmith, K. J.
This report presents results of the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation (UZFMEE) project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The objective of this project was to identify and assess the uncertainties associated with certain key components of the unsaturated zone flow system at Yucca Mountain. This assessment reviewed the data inputs, modeling approaches, and results of the unsaturated zone flow model (termed the ''UZ site-scale model'') being developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). In addition to data input and modeling issues, the assessment focused on percolation flux (volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area) at the potential repository horizon. An understanding of unsaturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the unsaturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent physical controls on unsaturated zone flow and the parameter values used in the models. To ensure that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and uncertainties about key issues regarding the unsaturated zone at the Yucca
The importance of imagination in understanding sustainability has often been overlooked. This paper examines acts of imagining in teaching and learning that elicit and enable the emotive experience of empathy. I frame ways of thinking about imagination and empathy through theoretical perspectives of otherness. I report on research findings into…
Giné, Xavier; McKenzie, David; Delavande, Adeline
Eliciting subjective probability distributions in developing countries is often based on visual aids such as beans to represent probabilities and intervals on a sheet of paper to represent the support. The authors conducted an experiment in India that tested the sensitivity of elicited expectations to variations in three facets of the elicitation methodology: the number of beans, the desig...
Full Text Available How do our brains respond when we are being watched by a group of people? Despite the large volume of literature devoted to face processing, this question has received very little attention. Here we measured the effects on the face-sensitive N170 and other ERPs to viewing displays of one, two and three faces in two experiments. In Experiment 1, overall image brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, whereas in Experiment 2 local contrast and brightness of individual faces were not manipulated. A robust positive-negative-positive (P100-N170-P250 ERP complex and an additional late positive ERP, the P400, were elicited to all stimulus types. As the number of faces in the display increased, N170 amplitude increased for both stimulus sets, and latency increased in Experiment 2. P100 latency and P250 amplitude were affected by changes in overall brightness and contrast, but not by the number of faces in the display per se. In Experiment 1 when overall brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, later ERP (P250 and P400 latencies showed differences as a function of hemisphere. Hence, our data indicate that N170 increases its magnitude when multiple faces are seen, apparently impervious to basic low-level stimulus features including stimulus size. Outstanding questions remain regarding category-sensitive neural activity that is elicited to viewing multiple items of stimulus categories other than faces.
Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K
We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.
Full Text Available An elicitation is a verbal request for information reflecting one's interests, concerns or perplexities in conversation. Elicitation behavior in studies of information retrieval interaction is, in fact, the micro-level of information-seeking behavior in which the user and the intermediary exchange information to fill the gaps in one's internal state of knowledge. This study aims to understand the intermediary's elicitation behavior in terms of linguistic forms, communicative functions (illocutionary force and utterance purposes (semantic contents and further to identify the relationship between intermediary's individual differences and search results satisfaction. Research methods include participatory observation, conversation analysis, content analysis and statistical analysis of elicitation frequencies and questionnaires. Our research results successfully identify the three dimensions of intermediary's elicitation behavior and characterize intermediary's inquiring minds and elicitation styles. Further analysis shows that there exists a significant relationship between inquiring minds/elicitation styles and user's relevance judgment of search results.[Article content in Chinese
Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch
Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...
Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina
The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.
Diaby, Vakaramoko; Sanogo, Vassiki; Moussa, Kouame Richard
In this paper, the readers are introduced to ELICIT, an imprecise weight elicitation technique for multicriteria decision analysis for healthcare. The application of ELICIT consists of two steps: the rank ordering of evaluation criteria based on decision-makers' (DMs) preferences using the principal component analysis; and the estimation of criteria weights and their descriptive statistics using the variable interdependent analysis and the Monte Carlo method. The application of ELICIT is illustrated with a hypothetical case study involving the elicitation of weights for five criteria used to select the best device for eye surgery. The criteria were ranked from 1-5, based on a strict preference relationship established by the DMs. For each criterion, the deterministic weight was estimated as well as the standard deviation and 95% credibility interval. ELICIT is appropriate in situations where only ordinal DMs' preferences are available to elicit decision criteria weights.
Andersen, Nicolai Bo
This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...
Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lin, Jianyan; Qian, Miao K; Lee, Kang
Widespread cheating can undermine rules that are necessary for maintaining social order. Preventing cheating can be a challenge, especially with regard to children, who as a result of their limited executive function skills may have particular difficulty with resisting temptation to cheat. We examined one approach designed to help children resist this temptation: eliciting a verbal commitment to not cheat. We tested 4- to 7-year-olds (total N = 330) and found that starting at 5 years of age, a verbal commitment to not cheat led to a substantial reduction in cheating. The results suggest that verbal commitments can be used to help children overcome temptations and comply with rules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Financial markets reveal what investors think about the future, and prediction markets are used to forecast election results. Could markets also encourage people to reveal private information, such as subjective judgments (e.g., "Are you satisfied with your life?") or unverifiable facts? This paper shows how to design such markets, called Bayesian markets. People trade an asset whose value represents the proportion of affirmative answers to a question. Their trading position then reveals their own answer to the question. The results of this paper are based on a Bayesian setup in which people use their private information (their "type") as a signal. Hence, beliefs about others' types are correlated with one's own type. Bayesian markets transform this correlation into a mechanism that rewards truth telling. These markets avoid two complications of alternative methods: they need no knowledge of prior information and no elicitation of metabeliefs regarding others' signals.
Martín-Fernández, Susana; Martinez-Falero, Eugenio
This paper presents a methodology to elicit the preferences of any individual in the assessment of sustainable forest management at the stand level. The elicitation procedure was based on the comparison of the sustainability of pairs of forest locations. A sustainability map of the whole territory was obtained according to the individual's preferences. Three forest sustainability indicators were pre-calculated for each point in a study area in a Scots pine forest in the National Park of Sierra de Guadarrama in the Madrid Region in Spain to obtain the best management plan with the sustainability map. We followed a participatory process involving fifty people to assess the sustainability of the forest management and the methodology. The results highlighted the demand for conservative forest management, the usefulness of the methodology for managers, and the importance and necessity of incorporating stakeholders into forestry decision-making processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Health-care providers are currently facing a huge challenge. At one end they are expending a huge amount of time and energies on health-care delivery including time spent on upgradation of their knowledge and skills (to remain abreast with the field and be able to provide state-of-art patient care), sometimes even at the expense of themselves and their families. On the other hand they are not receiving adequate re-imbursement for their efforts. To compound the problem several "traders" have entered the profession who are well adept in the materialistic approach abandoning the ethics (which currently happens to be the flavor of society in general), giving a bad name to the whole profession and causing severe grief, embarrassment and even dis-illusion to an average physician. The solution to the problem may lie in weeding out these "black sheep" as also realization by the society that the whole profession should not be wrongly labeled, rather a hard toiling and a morally driven practitioner should be given his/her due worth. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gunter, Aleksei, 1979-
Emor'i uuring näitab, et europarlamendi valimistel osaleb kõigest 33 protsenti valijatest ning valik toimub isikute, mitte erakondade järgi. Soosikuteks ennustatakse Toomas Hendrik Ilvest ning Reformierakonda. Tabel
Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg
that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...
Villarreal Herrera, Georgina
Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability
Grindsted, Thomas Skou
. Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...... campus performance....
Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent
of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...
Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert
Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…
Parsana, Ashwini J.; Li, Nanxin; Brown, Thomas H.
Rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are ethologically-essential social signals. Under natural conditions, 22 kHz USVs and 50 kHz USVs are emitted in association with negative and positive emotional states, respectively. Our first experiment examined freezing behavior elicited in naïve Sprague-Dawley rats by a 22 kHz USV, a 50 kHz USV, and frequency-matched tones. None of the stimuli elicited freezing, which is the most commonly-used index of fear. The second experiment examined single-unit responses to these stimuli in the amygdala (AM), which is well-known for its role in innate and acquired fear responses. Among 127 well-discriminated single units, 82% were auditory-responsive. Elicited firing patterns were classified using a multidimensional scheme that included transient (phasic) responses to the stimulus onsets and/or offsets as well as sustained (tonic) responses during the stimulus. Tonic responses, which are not ordinarily evaluated in AM, were 4.4-times more common than phasic responses. The 22 kHz stimuli tended to elicit tonic increases in the firing rates, whereas the 50 kHz stimuli more often elicited tonic decreases in firing rates. These opposing tonic responses correspond with the ethological valence of USVs in the two frequency bands. Thus, a relatively-small sample of single-unit responses in AM furnished a more sensitive index of emotional valence than freezing behavior. Latency analysis suggested that stimuli in the two frequency bands are processed through different pathways to AM. One possible interpretation is that phasic responses in AM reflect the detection of a stimulus change, whereas tonic responses indicate the valence of the detected stimulus. PMID:21911010
Johnson, Sindhu R; Tomlinson, George A; Hawker, Gillian A; Granton, John T; Feldman, Brian M
Bayesian analysis can incorporate clinicians' beliefs about treatment effectiveness into models that estimate treatment effects. Many elicitation methods are available, but it is unclear if any confer advantages based on principles of measurement science. We review belief-elicitation methods for Bayesian analysis and determine if any of them had an incremental value over the others based on its validity, reliability, and responsiveness. A systematic review was performed. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, Current Index to Statistics, MathSciNet, and Zentralblatt Math were searched using the terms (prior OR prior probability distribution) AND (beliefs OR elicitation) AND (Bayes OR Bayesian). Studies were evaluated on: design, question stem, response options, analysis, consideration of validity, reliability, and responsiveness. We identified 33 studies describing methods for elicitation in a Bayesian context. Elicitation occurred in cross-sectional studies (n=30, 89%), to derive point estimates with individual-level variation (n=19; 58%). Although 64% (n=21) considered validity, 24% (n=8) reliability, 12% (n=4) responsiveness of the elicitation methods, only 12% (n=4) formally tested validity, 6% (n=2) tested reliability, and none tested responsiveness. We have summarized methods of belief elicitation for Bayesian priors. The validity, reliability, and responsiveness of elicitation methods have been infrequently evaluated. Until comparative studies are performed, strategies to reduce the effects of bias on the elicitation should be used. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda
Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.
Jonas Brännström, K; Nilsson, Patrik
The octave or Deutsch illusion occurs when two tones, separated by about one octave, are presented simultaneously but alternating between ears, such that when the low tone is presented to the left ear the high tone is presented to the right ear and vice versa. Most subjects hear a single tone that alternates both between ears and in pitch; i.e., they hear a low pitched tone in one ear alternating with a high pitched tone in the other ear. The present study examined whether the illusion can be elicited by aperiodic signals consisting of low-frequency band-pass filtered noises with overlapping spectra. The amount of spectral overlap was held constant, but the high- and low-frequency content of the signals was systematically varied. The majority of subjects perceived an auditory illusion in terms of a dominant ear for pitch and lateralization by frequency, as proposed by Deutsch [(1975a) Sci. Am. 233, 92-104]. Furthermore, the salience of the illusion increased as the high frequency of the content in the signal increased. Since no harmonics were present in the stimuli, it is highly unlikely that this illusion is perceived on the basis of binaural diplacusis or harmonic binaural fusion.
Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter
The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
The expression of uncertainty has hitherto been seen as an add-on—first an estimate is obtained and then uncertainty in that estimate is evaluated. We argue that quantification of uncertainty should be an intrinsic part of measurement and that the measurement result should be a probability distribution for the measurand. Full quantification of uncertainties in measurement, recognizing and quantifying all sources of uncertainty, is rarely simple. Many potential sources of uncertainty can effectively only be quantified by the application of expert judgement. Scepticism about the validity or reliability of expert judgement has meant that these sources of uncertainty have often been overlooked, ignored or treated in a qualitative, narrative way. But the consequence of this is that reported expressions of uncertainty regularly understate the true degree of uncertainty in measurements. This article first discusses the concept of quantifying uncertainty in measurement, and then considers some of the areas where expert judgement is needed in order to quantify fully the uncertainties in measurement. The remainder of the article is devoted to describing methodology for eliciting expert knowledge.
Diaz Anadon, Laura; Nemet, Gregory F.; Verdolini, Elena
Characterization of the anticipated performance of energy technologies to inform policy decisions increasingly relies on expert elicitation. Knowledge about how elicitation design factors impact the probabilistic estimates emerging from these studies is, however, scarce. We focus on nuclear power, a large-scale low-carbon power option, for which future cost estimates are important for the design of energy policies and climate change mitigation efforts. We use data from three elicitations in t...
Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim
This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...
Reitan Andersen, Kirsti
The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...
This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.
Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía
Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...
Lystbæk, Christian Tang
This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...
Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.
Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.
Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector
Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.
Millan, J.; Smyser, C.
The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.
Weick, Mario; McCall, Cade; Blascovich, Jim
Sustained, direct eye-gaze—staring—is a powerful cue that elicits strong responses in many primate and nonprimate species. The present research examined whether fleeting experiences of high and low power alter individuals’ spontaneous responses to the staring gaze of an onlooker. We report two experimental studies showing that sustained, direct gaze elicits spontaneous avoidance tendencies in low power perceivers and spontaneous approach tendencies in high power perceivers. These effects emerged during interactions with different targets and when power was manipulated between-individuals (Study 1) and within-individuals (Study 2), thus attesting to a high degree of flexibility in perceivers’ reactions to gaze cues. Together, the present findings indicate that power can break the cycle of complementarity in individuals’ spontaneous responding: Low power perceivers complement and move away from, and high power perceivers reciprocate and move toward, staring onlookers. PMID:28903712
Magalhães, José; Ferreira, Rita; Marques, Franklim; Olivera, Eduardo; Soares, José; Ascensão, António
Indoor climbing is a worldwide sport with particular physiological and physical demands. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of sustained indoor climbing until exhaustion on plasma oxidative stress markers, and to relate it to whole-body dynamic exercise performed at the same percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Fourteen male indoor climbers continuously climbed a competition-style route until exhaustion. Oxygen consumption and heart rate were continuously monitored during the climbing exercise. One week later, subjects performed a treadmill running protocol with the same duration and percentage of VO2max as that of climbing exercise. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately after, and 1 h after both exercise protocols to analyze plasma levels of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA), protein sulfhydryl (-SH) and carbonyl (CG) groups, total antioxidant status (TAS) and uric acid (UA), and total blood leukocytes, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. Compared with running, climbing significantly increased the %GSSG, MDA, CG, TAS, and UA and decreased the GSH and -SH content. Blood counts of total leukocytes and neutrophils increased immediately after and 1 h after both running and climbing (Pclimbing than in running (Pclimbing (Pindoor climbing induces plasma oxidative stress. Moreover, results suggest that an ischemia-reperfusion prooxidant-based mechanism related to climbers' sustained and intermittent isometric forearm muscle contractions might have significantly contributed to observed plasma oxidative stress.
We explore the use of video and photo elicitation in a research study undertaken to understand the way in which preschool teachers perceive and construct their provision of children's educational experiences. We explore the value of visually elicited interviews based on video footage and photographs captured during ...
Schlag, K.H.; van der Weele, J.J.
We show how to elicit the beliefs of an expert in the form of a "most likely interval", a set of future outcomes that are deemed more likely than any other outcome. Our method, called the Most Likely Interval elicitation rule (MLI), asks the expert for an interval and pays according to how well the
Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle
Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words elicit slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli elicit a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing…
Wu, David W.-L.; DiGiacomo, Alessandra; Lenkic, Peter J.; Wong, Vanessa K.; Kingstone, Alan
Previous observational work revealed that transient populations in a sustainable building disposed of waste more accurately when compared to patrons in a non-sustainable building. The current study uses an experimental design to replicate this observed effect and to investigate whether or not the built environment influences motivational factors to impact behavior. We find support that a building designed and built to communicate an atmosphere of sustainability can influence waste disposal behavior. Participants in the sustainable building used the garbage receptacle significantly less and compensated by tending to select the containers and organics receptacle more, which actually resulted in more errors overall. Our findings suggest that building atmospherics can motivate people to recycle more. However, atmospherics alone do not appear to be sufficient to elicit the desired performance outcome. PMID:26731651
The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship...... councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...
The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a
Montague, Shelby A; Mathew, Dennis; Carlson, John R
An intriguing question in the field of olfaction is how animals distinguish among structurally similar odorants. We systematically analyzed olfactory responses elicited by a panel of 25 pyrazines. We found that structurally similar pyrazines elicit a wide range of behavioral responses from Drosophila larvae. Each pyrazine was tested against all functional receptors of the larval Odor receptor (Or) repertoire, yielding 525 odorant-receptor combinations. Different pyrazines vary markedly in the responses they elicit from the Or repertoire, with most strong responses deriving from two receptors, Or33b and Or59a. Surprisingly, 2-ethylpyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine, which elicit strikingly similar physiological responses across the receptor repertoire, elicit dramatically different behavioral responses. A small fraction of odorant-receptor combinations elicit remarkably long responses. These responses, which we term "supersustained" responses, are receptor specific and odorant specific, and can last for minutes. Such supersustained responses may prevent olfactory neurons from reporting contemporaneous information about the local odor environment. Odors that elicit such responses could provide a novel means of controlling insect pests and vectors of human disease by impairing the location of human hosts, food sources, and mates.
Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.
The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.
New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...
Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle
Abstract. This article examines the concept of sustainable development after the Post-. 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement with particular emphasis on Ethiopia. Various African countries are vulnerable to climate change, as is evidenced by recent droughts. Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in.
This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.
Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich
Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The
This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.
Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.
Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.
Kristensen, Niels Heine
Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...
dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong
Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence
This paper proposes that a cognitive perspective on corporate sustainability and competitiveness might allow new insights into the question of the business case. The paper explores how respondents from 12 firms make sense of their firm's investments in corporate sustainability activities...... by analyzing the mental models evoked. The interviews showed that a business case perspective emerged as the dominant logic. A subsequent analysis of the content of the knowledge schemas that were elicited surfaced four dimensions of corporate sustainability induced competitive advantages: risk reduction......). Respondents from firms with higher perceived performance drew on more complex mental models to represent the links between corporate sustainability and competitiveness....
Wen, Bin; Luo, Z.; Liang, P.
Requirements is the formal expression of user's needs. Also, requirements elicitation is the process of activity focusing on requirements collection. Traditional acquisition methods, such as interview, observation and prototype, are unsuited for the service-oriented software development featuring in
Zupan, Barbra; Babbage, Duncan R
Film clips and narrative text are useful techniques in eliciting emotion in a laboratory setting but have not been examined side-by-side using the same methodology. This study examined the self-identification of emotions elicited by film clip and narrative text stimuli to confirm that selected stimuli appropriately target the intended emotions. Seventy participants viewed 30 film clips, and 40 additional participants read 30 narrative texts. Participants identified the emotion experienced (happy, sad, angry, fearful, neutral-six stimuli each). Eighty-five percent of participants self-identified the target emotion for at least two stimuli for all emotion categories of film clips, except angry (only one) and for all categories of narrative text, except fearful (only one). The most effective angry text was correctly identified 74% of the time. Film clips were more effective in eliciting all target emotions in participants for eliciting the correct emotion (angry), intensity rating (happy, sad), or both (fearful).
He, Daqing; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Oard, Douglas W; Karakos, Damianos; Khudanpur, Sanjeev
...) entered additional search terms. Query expansion based on these three types of elicited information yielded statistically significant improvements in R-precision over baselines with and without blind relevance feedback...
We explore the use of video and photo elicitation in a research study undertaken to ... text, since “photography remains closely tied to identity, memory, and presence” ... photographing … influences how the fieldworker is received in the field”.
Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.
The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.
Fiorese, Giulia; Catenacci, Michela; Verdolini, Elena; Bosetti, Valentina
This paper illustrates the main results of an expert elicitation survey on advanced (second and third generation) biofuel technologies. The survey focuses on eliciting probabilistic information on the future costs of advanced biofuels and on the potential role of RD&D (Research, Development and Demonstration) efforts in reducing these costs and in supporting the deployment of biofuels in OECD and non-OECD countries. Fifteen leading experts from different EU member states provide insights on t...
Pepi, M; Marenzi, G C; Agostoni, P G; Doria, E; Barbier, P; Muratori, M; Celeste, F; Guazzi, M D
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the pathophysiological (cardiac function and physical performance) significance of clinically silent interstitial lung water accumulation in patients with moderate heart failure; to use isolated ultrafiltration as a means of extravascular fluid reabsorption. DESIGN--Echocardiographic, Doppler, chest x-ray evaluations, and cardiopulmonary tests at baseline, soon after ultrafiltration (veno venous extracorporeal circuit), and four days, one month, and three months later. SETTING--University institute of cardiology. SUBJECTS--24 patients with heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy or ischaemic myocardial disease with sinus rhythm and ejection fraction less than 35%. Twelve were randomised to ultrafiltration and 12 were taken as controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Left ventricular systolic function (from ultrasonography); Doppler evaluation of mitral, tricuspid, and aortic flow and echo-Doppler determination of cardiac output; radiological score of extravascular lung water; right and left ventricular filling pressures; oxygen consumption at peak exercise and exercise tolerance time in cardiopulmonary tests. RESULTS--Soon after ultrafiltration (1976 (760) ml of fluid removed) the following was observed: a reduction in radiological score of extravascular lung water (from 15(1) to 9(1)) and of right (from 7.1 (2.3) to 2.3 (1.7) mm Hg) and left (from 17.6 (8.8) to 9.5 (6.4) mm Hg) ventricular filling pressures; an increase in oxygen consumption at peak exercise (from 15.8 (3.3) to 17.6 (2) ml/min/kg) and of tolerance time (from 444 (138) to 508 (134) s); a slight decrease in atrial and ventricular dimensions; no changes in the systolic function of the left ventricle; a reduction of the early to late filling ratio in both ventricles (mitral valve from 2 (2) to 1.1 (1.1)); (tricuspid valve from 1.3 (1.3) to 0.69 (0.18)) and an increase in the deceleration time of mitral and tricuspid flow, reflecting a redistribution of filling to late diastole. Variations in the ventricular filling pattern, lung water content, and functional performance persisted for three months in all cases. None of these changes was detected in the control group. CONCLUSIONS--Reduction of interstitial lung water was probably the mechanism whereby ultrafiltration modified the pattern of filling of the two ventricles and improved functional performance. PMID:8038023
Full Text Available In recent decades, the image of the international business environment has changed significantly. Studies conducted by UNCTAD shows that corporate phenomenon developments in the world economy is growing. Without claiming to present an exhaustive topic so vast we tried to capture some "facets" of sustainable development from the perspective of multinational corporations, given the expansion of these economic entities and strengthening their power in the global economy. We present more negative aspects of the actions of multinational corporations in terms of sustainable development, it is very important to know both sides of the coin, which will not only help transnational giants including release. Based on issues such as corporate social responsibility, environmental pollution and workers' rights, we sought to counter official statements. The conclusion is that these economic entities are real forces that can not be ignored in today's world and the obvious problem of sustainable development can not be addressed independently of the phenomenon, context we also identified some possible solutions to conflict of corporations and essence of the concept of sustainable development.
Umma Khatuna Jannat
Full Text Available A recent technology investigates the role of concern in the environment software that is green software system. Now it is widely accepted that the green software can fit all process of software development. It is also suitable for the requirement elicitation process. Now a days software companies have used requirements elicitation techniques in an enormous majority. Because this process plays more and more important roles in software development. At the present time most of the requirements elicitation process is improved by using some techniques and tools. So that the intention of this research suggests to adapt green software engineering for the intention of existing elicitation technique and recommend suitable actions for improvement. This research being involved qualitative data. I used few keywords in my searching procedure then searched IEEE ACM Springer Elsevier Google scholar Scopus and Wiley. Find out articles which published in 2010 until 2016. Finding from the literature review Identify 15 traditional requirement elicitations factors and 23 improvement techniques to convert green engineering. Lastly The paper includes a squat review of the literature a description of the grounded theory and some of the identity issues related finding of the necessity for requirements elicitation improvement techniques.
in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...... biophysical, distributional and economic conditions for high consumption in rich countries and then zooms in on the coevolution of provision systems and consumption, and how consumption is shaped by practices and projects in everyday life. Furthermore, the paper discusses whether and how transition...
Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten
The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems that ...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings.......The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...
Olaoye, A.D.. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Abstract. This study investigated the sustainability of the benefits derived from. Critical Ecosystem Management Project in Ogun State. Interview schedule was used to elicit information from 166 respondents randomly ...
This study investigates influences on the sustainability of a computers-in-schools project during the implementation phase thereof. The Computer Assisted Learning in Schools (CALIS) Project (1992–1996) is the unit of analysis. A qualitative case study research design is used to elicit data, in the form of participant ...
Full Text Available Foundry Alfe Chem is an industrial reality working in the field of lubrication and chemical auxiliaries for industrial processes, which falls within the framework of the emerging and increasingly important «green chemistry». The goal of the company is to develop products that are more environmentally friendly by using raw materials from renewable sources; specifically, Foundry Alfe Chem has a program of self-sustainability that contemplates, for the foreseeable future, the direct production of renewable raw materials. The company has developed a new dedicated product line, Olitema, whose purpose is to offer highly technological solutions with complete environmental sustainability. In this context, Foundry Alfe CHEM has created a new product which represents a breakthrough in the class of HFC hydraulic fluids: Ecosafe Plus is a biodegradable fire-resistant hydraulic fluid with high engineering and technological performances, high environmental sustainability and the best security guarantees in workplaces. Its formulation is glycols-free, and it allows for easier disposal of the exhausted fluid, compared to a traditional water/ glycol-based HFC hydraulic fluid. For what concern the technological properties, Ecosafe Plus has been tested by accredited laboratories with tribological trials (4 Ball wear test ASTM D 4172, Ball on disc test ASTM 6425, Brugger test DIN 51347, Vickers test ASTM D 2882, with elastomer compatibility test (ASTM D 471 and biodegradability test (OECD 310 F.
Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard
and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...... as subject to substantial regulatory compliance obligations external to the process of procurement. In short, procurement has been transformed in a way to enforce regulatory obligations that are not intrinsic to the process of buying. This leads to the conclusion that questions such as the cost and trade...
Dam, van Y.K.
Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the
Sinclair, Nicholas C; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Perera, Thushara; Gillespie, Lisa N; McDermott, Hugh J; Ayton, Lauren N; Blamey, Peter J
Phosphenes are the fundamental building blocks for presenting meaningful visual information to the visually impaired using a bionic eye device. The aim of this study was to characterize the size, shape, and location of phosphenes elicited using a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. Three patients with profound vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa were implanted with a suprachoroidal electrode array, which was used to deliver charge-balanced biphasic constant-current pulses at various rates, amplitudes, and durations to produce phosphenes. Tasks assessing phosphene appearance, location, overlap, and the patients' ability to recognize phosphenes were performed using a custom psychophysics setup. Phosphenes were reliably elicited in all three patients, with marked differences in the reported appearances between patients and between electrodes. Phosphene shapes ranged from simple blobs to complex forms with multiple components in both space and time. Phosphene locations within the visual field generally corresponded to the retinotopic position of the stimulating electrodes. Overlap between phosphenes elicited from adjacent electrodes was observed with one patient, which reduced with increasing electrode separation. In a randomized recognition task, two patients correctly identified the electrode being stimulated for 57.2% and 23% of trials, respectively. Phosphenes of varying complexity were successfully elicited in all three patients, indicating that the suprachoroidal space is an efficacious site for electrically stimulating the retina. The recognition scores obtained with two patients suggest that a suprachoroidal implant can elicit phosphenes containing unique information. This information may be useful when combining phosphenes into more complex and meaningful images that provide functional vision.
Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on modeling machine emotion elicitation in a socially intelligent service, the typing tutor. The aim of the study is to evaluate the extent to which the machine emotion elicitation can influence the affective state (valence and arousal of the learner during a tutoring session. The tutor provides continuous real-time emotion elicitation via graphically rendered emoticons, as an emotional feedback to learner’s performance. Good performance is rewarded by the positive emoticon, based on the notion of positive reinforcement. Facial emotion recognition software is used to analyze the affective state of the learner for later evaluation. Experimental results show the correlation between the positive emoticon and the learner’s affective state is significant for all 13 (100% test participants on the arousal dimension and for 9 (69% test participants on both affective dimensions. The results also confirm our hypothesis and show that the machine emotion elicitation is significant for 11 (85% of 13 test participants. We conclude that the machine emotion elicitation with simple graphical emoticons has a promising potential for the future development of the tutor.
Full Text Available The study is an investigation into the various ways pulpit preachers in Christian religion elicit responses from their congregation. The data for the study consists of messages delivered from the pulpit at denominational, non-denominational and interdenominational Christian services in South-Western Nigeria. Working within the framework of Sociolinguistics and Discourse Analysis, the analyses reveal that preachers control the discourse, while the worshippers share in the process of creation of the text as it unfolds. For instance, they determine what responses are given, how they should be given and when to give them. It was also observed that response elicitation is done through the use of interrogatives, declaratives and imperatives, and such responses may come in forms of speech, physical action, and mental behaviour. Our analyses reveal a preponderance of spoken responses in the data. Five kinds of spoken responses are identified in the data, namely: Conventional Answer (CA, Response to Prayers (RP, Repeated Statements (RS, Gap Filling (GF, and Corrected Statement (CS. The study concludes that despite that the way responses are elicited depends largely on the practices of any religious community, certain patterns of elicitation are common in ECPD. The degree of control and the kind of response elicited by a preacher are determined by the language expectations of the community. Such expectations include knowledge of the language code, principles, norms, use, situation and the world of such religious communities.
Sockolow, Paulina; Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Chou, Edgar Y; Wojciechowicz, Christine
Home care agencies are initiating "patient health goal elicitation" activities as part of home care admission planning. We categorized elicited goals and identified "clinically informative" goals at a home care agency. We examined patient goals that admitting clinicians documented in the point-of-care electronic health record; conducted content analysis on patient goal data to develop a coding scheme; grouped goal themes into codes; assigned codes to each goal; and identified goals that were in the patient voice. Of the 1,763 patient records, 16% lacked a goal; only 15 goals were in a patient's voice. Nurse and physician experts identified 12 of the 20 codes as clinically important accounting for 82% of goal occurrences. The most frequent goal documented was safety/falls (23%). Training and consistent communication of the intent and operationalization of patient goal elicitation may address the absence of patient voice and the less than universal recording of home care patients' goals.
Chen, Yu-Wen; Tzeng, Jann-Inn; Chen, Yu-Chung; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Wang, Jhi-Joung
The purpose of this study was to estimate the local anesthetic effect of orphenadrine, an anti-muscarinic agent, in spinal anesthesia and its comparison with the local anesthetic lidocaine. After the rat was injected intrathecally, the spinal block of orphenadrine and lidocaine was constructed in a dosage-dependent fashion. The potency and duration of spinal anesthesia with orphenadrine were compared with that of lidocaine. Our data demonstrated that orphenadrine and lidocaine elicited dose-dependent spinal blockades on the motor function, sensory, and proprioception. On the 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the ranks of potency in motor function, nociception, and proprioception were orphenadrine>lidocaine (Pblock duration elicited by orphenadrine was greater than that elicited by lidocaine (Pblock exhibited more potent and longer spinal anesthesia when compared to lidocaine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Proposal: As new demands from sustainable development, environmental requirements arise as another challenge to design process management. It is already known that companies which design buildings are usually exposed to many managerial difficulties. Faced to the environmental demands, these companies require new facilities to align environmental requirements to the business goals and to include them properly in design process. This paper is based on a case study in a construction company, which was developed through interviews and document analysis. It is intended to present a procedure for the project environmental requirements elicitation, organization and analysis, which is based on the requirements engineering (ER concepts. As results it was concluded that the ER concepts are useful for the environmental requirements integration into the design process and that strategic planning should give directions for the effective environmental requirements adherence. Moreover, a procedure for environmental requirements modeling is proposed. Key-words: Design process, Requirements management, Environmental requirements, Construction
Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander
? And can we avoid potential hedging confounds? We propose an experimental design that theoretically eliminates hedging opportunities. Using this design, we test for the empirical relevance of hedging effects in the lab. Our results suggest that hedging confounds are not a major problem unless hedging......Belief-elicitation experiments usually reward accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. But this allows risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of the other decisions. So can we trust the existing belief-elicitation results...
Ladu, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Tiziana; Panitz, Sarah G.; Butail, Sachit; Macrı, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio
We investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish to three fear-evoking stimuli. In a binary choice test, zebrafish are exposed to a live allopatric predator, a biologically-inspired robot, and a computer-animated image of the live predator. A target tracking algorithm is developed to score zebrafish behavior. Unlike computer-animated images, the robotic and live predator elicit a robust avoidance response. Importantly, the robotic stimulus elicits more consistent inter-individual responses than the live predator. Results from this effort are expected to aid in hypothesis-driven studies on zebrafish fear response, by offering a valuable approach to maximize data-throughput and minimize animal subjects.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Auditory sustained responses have been recently suggested to reflect neural processing of speech sounds in the auditory cortex. As periodic fluctuations below the pitch range are important for speech perception, it is necessary to investigate how low frequency periodic sounds are processed in the human auditory cortex. Auditory sustained responses have been shown to be sensitive to temporal regularity but the relationship between the amplitudes of auditory evoked sustained responses and the repetitive rates of auditory inputs remains elusive. As the temporal and spectral features of sounds enhance different components of sustained responses, previous studies with click trains and vowel stimuli presented diverging results. In order to investigate the effect of repetition rate on cortical responses, we analyzed the auditory sustained fields evoked by periodic and aperiodic noises using magnetoencephalography. Results Sustained fields were elicited by white noise and repeating frozen noise stimuli with repetition rates of 5-, 10-, 50-, 200- and 500 Hz. The sustained field amplitudes were significantly larger for all the periodic stimuli than for white noise. Although the sustained field amplitudes showed a rising and falling pattern within the repetition rate range, the response amplitudes to 5 Hz repetition rate were significantly larger than to 500 Hz. Conclusions The enhanced sustained field responses to periodic noises show that cortical sensitivity to periodic sounds is maintained for a wide range of repetition rates. Persistence of periodicity sensitivity below the pitch range suggests that in addition to processing the fundamental frequency of voice, sustained field generators can also resolve low frequency temporal modulations in speech envelope.
William Sims Bainbridge
Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.
This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.
Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.
Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival
The Delphi technique via the expert elicitation method becomes extremely handy particularly in view of limited availability of data in determining failure probabilities of onshore transmission pipelines in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria occasioned by third party activity. Using, ten (10) experts opinion elucidated individually ...
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royel ex. Benth. is an important medicinal plant of Himalayan region and a good source of iridoid glycosides. Picrotin and picrotoxinin are compounds produced by P. kurrooa which are widely used in treatment of hepatic diseases. Elicitation is one of the best effective methods which enhance secondary ...
Cox, Troy L.; Davies, Randall S.
This study examined the use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) scored elicited oral response (EOR) tests to assess the speaking ability of English language learners. It also examined the relationship between ASR-scored EOR and other language proficiency measures and the ability of the ASR to rate speakers without bias to gender or native…
Sleep, Laurie; Boerst, Timothy A.
This study investigated how teacher education assignments can be designed to support beginning teachers in learning to do the work of teaching. We examined beginners' formative assessment practices--in particular, their eliciting and interpreting of students' mathematical thinking--in the context of an elementary mathematics methods assignment,…
Phaf, R.H.; Rotteveel, M.
In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised
van Gucht, D.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Van den Bergh, O.; Beckers, T.
In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task.
Rasekh, Abbass Eslami; Alijanian, Ehsan
The validity of speech act data taken from different kinds of elicitation instruments has been widely discussed in interlangauge and cross cultural pragmatics literature. In this study an attempt is made to evaluate and investigate data taken from two of the most popular speech act instruments namely, written DCT and closed role play. The…
von Gaudecker, H.M.; van Soest, A.H.O.; Wengstrom, E.
We combine data from a risk preference elicitation experiment conducted on a representative sample via the Internet with laboratory data on student subjects for the same experiment in order to investigate effects of implementation mode and of subject pool selection. We find that the frequency of
A Joint Research Initiative of Carnegie Corporation of New York and the International Development Research Centre. Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) are pleased to announce a jointly-funded research initiative Eliciting and Applying Local Research.
Celso Soiti Matsumoto
Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs. Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years. Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.
A case study illustrates how art therapy was used to elicit the narrative of an adolescent male student in transition from incarceration to a transfer school setting. Childhood trauma was addressed in individual sessions and within a literacy group co-led by a reading specialist. The art therapist responded to the client's needs by broadening the…
Hamann, S.; de Jonge, A.
This article introduces the menu task, which can be used to elicit infrequent sounds such as loan phonemes that only occur in a restricted set of words. The menu task is similar to the well-known map task and involves the interaction of two participants to create a menu on the basis of a list of
Koessler, F.; Noussair, C.N.; Ziegelmeyer, A.
This paper studies the impact of belief elicitation on informational efficiency and individual behavior in experimental parimutuel betting markets. In one treatment, groups of eight participants, who possess a private signal about the eventual outcome, play a sequential betting game. The second
Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.
Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.
The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.
NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.
Awan, Shaheen N.; Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Rousseau, Bernard
Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to use nonlinear dynamic analysis methods such as phase space portraits and correlation dimension (D2) as well as descriptive spectrographic analyses to characterize acoustic signals produced during evoked rabbit phonation. Methods Seventeen New Zealand white breeder rabbits were used to perform the study. A Grass S-88 stimulator (SA Instrumentation, Encinitas, CA) and constant current isolation unit (Grass Telefactor, model PSIU6; West Warwick, RI) were used to provide electrical stimulation to laryngeal musculature, and transglottal airflow rate and stimulation current (mA) were manipulated to elicit modal, raised intensity, and pressed phonations. Central 1 second portions of the most stable portion of the acoustic waveform for modal, raised intensity, and pressed phonations were edited, and then analyzed via phase space portraits, Poincaré sections, and the estimation of the correlation dimension (D2). In an attempt to limit the effects of the highly variable and nonstationary characteristics of some of the signals being analyzed, D2 analysis was also performed on the most stable central 200 ms portion of the acoustic waveform. Descriptive analysis of each phonation was also conducted using sound spectrograms. Results Results showed that the complexity of phonation and the subsequent acoustic waveform is increased as transglottal airflow rate and degree of glottal adduction is manipulated in the evoked rabbit phonation model. In particular, phonatory complexity, as quantified via correlation dimension analyses and demonstrated via spectrographic characteristics, increases from “modal” (i.e., phonation elicited at just above the phonation threshold pressure) to raised intensity (phonation elicited by increasing transglottal airflow rate) to pressed (phonation elicited by increasing the stimulation current delivered to the larynx). Variations in a single dynamic dimension (airflow rate or adductory force
Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten
Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...
Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank
he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are
This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.
Dong, Xiaoxi; Liu, Tianjun; Wang, Han; Yang, Jichun; Chen, Zhuying; Hu, Yong; Li, Yingxin
This study aimed to develop a new laser stimulator to elicit both transient and sustained heat stimulation with a dual-wavelength laser system as a tool for the investigation of both transient and tonic experimental models of pain. The laser stimulator used a 980-nm pulsed laser to generate transient heat stimulation and a 1940-nm continuous-wave (CW) laser to provide sustained heat stimulation. The laser with 980-nm wavelength can elicit transient pain with less thermal injury, while the 1940-nm CW laser can effectively stimulate both superficial and deep nociceptors to elicit tonic pain. A proportional integral-derivative (PID) temperature feedback control system was implemented to ensure constancy of temperature during heat stimulation. The performance of this stimulator was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. In vitro experiments on totally 120 specimens fresh pig skin included transient heat stimulation by 980-nm laser (1.5 J, 10 ms), sustained heat stimulation by 1940-nm laser (50-55 °C temperature control mode or 1.5 W, 5 min continuous power supply), and the combination of transient/sustained heat stimulation by dual lasers (1.5 J, 10 ms, 980-nm pulse laser, and 1940-nm laser with 50-55 °C temperature control mode). Hemoglobin brushing and wind-cooling methods were tested to find better stimulation model. A classic tail-flick latency (TFL) experiment with 20 Wistar rats was used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of transient and tonic pain stimulation with 15 J, 100 ms 980-nm single laser pulse, and 1.5 W constant 1940-nm laser power. Ideal stimulation parameters to generate transient pain were found to be a 26.6 °C peak temperature rise and 0.67 s pain duration. In our model of tonic pain, 5 min of tonic stimulation produced a temperature change of 53.7 ± 1.3 °C with 1.6 ± 0.2% variation. When the transient and tonic stimulation protocols were combined, no significant difference was observed depending on the order
Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman
This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.
Saito, Akie; Inoue, Tomoyoshi
The so-called syllable position effect in speech errors has been interpreted as reflecting constraints posed by the frame structure of a given language, which is separately operating from linguistic content during speech production. The effect refers to the phenomenon that when a speech error occurs, replaced and replacing sounds tend to be in the same position within a syllable or word. Most of the evidence for the effect comes from analyses of naturally occurring speech errors in Indo-European languages, and there are few studies examining the effect in experimentally elicited speech errors and in other languages. This study examined whether experimentally elicited sound errors in Japanese exhibits the syllable position effect. In Japanese, the sub-syllabic unit known as "mora" is considered to be a basic sound unit in production. Results showed that the syllable position effect occurred in mora errors, suggesting that the frame constrains the ordering of sounds during speech production.
Haniff, M H; Siegel, G M
Elicited imitation is a language sampling procedure in which a child is asked to repeat an utterance that is modeled by the examiner. In most clinical applications of this technique, the stimulus sentences are presented without any relevant context and without regard to whether the child knows the meaning of the sentences to be imitated. In the current experiment, 16 language-delayed preschool children repeated a set of 40 sentences, controlled for length, without context and with context provided by a set of pictures drawn to capture the meaning of the stimuli. For some of the children, the context had little effect. For the group as a whole, however, the number of errors was significantly reduced when the visual context was provided. These findings suggest that, for at least some children, the elicited imitation procedure is made more sensitive to the child's best grammatical performance when context is added.
This paper attempts to examine and measure ostomates’ preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches. Described are the study design, elicitation procedure and resulting preference structure of the Swedish ostomate sample. The method used to elicit the preferences is a Discrete Choice Experiment...... (DCE), where respondents are asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets. Each alternative is comprised of a number of attributes relating to the adhesive, filter and flexibility of ostomy pouches. The choice between alternatives made by the respondent implies an implicit trade-off between...... the attributes and allows for the estimation of individuals’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for the attributes of ostomy pouches when cost is included as an attribute. The data consists of 254 ostomates responding to the survey. The respondents have positive WTP for all improvement attributes presented to them...
Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.
This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and
in different ways. In the first case, CPR Analisys , we use the measures as way to derive effectiveness and uncertainty. In the second approach...means by which to overcome these capability gaps through the implementation of solutions, e.g., changes to doctrine, organizational structure , training...controlled through good elicitation practices, especially good question structuring , which we discuss in section C. (2) Modeling bias. This type of bias
Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria
In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects’ perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects’ counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects’ perception by confronting them with statement-evidence incons...
Martins, Nuno Pimpão Santos, 1987-
Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2010 CO2 molecules are present almost everywhere and have many biological roles, special as environmental cues or metabolic products of animals. Due to its importance, many insect species are able to sense its presence and concentration. In animals this molecule elicits appetitive behaviours, like moths and mosquitoes. On others, like fruit flies of the Drosophila melanogast...
Hans ePhaf; Mark eRotteveel
In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at...
Greenberg, Marc W.
Adapt/combine known methods to demonstrate an expert judgment elicitation process that: 1.Models expert's inputs as a triangular distribution, 2.Incorporates techniques to account for expert bias and 3.Is structured in a way to help justify expert's inputs. This paper will show one way of "extracting" expert opinion for estimating purposes. Nevertheless, as with most subjective methods, there are many ways to do this.
Full Text Available Mental models are personal, internal representations of external reality that people use to interact with the world around them. They are useful in multiple situations such as muticriteria decision making, knowledge management, complex system learning and analysis. In this paper a framework for mental models elicitation and analysis based on neutrosophic Logic is presented. An illustrative example is provided to show the applicability of the proposal. The paper ends with conclusion future research directions.
Radanovic, Goran; Faltings, Boi
We consider settings where a collective intelligence is formed by aggregating information contributed from many independent agents, such as product reviews, community sensing, or opinion polls. We propose a novel mechanism that elicits both private signals and beliefs. The mechanism extends the previous versions of the Bayesian Truth Serum (the original BTS, the RBTS, and the multi-valued BTS), by allowing small populations and non-binary private signals, while not requiring additional assump...
Mutha, Pratik K; Sainburg, Robert L
Previous research has suggested distinct predictive and reactive control mechanisms for bimanual movements compared with unimanual motion. Recent studies have extended these findings by demonstrating that movement corrections during bimanual movements might differ depending on whether or not the task is shared between the arms. We hypothesized that corrective responses during shared bimanual tasks recruit bilateral rapid feedback mechanisms such as reflexes. We tested this hypothesis by perturbing one arm as subjects performed uni- and bimanual movements. Movements were made in a virtual-reality environment in which hand position was displayed as a cursor on a screen. During bimanual motion, we provided cursor feedback either independently for each arm (independent-cursor) or such that one cursor was placed at the average location between the arms (shared-cursor). On random trials, we applied a 40 N force pulse to the right arm 100 ms after movement onset. Our results show that while reflex responses were rapidly elicited in the perturbed arm, electromyographic activity remained close to baseline levels in the unperturbed arm during the independent-cursor trials. In contrast, when the cursor was shared between the arms, reflex responses were reduced in the perturbed arm and were rapidly elicited in the unperturbed arm. Our results thus suggest that when both arms contribute to achieving the task goal, reflex responses are bilaterally elicited in response to unilateral perturbations. These results agree with and extend recent suggestions that bimanual feedback control might be modified depending on task context.
Sagliano, Laura; Cappuccio, Angela; Trojano, Luigi; Conson, Massimiliano
Freezing is one of the most widely recognized defensive reactions to approaching threats in animals. Here we tested whether the same stimuli can elicit freeze-like responses in healthy humans as well. We used a modified version of the two-frame apparent motion paradigm, in which both size and location of a stimulus within a background were manipulated; by these means, participants perceived the stimuli as approaching or receding. In Experiment 1, we showed that implicitly processed approaching threats (e.g., spiders or snakes) elicited a stronger freeze-like response (operationalized as slower reaction times) with respect to receding threats; freezing was significantly related to higher levels of participants' state anxiety. In Experiment 2, approaching/threatening animals were explicitly judged as more threatening than receding ones. Finally, in two further control experiments we observed that the same manipulation of stimuli's size and location, but in absence of apparent motion, did not affect freezing (Experiment 3) or explicit threat judgements (Experiment 4). The present findings demonstrated that approaching threats are critical to elicit freezing in humans, in line with animals' behaviour. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Boutet, Isabelle; Lemieux, Chantal L; Goulet, Marc-André; Collin, Charles A
Eye movements were recorded while participants discriminated upright and inverted faces that differed with respect to either configural or featural information. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) whether featural and configural information processing elicit different scanning patterns; (2) whether fixations on a specific region of the face dominate scanning patterns. Results from two experiments were compared to examine whether participants' prior knowledge of the kind of information that would be relevant for the task (i.e., configural vs featural) influences eye movements. In Experiment 1, featural and configural discrimination trials were presented in random order such that participants were unaware of the information that would be relevant on any given trial. In Experiment 2, featural and configural discrimination trials were blocked and participants were informed of the nature of the discriminations. The results of both experiments suggest that faces elicit different scanning patterns depending on task demands. When participants were unaware of the nature of the information relevant for the task at hand, face processing was dominated by attention to the eyes. When participants were aware that relational information was relevant, scanning was dominated by fixations to the center of the face. We conclude that faces elicit scanning strategies that are driven by task demands.
Roberts, Zachary S; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Matsen, Miles E; Ryu, Vitaly; Vaughan, Cheryl H; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J; Chukri, Daniel W; Schwartz, Michael W; Morton, Gregory J; Blevins, James E
Oxytocin (OT) administration elicits weight loss in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans by reducing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure. Although the neurocircuitry underlying these effects remains uncertain, OT neurons in the paraventricular nucleus are positioned to control both energy intake and sympathetic nervous system outflow to interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) through projections to the hindbrain nucleus of the solitary tract and spinal cord. The current work was undertaken to examine whether central OT increases BAT thermogenesis, whether this effect involves hindbrain OT receptors (OTRs), and whether such effects are associated with sustained weight loss following chronic administration. To assess OT-elicited changes in BAT thermogenesis, we measured the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of OT on interscapular BAT temperature in rats and mice. Because fourth ventricular (4V) infusion targets hindbrain OTRs, whereas third ventricular (3V) administration targets both forebrain and hindbrain OTRs, we compared responses to OT following chronic 3V infusion in DIO rats and mice and chronic 4V infusion in DIO rats. We report that chronic 4V infusion of OT into two distinct rat models recapitulates the effects of 3V OT to ameliorate DIO by reducing fat mass. While reduced food intake contributes to this effect, our finding that 4V OT also increases BAT thermogenesis suggests that increased energy expenditure may contribute as well. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that, in DIO rats, OT action in the hindbrain evokes sustained weight loss by reducing energy intake and increasing BAT thermogenesis.
Allen, Elizabeth N; Chandler, Clare Ir; Mandimika, Nyaradzo; Leisegang, Cordelia; Barnes, Karen
Analysis of drug safety in clinical trials involves assessing adverse events (AEs) individually or by aggregate statistical synthesis to provide evidence of likely adverse drug reactions (ADR). While some AEs may be ascertained from physical examinations or tests, there is great reliance on reports from participants to detect subjective symptoms, where he/she is often the only source of information. There is no consensus on how these reports should be elicited, although it is known that questioning methods influence the extent and nature of data detected. This leaves room for measurement error and undermines comparisons between studies and pooled analyses. This review investigated comparisons of methods used in trials to elicit participant-reported AEs. This should contribute to knowledge about the methodological challenges and possible solutions for achieving better, or more consistent, AE ascertainment in trials. To systematically review the research that has compared methods used within clinical drug trials (or methods that would be specific for such trials) to elicit information about AEs defined in the protocol or in the planning for the trial. Databases (searched to March 2015 unless indicated otherwise) included: Embase; MEDLINE; MEDLINE in Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations; Cochrane Methodology Register (July 2012); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (February 2015); Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (January 2015); Health Technology Assessment database (January 2015); CINAHL; CAB Abstracts; BIOSIS (July 2013); Science Citation Index; Social Science Citation Index; Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science. The search used thesaurus headings and synonyms for the following concepts: (A): Adverse events AND measurement; (B): Participants AND elicitation (also other synonyms for extraction of information about adverse effects from people); (C): Participants AND checklists (also other
Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F
The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; MacKillop, James
Incentive salience is a multidimensional construct that includes craving, drug value relative to other reinforcers, and implicit motivation such as attentional bias to drug cues. Laboratory cue reactivity (CR) paradigms have been used to evaluate marijuana incentive salience with measures of craving, but not with behavioral economic measures of marijuana demand or implicit attentional processing tasks. This within-subjects study used a new CR paradigm to examine multiple dimensions of marijuana's incentive salience and to compare CR-induced increases in craving and demand. Frequent marijuana users (N=93, 34% female) underwent exposure to neutral cues then to lit marijuana cigarettes. Craving, marijuana demand via a marijuana purchase task, and heart rate were assessed after each cue set. A modified Stroop task with cannabis and control words was completed after the marijuana cues as a measure of attentional bias. Relative to neutral cues, marijuana cues significantly increased subjective craving and demand indices of intensity (i.e., drug consumed at $0) and Omax (i.e., peak drug expenditure). Elasticity significantly decreased following marijuana cues, reflecting sustained purchase despite price increases. Craving was correlated with demand indices (r's: 0.23-0.30). Marijuana users displayed significant attentional bias for cannabis-related words after marijuana cues. Cue-elicited increases in intensity were associated with greater attentional bias for marijuana words. Greater incentive salience indexed by subjective, behavioral economic, and implicit measures was observed after marijuana versus neutral cues, supporting multidimensional assessment. The study highlights the utility of a behavioral economic approach in detecting cue-elicited changes in marijuana incentive salience. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Brown, William M.; Hamburger, Michael W.
A successful campus sustainability effort catalyzes broad engagement of the campus community and integration of sustainability principles into the academic and operational components of campus life. Although many universities have embraced sustainability as a new core value, others have been more sluggish in adopting sustainability principles to…
Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.
In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an
by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...
Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns sustainability at the investment, fund or portfolio level and involves screening the sustainability of companies before investing in them. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on 'sustainable investment', amongst others addressing the economic rationale for CSR and SRI. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Carbon Trading; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability.
Schlag, K.H.; Tremewan, J.; van der Weele, J.J.
Incentivized methods for eliciting subjective probabilities in economic experiments present the subject with risky choices that encourage truthful reporting. We discuss the most prominent elicitation methods and their underlying assumptions, provide theoretical comparisons and give a new
Schlag, K.; Tremewan, J.; van der Weele, J.
Incentivized methods for eliciting subjective probabilities in economic experiments present the subject with risky choices or bets that encourage truthful reporting. We discuss the most prominent elicitation methods and their underlying assumptions, provide theoretical comparisons, and propose some
Heydorn, S; Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D
elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests...
Morris, David E.; Oakley, Jeremy E.; Crowe, John A.
We present a web-based probability distribution elicitation tool: The MATCH Uncertainty Elicitation Tool. The Tool is designed to help elicit probability distributions about uncertain model parameters from experts, in situations where suitable data is either unavailable or sparse. The Tool is free to use, and offers five different techniques for eliciting univariate probability distributions. A key feature of the Tool is that users can log in from different sites and view and interact with th...
This study is concerned with developing scaffolding model to elicit bilingual kindergarten children's English speech production. It is aimed at describing what the teachers need in eliciting their students' speech production; how a scaffolding model should be developed to elicit the children's speech production; and how effective is the…
Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a shorter language sample elicited with fewer pictures (i.e., 7) would yield a percent grammatical utterances (PGU) score similar to that computed from a longer language sample elicited with 15 pictures for 3-year-old children. Method: Language samples were elicited by asking forty…
Groznik, Vida; Guid, Matej; Sadikov, Aleksander; Možina, Martin; Georgiev, Dejan; Kragelj, Veronika; Ribarič, Samo; Pirtošek, Zvezdan; Bratko, Ivan
The paper describes the use of expert's knowledge in practice and the efficiency of a recently developed technique called argument-based machine learning (ABML) in the knowledge elicitation process. We are developing a neurological decision support system to help the neurologists differentiate between three types of tremors: Parkinsonian, essential, and mixed tremor (comorbidity). The system is intended to act as a second opinion for the neurologists, and most importantly to help them reduce the number of patients in the "gray area" that require a very costly further examination (DaTSCAN). We strive to elicit comprehensible and medically meaningful knowledge in such a way that it does not come at the cost of diagnostic accuracy. To alleviate the difficult problem of knowledge elicitation from data and domain experts, we used ABML. ABML guides the expert to explain critical special cases which cannot be handled automatically by machine learning. This very efficiently reduces the expert's workload, and combines expert's knowledge with learning data. 122 patients were enrolled into the study. The classification accuracy of the final model was 91%. Equally important, the initial and the final models were also evaluated for their comprehensibility by the neurologists. All 13 rules of the final model were deemed as appropriate to be able to support its decisions with good explanations. The paper demonstrates ABML's advantage in combining machine learning and expert knowledge. The accuracy of the system is very high with respect to the current state-of-the-art in clinical practice, and the system's knowledge base is assessed to be very consistent from a medical point of view. This opens up the possibility to use the system also as a teaching tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Methods are developed for eliciting a Dirichlet prior based upon stating bounds on the individual probabilities that hold with high prior probability. This approach to selecting a prior is applied to a contingency table problem where it is demonstrated how to assess the prior with respect to the bias it induces as well as how to check for prior-data conflict. It is shown that the assessment of a hypothesis via relative belief can easily take into account what it means for the falsity of the hypothesis to correspond to a difference of practical importance and provide evidence in favor of a hypothesis.
Hora, Stephen; Jensen, Mikael (eds.)
The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company have jointly carried out a project on expert panel elicitation on the issue of glacial induced Swedish earthquakes. Following a broad nomination procedure, 5 experts were chosen by a selection committee of 4 professors within Earth sciences disciplines. The 5 experts presented judgments about the frequency of earthquakes greater the magnitude 6 within 10 km for two Swedish sites, Oskarshamn and Forsmark, in connection with a glaciation cycle. The experts' median value vas 0,1 earthquakes for one glaciation cycle.
Shank, Nancy; Willborn, Elizabeth; Pytlikzillig, Lisa; Noel, Harmonijoie
Interviews with 32 community behavioral health providers elicited perceived benefits and barriers of using electronic health records. Themes identified were (a) quality of care, (b) privacy and security, and (c) delivery of services. Benefits to quality of care were mentioned by 100% of the providers, and barriers by 59% of providers. Barriers involving privacy and security concerns were mentioned by 100% of providers, and benefits by 22%. Barriers to delivery of services were mentioned by 97% of providers, and benefits by 66%. Most providers (81%) expressed overall positive support for electronic behavioral health records.
Charlionet, R; Levasseur, L; Malandain, J J
Preparation of highly porous polyacrylamide has recently been described (Righetti et al., Electrophoresis, 1992, 13, 587-595). In this report we add new observations on the conditions of promoting macroporosity in polyacrylamide gels and extend the possibility of eliciting this phenomenon to agarose matrices by the combined use of polyethylene glycol and glycerol. The process of cluster formation in hot agarose solutions was studied and gel structures were examined by scanning electron microscopy. A definition of macroporosity in gel, related to controlled microsyneresis during gelation, is tentatively proposed. The unexpected influence of acrylamide and agarose concentrations upon the size of macroporous structures in the corresponding gels is revealed.
Full Text Available La Elicitación de Requisitos propicia el entendimiento de las necesidades de los usuarios con respecto a un desarrollo de software. Los métodos que se emplean provienen de las ciencias sociales por lo que se carece de una retroalimentación ejecutable. Consecuentemente, la primera versión del software podría no cumplir con las expectativas. El uso de DSLs como herramientas para el descubrimiento de requisitos es una idea aceptada, desafortunadamente, muy pocos trabajos en la literatura se enfocan en la definición de principios de diseño de DSLs. En este trabajo planteamos principios de diseño de DSLs orientados a la elicitación de requisitos, enseguida, generamos casos de prueba en ANTLR, Ruby y Curry. También, enunciamos el perfil que debe tener el nuevo analista de software. Con ello, se incrementa la retroalimentación entre los involucrados en el desarrollo de software y se mejora el producto.Requirements elicitation is concerned with learning and understanding the needs of users w.r.t. a new software development. Frequently the methods employed for requirements elicitation are adapted from areas like social sciences that do not include executable (prototype based on feedback. As a consequence, it is relatively common to discover that the first release does not fit the requirements defined at the beginning of the project. Using domain-specific languages (DSLs as an auxiliary tool for requirements elicitation is a commonly well accepted idea. Unfortunately, there are few works in the literature devoted to the definition of design principles for DSLs to be experienced in the frameworks for DSL developing such as ANTLR, Ruby, and Curry. We propose design principles for the DSL development (regardless of paradigm which are sufficient to model the domain in a requirements phase. Further more we enunciate a new profile for the requirements analyst and a set of elicitation steps. The use of DSLs not only giveus an immediate feedback with
How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...... by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...
Grigore, Bogdan; Peters, Jaime; Hyde, Christopher; Stein, Ken
Expert opinion is often sought to complement available information needed to inform model-based economic evaluations in health technology assessments. In this context, we define expert elicitation as the process of encoding expert opinion on a quantity of interest, together with associated uncertainty, as a probability distribution. When availability for face-to-face expert elicitation with a facilitator is limited, elicitation can be conducted remotely, overcoming challenges of finding an appropriate time to meet the expert and allowing access to experts situated too far away for practical face-to-face sessions. However, distance elicitation is associated with reduced response rates and limited assistance for the expert during the elicitation session. The aim of this study was to inform the development of a remote elicitation tool by exploring the influence of mode of elicitation on elicited beliefs. An Excel-based tool (EXPLICIT) was developed to assist the elicitation session, including the preparation of the expert and recording of their responses. General practitioners (GPs) were invited to provide expert opinion about population alcohol consumption behaviours. They were randomised to complete the elicitation by either a face-to-face meeting or email. EXPLICIT was used in the elicitation sessions for both arms. Fifteen GPs completed the elicitation session. Those conducted by email were longer than the face-to-face sessions (13 min 30 s vs 10 min 26 s, p = 0.1) and the email-elicited estimates contained less uncertainty. However, the resulting aggregated distributions were comparable. EXPLICIT was useful in both facilitating the elicitation task and in obtaining expert opinion from experts via email. The findings support the opinion that remote, self-administered elicitation is a viable approach within the constraints of HTA to inform policy making, although poor response rates may be observed and additional time for individual sessions may be required.
A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…
Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria
In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects' perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects' counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects' perception by confronting them with statement-evidence inconsistencies. Participants (N = 90) were asked to perform several mock criminal tasks before being interviewed using 1 of 3 interview techniques: (a) SUE-Confrontation, (b) Early Disclosure of Evidence, or (c) No Disclosure of Evidence. As predicted, the SUE-Confrontation interview generated more statement-evidence inconsistencies from suspects than the Early Disclosure interview. Importantly, suspects in the SUE-Confrontation condition (vs. Early and No disclosure conditions) admitted more self-incriminating information and also perceived the interviewer to have had more information about the critical phase of the crime (the phase where the interviewer lacked evidence). The findings show the adaptability of the SUE-technique and how it may be used as a tool for eliciting admissions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Lokki, Tapio; Patynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Vertanen, Heikki; Tervo, Sakari
Concert hall acoustics was evaluated with a descriptive sensory analysis method by employing an individual vocabulary development technique. The goal was to obtain sensory profiles of three concert halls by eliciting perceptual attributes for evaluation and comparison of the halls. The stimuli were gathered by playing back anechoic symphony music from 34 loudspeakers on stage in each concert hall and recording the sound field with a microphone array. Four musical programs were processed for multichannel 3D sound reproduction in the actual listening test. Twenty screened assessors developed their individual set of attributes and performed a comparative evaluation of nine seats, three in each hall. The results contain the distinctive groups of elicited attributes and show good agreement within assessors, even though they applied individual attributes when rating the samples. It was also found that loudness and distance gave the strongest perceptual direction to the principal component basis. In addition, the study revealed that the perception of reverberance is related to the size of the space or to the enveloping reverberance, depending on the assessor.
Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Savage, Anne; Vollrath, Fritz
Unlike the smaller and more vulnerable mammals, African elephants have relatively few predators that threaten their survival. The sound of disturbed African honeybees Apis meliffera scutellata causes African elephants Loxodonta africana to retreat and produce warning vocalizations that lead other elephants to join the flight. In our first experiment, audio playbacks of bee sounds induced elephants to retreat and elicited more head-shaking and dusting, reactive behaviors that may prevent bee stings, compared to white noise control playbacks. Most importantly, elephants produced distinctive “rumble” vocalizations in response to bee sounds. These rumbles exhibited an upward shift in the second formant location, which implies active vocal tract modulation, compared to rumbles made in response to white noise playbacks. In a second experiment, audio playbacks of these rumbles produced in response to bees elicited increased headshaking, and further and faster retreat behavior in other elephants, compared to control rumble playbacks with lower second formant frequencies. These responses to the bee rumble stimuli occurred in the absence of any bees or bee sounds. This suggests that these elephant rumbles may function as referential signals, in which a formant frequency shift alerts nearby elephants about an external threat, in this case, the threat of bees. PMID:20436682
Kuwabara, S; Ogawara, K; Misawa, S; Koga, M; Mori, M; Hiraga, A; Kanesaka, T; Hattori, T; Yuki, N
Campylobacter jejuni enteritis is the most common antecedent infection in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). C. jejuni-related GBS is usually acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), but previous reports described many cases of the demyelinating subtype of GBS (acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy [AIDP]) after C. jejuni infection. To investigate whether C. jejuni infection elicits AIDP. In 159 consecutive patients with GBS, antibodies against C. jejuni were measured using ELISA. Antecedent C. jejuni infection was determined by the strict criteria of positive C. jejuni serology and a history of a diarrheal illness within the previous 3 weeks. Electrodiagnostic studies were performed weekly for the first 4 weeks, and sequential findings were analyzed. There was evidence of recent C. jejuni infection in 22 (14%) patients. By electrodiagnostic criteria, these patients were classified with AMAN (n = 16; 73%) or AIDP (n = 5; 23%) or as unclassified (n = 1) in the first studies. The five C. jejuni-positive patients with the AIDP pattern showed prolonged motor distal latencies in two or more nerves and had their rapid normalization within 2 weeks, eventually all showing the AMAN pattern. In contrast, patients with cytomegalovirus- or Epstein-Barr virus-related AIDP (n = 13) showed progressive increases in distal latencies in the 8 weeks after onset. Patients with C. jejuni-related Guillain-Barré syndrome can show transient slowing of nerve conduction, mimicking demyelination, but C. jejuni infection does not appear to elicit acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.
Lucy E King
Full Text Available Unlike the smaller and more vulnerable mammals, African elephants have relatively few predators that threaten their survival. The sound of disturbed African honeybees Apis meliffera scutellata causes African elephants Loxodonta africana to retreat and produce warning vocalizations that lead other elephants to join the flight. In our first experiment, audio playbacks of bee sounds induced elephants to retreat and elicited more head-shaking and dusting, reactive behaviors that may prevent bee stings, compared to white noise control playbacks. Most importantly, elephants produced distinctive "rumble" vocalizations in response to bee sounds. These rumbles exhibited an upward shift in the second formant location, which implies active vocal tract modulation, compared to rumbles made in response to white noise playbacks. In a second experiment, audio playbacks of these rumbles produced in response to bees elicited increased headshaking, and further and faster retreat behavior in other elephants, compared to control rumble playbacks with lower second formant frequencies. These responses to the bee rumble stimuli occurred in the absence of any bees or bee sounds. This suggests that these elephant rumbles may function as referential signals, in which a formant frequency shift alerts nearby elephants about an external threat, in this case, the threat of bees.
Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron
Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends—in part—on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world’s foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.
Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron
Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends -- in part -- on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world's foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.
Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce
The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility.
Uhrig, Meike K.; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne
Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed. PMID:26925007
Clara D Martin
Full Text Available As our understanding of the basic processes underlying reading is growing, the key role played by attention in this process becomes evident. Two research topics are of particular interest in this domain: (1 it is still undetermined whether sustained attention affects lexical decision tasks; (2 the influence of attention on early visual processing (i.e., before orthographic or lexico-semantic processing stages remains largely under-specified. Here we investigated early perceptual modulations by sustained attention using an ERP paradigm adapted from Thierry et al. . Participants had to decide whether visual stimuli presented in pairs pertained to a pre-specified category (lexical categorization focus on word or pseudoword pairs. Depending on the lexical category of the first item of a pair, participants either needed to fully process the second item (hold condition or could release their attention and make a decision without full processing of the second item (release condition. The P1 peak was unaffected by sustained attention. The N1 was delayed and reduced after the second item of a pair when participants released their attention. Release of sustained attention also reduced a P3 wave elicited by the first item of a pair and abolished the P3 wave elicited by the second. Our results are consistent with differential effects of sustained attention on early processing stages and working memory. Sustained attention modulated early processing stages during a lexical decision task without inhibiting the process of stimulus integration. On the contrary, working memory involvement/updating was highly dependent upon the allocation of sustained attention. Moreover, the influence of sustained attention on both early and late cognitive processes was independent of lexical categorization focus.
This thesis deals with sustainable marketing, as well as the necessity for more sustainability. The purpose of this thesis was to determine the importance of sustainable marketing for companies. The theoretical part is divided into sustainability and sustainable marketing. Sustainability covers current issues and sustainable development, which form a background for a better understanding of sustainable marketing. Sustainable marketing includes a definition of the concept, as well as susta...
It is 20 years since the World Commission on Environment and Development — the Brundtland Commission — released its influential report on sustainable development. This is now the declared intention of most governments, many international organisations, and an increasing number of businesses and civil society groups. High profile 'intentions' have given rise to a bewildering array of sustainable development plans, tools and business models. But these have not yet triggered the pace, scale, scope and depth of change that is needed to make development sustainable. They leave the underlying causes of unsustainable development largely undisturbed. They include few means for anticipating non-linear changes – from climate change to economic cycles – and for building resilience to them. Consequently, most environmental and welfare measures continue to decline in almost all countries. Much energy has been spent crafting the sustainable development 'toolkit'. But that energy has been channelled largely through a narrow set of international processes and 'elite' national actors. The results are not yet integral to the machinery of government or business, or people's daily lives. This paper calls for energies to be directed in new ways, constructing a truly global endeavour informed by diverse local actors' evidence of 'what works', and focusing more keenly on long-term futures. The key drivers and challenges of a 'new era in sustainable development' are suggested, to elicit ideas and leadership from a richer vein of experience than has been embraced by the formal international endeavours to date. This paper is the first in a series on the sustainable development futures that face key sectors and stakeholder groups.
Baertsch, Nathan A.
In many neural networks, mechanisms of compensatory plasticity respond to prolonged reductions in neural activity by increasing cellular excitability or synaptic strength. In the respiratory control system, a prolonged reduction in synaptic inputs to the phrenic motor pool elicits a TNF-α- and atypical PKC-dependent form of spinal plasticity known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). Although iPMF may be elicited by a prolonged reduction in respiratory neural activity, iPMF is more efficiently induced when reduced respiratory neural activity (neural apnea) occurs intermittently. Mechanisms giving rise to iPMF following intermittent neural apnea are unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that iPMF following intermittent reductions in respiratory neural activity requires spinal TNF-α and aPKC. Phrenic motor output was recorded in anesthetized and ventilated rats exposed to brief intermittent (5, ∼1.25 min), brief sustained (∼6.25 min), or prolonged sustained (30 min) neural apnea. iPMF was elicited following brief intermittent and prolonged sustained neural apnea, but not following brief sustained neural apnea. Unlike iPMF following prolonged neural apnea, spinal TNF-α was not required to initiate iPMF during intermittent neural apnea; however, aPKC was still required for its stabilization. These results suggest that different patterns of respiratory neural activity induce iPMF through distinct cellular mechanisms but ultimately converge on a similar downstream pathway. Understanding the diverse cellular mechanisms that give rise to inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat devastating respiratory control disorders when endogenous compensatory mechanisms fail. PMID:25673781
Analysing processes of social learning this work addresses how action research can further new research orientations towards sustainability. Empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating...... on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming to provide local citizens...
"The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook’s content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key asse...
/ It is legitimate to ask whether and in what form tourism might contribute to sustainable development. This is not the same as sustainable tourism which, as a single-sector approach to development, may overlook important linkages with other sectors. If tourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then it must be economically viable, ecologically sensitive and culturally appropriate. Ecotourism is often advocated as being a sustainable form of tourism but imprecision in terminology clouds basic issues and there are strong economic, ecological, and cultural reasons for believing that, even in its purest forms, ecotourism is likely to present substantial challenges to destination areas, particularly if it competes for scarce resources and displaces existing uses and users. Sustainable tourism and ecotourism are not synonyms, many forms of ecotourism may not be sustainable, and if ecotourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then careful planning and management will be required.KEY WORDS: Ecotourism; Sustainable development; Development; Tourism
Sustainable development equally includes environmental protection including biodiversity, economic growth and social equity, both within and between generations. The paper first reviews different aspects related to the sustainable use of livestock biodiversity and property regimes that influence
Gil César Costa de Paula
Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the issue of sustainability in public procurement, given that the government in Brazil is constituted as a great promoter of economic development and needs to adapt its acquisitions worldwide sustainability agenda.
Seiss, Ellen; Driver, Jon; Eimer, Martin
We used ERP measures to investigate how attentional filtering requirements affect preparatory attentional control and spatially selective visual processing. In a spatial cueing experiment, attentional filtering demands were manipulated by presenting task-relevant visual stimuli either in isolation (target-only task) or together with irrelevant adjacent distractors (target-plus-distractors task). ERPs were recorded in response to informative spatial precues, and in response to subsequent visual stimuli at attended and unattended locations. The preparatory ADAN component elicited during the cue-target interval was larger and more sustained in the target-plus-distractors task, reflecting the demand of stronger attentional filtering. By contrast, two other preparatory lateralised components (EDAN and LDAP) were unaffected by the attentional filtering demand. Similar enhancements of P1 and N1 components in response to the lateral imperative visual stimuli were observed at cued versus uncued locations, regardless of filtering demand, whereas later attentional-related negativities beyond 200 ms post-stimulus were larger the target-plus-distractor task. Our results implicate that the ADAN component is linked to preparatory top-down control processes involved in the attentional filtering of irrelevant distractors; such filtering also affects later attention-related negativities recorded after the onset of the imperative stimulus. ERPs can reveal effects of expected attentional filtering of irrelevant distractors on preparatory attentional control processes and spatially selective visual processing.
Fried, Terri R; Tinetti, Mary; Agostini, Joe; Iannone, Lynne; Towle, Virginia
To develop and test a simple tool to elicit the preferences of older persons based on prioritization of universal health outcomes. Persons age ≥ 65 participating in a larger study were asked to rank 4 outcomes on a visual analogue scale: (1) maintaining independence, (2) staying alive, (3) reducing/eliminating pain, (4) reducing/eliminating other symptoms. Interviewers rated 73% of the 81 participants as having good to excellent understanding, and cognitive interviews demonstrated the tool captured how participants thought about trade-offs. Test-retest reliability was fair to poor for ranking most of the outcomes as either most or least important (kappa .28-1.0). Patient characteristics associated with ranking "keeping you alive" as most important have been shown to be associated with a preference for life-sustaining treatment, a related construct. There was substantial variability in the outcome ranked as most important. The task of ranking 4 universal health outcomes was well understood, captured what was important when considering trade-offs, and demonstrated content validity. However, test-retest reliability was fair to poor. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Amalia, A.; Gunawan, D.; Hardi, S. M.; Rachmawati, D.
The Internal Quality Assurance System (in Indonesian: SPMI (Sistem Penjaminan Mutu Internal) is a systemic activity of quality assurance of higher education in Indonesia. SPMI should be done by all higher education or universities in Indonesia based on the Regulation of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia Number 62 of 2016. Implementation of SPMI must refer to the principle of SPMI that is independent, standardize, accurate, well planned and sustainable, documented and systematic. To assist the SPMI cycle properly, universities need a supporting software to monitor all the activities of SPMI. But in reality, many universities are not optimal in building this SPMI monitoring system. One of the obstacles is the determination of system requirements in support of SPMI principles is difficult to achieve. In this paper, we observe the initial phase of the engineering requirements elicitation. Unlike other methods that collect system requirements from users and stakeholders, we find the system requirements of the SPMI principles from SPMI guideline book. The result of this paper can be used as a choice in determining SPMI software requirements. This paper can also be used by developers and users to understand the scenario of SPMI so that could overcome the problems of understanding between this two parties.
Felsher, Dean W
Tumorigenesis is generally caused by genetic changes that activate oncogenes or inactivate tumor suppressor genes. The targeted inactivation of oncogenes can be associated with tumor regression through the phenomenon of oncogene addiction. One of the most common oncogenic events in human cancer is the activation of the MYC oncogene. The inactivation of MYC may be a general and effective therapy for human cancer. Indeed, it has been experimentally shown that the inactivation of MYC can result in dramatic and sustained tumor regression in lymphoma, leukemia, osteosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, squamous carcinoma, and pancreatic carcinoma through a multitude of mechanisms, including proliferative arrest, terminal differentiation, cellular senescence, induction of apoptosis, and the shutdown of angiogenesis. Cell-autonomous and cell-dependent mechanisms have both been implicated, and recent results suggest a critical role for autocrine factors, including thrombospondin-1 and TGF-β. Hence, targeting the inactivation of MYC appears to elicit oncogene addiction and, thereby, tumor regression through both tumor cell-intrinsic and host-dependent mechanisms.
Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky
. In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them......Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed...
Wang, Shuo; Hu, Jiong; Dong, Ruijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Chen, Jing; Musacchia, Gabriella; Liu, Bo
Background: Perceptual and electrophysiological studies have found reduced speech discrimination in quiet and noisy environment, delayed neural timing, decreased neural synchrony, and decreased temporal processing ability in elderlies, even those with normal hearing. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that language experience and auditory training enhance the temporal dynamics of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The purpose of this study was to explore the pitch processing ability at the brainstem level in an aging population that has a tonal language background. Method: Mandarin speaking younger (n = 12) and older (n = 12) adults were recruited for this study. All participants had normal audiometric test results and normal suprathreshold click-evoked ABR. To record frequency following responses (FFRs) elicited by Mandarin lexical tones, two Mandarin Chinese syllables with different fundamental frequency pitch contours (Flat Tone and Falling Tone) were presented at 70 dB SPL. Fundamental frequencies (f0) of both the stimulus and the responses were extracted and compared to individual brainstem responses. Two indices were used to examine different aspects of pitch processing ability at the brainstem level: Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation. Results: Lexical tone elicited FFR were overall weaker in the older adult group compared to their younger adult counterpart. Measured by Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation, statistically significant group differences were only found when the tone with a falling f0 (Falling Tone) were used as the stimulus. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that in a tonal language speaking population, pitch processing ability at the brainstem level of older adults are not as strong and robust as their younger counterparts. Findings of this study are consistent with previous reports on brainstem responses of older adults whose native language is English. On the other hand, lexical tone elicited
Full Text Available Background: Perceptual and electrophysiological studies have found reduced speech discrimination in quiet and noisy environment, delayed neural timing, decreased neural synchrony, and decreased temporal processing ability in elderlies, even those with normal hearing. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that language experience and auditory training enhance the temporal dynamics of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem response. The purpose of this study was to explore the pitch processing ability at the brainstem level in an aging population that has a tonal language background.Method: Mandarin speaking younger (n=12 and older (n=12 adults were recruited for this study. All participants had normal audiometric test results and normal suprathreshold click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABR. To record Frequency Following Responses (FFR elicited by Mandarin lexical tones, two Mandarin Chinese syllables with different fundamental frequency pitch contours (Flat Tone and Falling Tone were presented at 70 dB SPL. Fundamental frequencies (f0 of both the stimulus and the responses were extracted and compared to individual brainstem responses. Two indices were used to examine different aspects of pitch processing ability at the brainstem level: Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation. Results: Lexical tone elicited FFR were overall weaker in the older adult group compared to their younger adult counterpart. Measured by Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation, statistically significant group differences were only found when the tone with a falling f0 (Falling Tone were used as the stimulus.Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that in a tonal language speaking population, pitch processing ability at the brainstem level of older adults are not as strong and robust as their younger counterparts. Findings of this study are consistent with previous reports on brainstem responses of older adults whose native language is English. On the
Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…
Selvanathan, Rani G.
There are many definitions that are attributable to the meaning of sustainability. Sustainability can be viewed as long-lasting, effective result of a project, venture, action, or investment without consuming additional future resources. Because of the wide nature of its applicability, a universal measure of sustainability is hard to come by. This…
Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
As described in this report, we have made substantial progress across the 25 roadmaps of the Sustainable Campus Initiative. The report also outlines our plans to continue integrating sustainable practices into the planning, execution, and evaluation of all ORNL activities. We appreciate your interest in our journey to sustainability, and we welcome your comments, questions, and suggestions.
Soysal, Mehmet; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.
The fast evolution of sustainability leads to the development of a new fast-growing concept called sustainable logistics management. This research addresses recent business trends and challenges in logistics and their implications for sustainable logistics management. Additionally, we discuss policy
Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders
LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report ’ i...
Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke; Nielsen, Jacob
Although lean is rapidly growing in popularity, its implementation is far from problem free and companies may experience difficulties sustaining long term success. In this paper, it is suggested that sustainable lean requires attention to both performance improvement and capability development...... that support lean capability development and consequently, lean sustainability....
Aiking, H.; de Boer, J.
The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In
Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Umer Farooque, T. K.
Sustainability stands for sustaining the past, meeting needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet future needs. It should meet the individual and social needs, present and future needs local and global needs. A sustainable education that meets this requirements surely be a transferable education; an education that transfers from…
Wormsley, W. E.
This article introduces a group of six papers on sustainability of programs for visually handicapped persons in developing countries. Sustainability is discussed from an anthropological perspective, noting the importance of a social soundness analysis and a social impact assessment, enemies of sustainability, and the need for broad local input in…
Hans-Heinrich Glöckner; Reinder Pieters; Stef Weijers
This conceptual paper wants to emphasis the use of the concept of sustainability within logistics and especially transportation. While working on a new tool to help companies develop sustainable European networks, we discovered that we want to use a specific concept of sustainability: People, planet
Full Text Available Although the perception of visual motion modulates postural control, it is unknown whether illusory visual motion elicits postural sway. The present study examined the effect of illusory motion on postural sway in patients with migraine, who tend to be sensitive to it. We measured postural sway for both migraine patients and controls while they viewed static visual stimuli with and without illusory motion. The participants’ postural sway was measured when they closed their eyes either immediately after (Experiment 1, or 30 seconds after (Experiment 2, viewing the stimuli. The patients swayed more than the controls when they closed their eyes immediately after viewing the illusory motion (Experiment 1, and they swayed less than the controls when they closed their eyes 30 seconds after viewing it (Experiment 2. These results suggest that static visual stimuli with illusory motion can induce postural sway that may last for at least 30 seconds in patients with migraine.
Swanborg, Robert H; Boros, Dov L; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P
All species of the order Chlamydiales are obligate intracellular eubacterial pathogens of their various hosts. Two chlamydial species, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae, are primarily human pathogens, and each is known to cause important diseases. Some strains of C. trachomatis are sexually transmitted and frequently cause severe reproductive problems, primarily in women. Other strains of the organism serve as the aetiological agents for blinding trachoma, still the leading cause of preventable blindness in underdeveloped nations. C. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen known to cause community-acquired pneumonia. Importantly, both organisms engender an immunopathogenic response in the human host, and both have been associated with widely diverse, relatively common and currently idiopathic chronic diseases, most of which include an important autoimmune component. In this article, we explore the available experimental data regarding the possible elicitation of autoimmunity in various contexts by chlamydial infection, and we suggest several avenues for research to explore this potentially important issue further.
Phillips, L.R.; Goldsmith, S.Y.; Spires, S.V.
The authors present an agent-oriented mechanism that uses a central ontology as a means to conduct complex distributed transactions. This is done by instantiating a template object motivated solely by the ontology, then automatically and explicitly linking each temple element to an independently constructed interface component. Validation information is attached directly to the links so that the agent need not know a priori the semantics of data validity, merely how to execute a general validation process to satisfy the conditions given in the link. Ontological leveling is critical: all terms presented to informants must be semantically coherent within the central ontology. To illustrate this approach in an industrial setting, they discuss an existing implementation that conducted international commercial transactions on the World-Wide Web. Agents operating within a federated architecture construct, populate by Web-based elicitation, and manipulate a distributed composite transaction object to effect transport of goods over the US/Mexico border.
The aim of the present study was to specify guilt eliciting situations for Japanese adolescents, and examine the relationship between guilt-proneness in the situations and personality traits. With an open-ended questionnaire, 315 guilt experiences were collected and categorized into 37 situations. Situational Guilt Inventory (SGI) for the 37 was developed and administered to 500 Japanese adolescents. Factor analysis found four factors: hurting others, inconsiderate to others, acting selfishly, and debt feeling toward others. SGI scores had positive correlations with private and public self-consciousness and depression. However, correlations with the Big Five were low, none higher than .2, except those with conscientiousness. The factors were similar to those of Dimension of Conscience Questionnaire (DCQ; Gore & Harvey, 1995) and Situational Guilt Scale (SGS; Klass, 1987), except that they do not have the fourth: debt feeling. These results showed some characteristics of guilt among Japanese people, as well as reliability of the inventory.
Andersen, Susanne A; Petersen, Henrik H; Ersbøll, Annette K; Falk-Rønne, Jørgen; Jacobsen, Stine
European and American guidelines for vaccination against tetanus and influenza in horses recommend annual and annual/semi-annual vaccinations, respectively, against the two pathogens. Too-frequent vaccination may, however, have adverse effects, among other things because an inflammatory response is elicited with subsequent alterations in homeostasis. The objective of the study was to compare the acute phase response (APR) in 10 horses following administration of two different types of vaccines, namely, an inactivated Immune Stimulating COMplex (ISCOM) vaccine and a live recombinant vector vaccine. Blood was sampled before and after vaccination to measure levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell counts (WBC) and iron. Vaccination induced a prominent APR with increased WBC, elevated blood levels of SAA and fibrinogen, and decreased serum iron concentrations. The ISCOM vaccine caused significantly (Phorse owners about convalescence after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ho, Emily; Bosetti, Valentina; Budescu, David; Keller, Klaus; van Vuuren, Detlef
Emission scenarios such as Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) are used intensively for climate research (e.g. climate change projections) and policy analysis. While the range of these scenarios provides an indication of uncertainty, these scenarios are typically not associated with probability values. Some studies (e.g. Vuuren et al, 2007; Gillingham et al., 2015) took a different approach associating baseline emission pathways (conditionally) with probability distributions. This paper summarizes three studies where climate change experts were asked to conduct pair-wise comparisons of possible ranges of 2100 greenhouse gas emissions and rate the relative likelihood of the ranges. The elicitation was performed under two sets of assumptions: 1) a situation where no climate policies are introduced beyond the ones already in place (baseline scenario), and 2) a situation in which countries have ratified the voluntary policies in line with the long term target embedded in the 2015 Paris Agreement. These indirect relative judgments were used to construct subjective cumulative distribution functions. We show that by using a ratio scaling method that invokes relative likelihoods of scenarios, a subjective probability distribution can be derived for each expert that expresses their beliefs in the projected greenhouse gas emissions range in 2100. This method is shown to elicit stable estimates that require minimal adjustment and is relatively invariant to the partition of the domain of interest. Experts also rated the method as being easy and intuitive to use. We also report results of a study that allowed participants to choose their own ranges of greenhouse gas emissions to remove potential anchoring bias. We discuss the implications of the use of this method for facilitating comparison and communication of beliefs among diverse users of climate science research.
Gorelick, Jonathan; Rosenberg, Rivka; Smotrich, Avinoam; Hanuš, Lumír; Bernstein, Nirit
Withania somnifera, known in India as Asghawhanda, is used traditionally to treat many medical problems including diabetes and has demonstrated therapeutic activity in various animal models as well as in diabetic patients. While much of W. somnifera's therapeutic activity is attributed to withanolides, their role in the anti-diabetic activity of W. somnifera has not been adequately studied. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of W. somnifera extract and purified withanolides, as well as the effect of various elicitors on this activity. W. somnifera leaf and root extracts increased glucose uptake in myotubes and adipocytes in a dose dependent manner, with the leaf extract more active than the root extract. Leaf but not root extract increased insulin secretion in basal pancreatic beta cells but not in stimulated cells. Six withanolides isolated from W. somnifera were tested for anti-diabetic activity based on glucose uptake in skeletal myotubes. Withaferin A was found to increase glucose uptake, with 10μM producing a 54% increase compared with control, suggesting that withaferin A is at least partially responsible for W. somnifera's anti-diabetic activity. Elicitors applied to the root growing solutions affected the physiological state of the plants, altering membrane leakage or osmotic potential. Methyl salicylate and chitosan increased withaferin A content by 75% and 69% respectively, and extracts from elicited plants increased glucose uptake to a higher extent than non-elicited plants, demonstrating a correlation between increased content of withaferin A and anti-diabetic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV P domain complexes, the 24 mer P particles and the P dimers, induced effective humoral immunity, but their role in the cellular immune responses remained unclear. We reported here a study on cellular immune responses of the two P domain complexes in comparison with the virus-like particle (VLP of a GII.4 NoV (VA387 in mice. The P domain complexes induced significant central memory CD4(+ T cell phenotypes (CD4(+ CD44(+ CD62L(+ CCR7(+ and activated polyclonal CD4(+ T cells as shown by production of Interleukin (IL-2, Interferon (IFN-γ, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α. Most importantly, VA387-specific CD4(+ T cell epitope induced a production of IFN-γ, indicating an antigen-specific CD4(+ T cell response in P domain complex-immunized mice. Furthermore, P domain complexes efficiently induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC maturation, evidenced by up-regulation of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules, as well as production of IL-12 and IL-1β. Finally, P domain complex-induced mature dendritic cells (DCs elicited proliferation of specific CD4(+ T cells targeting VA387 P domain. Overall, we conclude that the NoV P domain complexes are efficiently presented by DCs to elicit not only humoral but also cellular immune responses against NoVs. Since the P particle is highly effective for both humoral and cellular immune responses and easily produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli, it is a good choice of vaccine against NoVs and a vaccine platform against other diseases.
Doyle, E. Kevin
The new millennium has brought with it the opportunity of global trade which in turn requires the utmost in efficiency from each individual industry. This includes the nuclear power industry, a point which was emphasized when the electrical generation industry began to be de regulated across North America the late 1990s and re-emphasized when the northeast power grid of North America collapsed in the summer of 2003. This dissertation deals with reducing the cost of the maintenance function of Candu nuclear power plants and initiating a strong link between universities and the Canadian nuclear industry. Various forms of RCM (reliability-centred maintenance) have been the tools of choice in industry for improving the maintenance function during the last 20 years. In this project, pilot studies, conducted at Bruce Power between 1999 and 2005, and reported on in this dissertation, lay out a path to implement statistical improvements as the next step after RCM in reducing the cost of the maintenance. Elicitation protocols, designed for the age group being elicited, address the much-documented issue of a lack of data. Clear, graphical, inferential statistical interfaces are accentuated and developed to aid in building the teams required to implement the various methodologies and to help in achieving funding targets. Graphical analysis and Crow/AMSAA (army materials systems analysis activity) plots are developed and demonstrated from the point of view of justifying the expenditures of cost reduction efforts. This dissertation ultimately speaks to the great opportunity being presented by this approach at this time: of capturing the baby-boom generation's huge pool of knowledge before those people retire. It is expected that the protocols and procedures referenced here will have applicability across the many disciplines where collecting expert information from a similar age group is required.
Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders
LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report...... is then demonstrated, and the strategy of LCA to achieving environmental protection, namely to guide the reduction of environmental impacts per delivery of a function, is explained. The attempt to broaden the scope of LCA, beyond environmental protection, by so-called life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA......) is outlined. Finally, the limitations of LCA in guiding a sustainable development are discussed....
Keles, Özgül; Eris, Rabia; Aydogdu, Mustafa
The purpose of the current study is to elicit the opinions constructed by 7th grade secondary school students about three components of the concept of sustainable development; environment, society and economy. Study group of the implementation consists of 20 students attending a public secondary school in 2014-2015 academic year. The study…
The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) Sustainable Buildings & Climate Initiative reports that buildings are responsible for more than 40 percent of global energy use and over one third of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The construction and real estate sector has the potential to play a significant role in the response to climate change. During the latest years the increase in attention to sustainability and green building by planners, developers, and investors has been remarka...
to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...... to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia......How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...
to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming......How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...
Tollin, Karin; Vej, Jesper
How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level...... of marketing. The central contribution of the typology is a strategic and managerial view on sustainability. Furthermore, the typology shows that sustainability in business is enacted from different areas of competences and fields in the literature (e.g. supply chain management, corporate branding, value...... creation, product innovation and business model innovation). The empirical basis for the typology is an exploratory study of managers' mindsets about sustainability as strategy. Ten top managers involved with integrating sustainability within their companies have been interviewed. In order to reveal...
Skjold, Else; Csaba, Fabian
This paper explores the notion of deeper luxury, which insists that 'real' luxury should involve sustainable practices in the production and consumption of luxury goods. It traces historical and recent developments in the field of fur, to understand the implications, uncertainties and ambiguities...... of luxury’s confrontation with sustainability. Considering fur in relation to future standards for luxury products, we raise questions about moral problematisation and justification of luxury in terms of sustainability. We first examine the encounter of luxury with sustainability and explain...... the significance of the notion of ‘deeper luxury’. After taking stock of the impact of sustainability on luxury and various directions in which sustainable luxury is evolving, we discuss concepts of sustainable development in relation to the history of moral problematisation of luxury. This leads to the case...
Kjӕrgård, Bente; Land, Birgit; Bransholm Pedersen, Kirsten
In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the 'duality of structure' is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion and sustainability. Third, we use examples from agriculture and food production to illustrate that health and sustainability are mutually enabling and constraining. We conclude that while the renewed focus on food security and food inequalities has brought the health and sustainability dimensions of the food system onto the political agenda, the conceptualization of duality between health and sustainability could be a new platform for a critical and theoretical stance towards the market-oriented food system strategy. Thinking along the lines of duality means that the integration of health promotion strategies and sustainable development strategies cannot be based on an approach to integration in which either health or sustainability is given precedence over the other. From a duality perspective, integration means conceiving sustainability from a health perspective and health from a sustainability perspective. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Wu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Xiao-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Qian, Gui-Xia; Niu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Cun-Zhu; Zhang, Qing; Li, Ang
Sustainability is the theme of our time and also the grandest challenge to humanity. Since the 1970s, the term, sustainable development, has frequently appeared in the scientific literature, governmental documents, media promotions for public goods, and commercial advertisements. However, the science that provides the theoretical foundation and practical guidance for sustainable development--sustainability science--only began to emerge in the beginning of the 21st century. Nevertheless, the field has rapidly developed in depth and expanded in scope during the past decade, with its core concepts and research methods coalescing. China, as the most populous country in the world and home to the philosophical root of sustainability science-the unity of man and nature, is obligated to take upon the challenge of our time, to facilitate global sustainability while pursuing the Chinese Dream, and to play a leading role in the development of sustainability science. Toward this grandiose goal, this paper presents the first Chinese introduction to sustainability science, which discusses its basic concepts, research questions, and future directions. Sustainability science is the study of the dynamic relationship between humans and the environment, particularly focusing on the vulnerability, robustness, resilience, and stability of the coupled human-environment system. It is a transdisciplinary science that integrates natural sciences with humanities and social sciences. It hinges on the environment-economy-society nexus, and merges basic and applied research. The key components of sustainability often change with time, place, and culture, and thus sustainability science needs to emphasize multi-scale studies in space and time, with emphasis on landscapes and regions over a horizon of 50 to 100 years. It needs to focus on the relationship between ecosystem services and human well-being, as influenced by biodiversity and ecosystem processes as well as climate change, land use
Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle; van de Schoot-Hubeek, Wenneke; Lek, Kimberley; Hoijtink, Herbert; van de Schoot, Rens
The purpose of the current study was to apply and evaluate a procedure to elicit expert judgments about correlations, and to update this information with empirical data. The result is a face-to-face group elicitation procedure with as its central element a trial roulette question that elicits experts' judgments expressed as distributions. During the elicitation procedure, a concordance probability question was used to provide feedback to the experts on their judgments. We evaluated the elicitation procedure in terms of validity and reliability by means of an application with a small sample of experts. Validity means that the elicited distributions accurately represent the experts' judgments. Reliability concerns the consistency of the elicited judgments over time. Four behavioral scientists provided their judgments with respect to the correlation between cognitive potential and academic performance for two separate populations enrolled at a specific school in the Netherlands that provides special education to youth with severe behavioral problems: youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and youth with diagnoses other than ASD. Measures of face-validity, feasibility, convergent validity, coherence, and intra-rater reliability showed promising results. Furthermore, the current study illustrates the use of the elicitation procedure and elicited distributions in a social science application. The elicited distributions were used as a prior for the correlation, and updated with data for both populations collected at the school of interest. The current study shows that the newly developed elicitation procedure combining the trial roulette method with the elicitation of correlations is a promising tool, and that the results of the procedure are useful as prior information in a Bayesian analysis. PMID:28197115
conducted a research priorities elicitation from across TRAC in order to support development of the research council’s FY14 research priorities.1 In...interesting re- search ideas that can be pursued to support not only TRAC, but the Army in general. TRAC-MTRY elicits these ideas, prioritizes them...analysts and resources to each project. Methodology The TRAC-MTRY research elicitation drives the TRAC-MTRY work program. We use the Topics, Technologies
Huffman, Tanner J
Modeling allows students to become more effective designers. High school technology and engineering students engage in engineering design challenges as part of traditional instructional practices. Model-eliciting activities (MEA) present students with opportunities to elicit mathematically thinking that facilitates modeling. Students (n=266) from four schools completed a model-eliciting activity (MEA) and design challenge procedure. The research design utilized a quasi-experimental method, po...
magnitude for environmental education. We can speak of sustainable development, sustainable economies, sustainable democracy, a sustainable world order, and sustainable modes of health maintenance, but when we turn to spiritual matters we are faced with the black hole of green· politics: what constitutes sustainable.
Full Text Available Businesses are increasingly coming under scrutiny from stakeholders who expect them to report how they protect the environment, how they guarantee no human and labour violations in their value chain, and how they function on ethical business principles. Businesses are trying to adjust to these changing environments for the betterment of society and the planet while still concentrating on profit. The same awareness and inquiry would be expected from business education student teachers who teach business principles and business operations. This study, which was conducted at three universities, describes the perspectives and sustainability virtues of pre-service business education teachers who attended a workshop aimed at integrating sustainability in their teacher training curriculum. A qualitative framework was adopted using three methods: focus-group discussions, reflection based on a video recording and a critical analysis of the curriculum. Findings suggest that incremental shifts in critical self-awareness of business education pre-service teachers occurred. A business education and education for sustainability synthesis is recommended and provided as a conceptual framework in this study. This synthesis can be a useful place to start to elicit critical self-awareness when pre-service teachers have to deal with the complex mix of the five types of learning, namely disciplinary, situational, practical, fundamental and pedagogical learning.
D. N. Pantazis
Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.
Jensen, Jesper Ole
Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... and that sustainable building operation can pave the way for sustainable building renovation. This paper discusses the use of sustainability building operation in Danish housing estates: Which tools, methods and technologies is being used, where are the barriers and where are the potentials? We define sustainable...
Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Kjærgård, Bente
In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the ‘duality of structure’ is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering...... the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems...... or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion...
Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair
Abstract Objectives - This paper explores how entrepreneurial action can lead to environmental sustainability. It builds on the assumption that the creation of sustainble practices is one of the most important challenges facing the global society, and that entrepreneurial action is a vital...... instrument in the pursuit of sustainability. Prior Work - Extant literature identifies two main approaches to sustainable entrepreneurship. (i) traditional exploitation of environmentally relevant opportunities and (ii) institutional entrepreneurship creating opportunities. We identify a novel form......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action. Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship. Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship - resource oriented...
of default rules in subconscious decision-making, this research finds that, ultimately, awareness drives the demand necessary for the creation of sustainable consumption. Whereas direct appeal to individuals has a disappointing level of influence on sustainability choices, it is understood that green......-fuel-based energy. To act otherwise requires additional effort and is less likely. Motivated by a need to understand how defaults might bridge standards and sustainable consumption, I investigate how organizational processes potentially lead from standardized green default rules to individual awareness that can...... spread and facilitate sustainable consumption. This paper examines the Active House sustainable building demonstrations in Europe in order to understand how (1) communications and market creation and (2) responsible, user-centered experimentation are organized to move from defaults to sustainable...
ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators. Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...
Fenichel, Eli P; Zhao, Jinhua
Developing a quantitative science of sustainability requires bridging mathematical concepts from fields contributing to sustainability science. The concept of substitutability is central to sustainability but is defined differently by different fields. Specifically, economics tends to define substitutability as a marginal concept while fields such as ecology tend to focus on limiting behaviors. We explain how to reconcile these different views. We develop a model where investments can be made in knowledge to increase the elasticity of substitution. We explore the set of sustainable and optimal trajectories for natural capital extraction and built and knowledge capital accumulation. Investments in substitutability through knowledge stock accumulation affect the value of natural capital. Results suggest that investing in the knowledge stock, which can enhance substitutability, is critical to desirable sustainable outcomes. This result is robust even when natural capital is not managed optimally. This leads us to conclude that investments in the knowledge stock are of first order importance for sustainability.
Full Text Available The growing concern over global warming and significant ecological changes requires sustainable development in all fields of science and technology. Concrete not only consumes huge amount of energy and natural sources, but also emits large amount of CO2, mainly due to the production of cement. It is evident that such large amount of concrete production has put significant impact on the energy, resource, environment, and ecology of the society. Hence, how to develop the concrete technology in a sustainable way has become a significant issue. In this paper, some of Korean researches for sustainable development of concrete are presented. These are sustainable strengthening for deteriorated concrete structure, sustainable reinforcement of new concrete structure, sustainable concrete using recycled aggregate and supplementary cementing materials and finally application of each technique to precast concrete.
Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, Maria Luz; Gerwin, Robert D; Pareja, Juan A
To analyze the presence of referred pain elicited by manual examination of the lateral rectus muscle in patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). A case-control blinded study. It has been found previously that the manual examination of the superior oblique muscle can elicit referred pain to the head in some patients with migraine or tension-type headache. However, a referred pain from other extraocular muscles has not been investigated. Fifteen patients with CTTH and 15 healthy subjects without headache history were included. A blinded assessor performed a manual examination focused on the search for myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in the right and left lateral rectus muscles. TrP diagnosis was made when there was referred pain evoked by maintained pressure on the lateral corner of the orbit (anatomical projection of the lateral rectus muscle) for 20 seconds, and increased referred pain while the subject maintained a medial gaze on the corresponding side (active stretching of the muscle) for 15 seconds. On each side, a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to assess the intensity of referred pain at both stages of the examination. Ten patients with CTTH (66.6%) had referred pain that satisfied TrPs diagnostic criteria, while only one healthy control (0.07%) reported referred pain upon the examination of the lateral rectus muscles (P < 0.001). The elicited referred pain was perceived as a deep ache located at the supraorbital region or the homolateral forehead. Pain was evoked on both sides in all subjects with TrPs, with no difference in pain intensity between the right and the left. The average pain intensity was significantly greater in the patient group (P < 0.001). All CTTH patients with referred pain recognized it as the frontal pain that they usually experienced during their headache attacks, which was consistent with active TrPs. In some patients with CTTH, the manual examination of lateral rectus muscle TrPs elicits a referred pain that
This publication is intended to be used as a source of inspiration for designers and companies, and all stakeholders whose interest lies in the area of sustainable fashion. While the strategies for sustainability are complex and approaches are many, this publication presents only a few ways to approach sustainable fashion. I hope the publication offers inspiration on how to make positive change in current practices and how to effect new mindsets, creating transformative fashion. Theoretica...
An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related...... to the use of natural resources and other matters, and how that kind of issues can be dealt with in education as ESD....
Cordero, Raúl; Mercader-Moyano, Pilar (Coordinador)
A sustainable house is capable of generating and self-sustaining energy by itself to function autonomously, that is to say, without depending on external supply networks. That is possible by supplying the internal energy consumption through renewable energy. This work describes and analyzes the construction of a sustainable house in Paute, Ecuador. The goal of this house was to achieve selfsustainability in several aspects such as construction techniques, creative and functi...
Schlör, H.; Hake, J.-Fr.
Since the nineteen seventies, science and society have been discussing the worldwide ecological, economic, and social problems caused by industrialization and globalization. Sustainable development is perceived as a strategy for coping with these problems. The Rio +20 conference in 2012 confirmed the sustainability concept and introduced the green economy and the life cycle sustainable assessment as its implementation and operationalization strategy and tool.In the following, we will demonstr...
Nayaradou, Maximilien; Berchi, Célia; Dejardin, Olivier; Launoy, Guy
The implementation of mass colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a public health priority. Population participation is fundamental for the success of CRC screening as for any cancer screening program. The preferences of the population may influence their likelihood of participation. The authors sought to elicit population preferences for CRC screening test characteristics to improve the design of CRC screening campaigns. A discrete choice experiment was used. Questionnaires were compiled with a set of pairs of hypothetical CRC screening scenarios. The survey was conducted by mail from June 2006 to October 2006 on a representative sample of 2000 inhabitants, aged 50 to 74 years from the northwest of France, who were randomly selected from electoral lists. Questionnaires were sent to 2000 individuals, each of whom made 3 or 4 discrete choices between hypothetical tests that differed in 7 attributes: how screening is offered, process, sensitivity, rate of unnecessary colonoscopy, expected mortality reduction, method of screening test result transmission, and cost. Complete responses were received from 656 individuals (32.8%). The attributes that influenced population preferences included expected mortality reduction, sensitivity, cost, and process. Participants from high social classes were particularly influenced by sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the discrete choice experiment provides information on patient preferences for CRC screening: improving screening program effectiveness, for instance, by improving test sensitivity (the most valued attribute) would increase satisfaction among the general population with regard to CRC screening programs. Additional studies are required to study how patient preferences actually affect adherence to regular screening programs.
Eftring, Håkan; Rassmus-Gröhn, Kirsten; Hedvall, Per-Olof
Parents often have a busy time sorting out their life puzzles, including getting information about their children's activities in school. More and more communication between teachers and parents take place via digital school systems. It can be hard for parents to find the information they are looking for and the teacher decides when information is sent and what communication method to use. All parents, but especially parents with disabilities, might have individual preferences on how to receive information and how to adapt meetings at school. In this paper we present a project where we involved parents and teachers in focus groups, an idea workshop and iterative user trials of a digital prototype. The goal was to elicit parents' individual requirements for an inclusive digital school system, where they can store their individual preferences about how and when to receive information from school and what requirements they have on meetings at school. Preliminary results show that we managed to create open and focused discussions among parents and teachers. The parents reacted very positively on an onboarding page with the possibility to quickly and easily enter preferences after their first log in, but more work needs to be done on how preferences are categorized on the onboarding page. Finally, parents need to get clear feedback from teachers and school when they have entered or updated preferences, so they can trust that their preferences will be met.
Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui
Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio-nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired.
Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Li, Yan; Li, Dedong; Johnston, Tatiana; Hendricks, Gabriel; Li, Gang; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Mylonakis, Eleftherios
The echinocandin family of drugs is well characterized for antifungal function that inhibits β-D-glucan synthesis. The aim of this work was to study whether micafungin, a member of the echinocandin family, elicits additional activities that prime the host's immune response. We found that in a Galleria mellonella model, prophylactic treatment with micafungin extended the life of Staphylococcus aureus-infected larvae (a pathogen to which the drug demonstrates no direct antimicrobial activity) compared to insects that did not receive micafungin (P mellonella infection model was characterized by a 2.43-fold increase in hemocyte density, compared to larvae inoculated with PBS. In a murine model where animals were provided micafungin prophylaxis 3 days prior to macrophage collection, macrophages were found associated with an average 0.9 more fungal cells per macrophage as compared to saline-treated animals. Interestingly, micafungin-stimulated macrophages killed 11.6 ± 6.2 % of fungal cells compared to 3.8 ± 2.4 % of macrophages from saline-treated animals. The prophylactic provision of micafungin prior to Candida albicans infection was characterized by an increase in the proinflammatory cytokines CXCL13 and SPP1 by 11- and 6.9-fold, respectively. In conclusion, micafungin demonstrated the ability to stimulate phagocytic cells and promote an immune response that can inhibit microbial infections.
Phaf, R Hans; Rotteveel, Mark
In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.
Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus E; Christensen, Lars P
Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown. To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower sensitization in Compositae-allergic individuals. Sunflower-sensitive patients were identified by aimed patch testing. A dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. The concentration of SLs on the sunflower seeds is considered high enough to elicit dermatitis in sensitive persons, and it seems appropriate to warn Compositae-allergic subjects against handling sunflower seeds. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dresler, Martin; Koch, Stefan P; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Holsboer, Florian; Steiger, Axel; Sämann, Philipp G; Obrig, Hellmuth; Czisch, Michael
Since the discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming, much effort has been devoted to link physiological signatures of REM sleep to the contents of associated dreams [1-4]. Due to the impossibility of experimentally controlling spontaneous dream activity, however, a direct demonstration of dream contents by neuroimaging methods is lacking. By combining brain imaging with polysomnography and exploiting the state of "lucid dreaming," we show here that a predefined motor task performed during dreaming elicits neuronal activation in the sensorimotor cortex. In lucid dreams, the subject is aware of the dreaming state and capable of performing predefined actions while all standard polysomnographic criteria of REM sleep are fulfilled [5, 6]. Using eye signals as temporal markers, neural activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was related to dreamed hand movements during lucid REM sleep. Though preliminary, we provide first evidence that specific contents of REM-associated dreaming can be visualized by neuroimaging. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.
Full Text Available Nematode infections are a ubiquitous feature of vertebrate life. In nature, such nematode infections are acquired by continued exposure to infective stages over a prolonged period of time. By contrast, experimental laboratory infections are typically induced by the administration of a single (and often large dose of infective stages. Previous work has shown that the size of an infection dose can have significant effects on anti-nematode immune responses. Here we investigated the effect of different infection regimes of Strongyloides ratti, comparing single and repeated dose infections, on the host immune response that was elicited. We considered and compared infections of the same size, but administered in different ways. We considered infection size in two ways: the maximum dose of worms administered and the cumulative worm exposure time. We found that both infection regimes resulted in Th2-type immune response, characterised by IL4 and IL13 produced by S. ratti stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells, anti-S. ratti IgG(1 and intestinal rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII production. We observed some small quantitative immunological differences between different infection regimes, in which the concentration of IL4, IL13, anti-S. ratti IgG(1 and IgG(2a and RMCPII were affected. However, these differences were quantitatively relatively modest compared with the temporal dynamics of the anti-S. ratti immune response as a whole.
Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H
Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Goho, S; Bell, G
Cultures of Chlamydomonas were exposed to a range of relatively mild stresses for a period of 24 h. These stresses comprised high and low temperatures, osmotic stress, low pH, starvation and toxic stress. They were then allowed to recuperate for around ten vegetative generations under near-optimal conditions in unmodified minimal medium. Fitness was then assayed as the rate of division of isolated cells on agar. We found that there was a strong tendency for stressed cultures to have lower mean fitness and greater standardized variance in fitness than the negative controls which had been cultured throughout in unmodified minimal medium. The same tendency was shown, as expected, by positive controls which received mutagenic doses of ultraviolet irradiation. We concluded that the most reasonable interpretation of these observations is that mild stress increases the genomic rate of mutation. This appears to be the first time that this phenomenon has been noticed in eukaryotes. The response might be adaptive because lineages in which higher mutation rates are elicited by stress can be favourably selected through the production of a few mutants which are fortuitously well adapted to the stressful environment. Other interpretations are not excluded, however. Regardless of the mechanism involved, the elevation of mutation rates under stress will affect the rate of evolutionary response to environmental change and also the maintenance of sexuality. PMID:10687816
Thewissen, Roy; van den Hout, Marcel; Havermans, Remco C; Jansen, Anita
Earlier studies have suggested that the cue-induced urge to smoke depends on the expectation of the availability of smoking. The present study investigated whether a 'room context' change could undo the learned discrimination between two stimuli, respectively, predicting smoking availability or smoking unavailability. A 2 (smoking cue) x 2 (availability context cue) x 6 (trial) x 2 (room context change) within-subjects design was used. Participants were repeatedly presented with a context cue predicting smoking availability (blue serving tray) and a context cue predicting unavailability (yellow serving tray) in one room and tested for an effect of context change in a different room. Two distinct rooms located in different department buildings of Maastricht University. Seventeen daily smokers who had smoked at least five cigarettes a day for at least 2 years. Self-reported urge to smoke using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results replicated the finding that a context cue that predicted smoking elicited greater urges to smoke than a context cue that predicted no smoking, irrespective of the presence of smoking cues. In addition, this study showed that this differential effect on the urge to smoke was generalized to a context other than the context in which learning took place. These findings are discussed in relation to the significance of a context change regarding the predictive value of smoking availability.
Hugo F. Alrøe
Full Text Available Sustainability assessments bring together different perspectives that pertain to sustainability to produce overall assessments, and a wealth of approaches and tools have been developed in the past decades. However, two major problems remain. The problem of integration concerns the surplus of possibilities for integration; different tools produce different assessments. The problem of implementation concerns the barrier between assessment and transformation; assessments do not lead to the expected changes in practice. We aim to analyze issues of complementarity in sustainability assessment and transformation as a key to better handling the problems of integration and implementation. Based on a generalization of Niels Bohr's complementarity from quantum mechanics, we have identified two forms of complementarity in sustainability assessment, observer stance complementarity and value complementarity. Unlike many other problems of sustainability assessment, complementarity is of a fundamental character connected to the very conditions for observation. Therefore, complementarity cannot be overcome methodologically, only handled better or worse. Science is essential to the societal goal of sustainability, but these issues of complementarity impede the constructive role of science in the transition to more sustainable structures and practices in food systems. The agencies of sustainability assessment and transformation need to be acutely aware of the importance of different perspectives and values and the complementarities that may be connected to these differences. An improved understanding of complementarity can help to better recognize and handle issues of complementarity. These deliberations have relevance not only for sustainability assessment, but more generally for transdisciplinary research on wicked problems.
Hald, Kim Sundtoft
. Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed.......Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...
Grimm, Nancy; van der Pluijm, Ben
Science, Innovation, and Partnerships for Sustainable Solutions: A National Academies Symposium; Washington, D. C., 16-18 May 2012 It is no longer disputed that humanity has drastically changed the face of the planet and its life-support systems. The sustainability challenge is to meet people's needs today and in the future while sustaining life-support systems. This grand challenge demands a new scientific approach: use-inspired, solution-driven research that consciously links scientific research to societal decision-making and action. Sustainability science may help fulfill that need if it can engage communities of expertise across a wide range of disciplines and sectors, including the geosciences.
Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin
This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their
To provide information to organizations to help them implement sustainable food management, including joining the Food Recovery Challenge. To provide education and information to communities and concerned citizens.
Durand, Karine; Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Lewkowicz, David J; Goubet, Nathalie; Schaal, Benoist
This study investigated whether an odor can affect infants' attention to visually presented objects and whether it can selectively direct visual gaze at visual targets as a function of their meaning...
Weger-Lucarelli, James; Chu, Haiyan; Aliota, Matthew T; Partidos, Charalambos D; Osorio, Jorge E
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus associated with febrile illness often accompanied by rash and arthralgia that may persist for several years. Outbreaks are associated with high morbidity and create a public health challenge for countries affected. Recent outbreaks have occurred in both Europe and the Americas, suggesting CHIKV may continue to spread. Despite the sustained threat of the virus, there is no approved vaccine or antiviral therapy against CHIKV. Therefore, it is critical to develop a vaccine that is both well tolerated and highly protective. In this study, we describe the construction and characterization of a modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) virus expressing CHIKV E3 and E2 proteins (MVA-CHIK) that protected several mouse models from challenge with CHIKV. In particular, BALB/c mice were completely protected against viremia upon challenge with CHIKV after two doses of MVA-CHIK. Additionally, A129 mice (deficient in IFNα/β) were protected from viremia, footpad swelling, and mortality. While high anti-virus antibodies were elicited, low or undetectable levels of neutralizing antibodies were produced in both mouse models. However, passive transfer of MVA-CHIK immune serum to naïve mice did not protect against mortality, suggesting that antibodies may not be the main effectors of protection afforded by MVA-CHIK. Furthermore, depletion of CD4(+), but not CD8(+) T-cells from vaccinated mice resulted in 100% mortality, implicating the indispensable role of CD4(+) T-cells in the protection afforded by MVA-CHIK. The results presented herein demonstrate the potential of MVA to effectively express CHIKV E3-E2 proteins and generate protective immune responses. Our findings challenge the assumption that only neutralizing antibodies are effective in providing protection against CHIKV, and provides a framework for the development of novel, more effective vaccine strategies to combat CHIKV.
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a re-emerging arbovirus associated with febrile illness often accompanied by rash and arthralgia that may persist for several years. Outbreaks are associated with high morbidity and create a public health challenge for countries affected. Recent outbreaks have occurred in both Europe and the Americas, suggesting CHIKV may continue to spread. Despite the sustained threat of the virus, there is no approved vaccine or antiviral therapy against CHIKV. Therefore, it is critical to develop a vaccine that is both well tolerated and highly protective.In this study, we describe the construction and characterization of a modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA virus expressing CHIKV E3 and E2 proteins (MVA-CHIK that protected several mouse models from challenge with CHIKV. In particular, BALB/c mice were completely protected against viremia upon challenge with CHIKV after two doses of MVA-CHIK. Additionally, A129 mice (deficient in IFNα/β were protected from viremia, footpad swelling, and mortality. While high anti-virus antibodies were elicited, low or undetectable levels of neutralizing antibodies were produced in both mouse models. However, passive transfer of MVA-CHIK immune serum to naïve mice did not protect against mortality, suggesting that antibodies may not be the main effectors of protection afforded by MVA-CHIK. Furthermore, depletion of CD4(+, but not CD8(+ T-cells from vaccinated mice resulted in 100% mortality, implicating the indispensable role of CD4(+ T-cells in the protection afforded by MVA-CHIK.The results presented herein demonstrate the potential of MVA to effectively express CHIKV E3-E2 proteins and generate protective immune responses. Our findings challenge the assumption that only neutralizing antibodies are effective in providing protection against CHIKV, and provides a framework for the development of novel, more effective vaccine strategies to combat CHIKV.
Smith, Gregory A.; Stevenson, Robert B.
A study of two schools in northern Australia demonstrated the impact on Education for Sustainability (EfS) initiatives of a disruptive policy environment set in motion by neoliberal reforms focused on standards, accountability, and international competitiveness. In one of the schools, a culture characterized by trust and an emphasis on cultivating…
Chipidza, Wallace; Green, Gina; Riemenschneider, Cindy
Research utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior to understand behavior should first elicit beliefs about the phenomenon from the target population. In order to understand the reasons why students choose to major or not major in Management Information Systems (MIS), we elicited beliefs from 136 students attending university in the United States…
This study observed expressive communication of 17 Australian and 15 Taiwanese children with autism who were mute or had limited spoken language during 2 hour regular school routines and analyzed teacher instructions associated with elicited expressive communication. Results indicated: (a) the frequency of occurrence of elicited expressive…
Nissen, Stine Karen; Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher; Tonnesen, Pia Beck
explores the potential of photo-elicitation interviews as a qualitative path to affect. This particular type of interview is shaped as conversations about self-produced images of mathematics. When conducting the photo elicitation interviews, researchers also introduce their own photographs...
Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen
Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…
The methodology in this paper discusses the use of photographs as an elicitation strategy that can reveal the thinking processes of participants in a qualitatively rich manner. Photo-elicitation techniques combined with a Piercian semiotic perspective offer a unique method for creating a frame of action for later participant analysis. Illustrative…
The "Photo Elicitation Project" teaching idea applies the techniques of photo elicitation to stress prevention and management. This activity is designed to help students identify their personal stressors and to determine which stress prevention strategies are most useful for them. Objectives: students will be able to (a) identify current…
Paul M. Van Auken; Svein J. Frisvoll; Susan I. Stewart
Despite a contemporary socio-culture revolving around cultural consumption of imagery, metaphors, representations and "gaze", photo-elicitation is a rarely used method for social scientists and planners to acquire knowledge. In this paper, we discuss participant-driven photo-elicitation, a process in which participant photos are paired with in-depth...
Examined the validity of Dulay, Burt, and Krashen's hypothesis that the use of translation as an elicitation technique in foreign or second language (L2) research artificially increases L2 learners' reliance on the mother tongue, and accordingly, the proportion of interference errors. Examined interference errors on two elicitation tasks: an…
Wolfram, N.J.E.; Lago, P.; Osborne, Francesco
The intersection between software engineering research and issues related to sustainability and green IT has been the subject of increasing attention. In spite of that, we observe that sustainability is still not clearly defined, or understood, in the field of software engineering. This lack of
Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…
The unit-based sustainability assessment tool (USAT) was administered at Masinde Muliro University of. Science and Technology (MMUST), Kenya, between January and March 2012. The assessment focused on establishing to what extent the University integrated sustainability concerns into its core functions of teaching ...
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractOne of the reasons for promoting sustainable consumption is that it may give rise to greater happiness for a greater number, at least in the long run. In this paper I explore the strength of that moral account. I take stock of the assumed effects of sustainable consumption on happiness
It is the objective of this thesis to demonstrate exergy analysis as a powerful instrument to obtain sustainable development. An important aspect of sustainable development is the minimisation of irreversibilities caused by the use of non-renewables. In order to limit the scope of this thesis
Shepard, Joseph; Johnson, Lewis
Recent research has found that few institutions of higher education implemented the necessary strategies to make their campuses sustainable (Thompson and Green 2005). Ironically, universities are the segment of society with the most access to the intellectual capital needed to provide sound sustainable practices and measurements. Having top…
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractOne of the reasons for promoting sustainable consumption is that it may give rise to greater happiness for a greater number, at least in the long run. In this paper I explore the strength of that moral account. I take stock of the assumed effects of sustainable consumption on happiness
Lee, S.; Hill, G.; Sauerbruch, M.; Hutton, L.; Knowles, R.; Bothwell, K.; Brennan, J.; Jauslin, D.; Holzheu, H.; AlSayyad, N.; Arboleda, G.; Bharne, V.; Røstvik, H.; Kuma, K.; Sunikka-Blank, M.; Glaser, M.; Pero, E.; Sjkonsberg, M.; Teuffel, P.; Mangone, G.; Finocchiaro, L.; Hestnes, A.; Briggs, D.; Frampton, K.; Lee, S.
The purpose of this book is to reveal, explore and further the debate on the aesthetic potentials of sustainable architecture and its practice. This book opens a new area of scholarship and discourse in the design and production of sustainable architecture, one that is based in aesthetics. The
Action for Sustainable Change. New York: American Management Association, 1999. Fullan , Michael . Leadership & Sustainability: System Thinkers...institutional Army. iii ACKNOWLEGMENTS I thank my project advisors, Mr. Michael Cain, Director, US Army Environmental Policy Institute and Mr...U.S. Army Environmental Policy Institute. Interview by author, date, Arlington, VA. 30 Michaels , Ed. “The War for Talent.” Interview by
What is the role of schools, and more specifically school leadership, in the transition to a sustainable future for humankind? What different forms of leadership are needed to enable this role? The challenges are huge and complex and for those of us engaged in promoting sustainability learning, it is clear that the issue has never been more…
BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.
Keijzers, G.; Wempe, J.F.D.B. (Johan)
Today, only a limited number of entrepreneurs and managers are facing up to the relevance of sustainability issues and the ways in which these may affect their own businesses. Even fewer entrepreneurs and managers see sustainability as a potential source of profit. These are the findings resulting from research carried out by Nyenrode Business Universiteit among well over 500 entrepreneurs and managers.
Keijzers, G. (Gerard); Wempe, J.F.D.B. (Johan)
Today, only a limited number of entrepreneurs and managers are facing up to the relevance of sustainability issues and the ways in which these may affect their own businesses. Even fewer entrepreneurs and managers see sustainability as a potential source of profit. These are the findings resulting
John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Mary Heather Noble
The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...
Clark, Erika L.; Baumann, Christian R.; Cano, Georgina; Scammell, Thomas E.; Mochizuki, Takatoshi
Mice lacking orexin/hypocretin signaling have sudden episodes of atonia and paralysis during active wakefulness. These events strongly resemble cataplexy, episodes of sudden muscle weakness triggered by strong positive emotions in people with narcolepsy, but it remains unknown whether murine cataplexy is triggered by positive emotions. To determine whether positive emotions elicit murine cataplexy, we placed orexin knockout (KO) mice on a scheduled feeding protocol with regular or highly palatable food. Baseline sleep/wake behavior was recorded with ad lib regular chow. Mice were then placed on a scheduled feeding protocol in which they received 60% of their normal amount of chow 3 hr after dark onset for the next 10 days. Wild-type and KO mice rapidly entrained to scheduled feeding with regular chow, with more wake and locomotor activity prior to the feeding time. On day 10 of scheduled feeding, orexin KO mice had slightly more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and more cataplexy in the second half of the dark period, when they may have been foraging for residual food. To test whether more palatable food increases cataplexy, mice were then switched to scheduled feeding with an isocaloric amount of Froot Loops, a food often used as a reward in behavioral studies. With this highly palatable food, orexin KO mice had much more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and throughout the dark period. The increase in cataplexy with scheduled feeding, especially with highly palatable food, suggests that positive emotions may trigger cataplexy in mice, just as in people with narcolepsy. Establishing this connection helps validate orexin KO mice as an excellent model of human narcolepsy and provides an opportunity to better understand the mechanisms that trigger cataplexy. PMID:19362119
Balaban, Pavel M.; Malyshev, Aleksey Y.; Ierusalimsky, Victor N.; Aseyev, Nikolay; Korshunova, Tania A.; Bravarenko, Natasha I.; Lemak, M. S.; Roshchin, Matvey; Zakharov, Igor S.; Popova, Yekaterina; Boyle, Richard
Background The mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations. Methodology/Principal Findings In terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton M-2) and 12-day (Foton M-3) exposure to microgravity in unmanned orbital missions on: (i) the whole animal behavior (Helix lucorum L.), (ii) the statoreceptor responses to tilt in an isolated neural preparation (Helix lucorum L.), and (iii) the differential expression of the Helix pedal peptide (HPep) and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide genes in neural structures (Helix aspersa L.). Experiments were performed 13–42 hours after return to Earth. Latency of body re-orientation to sudden 90° head-down pitch was significantly reduced in postflight snails indicating an enhanced negative gravitaxis response. Statoreceptor responses to tilt in postflight snails were independent of motion direction, in contrast to a directional preference observed in control animals. Positive relation between tilt velocity and firing rate was observed in both control and postflight snails, but the response magnitude was significantly larger in postflight snails indicating an enhanced sensitivity to acceleration. A significant increase in mRNA expression of the gene encoding HPep, a peptide linked to ciliary beating, in statoreceptors was observed in postflight snails; no differential expression of the gene encoding FMRFamide, a possible neurotransmission modulator, was observed. Conclusions/Significance Upregulation of statocyst function in snails following microgravity exposure parallels that observed in vertebrates suggesting fundamental principles underlie gravi-sensing and the organism's ability to adapt to gravity changes. This
Hosseini, Ario H; Lifshitz, Jonathan
Traumatic brain injury is heterogeneous, both in its induction and ensuing neurological sequelae. In this way, medical care depends on accurately identifying the severity of injury-related forces. Clinically, injury severity is determined by a combination of the Glasgow Coma Scale, length of unconsciousness, posttraumatic amnesia, and persistence of neurological sequelae. In the laboratory, injury severity is gauged by the biomechanical forces and the acute suppression of neurological reflexes. The present communication describes and validates the "fencing response" as an overt indicator of injury force magnitude and midbrain localization to aid in injury identification and classification. Using YouTube, the Internet video database, videos were screened for head injury resulting in unconsciousness and documented for the fencing response. Adult male rats were subjected to midline fluid percussion brain injury at two severities, observed for acute neurological reflexes and the midbrain evaluated histopathologically. Tonic posturing (fencing response) has been observed to precede convulsions in sports injuries at the moment of impact, where extension and flexion of opposite arms occurs despite body position or gravity. Of the 35 videos identified by an impact to the head and period of unconsciousness, 66% showed a fencing response at the moment of impact, regardless of the side of impact, without ensuing convulsion. Similarly, diffuse brain-injured rats demonstrate a fencing response upon injury at moderate (1.9 atm, 39/44 animals) but not mild severity (1.1 atm, 0/19 animals). The proximity of the lateral vestibular nucleus to the cerebellar peduncles makes it vulnerable to mechanical forces that initiate a neurochemical storm to elicit the neuromotor response, disrupt the blood-brain barrier, and alter the nuclear volume. Therefore, the fencing response likely indicates neurological disturbance unique from convulsion associated with mechanical forces of moderate
Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.
Pavel M Balaban
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton M-2 and 12-day (Foton M-3 exposure to microgravity in unmanned orbital missions on: (i the whole animal behavior (Helix lucorum L., (ii the statoreceptor responses to tilt in an isolated neural preparation (Helix lucorum L., and (iii the differential expression of the Helix pedal peptide (HPep and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide genes in neural structures (Helix aspersa L.. Experiments were performed 13-42 hours after return to Earth. Latency of body re-orientation to sudden 90° head-down pitch was significantly reduced in postflight snails indicating an enhanced negative gravitaxis response. Statoreceptor responses to tilt in postflight snails were independent of motion direction, in contrast to a directional preference observed in control animals. Positive relation between tilt velocity and firing rate was observed in both control and postflight snails, but the response magnitude was significantly larger in postflight snails indicating an enhanced sensitivity to acceleration. A significant increase in mRNA expression of the gene encoding HPep, a peptide linked to ciliary beating, in statoreceptors was observed in postflight snails; no differential expression of the gene encoding FMRFamide, a possible neurotransmission modulator, was observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Upregulation of statocyst function in snails following microgravity exposure parallels that observed in vertebrates suggesting fundamental principles underlie gravi-sensing and the organism's ability to adapt to gravity
Jensen, Karsten Klint
The widely used concept of sustainability is seldom precisely defined, and its clarification involves making up one's mind about a range of difficult questions. One line of research (bottom-up) takes sustaining a system over time as its starting point and then infers prescriptions from...... this requirement. Another line (top-down) takes an economical interpretation of the Brundtland Commission's suggestion that the present generation's needsatisfaction should not compromise the need-satisfaction of future generations as its starting point. It then measures sustainability at the level of society...... a clarified ethical goal, disagreements can arise. At present we do not know what substitutions will be possible in the future. This uncertainty clearly affects the prescriptions that follow from the measure of sustainability. Consequently, decisions about how to make future agriculture sustainable...
Afgan Naim H.
Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.
System Innovation for Sustainability 2 focuses on change towards sustainable personal mobility based on implemented cases analysed from a system perspective. It examines what changes can be made to help us reduce our need for mobility, or start to make use of more sustainable mobility systems...... in order to provide sustainable solutions to our current ‘lock-in’ problems. Three major problem areas are considered (the ‘three Cs’): carbon emissions (and the growing contribution of mobility to the climate change crisis), congestion, and casualties. And each strategy proposed addresses one or more...... such as governments, manufacturers and consumers to intervene in the complex system to promote sustainable mobility. It concludes with a reflection on problems, trends and action needed. The ‘System Innovation for Sustainability’ series is the fruit of the first major international research network on SCP...
Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars
Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...... sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability...
Lauring, Gert Michael
Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... constructions, private and public outdoor space, housing, urban and architectural quality. The educational framework, curriculum and inte-grated design methods are preconditions for optimizing a design process where technical criteria, functional concerns and housing quality are addressed from the initial...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...
Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present. The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability? Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...
Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.
Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.
Dean, M; Arvola, A; Vassallo, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Raats, M M; Saba, A; Shepherd, R
Although the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been applied successfully in the area of food choice, it has been criticized for its pure utilitarian approach to the factors determining behaviour. Despite the increase in predictive power of the model with added components such as affective attitude and moral and ethical concerns, in most studies the elicitation process still only addresses people's utilitarian beliefs about the behaviour with little attention paid to other aspects. This study compares the traditional method of elicitation of advantages and disadvantages with two other methods (word association and open-ended) in the elicitations of beliefs, attitudes and moral concerns in relation to the consumption of organic foods. Results show the traditional method to be best for eliciting cognitive beliefs, open-ended emotion task for eliciting emotional beliefs and open-ended beliefs task best for moral concerns. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.
Maryn, Youri; Roy, Nelson
Auditory-perceptual evaluation of dysphonia may be influenced by the type of speech/voice task used to render judgements during the clinical evaluation, i.e., sustained vowels versus continuous speech. This study explored (a) differences in listener dysphonia severity ratings on the basis of speech/voice tasks, (b) the influence of speech/voice task on dysphonia severity ratings of stimuli that combined sustained vowels and continuous speech, and (c) the differences in inter-rater reliability of dysphonia severity ratings between both speech tasks. Five experienced listeners rated overall dysphonia severity in sustained vowels, continuous speech and concatenated speech samples elicited by 39 subjects with various voice disorders and degrees of hoarseness. Data confirmed that sustained vowels are rated significantly more dysphonic than continuous speech. Furthermore, dysphonia severity in concatenated speech samples is least determined by the sustained vowel. Finally, no significant difference was found in inter-rater reliability between dysphonia severity ratings of sustained vowels versus continuous speech. Based upon the results, both types of speech/voice tasks (i.e., sustained vowel and continuous speech) should be elicited and judged by clinicians in the auditory-perceptual rating of dysphonia severity.
Full Text Available Elicitation is a commonly used tool to extract viable information from experts. The information that is held by the expert is extracted and a probabilistic representation of this knowledge is constructed. A promising avenue in psychological research is to incorporated experts’ prior knowledge in the statistical analysis. Systematic reviews on elicitation literature however suggest that it might be inappropriate to directly obtain distributional representations from experts. The literature qualifies experts’ performance on estimating elements of a distribution as unsatisfactory, thus reliably specifying the essential elements of the parameters of interest in one elicitation step seems implausible. Providing feedback within the elicitation process can enhance the quality of the elicitation and interactive software can be used to facilitate the feedback. Therefore, we propose to decompose the elicitation procedure into smaller steps with adjustable outcomes. We represent the tacit knowledge of experts as a location parameter and their uncertainty concerning this knowledge by a scale and shape parameter. Using a feedback procedure, experts can accept the representation of their beliefs or adjust their input. We propose a Five-Step Method which consists of (1 Eliciting the location parameter using the trial roulette method. (2 Provide feedback on the location parameter and ask for confirmation or adjustment. (3 Elicit the scale and shape parameter. (4 Provide feedback on the scale and shape parameter and ask for confirmation or adjustment. (5 Use the elicited and calibrated probability distribution in a statistical analysis and update it with data or to compute a prior-data conflict within a Bayesian framework. User feasibility and internal validity for the Five-Step Method are investigated using three elicitation studies.
Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies
Chen, Y-H; Lin, P-L; Wong, R-W; Wu, Y-T; Hsu, H-Y; Tsai, M-C; Lin, M-J; Hsu, Y-C; Lin, C-H
Minocycline is a second-generation tetracycline that has been reported to have powerful neuroprotective properties. In our previous studies, we found that d-amphetamine (AMPH) elicited action potential bursts in an identifiable RP4 neuron of the African snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. This study sought to determine the effects of minocycline on the AMPH-elicited action potential pattern changes in the central snail neuron, using the two-electrode voltage clamping method. Extracellular application of AMPH at 300 μM elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron. Minocycline dose-dependently (300-900 μM) inhibited the action potential bursts elicited by AMPH. The inhibitory effects of minocycline on AMPH-elicited action potential bursts were restored by forskolin (50 μM), an adenylate cyclase activator, and by dibutyryl cAMP (N(6),2'-O-Dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate; 1mM), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog. Co-administration of forskolin (50 μM) plus tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 5mM) or co-administration of TEA (5mM) plus dibutyryl cAMP (1mM) also elicited action potential bursts, which were prevented and inhibited by minocycline. In addition, minocycline prevented and inhibited forskolin (100 μM)-elicited action potential bursts. Notably, TEA (50mM)-elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron were not affected by minocycline. Minocycline did not affect steady-state outward currents of the RP4 neuron. However, minocycline did decrease the AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. Similarly, minocycline decreased the effects of forskolin-elicited steady-state current changes. Pretreatment with H89 (N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride; 10 μM), a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited AMPH-elicited action potential bursts and decreased AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. These results suggest that the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway and the steady-state current are involved in
Ibarra, D. L.
The Independent Schools Foundation Academy (ISF) in Hong Kong established a sustainability policy in 2015, which explicitly states, "an experimentally integrated, environmentally and ethically sustainable system of science education and conservation practices based on the 2012 Jeju Declaration of the World Conservation Congress will be implemented through the school". ISF Academy is a private Chinese bilingual school in Hong Kong serving over 1500 students K-12, following the framework and curriculum of the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO). The strategy behind the implementation of this policy includes: development of a scientific sustainable curriculum that is age appropriate; establish a culture of sustainability within the ISF community and beyond to the wider HK community; install sustainable infrastructure that allows students to learn; and learn first hand sustainable living practices. It is well understood that solutions to the environmental challenges facing Hong Kong and our planet will require multiple disciplines. The current sustainability programs at ISF include: a) a whole school aerobic food waste composting system and organic farming, b) energy consumption monitoring of existing buildings, c) upcoming installation of an air pollution monitoring equipment that will correlate with the AQHI data collected by the Hong Kong government, d) a Renewable Energy Education Center (REEC) that will teach students about RE and also produce solar energy for classroom consumption, and e) student lead environmental group that manages the paper and used cooking oil recycling on campus. The Shuyuan Science and Sustainability faculty work closely with classroom teachers to ensure that the above mentioned projects are incorporated into the curriculum throughout the school. Interdisciplinary units (IDU) of study are being developed that encourage faculty and students to work across subject areas. Projects include Personal Projects, Extended Essays
This book highlights the sustainability aspects of textiles and clothing sector in light of nanomaterials and technologies. The invasion of nano in every industrial sector has been important and has made remarkable changes as well as posed new challenges, including the textiles and clothing sector. There is quite a great deal of research happening in terms of nano materials for textiles across the globe, some of which are covered in this book. .
Ana Rodríguez-Olalla; Carmen Aviles-Palacios
.... Although global integration models address sustainability in organisations, these models present shortcomings and limitations and do not describe how to achieve the integration of sustainability...
Ana Criado-Gomis; Amparo Cervera-Taulet; Maria-Angeles Iniesta-Bonillo
This paper proposes sustainable entrepreneurial orientation (SEO) as a multidimensional construct that offers researchers the possibility of empirically testing their theoretical proposals in the sustainable entrepreneurship field...
John Cairns Jr.
Full Text Available Sustainable use of the planet is based on the assumption that humankind can maintain conditions suitable for inhabiting the planet indefinitely. No robust evidence supports this assumption nor rejects it, and adequate evidence on this issue may not be available for centuries. Numeracy is the ability to use or understand numerical techniques of mathematics. Even if adequate numerical data were available, the important decisions humankind makes regarding sustainable use of the planet should not be guided by numerical information alone, such as economic numbers, but by eco- and sustainability ethics, which provides a values framework that indicates how the numbers should be used and interpreted.
Grewatsch, Sylvia; Rohrbeck, René; Madsen, Henning
This paper aims to advance the understanding of the circumstances under which corporate sustainability (CS) pays off. On the basis of a review of 129 major papers from both the sustainability and general management literature, we discuss the development of the research field. In addition we discuss...... antecedents and outcomes. To overcome this limitation we propose an integrated typology which may facilitate more research on the link between corporate sustainability performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP). Our expectation is that the strategy type might play a moderating or mediating...
Fergus, Jeffrey W.; Twigge-Molecey, Christopher; Mcguffin-Cawley, James
Consideration of the environmental and societal impacts of engineering products and processes is becoming increasingly important, so sustainability-related issues need to be addressed in educating engineers. Awareness of sustainability issues is particularly important for materials and metallurgical scientists and engineers because they are involved in both developing processes and selecting materials with low-energy use and low environmental impact. In this article, activities at TMS to identify sustainability-related educational needs and opportunities to address these needs will be discussed.
Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte
The Danish public housing sector has more than 20 years of experience with sustainable facilities management based on user involvement. The paper outlines this development in a historical perspective and gives an analysis of different approaches to sustainable facilities management. The focus...... is on the housing departments and strateies for the management of the use of resources. The research methods used are case studies based on interviews in addition to literature studies. The paper explores lessons to be learned about sustainable facilities management in general, and points to a need for new...
to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia......How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian
While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...... these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers...... and researchers before, during and after design processes. View full text Download full text...
Edgeman, Rick; Williams, Joseph; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær
Sustainable Enterprise Excellence balances complementary and competing interests of key stakeholder segments, including society and the natural environment and increases the likelihood of superior and sustainable competitive positioning and hence long-term enterprise success that is defined...... by continuously relevant and responsible governance, strategy, actions and performance consistent with high-level organizational resilience, robustness and resplendence (R3). This is accomplished through organizational design and function emphasizing innovation, enterprise intelligence & analytics, operational......, supply chain, customer-related, human capital, financial, marketplace, societal, and environmental performance. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence integrates ethical, efficient and effective (E3) enterprise governance with 3E (equity, ecology, economy) Triple Top Line strategy throughout enterprise...
Rasmussen, Tove Arendt
. Very often, however, the actual purchase does not live up to the demands of doing good in the sustainable consumption chain, and the individual might end up with a guilty conscience, which again is a possible trigger for lingering in a sentimental mode of guilt. Emotions of sentimentality may actually......Experience understood as experience-based consumption is by now fairly absent from the research agenda of the different theories on sustainable consumption. On the basis of Colin Campbell’s notion of romantic ethics and emotional sentimentality in modern hedonism, I claim that sustainable...
Rasmussen, Tove Arendt
. Very often, however, the actual purchase does not live up to the demands of doing good in the sustainable consumption chain, and the individual might end up with a guilty conscience, which again is a possible trigger for lingering in a sentimental mode of guilt. Emotions of sentimentality may actually......Experience understood as experience-based consumption is by now fairly absent from the research agenda of the different theories on sustainable consumption. On the basis of Colin Campbell’s notion of romantic ethics and emotional sentimentality in modern hedonism, I claim that sustainable...
Kaimoyo, Evans; Farag, Mohamed A; Sumner, Lloyd W; Wasmann, Catherine; Cuello, Joel L; VanEtten, Hans
Many secondary metabolites that are normally undetectable or in low amounts in healthy plant tissue are synthesized in high amounts in response to microbial infection. Various abiotic and biotic agents have been shown to mimic microorganisms and act as elicitors of the synthesis of these plant compounds. In the present study, sub-lethal levels of electric current are shown to elicit the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in transgenic and non-transgenic plant tissue. The production of the phytoalexin (+)-pisatin by pea was used as the main model system. Non-transgenic pea hairy roots treated with 30-100 mA of electric current produced 13 times higher amounts of (+)-pisatin than did the non-elicited controls. Electrically elicited transgenic pea hairy root cultures blocked at various enzymatic steps in the (+)-pisatin biosynthetic pathway also accumulated intermediates preceding the blocked enzymatic step. Secondary metabolites not usually produced by pea accumulated in some of the transgenic root cultures after electric elicitation due to the diversion of the intermediates into new pathways. The amount of pisatin in the medium bathing the roots of electro-elicited roots of hydroponically cultivated pea plants was 10 times higher 24 h after elicitation than in the medium surrounding the roots of non-elicited control plants, showing not only that the electric current elicited (+)-pisatin biosynthesis but also that the (+)-pisatin was released from the roots. Seedlings, intact roots or cell suspension cultures of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), barrel medic, (Medicago truncatula), Arabidopsis thaliana, red clover (Trifolium pratense) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) also produced increased levels of secondary metabolites in response to electro-elicitation. On the basis of our results, electric current would appear to be a general elicitor of plant secondary metabolites and to have potential for application in both basic and commercial research.
John Cairns Jr.
Full Text Available Humans must acknowledge that the biosphere is the essential support for all living organisms. In order to achieve sustainable use of the planet, humans must proceed beyond egocentrism, ethnocentrism, homocentrism, and biocentrism to ecocentrism. National states, with present policies, are a major obstacle to sustainable use of the planet. However, there is some evidence that the individual has increasing sovereignty at the expense of both nation states and the environment. Still, the primary obstacle to sustainability is inherent in the present system of sovereign nation states. The basic question is how much sovereignty must nation-states and individuals relinquish to preserve the health of Earth's biospheric life support system. A free and open exchange of thoughts on this subject is long overdue. To acheive sustainable use of the planet, humankind must view its identity within the context of the interdependent web of life.
Better sustainability means more environmentally conscious and efficient businesses and communities. EPA helps modify the way we consume energy, deal with waste, and grow our economy through programs such as Energy Star, E3, Smart Growth, and WaterSense.
Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)
The objective of this project was to develop and conduct a half-day educational seminar on sustainable : roadway lighting at three locations within New York State: Rochester, New York City, and Albany. : Primary attendees were engineers from the New ...
Structured Abstract Purpose: Sustainable Enterprise Excellence (SEE) is defined and developed through integration and expansion of business excellence modeling and sustainability thought. The intent is to enable simple yet reliable enterprise assessment of triple bottom line (TBL) performance...... and produce actionable enterprise foresight that can enable next best practices and sources of sustainable competitive advantage through innovation. Methodology: Key elements of SEE are identified from various business excellence and sustainability reporting sources, including the Global Reporting Initiative...... assessment approach similar in structure to those behind established excellence awards are developed that enable enterprise assessment of progress toward SEE. The resulting assessment is delivered in a highly consumable, combined narrative and graphic format referred to as a SEE NEWS Report. Practical...
In October 2009, President Obama signed Executive Order (EO) 13514 that sets sustainability : goals for Federal agencies and focuses on making improvements in environmental, energy and : economic performance. The Executive Order requires Federal agen...
Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini
This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...
Gani, Rafiqul; Wenzel, Henrik; Azapagic, Adisa
generation, transport, heating and cooling, on the other hand, it has a considerable impact on the environment, via its resource consumption, its emissions and the impact of its products. New (sustainable) alternatives, for example, change of raw material base, use of renewable resources, efficient...... manufacture of chemical products and sustainable products and processes that can efficiently manufacture them, will need to be considered to meet the current and future challenges. Some of the important issues in this respect are how to generate/identify sustainable alternatives, how to analyze them, which...... criteria should be used to evaluate them, and how to implement them? The objective of this presentation is to highlight the use of systematic multidisciplinary approaches for generation of sustainable alternatives combined with methods/tools for analysis and evaluation. For generation of alternatives...
J. S. M. Silva, Carla; Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Gernaey, Krist
This chapter deals with sustainability analysis of biorefinery systems in terms of environmental and socio-economic indicators . Life cycle analysis has methodological issues related to the functional unit (FU), allocation , land use and biogenic carbon neutrality of the reference system and of t......This chapter deals with sustainability analysis of biorefinery systems in terms of environmental and socio-economic indicators . Life cycle analysis has methodological issues related to the functional unit (FU), allocation , land use and biogenic carbon neutrality of the reference system...... and of the biorefinery-based system. Socio-economic criteria and indicators used in sustainability frameworks assessment are presented and discussed. There is not one single methodology that can aptly cover the synergies of environmental, economic, social and governance issues required to assess the sustainable...
Andersen, Heidi Lene
Abstract: This article discusses how to accomplish a transition towards healthy and sustainable futures. Despite political statements and profound theoretical developments, little has happened in the field of practice. This article presents a number of problematics in the theoretical and conceptual...... development within the fields of sustainability and health promotion. With this objective in mind, this article seeks to find solutions to a question raised by the WHO health and sustainability researcher, Illona Kickbusch: ‘What conceptual framing and common language can help move a shared agenda forward...... departments. The article demonstrates that an action research approach including an Aristotelean phronetic perspective can be successful in integrating health and sustainability in research, as well as in practice. There are two main conclusions from the empirical case study. The first is that the common...
Nielsen, Kristian Roed
The dissertation sets out to explore the often ignored role of the consumer (end-user) within sustainable innovation by examining the potential of reward-based crowdfunding in enabling sustainable entrepreneurship. It explores under which conditions and to what extent rewardbased crowdfunding could...... benefit entrepreneurs with social and/or environmentally-oriented products. The dissertation employs four articles in order to explore this. The first sets the stage by systematically reviewing the various roles that end-users can adopt within sustainable innovation process. The second serves to present...... access, while paper four introduces the experimental evidence on the role of individual and product details in shaping pledging behavior as it relates to a diversity of (un)sustainable campaigns....
Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas
One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products...... or to support decision making toward sustainable production and consumption. In both cases, LCSA results could be too disaggregated and consequently too difficult to understand and interpret by decision makers. As non-experts are usually the target audience of experts and scientists, and are also involved...... in decision-making processes, the necessity for a straightforward but comprehensive presentation of LCSA results is becoming strategically important. The implementation of the dashboard of sustainability proposed in this article offers a possible solution. An outstanding characteristic of the dashboard...
Full Text Available Advanced Construction Technologies (ACTs) are set to become the sustainable mainstay of the construction industry due to the demand for innovative housing solutions. Like most emerging economies, South Africa from a historical perspective and global...
To introduce businesses, NGOs, and government officials to the concept of Sustainable Materials Management (SMM). To provide tools to allow stakeholders to take a lifecycle approach managing their materials, & to encourage them to join a SMM challenge.
Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne
The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.
Burger, Joseph R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brown, James H.; Burnside, William R.; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.; Zuo, Wenyun
The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.
Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Sonnenfeld, D.A.
Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of
Burger, Joseph R; Allen, Craig D; Brown, James H; Burnside, William R; Davidson, Ana D; Fristoe, Trevor S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C; Okie, Jordan G; Zuo, Wenyun
The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.
Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns
Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...
Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.
... irreversible. The next several months are critical. Sustaining the success of Operation Uphold Democracy requires Haiti--and the international community--to confront, simultaneously, crucial transitions in political leadership, law and order, economic...
... – together characterized as the emergence of a knowledge democracy – may imply for governance for sustainable development, on global and other levels of societal decision making, and the other way around...
In nine chapters practical-conceptual drafts of action reserach in relation to sustainability are presented and examples of action research in Scandinavia, England, Nicaragua and Mozambique are described and analyzed....
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 146 countries. The index...
Local Environment The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, Volume 15 Issue 6, 541......Local Environment The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, Volume 15 Issue 6, 541...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) measures overall progress toward environmental sustainability for 142 countries based on environmental systems,...
Hanley, Nicholas David; Dupuy, Louis Paul; MCLAUGHLIN, Eoin
Genuine Savings has emerged as the leading economic indicator of sustainable economic development at the country level. It derives from the literatures on weak sustainability, wealth accounting and national income accounting. We discuss the theoretical underpinnings of GS, focusing on the relationship between changes in a nation's extended capital stock and the future path of consumption. The indicator has entered widespread use propelled by the World Bank's publications, despite its varying ...
able_installations/. Accessed 15 April 2011) Leadership for Sustainable Installations By COL Charles Allen (Ret), U.S. Army War College The...number. 1. REPORT DATE APR 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leadership for Sustainable...of the Army civilian workforce. During that decade, we followed the mandate of A-76 Commercial Sourcing and focused on developing the Most Efficient
This paper discusses settlement patterns and sustainability. Generally urbanization is recognised as an inevitable development driven by job opportunities, better service supply, education, and health services, and it is argued that this is the main driver for centralisation. Research based...... of utilization of local resources and trade opportunities. Furthermore the growing towns are struggling with an un-sustainable economic situation manly based on public financed jobs or welfare payments and with limited export oriented value creation....
The theme of the articles is innovating for sustainability. Empirically the articles shows how enterprises makes environmental innovations related to their processes and products within the organic dairy industry, the fish processing industry and the car industry.......The theme of the articles is innovating for sustainability. Empirically the articles shows how enterprises makes environmental innovations related to their processes and products within the organic dairy industry, the fish processing industry and the car industry....
In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006), a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. ...
Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon
The authors show how certification assembles ‘sustainable’ territories through a complex layering of regulatory authority in which both government and nongovernment entities claim rule-making authority, sometimes working together, sometimes in parallel, sometimes competitively. It is argued...... dynamic in assembling sustainable territories, and that certification always involves state agencies in determining how the key elements that comprise it are defined. Whereas some state agencies have been suspicious of sustainability certification, others have embraced it or even used it to extend...
Bendell, Jem; Little, Richard
This paper critiques mainstream leadership and leadership development approaches to help inform the emerging field of sustainability leadership. Traditional leadership theory and education is argued to be highly problematic for the pursuit of sustainability leadership. A more critical approach is required, drawing upon insights from social theory, critical discourse analysis and psychology, which is attempted in this paper. Once deconstructed, leadership can be a useful framework for explorin...
John Lu; Marc Chorney; Lowell Peterson
Different trailer flooring materials, including wood-based, aluminum, steel, and synthetic plastic floors, were evaluated in accordance with their durability and sustainability to our natural environment. Wood-based trailer flooring is an eco-friendly product. It is the most sustainable trailer flooring material compared with fossil fuel-intensive steel, aluminum, and plastics. It is renewable and recyclable. Oak, hard maple, and apitong are strong and durable hardwood species that are curren...
Pawlak, J. J.
There exists a direct correlation between improvements in standard of living and the consumption of resources. To be able to maintain the standard of living of a modern developed country, society must adapt to an economy based on sustainable processes, energy, and raw materials. The sustainable economy presents itself as a disruptive technology to the traditional economy, which is based largely on non-renewable resources. The issue seems to be more about when will we switch to a sustainabl...
Sundtoft Hald, Kim
Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior. Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research ...
Andrei Mihai Cristea
Full Text Available In the European Union, cohesion policy is the third country after the domestic and social policy, as this policy is a tool for economic growth and also a balancing factor. Through its solidarity funds contribute to the other sectorial policies: the Common Agricultural Policy, social policy, environmental policy. This article aims to demonstrate the importance of cohesion policy in the national economy and how to improve its implementation by ensuring sustainable development and sustainable economic growth
The topic of business sustainability is multidisciplinary in nature, and its complexity calls for putting in place a wide variety of research approaches, such as action research, case studies, surveys, model development etc. The papers presented in this ebook represent a comprehensive overview of recent advances in this area of accounting and reporting research. It contains six papers, covering how leasing can increase environmental benefits, CSR, developing social, environmental and economic indicators for SMEs, sustainability reporting and reputation risk and others.
Fischer, Louise Arup; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus
BACKGROUND: Experimental sensitization depends upon the amount of allergen per unit skin area and is largely independent of the area size. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at testing if this also applies for elicitation of nickel allergy. PATIENTS/METHODS: 20 nickel allergic individuals were tested...... compared to the small area. It was also found that the ROAT threshold (per application) was lower than the patch test threshold. CONCLUSION: For elicitation of nickel allergy, the size of the exposed area and therefore the total amount of applied nickel, influence the elicitation reaction at some...
S. Grafakos (Stelios); A. Flamos (Alexandros); E.M. Enseñado (Elena Marie)
textabstractThis research paper aims at developing and applying a constructive weighting methodology for the elicitation of local stakeholders' preferences regarding a set of sustainability evaluation criteria during the assessment of low-carbon energy technologies. The overall methodology has been
Aurich, J.C.; Linke, B.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky
This paper presents an overview of research on sustainability of abrasive processes. It incorporates results from a round robin study on ‘‘energy-efficiency of abrasive processes’’ which has been carried out within the scientific technical committee ‘‘abrasive processes’’ (STC G) of CIRP, the con......This paper presents an overview of research on sustainability of abrasive processes. It incorporates results from a round robin study on ‘‘energy-efficiency of abrasive processes’’ which has been carried out within the scientific technical committee ‘‘abrasive processes’’ (STC G) of CIRP......, the content of technical presentations in STC G, and the results of a comprehensive literature study. The approach to sustainability includes environmental, social, and economic sustainability in accordance with the definition proposed in the Brundtland Report of the United Nations . The main focus...... is on environmental and social sustainability. Economic sustainability will be considered as manufacturing productivity. © 2013 CIRP....
THIS IS THE THIRD YEAR BPA has reported on sustainability program accomplishments. The report provides an opportunity to review progress made on sustainability initiatives, evaluate how far we have come and how much we can improve. The program has demonstrated maturation as the concepts of sustainability and resource conservation are communicated and understood. The sustainability program started as an employee-driven “grass roots” effort in 2010. Sustainability is becoming a consideration in how work is performed. The establishment of several policies supporting sustainability efforts proves the positive progress being made. In 2009, BPA became a founder and member of The Climate Registry, a nonprofit collaboration that sets standards to calculate, verify and report greenhouse gas emissions. This year, BPA completed and published our Greenhouse Gas inventory for the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2012 inventory is currently in the process of third-party verification and scheduled for public release in January 2014. These inventories provide a concrete measure of the progress we are making.
Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.
Full Text Available At the time when the journal Sustainability  was launched, as a chemist and a scientist, I started to believe that social sciences may be more important to make humans sustainable. The broad journal title Social Sciences presents the opportunity for all social science scholars to have integrated consideration regarding the sustainability of humanity, because I am sure that science and technology alone cannot help. Science and technology may have in fact been contributing to accelerate the depletion of nonrenewable natural resources and putting human sustainability at risk since the industrial revolution about 150 years ago. I hope all intellectuals studying anthropology, archaeology, administration, communication, criminology, economics, education, government, linguistics, international relations, politics, sociology and, in some contexts, geography, history, law, and psychology publish with us to seek a solution to sustain humanity. Sustainability itself will also be a main topic of the journal Social Sciences. In addition to this integrated forum for social sciences, more topic specific journals, such as the already publishing Societies , will be launched. [...
Full Text Available Sustainable water systems often comprise complex combinations of traditional and new system components that mimic natural processes. These green systems aim to protect public health and safety, and restore natural and human landscapes. Green infrastructure elements such as most sustainable drainage systems trap storm water but may contaminate groundwater. There is a need to summarize recent trends in sustainable water systems management in a focused document. The aim of this special issue is therefore to disseminate and share scientific findings on novel sustainable water systems addressing recent problems and opportunities. This special issue focuses on the following key topics: climate change adaptation and vulnerability assessment of water resources systems; holistic water management; carbon credits; potable water savings; sustainable water technologies; nutrient management; holistic storm water reuse; water and wastewater infrastructure planning; ecological status of watercourses defined by the Water Framework Directive. The combined knowledge output advances the understanding of sustainable water, wastewater and storm water systems in the developed and developing world. The research highlights the need for integrated decision-support frameworks addressing the impact of climate change on local and national water resources management strategies involving all relevant stakeholders at all levels.
Solomon, Barry D
Interest in liquid biofuels production and use has increased worldwide as part of government policies to address the growing scarcity and riskiness of petroleum use, and, at least in theory, to help mitigate adverse global climate change. The existing biofuels markets are dominated by U.S. ethanol production based on cornstarch, Brazilian ethanol production based on sugarcane, and European biodiesel production based on rapeseed oil. Other promising efforts have included programs to shift toward the production and use of biofuels based on residues and waste materials from the agricultural and forestry sectors, and perennial grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus--so-called cellulosic ethanol. This article reviews these efforts and the recent literature in the context of ecological economics and sustainability science. Several common dimensions for sustainable biofuels are discussed: scale (resource assessment, land availability, and land use practices); efficiency (economic and energy); equity (geographic distribution of resources and the "food versus fuel" debate); socio-economic issues; and environmental effects and emissions. Recent proposals have been made for the development of sustainable biofuels criteria, culminating in standards released in Sweden in 2008 and a draft report from the international Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels. These criteria hold promise for accelerating a shift away from unsustainable biofuels based on grain, such as corn, and toward possible sustainable feedstock and production practices that may be able to meet a variety of social, economic, and environmental sustainability criteria.
Brown, Becky J.; Hanson, Mark E.; Liverman, Diana M.; Merideth, Robert W.
Sustainability is increasingly viewed as a desired goal of development and environmental management. This term has been used in numerous disciplines and in a variety of contexts, ranging from the concept of maximum sustainable yield in forestry and fisheries management to the vision of a sustainable society with a steady-state economy. The meaning of the term is strongly dependent on the context in which it is applied and on whether its use is based on a social, economic, or ecological perspective, Sustainability may be defined broadly or narrowly, but a useful definition must specify explicitly the context as well as the temporal and spatial scales being considered. Although societies differ in their conceptualizations of sustainability, indefinite human survival on a global scale requires certain basic support systems, which can be maintained only with a healthy environment and a stable human population. A clearer understanding of global sustainability and the development of appropriate indicators of the status of basic support systems would provide a useful framework for policy making.
Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.
Huang, Dan; Liang, Huilou; Xue, Linyan; Wang, Meijian; Hu, Qiyi; Chen, Yao
Uncertainty regarding the target location is an influential factor for spatial attention. Modulation in spatial uncertainty can lead to adjustments in attention scope and variations in attention effects. Hence, investigating spatial uncertainty modulation is important for understanding the underlying mechanism of spatial attention. However, the temporal dynamics of this modulation remains unclear. To evaluate the time course of spatial uncertainty modulation, we adopted a Posner-like attention orienting paradigm with central or peripheral cues. Different numbers of cues were used to indicate the potential locations of the target and thereby manipulate the spatial uncertainty level. The time interval between the onsets of the cue and the target (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA) varied from 50 to 2000ms. We found that under central cueing, the effect of spatial uncertainty modulation could be detected from 200 to 2000ms after the presence of the cues. Under peripheral cueing, the effect of spatial uncertainty modulation was observed from 50 to 2000ms after cueing. Our results demonstrate that spatial uncertainty modulation produces robust and sustained effects on target detection speed. The time course of this modulation is influenced by the cueing method, which suggests that discrepant processing procedures are involved under different cueing conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy and sustainability have become one of the most critical issues of our generation. While the abundant potential of renewable energy such as solar and wind provides a real opportunity for sustainability, their intermittency and uncertainty present a daunting operating challenge. This thesis aims to develop analytical models, deployable algorithms, and real systems to enable efficient integration of renewable energy into complex distributed systems with limited information. The first thrust of the thesis is to make IT systems more sustainable by facilitating the integration of renewable energy into these systems. IT represents the fastest growing sectors in energy usage and greenhouse gas pollution. Over the last decade there are dramatic improvements in the energy efficiency of IT systems, but the efficiency improvements do not necessarily lead to reduction in energy consumption because more servers are demanded. Further, little effort has been put in making IT more sustainable, and most of the improvements are from improved "engineering" rather than improved "algorithms". In contrast, my work focuses on developing algorithms with rigorous theoretical analysis that improve the sustainability of IT. In particular, this thesis seeks to exploit the flexibilities of cloud workloads both (i) in time by scheduling delay-tolerant workloads and (ii) in space by routing requests to geographically diverse data centers. These opportunities allow data centers to adaptively respond to renewable availability, varying cooling efficiency, and fluctuating energy prices, while still meeting performance requirements. The design of the enabling algorithms is however very challenging because of limited information, non-smooth objective functions and the need for distributed control. Novel distributed algorithms are developed with theoretically provable guarantees to enable the "follow the renewables" routing. Moving from theory to practice, I helped HP design and implement
Goldschmidt, Kyle; Harrison, Terry; Holtry, Matthew; Reeh, Jeremy
Organizations are facing increased pressure from various stakeholders to address issues of sustainability, resulting in a growing demand for sustainability education and training. Procurement groups remain the key drivers of many sustainability-related strategies, placing pressure on universities to integrate sustainability concepts into the…
Parikh, Roneil N; Muranjan, Mamta; Karande, Sunil; Sankhe, Shilpa
Symptomatic atlantoaxial dislocation is common in predisposing genetic or acquired disorders. However, an isolated atlantoaxial dislocation frequently is congenital and silent unless discovered during course of evaluation for neurological symptoms of cervical spinal cord injury attributed to minor or chronic, repetitive trauma. A 12-year-old girl working as a farm laborer developed calf pain provoked by walking, which increased in severity and progressed to involve the upper limbs. It was followed by progressive ascending quadriplegia. The illness resembled acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with respiratory involvement. Presence of "claw" hands bilaterally and wasting of intrinsic muscles of the hands led to the suspicion of a cervical myelopathy. Neuroimaging confirmed a congenital atlantoaxial dislocation with basilar invagination. The absence of abnormal signals in the cervical spinal cord was unusual. The symptomatic congenital atlantoaxial dislocation was postulated to be precipitated by chronic trauma suffered while habitually carrying heavy loads on the head and leading to spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities. Correction via surgery was successful. Congenital atlantoaxial dislocation should be suspected in a clinical setting of neurological symptoms of cervical spinal cord injury without obvious trauma or predisposing primary diseases. Prompt cervical spine imaging reveals the correct diagnosis. Physicians in countries in which child labor is rampant should be aware of the potential complications of cervical cord injuries from child labor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral-temporal change were very similar to those elicited by the spectral change, but those elicited by the temporal change were delayed by 30 – 50 ms and differed from the others in morphology. The results suggest that human brain responses corresponding to spectral sound changes precede those corresponding to temporal sound changes, even when the spectral and temporal changes occur simultaneously.
Smith, Bruce L.
Examination of the use of short "tongue-twister" phrases in eliciting spontaneous slips of the tongue in five year olds indicated that the technique was a feasible and beneficial method for collecting spoonerism data from children. (24 references) (CB)
Cao, Xiaohua; Yang, Qi; Hu, Fengpei
Studies of event-related potentials show that the specific N170 response has become a stable electrophysiological hallmark of objects related to expertise in early perceptual processing. In the present study, we investigated whether eyeglasses can elicit N170 effects similar to those elicited by objects of expertise. Our results showed that the N170 response elicited by eyeglasses was larger than the response elicited by objects that do not generate perceptual expertise (e.g., houses). Importantly, we found that eyeglasses could produce a within-category N170 adaptation effect, similar to that produced in response to objects of expertise (e.g., faces). Our results have revealed for the first time that with a large amount of experience, eyeglasses could evoke the face-like N170 response, which suggested that eyeglasses may become an object of perceptual expertise to some human observers.
Leweling, Tara A; Nissen, Mark E
.... Building upon prior command and control (C2) research, we report the preliminary results of our extension of our campaign of computational experimentation to series of laboratory experiments using the ELICIT multiplayer intelligence game...
Full Text Available We explore the use of video and photo elicitation in a research study undertaken to understand the way in which preschool teachers perceive and construct their provision of children's educational experiences. We explore the value of visually elicited interviews based on video footage and photographs captured during teaching and learning in four classrooms in two preschool settings in Kenya. Through visually elicited interviews, both the teachers and the researcher constructed meaningful conversations (interviews to explore preschool teachers' practical experiences and their beliefs, understanding and interpretation of developmentally appropriate educational practices. This paper targets the possible value ofand contribution made by visual data generation procedures, as well as their inherent challenges, in order to add to the body of knowledge on visually elicited interviews.
Journee, H. -L.; Polak, H. E.; De Kleuver, M.
Introduction. - In spite of the use of multipulse, transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) is still insufficient in a subgroup of patients to elicit motor-evoked potentials during intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). Classic facilitation methods used in awake patients are precluded
were obtained from the log files of the ELICIT software. Data Analysis Data analyses were performed using the statistical package SPSS 13.0...Finally, our analyses of the data provided by the ELICIT log files regarding Share, Post and Pull variables did not evidence statistically significant...sharing channels provides a more complete –and also realistic– setting for decision-making ability testing. This conjoint set of tools resembles the
Maria Maddalena Di Fiore; Alessandra Santillo; Sara Falvo; Salvatore Longobardi; Gabriella Chieffi Baccari
A bulk of evidence suggests that d-aspartate (d-Asp) regulates steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in vertebrate testes. This review article focuses on intracellular signaling mechanisms elicited by d-Asp possibly via binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in both Leydig cells, and spermatogonia. In Leydig cells, the amino acid upregulates androgen production by eliciting the adenylate cyclase-cAMP and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. d-Asp treatment enhances...
This paper presents interim research findings of a project which seeks to elicit the skilled knowledge of master craftsmen through use of an expert learner (Horne) acting as intermediary between the craftsmen and a designer (Wood) creating a multimedia resource to support those wishing to learn the skill. It builds on previous research that evolved a set of principles for the design of multimedia learning materials (Wood & Rust 2003) and moved on to develop techniques for elicitation of exper...
Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Shishkov, Boris; Cordeiro, J.; Ranchordas, A.
This paper proposes a way to elicit requirements in the domain of eHealth, in particular telemedicine treatment, that is in alignment with the evidence based working practice in medicine. In collaboration with ICT developers, medical professionals co-shape the intended system, which has to support the telemedicine application. These professionals develop a scenario and provide feedback to the subsequent requirements elicitation process which is based on the developed scenario. We propose a mi...
Bosetti, Valentina; Catenacci, Michela; Fiorese, Giulia; Verdolini, Elena
In this paper we present and discuss the results of an expert elicitation survey on solar technologies. Sixteen leading European experts from the academic world, the private sector and international institutions took part in this expert elicitation survey on Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies. The survey collected probabilistic information on (1) how Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) investments will impact the future costs of solar technologies and...
Elena Claire Ricci; Valentina Bosetti; Erin Baker
This paper analyzes the future prospects of carbon capture technologies. The first part of the analysis presents and discusses the results of an expert elicitation survey on a broad range of carbon capture options. The survey collected probabilistic estimates on the future values of energy penalty under three different scenarios of R&D investments and climate policies from twelve leading European experts from both academia and industry. In the second part of the analysis, the elicitation resu...
Fourie, Melike M.; Kilchenmann, Nadine; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Thomas, Kevin G. F.
Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively and positively valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46) who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Impli...
Kong, Yuqing; Schoenebeck, Grant
Information elicitation mechanisms, such as Peer Prediction [Miller 2005] and Bayesian Truth Serum [Prelec 2004], are designed to reward agents for honestly reporting their private information, even when this information cannot be directly verified. Information elicitation mechanisms, such as these, are cleverly designed so that truth-telling is a strict Bayesian Nash Equilibrium. However, a key challenge that has arisen is that there are typically many other non-truthful equilibrium as well,...
This study examines to what extent corporations use sustainability control systems (SCS) to translate proactive sustainability strategy into corporate sustainability performance. The study investigates the mediating effect of SCS on the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Survey data were collected from top managers in 175 multinational and local corporations operating in Sri Lanka and analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SCS were observed to only partially mediate the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. The mediating effect of SCS is further examined under three sustainability strategies; environmental and social strategies reveal a partial mediation, while the economic strategy exhibits no mediation. The study also finds that (i) a proactive sustainability strategy is positively associated with SCS and corporate sustainability performance and (ii) SCS are positively associated with corporate sustainability performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Munn, R. E.
Sustainable development is a difficult phrase to define, particularly in the context of human ecosystems. Questions have to be asked, such as "Sustainable for whom?" "Sustainable for what purposes?" "Sustainable at the subsistence or at the luxury level?" and "Sustainable under what conditions?" In this paper, development is taken to mean improving the quality of life. (If development were to mean growth, then it could not be sustained over the long term.) Studies of development must, of course, consider economic factors, particularly in the case of societies who suffer from the pollution of poverty. However, cultural and environmental factors are equally important. In fact, development is not sustainable over the long term if it is not ecologically sustainable. The terms maximum sustainable yield of a renewable resource, carrying capacity of a region and assimilative capacity of a watershed or airshed are discussed. Approaches using these resource management tools are recommended when external conditions are not changing very much. The problem today is that unprecedented rates of change are expected in the next century, not only of environmental conditions such as climate but also of socioeconomic conditions such as renewable resource consumption and populations (of both people and of automobiles)! In rapidly changing situations, policies must be adopted that strengthen resilence and ecosystem integrity; that is, society must increase its ability to adapt. Maintaining the status quo is a long-term prescription for disaster. The problem is of course that little is known about how to design strategies that will increase resilience and ecosystem integrity, and this area of research needs to be strengthened. Some suggestions on appropriate indicators of ecosystem integrity are given in the paper but these need considerable refinement. One of the main problems with long-term environmental policy formulation is the uncertainty to be expected, including the possibility
Full Text Available To examine which considerations play a role when individuals make decisions to purchase sustainable product varieties or not, we have conducted a large scale field experiment with more than 600 participating households. Households can vote on whether the budgets they receive should only be spent on purchasing the sustainable product variety, or whether every household in a group is free to spend their budget on any product variety. By conducting several treatments, we tested whether people tend to view sustainable consumption as a social dilemma or as a moral dilemma. We find little support for the hypothesis that social dilemma considerations are the key drivers of sustainable consumption behaviour. Participants seem to be caught in a moral dilemma in which they not only weigh their individual financial costs with the sustainable benefits but they also consider the consequences of restricting other people’s freedom of choice. Complementary survey results further substantiate this claim and show that many people are reluctant to impose restrictions on their peers, but, at the same time, our results also suggest substantial support for the government to regulate the availability of unsustainable product varieties.
John Cairns Jr.
Full Text Available Successful implementation of the quest for sustainable use of the planet requires that human society both reexamine and expand present views of what is sacred and what is not. The most important aspect will be going beyond a homocentric focus to a biocentric emphasis. A unifying theme would be the desire to leave a habitable planet for human descendants and those of other species. It is unlikely that society can be confident of achieving sustainability until persuasive evidence supporting this belief has existed for several generations. In order for sustainable use of the planet to persist indefinitely, the conditions essential to this state must be morally preserved on sacred grounds. Viewing natural systems as sacred requires not only preventing damage to them but, wherever possible, repairing damage to them caused by humankind.
Rasmussen, Morten Bygvraa; Obel, Børge; Kallehave, Pernille
of global governance to match the new dynamics and consequences of globalization. Governments are re-examining corporate accountability to society and how companies earn their license to operate. Furthermore companies are re-examining their code of conduct and leadership values. Thus, sustainability...... is an important driver in organizations and its impact and effect on organization design is critical. Development of organization design, structure, processes, and human skills and values are needed to create the sustainable organization for the future. This paper discusses the requirements to be a sustainable...... organization. Here we follow the Global Compact criteria. The consequences for processes, structure, and human skills and values are analyzed. In particular the analysis will investigate exploration and exploitation from a holistic perspective using the principles of requisite variety and information...
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
in the local learning communities we have seen a positive trend from the first to the last course-module, but with great variation between schools. Factors potentially supporting sustainable development seem to be about (1) continuingly scaffolding teachers’ collaborative inquiries by organizing activities......Continuous Professional Development (CPD) can be crucial for reforming science teaching, but more knowledge is needed about how to support sustainability of the effects. The Danish QUEST project is a large scale, long-term collaborative CPD project designed according to widely agreed criteria...... phase. The findings are discussed looking forward to the institutionalization phase identifying factors potentially supporting sustainable development pertaining to local science teachers developing a shared focus on student learning in science, and perceived individual and collective efficacy...
Jensen, Jesper Ole; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten
Sustainability in urban planning has a long history and it has been a widespread solution to build high and compact in order to minimise the need for transportation, land use and heating. Recent research, however, points towards the need for a supplementary approach which includes the consumer...... behaviour of the household. This approach necessarily has to work from below and include the citizens, as it is their daily practices that have to be challenged. This article reviews the literature of to what extent compact cities are the most sustainable and it use lifestyle interpretations of urbane forms...... to challenge the compact cities approach. As an alternative or supplementary approach the article introduce practice theory as a way to understand consumption and it gives examples on how this approach can be used to inspire local authorities to alternative and supplementary strategies of achieving sustainable...
Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John
The Board of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra) decided in October 2015 that a proposal for a funding application call in the research area of “sustainable consumption” should be drawn up. According to the statutes of Mistra, research funded by the foundation...... for achieving industrial applications shall be taken advantage of.” The funding application call to be developed by Mistra is to be based on an analysis of the current state of the art of research and of society’s knowledge needs regarding sustainable consumption. Mistra commissioned a committee of four...... the orientation of a new research program to be used as draft text for the call for funding applications. The aim of this background report is hence to shed light on future research topics within sustainable consumption from a Swedish perspective. The research pro- moted should help to develop Sweden...
Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy
A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...
Sustainable exploitation is widely advocated as a strategy for reconciling economic pressures upon natural habitats with nature conservation. Two recent papers examine different aspects of the sustainability of the nut harvest on wild populations of Brazil nut trees Bertholletia excelsa in Amazonia. Peres et al. find that many populations of the Brazil nut tree lack juvenile trees and are not regenerating. In a socioeconomic study, Escobal and Aldana find that nut-gathering provides insufficient income on its own to support nut-gatherers and that their other income-raising activities damage the forest. The existence of a market for rainforest products is, therefore, not sufficient on its own to prevent habitat destruction or the overexploitation of the resource and a more sophisticated approach to sustainability is required. Development of a market in ethically traded Brazil nuts might be one solution.
Gina Ionela Butnaru
Full Text Available Tourism and sustainable development are the subject of many initiatives and public or private debates in Romania. The main problem to which these initiatives try to find an answer is mostly related to the income generation for the local communities by using rationally and efficiently the local potential, in agreement with the economic, social, natural, and cultural factors. Consequently, some measures should be taken, and the tourist sector as a whole needs all the methods of sustainable development: new technologies, change of social behaviour, change of environmental legislation, methods of environmental management, better planning and development of control procedures. In this article, we presented a model of tourism development which should be applied in all the regions of great tourist attraction, and we realised a synthesis of the socio-economic advantages of sustainable tourism.
Full Text Available It is clear that globalisation is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalisation are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more international cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalisation Index with Sustainability Indices to analyse if more globalised countries are doing better in terms of sustainable development and its dimensions. The results seem to suggest that the process of globalisation may render world development more sustainable.
Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise
at maintaining and attracting new donor funding? Despite this contradiction, various actors in the HIV/AIDS field continuously invoke the doctrine of sustainability (Swidler & Watkins) as the remedy for problems such as 'donor dependency' and 'high turn-over' among volunteers. Based on five months ethnographic...... research with organisations providing help to "Orphans and Vulnerable Children" in Malawi, this paper discusses how donors, international and local NGOs, and CBOs all participate in keeping alive 'the fiction of sustainability', each for their different reasons. Rather than overt resistance to the power...
Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge
This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...... to a research agenda for ‘socio-ecological economics’. Sustainable consumption and global environmental change are already important areas of research for it. But ecological macroeconomics is also needed to formulate coordinated responses to multiple crises such as economic downturn, climate change and loss...
Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan
IS initiatives become part of a firm’s overall strategy and part of the organizational sustainability process. We find that Green IS initiatives are initiated through a bottom-up process where environmentally concerned individuals identify issues and become Green IS champions. They use their authority...... and edification skills to promote Green IS to the organizational agenda. If the issue is aligned with the organizational agenda, it receives management’s endorsement. The empirical case also shows two types of systemic feedback that can fuel a self-reinforcing sustainability process. The first type of feedback...
Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.
Aramyan, Lusine H; Hoste, Robert; van den Broek, Willie
allocation of pork supply chain activities in Europe. Supply chain production and distribution activities are optimized in various scenarios based on economic and sustainability performance indicators. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model, which includes piglet production, fattening, slaughtering......, as minimizing costs will not always lead to an optimal reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions, a differentiated strategy is needed for the European pork sector to move towards more sustainable production......European pork supply chains, like other agri-food supply chains, currently face numerous challenges such as globalization, emerging markets, changing consumer requirements, and new governmental regulations related to issues such as environmental pollution and food safety. These challenges require...
Full Text Available Even if sustainable development is a concept that gained quite recently its scientific prestige, through contribution of researchers its content has upgraded to a high degree of conceptual luggage and, through contribution from governance representatives, has gained an impressive good-practice background. Allowing the use of different methodological premises and conceptual tools, sustainable development paradigm is equipped with all the elements that would allow the opening of new horizons of knowledge. Based on the facility which can operate the concept of sustainable development, the European Union aims to develop both a more competitive economy based on environmental protection as well as a new governance of economic policy. This on one hand demonstrates the sustainable development ability to irradiate creativity towards the establishment of interdisciplinary bridges and on the other hand explains the growing interest of researchers interested in the problem of analyzing in detail this fruitful concept. Launched first as a theoretical framework to serve justify actions responsible for weighting economic growth, the concept of Sustainable Development has quickly become a topic of ethical debate circumscribed to the area of perfectibility of human nature to the necessity registry. In this regard, the philosophical content of this paradigm could not remain outside researchers concerns, who want to provide both policy makers and the general public a wide range of evidence to demonstrate the viability of this paradigm. Academia waits until maximization of the contribution of governance to achieve sustainable economic development, which consists in conjunction of this upward path with the momentum given by public policy sync, perfectly adapted for globalization era and all crises to come. However, because this concept based its structure and composition on three pillars, equally important economy, society and environment any attempt to strengthen
The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...
Jahanshahi, Asghar Afshar; Brem, Alexander
with their innovativeness and sustainability orientation. To accomplish this, we surveyed 40 TMTs in Iranian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) at two points in time. We ran a hierarchical multiple regression in order to test the hypotheses of the study. Building a theoretical model based on the Upper......-Echelons framework, we found that the extent to which a TMT is behaviorally integrated is positively and significantly related to TMT innovativeness. Furthermore, our result reveals that a highly behaviorally integrated TMT is more likely to engage in sustainability-oriented actions. Hence, behaviorally integrated...
Wang, Yimeng; O'Dell, Sijy; Turner, Hannah L; Chiang, Chi-I; Lei, Lin; Guenaga, Javier; Wilson, Richard; Martinez-Murillo, Paola; Doria-Rose, Nicole; Ward, Andrew B; Mascola, John R; Wyatt, Richard T; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Li, Yuxing
Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses is a major goal for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Current HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) vaccine candidates elicit predominantly tier 1 and/or autologous tier 2 virus neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses, as well as weak and/or sporadic cross-reactive tier 2 virus NAb responses with unknown specificity. To delineate the specificity of vaccine-elicited cross-reactive tier 2 virus NAb responses, we performed single memory B cell sorting from the peripheral blood of a rhesus macaque immunized with YU2gp140-F trimers in adjuvant, using JR-FL SOSIP.664, a native Env trimer mimetic, as a sorting probe to isolate monoclonal Abs (MAbs). We found striking genetic and functional convergence of the SOSIP-sorted Ig repertoire, with predominant VH4 or VH5 gene family usage and Env V3 specificity. Of these vaccine-elicited V3-specific MAbs, nearly 20% (6/33) displayed cross-reactive tier 2 virus neutralization, which recapitulated the serum neutralization capacity. Substantial similarities in binding specificity, neutralization breadth and potency, and sequence/structural homology were observed between selected macaque cross-reactive V3 NAbs elicited by vaccination and prototypic V3 NAbs derived from natural infections in humans, highlighting the convergence of this subset of primate V3-specific B cell repertories. Our study demonstrated that cross-reactive primary virus neutralizing B cell lineages could be elicited by vaccination as detected using a standardized panel of tier 2 viruses. Whether these lineages could be expanded to acquire increased breadth and potency of neutralization merits further investigation.IMPORTANCE Elicitation of antibody responses capable of neutralizing diverse HIV-1 primary virus isolates (designated broadly neutralizing antibodies [bNAbs]) remains a high priority for the vaccine field. bNAb responses were so far observed only in response to natural infection within a subset
Full Text Available Abstract Background When data needed to inform parameters in decision models are lacking, formal elicitation of expert judgement can be used to characterise parameter uncertainty. Although numerous methods for eliciting expert opinion as probability distributions exist, there is little research to suggest whether one method is more useful than any other method. This study had three objectives: (i to obtain subjective probability distributions characterising parameter uncertainty in the context of a health technology assessment; (ii to compare two elicitation methods by eliciting the same parameters in different ways; (iii to collect subjective preferences of the experts for the different elicitation methods used. Methods Twenty-seven clinical experts were invited to participate in an elicitation exercise to inform a published model-based cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative treatments for prostate cancer. Participants were individually asked to express their judgements as probability distributions using two different methods – the histogram and hybrid elicitation methods – presented in a random order. Individual distributions were mathematically aggregated across experts with and without weighting. The resulting combined distributions were used in the probabilistic analysis of the decision model and mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and the expected values of perfect information (EVPI were calculated for each method, and compared with the original cost-effectiveness analysis. Scores on the ease of use of the two methods and the extent to which the probability distributions obtained from each method accurately reflected the expert’s opinion were also recorded. Results Six experts completed the task. Mean ICERs from the probabilistic analysis ranged between £162,600–£175,500 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY depending on the elicitation and weighting methods used. Compared to having no information, use of expert opinion
Tan, Poh-Ling; Baldwin, C.; White, I.; Burry, K.
SummaryThe Central Condamine Alluvium, at the head of Australia's Murray-Darling River system, provides groundwater for food, fibre and a fast expanding urban population. Current extraction is assessed at 67 GL/a (gigalitres per annum), while the best available scientific data estimates the sustainable groundwater system yield is closer to 40 GL/a (CSIRO, 2008). Peak organisations accept overallocation as a critical issue but conflict over water has disrupted several past attempts at regulation. To assist local communities and the planning agency, seven planning tools were used: (1) an extended stakeholder analysis and context report, (2) a program of engagement with Traditional Custodians, (3) intergenerational workshops, (4) a survey of groundwater users covering issues in setting and meeting the agreed system yield, (5) a multi-criteria analysis relating to setting and apportioning the available yield, (6) a pilot workshop addressing adaptation to climate risk, and (7) development of a three-dimensional groundwater visualisation tool relating to the regional aquifers. Results fed directly into pre-planning processes undertaken by the State water agency. The tools allowed a much broader range of voices, values and depth of information to feed into the planning process than otherwise available. Participants found the Indigenous engagement tool and the GVT the most useful. The latter addressed identified information gaps and allowed for aquifer characteristics and the interaction with bores to be presented in a user-friendly manner. Intergenerational perspectives about using water within sustainable limits were also obtained but the Community Reference Panel did not place any weight on this perspective in discussions over the plan amendment. Evaluations of the tools demonstrate that a range of planning tools can be readily used to enhance existing planning processes, particularly by sharing information and eliciting views that may not be readily accessible to water
This overview article examines the various dimensions of sustainable coffee as well as the actors involved and their perceptions of how to advance the market from niche to mainstream. The issues at hand are very complex, with different types of coffee producers, manufacturing/roasting companies and
Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future.
Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.
Hansen, Hans Peter; Clausen, Laura Tolnov; Tind, Esben
to nature conservation is setting a new agenda with more emphasis on sustainability than preservation. It thereby challenges the traditional agenda of nature conservation. The public administrations at central, regional and local level, as well as most nature conservation organisations at central level, do...
Shrinking cities are widespread throughout the world despite the rapidly increasing global urban population. These cities are attempting to transition to sustainable trajectories to improve the health and well-being of urban residents, to build their capacity to adapt to changing...
Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 126, Issue 2. March 2014, pages 309-532. Catalysis for Sustainable Development. pp 309-309. Foreword · M Lakshmi Kantam K S Rama Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 311-317. Concept and progress in coupling of dehydrogenation and hydrogenation reactions through catalysts.
A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...
As population and standard of living increase in many parts of the world, so will the need for food and other agriculturally-based products. To be sustainable, these increases in production must occur with minimum impact on the environment and with efficient use of production resources, including la...
Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele
Increasing environmental concerns of consumers and global supply chains center on the impacts of carbon dioxide emissions and water usage. This study analyzes consumers’ preferences for sustainable products as indicated by water and carbon footprint labels, enabling a rare cross-cultural comparison...
Ridder, M. de
In the coming decades, increases in population, income and health will put additional pressures on our planet’s biosphere. To meet the needs of future generations, we need to adapt our ways of living and definitions of economic development. A transition to a more sustainable world is imperative if
After three years of budget cuts, California school district leaders are hard-pressed to find ways to make further reductions without impacting educational quality. However, some seasoned leaders have turned to broad sustainability strategies to find new sources of savings and revenue. This article presents case studies in which three district…
David Wm. Smith
A brief overview and some personal thoughts are offered that deal with the implications of our social and political systems on the long-term sustainability of our forest resources. The connection of the most recent climatic events, in a geologic-time context, to the development of present day oak dominated forests of the Eastern United States is discussed. The impacts...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 11. Ecology and Sustainable Development. M D Subash Chandran. Book Review Volume 7 Issue 11 November 2002 pp 80-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/11/0080-0081 ...
Møllenbach, Emilie; Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hornbæk, Kasper
Sustained behavior changes are required to reduce the impact of human society on the environment. Much research on how HCI may help to do so focuses on changing behaviour by providing information directed at an individual or a microstructure (e.g. household). We propose societal macrostructures (e...
Full Text Available MEANING as the essential element of urban quality. The role of the three main factors for the urban quality achievement: PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT and PEOPLE. Next to that, it is important to assume the identity of the local CONTEXT as the essential base for designing and shaping of form development. The problems of the quality achievements in the situation of the permanent changes. In such an environment - the RENEWAL of the towns become the basic strategic orientation requiring - evaluation of the development policy instruments. On the road of changes there are PROBLEMS of a strategic nature which should be, firstly, defined and, then, solved before entering in the process of structuring and arrangement. One of these problems is NEW versus OLD. Transition to a new policy of urbanism relying, first of all, on the private investors and international funds of the local authorities - call for a NEW STRATEGY in urbanism, in the context of the sustainability of environment. The sustainability of quality and the categories of the influencing factors. The sustainability of quality as a twofold process of urban design. The quality of environment as an aesthetic phenomenon. The urban situation and environmental quality: feasibility of changes and effects; the environmental capacity as an indicator and quality determinant. The urban quality and international experience. The evaluation of our urban situation. INSTEAD OF CONCLUSION: A general review on the visions and urban quality policy and planning. Toward an evaluation of urban environmental quality: negative and positive indicators; sustainable communities environmental ruling and urban quality planning.
Van Hees, R.P.J.; Naldini, S.; Roos, J.
The section Heritage & Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture at Delft University of Technology deals with the built environment in terms of conservation, refurbishment and re-use. Reflecting the department philosophy, this book focuses on the durability and sustainability of existing buildings
Clough, G. Wayne; Chameau, Jean-Lou; Carmichael, Carol
In this article, the authors state that one of the major challenges facing the human race is charting a course for the future that allows economic growth while protecting the fragile planet. The authors discuss the role that higher education must play to help create a vibrant economy and high quality of life, while sustaining natural resources.…
Boud, David; Soler, Rebeca
Sustainable assessment has been proposed as an idea that focused on the contribution of assessment to learning beyond the timescale of a given course. It was identified as an assessment that meets the needs of the present in terms of the demands of formative and summative assessment, but which also prepares students to meet their own future…
Prince, Heather E.
Positive outdoor teaching and learning experiences and sound pedagogical approaches undoubtedly have contributed towards an understanding of environmental sustainability but it is not always clear how, and to what extent, education can translate into action. This article argues, with reference to social learning theory, that role modelling,…
We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments,
In the fall of 2013, Inverness Associates conducted a comprehensive national survey of environmental education and sustainability among private independent schools. The National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) and 14 regional and state associations supported the research. The survey sought to understand how schools' environmental…
The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...
Ph.D. study of the scope for sustainable transport in Denmark, and particularly of the role of the motor vehicle in this context. The distribution of groceries is used as case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark, concluding that this has resulted in increases of the transport...
Nijkamp, Peter; Finco, Adele
The concept of sustainable development has become very much "en vogue" in the past decade.We have also observed a shift in the interpretation of this concept from a global perspectiveto a meso perspective, i.e. a local, regional or sectoral level.This paper aims to highlight the urban dimension of
Giacomini Martínez, Joyde; Boas, Ingrid; Lenhart, Jennifer; Mol, Arthur P.J.
The city of Curitiba, Brazil, is considered an exceptional model of sustainable urban planning. It has received praise for its invention of the Bus Rapid Transit System and numerous awards identify Curitiba as one of the world's greenest cities. Controversial elements have, however, been left out
Husted, Mia; Frøkjær, Thorleif
This presentation relates to the overall theme of the conference by highlighting societal and pedagogic deficits to face the challenges from sustainability crisis that is considered as a question of the ability of society to renew its natural and societal living conditions (Sachs 1999, Shiva 2005...
Carless, David; Salter, Diane; Yang, Min; Lam, Joy
Feedback is central to the development of student learning, but within the constraints of modularized learning in higher education it is increasingly difficult to handle effectively. This article makes a case for sustainable feedback as a contribution to the reconceptualization of feedback processes. The data derive from the Student Assessment and…
Martin, Ken; Summers, Denise; Sjerps-Jones, Harriet
Sustainability is now a key concept in both government policy and wider global concerns. Issues of climate change and global warming can no longer be ignored in teacher education programs in the post-compulsory education and training sector. Government policy-makers, notably the Department for Education and Skills (DfES), Learning Skills Council…
Murray, Martyn G
Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.
Joseph R Burger
Full Text Available The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1 physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2 smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3 global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.
that sustainability logically necessitates a deep learning response in educational thinking and practice and anticipative education, recognising the new conditions and discontinuities which face present generations. Faculty of Science and Agriculture. These are in fact two faculties, but they were considered as one for the ...
Vringer, Kees; Heijden, Eline Van Der; Soest, Daan Van; Vollebergh, Herman; Dietz, Frank
To examine which considerations play a role when individuals make decisions to purchase sustainable product varieties or not, we have conducted a large scale field experiment with more than 600 participating households. Households can vote on whether the budgets they receive should only be spent on
Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B
This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...
Full Text Available The sustainability becomes a model of development only if countries, industries, businesses and citizens become sustainable. The contribution of the business to a promising future should come from a fully integrated sustainability in its DNA and strategies.This paper focuses on the needed sustainable strategies for scaling up the contribution of the companies to sustainable development in the future. At the beginning, we analyze the main theoretical points of view on sustainability. Then, we explain how companies could achieve the sustainability by following the steps of a difficult process and the present performances in sustainability of large companies around the world. Finally, we suggest four strategies that businesses could design and implement in order to scaling up their sustainability in the future.The research has two important conclusions on sustainability in business. One is that the sustainability pays off if it is integrated in the DNA of the companies. The other conclusion says that the companies will succeed to make the needed transformation for achieving a better sustainability in the future only if they design and perform strategies focused on improving sustainability.
Full Text Available One of the primary benefits of sustainable retail over the long run has to be the marketing gain from having something other competitors do not: lower operating costs, a more socially responsible public profile, ease of gaining planning approval for new projects, better access to certain investment pools, higher rents (in the case of developers, ease of recruiting and retaining key people. Each of these benefits needs marketing and public relations support; each benefits from a clear and consistent corporate message that promotes sustainable retail. To date, there are very few retailers or developers who have championed sustainability long enough, consistently enough and with enough actual demonstration of changes in standard operations to gain the benefits of green marketing, but the very paucity of examples serves to underscore the point: the green marketing space is wide open for large retailers and developers. What would be the marketing steps that a company could take to benefit from its “sustainability focus?” The key to any marketing program is to differentiate a company’s actions from those of competitors and to do it along lines that its various stakeholders care about. This practice of differentiation is often expressed as “finding a difference that makes a difference, to someone who makes difference to you.” For retail developers, the first differentiator should be to attract more and better tenants to all of their centers, tenants who value lower operating costs and the developer’s program of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility.
Full Text Available Plant in vitro cultures represent an attractive and cost-effective alternative to classical approaches to plant secondary metabolite (PSM production (the “Plant Cell Factory” concept. Among other advantages, they constitute the only sustainable and eco-friendly system to obtain complex chemical structures biosynthesized by rare or endangered plant species that resist domestication. For successful results, the biotechnological production of PSM requires an optimized system, for which elicitation has proved one of the most effective strategies. In plant cell cultures, an elicitor can be defined as a compound introduced in small concentrations to a living system to promote the biosynthesis of the target metabolite. Traditionally, elicitors have been classified in two types, abiotic or biotic, according to their chemical nature and exogenous or endogenous origin, and notably include yeast extract, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, vanadyl sulphate and chitosan. In this review, we summarize the enhancing effects of elicitors on the production of high-added value plant compounds such as taxanes, ginsenosides, aryltetralin lignans and other types of polyphenols, focusing particularly on the use of a new generation of elicitors such as coronatine and cyclodextrins.
Full Text Available Few preclinical or clinical studies have evaluated the effect of anesthetics on motor evoked potentials (MEPs, either alone or in the presence of conditioning stimuli such as deep brain stimulation (DBS. In this study we evaluated the effect of two commonly used anesthetic agents, propofol and ketamine, on MEPs elicited by intra-cortical microstimulation of the motor cortex in a rodent model with and without DBS of the dentatothalamocortical (DTC pathway. The effects of propofol anesthesia on MEP amplitudes during DTC DBS were found to be highly dose dependent. Standard-, but not high-, dose propofol potentiated the facilitatory effects of 30 Hz DTC DBS on MEPs. This facilitation was sustained and phase-dependent, indicating that, compared to high dose propofol, standard dose propofol has a beta-band excitatory effect on cortical networks. In contrast, ketamine anesthetic demonstrated a monotonic relationship with increasing frequencies of stimulation, such that the highest frequency of stimulation resulted in the greatest MEP amplitude. Ketamine also showed phase dependency but less pronounced than standard dose propofol. The results underscore the importance of better understanding the complex effects of anesthetics on cortical networks and exogenous stimuli. Choice of anesthetic agents and dosing may significantly confound or even skew research outcomes, including experimentation in novel DBS indications and paradigms.
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that one of the therapies to achieve sustainability and organizational change in the context of current challenges in the national economies is sustainable crediting...
Casteren van Cattenburch, Iris
Sustainability theory shows that the sustainability problem is a value orientation problem. In a recent study, Klaas van Egmond identified an underlying pattern of a crossed circle, representing affirmative and adversative value orientations, whose disintegration engenders unsustainable tendencies.
Mira Rakic; Beba Rakic
This paper highlights the sustainable lifestyle marketing of an individual (SLMOI). The SLMOI is the activity, a set of institutions and processes for creating, communicating and maintaining the sustainable lifestyle of an individual...
Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Vandermause, Roxanne
In research on sensitive topics, photo-elicitation can be a profound aid to data collection and interpretation processes. Photo-elicitation methods were used in this manner in a discourse analysis of parents' distress at least 6 months after preterm birth. After an initial interview, participants were asked to take digital photographs representing their distress and to return for a second interview to discuss the photographs. The elicited photo representations supported participants' engagement with their current or past distress and generated new meanings from the reappraisal of old photographs. Photo-elicitation demonstrated the embodiment of parents' distress in the child and the placement of distress in specific locations. Photographs of documents showed the power of the written word in generating and maintaining distress. Participants used existing photographs from their child's photo history to generate rich metaphors for their distress as parents. These findings have implications for enhancing interpretive health research by incorporating photo-elicitation methods. © The Author(s) 2015.
Saladin, Michael E; Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T
Drug craving is an important motivational phenomenon among addicted individuals, and successful management of craving is essential to both the initiation and maintenance of abstinence. Although craving in response to drug cues is common in drug-dependent individuals, it is not universal. At the present time, it is not known why approximately 20-30% of all addicted persons fail to report appreciable craving in laboratory-based cue reactivity studies. This study examined the possibility that alexithymia, a personality attribute characterized by a difficulty identifying and describing emotions, may contribute to the impoverished cue-elicited craving experienced by some addicts. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that alexithymia, as measured by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), would be inversely related to the magnitude of cue-elicited craving obtained in a cue reactivity protocol. Forty methamphetamine-dependent individuals completed the TAS and provided craving ratings for methamphetamine after presentation of methamphetamine-associated cues. Thirteen participants (32%) reported no methamphetamine cue-elicited craving. Contrary to expectation, TAS factor 1 (a measure of difficulty identifying feelings) scores were positively associated with cue-elicited craving. Thus, the results suggest that increasing difficulty-identifying feelings may be associated with higher cue-elicited craving. Clinical implications for this finding are discussed. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Chesson, Charles B; Huelsmann, Erica J; Lacek, Andrew T; Kohlhapp, Frederick J; Webb, Matthew F; Nabatiyan, Arman; Zloza, Andrew; Rudra, Jai S
Vaccines that elicit robust CD8⁺ T cell responses are desirable for protection against infectious diseases and cancers. However, most vaccine adjuvants fail to elicit robust CD8⁺ T cell responses without inflammation and associated toxicity. We recently reported that self-assembling peptides that form nanofibers in physiological buffers elicited strong adjuvant-free and antigen-specific antibody responses in mice. However, whether or not such nanofibers likewise can elicit strong CD8⁺ T cell responses is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the self-assembling peptide Q11 conjugated to a CD8⁺ T cell epitope of ovalbumin (Q11-OVA), elicits strong antigen-specific primary and recall responses, and in a vaccination regimen protects against subsequent infection. Importantly, we show that these antigenic peptide nanofibers do not persist as an inflammatory antigen depot at the injection site. Our results demonstrate for the first time that self-assembling peptides may be useful as carriers for vaccines where CD8⁺ T cell-mediated protection is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Forgaard, Christopher J; Franks, Ian M; Bennett, Kimberly; Maslovat, Dana; Chua, Romeo
Perturbations delivered to the upper limbs elicit reflexive responses in stretched muscle at short- (M1: 25-50 ms) and long- (M2: 50-100 ms) latencies. When presented in a simple reaction time (RT) task, the perturbation can also elicit a preprogrammed voluntary response at a latency (elicits activity in sternocleidomastoid (SCM) over a time-course consistent with the startle response and it was, therefore, proposed that the StartReact effect underlies triggered reactions (Ravichandran et al., Exp Brain Res 230:59-69, 2013). The present work investigated whether perturbation-evoked SCM activity results from startle or postural control and whether triggered reactions can also occur in the absence of startle. In Experiment 1, participants "compensated" against a wrist extension perturbation. A prepulse inhibition (PPI) stimulus (known to attenuate startle) was randomly presented before the perturbation. Rather than attenuating SCM activity, the responses in SCM were advanced by the PPI stimulus. In Experiment 2, participants "assisted" a wrist extension perturbation. The perturbation did not reliably elicit startle but despite this, two-thirds of trials had RTs of less than 100 ms and the earliest responses began at ~ 70 ms. These findings suggest that SCM activity following a perturbation is the result of postural control and is not related to startle. Moreover, an overt startle response is not a prerequisite for the elicitation of a triggered reaction.
Ulkatan, Sedat; Jaramillo, Ana Maria; Téllez, Maria J; Goodman, Robert R; Deletis, Vedran
To explore the feasibility of eliciting the brainstem H reflex in the masseter muscle in patients under general anesthesia. We electrically stimulated the masseteric nerve, a branch of the trigeminal nerve, and recorded ipsilateral masseteric and temporalis muscle responses. We tested eight patients who presented with trigeminal neuralgia; one patient had a temporal bone tumor and one patient had a brainstem arteriovenous malformation. All responses were elicited when patients were under general anesthesia and before the initiation of surgery. The H reflex in the masseter muscle was reliably elicited in 70% of the patients. The reflexes met the usual criteria for the H reflex because they were elicited below the threshold of the direct M response, and their amplitudes decreased when the M response increased with stronger stimuli. The mean onset latencies of the masseter H reflex and the M response were 5.4±1.3ms and 2.6±0.6ms, respectively. In the present study, we provide evidence of the feasibility of eliciting the H reflex in the masseter muscles of patients under general anesthesia. The H reflex of the masseter muscle may represent a new method available for intraoperative monitoring. Specifically, this method may be important for the monitoring of brainstem functional integrity, particularly in the midbrain and mid-pons, in addition to the trigeminal nerve path. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus
Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this st......Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim...... of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case...... control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate...
Mertens, Wilson C; Christov, Stefan C; Avrunin, George S; Clarke, Lori A; Osterweil, Leon J; Cassells, Lucinda J; Marquard, Jenna L
Chemotherapy ordering and administration, in which errors have potentially severe consequences, was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated by employing process formalism (or formal process definition), a technique derived from software engineering, to elicit and rigorously describe the process, after which validation techniques were applied to confirm the accuracy of the described process. The chemotherapy ordering and administration process, including exceptional situations and individuals' recognition of and responses to those situations, was elicited through informal, unstructured interviews with members of an interdisciplinary team. The process description (or process definition), written in a notation developed for software quality assessment purposes, guided process validation (which consisted of direct observations and semistructured interviews to confirm the elicited details for the treatment plan portion of the process). The overall process definition yielded 467 steps; 207 steps (44%) were dedicated to handling 59 exceptional situations. Validation yielded 82 unique process events (35 new expected but not yet described steps, 16 new exceptional situations, and 31 new steps in response to exceptional situations). Process participants actively altered the process as ambiguities and conflicts were discovered by the elicitation and validation components of the study. Chemotherapy error rates declined significantly during and after the project, which was conducted from October 2007 through August 2008. Each elicitation method and the subsequent validation discussions contributed uniquely to understanding the chemotherapy treatment plan review process, supporting rapid adoption of changes, improved communication regarding the process, and ensuing error reduction.
Morgan, M Granger
The elicitation of scientific and technical judgments from experts, in the form of subjective probability distributions, can be a valuable addition to other forms of evidence in support of public policy decision making. This paper explores when it is sensible to perform such elicitation and how that can best be done. A number of key issues are discussed, including topics on which there are, and are not, experts who have knowledge that provides a basis for making informed predictive judgments; the inadequacy of only using qualitative uncertainty language; the role of cognitive heuristics and of overconfidence; the choice of experts; the development, refinement, and iterative testing of elicitation protocols that are designed to help experts to consider systematically all relevant knowledge when they make their judgments; the treatment of uncertainty about model functional form; diversity of expert opinion; and when it does or does not make sense to combine judgments from different experts. Although it may be tempting to view expert elicitation as a low-cost, low-effort alternative to conducting serious research and analysis, it is neither. Rather, expert elicitation should build on and use the best available research and analysis and be undertaken only when, given those, the state of knowledge will remain insufficient to support timely informed assessment and decision making.
This is the first book to introduce and explain the concept of sustainable consumption with reference to the clothing sector. It uses various case studies to detail sustainable consumption behavior in the industry. Consumption is a key issue and is a major driver when it comes to sustainability in any industry, including clothing sector. Several studies which have highlighted the need for sustainable consumption in the clothing sector are discussed in this book.
This book highlights the challenges in sustainable wet processing of textiles, natural dyes, enzymatic textiles and sustainable textile finishes. Textile industry is known for its chemical processing issues and many NGO’s are behind the textile sector to streamline its chemical processing, which is the black face of clothing and fashion sector. Sustainable textile chemical processes are crucial for attaining sustainability in the clothing sector. Seven comprehensive chapters are aimed to highlight these issues in the book.
Burcu Demirel; Murat Erdogan
In recent years, there is a growing focus on corporate operations especially since the publication of the first environmental reports in 1989. Companies have started to publish information about its environmental, social and sustainability policies. The study examines the sustainability reporting elements of Borsa Istanbul Sustainability Index (BIST) in Turkey and to evaluate which elements is most vital in this context. This study will begin with the sustainability reporting that will be exa...
Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca
Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projectsâ€™ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.
The seminar examined the role building codes and regulations can have in promoting a more sustainable approach to construction, particularly through their application to non-industrial building materials. A range of building materials such as straw, bamboo, rammed earth, adobe, and cob (a mixture of clay and chopped straw) were described and illustrated by slides to show their building potential. The current codes have a prime concern to protect the health and safety of people from the built environment. They have been developed almost exclusively for mainstream industrial materials and methods of construction, which makes them difficult to use with alternative, indigenous, or non-industrial building materials, even though those materials may be considered more sustainable. The argument was put forward that with only one-third of the world population living in modern industrial buildings today, it is not sustainable to re-house the remaining rapidly expanding population in high technology dwellings. Many of the low technology building materials and methods now used by the majority of people in the world need only incremental improvement to be equal or superior to many of their industrial replacements. Since these can be more sustainable methods of building, there needs to be an acceptance of the use of alternative materials, particularly in the developing parts of the world, where they are being rejected for less sustainable industrial methods. However, many codes make it difficult to use non-industrial materials; indeed, many of the industrial materials would not meet the demands that must be now met if they were now being introduced as new materials. Consequently, there is a need to develop codes to facilitate the use of a wider range of materials than in current use, and research is needed to assist this development. Sustainable regulation should take into account the full range of real impacts that materials and systems have in areas such as resource use and
encompasses a vision for global society that is not only ecologically sustainable but also one that is socially and economically sustainable. This paper traces the history of ESD in Victorian schools and analyses the current sustainability policies and initiatives in terms of their achievement of the educational, environmental,.
"Sustainability" features in numerous discourses, each of which frames the issue according to its particular worldview(s). Thus there is no singular sustainability conception, but multiple sustainabilities that compete with one another for prominence in various realms. This article presents a framework to assist students in navigating…
Full Text Available In recent years, there is a growing focus on corporate operations especially since the publication of the first environmental reports in 1989. Companies have started to publish information about its environmental, social and sustainability policies. The study examines the sustainability reporting elements of Borsa Istanbul Sustainability Index (BIST in Turkey and to evaluate which elements is most vital in this context. This study will begin with the sustainability reporting that will be examined under the roof of corporation sustainability and end with the examination of sustainability reports of 15 firms, which are included in the BIST Sustainability Index in Turkey, and a content analysis. The reports of companies under study were taken from special web site and GRI (Global Reporting Initiative database of companies. Being the first study in examining the sustainability report of companies in BIST Sustainability Index, it is expected to contribute in literature about sustainability reporting recently started to gain importance in Turkey. Overall our findings suggest that the sustainability index established in Turkey is still in development stage, but the enterprises in the endeavor are working day by day to develop the sustainability qualities.
Association of College Unions International (NJ1), 2011
Sustainability, sustainable, green, eco-friendly--these are more than just buzz words. These are words that are now entangled in the daily fabric of life. Kids are learning about sustainability in primary schools, more students are studying environmental concerns in college, and people of all ages are making attempts to be green, from recycling to…
This article explores the significance of sustainability and several ways in which education for sustainable development (ESD) can be considered. It presents several issues related to the theories of sustainability and ESD, which are generated based on a firm concept of anthropocentrism. ESD has been used for developing a scientific understanding…
DECOLONISING SUSTAINABILITY: SUBVERTING AND APPROPRIATING. MYTHOLOGIES OF SOCIAL CHANGE. Noel Gough. This essay explores some possibilities for decolonising the concept of sustainability in southern African dis- courses of ..... stories include commonplace features of green stories. (such as ...
Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.
Moss, Timothy; Elle, Morten
Outlines the conditions for the three Local Agenda 21 case-studies in the Sustainable Flow Management project......Outlines the conditions for the three Local Agenda 21 case-studies in the Sustainable Flow Management project...
transition to more sustainable hotel and catering businesses. ... what the determining factors are in a guest's intention to go to a green .... as hedonistic, and if we assume that a sustainable dish costs .... they have further room for improvement.
Meyer, Niels I
The paper analyses international strategies for establishing a sustainable energy development. Proposals are given for mitigation of global warming.......The paper analyses international strategies for establishing a sustainable energy development. Proposals are given for mitigation of global warming....
Adult education has a significant role to play in creating a just and sustainable world. This chapter explores a continuum of perspectives related to the environment and education and highlights sustainability and ecojustice education theory and practices in this volume.
Abdullah, Nazirah; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, Nor Hasnida; Basherudin, Norlia
Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) is a highly sought after medicinal plant in Malaysia. Propagation of E. longifolia through tissue culture has been reported in order to cater the industry demands for planting and raw materials as well as for conservation purposes. E. longifolia hairy roots culture has been developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of Tongkat Ali phytochemicals. Effects of three elicitors; methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract at different concentrations were evaluated on the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in E. longifolia hairy roots. The cultures were elicited at early exponential growth phase, followed by extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one using methanol and HPLC analysis. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at all concentrations increased 9-methoxycanthin-6-one up to 1-3 fold and treatment with (0.1 mM) was most efficient in enhancing 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production up to 3.902 mg/g dry weight after 7 days (168 hours) elicitation.
Lin, Pei-Lin; Tsai, Ming-Cheng; Lu, Guan-Ling; Lu, Dah-Yuu; Chuang, Chieh-Min; Yang, Han-Yin; Huang, Shiang-Suo; Chen, Yi-Hung
This study sought to determine the effects of (+) methamphetamine (METH) and its ring-substituted analog (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) on electrophysiological behavior and their relationships to second messenger systems in an identifiable RP4 neuron of the African snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. Extracellular application of MDMA at 1mM and METH at 3mM elicited action potential bursts that were not blocked after immersing the neurons in Ca(2+)-free solution. Notably, MDMA- (1mM) elicited action potential bursts were blocked by pretreatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors chelerythrine (20 microM) and Ro 31-8220 (20 microM), but not by the PKA inhibitors KT-5720 (10 microM) and H89 (10 microM). The PKC activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 3 microM), but not the PKA activator forskolin (50 microM), facilitated the induction of bursts elicited by MDMA at a lower concentration (0.3mM). In contrast, METH- (3mM) elicited action potential bursts were blocked by pretreatment with KT-5720 (10 microM) and H89 (10 microM), but not by chelerythrine (20 microM) and Ro 31-8220 (20 microM). Forskolin (50 microM), but not PDBu (3 microM) facilitated the induction of bursts elicited by METH at a lower concentration (1mM). Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a blocker of the delayed rectifying K(+) current (I(KD)), did not elicit bursts at a concentration of 5mM but did facilitate the induction of action potential bursts elicited by both METH and MDMA. Voltage clamp studies revealed that both METH and MDMA decreased the TEA-sensitive I(KD) of the RP4 neuron. Forskolin (50 microM) or dibutyryl cAMP (1mM), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog, alone did not elicit action potential bursts. However, co-administration with forskolin (50 microM) and TEA (5mM) or co-administration with dibutyryl cAMP (1mM) and TEA (50mM) elicited action potential bursts in the presence of the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine (20 microM). Similarly, PDBu (10 microM) or phorbol
Johansen, J D; Skov, L; Volund, A
Perfume ingredients were chosen as model substances to study the effect of allergens in combination on the elicitation response. Two groups of eczema patients were studied. One consisted of 18 subjects with a contact allergy to two fragrance substances and the other was a control group of 15...... of reactions was carried out on day 3 by clinical grading and laser Doppler flowmetry, and the extent of the reaction was measured in millimetres. The data were analysed by logistic dose-response models. It was found that the combination of two allergens in individuals allergic to both substances had...... a synergistic effect on the elicitation response evaluated by all three methods. The 1 : 1 mixtures of the two allergens elicited responses as if the doses were three to four times higher than those actually used, which is significantly more than expected if an additive effect had been present. In the control...
Johansen, J.D.; Bernard, G.; Gimenez-Arnau, E.
Chloroatranol and atranol are degradation products of chloroatranorin and atranorin, respectively, and have recently been identified as important contact allergens in the natural fragrance extract, oak moss absolute. Oak moss absolute is widely used in perfumery and is the cause of many cases...... of fragrance allergic contact dermatitis. Chloroatranol elicits reactions at very low levels of exposure. In oak moss absolute, chloroatranol and atranol are present together and both may contribute to the allergenicity and eliciting capacity of the natural extract. In this study, 10 eczema patients with known...... sensitization to chloroatranol and oak moss absolute were tested simultaneously to a serial dilution of chloroatranol and atranol in ethanol, in equimolar concentrations (0.0034-1072 microM). Dose-response curves were estimated and analysed by logistic regression. The estimated difference in elicitation potency...
Bleichrodt, Han; Doctor, Jason; Stolk, Elly
We performed an empirical elicitation of the equity-efficiency trade-off in cost-utility analysis using the rank-dependent quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) model, a model that includes as special cases many of the social welfare functions that have been proposed in the literature. Our elicitation method corrects for utility curvature and, therefore, our estimated equity weights are not affected by diminishing marginal utility. We observed a preference for equality in the allocation of health. The data suggest that the elicited equity weights were jointly determined by preferences for equality and by insensitivity to group size. A procedure is proposed to correct the equity weights for insensitivity to group size. Finally, we give an illustration how our method can be implemented in health policy.
Visual-narrative elicitation, a process combining photo elicitation and pile sorting in applied medical anthropology, sheds light on food consumption patterns in urban areas of Vanuatu where childhood malnutrition is a persistent problem. Groups of participants took photographs of the foods they feed their children, and the resources and barriers they encounter in accessing foodstuffs. This revealed how imported and local foods are assigned value as "good" or "bad" foods when contributing to dietary diversity and creating appropriate meals for children, particularly in the context of consuming white rice. The process of gathering and working with photographs illuminated the complex negotiations in which caregivers engaged when making food and nutritional choices for their children. At the nexus of visual and medical anthropology, the visual-narrative elicitation process yielded nuanced, comprehensive understandings of how caregivers value the various foods they feed their children.
John Cairns Jr.
Full Text Available Society depends heavily on its major universities and independent research organisations for new ideas. Arguable, sustainable use of the planet will require conceptual paradigms unprecedented in human history. Educational systems, especially major universities and research organisations, must produce students in all phases of the educational continuum who are capable of transdisciplinary activities. A much larger group of such students will be required to implement these new undertakings. Until the perception of the need for transdisciplinary education becomes widespread, nothing significant is likely to happen. One major obstacle is the lack of employment for transdisciplinary individuals. A commitment to sustainable use of the planet will provide employment and make better use of increasingly scarce resources.
Energy crisis is one of the most pressing issues of our century. The world currently invests more than $1 trillion per year in energy, much of it going toward the energy systems of the past instead of building the clean energy economies of the future. Effectively, the provision of energy should...... be such that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Investment in sustainable energy is a smart strategy for growing markets, improving competitiveness, and providing greater equity and opportunity. Sustainable energy has two key elements...... - renewable energy and energy efficiency. The promise of renewable energy can only be realised through significant R&D investments on technologies such as solar, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal power, ocean energy sources, solar-derived hydrogen fuel coupled with energy storage technologies necessary...
Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter
The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use to p...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA).......The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...
Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Marinov, Marin Alexandrov
The chapter explores how internationalisation accounted for sustained business success during the turbulent time of radical economic, political and social transformation in Eastern Europe. The study adopts a longitudinal approach to exploring the evolution of internationalisation – from a partner...... and the integration of the company into global business structures.......The chapter explores how internationalisation accounted for sustained business success during the turbulent time of radical economic, political and social transformation in Eastern Europe. The study adopts a longitudinal approach to exploring the evolution of internationalisation – from...... system was under way. Dyadic and triadic relationships are investigated by applying sets of theoretical approaches to the creation of an East-West business relationship. They encompass the role of the country’s government, the management of the focal company and the foreign partner. Furthermore, the role...
Reisch, Lucia; Scholl, Gerd; Eberle, Ulrike
and within individual societies. These drivers are the result of national and international policies and regulations, as well as business practices, and in particular values. At present, however, there is no commonly accepted definition for ‘sustainable food production’: rather, existing definitions......Not only can food consumption today not be regarded as sustainable, but the scope of the problem is wide: 1. about 800 million people worldwide are suffering hunger 2. 1 to 1.5 billion people in the world are overweight, 300 to 500 million of them obese, a tendency that is increasing 3. diet...... and lifestyle related health problems such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are increasing, the latter in young age groups 4. social cohesion is increasingly in danger since health is closely related to socioeconomic status 5. serious environmental problems related to food production and consumption need...
Reisch, Lucia; Eberle, Ulrike; Lorek, Sylvia
Contemporary food production and consumption cannot be regarded as sustainable and raises problems with its wide scope involving diverse actors. Moreover, in the face of demographic change and a growing global population, sus-tainability problems arising from food systems will likely become more...... and globalization of agriculture and food processing, the shift of consumption patterns toward more dietary animal protein, the emergence of modern food styles that entail heavily processed products, the growing gap on a global scale between rich and poor, and the paradoxical lack of food security amid an abundance...... consumption of meat and dairy products (especially beef), to favor organic fruits and vegetables, and to avoid goods that have been transported by air on both individual and institutional levels (e.g., public procurement, public catering). In examining the unsustainability of the current food system...
This book introduces architects, engineers, builders, and urban planners to a range of design principles of sustainable communities and illustrates them with outstanding case studies. Drawing on the author’s experience as well as local and international case studies, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighbourhoods presents planning concepts that minimize developments' carbon footprint through compact communities, adaptable and expandable dwellings, adaptable landscapes, and smaller-sized yet quality-designed housing. This book also: Examines in-depth global strategies for minimizing the residential carbon footprint, including district heating, passive solar gain, net-zero residences, as well as preserving the communities' natural assets Reconsiders conceptual approaches in building design and urban planning to promote a better connection between communities and nature Demonstrates practical applications of green architecture Focuses on innovative living spaces in urban environments
Halford, Christopher K [ORNL
The research conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) spans many disciplines and has the potential for far-reaching impact in many areas of everyday life. ORNL researchers and operations staff work on projects in areas as diverse as nuclear power generation, transportation, materials science, computing, and building technologies. As the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) largest science and energy research facility, ORNL seeks to establish partnerships with industry in the development of innovative new technologies. The primary focus of this current research deals with developing technologies which improve or maintain the quality of life for humans while reducing the overall impact on the environment. In its interactions with industry, ORNL serves as both a facility for sustainable research, as well as a representative of DOE to the private sector. For these reasons it is important that the everyday operations of the Laboratory reflect a dedication to the concepts of stewardship and sustainability.
Full Text Available Local governments are seeking effective ways to promote sustainable commuting for reducing energy consumption and improving commuters’ experience. They often use so-called “Workplace Travel Plans” as policy interventions to engage work organizations as active players, promoting sustainable commuting amongst their employees. However, it remains difficult to systematically engage work organizations and commuters in such efforts for a number of reasons, ranging from preferences to constraints that they have to deal with. We aim at providing commuters, work organizations, and public administrators with tools that facilitate this engagement. In this paper, we discuss the requirements for the design of technology supporting corresponding services for commuters and work organizations and we shortly illustrate the infrastructure that we are developing to provide such services.