Sample records for sustained school reform

  1. Sustained Organizational Learning for Comprehensive School Reform: A Sensemaking Perspective (United States)

    Callan, Mary B.


    Organizational sensemaking is the attempt to understand complex events that occur in organizations (Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 2005). This study focuses on the sensemaking leadership capabilities of a leadership team promoting comprehensive reform. The cross-school leadership team engaged in organizational sensemaking in order to…

  2. Land Reform and Sustainable Development


    Elizabeth Stanton; Peter Rosset; James Boyce


    Land reform, equitable distribution, economic development, environmental quality, land reform strategies, Brazil, Landless Workers’ Movement, East Asia, rural poverty, land productivity, sustainable agriculture, comparative advantage, small farms.

  3. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson


    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  4. School as Community, Community as School: Examining Principal Leadership for Urban School Reform and Community Development (United States)

    Green, Terrance L.


    For decades, reform has been a persistent issue in urban schools. Research suggests that urban school reforms that are connected to equitable community development efforts are more sustainable, and that principals play a pivot role in leading such efforts. Yet, limited research has explored how urban school principals connect school reform with…

  5. Reforming Underperforming High Schools (United States)

    MDRC, 2013


    Urban high schools are in trouble--high dropout rates, low student academic achievement, and graduates who are unprepared for college are just some of the disappointing indicators. However, recent research points to a select number of approaches to improving student outcomes and reforming underperforming schools--from particular ways of creating…

  6. The Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann; Mølholm, Martin; Horsbøl, Anders

    The paper presents a methodological framework for the study of the discursive emergence of the recent Danish School reform (2014). The framework will enable discourse scholars to hold an actively involved position in changing and furthering plurivocal processes of translations, negotiations...... and implementation of the reform. The framework is operationalized through research-based participatory collaborative processes involving local actors in two Danish public schools. It interlinks diverse discourse strategies and perceptive distances that traditionally belong to separate branches within discourse...... (Latour), e.g. civil service and municipal practices and texts, into the organizational practices of two local schools. On the basis of these analyses, we will establish a participatory process in which local actors are involved in the co-creation of new plurivocal and egalitarian dialogue designs...

  7. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Editor(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Publisher(s):. IDRC. January 1, 1999. ISBN: Out of print.

  8. Reforming Preschools and Schools. (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J


    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Ehlanzeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Ehlanzeni District Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. ... represented (50% males) and (50% females), 42% of participants are above 50 years, 83% does not have farming skills, 42% had formal education up to High school level, 75% received agricultural training.

  10. Teacher Empowerment and School Reform (United States)

    Thornburg, Devin G.; Mungai, Anne


    Teachers in high-needs settings working with diverse populations are typically cited as a central element for school improvement yet are often described as resistant to such efforts. We sought to investigate the reasons behind teachers' views and beliefs about school reform within the context of collaboration and professional development, rather…

  11. Processes and Dynamics behind Whole-School Reform: Nine-Year Journeys of Four Primary Schools (United States)

    Li, Yuk Yung


    Despite decades of research, little is known about the dynamics of sustaining change in school reform and how the process of change unfolds. By tracing the nine-year reform journeys of four primary schools in Hong Kong (using multiyear interview, observational, and archival data), this study uncovers the micro-processes the schools experienced…

  12. Leadership Lessons from Comprehensive School Reforms. (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Datnow, Amanda, Ed.

    This volume explores the role of leadership in comprehensive school reform (CSR). It consists of 12 chapters: (1) "The Development of Comprehensive School Reform" (Joseph Murphy and Amanda Datnow); (2) "Expeditionary Learning Schools: Tenacity, Leadership, and School Reform" (Greg Farrell); (3) "The Modern Red School…

  13. Sex and School Reform. (United States)

    Cuban, Larry


    Predicts that reformers will not attack sex education as an inappropriate addition to otherwise rigorous academic programs. Examines (1) some of the political, social, and practical reasons behind this avoidance and (2) the ineffectiveness of existing programs in preventing teenage pregnancies. Suggests that sex education programs may even hinder…

  14. Electricity reform and sustainable development in China (United States)

    Williams, James H.; Kahrl, Fredrich


    Reducing the environmental impact of supplying electricity is a key to China's sustainable development, and a focus of both domestic and international concerns with greenhouse gas emissions. The environmental performance of the electricity sector is strongly affected by its institutional arrangements: regulatory frameworks, wholesale markets, pricing mechanisms, planning and coordination, and enforcement and incentive mechanisms. These arrangements are set to change as electricity reforms inaugurated in 2002, but sidetracked by several years of supply shortages, are being resumed. In this paper we examine the impact of electricity reform on environmental sustainability by analyzing case studies of four environmental initiatives in the electricity sector: retirement of inefficient generators, installation of pollution control equipment, renewable energy development, and efforts to promote energy efficiency. We find that implementation of these policies falls short of objectives for two main underlying reasons: conflicting priorities between central and provincial governments, and ineffective regulation. Sustainability will be best served not by redoubling short-term supply-oriented, market-based reforms, but by better aligning central and provincial government incentives, and by developing competent, independent regulation at the provincial level. China's central government and sub-national governments in industrialized countries can both contribute to the latter goal.

  15. Instructional Leadership in Indonesian School Reform: Overcoming the Problems to Move Forward (United States)

    Sofo, Francesco; Fitzgerald, Robert; Jawas, Umiati


    The paper reviews the research on instructional leadership and, through identifying problems emerging in Indonesian school reform, suggests some sustainable solutions. There are some discrepancies in the processes of Indonesia's school reform, and the objectives of the national education reform do not seem to have been reflected in the actual…

  16. School Finance Reform and the Distribution of Student Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 22011. Revised (United States)

    Lafortune, Julien; Rothstein, Jesse; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore


    We study the impact of post-1990 school finance reforms, during the so-called "adequacy" era, on absolute and relative spending and achievement in low-income school districts. Using an event study research design that exploits the apparent randomness of reform timing, we show that reforms lead to sharp, immediate, and sustained increases…

  17. Radical School Reform. (United States)

    Gross, Beatrice, Ed.; Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides a comprehensive examination of the nature of the school crisis and the ways in which radical thinkers and educators are dealing with it. Excerpts from the writings of Jonathan Kozol, John Holt, Kenneth Clark, and others are concerned with the realities of education in ghettos and suburbs. Paul Goodman, Marshall McLuhan, Sylvia…

  18. Leading Sustainability in Schools (United States)

    Carr, Katie


    What is the role of schools, and more specifically school leadership, in the transition to a sustainable future for humankind? What different forms of leadership are needed to enable this role? The challenges are huge and complex and for those of us engaged in promoting sustainability learning, it is clear that the issue has never been more…

  19. The Search for Progress Elementary Student Achievement and the Bay Area School Reform Collaborative's Focal Strategy (United States)

    Porter, Kristin E.; Snipes, Jason C.; Eisberg, Jean


    A number of forces have increased the momentum for school districts to develop district-wide reform strategies as a means of initiating and sustaining school improvement. First, districts have sometimes found it easier to manage and support a single districtwide initiative rather than many different school reform models. Second, they have come to…

  20. Research lacking on school discipline reforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...: 215-898-9642,, Penn Graduate School of Education Research lacking on school discipline reforms Thin evidence on causes of and alternatives to suspensions, expulsions September 29, 2016--Since 2011, the Obama...

  1. Pension reform in Latin America : quick fixes or sustainable reform?


    Aiyer, Sri-Ram


    Because of better health and higher standards of living, people are living longer. By 2030, more than 16 percent of the world's population will be older than 60, compared with 9 percent today. As a result, pension systems will need reform. Most current systems have substantial unfunded liabilities that will impose significant financial burdens onfuture generations without providing adequate protection for older individuals and lower-income workers. Pension reform is inevitable because of demo...

  2. Evaluating Multigrade School Reform in Latin America (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.


    This paper describes three multigrade school reforms in Latin America: (1) Colombia's "Escuela Nueva", (2) Guatemala's "Nueva Escuela Unitaria", and (3) Chile's MECE-Rural. Each reform endowed primary teachers and students with special training and instructional materials, and encouraged new kinds of instruction in rural…

  3. Principals, Shared Decision Making, and School Reform. (United States)

    Weiss, Carol H.; Cambone, Joseph


    The attitudes of six principals serving in shared decision-making (SDM) high schools toward SDM were studied. Although three supported SDM as a vehicle for improving education, the others supported it for its own sake, to democratize schools. Problems in instituting the reforms in these schools are discussed. (SLD)

  4. Energy Reforms in The Developing World: Sustainable Development Compromised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Mbogo Abdallah


    Full Text Available Energy sector reforms with an emphasis on electricity growth have been taking place extensively and rapidly worldwide Particularly, motivated chiefly by classical economics’ standpoint of efficiency and market considerations, reforms have been made in the developed North. Models of reforms in the North have in turn been replicated in developing countries. However, questions arise as to whether the models used are suitable for the mostly rural and socioeconomically disadvantaged economies in the South. It is argued in this paper that a sustainability focused mode of reforms guided by futures studies is needed for such economies. Reforms taking place in Kenya and neighbouring countries are in particular examined from a sustainable future perspective; and appropriate improvements and further research are recommended.

  5. The Role of State Departments of Education in Complex School Reform. The Series on School Reform. (United States)

    Lusi, Susan Follett

    State departments of education (SDEs) play a pivotal role in the implementation of state-level school reform. This role is examined using two models of statewide school reform in Kentucky and Vermont. How the departments implemented their plans and how such implementation affected the internal dynamics of the departments, as well as the external…

  6. Unpacking Resistance to Change within-School Reform Programmes with a Social Justice Orientation (United States)

    Hynds, Anne


    Previous research in the area of resistance has inadequately described opposition to change within-school reform initiatives with a social justice orientation. A lack of attention to, and agreement on, the nature and causes of resistance may explain why so many equity-minded educational reforms fail to be sustained. This article highlights various…

  7. Inequality and School reform in Bahia, Brazil (United States)

    Reiter, Bernd


    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author's research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates that inequality also blocks effective community and parental involvement in school management, as schools tend to distance themselves from neighbourhoods portrayed as poor and black, and thus "dangerous".

  8. Advances in Schoolwide Inclusive School Reform (United States)

    Sailor, Wayne


    This article highlights three significant advances in schoolwide inclusive school reform and suggests three next steps to improve educational outcomes for "all" students, particularly for students for whom typical instruction is not effective. Significant advances are as follows: (a) a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) with embedded…

  9. Praktisches Lernen (Practical Learning) and School Reform. (United States)

    Fauser, Peter; And Others


    Presents an educational project that is meant to both stimulate innovations and explain those innovations already observed in different schools. Defines the relationship between the concept of practical learning and similar reform ideas. Focuses on questions concerning the development of educational policy in West Germany and on theoretical…

  10. Implications of Curriculum Reform for School Buildings in Scotland (United States)

    Scott-Watson, W.


    Scotland's Building Excellence programme is exploring the implications of curriculum reform for school building design. It includes events which bring together teachers, designers, school managers and local authorities.

  11. Social Upheaval and School Reform (United States)

    Beabout, Brian R.; Stokes, Helga; Polyzoi, Eleoussa; Carr-Chellman, Alison


    This analysis of postupheaval educational change examines the extent to which massive changes in a school system's sociocultural environment lead to changes in the structure and practice of schooling. Framed broadly within systems theory and complexity theory, this examination of two cases of postupheaval educational change--post-1989 Czech…

  12. Linked Learning in Pasadena: Creating a Collaborative Culture for Sustainable District Reform. Linked Learning Case Study Series (United States)

    Rice, Erik; Rutherford-Quach, Sara


    This is the story of how Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD) is creating sustainable high school reform. PUSD, through a set of district leadership practices, thoughtfully built the capacity of and sense of ownership among essential stakeholders to design, implement, and support a system of Linked Learning pathways. Though firmly anchored by…

  13. Political Will for Effective Reform Management and Sustainable Development Goals Achievement in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani


    Full Text Available Political will is important for effective and sustainable reform management because anticorruption reforms must focus on the internal management of public sector resources to reduce incentives and opportunities for corruption and mismanagement. It is the driver of a robust private sector, resilient media, vibrant civil society, transparent judiciary and good administrative reforms that lead to national integrity and sustainable development. The absence of political will is responsible for a situation where it is estimated that one out of every six out-of-school children worldwide is a Nigerian, and which brings to more than 10 million, the number of Nigerian children that are out-of-school. Consequently, the ranking of Nigeria as 39th out of 54 African countries in overall governance is a reflection of lack of political will, weak leadership and overall governance. This must be overcome as the world heads towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals 2030 Agenda. The sample comprised of 494 participants generated from a cross section of the population in Nigeria. Data were analyzed through descriptive and Chi-Square statistical methods. It was found that effective reform management in Nigeria requires political will.

  14. Measuring Family-School Relations for School Reform and Improvement (United States)

    Schueler, Beth


    A series of metaanalyses have documented a notable association between family engagement with children's learning and students' academic outcomes (Fan & Chen, 2001; Hill & Tyson, 2009; Jeynes, 2003, 2005, 2007). Family-school engagement is also associated with effective school-level reform and improvement efforts. The University of Chicago…

  15. Equity in Reform: Case Studies of Five Middle Schools Involved in Systemic Reform (United States)

    Kahle, Jane Butler; Kelly, Mary Kay

    Science and mathematics education reform documents of the last decade have called for improved teaching and learning for all children. To overcome inequalities, a systemic approach to reform has been adopted. The case studies synthesized in this analysis arc part of a larger effort to reform science and mathematics education systemically and assess the progress of systemic reform. The purpose of this study was to assess the progress toward achieving equitable systemic reform in five middle schools. A multiple-case study design was used, and qualitative data were collected. Kahle's Equity Metric was used to analyze the schools' progress toward achieving equitable systemic reform of mathematics and science. Two results occurred: Various equity issues were identified in the five case studies, and the metric proved efficacious in identifying barriers to or facilitators of equitable reform in the schools. Overall, the study illustrates how schools might assess their commitments to providing high-quality science and mathematics education to all students.

  16. Reforming "Time" in Danish Schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    from one way of counting teachers working time to another, ended up having profound implications not only for teachers' working lives but also for the public school system. The change in ways of "counting time” was from the managerial and political side an attempt to be able to steer the public schools...... into a better and more productive future by getting rid of old-fashioned working time systems constituting barriers to efficient and flexible use of resources (Udvalget om analyse af folkeskolelærernes arbejdstid et al. 2006; Udvalget om analyse af folkeskolelærernes arbejdstid et al. 2007). In stead...... the managers shoud be given "room for management" so that they could flexibly prioritice the teachers time in a productive way. The change, however ended up having at least two different consequences, that did not exactly match these ambitions:First, it ended up reopening the teachers' past – even...

  17. Testing and school reform in Danish education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine; Hamre, Bjørn


    on a Foucault inspired understanding of the subject and technologies and the dispositive. The study in the chapter is based on different methods that stem from research in general education. That is, primarily analysis of political documents concerning the Danish national standardized tests and the Danish...... School reform and secondly ethnographic inspired fieldwork in Danish public schools. The analysis in the chapter consists of theoretical informed readings of the empirical material. The material is read through different dispositives, that is the dispositive of discipline; of security and optimization...

  18. Sustainable schools. Better than traditional schools?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W. [Kropman Installatietechniek, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Boxem, G. [TU/e Building Services, Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    In the United Kingdom several educational buildings were built in the last decades with a strong environmental ethos, real icons of a new generation of low-energy sustainable buildings. For some of the buildings the performance was assessed. Also in the Netherlands several new concepts were developed for sustainable schools during the last years. This is an interesting topic as many of those schools had problems concerning energy efficiency, indoor air quality and thermal comfort. In the case of sustainable schools much effort was put into the design process of the schools to try to find better solutions to face the problems of the traditional designs. This resulted in different solution concepts, which raises the question which are better school concepts. From the literature three evaluations from the UK and one overview of five sustainable educational buildings from the Netherlands are given, which show that sustainable educational buildings are not always without flaws. In the paper two of the first Dutch sustainable elementary schools are compared with nine more traditional schools of the Netherlands to conclude whether the sustainable schools perform better than traditional schools.

  19. Schools for health and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegard; Simovska, Venka


    in Denmark with its aims of ensuring overall school improvement, increasing pupil wellbeing and improving academic outcomes. Analysis of international policy documents, as well as of research literature in both fields, shows that school-based health education (HE) and education for sustainable development...... in this chapter focuses on a common tendency when health and sustainability education in schools are framed in national action plans: certain critical educational aspects are lost by narrowing the concepts of health and sustainability to fit particular school subjects (e.g. physical education or science......This chapter addresses the relationships between international and national (Danish) policies regarding sustainability and health promotion which have the potential to affect school-based health education/promotion and education for sustainable development. Based on policy mapping and analysis...

  20. School Reform: Lessons from the Departed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dan Marshall


    Full Text Available

    In this article, the authors present data from a small study of 19 families who educate their children at home in rural Pennsylvania. Findings relative to why they opted out of the public education system and whether they would return are analyzed in light of a previously established construct (Idealogue/Pedagogue before being used to critique and expand it in light of broader cultural concerns. The authors argue, overall, that home educators are asserting their historical option of cultural agency and schooling. (Note 1

    If "school reform" is a bandwagon, then the parade is still in progress. Most of the grand proposals earlier composed by politicians, pundits, policy wonks, and professors have evolved into smaller, more locally pertinent endeavors by actual change participants (educators, students, parents and community members. In the worst case, the continuing accumulation of school reform efforts is understood as succeeding waves of perpetual hassle and silliness which disturb the basic soundness of business-as-usual. In the best case, such efforts become a representation of participants' commitment to the repetitive nature of the learning process: desiring to know and understand - acting upon these desires - making sense of and reflecting upon those actions - identifying new or different desires to know and understand. Thus, in the best case, school reform efforts should be here to stay.

    Those who care about examining and acting upon the quality of their local schools seek information from numerous sources, including their own experiences, outside consultants, beliefs and opinions collected from local, state, and national polls, and "the literature" of academia. But they seldom tap the one segment of their community which may provide the most unique perspective: parents who have opted out of the local public school system. We suspect that this group -- particularly those families who have taken it upon themselves to provide

  1. Sustaining educational reforms in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Pollock


    Full Text Available While it is well known which curricular practices can improve student performance on measures of conceptual understanding, the sustaining of these practices and the role of faculty members in implementing these practices are less well understood. We present a study of the hand-off of Tutorials in Introductory Physics [McDermott and Schaffer (Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002] from initial adopters to other instructors at the University of Colorado, including traditional faculty not involved in physics educational research. The study examines the impact of implementation of tutorials on student conceptual learning across ten first-semester, and seven second-semester courses, for 15 faculty members over 13 semesters, and includes roughly 5000 students. It is possible to demonstrate consistently high, and statistically indistinguishable, student learning gains for different faculty members; however, such results are not the norm and appear to rely on a variety of factors. Student performance varies by faculty background—faculty involved in, or informed by physics education research, consistently post higher student learning gains than less-informed faculty. Student performance in these courses also varies by curricula used—all semesters in which the research-based Tutorials and learning assistants are used have higher student learning gains than those semesters that rely on nonresearch-based materials and do not employ learning assistants.

  2. The Profession Speaks: Educator Perspectives on School Reform (United States)

    Murphy, Brett Gardiner


    An educator, who compiled teachers' stories of accountability era reforms into a book, explains why teacher voice is central. The book, "Inside Our Schools: Teachers on the Failure and Future of Education Reform," is organized around the recurring buzzwords the mainstream education reform movement has used to define its policies:…

  3. The Implications of Selected School Reform Approaches for School Library Media Services. (United States)

    Hartzell, Gary N.


    Explores the implications of selected school reforms for library media services. Topics include school-based management; school choice; home schooling; inclusion of special education students; at-risk elementary students; adolescents and middle schools; secondary school issues, including school-to-work transition, curriculum reform, distance…

  4. Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools: what have we learned? (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Cheng, Liming; Cai, Qiaoling; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Yun; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Guo-Tong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen


    Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools has attracted a lot of attention recently. Several leading medical schools in China have undergone exploratory reforms and in so doing, have accumulated significant experience and have made considerable progress. An analysis of the reforms conducted by 38 Chinese medical colleges that were targeted by the government for upgrade was performed. Drawing from both domestic and international literature, we designed a questionnaire to determine what types of curricular reforms have occurred at these institutions and how they were implemented. Major questions touched upon the purpose of the reforms, curricular patterns, improvements in teaching methods post-reform, changes made to evaluation systems post-reform, intra-university reform assessment, and what difficulties the schools faced when instituting the reforms. Besides the questionnaire, relevant administrators from each medical school were also interviewed to obtain more qualitative data. Out of the 38 included universities, twenty-five have undergone major curricular reforms. Among them, 60.0% adopted an organ system-based curriculum model, 32.0% adopted a problem-based curriculum model, and 8.0% adopted a hybrid curriculum model. About 60.0% of the schools' reforms involved both the "pre-clinical" and the "clinical" curricula, 32.0% of the schools' reforms were limited to the "pre-clinical" curricula, and 8.0% of the schools' reforms only involved the "clinical" curricula. Following curricular reform, 60.0% of medical schools experienced an overall reduction in teaching hours, 76.0% reported an increase in their students' clinical skills, and 60.0% reported an increase in their students' research skills. Medical curricular reform is still in its infancy in China. The republic's leading medical schools have engaged in various approaches to bring innovative teaching methods to their respective institutions. However, due to limited resources and the shackle of traditional

  5. Testing and school reform in Danish education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine; Hamre, Bjørn


    that the national testing program applies computer adaptive testing (CAT), i.e. the testing program adapts to how the student answer to the single test item and related to this, delivers more difficult or more easy test items to the individual student during test taking. The theoretical framework is based...... School reform and secondly ethnographic inspired fieldwork in Danish public schools. The analysis in the chapter consists of theoretical informed readings of the empirical material. The material is read through different dispositives, that is the dispositive of discipline; of security and optimization...... (CAT) and conclude that this technology is a test of its time, which is a test technology that succeeds in both disciplining the ideal students as is seen in more traditional test technologies and furthermore has aspects of security – everybody is testable as well as potentiality...

  6. American School Reform: What Works, What Fails, and Why (United States)

    McDonald, Joseph P.


    Dissecting twenty years of educational politics in our nation's largest cities, "American School Reform" offers one of the clearest assessments of school reform as it has played out in our recent history. Joseph P. McDonald and his colleagues evaluate the half-billion-dollar Annenberg Challenge--launched in 1994--alongside other…

  7. Mainstreaming the Sustainably Designed School. (United States)

    Weintraub, Deborah; Pierce, Tony

    This paper documents a school building energy efficiency and sustainability project involving the Newport Mesa Unified School District, Southern California Edison's Design and Engineering Services (D&ES), and the architectural firm Perkins and Will. The paper first examines the project design objectives and then discusses each of the project…

  8. Sustainability in School Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ece ŞAHİN


    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is important for the continuation of life in a healthy world for futuregenerations; many issues affecting the quality of life such as effective use of resources, take advantage ofrenewable energy, the choice of recyclable materials that do not harm the environment and waterconservation are considered in the context of sustainable design. Implementations carried out in thisframework are regarded as valuable due to providing the consciousness of sustainability to the society.Creating the awareness of sustainability is given a great importance by educators; thus, “education forsustainability” are included from the preschool program so that children can learn the gainings of suchperspective in their early ages. In support of this concept, it is believed that education structures should bea laboratory where children can practice theoretical knowledge learned at school. In that respect, studiesneed to be considered in the context of sustainable construction are studied in this research. In the study,after a description of the importance of sustainable design as a learning mean, significant subjects such asusing natural light, heating, cooling and air-conditioning methods, wind energy, water protection andmaterial selection are analyzed in terms of designing sustainable schools. It is criticized worldwide thatstructures ground on sustainable design principles are relatively few in numbers. Despite, there is anincreasing interest to the subject in Turkey later years; a lot more steps are required in terms ofimplementation and research of the issue. Thus, the purpose of the study is to provide a supplementaryreference for school designs.

  9. School Reform from the Inside Out: Policy, Practice, and Performance (United States)

    Elmore, Richard F.


    This is essential reading for any school leader, education reformer, policymaker, or citizen interested in the forces that promote school change. "Giving test results to an incoherent, badly run school doesn't automatically make it a better school. The work of turning a school around entails improving the knowledge and skills of…

  10. Sustainable Administrative Reform Movements Policy in Joko Widodo's Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogi Suprayogi Sugandi


    Full Text Available Joko Widodo (Jokowi is a leader that is widely expected to transform Indonesia into a better country. Hopes and wishes were rising when he was elected as the president of Indonesia. This paper will describe various innovations undertaken before and after his presidential inauguration as well as the assorted innovations made in reforming the administration of his cabinet. As the president of Indonesia, Joko Widodo is required to realize the aspirations of the people in freeing the government from corruption, collusion, and nepotism. The management of ministerial and non-ministerial institutions becomes the very first crucial issue undertaken by Joko Widodo. This led to a polemic in regards to reducing or increasing the number of institutions, as the Jokowi administration actually increased the amount. In Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's administration, several policies were made systematically and based on legislations that had been approved by the lagislature. Joko Widodo's administration in more partial in nature. The administrative reform program that is highly anticipated is the continuation of the Public Service Act. This law is a step forward from the administrative reform program that aims at the creation of good governance. Changes is career path, salary system, pension and benefits for civil servants, performance-based staffing are various efforts of sustainability carried out by Joko Widodo's administration.

  11. Curricular Reform: Systems Modeling and Sustainability in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Vermont (United States)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Hayden, N. J.; Dewoolkar, M.; Neumann, M.; Lathem, S.


    Researchers at the University of Vermont were awarded a NSF-sponsored Department Level Reform (DLR) grant to incorporate a systems approach to engineering problem solving within the civil and environmental engineering programs. A systems approach challenges students to consider the environmental, social, and economic aspects within engineering solutions. Likewise, sustainability requires a holistic approach to problem solving that includes economic, social and environmental factors. Our reform has taken a multi-pronged approach in two main areas that include implementing: a) a sequence of three systems courses related to environmental and transportation systems that introduce systems thinking, sustainability, and systems analysis and modeling; and b) service-learning (SL) projects as a means of practicing the systems approach. Our SL projects are good examples of inquiry-based learning that allow students to emphasize research and learning in areas of most interest to them. The SL projects address real-world open-ended problems. Activities that enhance IT and soft skills for students are incorporated throughout the curricula. Likewise, sustainability has been a central piece of the reform. We present examples of sustainability in the SL and modeling projects within the systems courses (e.g., students have used STELLA™ systems modeling software to address the impact of different carbon sequestration strategies on global climate change). Sustainability in SL projects include mentoring home schooled children in biomimicry projects, developing ECHO exhibits and the design of green roofs, bioretention ponds and porous pavement solutions. Assessment includes formative and summative methods involving student surveys and focus groups, faculty interviews and observations, and evaluation of student work.

  12. Leading for Urban School Reform and Community Development (United States)

    Green, Terrance L.


    Purpose: Improving urban schools of color and the communities where they are located requires leadership that spans school and community boundaries. The purpose of this study is to understand how principal and community leader actions support urban school reform along with community development at two community schools in the urban Midwest and…

  13. Teacher Identity and Reform: Intersections within School Culture (United States)

    Bower, Heather Ann; Parsons, Eileen R. Carlton


    In the era of school accountability, school reform programs aimed at shifting school culture are often implemented in an attempt to increase student achievement as measured by standardized test scores. This ethnographic case study was conducted in Hawk Elementary, a low-performing, high-poverty school. Quantitative and qualitative data collected…

  14. Rethinking Schools. An Agenda for Change. Leading Reformers Speak Out. (United States)

    Levine, David, Ed.; And Others

    This collection presents the best of 8 years of "Rethinking Schools," an education reform journal created in Milwaukee (Wisconsin) in 1986 by teachers vitally concerned with educational change. This volume contains 29 essays by classroom teachers, as well as pieces by such national reform figures as Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Herbert Kohl,…

  15. Evaluating Whole-School Reform Efforts: A Guide for District and School Staff. (United States)

    Yap, Kim; Douglas, Inge; Railsback, Jennifer; Shaughnessy, Joan; Speth, Timothy

    This guidebook offers suggestions that can help district and school staff choose an approach for evaluating school-reform efforts. It is intended to provide further evaluation assistance to education stakeholders to ensure that schools conduct evaluation of whole-school reform efforts in a way that provides valid and useful information for…

  16. Statistical Reform in School Psychology Research: A Synthesis (United States)

    Swaminathan, Hariharan; Rogers, H. Jane


    Statistical reform in school psychology research is discussed in terms of research designs, measurement issues, statistical modeling and analysis procedures, interpretation and reporting of statistical results, and finally statistics education.

  17. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.


    The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

  18. Chinese Housing Reform and Social Sustainability: Evidence from Post-Reform Home Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Xiao


    Full Text Available Since 1978, China has undergone an institutional reform, from a welfare-oriented housing allocation system to a market-oriented one. But with high housing prices, affordability is a major obstacle to home ownership for Chinese citizens. Now, the government has started to change the goal of housing policy from present economic benefits to sustainable housing, so future generations will have a decent place to live. Housing is an important indicator for social stratification, and home ownership, which is an important component of social sustainability in the Chinese context, is influenced by multiple factors that vary across countries. Although China has a long tradition of home ownership, there is a lack of comprehensive research on post-reform housing inequality. By undertaking a large-scale field study in the city of Xiamen, our research explored to what extent home ownership varies across socio-economic classes, and improves understanding of the reasons behind home ownership inequality. It was discovered that people have a variety of resources from which housing can be obtained, and that commercial housing served as the primary housing source, although, due to path dependence, public housing still comprises an important source of housing, as well as self-built houses. A structural equation model (SEM was used to further explore the driving forces of home ownership inequality. The model indicated that hukou (household registration status has the strongest effect on home ownership, followed by education, with family income and occupation as less important factors. Along with income and education, home ownership has a direct effect on people’s perception of their own socio-economic status (SES. A probability model of home ownership was developed, based on logistic regression. Local families with higher levels of income and education with at least one member working in a publicly owned organization had a higher probability of home ownership

  19. Leading a School through Change--Principals' Hands-on Leadership Strategies in School Reform (United States)

    Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi


    Principal's hands-on strategies reflecting their theories of changing have a substantial effect on the development of their schools and on how the large-scale reform takes root. The study explores five comprehensive school principals' leadership strategies during a large-scale school reform in Finland. The principals' strategies in the middle of…

  20. Teaching Environmentally Sustainable Design in Schools. (United States)

    Gelder, John


    Explores three ways students are taught environmentally-sustainable design within an eco-school system: the passive example of the present school premises; the use of architects-in-schools schemes, and student environmental assessments of the school premises. Examples are provided of how each method addresses sustainable design and how they may be…

  1. Parental education and child health: evidence from a schooling reform. (United States)

    Lindeboom, Maarten; Llena-Nozal, Ana; van der Klaauw, Bas


    This paper investigates the impact of parental education on child health outcomes. To identify the causal effect we explore exogenous variation in parental education induced by a schooling reform in 1947, which raised the minimum school leaving age in the UK. Findings based on data from the National Child Development Study suggest that increasing the school leaving age by 1 year had little effect on the health of their offspring. Schooling did however improve economic opportunities by reducing financial difficulties among households.

  2. Arab Parents' Involvement in School Reform in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu


    Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study confirmed…

  3. Parental education and child health: evidence from a schooling reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, M.; Llena Nozal, A.; van der Klaauw, B.


    This paper investigates the impact of parental education on child health outcomes. To identify the causal effect we explore exogenous variation in parental education induced by a schooling reform in 1947, which raised the minimum school leaving age in the UK. Findings based on data from the National

  4. Secondary School Principals in Curriculum Reform: Victims or Accomplices? (United States)

    Walker, Allan; Qian, Haiyan; Zhang, Shuang


    The Shanghai Municipal Education Commission convened an important conference in early 2010. A major focus of the conference was the apparent failure of the New Curriculum Reform to take root in schools. One of the conclusions presented at the conference was that school principals were responsible for the gap between the intent and effect of the…

  5. The Business Agenda for School Reform: A Parallel Universe (United States)

    Gelberg, Denise


    Criticism of the public schools has been unrelenting since "A Nation at Risk" was published in 1983. From that pivotal moment to the present the business community has played a crucial role in setting the parameters of the critique of the schools and shaping the reform agendas that have been proposed and implemented. However, this author has found…

  6. School Reform and the Emotional Demands of Principals: Lorna's Story (United States)

    Mills, Martin; Niesche, Richard


    The issue of emotions in school leadership is one that has received increasing attention in recent years. In this paper we present a case study of the emotional demands upon one principal as she undertakes a programme of school reform. This case study works against the common discourse of "emotional maturity" inherent in an individual…

  7. The Hard Truth: Problems and Issues in Urban School Reform (United States)

    Yisrael, Sean


    "The Hard Truth" is a book written for principals and school administrators who want to implement effective change. The topics of the book candidly discuss the problems, people, and issues that get in the way of true school reform; and what building level principals can personally do attain the best possible outcomes.

  8. Powerful Reforms with Shallow Roots: Improving America's Urban Schools. (United States)

    Cuban, Larry, Ed.; Usdan, Michael, Ed.

    This collection of papers, purposely written in jargon-free language, is designed to inform policymakers, business leaders, educators, and civic-minded parents about the abiding complexities of urban school reform and the linkages between the success of schools and the vitality of cities. After the "Introduction: Learning from the Past"…

  9. Expectations of the Educational Reform of High School Geography (United States)

    Vladeva, Rositsa


    The study is an attempt to present the latest developments in legislation for implementation of the reform in geographic education in secondary school. Through conducted survey has been taken into account the views and expectations of teachers of Geography and Economics in terms of the new law, a framework curriculum, State educational standards and curricula. Expectations of educational reform are formulated as positive and negative sides. Referred to a recommendation for overcoming some of the problems were identified.

  10. Sustainable Schools in the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    encompasses a vision for global society that is not only ecologically sustainable but also one that is socially and economically sustainable. This paper traces the history of ESD in Victorian schools and analyses the current sustainability policies and initiatives in terms of their achievement of the educational, environmental,.

  11. Sustaining the Drone Enterprise: How Manpower Analysis Engendered Policy Reform in the United States Air Force (United States)


    Sustaining the Drone Enterprise How Manpower Analysis Engendered Policy Reform in the United States Air Force Major Kiel M. Martin, Ph.D...CT 06510 Abstract The Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), colloquially labeled the “ drone ,” has become iconic of American military campaigns this...Sustaining the Drone Enterprise: How Manpower Analysis Engendered Policy Reform in the United States Air Force’ informed policy decisions by the Office of

  12. Analysis of curricular reform practices at Chinese medical schools. (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Cheng, Liming; Kosik, Russell; Mandell, Greg; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Xu, Guo-Tong; Fan, Angela P


    A comprehensive search of the literature published between 2001 and 2010 was performed to gain a greater understanding of curricular reform practices at Chinese medical schools. There were 10,948 studies published between 2001 and 2010 that were retrieved from the database. Following preliminary screening, 76 publications from 49 different medical schools were selected. Thirty-one publications regarding clinical medicine curricular reforms were analyzed further. Of the 76 studies, 53 described curricular reforms that were instituted in theoretical courses, 22 described curricular reforms that were instituted in experimental courses, and 1 described curricular reforms that were instituted in a clinical skills training course. Of the 31 clinical medicine publications, 2 described reforms that were implemented for 3-year program medical students, 12 described reforms that were implemented for 5-year program medical students, 6 described reforms that were implemented for 7-year program medical students, and 2 described reforms that were implemented for 8-year program medical students. Currently, the majority of medical schools in China use the discipline-based curriculum model. Thirteen studies described transition to an organ-system-based curriculum model, 1 study described transition to a problem-based curriculum model, and 3 studies described transition to a clinical presentation-based curriculum model. In 7 studies educators decided to retain the discipline-based curriculum model while integrating 1 or several new courses to remedy the weaker aspects of the traditional curriculum, in 7 studies educators decided to integrate the preclinical courses with the clinical courses by using the systemic-integrating curricular system that dilutes classical disciplines and integrates material based on organ systems, and in 2 studies educators limited reforms to clinical courses only. Eight studies discussed the implementation of a formative evaluation system, 4 studies

  13. Towards Sustainability at a Secondary Comprehensive School (United States)

    Hickman, Gill


    This article explores the development of sustainability at Ringwood School in Hampshire between 2005 and 2010 using two different routes. The author, herself a scientist and sustainability coordinator at the school, shows how the school has explored a range of initiatives, starting with those most straightforward for a biologist and culminating in…

  14. Multisite Case Study of Florida's Millennium High School Reform Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Mullen


    Full Text Available This study should have immediate utility for the United States and beyond its borders. School-to-work approaches to comprehensive reform are increasingly expected of schools while legislative funding for this purpose gets pulled back. This multisite case study launches the first analysis of the New Millennium High School (NMHS model in Florida. This improvement program relies upon exemplary leadership for preparing students for postsecondary education

  15. Science teachers' beliefs about teaching and reform: Case studies from a restructured high school (United States)

    King, Elizabeth A.

    A qualitative research study of the beliefs of three science teachers about teaching and educational reform was carried out at a restructured high school belonging to the Coalition of Essential Schools (CES), a nationally prominent restructuring movement. One problem of educational reform is to sustain change in the science classroom. A new wave of reform is shifting the focus away from curriculum changes and towards professionalism of teachers empowered to restructure schools. The beliefs of the teachers are key to decisions made in the classroom. The teachers and staff of Metro High School adopted the Ten Common Principles of CES as their guide to restructuring and sustaining change. Changes included increased authority for teachers in shared decision making, increased staff time for professional development, grouping students heterogeneously, grouping students and faculty in teams for extended time periods, and organizing instruction around small group and individual student study (student-centered). The theoretical framework centers on the constructivist theory of learning, particularly Vygotsky's socio-cultural model, and Bakhtin's dialogic function of language. Nespor's belief system model was used to describe the four characteristic features of beliefs: episodic memories, alternativity, existential presumption, and evaluative loading. My research questions were: What memories of teaching have influenced the teachers? What are the teachers' beliefs about the learning environment? What are the teachers' beliefs about their students? What are the teachers' beliefs about student activities? Interviews were the primary data source for the case studies of the three teachers, with additional data from lesson plans, photo-voice, and other artifacts. The teachers shared many common beliefs including that strong peer support is necessary for reform. The teachers' beliefs allied themselves to the majority of the common principles of CES, especially personalization and

  16. Future Imaginaries of Urban School Reform (United States)

    Nespor, Jan


    Drawing on analytic heuristics from critical discourse analysis and cultural political economy (Jessop, 2010; Wodak, 2002), this article examines the temporal premises and "futures" embedded in a report and reform proposal created in a mid-sized, American city, Columbus, Ohio, in 2013. The product of a city-wide commission appointed in…

  17. You Can't Do It Alone: A Communications and Engagement Manual for School Leaders Committed to Reform (United States)

    Johnson, Jean


    Experts and reformers have suggested many promising ideas for improving schools and ramping up student learning, but in too many cases, proposals for change run up against resistance, confusion, and anxiety from key stakeholders such as teachers, parents, students, and members of the broader public. To propel change--and to sustain it--school…

  18. A Quest for Consciousness: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Exploring Leaders' Mindfulness in Elementary and Middle School Reform (United States)

    Garcia-Post, Aine


    This study aimed to add to the information known about the leaders charged with the task of successfully and sustainably turning around a school. Specifically, this research examined the extent to which leaders engaged in turnaround school reform experienced mindfulness. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, state assigned school grades of schools…

  19. Educational Management Organizations as High Reliability Organizations: A Study of Victory's Philadelphia High School Reform Work (United States)

    Thomas, David E.


    This executive position paper proposes recommendations for designing reform models between public and private sectors dedicated to improving school reform work in low performing urban high schools. It reviews scholarly research about for-profit educational management organizations, high reliability organizations, American high school reform, and…

  20. New Zealand's Past and Tomorrow's Schools: Reasons, Reforms and Results. (United States)

    Novlan, Jerome F.


    Studies the evolution of New Zealand's educational system, including its recent reforms, the driving forces behind such radical changes, and some results and issues. Decentralization has removed layers of intervening support for schools, engendered new learning partnerships, and required increased parent involvement. Issues concerning equity, the…

  1. Capping Costs: Putting a Price Tag on School Reform (United States)

    Giordano, Gerard


    Early and recent school reformers demanded greater funding. They insisted that they needed it to protect children, the economy, and the nation. This book uses the case method to analyze the budgets that they proposed, the rhetoric that they employed, and the resistance that they encountered. The following chapters are included in this book: (1)…

  2. Exploring Computer Science: A Case Study of School Reform (United States)

    Goode, Joanna; Margolis, Jane


    This article will detail efforts to broaden participation in computing in urban schools through a comprehensive reform effort of curricular development, teacher professional development, and policy changes. Beginning with an account of the curricular development of "Exploring Computer Science", we will describe the inquiry-based research…

  3. The Politics of Rural School Reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia. (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.; Benveniste, Luis


    Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,…

  4. Profiling Sustainability Curriculum in AACSB Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Srivastava


    Full Text Available This article describes the landscape of Sustainability Curriculum being used across the Association of Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB–accredited schools in the United States on the basis of a non-probabilistic sample (n = 119. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, four clusters were obtained based on sustainability-related courses in management, marketing, entrepreneurship, finance, accounting, information systems/information technology, strategy, globalization, communication, and miscellaneous. Cluster 1 had uniform dispersion on sustainability courses in all business courses except marketing. Clusters 2 and 4 were the largest ones with most sustainability courses in the management area, whereas, Cluster 3 had weak, but uniform, dispersion of sustainability courses in most business disciplines. Based on their characteristics and strength of dispersion among 10 business subject areas, these were labeled as Sustainability Prominent, Sustainability Moderate, Sustainability Meek, and Sustainability Quiescent.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive School Reform in Low Achieving Schools (United States)

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Tim M.


    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform implemented in 100 low achieving schools serving disadvantaged students in a Canadian province. The results show that while Struggling Schools had a statistically significant positive effect on Grade 3 Reading achievement, d = 0.48…

  6. Evaluating Whole-School Reform Efforts: A Guide for District and School Staff. Second Edition. (United States)

    Yap, Kim; Aldersebaes, Inge; Railsback, Jennifer; Shaughnessy, Joan; Speth, Timothy

    This guidebook provides evaluation assistance to district and school staff. It was published in response to the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSRD) Program, passed by Congress in 1997 to provide incentives and support for low-performing, high-poverty schools. CSRD is an attempt to ensure that schools conduct evaluation of whole-school…

  7. How Do Sustainable Schools Integrate Sustainability Education? An Assessment of Certified Sustainable K-12 Schools in the United States (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; Elser, Monica


    We provide an overview of research in sustainability education. We argue that the interconnectedness of environmental sustainability programs at K-12 schools is one metric by which sustainability education can be conceptualized. We present a new measure of whole-school sustainability, or "interconnectedness," and then use it to compare…

  8. School Business Officials as Sustainability Officers (United States)

    Hall, Chuck


    Today, being sustainable means living smart. But to live smart, we need to change our behavior. This article shows how schools and school districts offer great opportunities for teaching students and staff how to live smart, therefore sustainably, all while generating savings that can be used for other, more strategic investments within the school…

  9. Sustainability Reporting at Schools: Challenges and Benefits (United States)

    Carbach, Eva; Fischer, Daniel


    Despite advances made there is still an implementation gap with regard to Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in formal educational systems at the school level. The present paper focuses on sustainability reporting as a recently emerging practice in the school sector. It presents the approach and findings of an exploratory interview study…

  10. Profiling Sustainability Curriculum in AACSB Schools


    Mukesh Srivastava


    This article describes the landscape of Sustainability Curriculum being used across the Association of Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)–accredited schools in the United States on the basis of a non-probabilistic sample (n = 119). Using hierarchical cluster analysis, four clusters were obtained based on sustainability-related courses in management, marketing, entrepreneurship, finance, accounting, informat...

  11. Sustainability Education: Researching Practice in Primary Schools (United States)

    Green, Monica; Somerville, Margaret


    Many teachers are keen to implement sustainability education in primary schools but are lacking the confidence, skills and knowledge to do so. Teachers report that they do not understand the concept and cannot integrate sustainability into an already overcrowded curriculum. Identifying how teachers successfully integrate sustainability education…

  12. Achieving and Sustaining Universal Health Coverage: Fiscal Reform of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan. (United States)

    Lan, Jesse Yu-Chen


    The paper discusses the expansion of the universal health coverage (UHC) in Taiwan through the establishment of National Health Insurance (NHI), and the fiscal crisis it caused. Two key questions are addressed: How did the NHI gradually achieve universal coverage, and yet cause Taiwanese health spending to escalate to fiscal crisis? What measures have been taken to reform the NHI finance and achieve moderate success to date? The main argument of this paper is that the Taiwanese Government did try to implement various reforms to save costs and had moderate success, but the path-dependent process of reform does not allow increasing contribution rates significantly and thereby makes sustainability challenging.

  13. Educational Reform And The Personal Traits Looked For At School Managers As Leaders Who Will Perform The Reform In


    Erçetin, Ş. Şule


    While starting the years 2000`s, in Turkey Education Reform is being discussed and the reform made in education is valued as motive power of projects realizing vital structural changes in economic and social life. Leadership in school management is seen as a functional solution in implementing the projected reforms, reducing and improving present problems of the system. Recent studies in literature related to leadership reveal that there is a high and consistent relationship between personal...

  14. Comprehensive School Reform: Making Good Choices. A Guide for Schools and Districts. (United States)

    Hassel, Bryan

    This guide is designed to help educators make good decisions about comprehensive school reform (CSR). Since CSR takes different forms in different schools, the booklet should help schools craft a unique plan that builds on unique strengths. It emphasizes the importance of choosing carefully one or more research-based CSR models to serve as the…

  15. Principals and School Reform: Barriers to Inclusion in Three Secondary Schools. (United States)

    Powell, Donna; Hyle, Adrienne E.


    Uses explanatory case studies to examine three midwestern secondary schools' adoption of inclusion, based on Michael Fullan's views concerning the principal's pivotal role in school reform efforts. Findings support Fullan's perspectives and indicate lack of understanding about inclusion. Although the schools claimed to have implemented inclusive…

  16. Technology & School Reform: A View from Both Sides of the Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Warschauer


    Full Text Available A discourse of reform claims that schools must be transformed to take full advantage of computers, while a competing discourse of inequality warns that technology-enhanced reform is taking place only in wealthy schools, dooming poor and minority students to the wrong side of a digital divide. A qualitative study at an elite private school and an impoverished public school explored the relationship between technology, reform, and equality. The reforms introduced at the two schools appeared similar, but underlying differences in resources and expectations served to reinforce patterns by which the two schools channel students into different social futures.

  17. Reforming marketing for sustainability: towards a framework for evolved marketing


    Hurth, V; Peck, J.; Jackman, E; Wensing, E


    This paper seeks to provide guidance to the question ‘how can we evolve marketing so that it becomes a force for sustainability?’. Much useful advice has been produced on the how existing norms of marketing can be applied to the topic of sustainability – for example, taking the marketing ‘Ps’ and integrating a sustainability approach into each. Many people on the ground trying to implement ‘Sustainable Marketing’ find that there is much high-level enthusiasm for this kind of change, at a mana...

  18. The Need for Transformational Leadership in Singapore's School-Based Reform (United States)

    Retna, Kala S.; Ng, Pak Tee


    In Singapore, "decentralization" and "school-based reforms" are key words within the current education reform agenda. This article argues that a key success factor in this agenda is transformational leadership in school. With more autonomy given to the school, transformational leadership at the school level will facilitate the…

  19. Irrational Exuberance for Market-Based Reform: How Federal Turnaround Policies Thwart Democratic Schooling (United States)

    Trujillo, Tina; Renée, Michelle


    Background: In 2009, the Obama Administration announced its intention to rapidly "turn around" 5,000 of the nation's lowest-performing schools. To do so, it relied on the School Improvement Grant (SIG) program to provide temporary funding for states and schools, and to mandate drastic, school-level reforms. Most of these reforms require…

  20. Curriculum Reforms and Implementation: Contribution of School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rogramme to t he effective implementation of the various curricula is also highlighted. The suggested media for instructional delivery in the recently published syllabuses by the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) are recommended as guide for resource collection development in schools.

  1. Sensitization of Secondary School Students towards Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 26, 2012 ... Sensitization of Secondary School Students towards. Sustainable Electoral Process in Nigeria: Nigeria. Independent Electoral Commission as a Focus. (Pp. 239-251). Uhunmwuangho, Sunday Okungbowa - Lecturer, Institute of Public. Administration & Extension Services, University of Benin, Benin City,.

  2. Sustainable School Leadership: The Teachers' Perspective (United States)

    Cook, John W.


    Sustainable school leadership is essential to the academic growth of students and professional growth of faculty and staff. Shedding light on what constitutes sustainable leadership from the perspective of teachers will increase our understanding of how specific leadership practices and processes impact those in the learning community who are…

  3. Education and health knowledge: evidence from UK compulsory schooling reform. (United States)

    Johnston, David W; Lordan, Grace; Shields, Michael A; Suziedelyte, Agne


    We investigate if there is a causal link between education and health knowledge using data from the 1984/85 and 1991/92 waves of the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS). Uniquely, the survey asks respondents what they think are the main causes of ten common health conditions, and we compare these answers to those given by medical professionals to form an index of health knowledge. For causal identification we use increases in the UK minimum school leaving age in 1947 (from 14 to 15) and 1972 (from 15 to 16) to provide exogenous variation in education. These reforms predominantly induced adolescents who would have left school to stay for one additionally mandated year. OLS estimates suggest that education significantly increases health knowledge, with a one-year increase in schooling increasing the health knowledge index by 15% of a standard deviation. In contrast, estimates from instrumental-variable models show that increased schooling due to the education reforms did not significantly affect health knowledge. This main result is robust to numerous specification tests and alternative formulations of the health knowledge index. Further research is required to determine whether there is also no causal link between higher levels of education - such as post-school qualifications - and health knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. disposition towards teacher involvement in school reform

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cl' B Human relations: Mean of 5 items 4'19 3'64 3'84 3'64. 7 Formulate changes in teacher~administrator 4'28 3'62 3-50 3'30 relations ). 9 Give organised feedback to administrators 81, 4'37 3'71 4'08 3'84 staff. 16 Set policies for changes in parent involvement 4'28 3'72 3'80 3'57. 18 Improve the school's relationship with ...

  5. Sustainable Schools in the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within UNESCO's conception of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), schools should be implementing approaches to teaching and learning that integrate goals for conservation, social justice, appropriate development and democracy into a vision and a mission of personal and social change. ESD also involves ...

  6. Sustainability Innovation in United Kingdom Schools (United States)

    Head, Wayne; Buckingham, Richard


    This article recommends approaches to take in designing sustainable educational environments. The authors present recent examples of UK school buildings that reduce carbon emissions and capitalise on renewable energy sources, and predict how schools will respond to energy needs in the future. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  7. Reforming School Governance in Taiwan and South Korea: Empowerment and Autonomization in School-Based Management (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Gu, Ja Oek


    Purpose: The article aims to use the globalization theory and the implications of democratization for social policy to analyze the school governance reforms in Taiwan and South Korea. Design/methodology/approach: The article describes the main features of decentralization policy in the school sectors in the two societies with a historical review…

  8. Leading Inclusive Reform for Students with Disabilities: A School- and Systemwide Approach (United States)

    Theoharis, George; Causton, Julie


    It is of great importance to maximize access to general education for all students with disabilities. This article focuses on how leaders create inclusive schools for all students--inclusive school reform. Inclusive school reform can result in all students with disabilities being placed into general education settings (including students with…

  9. Organizational Behavior in Education: Instructional Leadership and School Reform. Seventh Edition. (United States)

    Owens, Robert G.

    This book concentrates on the connection between organizational behavior and the clamor for school reform, whether market-based, standards-based, or whole-school reform. It explains the great need for school leaders to develop a theory and practice that draws on what is known about organizational behavior in education. Educational leaders need a…

  10. School Reform: The Flatworm in a Flat World--From Entropy to Renewal through Indigenous Invention (United States)

    Heckman, Paul E.; Montera, Viki L.


    Purpose: In this article, we compare current schooling practices and reform efforts to the mechanistic industrial model and illustrate why this paradigm is no longer sufficient in this "flat world." Schooling and school reform in the 21st century continue to be approached as if these are a flatworm capable replicating itself. We argue that a new…

  11. Intersections between School Reform, the Arts, and Special Education: The Children Left Behind (United States)

    Hourigan, Ryan M.


    Arts education and special education within public schools have faced similar challenges in the wake of school reform. Services and programming have been reduced, leaving a larger gap in resources and accessibility. Because of loopholes in policy, new reform initiatives such as vouchers and charter schools will continue to marginalize students…

  12. Four Rs for Urban High School Reform: Re-Envisioning, Reculturation, Restructuring, and Remoralization (United States)

    Hemmings, Annette


    A framework for urban public high school reform is presented for managing site-based change through re-envisioning, reculturation, restructuring, and remoralization. The four Rs for reform framework is elucidated through a qualitative study of a low-performing urban public high school that was transformed into a new more successful school. The…

  13. Cutting through the Hype: The Essential Guide to School Reform. Revised, Expanded, and Updated Edition (United States)

    David, Jane L.; Cuban, Larry


    "Cutting Through the Hype: The Essential Guide to School Reform" is a revised, expanded, and updated version of the classic work by Jane L. David and Larry Cuban. It offers balanced analyses of 23 currently popular school reform strategies, from teacher performance pay and putting mayors in charge to turnaround schools and data-driven instruction.…

  14. Mentorship a key success factor in sustainable Land Reform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of a mentorship relationship is essential for success. Obstacles that could hinder the program are a lack of willingness, no commitment and a negative attitude, while the availability of a viable and sustainable business plan for the farm is non-negotiable. Key words: Mentorship; personal characteristics; ...

  15. The Adoption Features of Government Initiatives for the Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong Schools (United States)

    Wong, Ping-Man; Cheung, Alan


    This article is one of a series of papers generated from the Curriculum Reform study in Hong Kong with the purpose of understanding the impact of government's role in the change process of the reform. This paper specifically examines the 17 government initiatives in the Curriculum Reform in terms of their adoption percentages of schools from…

  16. School effectiveness and school improvement : Sustaining links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, B.P.M.; Reezigt, G.J.


    Ideally, school effectiveness research and school improvement might have a relationship with a surplus value for both. In reality, this relationship is often troublesome. Some problems can be attributed to the intrinsic differences between effectiveness and improvement, such as different missions.

  17. The Interface of School, Community, and Health Care Reform: Organizational Directions toward Effective Services for Children and Youth. (United States)

    Knoff, Howard M.


    Three areas of reform have been under national scrutiny: school reform, community services reform, and health-care reform. Few have discussed how these three areas interface and can be organized toward more effective services for children and youth. Describes organizational and planning methodology that coordinates these three reform areas into a…

  18. Using symbolic interactionism to analyze a specialized STEM high school teacher's experience in curriculum reform (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee; Osborne, Margery


    In this paper, we present a microanalysis of a specialized STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) high school teacher's experience of self-initiated science inquiry curriculum reform. We examine the meanings of these two constructs: inquiry curriculum and curriculum change through the process lens of interactions, actions, and interpretations. Symbolic interactionism is the theoretical framework we used to frame our analysis of how this teacher, Darren Daley (a pseudonym) and various stakeholders purposefully and strategically engaged in "face-work" and act out lines of actions to advocate or oppose curriculum change. Symbols are used in this world of face-to-face encounters to communicate, imply, and assert, meanings through socially flexible and adjustable processes. We scrutinize how Daley (un)consciously engaged all of these to defend his decisions, actions, and outcomes and "look" to others as doing inquiry reform. The meanings of such work are not intrinsically driven or reactions to psychological and extraneous factors and forces, but emergent through interactions. The data collection methods include interviews with Daley, school administrators, students, and parents, lesson observations in Daley's class, and gathering of school website pages, brochures, and curriculum materials. We represent data in narratives describing storied history, voices, interactions, anecdotal accounts from individuals' experiences, and interpretations. The analysis and findings illuminate the nature of teacher agency—how it is reclaimed, sustained, reinforced, contested, exercised, and modified in more nuanced ways, hence offering an alternative lens to theorizing and empirically analyzing this construct.

  19. Boarding Schools and Capital Benefits: Implications for Urban School Reform (United States)

    Bass, Lisa R.


    The author discusses the boarding school model as a schooling alternative to improve life chances for disadvantaged youth, particularly African American youth, by positively meeting their social and educational needs. Bourdieu, Coleman, and other social scientists purported that these needs can be better met by exposing students to social and…

  20. Navigating the Turbulent Waters of School Reform Guided by Complexity Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David G White; James A Levin


      The goal of this research study has been to develop, implement, and evaluate a school reform design experiment at a continuation high school with low-income, low-performing underrepresented minority students...

  1. Positivism and Post-World War I Elementary School Reform in Ontario (United States)

    Milewski, Patrice


    Following the end of World War I, the Ontario Department of Education initiated a series of reforms aimed at both elementary and secondary schooling. This article examines the reforms that were made to elementary school curriculum and pedagogy. These were initiated within the context of a call for a general reconstruction of education and society…

  2. The Agony of School Reform: Race, Class, and the Elusive Search for Social Justice. (United States)

    Leonardo, Zeus


    Reviews "Education and Democratic Theory: Finding a Place for Community Participation in Public School Reform" (A. Belden Fields and Walter Feinberg) and "The Color of School Reform: Race, Politics, and the Challenge of Urban Education" (J. Henig, R. Hula, M. Orr, and D. Pedescleaux). Both books examine the political aspects of…

  3. The Influence of News Framing on Support for Charter School Reform (United States)

    Feuerstein, Abe


    This study examined the influence of media framing on attitudes toward charter school reform. Participants in an Internet-based experiment were presented, at random, with one of three manipulated news articles framing charter school reform as (a) supportive of values such as freedom, choice, and innovation; (b) conflicting with values such as…

  4. School Performance, Accountability and Waiver Reforms: Evidence from Louisiana. CEPA Working Paper No. 17-06 (United States)

    Dee, Thomas; Dizon-Ross, Elise


    States that received federal waivers to the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act were required to implement reforms in designated "Focus Schools" that contribute to achievement gaps. In this study, we examine the performance effects of such "differentiated accountability" reforms in the state of Louisiana. The Focus School reforms…

  5. Leadership practices and inclusive education reform in primary schools in Bangladesh


    Mullick, Jahirul


    This study was undertaken to investigate leadership practices for Inclusive Education (IE) reform in primary schools in Bangladesh. Specifically, the study investigated leadership practice structures, views of school leaders about the accountability approach in primary schools, school leaders’ opinions on challenges to implementing IE and possible strategies to address the identified challenges. The study also explored the relationships between school variables, teachers’ demographic variabl...

  6. Good Schools/Real Schools: Why School Reform Doesn't Last. The Series on School Reform. (United States)

    Fink, Dean

    Throughout the Western world, there appears to be a consensus that schools have failed to prepare children for the challenges of the emerging information age. Many high schools that start out as innovative or "break-the-mold" lose their momentum and experience an "attrition of change." They end up becoming like any other…

  7. No Child Left Behind and the Spectacle of Failing Schools: The Mythology of Contemporary School Reform (United States)

    Granger, David A.


    This article discusses what David Berliner (2005) has called the perverse "spectacle of fear" (208) surrounding issues of teacher quality and accountability in contemporary school reform. Drawing principally on the critical semiotics of Roland Barthes' essay, "The World of Wrestling" (1957), it examines the way that this…

  8. Reconsidering Genre Theory in K-12 Schools: A Response to School Reforms in the United States (United States)

    Gebhard, Meg; Harman, Ruth


    Education reforms in the United States have placed new demands on English language learners (ELLs) and their teachers in K-12 public schools. In response, many teachers, teacher educators, and literacy scholars are reexamining genre theory and genre-based pedagogy as a way of supporting the academic literacy development of the growing number of…

  9. Use of clickers and sustainable reform in upper-division physics courses (United States)

    Dubson, Michael


    At the University of Colorado at Boulder, successful reforms of our freshmen and sophomore-level physics courses are now being extended to upper-division courses, including Mechanics, Math Methods, QM, E&M, and Thermal Physics. Our course reforms include clicker questions (ConcepTests) in lecture, peer instruction, and an added emphasis on conceptual understanding and qualitative reasoning on homework assignments and exams. Student feedback has been strongly positive, and I will argue that such conceptual training improves rather than dilutes, traditional, computationally-intensive problem-solving skills. In order for these reforms to be sustainable, reform efforts must begin with department-wide consensus and agreed-upon measures of success. I will discuss the design of good clicker questions and effective incorporation into upper-level courses, including examples from materials science. Condensed matter physics, which by nature involve intelligent use of approximation, particularly lends itself to conceptual training. I will demonstrate the use of a clicker system (made by iClicker) with audience-participation questions. Come prepared to think and interact, rather than just sit there!

  10. Regulation and Deregulation in Education Policy: New Reforms and School Sports in Swedish Upper Secondary Education (United States)

    Lund, Stefan


    During the 1990s, neoliberal reforms in Sweden increased local school actors' possibilities to develop school profiles regarding both organization and content. This restructuring has increased the total number of school sports programs as well as the possibilities for upper secondary schools and sports clubs to develop elite and amateur sports on…

  11. Holding the Line: Sustaining an SEL-Driven Whole-School Approach in a Time of Transition (United States)

    Kasler, Jonathan; Elias, Maurice J.


    Recently, a growing body of research has focused on the sustainability of evidence-based interventions aimed at promoting the social emotional and character development of children (SEL) and preventing or reducing problem behaviors in schools. Current discussions of systemic reform in the education system address the capacity of individual schools…

  12. Does School Reform have Legs? The Flourishing of Janusz Korczak's Pedagogy in Modern Israel (United States)

    Engel, Liba H.


    With the arrival of the 21st century, a serious reappraisal of the school reforms from the previous century emerged. For the most part, these reappraisals reflected skepticism about many of the reforms that were characteristic of the "progressive era," and, here and there, pessimism about the extent to which fundamental change can be…

  13. Reform-Oriented Collaborative Inquiry as a Pedagogy for Student Teaching in Middle School (United States)

    DeMink-Carthew, Jessica


    Specialized middle level teacher education programs are an oft-purported lever for middle level education reform. Preparing teachers to enact "new" teaching practices that challenge the status quo in field placement schools presents a formidable challenge, however. This research investigated reform-oriented collaborative inquiry (ROCI),…

  14. School Finance and Courts: Does Reform Matter, and How Can We Tell? (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.; Welner, Kevin G.


    Background/Context: School finance litigation has often prompted funding reforms, but what happens as a result is the subject of considerable dispute. Purpose: This article explores design problems encountered in studies examining the nature and effects of those reforms. Analysis: After describing the development and current status of school…

  15. Tensions in Teacher Development and Community: Variations on a Recurring School Reform Theme (United States)

    Craig, Cheryl J.


    Background/Context: Conducted in the fourth-largest urban center in the United States, this research depicts how different reform initiatives were introduced to one middle school context over the decade from 1999 to 2009. Purposes/Objectives/Research Question/Focus of Study: The study focuses on teachers' experiences of three reform endeavors and…

  16. Effects of a Reform High School Mathematics Curriculum on Student Achievement: Whom Does It Benefit? (United States)

    Krupa, Erin E.; Confrey, Jere


    This study compared the effects of an integrated reform-based curriculum to a subject-specific curriculum on student learning of 19,526 high school algebra students. Using hierarchical linear modelling to account for variation in student achievement, the impact of the reform-based "Core-Plus Mathematics" curricular materials on student…

  17. Negotiating Tensions: Grassroots Organizing, School Reform, and the Paradox of Neoliberal Democracy (United States)

    Nygreen, Kysa


    Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork at a community-based organization (CBO) engaged in parent organizing for urban school reform, this paper examines how organizers engaged with the imperatives of neoliberal reform and the broader neoliberal policy context. It highlights organizers' agency but also shows how hegemonic discourse constrained their…

  18. What Do We Know about School Discipline Reform? Assessing the Alternatives to Suspensions and Expulsions (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.; Lacoe, Johanna


    What evidence supports the call for discipline reform? How might alternative strategies affect students and schools? In this article, the authors describe the critiques of exclusionary discipline and then examine the research base on which discipline policy reform rests. They also describe the alternative approaches that are gaining traction in…

  19. How Teachers Perceive the New Curriculum Reform: Lessons from a School District in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa (United States)

    Bantwini, Bongani D.


    The meanings that a teacher attaches to the new curriculum reforms act as his or her map on the curriculum implementation journey, and these usually determine the success of the education reforms. This research article explores the meanings attached to the new Science curriculum reforms by primary school teachers in a school district in South…

  20. Toward an Understanding of How Teachers Change during School Reform: Considerations for Educational Leadership and School Improvement (United States)

    Kaniuka, Theodore Stefan


    As the concept of distributed leadership and its concomitant organizational structures become more prevalent in schools, studying how teacher capacity can be enhanced and can be used as a catalyst for reform is important. This article documents the nature of how the implementation of a research-validated reform influenced what teachers thought…

  1. The golden 45 minutes – School Reforms and Physical Activity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Danielle Louise Nørager; Skovgaard, Thomas; Runge Larsen, Lisbeth

    PA in regular lessons to support learning activities or establishing public-voluntary partnerships on the delivery of school-based physical activity in relation to themes like social inclusion. Since the reform became reality, various initiatives have been introduced to boost schools capacity....... Therefore, it is part of the reform program that physical activity (PA) form part of the syllabus for all year groups at primary schools corresponding on average to 45 minutes per day. Methods: The reform states, that the 45 minutes of daily, school-based PA must serve a pedagogical purpose – e.g. including...... to implement PA as part of the school day: How to include brain breaks in formal teaching sessions, making recess more active and using the physical school environment to promote PA are some of the initiatives currently in play in Denmark. Results: Available data indicates that Danish schools have acted...

  2. It Takes a Native Community: Educators Reform Schools in an Era of Standards (United States)

    Boyer, Paul


    The problems many Indian children experience in schools-- low academic achievement, absenteeism, high drop-out rates-- cannot be solved by any one individual. Instead, it requires action by the entire school system and, especially, greater leadership by Indians themselves. Tribes must become partners in the process of school reform and become…

  3. Implementing Marzano's Model: The Reality of Educational Leadership and School Reform (United States)

    Keaveny, Stacy M.


    Federal and state guidelines for school reform dominate the landscape of public education. Florida and its school districts, as a Race to the Top state, are in the process of fully implementing a value-added model of teacher evaluation. Effective school leaders are calling upon the theoretical framework of transformational, visionary and…

  4. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman (United States)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.


    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  5. Leading for Sustainability in Western Australian Regional Schools (United States)

    Pepper, Coral


    In this paper I report on leadership for sustainability in regional schools in Western Australia (WA) in the context of the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative (AuSSI-WA). Case studies are developed to examine leading cultural change in eight WA regional schools with data presented in three representative narrative accounts. Consistency is…

  6. Teaching through Modeling: Four Schools' Experiences in Sustainability Education (United States)

    Higgs, Amy Lyons; McMillan, Victoria M.


    In this article, the authors examine how 4 innovative secondary schools model sustainable practices to their students. During school visits, the authors conducted interviews, observed daily life, and reviewed school documents. They found that modeling is a valuable approach to sustainability education, promoting both learning about sustainability…

  7. An Australian Story: School Sustainability Education in the Lucky Country (United States)

    Salter, Zarin; Venville, Grady; Longnecker, Nancy


    This paper documents a case study involving a Perth primary school accompanied on its sustainability journey by Millennium Kids Inc, a local not-for-profit community organisation. Tension between the school's sustainability focus, its prestige as an elite private school and a "lucky country" mentality frames the Australian-ness of this…

  8. Neoliberalism, Social Darwinism, and Consumerism Masquerading as School Reform (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.


    Education reform policies harvested from neoliberalism, social Darwinism, consumerism, and free-market ideologies have begun to replace the pragmatic progressivism of the pre-World War II era. In this article, I use three federal and state education reform policies and programs--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards Initiative, and…

  9. Bringing Home the Bacon: The Politics of Rural School Reform. (United States)

    Sher, Jonathan P.


    Self-interested political, corporate, and education leaders have undermined recent West Virginia court decisions mandating educational reform. Three implications are: (1) principals, teachers, parents, and students must be equal partners in the educaiton reform process; (2) a constituency for rural children is needed; and (3) rural educators must…

  10. School Readiness Goal Begins with Health Care Reform. (United States)

    Penning, Nick


    Currently 59 bills are awaiting Congressional action. Meanwhile, a national coalition of economists and medical specialists (the National Leadership Coalition for Health Care Reform) are circulating a sensible consensus health reform plan proposing national practice guidelines; universal health care access; and efficient cost control, delivery,…

  11. Beginning Together: Reforming Schools by Investing in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Kaufman, Michael J.; Kaufman, Sherelyn R.; Nelson, Elizabeth C.


    The most productive way to reform education would be to invest in effective early childhood education programs. Such an investment would produce remarkable educational, social, and economic benefits. It would also transcend the current divisive debates about education reform by uniting advocates with different perspectives on issues of funding,…

  12. Sustaining a school-based prevention program: results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project. (United States)

    Fagen, Michael C; Flay, Brian R


    Sustaining effective school-based prevention programs is critical to improving youth and population-based health. This article reports on results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project, an effort to sustain a school-based prevention program that was tested via a randomized trial and targeted violence, drug use, and risky sex-related behaviors among a cohort of 5th-grade African American children followed through 10th grade. Sustainability project health educators trained parent educators to deliver the Aban Aya prevention curriculum in five schools, and project researchers studied the resultant curricular implementation and relations between the research and school-based teams. Study results showed uneven implementation across the five schools that we largely attributed to parent educator preparation and parent educator-health educator relations. These and related results are discussed to answer the study's primary research question: How viable was the sustainability project's parent-centered approach to sustaining a school-based prevention program?

  13. Evaluando los resultados de la reforma escolar total (Evaluating the Results of Whole-School Reform). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    This digest in Spanish examines what is involved in evaluating whole-school reform programs. Such evaluations are necessary to renew Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSRD) program grants and are intended to help schools determine what is working and what needs to be changed. Two primary goals of CSRD evaluation are to create a flexible…

  14. Payment reform in the patient-centered medical home: Enabling and sustaining integrated behavioral health care. (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin F; Ross, Kaile M; Davis, Melinda M; Melek, Stephen P; Kathol, Roger; Gordon, Patrick


    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is a promising framework for the redesign of primary care and more recently specialty care. As defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the PCMH framework has 5 attributes: comprehensive care, patient-centered care, coordinated care, accessible services, and quality and safety. Evidence increasingly demonstrates that for the PCMH to best achieve the Triple Aim (improved outcomes, decreased cost, and enhanced patient experience), treatment for behavioral health (including mental health, substance use, and life stressors) must be integrated as a central tenet. However, challenges to implementing the PCMH framework are compounded for real-world practitioners because payment reform rarely happens concurrently. Nowhere is this more evident than in attempts to integrate behavioral health clinicians into primary care. As behavioral health clinicians find opportunities to work in integrated settings, a comprehensive understanding of payment models is integral to the dialogue. This article describes alternatives to the traditional fee for service (FFS) model, including modified FFS, pay for performance, bundled payments, and global payments (i.e., capitation). We suggest that global payment structures provide the best fit to enable and sustain integrated behavioral health clinicians in ways that align with the Triple Aim. Finally, we present recommendations that offer specific, actionable steps to achieve payment reform, complement PCMH, and support integration efforts through policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Reforming Public School Systems through Sustained Union-Management Collaboration (United States)

    Rubinstein, Saul A.; McCarthy, John E.


    For most of the past decade the policy debate over improving U.S. public education has centered on teacher quality. In this debate, teachers and their unions have often been seen as the problem, not part of the solution. Further, current discourse often assumes that conflicting interests between teacher unions and administration is inevitable.…

  16. The Civil Service Reform in the Context of Sustainable Development. A Comparison between Romania and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan BERCEANU


    Full Text Available In the last decade the public administration system from most of the EU countries suffered many transformations in order to achieve the objectives proposed by the European Union, such as sustainable development. The civil service represented and still is a very important key factor for a success reformation of the administrative system, because it represents the main resource of the system. The analysis underlines the introduction of the public manager in the Romanian civil service hierarchy and the introduction of the concept dirigenza pubblica, a type of public management, in the Italian public administration. Moreover, we will present the introduction of the dirigente pubblico, public manager, in the Italian civil service system.

  17. Academic psychiatry and health care reform: strategic initiatives for sustaining the clinical mission. (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Gwon, Howard S; McHugh, Paul R; Breakey, William R; Schwartz, Joseph M; Clark, Michael R; Kaminsky, Michael J


    Health care reform has posed special challenges for departments of psychiatry in academic medical centers. This report describes one department's strategic responses to a marketplace with high penetration by managed care and provides examples of the kinds of faculty concerns that can arise when major departmental reorganizations are attempted. The department's successful adaptation to a radically altered professional environment is attributed to the following five initiatives: vertical integration and diversification of clinical programs, service line management, outcomes measurement, regional network development, and institutional managed care partnerships Although the authors did not design their adaptive efforts as a research study, they offer objective data to support their conclusion that the viability of their overall clinical enterprise has been sustained despite an external environment inhospitable to academic psychiatry.

  18. Market reforms in health care and sustainability of the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn


    'pressed out' and reduced waiting lists. Increased efficiency however, threatens equity in some specific aspects. Fee-for-service payment means increased production and so far even increased costs. If they are to be met with increased private financing, rather than with present tax financing, it will bring......Reforming health care systems which are predominantly publicly provided and financed has usually been motivated as a way of increasing efficiency even if it seldom is explicit whether it is in the official sense related to individual utility or in the unofficial sense related to health outcomes....... In the case of Sweden the welfare state has been made politically sustainable through a construction where cash benefits and service provision are tailored to satisfy not only the basic needs but even the more discriminating needs of the middle classes. Their loyalty with the taxes is politically crucial...

  19. What General Motors Can Teach U.S. Schools about the Proper Role of Markets in Education Reform. (United States)

    Levy, Frank


    General Motors Corporation's disastrous experiment with robots holds valuable lessons for school reform. Consumer choice can signal when reform is needed, but it identifies no magic bullets for achieving reforms. Market-based initiatives can succeed when based on five principles stressing worker understanding, incentives and problem-solving…

  20. Turnaround, Transformational, or Transactional Leadership: An Ethical Dilemma in School Reform (United States)

    Mette, Ian M.; Scribner, Jay P.


    This case was written for school leaders, specifically building-level principals and central office administrators attempting to implement school turnaround reform efforts. Often, leaders who embark on this type of organizational change work in intense environments that produce high levels of pressure to demonstrate improvement in student…

  1. Distribution Tables and Private Tests: The Failure of Middle School Reform in Japan. (United States)

    LeTendre, Gerald K.


    In November 1992, Japanese Ministry of Education declared middle school teachers could no longer use distribution tables produced by private testing companies to predetermine high school students' curricula. Failure to implement reform stems from structural and cultural roots. By presorting students and molding their expectations, traditional…

  2. School Autonomy Reform and Public Education in Australia: Implications for Social Justice (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda


    The renewed commitment to school autonomy reform in Australia is based on the view that it will drive up academic standards. There remains, however, little conclusive evidence to support this view. Simply instating the structural changes to bring about greater autonomy for schools within public education systems across the world has not led…

  3. Upper Secondary School Physical Science Curricula in New Zealand after the National Qualifications Framework Reforms (United States)

    Vlaardingerbroek, Barend; Taylor, T. G. Neil


    The recent structural reforms in New Zealand education have given schools and teachers unprecedented freedom in curricular design and delivery. Using official educational award statistics for 2004 and data arising from a study of 23 schools' upper secondary science curricula in the same year, this study represents an early monitoring of the impact…

  4. A Match on Dry Grass: Community Organizing as a Catalyst for School Reform (United States)

    Warren, Mark R.; Mapp, Karen L.


    The persistent failure of public schooling in low-income communities constitutes one of our nation's most pressing civil rights and social justice issues. Many school reformers recognize that poverty, racism, and a lack of power held by these communities undermine children's education and development, but few know what to do about it. "A…

  5. The Epistemic Role of Novel Metaphors in Teachers' Knowledge Constructions of School Reform (United States)

    Craig, Cheryl J.


    In this article, a parallel is drawn between Steven Hawking's use of common and novel metaphors in his evolving explanation of the theory of the universe and the similar use of common and novel metaphors by educators in four school contexts attempting to illuminate their experiences of school reform storied and restoried over time. The epistemic…

  6. Parallel Leadership: A Clue to the Contents of the "Black Box" of School Reform. (United States)

    Andrews, Dorothy; Crowther, Frank


    Examined a conceptualization of teacher leadership (derived from a 1997 study) in a range of school reform case studies. Focused on the interactivity of teacher leaders and administrator leaders and generated a concept called "parallel leadership," a strategy that appears to illuminate ways in which school-based leadership may contribute to…

  7. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.


    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  8. Design and Implementation of High School Reform: Perspectives from Research and Practice (United States)

    Smith, Thomas M.


    There has been a proliferation of high school reform models and interventions over the past few decades aimed at improving the nation's high schools, including increasing graduation requirements, introducing technology to classrooms, grouping ninth-grade students into their own "academies," reorienting the curriculum toward particular…

  9. Navigating the Turbulent Waters of School Reform Guided by Complexity Theory (United States)

    White, David G.; Levin, James A.


    The goal of this research study has been to develop, implement, and evaluate a school reform design experiment at a continuation high school with low-income, low-performing underrepresented minority students. The complexity sciences served as a theoretical framework for this design experiment. Treating an innovative college preparatory program as…

  10. Retention and Satisfaction of Novice Teachers: Lessons from a School Reform Model (United States)

    Glennie, Elizabeth J.; Mason, Marcinda; Edmunds, Julie A.


    In many countries, novice teachers, or those with fewer than four years of experience, have a higher turnover rate than do more experienced teachers. Using teacher employment data, we examine whether schools in an American whole-school reform model are better able to retain novice teachers. Using survey data, we investigate whether novice teachers…

  11. Making Dissatisfaction Divine: An Inspired Approach to Whole-School Reform (United States)

    Sweetland, Julie


    Building community and supporting learning are two principles of Whole Schooling. This article describes how Center for Inspired Teaching, a nonprofit educational reform organization, uses these principles to foster professional learning communities in public schools in Washington, DC. When change agents approach disengaged, disempowered faculties…

  12. Challenges and Sustainability Practices of Frontier Schools in Montana (United States)

    Morton, Claudette; Harmon, Hobart L.


    This article reports the findings of a study commissioned by the Montana Small Schools Alliance to explore the challenges and sustainability practices of frontier schools. A Montana frontier school is defined as a school district with 200 or fewer students with its attendant community located in a county with five or fewer people per square mile.…

  13. Reforming the Visions of High School Chemistry: A Perspective from "Down Under" (United States)

    Beasley, Warren


    This paper analyzes two initiatives in Australian education which have attempted simultaneously to influence the future directions of high school chemistry curricula. The initiatives of the federal government which favor a national model of curriculum reform characterized by levels of intellectual growth, student outcomes in behavioral terms, and performance indicators are analyzed. This proposed model of reform is compared to the initiatives of the state government curriculum authorities who prefer a syllabus design based on the integration of focal questions, work requirements, learning contexts, and common assessment tasks. Examples of the outcomes of both of these reform processes are presented.

  14. Diverging Paths: How the UN Disability Convention Affects School Reforms in Germany


    Blanck, Jonna M.; Edelstein, Benjamin; Powell, Justin J W


    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, ratified in Germany in 2008, mandates “inclusive” education. This necessitates profound reforms because the ambitious goals of the Convention challenge the segregated special education systems of the Bundesländer and ultimately stratified schooling as a whole. However, the implementation of inclusive reforms faces serious obstacles. By comparing Schleswig-Holstein and Bavaria, we show how these can be overcome and what ...

  15. Reforming Preschool to Ready Children for Academic Achievement: A Case Study of the Impact of Pre-K Reform on the Issue of School Readiness (United States)

    Brown, Christopher P.


    Research Findings: Policymakers preschool reforms that are to prepare young children for school success have sparked important conversations within the field of early childhood education over how these programs are to ready young children for school. This article presents findings from a case study that examined this issue of school readiness…

  16. Translating Sustainability: The Design of a Secondary Charter School (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Todd Michael


    Although numerous efforts have been made to enact the concept of sustainability in schools around the world, a single, replicable model of sustainability education fails to exist. Without a replicable model to follow or adapt, educators looking to enact the concept of sustainability are left to their own devices for deciding what this orientation…

  17. Reflections on Teaching and Learning for Sustainability from the Cascadia Sustainability Field School (United States)

    Owens, Cameron; Sotoudehnia, Maral; Erickson-McGee, Paige


    A complex and contested concept, sustainability presents a great challenge to teachers and learners. Field study is a potentially promising venue to unpack the problematics of sustainability in practice. This paper reflects on the Cascadia Sustainability Field School, offered through the University of Victoria, Canada, providing an overview of the…

  18. Linking health education and sustainability education in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegaard; Simovska, Venka


    This chapter addresses the relationship between international and national policies regarding sustainability and health promotion which have the potential to affect school-based health education/promotion and education for sustainable development in Denmark. Based on policy mapping and analysis...... education in Denmark with its aims of ensuring overall school improvement, increasing pupil wellbeing and improving academic outcomes. Analysis of international policy documents, as well as of research literature shows that school-based health education (HE) and education for sustainable development (ESD...... on the common tendency that when health and sustainability education in schools are framed in national action plans, certain critical educational aspects are lost by narrowing the concepts of health and sustainability to fit particular school subjects (e.g. physical education or science), and defining outcomes...

  19. Medical education reform efforts and failures of U.S. medical schools, 1870-1930. (United States)

    Miller, Lynn E; Weiss, Richard M


    The dramatic decline in the number of US medical schools in the early twentieth century has been traced to a medical education reform movement that gained momentum after the Civil War. The major parties to reform-the universities themselves, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), state licensing boards, the American Medical Association (AMA), and Flexner-had different interests and strategies, however, and scholars have continued to debate the impact each had on the decline. To isolate the independent effects that the temporally intertwined forces for reform had on medical school failures, this study applies statistical survival analysis to an extensive and unique data set on medical schools operating in the United States between 1870 and 1930. Contrary to the views of some scholars, the results indicate that schools closed in response to critical evaluations published by the Illinois State Board of Health in the nineteenth century and the AMA and Flexner in the twentieth century. Additionally, the results indicate that schools were less likely to have failed if they adopted certain reforms implemented at leading schools or joined the AAMC, and were more likely to have failed if their state's licensing regulations mandated lengthier premedical and medical training.

  20. Market reforms in health care and sustainability of the welfare state: lessons from Sweden. (United States)

    Diderichsen, F


    Reforming health care systems which are predominantly publicly provided and financed has usually been motivated as a way of increasing efficiency even if it seldom is explicit whether it is in the official sense related to individual utility or in the unofficial sense related to health outcomes. In the case of Sweden the welfare state has been made politically sustainable through a construction where cash benefits and service provision are tailored to satisfy not only the basic needs but even the more discriminating needs of the middle classes. Their loyalty with the taxes is politically crucial and therefore their evaluation of the services in the welfarist sense equally important. That loyalty was however threatened in a situation where cost-containment policies were applied while equity principles were still a strong priority. Health care utilization was increasing among the very old and chronically ill while it was decreasing for other groups. The reforms introduced in some counties during the 1990s have been focussing on a purchaser-provider split and fee-for-service payment of providers. They have increased productivity sharply, increased utilization even among the groups that previously were 'pressed out' and reduced waiting lists. Increased efficiency however, threatens equity in some specific aspects. Fee-for-service payment means increased production and so far even increased costs. If they are to be met with increased private financing, rather than with present tax financing, it will bring the risk of inequities. Payment of hospitals through DRG systems means payment to providers for medical interventions with no incentives to deal with social consequences of illness. Inequities in health care can be related to the way health care deals with inequalities in health due to inequalities in living conditions or inequalities in living conditions due to ill health. In the short perspective the reforms may threaten equity in the second aspect, in the longer

  1. Knuckling Under? School Superintendents and Accountability-Based Educational Reform (United States)

    Feuerstein, Abe


    The goal of this article is to explore the various ways that superintendents have responded to accountability-based educational reform efforts such as No Child Left Behind, the factors that have influenced their responses, and the implications of these responses for current and future educational leaders. With respect to the first issue, empirical…

  2. Sexism in School Textbooks Prepared under Education Reform in Turkey (United States)

    Esen, Yasemin


    The objective of this study is to analyze the new textbooks prepared under the framework of the "curriculum reform" realized in Turkey , as part of the EU harmonization process, in terms of gender representation. For this purpose, illustrations in the new ABC, Life Studies and Social Studies textbooks prepared under the new program were…

  3. Tobephobia Experienced by Teachers in Secondary Schools: An Exploratory Study Focusing on Curriculum Reform in the Nelson Mandela Metropole (United States)

    Singh, P.


    Because of its history from apartheid to democracy, the aspiration to reform schools is a recurrent theme in South African education. Efforts to reform education in schools based on the outcomes-based education (OBE) curriculum approach created major challenges for policy makers in South Africa. The purpose of this exploratory research was…

  4. Science and the Sustainable Schools Initiative: Opportunity and Imperative (United States)

    Scott, William


    This article explores the development of the UK Government's Sustainable Schools Initiative and examines the contribution that science teaching can make to this. Drawing on recent research in schools and on development work in initial teacher education, the article argues that, in the absence of policy that enables schools to bring subject areas…

  5. Sustainable Environmental Management Indicators in South African Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza O. de Sousa


    Full Text Available This research explores sustainable environmental management indicators in South African primary schools. Of key interest is the comparison of a township, farm and urban primary school that identify indicators that promote education for sustainable development in schools that implement an environmental management system. Data are drawn from one-on-one interviews, focus group interviews, observations and document analysis from 35 participants in three schools. A comparison of the three schools was done by content and thematic analysis of a within-case analysis. Data from the township school revealed that socioeconomic factors and organisational structure promote education for sustainable development. The farm school data revealed that health promotion can be managed within an environmental management system within a hierarchical school structure. The urban school data revealed that an economic inducement brings a school to realise that it can reduce its carbon footprint, gain financially and utilize its resources with innovation. A case is made that the four pillars of sustainable development (environment, society, economy, and governance endorse education for sustainable development. Furthermore, the objectives of environmental education ought to remain nested in an environmental management system to ensure that the global goal of quality education is achieved.

  6. Professional School Counselors as Leaders and Active Participants in School Reform: A Phenomenological Exploratory Study to Examine the Perspectives of System-Level Supervisors of School Counselors (United States)

    Cicero, Gayle M.


    Professional school counselors' leadership capacity may well play a pivotal role in educational reform in the twenty-first century. Crucial to the success of this vision, supported by the American School Counseling Association, is the perspective of system-level supervisors of school counselors. This exploratory qualitative study employed in-depth…

  7. Sustainable Schools Program and Practice: Partnership Building with the Tempe Union High School District (United States)

    Koster, Auriane; Denker, Brendan


    Arizona State University's (ASU) Global Institute of Sustainability (GIOS) was awarded a five-year National Science Foundation (NSF) GK-12 grant in 2009 entitled "Sustainability Science for Sustainable Schools." The general focus of the grant is on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in K-12 schools. The…

  8. Three decades of policy layering and politically sustainable reform in the European Union's agricultural policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Swinbank, Alan


    The study of policy reform has tended to focus on single-stage reforms taking place over a relatively short period. Recent research has drawn attention to gradual policy changes unfolding over extended periods. One strategy of gradual change is layering, in which new policy dimensions are introdu......The study of policy reform has tended to focus on single-stage reforms taking place over a relatively short period. Recent research has drawn attention to gradual policy changes unfolding over extended periods. One strategy of gradual change is layering, in which new policy dimensions...... dynamics that can result in lasting reform trajectories. The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has changed substantially over the last three decades in response to emerging policy concerns by adding new layers. This succession of reforms proved durable and resilient to reversal in the lead......-up to the 2013 CAP reform when institutional and political circumstances changed....

  9. The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools (United States)

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana


    How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in…

  10. Education Governance for the Twenty-First Century: Overcoming the Structural Barriers to School Reform (United States)

    Manna, Paul, Ed.; McGuinn, Patrick, Ed.


    America's fragmented, decentralized, politicized, and bureaucratic system of education governance is a major impediment to school reform. In this important new book, a number of leading education scholars, analysts, and practitioners show that understanding the impact of specific policy changes in areas such as standards, testing, teachers, or…

  11. Neoliberalism as Nihilism? A Commentary on Educational Accountability, Teacher Education, and School Reform (United States)

    Tuck, Eve


    In this article, the author discusses neoliberalism as an extension of settler colonialism. The article provides commentary on five recent articles on teacher education and the neoliberal agenda. The article presents an analysis of neoliberalism as despair, and as a form of nihilism. The author discusses an indigenous model of school reform and…

  12. Reforming School Science Education: A Commentary on Selected Reports and Policy Documents (United States)

    Jenkins, Edgar W.


    This paper offers a commentary upon a number of recent documents from different countries concerned with the reform of school science education. It identifies and considers in turn four issues drawn from the documents: the way in which science is defined; the reference to science as a whole rather than as discrete disciplines; the nature of…

  13. Teachers, Technology, and Training. Perspectives on Education and School Reform: A Focus on the Ideological Perspective. (United States)

    Donlevy, Tia Rice; Donlevy, James G.


    Summarizes four perspectives that education and school-reform writings fall into: technological, psychological, ideological, and sociological. Focusing on the ideological perspective, briefly discusses the work of Paulo Freire, Ira Shor, and Henry Giroux, theorists representative of this perspective. The dimensions of complexity, diversity,…

  14. Effects of a School Reform on Longitudinal Stability of Students' Preferences with Regard to Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könings, Karen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Elen, Jan


    Könings, K. D., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Elen, J. (2012). Effects of a school reform on longitudinal stability of students' preferences with regard to education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 512-532. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8279.2011.02044.x

  15. Improving Attainment across a Whole District: School Reform through Peer Tutoring in a Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Tymms, Peter; Merrell, Christine; Thurston, Allen; Andor, John; Topping, Keith; Miller, David


    Districts are an important unit for administrative purposes, but they vary little in their impact on students' attainment, at least in the UK. Further, government attempts to raise attainment are often disappointing. The project described in this article aimed to engage schools in reform to change students' attainment and attitudes in schools…

  16. Illuminating Agency: A Latin@ Immigrant Parent's "Testimonio" on the Intersection of Immigration Reform and Schools (United States)

    Fernández, Erica


    Anti-immigration reform has created a hostile and threatening climate for Latin@ immigrants and their families. Simple everyday acts that are often taken for granted (i.e. parents dropping off children at school, driving to the grocery store, etc.) became acts that threaten to separate families. As a result, many Latin@ families are currently…

  17. Rising school attendance in rural India: an evaluation of the effects of major educational reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Dubey, Amaresh; Simonsen, Marianne


    We evaluate the impact of educational reforms starting from the mid-1990s in India on the school attendance rate of low-income rural children aged 6–14 compared to ineligible rural children, employing NSSO data from 1983 to 2004/2005. We estimate a triple difference model allowing for differential...

  18. Why School Choice Reforms in Denmark Fail: The Blocking Power of the Teacher Union (United States)

    Wiborg, Susanne; Larsen, Kristina R.


    This article investigates why school choice is exercised to a limited degree by parents despite major government initiatives to enhance diversity, competition and choice in the Danish education system. Denmark has had 20 years of centre-right governments, promoting choice reforms perhaps even more vigorously than the other Nordic countries, yet…

  19. National Public Opinion on School Health Education: Implications for the Health Care Reform Initiatives. (United States)

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Crowe, James W.


    This study investigated national public opinion on school health education and the implications for health-care reform initiatives. Telephone surveys of 1,005 adults nationwide indicated that the public at large believes in the importance of health education to reduce health problems among children, considering it the responsibility of parents and…

  20. Modernization of upper secondary school in Denmark: headmasters’ reform interpretations and constructions of students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Jakob Ditlev


    The Danish upper secondary school is currently undergoing a hyper complex process of modernisation where new organisation forms, teacher-student roles and principles of management are introduced. The process is set off most directly by a new reform. This article explores the implementation...

  1. How Leadership for an ICT Reform Is Distributed within a School (United States)

    Seong, David Ng Foo; Ho, Jeanne Marie


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the process of information communication technology (ICT) reform in a government school in Singapore. The focus is on the distributed leadership actions performed by various individuals, and how the multiple leaders and their leadership practices interacted with one another.…

  2. Girl Stuff: Same-Sex Relations in Girls' Public Reform Schools and the Institutional Response. (United States)

    Steet, Linda


    Examines data on same-sex relations in girls' reform schools, noting the invisibility of gay and lesbian lives in most educational research. Discusses difficulties with terminology, institutional efforts to curb girls' relationships and sexual behavior, the girls' creation of an alternative family structure, love letters, and interracial…

  3. Superintendents Speak Out: A Survey of Superintendents' Opinions regarding Recent School Reforms in Arkansas (United States)

    Barnett, Joshua H.; Blankenship, Virginia


    In response to ongoing court battles regarding the adequacy and equity of Arkansas' education system, the state's lawmakers have effected school reforms in many areas over the past few years, including nearly a 30 percent increase in educational expenditures from 2003-04 to 2004-05. The authors distributed a confidential survey to all 254 school…

  4. Local Control, Democracy, and the Separation in the Public Opinion of School Finance Reform (United States)

    Shelly, Bryan


    What role does a person's support for local educational control play in determining her attitude towards equity-minded school finance reform? This article reports estimations of binary and ordered probit models of two state public opinion polls and discusses newspaper coverage from the same two states to determine if and how local control has such…

  5. Using Symbolic Interactionism to Analyze a Specialized STEM High School Teacher's Experience in Curriculum Reform (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee; Osborne, Margery


    In this paper, we present a microanalysis of a specialized STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) high school teacher's experience of self-initiated science inquiry curriculum reform. We examine the meanings of these two constructs: "inquiry curriculum" and "curriculum change" through the process lens of interactions, actions,…

  6. School Leadership in the 21st Century: Leading in the Age of Reform (United States)

    Butler, Thomas A.


    In an effort to increase student readiness for college and career, many States have adopted new academic standards encouraged by education reform advocates. These standards are commonly referred to as the Common Core Standards. Schools from States that have adopted the Common Core Standards have been compelled to significantly restructure their…

  7. Principal Leadership: Factors Sustaining Successful School Innovation (United States)

    Alvarez, Cristina Candelaria


    The study examines how urban school principals lead schools that make a difference for children in challenging settings. This research delves deeply into the experiences of three urban public school principals in the School District of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, who used technology as an avenue to improve educational options for their students.…

  8. Re-Engineering Primary School Teachers for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    engineer primary school teachers for sustainable development in Onitsha North Local Government Area. Three research questions and a hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey research design was used. 300 primary ...

  9. Reforms in Philippine Basic Education Viewed from Key Elements of Successful School-Based Management (SBM) Schools (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.


    While it is true that SBM shapes and charts the direction of school operations, it is interesting to discuss how a developing country like the Philippines is influenced by this reform strategy as a structural and procedural framework in managing its system of education, particularly, its basic education sector which through the years has been…

  10. Sustainability of the good behaviour game in Dutch primary schools. (United States)

    Dijkman, Marieke A M; Harting, Janneke; van Tol, Lenneke; van der Wal, Marcel F


    Sustainability of health promotion programs is essential to maintain their positive effects. However, few studies have examined the extent of program sustainability and the factors influencing it. We examined these issues through the Good Behaviour Game (GBG), a classroom-based program in primary schools with beneficial behavioural and health-related effects that was implemented in 2008. GBG coordinators of 17 participating schools were invited in the study 2 years after the initial program implementation. Sustainability was measured using a 20-item checklist comprised of four dimensions of routinization including: memory, adaptation, values and rules. A semi-structured interview was then completed with 16 of the GBG coordinators to discuss the checklist scores and to probe in more depth the current level of sustainability. Based on the checklist scores, sustainability of the GBG was considered ‘high’ in five schools, ‘medium’ in another five and ‘weak’ in six. Factors influencing sustainability identified by GBG coordinators were organizational strength, strong leadership, program championship and the perceived modifiability and effectiveness of the GBG. Also, different factors were related to different dimensions of routinization. The combination of a sustainability checklist and an interview about influential factors may help to further clarify the sustainability construct and reveal which implementation sites, routinization dimensions and influential factors should be explored to further facilitate the sustaining of programs with proven effectiveness.

  11. Students Design Tomorrow's Sustainable Schools and Communities (United States)

    Schrader, David; Carlson, Michael; Sumlin, John; Worth, Barbara


    Educating for a sustainable future is the imperative of our time. Creative and individual artistic expression helps us all to inform and share with one another. If we hope to fulfill the vision of sustainability as it pertains to environmental, social and economic realities, we must give our students the fluency and the tools to grow into green…

  12. Revision, Bureaucracy, and School Reform: A Critique of Katz (United States)

    Michaelsen, Jacob B.


    Offers an alternative theory to Katz's theory (1975) that school bureaucracies are instruments of class privilege. Suggests that the bureaucraries are a function of the way schools are financed and that we may be saddled with them for a long time because the hope that the funding structure will change is dim. (Editor/RK)

  13. Taking Charge of School Reform: English Teachers as Leaders. (United States)

    Wolfe, Denny; Manning, M. Lee


    Offers eight suggestions regarding how teachers can employ effective strategies to bring about authentic and lasting school improvement: do not coerce; help when asked; do classroom-based research; be the school's best listener; join a National Writing Project site; relate to colleagues as to students; organize seminars/workshops that focus on…

  14. Community Schools as an Effective Strategy for Reform. Research Brief (United States)

    Daniel, Julia; Snyder, Jon David


    Research literature finds that community school models offering various agreed-upon features provide an excellent social return on investment and significant promise for providing opportunities for learning and promoting well-being in students and communities. Community schools show significant promise for addressing barriers to learning and…

  15. Computers in schools: implementing for sustainability. Why the truth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates influences on the sustainability of a computers-in-schools project during the implementation phase thereof. The Computer Assisted Learning in Schools (CALIS) Project (1992–1996) is the unit of analysis. A qualitative case study research design is used to elicit data, in the form of participant ...

  16. Building and Sustaining Successful School Leadership in New Zealand (United States)

    Notman, Ross; Henry, D. Annie


    This article outlines success factors of six New Zealand primary and secondary school principals. These factors are grouped under principals' personal characteristics, leadership skills that connect with their teachers, leadership strategies that impact positively on school stakeholder needs, and factors that sustain leadership success. Emerging…

  17. In-School Sustainability Action: Climate Clever Energy Savers (United States)

    Buchanan, John; Schuck, Sandy; Aubusson, Peter


    The mandate for living sustainably is becoming increasingly urgent. This article reports on the Climate Clever Energy Savers (CCES) Program, a student-centred, problem- and project-based program in New South Wales, Australia, aimed at enabling school students to identify ways of reducing their schools' electricity consumption and costs. As part of…

  18. Beyond the curriculum: Integrating sustainability into business schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Painter-Morland, M.; Sabet, E.; Molthan-Hill, P.; Goworek, H.; de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.


    This paper evaluates the ways in which European business schools are implementing sustainability and ethics into their curricula. Drawing on data gathered by a recent large study that the Academy of Business in Society conducted in cooperation with EFMD conducted, we map the approaches that schools

  19. Stories of Sustainability Concerning School-Wide Technology Integration (United States)

    Taylor, Mary Oliver


    This study explored school-wide technology integration at two sites where traditional barriers to technology were minimized. Traditional barriers include access to technology and support to integrate technology. A school-wide technology integration model was introduced at both sites ten years ago. Now, ten years later, what is being sustained? In…

  20. Linking Curriculum and Learning to Facilities: Arizona State University's GK-12 Sustainable Schools Program (United States)

    Elser, Monica M.; Pollari, Lynette; Frisk, Erin; Wood, Mark


    Arizona State University's "Sustainability Science for Sustainable Schools program" brings together graduate students, sustainability researchers, high school teachers and students, and school or district administrators in a project designed to address the challenge of becoming a "sustainable school." Funded by the National…

  1. Sustaining Education for Sustainability in Turbulent Times (United States)

    Smith, Gregory A.; Stevenson, Robert B.


    A study of two schools in northern Australia demonstrated the impact on Education for Sustainability (EfS) initiatives of a disruptive policy environment set in motion by neoliberal reforms focused on standards, accountability, and international competitiveness. In one of the schools, a culture characterized by trust and an emphasis on cultivating…

  2. An assessment of standards-based reform in Florida's middle school science programs (United States)

    Stuart Hammer, Kathryn Elizabeth

    The era of school accountability and standards based reform (SBR) has brought many challenges and changes to Florida's public schools. It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' attitudes and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement SBR. The study was designed to assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions of changes related to SBR and the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in middle school science programs in Florida. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated the Sunshine State Standards (SSS) for science and began focusing on preparing students for the science FCAT. The survey was distributed to 265 randomly selected middle school science teachers throughout the State of Florida. Seventy-six and ninety-two percent of teachers reported increased levels of stress as a result of SBR and the science FCAT, respectively. Eighty-six percent of teachers reported loss of autonomy and control over what goes on in their classrooms, and fifty-four percent of teachers reported loss of freedom and creativity regarding curriculum and lessons. Eighty-three percent of teachers believe that increased time spent on test preparation has come at the expense of other important curricular items. By contrast, only nineteen percent of teachers believe that the science FCAT has brought about improvement in curriculum, instruction and student learning in science. Yet, twenty-five percent of teachers believe that reform efforts will improve their school. An important finding is that teachers' attitudes toward reform efforts are strongly influenced by their attitudes toward the administration at their school. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the science FCAT measured in this study. Although the majority of teachers reported negative attitudes toward the reform

  3. Do American and Korean Education Systems Converge? Tracking School Reform Policies and Outcomes in Korea and the USA (United States)

    Lee, Jaekyung; Park, Daekwon


    This study examines key school reform policies and outcomes of the USA and Korea over the past three decades from comparative perspectives. Since the two nations' unique educational problems brought divergent educational reform paths--standardization versus differentiation, high-stakes testing versus individualized assessment, and centralization…

  4. Sustaining Emotional Resilience for School Leadership (United States)

    Steward, Julia


    Driven by the country's need to compete in a global economy, the UK government is imposing rapid and relentless educational change on schools. School leaders face the challenge of managing the impact of externally driven change and supporting others' resilience while frequently paying scant attention to their own. Six semi-structured interviews…

  5. Transforming an Urban School System: Progress of New Haven School Change and New Haven Promise Education Reforms (2010-2013). Research Report (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gabriella C.; Bozick, Robert; Daugherty, Lindsay; Scherer, Ethan; Singh, Reema; Suárez, Mónica Jacobo; Ryan, Sarah


    In 2009, the City of New Haven and New Haven Public Schools (NHPS) announced a sweeping K-12 educational reform, New Haven School Change. The district had three primary goals for School Change: (1) close the gap between the performance of NHPS students' and Connecticut students' averages on state tests, (2) cut the high school dropout rate in…

  6. Transforming an Urban School System: Progress of New Haven School Change and New Haven Promise Education Reforms (2010-2013). Technical Appendixes (United States)

    Scherer, Ethan; Ryan, Sarah; Daugherty, Lindsay; Schweig, Jonathan David; Bozick, Robert; Gonzalez, Gabriella C.


    In 2009, the City of New Haven and New Haven Public Schools (NHPS) announced a sweeping K-12 educational reform, New Haven School Change. The district had three primary goals for School Change: (1) close the gap between the performance of NHPS students' and Connecticut students' averages on state tests, (2) cut the high school dropout rate in…

  7. Sustainability and public health nutrition at school: assessing the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in Vancouver schools. (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Velazquez, Cayley E; Ahmadi, Naseam; Chapman, Gwen E; Carten, Sarah; Edward, Joshua; Shulhan, Stephanie; Stephens, Teya; Rojas, Alejandro


    To describe the development and application of the School Food Environment Assessment Tools and a novel scoring system to assess the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in elementary and secondary schools. The cross-sectional study included direct observations of physical food environments and interviews with key school personnel regarding food-related programmes and policies. A five-point scoring system was then developed to assess actions across six domains: (i) food gardens; (ii) composting systems; (iii) food preparation activities; (iv) food-related teaching and learning activities; and availability of (v) healthy food; and (vi) environmentally sustainable food. Vancouver, Canada. A purposive sample of public schools (n 33) from all six sectors of the Vancouver Board of Education. Schools scored highest in the areas of food garden and compost system development and use. Regular integration of food-related teaching and learning activities and hands-on food preparation experiences were also commonly reported. Most schools demonstrated rudimentary efforts to make healthy and environmentally sustainable food choices available, but in general scored lowest on these two domains. Moreover, no schools reported widespread initiatives fully supporting availability or integration of healthy or environmentally sustainable foods across campus. More work is needed in all areas to fully integrate programmes and policies that support healthy, environmentally sustainable food systems in Vancouver schools. The assessment tools and proposed indicators offer a practical approach for researchers, policy makers and school stakeholders to assess school food system environments, identify priority areas for intervention and track relevant changes over time.

  8. The Principals' Perspective of Sustainable Partnerships in New York City's New School Initiative (United States)

    Klein, Robert


    New York City's Mayor Michael Bloomberg and school's Chancellor Joel Klein made the creation of new schools an essential part of their Children First reform policy. In September 2002, 13 high schools opened replacing the lowest performing large high schools throughout the City. As of 2010, more than 400 new district and charter schools are in…

  9. School development and education for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centrone, Liza [Univ. of Bressanone (Italy)


    OECD (2003) has developed a set of six scenarios for schooling in the future up to 2020. They have been clustered into three main categories: Scenarios 1a and 1b ''Attempting to Maintain the Status Quo'', 2a and 2b ''Re-schooling'', and 3a and 3b ''De-schooling''. The scenarios describe in a somewhat ''pure form'' how schooling in general might take place in about fifteen years. In reality, of course, one would expect complex mixes to emerge between these different possible futures, rather than one or the other. By sharpening the alternatives, however, they provide an opportunity to think about what we want and do not want, and how probable the more or less desired choices are in terms of on-going trends and policies. (orig.)

  10. America's 21st Century School: Linking Education Reform and Technology. (United States)

    Center for Educational Leadership and Technology, Inc., Marlborough, MA.

    This document draws on both research and practical experience in order to develop a technology system to serve the K-12 community for the next 5 to 10 years. The study offers its design based on projections of where technological advances will intersect with the evolution of the school system. Sections include: (1) "Introduction"; (2)…

  11. The Role of the Arts in School Reform (United States)

    May, Lissa; Brenner, Brenda


    In a national climate of high-stakes testing, there is an ever-increasing need for policy that ensures high-quality arts education for all children. At the same time that arts education in K-12 schools is being diminished or eliminated, there is an ever-increasing body of research linking participation in the arts to various aspects of cognitive…

  12. Reform with Reinvestment: Values and Tensions in Gentrifying Urban Schools (United States)

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Thachik, Stefani; Bridges, Kimberly


    As cities across the country experience an influx of White and middle- to upper-class residents, new opportunities for the integration of urban schools emerge. Yet crucial challenges persist even when equity and inclusion are a focus for new stakeholders. This article explores the story of a largely White group of parents committed to investing in…

  13. Time for Teacher Learning, Planning Critical for School Reform (United States)

    Merritt, Eileen G.


    Teachers are dedicated, wise, and thoughtful change agents who need more time to identify problems they see in their schools or classrooms and work individually and collectively on solutions. They need both more time for individual planning and time to collaborate with colleagues who teach the same grades or the same subjects. A productive day of…

  14. Including Student Voices in School Reform: Students Speak out (United States)

    Sands, Deanna Iceman; Guzman, Lydia; Stephens, Laura; Boggs, Alison


    If school renewal is to ultimately impact student outcomes, then understanding and responding to the factors students describe as influencing their constructive and unconstructive effort is vital. Results from focus groups with 4th, 7th, 9th, and 11th graders indicated that when students set and work toward goals, they expend more effort in…

  15. In the Guise of STEM Education Reform: Opportunity Structures and Outcomes in Inclusive STEM-Focused High Schools (United States)

    Weis, Lois; Eisenhart, Margaret; Cipollone, Kristin; Stich, Amy E.; Nikischer, Andrea B.; Hanson, Jarrod; Ohle Leibrandt, Sarah; Allen, Carrie D.; Dominguez, Rachel


    In this article, we present findings from a three-year comparative longitudinal and ethnographic study of how schools in two cities, Buffalo and Denver, have taken up STEM education reform, including the idea of "inclusive STEM-focused schools," to address weaknesses in urban high schools with majority low-income and minority students.…

  16. A School for All or a School for the Labour Market? Analyzing the Goal Formulation of the 1991 Swedish Upper Secondary Education Reform (United States)

    Erikson, Josefina


    The 1991, Swedish upper secondary school reform presents internationally an unusual case of the far-reaching integration of academic and vocational programmes. It has often been claimed that late tracking, such as characterizes this reform, helps to reduce inequalities between different social classes. This article addresses the question of how…

  17. Construct Validation of a Measure to Assess Sustainability of School-Wide Behavior Interventions (United States)

    Hume, Amanda; McIntosh, Kent


    This study assessed aspects of construct validity of the School-wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index-School Teams (SUBSIST), a measure evaluating critical features of the school context related to sustainability of school-wide interventions. Participants at 217 schools implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) were…

  18. Sustainability Education in Indian Business Schools: A Status Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Sustainability issues, given their potential scale of impact and urgency, have captured the imagination of both corporations and academic institutions everywhere. This paper examines how such problems and their potential solutions have been incorporated into higher education, particularly business school education in India. With over 3,600 business schools in the public and private sector, business education in India has proliferated. However, students by and large still remain unexposed to sustainability and disaster management concepts in their curriculum. The underlying factors for this include, lack of institutional capacity, issues related to faculty motivation and incentives, lack of recruiter interest and limited availability to high quality resource material. Further, while several schools in India focus on sectors relevant to sustainability, inter-organizational linkages have not developed and business school generally operate independently. This paper examines the way forward to deeply integrate sustainability principles into the core curriculum of business schools. Measures suggested include creating communities of practice among academia and industry, building a resource base of teaching materials for easy access by faculty, and several measures to strengthen institutional capacity.

  19. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools: a mixed-method study. (United States)

    Rozema, A D; Mathijssen, J J P; Jansen, M W J; van Oers, J A M


    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of sustainability and examines perceived barriers/facilitators related to the sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban at secondary schools. A mixed-method design was used with a sequential explanatory approach. In phase I, 438 online surveys were conducted and in phase II, 15 semi-structured interviews were obtained from directors of relevant schools. ANOVA (phase I) and a thematic approach (phase II) were used to analyze data. Level of sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban was high at the 48% Dutch schools with an outdoor smoking ban. Furthermore, school size was significantly associated with sustainability. The perceived barriers/facilitators fell into three categories: (i) smoking ban implementation factors (side-effects, enforcement, communication, guidelines and collaboration), (ii) school factors (physical environment, school culture, education type and school policy) and (iii) community environment factors (legislation and social environment). Internationally, the spread of outdoor school ground smoking bans could be further promoted. Once implemented, the ban has become 'normal' practice and investments tend to endure. Moreover, involvement of all staff is important for sustainability as they function as role models, have an interrelationship with students, and share responsibility for enforcement. These findings are promising for the sustainability of future tobacco control initiatives to further protect against the morbidity/mortality associated with smoking.

  20. Sustainable school development: professional learning communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof.Dr. E. Verbiest


    In this contribution we report about a project about Professional Learning Communities.This project combines development and research. In this contribution we pay attention to the effect of the organisational capacity of a school on the personal and interpersonal capacity and to the impact of a

  1. The implications of new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets for sustainable forest management and forest certification in China. (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L


    This study examines issues existing in the southern collective forests in China, particularly prior to the implementation of new forest tenure reforms, such as continued illegal logging and timber theft, inadequate availability of finance and inconsistent forest-related policies. Such problems are believed to be hindering the adoption of sustainable forest management (SFM) and forest certification by forest farmers in China. Two strategies were introduced by the Chinese government with the purpose of addressing these issues, namely forest tenure reforms and their associated supporting mechanism, forestry property markets. Through two case studies in southern China, we investigated the effectiveness of the two strategies as well as their implications for the adoption of SFM and forest certification. The two cases were Yong'an in Fujian province and Tonggu in Jiangxi province. Personal interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with small-scale forest farmers who had already benefited from the two strategies as well as market officers working for the two selected forestry property markets. The study identified eight issues constraining the potential adoption of SFM and certification in China, including limited finance, poorly developed infrastructure and transport systems, insecure forest tenures, inconsistent forest policies, low levels of awareness, illegal forest management practices, lack of local cooperative organizations, and inadequate knowledge and technical transfer. We found that the new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets had generally fulfilled their original objectives and had the capacity to assist in addressing many of the issues facing forests prior to the reforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated quality: a target for sustainable schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Antonini


    Full Text Available Recent surveys on the condition of the Italian school building stock provide information on its relevant seismic behavior and fire safety levels, however no information is made available on its thermo-hygrometric conditions and energy behaviour, despite the fact that the former has a considerable impact on the use and physical conditions of indoor environments and the latter plays a fundamental role in limiting the buildings operating costs, as literature abundantly shows. This paper reports the results of a study carried out on a sample of Italian school buildings, substantiating their high levels of energy consumption, and describes the application of a specific method of analysis used for identifying the main causes of these, therefore allowing to propose some possible strategies for retrofitting, aimed to improving the building energy efficiency and environmental quality, by way of simulations and validation of their relevant effects and benefits.

  3. Food sustainability education as a route to healthier eating: evaluation of a multi-component school programme in English primary schools. (United States)

    Jones, M; Dailami, N; Weitkamp, E; Salmon, D; Kimberlee, R; Morley, A; Orme, J


    Promising approaches to the promotion of healthier eating among children in primary school settings include the opportunity to practise practical cooking and growing, promoting the take up of healthier school meals and nutritional education. However, less is known about the potential for strategies that integrate approaches through a focus on food sustainability issues--such as the promotion of awareness about local, seasonal, organic, fair trade and higher animal welfare foods. This paper presents an evaluation of the Food for Life Partnership, a multi-component programme that sought to address both the health and sustainability aspects of food. The study consisted of a two-stage cross-sectional survey of Years 5 and 6 students (ages 9-11) in 30 primary schools at enrolment and after 18-24 months, combined with an analysis of programme delivery. Higher self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption in the second stage survey was associated with a range of indicators of school participation in the programme. These included the reform of school meal procurement and preparation; experiential food growing, cooking and farm-based education and improved opportunities for stakeholder engagement. The study therefore develops a case for multilevel programmes that incorporate sustainability issues alongside experiential food education in primary school settings.

  4. High School Science Teachers' Interpretations and Perceptions of Reform and Literacy in the Discipline of Science (United States)

    Lesinski-Roscoe, Rachel A.

    This qualitative study sought to gain an understanding of science teachers' perceptions of reform and their role in implementing reform and science-based literacy practices in the classroom, as well as gain an understanding of science teachers' knowledge of disciplinary literacy as the implied framework of reform (i.e., the Next Generation Science Standards). Four focal participants from a suburban, middle-class high school district comprised of two high schools participated in semi-structured interviews, observations, and a stimulated recall task and interview. Data analysis revealed some of the Discourse memberships in which participants claimed membership and the tensions that resulted from those memberships. From this data, a theory emerged of the role of third space in navigating these tensions, and a model for developing a third space is presented, which literacy professionals can reference when working to develop collaborative relationships with science teachers in order to scaffold science-specific literacy practices for student engagement. The information in this study prompts future research regarding the ability of science teachers and literacy professionals to navigate Discourses in a Field Code Changed third space using a disciplinary literacy approach to developing curriculum in order to apprentice students into the discipline of science and develop a citizenry of scientifically literate individuals.

  5. Curricular constraints, high-stakes testing and the reality of reform in high school science classrooms (United States)

    Coble, Jennifer

    Through a series of open-ended interviews, this study investigated the beliefs of six third year high school science teachers about how they implement science education reform ideals in their practice and the contextual challenges they face as they attempt to implement reform. The teachers argue that the lack of connection between their curricula and students' lives serves as a significant obstacle to them utilizing more inquiry-based and student-centered strategies. In their science classes that are not subject to a high stakes exam, the teachers shared instances where they engage students in inquiry by refraining the focus of their curricula away from the decontextualized factual information and onto how the information relates to human experience. In their science classes subject to a high stakes test, however, the teachers confessed to feeling no choice but to utilize more teacher-centered strategies focused on information transmission. This study provides an in depth analysis of how the presence of high stakes tests discourages teachers from utilizing reform based teaching strategies within high school science classrooms.

  6. Evaluating the Sustainability of School-Based Health Centers. (United States)

    Navarro, Stephanie; Zirkle, Dorothy L; Barr, Donald A


    The United States is facing a surge in the number of school-based health centers (SBHCs) owing to their success in delivering positive health outcomes and increasing access to care. To preserve this success, experts have developed frameworks for creating sustainable SBHCs; however, little research has affirmed or added to these models. This research seeks to analyze elements of sustainability in a case study of three SBHCs in San Diego, California, with the purpose of creating a research-based framework of SBHC sustainability to supplement expertly derived models. Using a mixed methods study design, data were collected from interviews with SBHC stakeholders, observations in SBHCs, and SBHC budgets. A grounded theory qualitative analysis and a quantitative budget analysis were completed to develop a theoretical framework for the sustainability of SBHCs. Forty-one interviews were conducted, 6 hours of observations were completed, and 3 years of SBHC budgets were analyzed to identify care coordination, community buy-in, community awareness, and SBHC partner cooperation as key themes of sustainability promoting patient retention for sustainable billing and reimbursement levels. These findings highlight the unique ways in which SBHCs gain community buy-in and awareness by becoming trusted sources of comprehensive and coordinated care within communities and among vulnerable populations. Findings also support ideas from expert models of SBHC sustainability calling for well-defined and executed community partnerships and quality coordinated care in the procurement of sustainable SBHC funding.

  7. Water Policy Reforms in South Korea: A Historical Review and Ongoing Challenges for Sustainable Water Governance and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik-Chang Choi


    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an opinion on the state-of-the-art of changes and reforms of water policies in South Korea, as well as the challenges along with their implications for sustainable water governance and management. In parallel with change in water resource characteristics generated by physical, environmental and socio-economic challenges such as: (1 uncertainties about climate change (flooding and drought including seasonal and regional variation in precipitation; (2 significant increase in water use caused by rapid urbanization and population growth in industrialized urban areas; (3 inadequate water pricing mechanism which covers only around 80% of the production cost and makes it harder to maintain water systems; and (4 recursive water quality degradation and conflicts over water rights between regions resulting from non-point source pollution in highland versus lowland areas, Korean water policies have been developed through diverse reforms over 100 years. Nevertheless, new challenges for sustainable water management are continuously emerging. To meet those challenges we provide two ideas: (i provider-gets-principle (payment for ecosystem services of cost-benefit sharing among stakeholders who benefit from water use; and (ii water pricing applying full-cost pricing-principle internalizing environmental externalities caused by the intensive water use. Funds secured from the application of those methods would facilitate: (1 support for upstream (rural low income householders suffering from economic restrictions; (2 improvement in water facilities; and (3 efficient water use and demand management in South Korea’s water sectors. We expect that this paper can examine the lessons relevant to challenges that South Korea faces and offer some implications on the formulation of new integration and further reforms of the institutions, laws and organizations responsible for managing water resources in South Korea.

  8. Curriculum Reform and Supporting Structures at Schools: Challenges for Life Skills Planning for Secondary School Students in China (with Particular Reference to Hong Kong) (United States)

    Lee, John Chi-Kin


    Demand has risen for the introduction of career education in senior secondary schooling to enhance students' transition from study to work. Against such a background, this paper aims to discuss the curriculum reforms and supporting structures in schools and to explore the challenges of life skills planning for secondary school students in China…

  9. What Is the School Revolution? Can It Be Sustained? (United States)

    FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education, 2015


    The Symposium on Sustainable Schools (SOSS), an independent publishing operation, has contributed several pamphlets critical of Coalition policy in specific issues. The alarming lack of serious debate about education in the May election, and the radical Conservative programme operated as soon as the election was over, demand a wider perspective.…

  10. Safe, High-Performance, Sustainable Precast School Design (United States)

    Finsen, Peter I.


    School design utilizing integrated architectural and structural precast and prestressed concrete components has gained greater acceptance recently for numerous reasons, including increasingly sophisticated owners and improved learning environments based on material benefits such as: sustainability, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, storm…

  11. Prophetic Nomadism: An Art School Sustainability-Oriented Educational Aim? (United States)

    Gunn, Vicky


    This discursive article proposes that the learning and teaching regimes provided within art school are uniquely placed within higher education to foster nomads. It suggests, however, that nomadism is not enough. Rather it emphasises that to reconcile art and design education with sustainability, such nomadism needs both to be prophetic and…

  12. Sustainable school infrastructure through effective innovative building technology selection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, C


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of a model proposed for the selection Innovative Building Technologies (IBTs) and procurement of services supporting the erection of the IBTs that will ensure the construction of a sustainable school...

  13. Reforms in Education: The Need for Re-Engineering Teacher Education for Sustainable Development (United States)

    Ofoego, O. C.; Ebebe, I. E.


    The paper is concerned with reforms in Education and the need for re-engineering Teacher education in Nigeria for better professionalism and National Development. In the process, key concepts like Teacher Education and professionalism were explained. A brief review of the state of Teacher Education and Development in Nigeria revealed the…

  14. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, Leon; Aika, Ken-ichi


    Steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate present in bio-oil over Pt/ZrO2 catalysts has been studied. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts are very active, completely converting acetic acid and give hydrogen yield close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The catalyst deactivated by formation of oligomers, which

  15. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, K.; Aika, Ken-ichi; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus


    Steam reforming of acetic acid over Pt/ZrO2 catalysts has been investigated. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts are very active, completely converting acetic acid, and give a hydrogen yield close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The catalyst deactivated by formation of oligomers which block the active sites. The

  16. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Aika, Ken-ichi; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, Leon

    Studies were conducted with acetic acid (HAc) as model oxygenate for the design of active and stable catalysts for steam reforming of bio-oil. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation technique. The Pt/ZrO2 catalysts showed high activities at initial time on stream, but lost its activity

  17. Quality reform and "the learning pre-school child" in the making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.


    The article argues that Early Childhood Education & Care (ECEC) is being redesigned based on quality reform discourse with references to global knowledge economy across Nordic countries and the EU. This takes place in policy processes that extend from transnational agents like the OECD and EU...... promotes governance structures among municipalities and professionals that pull ECEC into comprehensive educational strategies. This process draws on policy advice from the OECD and EU. Quality reform thus changes in fundamental ways the organisation and content in ECEC. In discourse, learning displaces...... playing, and the learning pre-school child emerges. Put together, this situation represents a paradigmatic challenge to professionals and the struggle about their autonomy and discretion....

  18. Circulation and Internationalisation of Pedagogical Concepts and Practices in the Discourse of Education: The Hamburg School Reform Experiment (1919-1933) (United States)

    Mayer, Christine


    In the context of the international exchange of school reform ideas and concepts, the new schools in Hamburg were recognised as exemplary instances of a revolutionary and forceful reform in the public elementary school systems. Based on studies of transfer and their premise that the transnational transfer of ideas, practices and objects does not…

  19. Teens, Power Tools, and Green Schools: Education for Sustainability through a University Environmental Design Program and Middle School Partnership (United States)

    Derr, Victoria


    This article explores the role of green schools in promoting education for sustainability by reflecting on a university-middle school partnership focused on sustainable design. Undergraduates and middle school students met weekly for a semester to learn about sustainability through simple design projects and activities that focused on…

  20. High school: historical trajectory and educational duality present in the different reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiani Bortoloto Lopes


    Full Text Available The article presents a bibliographic study on educational duality of High School and its historical manifestation in the different reforms that have reached this stage of education. It highlights that the duality is configured in the existence of a dual system of education, which aims to serve the interests of the different existing classes within society. For this, we recovered various reforms from the 1940s up to the mid-2000s and established a dialogue with a number of authors, revealing the limits of those reforms and their links to the demands of the productive sector. Moreover, we highlighted the peculiar characteristics of the reforms of the 1990s, embodied in Law no 9.394/1996, the Law of Directives and Bases, which put High School as the final stage of basic education, whereas giving legal basis for the enactment of new laws that intensified educational duality, such as Decree no 2.208/1997, Decree no 5.154/2004 and Law no 12.513/2011, which established the Pronatec. The disputes of different interests on education prompted the state to promulgate Decree no 5154 2004 and to repeal Decree no 2.208/1997, reversing the role of the state regarding the provision of integrated vocational education at secondary level. A simple resumption of the State towards these policies did not mean the extinction of educational duality, given that it needs constant struggle imposed by workers in the State, particularly in the context of educational policies, as well as demands the very overcoming of this social model, based on class distinctions.

  1. Teachers' perceptions and use of a large-scale science education reform initiative for middle schools (United States)

    Pistorius, Carolyn Sue

    Reform efforts in science education have been increasing over the past decade. This quantitative design study explored middle school teachers' perceptions and attitudes about one such reform effort. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from teachers and their classrooms. The population consisted of all of the middle school science teachers who had completed at least one two-week session of professional development in the University of Alabama in Huntsville in-service region. The teachers were all involved in the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI). This initiative provided professional development and complete science modules, including materials for all K-8 teachers of science to use. Middle school teachers' (grades 6-8) perceptions, attitudes, and information about classroom decisions in teaching science using the AMSTI were obtained through the uses of the AMSTI Science Questionnaire, teacher interviews and classroom observations using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP). Quantitative data were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, Tukey HSD statistical analyses. Qualitative data involved transcribing, coding, and determination of emerging themes. The AMSTI Science Questionnaire was found to have evidence of reliability and validity for the determination of the impact of professional development on teachers' perceptions and attitudes towards teaching science in their classrooms. Results of this study demonstrated that the more professional development experienced by the teachers was related to the number of lessons that the teachers used from the AMSTI modules. The amount of professional development was also related to the amount of time spent teaching and quality of the teaching as rated using the Reformed Teacher Observation Protocol. The more professional development the teachers received, the higher they self-reported their level of expertise in teaching the AMSTI science modules. Some of the strengths of the

  2. The View from the Lighted Schoolhouse: Conceptualizing Home-School Relations within a Class Size Reduction Reform (United States)

    Graue, M. Elizabeth; Sherfinski, Melissa


    In this essay we examine how educators work within a component of a class size reduction reform designed to strengthen the connections between families' home and school lives. We describe the accomplishments and struggles experienced by educators enacting this "lighted schoolhouse" based on our research in nine schools over three years.…

  3. The Challenge of Supporting Change: Elementary Student Achievement and the Bay Area School Reform Collaborative's Focal Strategy. Final Report (United States)

    Porter, Kristin E.; Snipes, Jason C.


    This is the second and final report for MDRC's evaluation of the Bay Area School Reform Collaborative (BASRC), a grant-making and support organization in San Francisco, California. BASRC is dedicated to improving student achievement in public schools and narrowing achievement gaps among different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. BASRC…

  4. High School Principal Transformational Leadership Behaviors and Teacher Extra Effort during Educational Reform: The Mediating Role of Teacher Agency Beliefs (United States)

    Boberg, John Eric


    Transformational leadership has been shown to affect organizational commitment, capacity development, and performance. However, these relationships have received very little attention in schools, especially high schools in the United States that are experiencing educational reform initiatives under No Child Left Behind. Using a sample of 1403 high…

  5. Lessons in Early Learning: Building an Integrated Pre-K-12 System in Montgomery County Public Schools. Education Reform Series (United States)

    Marietta, Geoff


    This 2010 report looked at how Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) used local and federal dollars to craft, implement and improve a system-wide education reform strategy built on a foundation of providing high-quality pre-k education. School officials, state and federal policymakers alike will benefit from learning about the trail that MCPS…

  6. The Impact of School Finance Litigation on Resource Distribution: A Comparison of Court-Mandated Equity and Adequacy Reforms (United States)

    Springer, Matthew G.; Liu, Keke; Guthrie, James W.


    While there is a wealth of research on school finance equity and adequacy, and school finance theory clearly documents differences between the two concepts, no study has examined whether the reforms engendered by each approach actually differ in terms of resource distribution. This study examines the issues using district level data on expenditure…

  7. Mediating Global Reforms Locally: A Study of the Enabling Conditions for Promoting Active Learning in a Maldivian Island School (United States)

    Di Biase, Rhonda


    This paper explores active learning reform in the small state of the Maldives. Acknowledging the implementation challenges of active learning approaches globally, the study explored the policy-practice intersection by examining the experiences of one island school and its approach to promoting active learning pedagogy. The school was selected for…

  8. Empowering electricity: co-operatives, sustainability, and power sector reform in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacArthur, Julie L


    .... Empowering Electricity offers an illuminating analysis of these co-ops within the context of larger debates over climate change, renewable electricity policy, sustainable community development...

  9. California teachers' perceptions of standards-based reform in middle school science: A mixed-methods study (United States)

    Leggett, Allison Gail Wilson

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 presented one of the most significant and comprehensive literacy reforms in many years (McDonnell, 2005; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). The era of school accountability and standards based reform has brought many challenges and changes to public schools. Increasingly, public officials and educational administrators are asked to use standards based assessments to make high-stakes decisions, such as whether a student will move on to the next grade level or receive a diploma (American Psychological Association, 2005). It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' perceptions and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement standards-based reform. This mixed-methods study was designed to assess teachers' perceptions of changes related to standards-based reform as supported by Fullan's (2001) change theory and transformational leadership theory. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated standards-based reform and began focusing on preparing students for the California Standards Test in Science (CSTS). Using descriptive statistical analysis and in-depth interviews, results show favorable insight towards standards-based reform. The survey was distributed to 30 middle school science teachers from 10 low-performing schools in Los Angeles, California. Results were analyzed using Spearman rank-ordered correlations. Interviews were conducted on middle school teachers represented by each grade level. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the CSTS as measured in this study. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

  10. The pedagogical and ethical legacy of a "successful" educational reform: The Citizen School Project (United States)

    Fischman, Gustavo E.; Gandin, Luis Armando


    The Citizen School Project (Escola Cidadã) was implemented from 1993 to 2004 in Porto Alegre, capital of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. This article presents the conception behind the Citizen School Project, the basic mechanisms created to implement and evaluate its strengths and weaknesses, and some of its contradictions. After contextualising the educational reforms in Brazil during the 1980s and 1990s, the authors demonstrate how the Citizen School Project's emphasis on participation and democratisation was a radical departure from Brazil's traditional public education system. Next, they present the three main goals and structures of the Citizen School Project - democratisation of access to schools, democratisation of schools' administration, and democratisation of access to knowledge. They conclude by discussing some pedagogic, social and political dynamics which appear to be strong legacies of this pedagogical project. The authors also argue that the Citizen School Project has both improved the quality of education in Porto Alegre and is an important contribution to our collective thinking about the politics of "successful" educational policies.

  11. Educational and school managers training in the context of educational reforms: consensus and dissensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira Rescia


    Full Text Available This paper shows some of the results from a doctoral research on the educational and school managers training to the beginning of XXI century, in the context of decentralization and trends of educational reforms in Latin America at the end of 1980s and 1990s. Guided by a qualitative, bibliographic and documentary research, the methodological procedures had reference in studies conducted by international organizations, such as: UNESCO, ECLAC and ILPE as well as scholars from different management paradigms, considering the Latin-American education systems’ needs. In Brazil, we sought to understand the requirements of transformation of local competences in planning and educational management after implications and managers training initiatives within this new reality. Therefore, it was analyzed for comparative purposes, three educational and school managers training programs in public schools: Management Circuit Program; Distance Learning Program for School Managers and the Managers’ School Program of Public Basic Education. It was intended to identify the trends of each program for educational and school managers training, with a view to the changes occurred in our society and education and the requirements to acquire new skills and abilities. As conclusion, the research indicated that although the training programs have originated from different instances and explain various guidelines, everything converges to the same set of skills in educational and school managers training.

  12. The ethical Dilemma of lifestyle change: designing for sustainable schools and sustainable citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler


    Full Text Available This paper explores how participation and sustainability are being addressed by architects within the Building Schools for the Future (BSF programme in the UK. The intentions promoted by the programme are certainly ambitious, but the ways to fulfil these aims are ill-explored. Simply focusing on providing innovative learning technologies, or indeed teaching young people about physical sustainability features in buildings, will not necessarily teach them the skills they will need to respond to the environmental and social challenges of a rapidly changing world. However, anticipating those skills is one of the most problematic issues of the programme. The involvement of young people in the design of schools is used to suggest empowerment, place-making and to promote social cohesion but this is set against government design literature which advocates for exemplars, standard layouts and best practice, all leading to forms of standardisation. The potentials for tokenistic student involvement and conflict with policy aims are evident. This paper explores two issues: how to foster in young people an ethic towards future generations, and the role of co-design practices in this process. Michael Oakeshott calls teaching the conversation of mankind. In this paper, I look at the philosophy of Hannah Arendt, Emmanuel Levinas, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Luce Irigaray to argue that investigating the ethical dilemmas of the programme through critical dialogue with students offers an approach to meeting government objectives, building sustainable schools, and fostering sustainable citizenship.

  13. Implementing and Sustaining School-Located Influenza Vaccination Programs: Perspectives from Five Diverse School Districts (United States)

    Wilson, Dulmini; Sanchez, Kathleen M.; Blackwell, Susan H.; Weinstein, Eva; El Amin, A. Nelson


    Local health departments have typically led school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs, assuming resource-intensive roles in design, coordination, and vaccination. This level of involvement is often not financially sustainable over time. Five diverse school districts in Los Angeles County designed, implemented, refined, and…

  14. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools : A mixed-method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, A. D.; Mathijssen, J. J. P.; Jansen, M. W. J.; Van Oers, J. A. M.


    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of

  15. Sustainable Schools Programmes: What Influence on Schools and How Do We Know? (United States)

    Rickinson, Mark; Hall, Matthew; Reid, Alan


    This paper focuses on our experience of researching the influence of ResourceSmart Schools, a sustainable schools programme in Victoria, Australia. Drawing on ideas from programme theory and realist synthesis, we illustrate and reflect upon our approach to conceptualising, investigating and generating evidence about the programme's…

  16. Sustained School Improvement: A Case of How School Leaders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... when leaders practise and implement leadership strategies and behaviours that may be engendered by using the following professional growth-oriented strategies: (a) inclusive leadership strategies; (b) team-work with teachers; (c) persistent and participative data collection related to shared school vision; (d) leadership ...

  17. The Effect of Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development in Swedish Compulsory Schools--Assessing Pupils' Sustainability Consciousness (United States)

    Olsson, D.; Gericke, N.; Chang Rundgren, S.-N.


    During the past decade, numerous schools in Sweden have implemented education for sustainable development (ESD) as an explicit guiding approach in teaching. In this paper, we investigate the effect of this approach in comparison with that of pupils taught in ordinary schools. Accordingly, we introduce the concept of sustainability consciousness to…

  18. For-Profit Alternative Programs and Schools of Choice: Structuring Safety and College-for-All in an Era of Market-Based School Reform


    Zaragoza-Petty, Alma L.


    Market-based school reform incentivizes schools to invest in the academic preparation and well-being of students. These imperatives, often articulated in terms of safety and the college preparation of students, are seen as issues traditional public schools have been unable to address adequately. In turn, alternative programs and schools of choice are positioned as viable solutions. Using critical ethnography methodology, this dissertation is based on a case study analysis of one such schoolin...

  19. Whole School English Learner Reform: A Heuristic Approach to Professional Learning in Middle Schools (United States)

    Plough, Bobbie; Garcia, Ray


    This work highlights a heuristic model for professional learning while examining the implementation of a reform initiative. The researchers used longitudinal data collected from surveys to develop and fit a model of professional learning where patterns of interaction among teachers changed the discussion about English learner instruction. Data…

  20. 學校課程領導的永續思考The Implications of Sustainable Development for School Curriculum Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    江志正Chih-Cheng Chiang


    Full Text Available 我國在十餘年前推動以鬆綁為主軸的教育改革,促使學校走向本位管理,並實施九年一貫課程,在課程教學上大幅鬆綁,國民中小學也因而擁有了較大的課程自主權,學校課程領導的議題也就此受到了極大的關注。在課程變革後,大多數學校都已依規定成立課程發展委員會,並進行著學校課程發展事宜,然也有著一些需面對的問題與困境。在這波變革過程中,如何讓學校推動課程發展的領導活動可以持續並獲致實效,是此時值得關注的焦點。本文即據此角度,進行學校課程領導的永續思考,首先陳述永續發展的思想演進與意涵;而後再論學校課程領導需要永續思考的重要性;接著再論述學校課程領導永續思考的策略取向,以供學校夥伴參酌省思。 School is the core practice place of education and school reform. Since April 10, 1994, “the League of Educational Renovation” has been organized and has taken on the work to push the Taiwan’s educational reform. Decentralization is a core concept of Taiwan’s educational reform. The development of school-based management is the center of the reformation at the present time at Taiwan. Then, elementary and secondary schools have the rights to develop school-based curriculum. The topic of school curriculum leadership getting more important. In passed few years, most of schools have been developed their school-based curriculum and faced some problems. It is the time to care about the sustainability of school curriculum leadership. The article describes the meaning of sustainable development, the importance of sustainable development for school curriculum leadership, and the sustainable strategies of school curriculum leadership.

  1. High Pressure Reform: Examining Urban Schools' Response to Multiple School Choice Policies (United States)

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison; Carkhum, Rian; Rangel, Virginia Snodgrass


    Over the past several decades, policymakers have sought to address the problem of school failure by exposing traditional public schools to competitive market forces. In this analysis, we examine how two traditional public schools in a "high pressure/high choice" urban school cluster in Texas responded to a number of overlapping choice…

  2. Improving the Fiscal Sustainability of Teaching Clinics at Dental Schools. (United States)

    Reinhardt, John W


    Educational patient care clinics are becoming an increasingly important source of revenue for dental schools. Revenue from clinics can help offset the rising cost of dental education. In addition, those clinics represent a source of income over which the schools have reasonably direct control. Recently, a group of nine U.S. dental schools conducted a detailed financial survey of their clinics and shared the confidential results with each other. The purpose of their analysis was to develop benchmarks for key factors related to clinical financial productivity and expenses and to define best practices to guide improvements at each school. The survey found significant variations among the nine schools in revenue produced by predoctoral students and by postdoctoral residents. There were similar variations for levels of clinical staffing. By sharing the results of the survey with each other, the individual schools gained a strong understanding of the business strengths or weakness of their own clinical programs. That information gave each school's leaders the opportunity to investigate how they might improve their clinical fiscal sustainability.

  3. Reinventing Schools Research Project: Collaborative Research Project on the Merger of General and Special Education School Reforms. Final Report--Executive Summary. (United States)

    Ferguson, Dianne L.; Meyer, Gwen; Dalmau, Mary; Droege, Cleo; Ferguson, Philip M.; Gudjonsdottir, Hafdis; Katul, Nadia; Lester, Jackie; Moore, Caroline; Oxley, Diana; Ralph, Ginevra; Rivers, Eileen

    This final report describes the activities of the Reinventing Schools Research Project, a project that investigated how the inclusion of students with severe and other disabilities merges with larger efforts of educators, administrators, and parents to restructure and reform schools and how to influence the direction of that merger. The project…

  4. Measurement Invariance of an Instrument Assessing Sustainability of School-Based Universal Behavior Practices (United States)

    Mercer, Sterett H.; McIntosh, Kent; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Horner, Robert H.


    The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which the School-Wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index: School Teams (SUBSIST; McIntosh, Doolittle, Vincent, Horner, & Ervin, 2009), a measure of school and district contextual factors that promote the sustainability of school practices, demonstrated measurement invariance across…

  5. Perceptions of Contextual Features Related to Implementation and Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Predy, Larissa K.; Upreti, Gita; Hume, Amanda E.; Turri, Mary G.; Mathews, Susanna


    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived importance of specific contextual variables for initial implementation and sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). A large, national sample of 257 school team members completed the "School-Wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index: School Teams", a…

  6. Sustainability of school-located influenza vaccination programs in Florida. (United States)

    Tran, Cuc H; Brew, Joe; Johnson, Nicholas; Ryan, Kathleen A; Martin, Brittany; Cornett, Catherine; Caron, Brad; Duncan, R Paul; Small, Parker A; Myers, Paul D; Morris, J Glenn


    School-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs are a promising strategy for increasing vaccination coverage among schoolchildren. However, questions of economic sustainability have dampened enthusiasm for this approach in the United States. We evaluated SLIV sustainability of a health department led, county-wide SLIV program in Alachua County, Florida. Based on Alachua's outcome data, we modeled the sustainability of SLIV programs statewide using two different implementation costs and at different vaccination rates, reimbursement amount, and Vaccines for Children (VFC) coverage. Mass vaccination clinics were conducted at 69 Alachua County schools in 2013 using VFC (for Medicaid and uninsured children) and non-VFC vaccines. Claims were processed after each clinic and submitted to insurance providers for reimbursement ($5 Medicaid and $47.04 from private insurers). We collected programmatic expenditures and volunteer hours to calculate fixed and variable costs for two different implementation costs (with or without in-kind costs included). We project program sustainability for Florida using publicly available county-specific student populations and health insurance enrollment data. Approximately 42% (n=12,853) of pre-kindergarten - 12th grade students participated in the SLIV program in Alachua. Of the 13,815 doses provided, 58% (8042) were non-VFC vaccine. Total implementation cost was $14.95/dose or $7.93/dose if "in-kind" costs were not included. The program generated a net surplus of $24,221, despite losing $4.68 on every VFC dose provided to Medicaid and uninsured children. With volunteers, 99% of Florida counties would be sustainable at a 50% vaccination rate and average reimbursement amount of $3.25 VFC and $37 non-VFC. Without volunteers, 69% of counties would be sustainable at 50% vaccination rate if all VFC recipients were on Medicaid and its reimbursement increased from $5 to $10 (amount private practices receive). Key factors that contributed to the

  7. Those Kids, Our Schools: Race and Reform in an American High School (United States)

    Griffin, Shayla Reese


    In "Those Kids, Our Schools," Shayla Reese Griffin examines patterns of racial interaction in a large, integrated high school and makes a powerful case for the frank conversations that educators could and should be having about race in schools. Over three years, Griffin observed students, teachers, and administrators in a…

  8. Schooling for Social Mobility: High School Reform for College Access and Success (United States)

    Hammack, Floyd M.


    This article addresses what schools that seek to promote social mobility as opposed to status maintenance among their students really ask of them. Focusing on several prominent charter school organizations, the article details the social and behavioral expectations of the schools and understands them through an application of Goffman's work on…

  9. Family background and school performance during a turbulent era of school reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björklund, A.; Lindahl, M.; Sund, K.


    In the 1990s, Swedish education policy took several steps towards more decentralization and more room for parental school choice. The decade was also a turbulent one in other respects, with high unemployment and major cuts in school budgets. We study the relationship between pupils’ school

  10. K-5 mentor teachers' journeys toward reform-oriented science within a professional development school context (United States)

    Manno, Jacqueline L.

    Reform-oriented science teaching with a specific focus on evidence and explanation provides a student-centered learning environment which encourages children to question, seek answers to those questions, experience phenomena, share ideas, and develop explanations of science concepts based on evidence. One of the ways schools have risen to meet the challenge of ever-increasing demands for success in science and all other curricular areas has been in the development of professional development schools (PDSs). Dedicated to the simultaneous renewal of schools and teacher education programs, the structure of a PDS plays a significant role in the change process. The purpose of this research study was to investigate the nature of change in mentor teachers' beliefs and pedagogical practices toward science teaching in the elementary school as conveyed through their own "stories of practice". The major research questions that guided the study were: (1) How do mentor teachers describe their science teaching practices and how have they changed as a result of participation in PDS? (a) In what ways do PDS mentor teachers' descriptions of practice reflect contemporary reform ideas and practices in science education? (b) To what extent do their stories emphasize technical aspects of teaching versus epistemological changes in their thinking and knowledge? (c) How is student learning in science reflected in teachers' stories of practice? (2) What is the relationship between the levels and types of involvement in PDS to change in thinking about and practices of teaching science? (3) What is the depth of commitment that mentors convey about changes in science teaching practices? Using case study design, the research explored the ways experienced teachers, working within the context of a PDS community, described changes in the ways they think about and teach science. The connection to the issue of change in teaching practices grew out of interest in understanding the relationship

  11. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL. (United States)

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo


    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  12. Status of Medical Education Reform at Saga Medical School 5 Years After Introducing PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutomo Oda


    Full Text Available In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors. Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including “silent tutors” and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  13. Sustaining Turnaround at the School and District Levels: The High Reliability Schools Project at Sandfields Secondary School (United States)

    Schaffer, Eugene; Reynolds, David; Stringfield, Sam


    Beginning from 1 high-poverty, historically low-achieving secondary school's successful turnaround work, this article provides data relative to a successful school turnaround, the importance of external and system-level supports, and the importance of building for sustainable institutionalization of improvements. The evidence suggests the…

  14. Mathematics training for the teaching of basic knowledge in times of teaching school reform of Parana (Year 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara da Silva França


    Full Text Available Abstract The article discusses the mathematical training of primary teachers in Paraná and aims to understand how elementary mathematical knowledge was included in the reform carried out by Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa, in the 1920’s and directed by Prieto Martinez for the modernization of the state’s primary education. Supported by theoretical and methodological framework of cultural history, this study is guided by the question: Considering the Reform of teaching school and thinking about the mathematics education of Paraná teachers, what has changed, why has it changed and what for? With the reform subjects more focused on practical teaching in primary school were introduced, and that favored the renewal of teaching methods and teaching resources, curriculum reorganization which reflected in the quality of Math education of future teachers in the state’s primary education. Keywords: Mathematics Teaching. Primary Education Teacher. History of Education.

  15. STEM Education: An Incongruous Approach A Proposed Reform Model for a Large Suburban High School (United States)

    Hughes, Patricia A.

    It is unknown how the school can best influence the variables that determine pursuance of science study and career choice to bring about greater opportunity to learn challenging science curriculum for all students and promote Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education. Student decisions regarding the type of science class to elect in early secondary school years can impact their progression and academic success in subsequent rigorous and challenging offerings. Parents, counselors, peers, gender, socio-economic status and individual experience in previous coursework are variables of consideration. The purpose of this study is to examine these variables in a large suburban New Jersey School District aligned to STEM and Advanced Placement level course choice by students. Information regarding the influence of the variables can lead to a reform of the approach toward STEM education currently in place. The study will include a historical reflection of the approach to curriculum revision in the district. Increasing student enrollment in science courses beyond the required number stipulated for high school completion will open opportunities for entrance into STEM related careers or continued post secondary science study.

  16. Where Sustainable School Meets the ‘Tthird Teacher’: Primary School Case Study From Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brkovic


    Full Text Available Participatory evaluation of aspiring sustainable schools and their pedagogical potential has recently come into focus. A few authors have made a significant start in examining schools as both environmentally and socially sustainable environments, which might simultaneously represent the ‘third teacher’. However, discussion around this idea is new in Spain. This paper describes a participatory post-occupancy study conducted with teachers and pupils in Fort Pienc School, Barcelona, Spain. Findings reveal the pedagogical potential of the school’s spaces and fabric, characterised as ‘sustainable’, and highlight the aspects that the research participants feel are performing and underperforming. The paper concludes that if we want sustainable schools to be a strategy for renovating the educational process and for leading us towards a better tomorrow globally and locally,  new models for exploring the pedagogical potential of sustainable schools should be developed and the efforts of all relevant parties synchronised; from architects to governments, from pupils to teachers.

  17. The Quasi-Human Child: How Normative Conceptions of Childhood Enabled Neoliberal School Reform in the United States (United States)

    Sonu, Debbie; Benson, Jeremy


    This paper argues that normative conceptions of the child, as a natural quasi-human being in need of guidance, enable current school reforms in the United States to directly link the child to neoliberal aims and objectives. In using Foucault's concept of governmentality and disciplinary power, we first present how the child is constructed as a…

  18. Fiscal Capacity Measurement and Equity in Local Contributions to Schools: The Effects of Education Finance Reform in Massachusetts (United States)

    Fahy, Colleen A.


    In Massachusetts, state aid to public schools fills the gap between a district's foundation budget and its required local contribution. Historic inequities in required local contributions and the resulting inequities in state aid across districts led to a call for education finance reform. Since 2007, the state has put in place a number of…

  19. Achieving Flourishing City Schools and Communities--Corporate Reform, Neoliberal Urbanism, and the Right to the City (United States)

    Means, Alexander


    This essay critiques the ideological assertions of corporate school reform and discusses how these logics perpetuate failure in urban education. Drawing on theories of neoliberal urbanism, the right to the city, and the commons, the essay argues that educational researchers and advocates need to reframe the values of urban education in line with a…

  20. Admissions Policies and Risks to Equity and Educational Inclusion in the Context of School Reform in England (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen M.


    Policy discourses in support of school reform in England have linked the objective of raising standards with that of tackling inequality. The assumption that a single policy strategy can tackle both objectives simultaneously is problematic. In this article, I examine issues of equity by studying admissions policy and practice. Drawing on a…

  1. Constructing a Female Delinquent Self: Assessing Pupils in the Dutch State Reform School for Girls, 1905-1975

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultman, S.M.


    This dissertation examines the ways in which the four key assessment techniques used in the Dutch State Reform School for Girls (1905-1975) functioned in processes of identity construction for the pupils. To do so, it looks inside the dossiers of the pupils, in which the paper traces of these

  2. The Audacity to Teach: An Examination of Reform Policy, School Leadership, and Their Relationships Mediated by Instructional Capacity (United States)

    Easley, Jacob, II


    The state of educational effectiveness and student success are of paramount concern in the United States. Concerted efforts have been made to close the achievement gap among White and Black groups. These efforts have occurred both nationally and locally as exemplified by attention to school turnaround and teacher quality. Reform, particularly for…

  3. The Effects of Reform in Principal Selection on Leadership Behavior of General and Vocational High School Principals in Taiwan (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsi-Chi; Lee, Ming-Chao; Tu, Ya-Ling


    Deregulation has formed the primary core of education reform in Taiwan in the past decade. The principal selection system was one of the specific recommendations in the deregulation of education. The method of designation of senior high school principals has changed from being "appointed" to being "selected." The issue as to…

  4. Disruptive Fixation: School Reform and the Pitfalls of Techno-Idealism. Princeton Studies in Culture and Technology Series (United States)

    Sims, Christo


    In New York City in 2009, a new kind of public school opened its doors to its inaugural class of middle schoolers. Conceived by a team of game designers and progressive educational reformers and backed by prominent philanthropic foundations, it promised to reinvent the classroom for the digital age. Ethnographer Christo Sims documented the life of…

  5. The Relative Effects of Environmental, Internal and Contextual Factors on Organizational Learning: The Case of Hong Kong Schools under Reforms. (United States)

    Lam, Y. L. Jack; Pang, S. K. Nicholas


    Path analyses of information from 780 Hong Kong elementary and 1,197 secondary teachers in the midst of national reforms indicated that internal school conditions (transformational leadership, supportive culture, flexible structure) promoted organizational learning and change. External and contextual conditions provided incentives and motivation…

  6. A Policy Sociology Reflection on School Reform in England: From the "Third Way" to the "Big Society" (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam


    This article presents a policy sociology reflection on Bernard Barker's book, "The Pendulum Swings: Transforming School Reform". The book represents Barker's attempt to intervene in education policy during the lead-up to the 2010 UK general election and is framed by what he imagined might be possible under a new Conservative government.…

  7. Sustainable or Distributed Energy—or both? Clarifying the Basic Concepts of Reforming the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Peura


    Full Text Available This paper clarifies the concepts of Sustainable Energy (SE and Distributed Energy (DE including their related synonyms, by discussing, analyzing and presenting recommendations. This is important because these concepts are crucial in the on-going transformation from the fossil carbon based to renewable energy based societies, but still the use of the concepts has been confusing. SE consists of the integration of rational use of energy (energy saving, energy efficiency, use of renewable energy sources and sustainability management for anticipating, avoiding and reducing adverse impacts. The best consensus for defining DE is “facilities connected to the distribution network or on the customer side of the meter”. Devices using fossil fuels but otherwise falling under this umbrella cannot be excluded from DE. This paper explores definitions of wind power in relation to its grid connections via DE. SE is more comprehensive embracing the whole field of energy management, with the exception of distributed fossil generation. SE is valuable for understanding, planning and implementing energy strategies in the transition process of the energy sector. SE also includes centralized energy. It is useful for planning at national or sub-national geographic regions. The combination Sustainable Distributed Energy (SDE is excellent for regional contexts and for creating regional renewable energy self-sufficiency, integrated with society-wide energy saving and energy efficiency programs.

  8. Segregation in primary schools - Do school districts really matter? Evidence from policy reforms


    Makles, Anna; Schneider, Kerstin


    This paper analyzes the effect of the abolition of school districts in North-Rhine Westphalia on ethnic segregation in primary schools, using data from the school statistics from 2006/07 to 2008/09. The effect of the new policy is not easily identified, because several additional changes to the school law and nationality law have also affected segregation. We propose using a measure of systematic segregation and a Wald test in order to test for differences in systematic segregation and to est...

  9. Changing classroom practices: the role of school-wide capacity for sustainable improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleegers, P.J.C.; Thoonen, Eric E.J.; Oort, Frans J.; Peetsma, Thea T.D.


    Purpose – Elementary schools have been confronted with large-scale educational reforms as strategies to improve the educational quality. While building school-wide capacity for improvement is considered critical for changing teachers’ classroom practices, there is still little empirical evidence for

  10. Changing classroom practices: the role of school-wide capacity for sustainable improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleegers, P.J.C.; Thoonen, E.E.J.; Oort, F.J.; Peetsma, T.T.D.


    Purpose: Elementary schools have been confronted with large-scale educational reforms as strategies to improve the educational quality. While building school-wide capacity for improvement is considered critical for changing teachers’ classroom practices, there is still little empirical evidence for

  11. Inclusive Education for Students with Refugee Experience: Whole School Reform in a South Australian Primary School (United States)

    Pugh, Karen; Every, Danielle; Hattam, Robert


    In recent years, there has been an increase in students with refugee experience in the UK, the US, Europe and Australia. These students face many barriers to education, and appropriately educating this diverse student population presents many challenges to schools and education departments. We argue that a whole of school approach that includes…

  12. Lessons Learned: How Early College High Schools Offer a Pathway for High School Reform (United States)

    Kaniuka, Theodore Stefan; Vickers, Melinda


    In 2002, Early College High Schools Initiative became a reality across the United States for students and educators looking for ways to improve student graduation rates, college attendance, and overall student achievement. This mixed method case study found that (a) the early college high school environment supported the academic success of…

  13. The Secondary School Pipeline: Longitudinal Indicators of Resilience and Resistance in Urban Schools Under Reform (United States)

    Samel, Arthur N.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Fischer, John M.; Patterson, Nancy C.


    Students in the secondary education pipeline, the 6-year period between 7th and 12th grades, deal with external and internal conditions that facilitate or hinder progress to graduation and beyond--these conditions offer resilience or resistance and influence student movement through public schools. This study follows an urban middle school cohort…

  14. Opportunities and Challenges for Integrating Sustainability Education into K-12 Schools: Case Study Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    Redman, Erin


    Teacher education for sustainability is a central part of integrating sustainability into classrooms and schools. However, educating for sustainability is not limited to increased content knowledge; rather it encompasses different forms of knowledge that embrace the normative, dynamic and action-oriented nature of sustainability. Curriculum for a…

  15. High Performance Sustainable School Design: Roy Lee Walker Elementary, McKinney, Texas. (United States)

    SHW Group, Inc., Dallas, TX.

    This document describes the sustainable features of the Roy Lee Walker Elementary School (Texas), a prototype "Eco Education" school that blends the physical environment with the student learning process while protecting the site. The document also presents the process of integrating sustainability criteria in all phases of the school's…

  16. Sustainable Schools. IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues. (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan

    This report examines how an integrated design of the educational program and a school facility that responds to the economic, environmental, and social needs of a community create sustainable schools. It explores the effect buildings have on the earth's natural resources, the steps districts can take toward sustainable school design during…

  17. Individual sustainable mobility - priorities for policy reform and an agenda for action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwilliam, K.M. [The World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)


    This paper argues that the problem of individual sustainable mobility is predominantly an urban problem. In that context, `individual` cannot be narrowly interpreted as private automobile, and `sustainability` cannot be narrowly interpreted as only environmental; a sound economics basis is required for the achievement of environmental and social objectives, and trade offs between economic, social and environmental objectives must be recognized and confronted. Urban form is important, as a means of influencing both total demand and modal split. But it has severe limitations, particularly in developing countries and must be supported by appropriate institutional and pricing structures. Technology can attenuate but not overcome the problems of private mobility, and the role of simple technologies needs to be given more careful attention. Public transport retains a critical role but must also be treated in a practical, economic manner. Competition, to improve efficiency, can be reconciled with social and environmental objectives through appropriate design of franchising and regulatory regimes. All of these instruments are only likely to be effectively deployed in an appropriate institutional context, involving proper coordination of land use and transport planning, of transport functions and nodes, and of local jurisdictions. (author) 16 refs.

  18. Creating a Learning Environment to Promote Food Sustainability Issues in Primary Schools? Staff Perceptions of Implementing the Food for Life Partnership Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Orme


    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the role that schools can play in promoting education for sustainable development (ESD, and evidence is emerging that schools can be influential in the emerging agenda around the ecological, ethical and social aspects of food, diet and nutrition. With regard to such food sustainability issues, this paper analyses the role of the Food for Life Partnership national programme in supporting garden and farm-based learning activities in 55 primary schools in England, UK. Using a mixed methods approach, the study examined the programme’s implementation through staff perceptions and a range of school change indicators. The study found that the programme delivery was associated with widespread institutional reforms. According to staff, implementation of the programme provided a range of opportunities for pupils to learn about food production and sustainability, but addressing these issues was challenging for teachers and raised a number of questions concerned with effective, equitable and on-going implementation. At a pedagogical level, teachers also reflected on conceptually challenging aspects of food sustainability as a topic for primary school education. The study identified ways that ESD programmes could support schools to think about and implement learning opportunities as well as identifying significant barriers related to resourcing such programmes.

  19. Equity through Assessment? Teachers' Mediation of Outcome-Focused Reforms in Socioeconomically Different Schools (United States)

    Strandler, Ola


    Despite uncertainties regarding the effects of outcome-focused reforms on teaching practices, the political confidence in the potential of such reforms to create educational change remains high. This article problematizes the assumption that two such Swedish reforms (grades and national tests in younger years) can function as an impetus for…

  20. Perceptions of Principals, Teachers, and School Food, Health, and Nutrition Professionals Regarding the Sustainability and Utilization of School Food Gardens (United States)

    Jaeschke, Elizabeth M.; Schumacher, Julie Raeder; Cullen, Robert W.; Wilson, Mardell A.


    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of various school personnel who are key participants in child nutrition and wellness regarding the sustainability and use of school gardens. Methods: A convenience sample of staff from schools with school gardens across the United States was established, consisting of:…

  1. Beyond Random Acts: Family, School, and Community Engagement as an Integral Part of Education Reform. National Policy Forum for Family, School, & Community Engagement (United States)

    Weiss, Heather B.; Lopez, M. Elena; Rosenberg, Heidi


    The policy forum brought to the center what is now on the periphery of education reform: family, school, and community engagement (FSCE) as a strategy to support student success. The forum sought to serve as a catalyst for reframing what FSCE should look like in the twenty--first century, and for repositioning this engagement as a major…

  2. Reinventing Schools Research Project: Collaborative Research Project on the Merger of General and Special Education School Reforms. Final Report--Executive Summary (Long Version). (United States)

    Ferguson, Dianne L.; Meyer, Gwen; Dalmau, Mary; Droege, Cleo; Ferguson, Philip M.; Gudjonsdottir, Hafdis; Katul, Nadia; Lester, Jackie; Moore, Caroline; Oxley, Diana; Ralph, Ginevra; Rivers, Eileen

    This final report describes the activities and outcomes of a federally-funded project that investigated how the inclusion of students with severe and other disabilities merges with larger efforts of educators, administrators, and parents to restructure and reform schools, and how to influence the directions of that merger. The project explored how…

  3. Garden Cities of the 21st Century: A Sustainable Path to Suburban Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Vernet


    Full Text Available The garden city is often presented as a low-density, unsustainable and space-consuming archetype of suburbanization (Duany, Roberts, & Tallen, 2014; Hall, 2014; Safdie & Kohn, 1997. It has been deliberately also misused by property developers for gated communities (Le Goix, 2003; Webster, 2001. But these projects have little in common with the original concept of garden cities. We argue that the original garden city, as a theory (Howard, 1898 and as experiments (Letchworth and Welwyn Garden Cities, is a precedent that can be used in a sustainable approach that addresses a range of issues and concerns, such as housing, governance, the economy, mobility, the community, agriculture, energy and health. The recent Wolfson Economics Prize (2014 and the many new garden cities and suburbs projects currently planned in the UK have demonstrated the resurgence of this model in the planning world, both in terms of theory and practice. In this paper, we explore its potential in the light of environmental challenges. We therefore suggest that as a model, it can in particular underpin the evolution of suburbs in an era of energy transition, since these areas require an ecosystemic rather than sectoral approach to design.

  4. The Urgency of Doing: Assessing the System of Sustainable Implementation Model via the Schools Implementing towards Sustainability (SITS) Scale (United States)

    Moceri, Dominic C.; Elias, Maurice J.; Fishman, Daniel B.; Pandina, Robert; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A.


    School-based prevention and promotion interventions (SBPPI) improve desirable outcomes (e.g., commitment to school and attendance) and reduce undesirable outcomes (e.g., suspensions and violence). Unfortunately, our understanding of how to effectively implement and sustain SBPPI outside of well-controlled conditions is lacking. To bridge this…

  5. Instructional Innovations: The Impact of Comprehensive School Reforms on Middle School Students' Achievement (United States)

    Mitchell, Senetha G.


    Many U.S. middle schools are beset with a multitude of problems that encompasses a lack of achievement, access to necessary resources, failure to make adequate yearly progress, and an inadequate supply of effective teachers. This is particularly alarming because social and intellectual capital have become the prevailing values of the 21st century.…

  6. Big City Mayors and School Governance Reform: The Case of School District Takeover (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Shen, Francis X.


    As the "Peabody Journal of Education" celebrates its 80th anniversary, educational policymakers and practitioners are keenly aware of the many changes in the way public schools have been governed in large urban districts over the last 80 years. Among the most significant changes is the role of the mayor. Although the 1920s saw partisan politics in…

  7. Reforming Special Education. (United States)

    Fishkin, Anne S.; Sullivan, Michael

    This paper describes education reform as an integrated effort to modify not only the structure and elements of the education system but also the culture or belief structure of that system. Central to any discussion of school reform are the elements of restructuring, empowerment, and change. Current reform efforts in restructuring revolve around a…

  8. Perceived Enablers and Barriers Related to Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (United States)

    Pinkelman, Sarah E.; McIntosh, Kent; Rasplica, Caitlin K.; Berg, Tricia; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen


    The purpose of this study was to identify the most important perceived enablers and barriers regarding sustainability of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. School personnel representing 860 schools implementing or preparing to implement school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports completed an open-ended…

  9. Leadership and Context Connectivity: Merging Two Forces for Sustainable School Improvement (United States)

    Marishane, Nylon Ramodikoe


    School improvement is admittedly the main business of school leadership. However, while there is agreement on the importance of school improvement, sustaining this improvement remains a challenge. The challenge seems to lie in the disconnection between the leader and the context in which the school operates. This chapter presents contextual…

  10. Sustaining School Improvement in a High-Need School: Longitudinal Analysis of Robbins Elementary School (USA) from 1993 to 2015 (United States)

    Okilwa, Nathern; Barnett, Bruce


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how Robbins ES has sustained high academic performance over almost 20 years despite several changes in principals. Design/methodology/approach: The paper analyzed longitudinal data based on: state-level academic and demographic data; two earlier studies of the school; and recent interviews with…

  11. Supporting Structures for Education for Sustainable Development and School-Based Health Promotion (United States)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegaard; Simovska, Venka


    The article aims to explore the following question: "How is education for sustainable development and health education in schools approached and contextualized at a municipal level, and what contradictions and tensions might local structures imply for sustainable health promoting school development?" Based on interviews with key agents…

  12. Supporting structures for education for sustainable development and school-based health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegard; Simovska, Venka


    The article aims to explore the following question: How is education for sustainable development and health education in schools approached and contextualized at a municipal level, and what contradictions and tensions might local structures imply for sustainable health promoting school developmen...

  13. Evaluating School-Community Participation in Developing a Local Sustainability Agenda (United States)

    Eilam, Efrat; Trop, Tamar


    Increasingly, international and national statements are calling for the development of local sustainability scenarios within partnerships between schools and their communities. The present study addresses the question of reciprocity in such partnerships, by comparing the sustainability agendas underlying schools' educational programs to the…

  14. The Teaching Learning Process of Pancasila and Civics Education (PPKn) at Elementary Schools in the Reformation Era


    Rudi, Sunarti


    A basic change is needed in the teaching learning process of Pancasila and Civics Education (PPKn) at elementary schools in the reformation era. The change of the teaching learning process should start from that of the indoctrinative authoritative attitude of a PPKn teacher to familiar-democratic one, followed by the change of materials teaching learning strategy, teaching aids, and evaluation. Furthermore, in the teaching learning process, the student should be motivated to change his passiv...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D’Anna


    Full Text Available The demand of short food supply chains is becoming more pressing by consumers, especially in the largest school catering. The implementation of the short chain in a large catering company of Milan, is described in this practical contribution. Several aspects of short food chains sustainability: legal, commercial and economic sustainability, hygienic and gastronomic sustainability, are discussed.

  16. Medical school curricular reform: fourth-year colleges improve access to career mentoring and overall satisfaction. (United States)

    Coates, Wendy C; Crooks, Kimberly; Slavin, Stuart J; Guiton, Gretchen; Wilkerson, LuAnn


    Despite the trend toward curricular reform in the preclinical and core clerkship years, the fourth year of medical school is commonly unstructured, allowing students to take multiple "audition electives" in preparation for residency. Students struggle to identify mentors in their intended specialty in time to plan a well-rounded elective schedule and to prepare adequately for residency selection. The authors described the impact that an innovative fourth-year curriculum, the "College Program" at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California-Los Angeles, which focuses on mentoring and required curricular components, has had on student perceptions of access to career mentors and overall satisfaction with the fourth-year experience. Pre- and postintervention cohorts participated in a 25-question telephone survey about their experience with mentors and overall satisfaction with their fourth year in 2001 and 2003. The Association of American Medical Colleges Graduation Questionnaire was analyzed as a secondary outcome measure, and responses were compared with those of national peers. Data were analyzed using two tailed t tests. Students in the intervention group reported a higher degree of satisfaction with accessibility to mentors and the impact they had on their educational experiences and careers than the preintervention cohort. Despite initial concerns that student freedom was going to be compromised, the students who participated in the College curriculum reported increased satisfaction with an intense foundations course, longitudinal experiences in the clinical setting, and scholarly projects during their senior year. Fourth-year students in the College Program were more likely to identify and develop better relationships with faculty mentors than their preintervention counterparts. They indicated excellent residency preparedness, and their overall impression of the fourth year was favorable.

  17. A Fourteen Year Follow-Up Study of Health Promoting Schools in Norway: Principals` Perceptions of Conditions Influencing Sustainability


    Tjomsland, Hege Eikeland; Larsen, Torill Marie Bogsnes; Viig, Nina Grieg; Wold, Bente


    In this study, we examined the sustainability of health-promoting practices in Norwegian schools that were enrolled in the European Network of Health-Promoting Schools from 1993 to 2003. The research questions were: How do the principals perceive that health-promoting practices have been sustained in the schools following the schools' membership of the health-promoting schools network? In what way is school leadership related to the sustainability of health promotion? The study draws on quali...

  18. School-Based Health Centers in an Era of Health Care Reform: Building on History (United States)

    Keeton, Victoria; Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire D.


    School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide a variety of health care services to youth in a convenient and accessible environment. Over the past 40 years, the growth of SBHCs evolved from various public health needs to the development of a specific collaborative model of care that is sensitive to the unique needs of children and youth, as well as to vulnerable populations facing significant barriers to access. The SBHC model of health care comprises of on-school site health care delivery by an interdisciplinary team of health professionals, which can include primary care and mental health clinicians. Research has demonstrated the SBHCs’ impacts on delivering preventive care, such as immunizations; managing chronic illnesses, such as asthma, obesity, and mental health conditions; providing reproductive health services for adolescents; and even improving youths’ academic performance. Although evaluation of the SBHC model of care has been complicated, results have thus far demonstrated increased access to care, improved health and education outcomes, and high levels of satisfaction. Despite their proven success, SBHCs have consistently faced challenges in securing adequate funding for operations and developing effective financial systems for billing and reimbursement. Implementation of health care reform (The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [P.L. 111-148]) will profoundly affect the health care access and outcomes of children and youth, particularly vulnerable populations. The inclusion of funding for SBHCs in this legislation is momentous, as there continues to be increased demand and limited funding for affordable services. To better understand how this model of care has and could further help promote the health of our nation’s youth, a review is presented of the history and growth of SBHCs and the literature demonstrating their impacts. It may not be feasible for SBHCs to be established in every school campus in the country. However, the lessons

  19. Current Developments in School Education in Turkey: Education "Reforms" and Teacher Trade Union Responses (United States)

    Buyruk, Halil


    Education "reforms"' have been accelerated in the last decade in Turkey. Teachers, as the main actors of the education system, have developed a variety of responses to the reforms implemented in the field of education, both individually and collectively. They give directions to the change process in education by means of their trade…

  20. The Ineffectiveness of High School Graduation Credit Requirement Reforms: A Story of Implementation and Enforcement? (United States)

    Carlson, Deven; Planty, Michael


    Graduation credit requirement reforms were expected to have a significant impact on the American educational landscape, but scholars have concluded that these reforms have exhibited less impact than expected on a wide range of educational outcomes. Drawing on Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy, we hypothesize that graduation requirement…

  1. The effects of a Dutch high school curriculum reform on performance in and after higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.; Berkhout, P.; Webbink, D.


    This paper investigates the effect of a major reform in the final years of the two highest levels of Dutch secondary education. The reform focused on increasing active and independent learning and aimed to improve the match between secondary and higher education. We use data from six graduation

  2. Education as Recovery: Neoliberalism, School Reform, and the Politics of Crisis (United States)

    Slater, Graham B.


    Building upon critical education policy studies of crisis, disaster, and reform, this essay develops a theory of "recovery" that further elaborates the nature and operation of "crisis politics" in neoliberal education reform. Recovery is an integral process in capital accumulation, exploiting material, and subjective…

  3. The Road Ahead for School Finance Reform: Legislative Trends 2011 and beyond (United States)

    Crampton, Faith E.; Thompson, David C.


    The reform of education funding systems to achieve greater equity and adequacy is an ongoing struggle in many states. Because funding of public elementary and secondary education is constitutionally a state responsibility, the struggle plays out largely in state legislatures. At the same time, education finance reform does not take place in a…

  4. Quality Reform: Personality Type, Preferred Learning Style and Majors in a Business School (United States)

    Fallan, Lars


    The quality reform of higher education in Norway has generally recommended a substitution of classroom teaching with more active forms of learning in higher education. This study reveals that ignoring the student's personality type may be in conflict with the purpose of the reform. The student's personality type affects both the most effective…

  5. Dewey and Italian School Policy: Proposals for Reform by Scuola e Città (1950–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mariuzzo


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the role of Ernesto Codignola’s «Florence School of Pedagogy» in the renewal of Italian democratic and secular education after World War II, particularly its commitment to the diffusion of John Dewey’s educational thinking across Italy, previously dominated by the influence of traditional neo-idealism. Through a systematic analysis of the journal Scuola e Città, the group’s mouthpiece, the paper highlights the importance of Dewey’s ideas in the elaboration of educational policy proposals and potential legislative measures for school reform. It analyses the extent to which the «Deweyan laboratory» in Florence contributed to the emergence and foundation of the positions held by one of its exponents, Ernesto Codignola’s son Tristano – the Italian Socialist Party’s Education minister, in the parliamentary debate of the Sixties. The paper focuses on three main themes: (i assessment of the government’s primary school curricula, drawn up in the mid-fifties, characterized by an overhaul of the existing educational practices, which Scuola e città authors considered to be insufficient and contradictory; (ii universal access to a junior secondary education along the lines of the comprehensive school model to guide the active stimulation of students’ abilities and interests; and (iii school administration reform in response to the persistence of pre-war centralism and the authoritarian character of traditional Italian pedagogy.

  6. From pedagogy to timeagogy? Leisure-time pedagogues handling time in the reformed Danish Primary School and Leisure-time Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Ringskou, Lea Thomsen

    , Denmark. E-mail: Research topic/aim: In 2014, the Danish Primary School was reformed. A reform that meant longer school days, emphasizing varied learning environments and better results for each pupil regardless of social background. In general, the reform matches other educational reforms...... effectiveness and academic outcomes. In our presentation, launching the concept of timeagogy, we analyze and discuss the encounter between time and pedagogy. Which strategies, techniques and action evolve when time challenges pedagogy? How do pedagogues handle time demands and in which way does time constitute...... the professional identity of leisure-time pedagogues? Theoretical and methodological framework: Our empirical material consists of different data types. Part of the data is ethnographic participant observations carried out in two Danish primary schools. During the period of observations, the informants kept...

  7. Negotiating a space to teach science: Stories of community conversation and personal process in a school reform effort (United States)

    Barker, Heidi Bulmahn

    This is a qualitative study about elementary teachers in a school district who are involved in a science curricular reform effort. The teachers attempted to move from textbook-based science teaching to a more inquiry and process-based approach. I specifically explore how teachers negotiate their place within changes in pedagogy and curriculum and how this negotiation is enacted in the space of a teacher's own classroom. The account developed here is based on a two-year study. Presented are descriptions, analysis, and my own interpretations of teaching and conversations as teachers spoke with one another, with me and with children as they tried out the new science curriculum and pedagogies. I conclude that people interested in school reform should consider the following ideas as they work with teachers to implement pedagogical and curricular changes. (1) Teaching is a personal/individual process that takes place within a larger community. This leads to a complex context for working and making decisions. (2) Despite feeling that changes were imposed, teachers make the curriculum work for the needs in their own classroom. (3) Change is a process that teachers view as part of their work. Teachers expect that they will adapt curriculum and make it work for the children in their classes and for themselves. I suggest that those who advocate various reform efforts in teaching and curriculum should consider the spaces that teachers create as they become a part of the change process including intellectual, physical, and emotional ones. In my stories I assert: teachers create their own spaces for making changes in pedagogy and curriculum and they do this as a complex negotiation of external demands (such as their community, relationships with colleagues, and state standards) and their own values and interpretations. The ways that teachers implement the change process is a personal one, and because it is a personal process, school reform efforts largely depend on the teachers

  8. Reforming the 4th-Year Curriculum as a Springboard to Graduate Medical Training: One School's Experiences and Lessons Learned. (United States)

    Wackett, Andrew; Daroowalla, Feroza; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Chandran, Latha


    Concerns regarding the quality of training in the 4th year of medical school and preparation of graduates to enter residency education persist and are borne out in the literature. We reviewed the published literature regarding Year 4 concerns as well as institutional efforts to improve the 4th-year curriculum from several schools. Based on input from key stakeholders, we established 4 goals for our Year 4 curriculum reform: (a) standardize the curricular structure, (b) allow flexibility and individualization, (c) improve the preparation for residency, and (d) improve student satisfaction. After the reform, we evaluated the outcomes using results from the Association of American Medical Colleges Questionnaire, student focus groups, and program director surveys. This article describes the context, process, and outcomes of the reform of the Year 4 curriculum at Stony Brook University School of Medicine. We were able to achieve all four stated goals for the reform. The significant components of the change included a flexible adaptable curriculum based on individual needs and preferences, standardized learning objectives across the year, standardized competency-based evaluations regardless of discipline, reinforcement of clinical skills, and training for the transition to the workplace as an intern. The reform resulted in increased student satisfaction, increased elective time, and increased preparedness for residency training as perceived by the graduates. The Program Director survey showed significant changes in ability to perform a medical history and exam, management of common medical conditions and emergencies, clinical reasoning and problem-solving skills, working and communication with the healthcare team, and overall professionalism in meeting obligations inherent in the practice of medicine. Lessons learned from our 4th-year reform process are discussed. Listening to the needs of the stakeholders was an important step in ensuring buy-in, having an institutional

  9. Fostering sustainable dietary habits through optimized school meals in Sweden – OPTIMAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eustachio Colombo, Patricia; Schäfer-Elinder, Liselotte; Parlesak, Alexandr


    The fulfilment of commitments to international agreements that relate to sustainable development requires fundamental changes in food consumption. This project aims to promote healthy and sustainable dietary habits in Sweden through optimized school meals. Several studies are planned. The first i...... to contribute to more sustainable procurement and consumption patterns, a more efficient use of public resources, and to fulfilment of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.......The fulfilment of commitments to international agreements that relate to sustainable development requires fundamental changes in food consumption. This project aims to promote healthy and sustainable dietary habits in Sweden through optimized school meals. Several studies are planned. The first...... is an analysis of children’s dietary intake in relation to school meal quality. The second is a modelling study where nutritious, affordable and theoretically acceptable food baskets, optimized for low emissions of greenhouse gases, are developed. Menus based on these baskets will be developed and tested...

  10. Social Equality as Groundwork for Sustainable Schooling: The Free Lunch Issue (United States)

    Kairiene, Brigita; Sprindziunas, Andrius


    The purpose of the present study was to discuss the way of organizing free lunch at public schools as an important precondition for social equality and sustainability in school, by revealing acute forms of social disjunction in Lithuanian schools as a major incongruity with Children Rights, and an obstacle to the achievement of general education…

  11. Frontier Schools in Montana: Challenges and Sustainability Practices. A Research Report (United States)

    Harmon, Hobart L.; Morton, Claudette


    This study reveals the challenges confronting small, rural "frontier" schools in Montana and the practices that contribute to their sustainability. A Montana frontier school is defined as a school district with 200 or fewer students and its attendant community in a county with five or fewer people per square mile. The researcher…

  12. School Facilities and Sustainability-Related Concepts: A Study of Hellenic Secondary School Principals', Teachers', Pupils' and Parents' Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vasiliki Zepatou; Maria Loizidou; Archontoula Chaloulakou; Nicolas Spyrellis


    ... and attitudes of pupils, teachers, principals and parents towards sustainable construction and the selection and use of materials in schools that are friendly to the environment and human health...

  13. The Teaching Of Astronomy In The Lyceums Of Naousa Eight Years After The School Reform Of 1997 (United States)

    Tomboulides, Hariton


    The teaching of Astronomy as a separate subject in the second grade of the upper high school in Greece, has more or less disappeared since the school reform of 1997. This applies even in the two Lyceums in Naousa, which have a good tradition in Astronomy teaching, where the number of pupils attending the subject has been diminished to 1/5 of the total amount of pupils. The main reason for this is the national character of the examinations a pupil has to take, in order to pass the grade. Astronomy has changed to an optional subject since the reform 1997, and the pupil chooses mainly a foreign language, computers or sketching in order to get higher grades to help him to advance. In order to keep the subject of Astronomy as a separate subject in both Lyceums of Naousa many activities take place, both in the schoolyard and in the open areas in the city. The use of the school telescope for observing the solar sunspots, the Venus transit and the planets was applied last school year for the pupils to choose Astronomy as a separate subject.

  14. Science education reform in an elementary school: An investigation of collaboration and inquiry in a school with an emphasis on language arts and fine arts (United States)

    Martini, Mariana

    This investigation was framed within the science education reform, which proposes to change the way science is taught and promotes the implementation of inquiry-based teaching approaches. The implementation of inquiry science teaching represents a move away from traditional didactic teaching styles, a transition that requires change in the assumptions underlying the philosophy of traditional science instruction. Another theme in the reform literature is the establishment of collaboration between teachers and researchers or scientists as a way to implement reform practices. Situated within this reform climate, this research aimed to investigate science education at an elementary school with a history of implementing reform ideas in the areas of language arts and fine arts. I employed an ethnographic methodology to examine the nature of a teacher-researcher relationship in the context of the school's culture and teachers' practices. The findings indicate that change was not pervasive. Reform ideas were implemented only in the areas of language arts and fine arts. Situated within a district that promoted an accountability climate, the school disregarded science education and opposed the use of constructivist-based pedagogies, and did not have a strong science program. Since science was not tested, teachers spent little (if any) time teaching science. All participants firmly perceived the existence of several barriers to the implementation of inquiry: (a) lack of time: teachers spent excessive time to prepare students for tests, (b) nature of science teaching: materials and set preparation, (c) lack of content knowledge, (d) lack of pedagogical content knowledge, and (e) lack of opportunities to develop professional knowledge. In spite of the barriers, the school had two assets: an outdoor facility and two enthusiastic teachers who were lead science teachers, in spite of the their lack of content and pedagogical science knowledge. Collaboration between the researcher

  15. The Effects of the Washington Education Reform on School and Classroom Practice, 1999-2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stechner, Brian


    .... One way that these efforts differ from earlier reforms is that they involve the adoption of content and student performance standards--explicit benchmarks of what students should know and be able...

  16. Zero Waste: A Realistic Sustainability Program for Schools (United States)

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra


    Eco-Cycle, one of the nation's oldest and largest nonprofit recycling organizations, has coordinated recycling services and environmental education programs for the two Boulder area public school districts (80 schools) since 1987. In 2005, Eco-Cycle launched the Green Star Schools program in four pilot elementary schools with the goal of moving…

  17. The Impact of Accountability Reforms on the Key Stage 4 Curriculum: How Have Changes to School and College Performance Tables Affected Pupil Access to Qualifications and Subjects in Secondary Schools in England? (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Meenakshi; Thomson, Dave


    The Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition Government's reforms to secondary school Performance Tables have changed how schools make decisions about the subjects and qualifications entered by their pupils. The National Pupil Database is used to explore these changes between 2005 and 2014. We find that schools are responding to accountability…

  18. The Library School: empowering the sustainable innovation capacity of new librarians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Verjans, Steven; Bruijnzeels, Rob


    Bitter-Rijpkema, M. E., Verjans, S., & Bruijnzeels, R. (2012). The Library School: empowering the sustainable innovation capacity of new librarians. Library Management, 33(1/2), 36-49. doi:10.1108/01435121211203301

  19. Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship for Los Angeles Unified School District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.


    This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.

  20. Preconditions for Sustainable Changes in Didactics Applying Self-Directed Learning in the General Education School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ausra Kazlauskiene; Ramute Gaucaite; Rasa Poceviciene


    Implementation of the result-oriented (self-)education paradigm in the general education school requires sustainable changes in didactics not only on the strategic document plane but also in educational practice...

  1. Ecological footprint as an indicator of sustainability at Lisbon School of Health Technology, Portugal


    de Francisco, Sara; Costa, Gonçalo; Manteigas, Vítor


    Higher education institutions, has an active role in the development of a sustainable future and for this reason, it is essential that they became environmentally sustainable institutions, applying methods such as the Ecological Footprint analysis. This study intent is to strengthen the potential of the ecological footprint as an indicator of the sustainability of students of Lisbon School of Health Technology, and identify the relationship between the ecological footprint and the different s...

  2. Using Machine Learning in Environmental Tax Reform Assessment for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinger Zheng


    Full Text Available During the past 30 year of economic growth, China has also accumulated a huge environmental pollution debt. China’s government attempts to use a variety of means, including tax instruments to control environmental pollution. After nine years of repeated debates, the State Council Legislative Affairs Office released the Environmental Protection Tax Law (Draft in June 2015. As China’s first environmental tax law, whether this conservative “Environmental Fee to Tax (EFT” reform could improve the environment has generated controversy. In this paper, we seek insights to this controversial issue using the machine learning approach, a powerful tool for environmental policy assessment. We take Hubei Province, the first pilot area as a case of EFT, and analyze the institutional incentive, behavior transformation and emission intensity reduction performance. Twelve pilot cities located in Hubei Province were selected to estimate the effect of the reform by using synthetic control and a rapid developing machine learning method for policy evaluation. We find that the EFT reform can promote emission intensity reduction. Especially, relative to comparable synthetic cities in the absence of the reform, the average annual emission intensity of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 in the pilot cities dropped by 0.13 ton/million Yuan with a reduction rate of 10%–32%. Our findings also show that the impact of environmental tax reform varies across cities due to the administrative level and economic development. The results of our study are also supported by enterprise interviews. The EFT improves the overall environmental costs, and encourages enterprises to reduce emissions pollution. These results provide valuable experience and policy implications for the implementation of China’s Environmental Protection Tax Law.

  3. Sustained Benefit Over Four-Year Follow-Up of Michigan's Project Healthy Schools. (United States)

    Corriveau, Nicole; Eagle, Taylor; Jiang, Qingmei; Rogers, Robert; Gurm, Roopa; Aaronson, Susan; Mitchell, Lindsey; DuRussel-Weston, Jean; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Eagle, Kim A; Jackson, Elizabeth A


    We determined the sustainability of effects of a school-based intervention to improve health behaviors and cardiovascular risk factors among middle school children. We administered a questionnaire and health screenings to 5 schools in Ann Arbor and 2 schools in Ypsilanti, Michigan. We assessed demographics, physiological factors, diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors from 1126 students who received a health curriculum (Project Healthy Schools) in the fall of sixth grade in 2005, 2006, and 2007. We administered the questionnaire and screening again in the spring and each subsequent spring through ninth grade to all available, consenting students. In the 4 years following the school-based intervention, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides improved, and for most years systolic and diastolic blood pressure improved. Serum glucose and body mass index did not change. Physical activity increased and sedentary behaviors diminished. Project Healthy Schools is associated with sustainable improvements in both cardiovascular parameters and healthy behaviors.

  4. An Interpretive Framework for Assessing and Monitoring the Sustainability of School Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sottile


    Full Text Available School gardens are, increasingly, an integral part of projects aiming to promote nutritional education and environmental sustainability in many countries throughout the world. In the late 1950s, FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization and UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund had already developed projects to improve the dietary intake and behavior through school and community gardens. However, notwithstanding decades of experience, real proof of how these programs contribute to improving sustainability has not been well-documented, and reported findings have mostly been anecdotal. Therefore, it is important to begin a process of collecting and monitoring data to quantify the results and possibly improve their efficiency. This study’s primary goal is to propose an interpretive structure—the “Sustainable Agri-Food Evaluation Methodology-Garden” (SAEMETH-G, that is able to quantifiably guide the sustainability evaluation of various school garden organizational forms. As a case study, the methodology was applied to 15 school gardens located in three regions of Kenya, Africa. This application of SAEMETH-G as an assessment tool based on user-friendly indicators demonstrates that it is possible to carry out sustainability evaluations of school gardens through a participatory and interdisciplinary approach. Thus, the hypothesis that the original SAEMETH operative framework could be tested in gardens has also been confirmed. SAEMETH-G is a promising tool that has the potential to help us understand school gardens’ sustainability better and to use that knowledge in their further development all over the world.

  5. Planning for Sustainability of an Evidence-Based Mental Health Promotion Program in Canadian Elementary Schools. (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Gladstone, Emilie J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena


    Substantial research illuminates many factors effecting the implementation of evidence-based mental health promotion programs in schools; however, research on how schools plan for sustaining their investments in these programs is limited. In this qualitative study, we elicited descriptions of opportunities and challenges for sustainability. We interviewed 24 individuals from schools involved in a longitudinal, qualitative research project that followed uptake and implementation of the evidence-based WITS Programs across 2 years (Leadbeater et al. 2012). WITS stands for Walk away, Ignore, Talk it out and Seek help and the online WITS Programs focus on preventing peer victimization ( ). Our findings suggest that sustainability planning in schools is not merely a next step following high quality implementation, but rather involves multiple ongoing processes that need to be anticipated and supported by school leadership and program champions and developers in order to realize investments in evidence-based programs.

  6. Indiana high school science teachers' beliefs about the intended and actual impacts of standards-based reforms (United States)

    Shane, Joseph W.

    Teachers' beliefs about educational policy are essential components of successful, local implementation. Policies not accounting for teachers' beliefs about learning, instruction, and effective reform risk being ignored or ineffectually implemented. In this research, I characterize the beliefs that science teachers from three high schools in Indiana have about general aspects of standards-based reforms and about the Indiana Academic Standards for Science (IASS). On-site focus group interviews were the primary method of data collection. An amalgam of Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics and narrative representation of qualitative data guided the inquiry by defining the researcher as the voice of the 23 participating teachers, locating the teachers' beliefs in their specific historical contexts, and displaying the results in a storied form unified by plots. I synthesized the data sources into a single narrative organized around the participants' personal teaching philosophies, their perceptions of students and administration, and their visions of standards beyond their own beliefs and school contexts. Based on the narrative, I concluded that (a) teachers with affective or preparative beliefs had neutral stances toward the IASS, (b) scientifically-oriented teachers believed the IASS contradicted their work, (c) less experienced teachers and those with affective-preparative philosophies were willing to compromise their autonomy and curricular depth to implement the IASS, (d) a continuum of administrative oversight existed across the three schools, (e) teachers at the urban high school adapted the standards to their students' personal needs and future plans, and (f) teachers almost universally recommended broader, flexible standards to allow more autonomy in making curricular decisions, to better reflect scientific inquiry in their classrooms, and to promote continuity across the high school science curriculum.

  7. Evaluation of the relationship between education and sustainability in peasant movements: The experience of the National Education Program in Agrarian Reform. (United States)

    Camacho, Rodrigo Simão; Sobreiro Filho, José; Sobreiro, Vinicius Amorim; Mariano, Enzo Barberio


    Brazil is one of the largest agricultural producers in the world. However, its agrarian composition is based on two markedly different production models, particularly in relation to sustainability: a peasant family agriculture, which plays an important role in food production for domestic consumption and advocates agro-ecological practises; and agribusiness, the politically and economically hegemonic model that produces commodities for export based on monoculture and intensive use of pesticides. Therefore, in order to create the means to develop peasant lands, social movements and peasants have engaged themselves politically and defended an education model grounded in sustainable practises of production and social organisation. Taking this into account, the main purpose of this paper is to analyse and assess the Brazilian experience of integration between education and sustainability, in the National Education Program in Agrarian Reform (PRONERA). To accomplish this aim, a survey with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out among teachers, students, monitors, and coordinators of the course offered by PRONERA. The surveys showed that the courses are promoting the concepts of sustainability among peasants. However, many adjustments need to be taken into consideration during the planning process for the next courses offered by PRONERA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sustainability in Schools: Why Green Buildings Have Become a Catalyst (United States)

    Barr, Stephanie; Dunbar, Brian; Schiller, Craig


    With the increase in both green school construction and research linking green schools to healthier students, higher performance and financial return on investment, it is no surprise that the green school design practices are quickly becoming standard practice. This is reason for celebration, yet there are still many mountains to climb to achieve…

  9. Creating sustainable learning environments in schools by means of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many schools in South Africa are dysfunctional, or at least do not function optimally. This statement could be substantiated by just citing statistics about failure rates, school dropout rates, school violence, matric pass rates, learner absenteeism, educator absenteeism or the incidence of discipline problems and the effect ...

  10. Variables Associated with Enhanced Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Kim, Jerin; Mercer, Sterett H.; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Horner, Robert H.


    Practice sustainability is important to ensure that students have continued access to evidence-based practices. In this study, respondents from a national sample of 860 schools at varying stages of implementing School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) were administered a research-validated measure of factors predicting…

  11. Greenhouse Affect: The Relationship between the Sustainable Design of Schools and Children's Environmental Attitudes (United States)

    Izadpanahi, Parisa; Elkadi, Hisham; Tucker, Richard


    This study aims to determine if primary school children's environmental attitudes can be predicted by whether their school had been designed or adapted for sustainability. A New Ecological Paradigm ("NEP") scale for children was adopted to measure attitudes, with supplementary questions added to align this scale to the Australian context…

  12. Sustained Attention during Learning Activities: An Observational Study with Pre-School Children (United States)

    Lopez, Florente; Menez, Marina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura


    The purpose of the present study was to analyse possible developmental trends in sustained attention through the pre-school period, as well as the influence of social and physical distractions. Three samples of children, one per each pre-school grade, were observed during learning activities required by the teacher. Children's behaviour was coded…

  13. 25 CFR 39.801 - What is the formula to determine the amount necessary to sustain a school's academic or... (United States)


    ... sustain a school's academic or residential program? 39.801 Section 39.801 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... To Sustain an Academic or Residential Program § 39.801 What is the formula to determine the amount necessary to sustain a school's academic or residential program? (a) The Secretary's formula to determine...

  14. Teacher perspectives on implementing and sustaining a handwashing promotion intervention in Western Kenyan primary schools. (United States)

    Graves, Janessa M; Finsness, Erica D; Quick, Robert; Nyando Integrated Child Health And Education Project Niche Study Team; Harris, Julie R; Daniell, William E

    School-based handwashing programs are challenging to establish and sustain, especially in low-resource settings. This qualitative study described teacher perspectives associated with implementing and sustaining a handwashing program in primary schools participating in the Nyando Integrated Child Health and Education (NICHE) project. Structured key informant interviews were conducted with teachers. Prevalent concepts and themes were grouped into themes and topic areas using an iterative, open coding approach. Forty-one teacher respondents reported favorable expectations and benefits of handwashing programs. The importance of available resources (e.g., reliable water) was cited as a primary concern. Other challenges included time and personal or institutional financial commitment necessary to ensure program sustainability. Handwashing programs in low-income, rural schools, where infrastructure is lacking and "student ambassadors" extend the intervention to the surrounding community, hold great promise to improve community health. Teachers must have adequate support and resources to implement and sustain the programs.

  15. Professional Development Needs of School Principals in the Context of Educational Reform (United States)

    Hussin, Sufean; Al Abri, Saleh


    Retraining and upskilling of human resources in organizations are deemed vital whenever a reform takes place, or whenever a huge policy is being implemented on a comprehensive scale. In an education system, officers, principals, and teachers need to be retrained so as to enable them implement and manage new changes, which are manifested in the…

  16. Competition between Public Supervision and Professional Management: An Ethnographic Study of School Governance Reforms in Switzerland (United States)

    Hangartner, Judith; Svaton, Carla Jana


    This article discusses insights from an ethnographic study of local governance practices in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland, under changing policy conditions. Recent reforms introduced and strengthened the position of head teachers, enhanced the responsibility of the municipalities and introduced new quality management procedures in local…

  17. Towards Research-Based Innovation and Reform: Singapore Schooling in Transition (United States)

    Luke, Allan; Freebody, Peter; Shun, Lau; Gopinathan, S.


    The challenges facing the Singapore education system in the new millennium are unique and unprecedented in Asia. Demands for new skills, knowledges, and flexible competencies for globalised economies and cosmopolitan cultures will require system-wide innovation and reform. But there is a dearth of international benchmarks and prototypes for such…

  18. Public Management Reform without Managers: The Case of German Public Schools (United States)

    Mintrop, Rick


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of principals in light of public management reforms taking place in the German educational system and in reference to the empirical patterns uncovered by the papers contained in the Special Issue. Policy makers have created new expectations and new technologies that seem to suggest to…

  19. With the Design in Mind: "High School Reform Model Features That Matter in Implementation." Conference Paper (United States)

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn


    This paper proposes a framework for analyzing program design features that seem to matter in implementation. The framework is based on findings from a study conducted by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) between 2004 and 2007 that explored how reform ideas and practices created by five external provider organizations were…

  20. Navigating the Waves of Change: Political Education and Democratic School Reform in Postwar West Berlin (United States)

    Puaca, Brian M.


    This article concentrates on two pieces of legislation promulgated in the early 1960s in order to investigate the broader ideas and concerns surrounding political education in the postwar Federal Republic of Germany. These pieces of educational policy highlight the consensus for continued reform while recognizing the value of curricular and…

  1. The End of Public Schools? The Corporate Reform Agenda to Privatize Education (United States)

    Hursh, David


    In this speech, Hursh shows how public education in the United States is undergoing profound changes. Education policy has been hijacked by the unelected and unaccountable corporate reformers who aspire to overhaul the education system through a corporate model of privatization and market competition. They aim to privatize education through…

  2. Tilting at Windmills: School Reform, San Diego, and America?s Race to Renew Public Education (United States)

    Colvin, Richard Lee


    A book that draws equally on Richard Lee Colvin's deep acquaintance with contemporary education reform and the unique circumstances of the San Diego experience, "Tilting at Windmills" is a penetrating and invaluable account of Alan Bersin's contentious superintendency. Between 1998, when Alan Bersin became superintendent of the San Diego…

  3. From Hunger Aid to School Reform: An Interview with Jerry Sternin (United States)

    Sparks, Dennis


    The Positive Deviance Approach promoted by Jerry Sternin suggests that the answer to reform must come from within an organization or community. By identifying the few who have created success already, we can find the means to amplify that success and broaden it to the larger community. Sternin explains how this approach worked to alleviate hunger…

  4. Implementing and Sustaining Educational Change and ICT: A Case Study of a Taiwanese Primary School (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Selwood, Ian

    This paper is a case study of a school in Taiwan. The School in this study has successfully implemented and sustained the integration of ICT across the curriculum to support teaching and learning, whilst other similar schools have failed to maintain the impetus of a national project. By using questionnaires, interviews and document analysis the leadership and management, organisational processes and decision-making, and ICT resources and technological adoption were analysed. The study highlights the importance of shared, collaborative leadership in implementing and sustaining the integrating of ICT into teaching and learning.

  5. Need to reform education in graduate schools of public health in Japan: Toward outcome-based education to cultivate competencies. (United States)

    Inoue, Mariko; Yano, Eiji


    Japan, known for its good healthcare access via universal health insurance, leads the world in terms of life expectancy, and possesses a public health system that has improved health standards markedly in the 20th century. However, we currently face major challenges to maintain and promote people's health. Although these complicated problems pose numerous threats to public welfare, education of public health for health professionals still retains 20th-century standards. This also means that graduate education of public health in Japan is traditionally based on obtaining licensure as a medical professional, conducting research and writing papers, and on-the-job training. Since graduate school education is expected to produce competent public health leaders, Japan requires a reform toward a new education design that caters to the current societal needs. The current global trend in the education of health professionals leans toward outcome-based education to meet core competencies. Here, "competency" refers to a set of features or particular behavioral patterns possessed by highly qualified persons. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) established a general health professional competency standard that includes both management and leadership competencies. Moreover, the Lancet Commission concluded that there was a need for transformative education based on a "health system approach." In brief, this means that our education should correspond to the needs of the health system to allow for the resolution of problems by educated professionals with satisfactory levels of competencies. In addition, as "change agents," these competent professionals are expected to promote societal change toward the realization of better public health. In Japan, the Central Education Council has produced several reports on professional graduate school reform since 2000. These reports indicate that graduate school curricula require reform to allow the health professionals to work

  6. Development and Initial Validation of a Measure to Assess Factors Related to Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; MacKay, Leslie D.; Hume, Amanda E.; Doolittle, Jennifer; Vincent, Claudia G.; Horner, Robert H.; Ervin, Ruth A.


    Sustainability of effective practices in schools is a critical area for research in any domain. The purpose of this article is to describe and evaluate the validity and reliability of a recently developed research instrument designed to evaluate schools' capacity to sustain school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) efforts at the universal…

  7. Framework for Sustaining Innovation at Baker Library, Harvard Business School (United States)

    Dolan, Meghan; Hemment, Michael; Oliver, Stephanie


    Baker Library at Harvard Business School is increasingly asked by the school's faculty to create custom digital information products to enhance course assignments and to find novel ways of electronically disseminating faculty research. In order to prioritize these requests, as well as facilitate, manage, and track the resulting projects, the…

  8. Early school leavers and sustainable learning environments in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I show by means of Yosso's community cultural wealth theoretical framework how equal numbers of early school leavers (ESLs) from the rural and the urban parts of the North-West province cite similar reasons for their early departure from school. The conclusion drawn from this scenario is that, irrespective of ...

  9. Teacher Education Reforms in Albania. (United States)

    Whitehead, Joan


    Drawing on insights from Albanian teacher educators and government representatives, this paper examines processes of change and types of reform (modernization, structural, and systemic reform) in Albania. It also discusses the initial implementation of one of the reforms, which was directed at the balance and role of school experiences, analyzing…

  10. Rebel with a Cause: A School Board Member Calls for Reform in Miami-Dade County Public Schools (United States)

    Manning, Tom


    This case describes the experience of a new school board member in Miami-Dade County Public Schools, Marta Perez, as she discovers a wide range of ethical and management problems in the school district and attempts to deal with them. Layered throughout the case are challenges pertaining to the school board's roles and responsibilities,…

  11. Development and validation of sustainability criteria of administrative green schools in Iran. (United States)

    Meiboudi, Hossein; Lahijanian, Akramolmolok; Shobeiri, Seyed Mohammad; Jozi, Seyed Ali; Azizinezhad, Reza


    Environmental responsibility in school has led to the emergence of a variety of criteria to administer green schools' contributions to sustainability. Sustainability criteria of administrative green schools need validity, reliability and norms. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate assessment criteria for green schools in Iran based on the role of academia. A national survey was conducted to obtain data on sustainability criteria initiatives for green schools and the Iranian profile was defined. An initial pool of 71 items was generated and after its first edition, 63 items were selected to comprise the sustainability criteria. Engineering-architectural and behavioral aspects of this sustainability criteria were evaluated through a sample of 1218 graduate students with environmental degrees from Iran's universities. Exploratory factor analysis using principal components and promax rotation method showed that these 9 criteria have simple structures and are consistent with the theoretical framework. The reliability coefficients of subscales ranged between 0.62 (participation) and 0.84 (building location and position). The study's survey of correlation coefficients between items and subscales illustrated that those coefficients varied between 0.24 and 0.68. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustainable Architecture in the Context of Education: Reponses of Primary School Teachers on the Topical Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cencič Majda


    Full Text Available The concept of sustainability and a sustainable and ecological development are common debate topics in today’s society. This paper discusses the concept of sustainability in green building with regard to schools. The research was conducted on a representative sample of primary school teachers, focusing on some of their opinions on green building. We asked them which aspect of building they favoured and how often they asked themselves certain questions about the school they taught in. Furthermore, we were interested to see whether we would find age-related differences. To this end, teachers were divided into two groups, namely, teachers of up to 35 years of age and teachers over 35. We were surprised to find that teachers over 35 had a more positive attitude towards green building in schools compared to their younger colleagues. Based on the results, we came to a conclusion that the topics pertaining to ecology and sustainable development are neglected in today’s education. However, making them part of school curriculum is not enough, as the opinions and attitudes of teachers on sustainable and ecological issues also have an important impact on the subject-matter itself.

  13. Can learning in informal settings mitigate disadvantage and promote urban sustainability? School gardens in Washington, DC (United States)

    Fisher-Maltese, Carley; Fisher, Dana R.; Ray, Rashawn


    This article explores how school gardens provide learning opportunities for school-aged children while concurrently helping cities achieve sustainability. The authors analyse this process in Washington, DC, a particularly innovative metropolis in the United States. This national capital city boasts two of the most progressive examples of legislation aimed at improving environmental awareness and inciting citizens to engage in environmental stewardship, both of which focus on school-aged children: (1) the Healthy Schools Act of 2010 and (2) the Sustainable DC Act of 2012. Together these policies focus on bringing healthy lifestyles and environmental awareness, including meaningful outdoor learning experiences, to students and families in the District of Columbia. This article is organised into three parts. The first part discusses how Washington, DC became a sustainable learning city through the implementation of these specific policies. The next part presents the results of a pilot study conducted in one kindergarten to Grade 5 (K-5) elementary school located in Ward 8, the poorest part of the city. The authors' analysis considers the support and the obstacles teachers and principals in the District of Columbia (DC) are experiencing in their efforts to integrate school gardens into the curriculum and the culture of their schools. Exploring the impacts of the school garden on the students, the local community, and the inter-generational relationships at and beyond schools, the authors aim to shed light on the benefits and the challenges. While Washington, DC is fostering its hope that the benefits prevail as it provides a model for other cities to follow, the authors also candidly present the challenges of implementing these policies. In the final part, they discuss the implications of their findings for school gardens and sustainable learning cities more broadly. They encourage further research to gain more insights into effective ways of promoting environmental

  14. Evaluation of a School Building in Turkey According to the Basic Sustainable Design Criteria (United States)

    Arslan, H. D.


    In Turkey, as well as many other developing countries, the significance of sustainable education buildings has only recently become recognized and the issue of sustainability issue has not been sufficiently involved in laws and regulations. In this study, first of all architectural sustainability with basic design criteria has been explained. After that selected type primary school project in Turkey has been evaluated according to the sustainable design criteria. Type project of school buildings significantly limits the sustainability performance expected from buildings. It is clear that type projects shorten the planning time as they include a designing process that is independent of settlement and they are repeated in various places with different characteristics, indeed. On the other hand; abundance of disadvantages such as the overlook of the natural physical and structural properties of the location mostly restricts the sustainable design of the building. For sustainable buildings, several factors such as the environment, land, climate, insolation, direction etc. shall be taken into consideration at the beginning stage. Therefore; implementation of type projects can be deemed to be inappropriate for sustainability.

  15. Why Henry Giroux's Democratic Pedagogy Is Crucial for Confronting Failed Corporate School Reform and How Liberals Like Ravitch and Darling-Hammond Are Making Things Worse (United States)

    Saltman, Kenneth J.


    Progressive media and the academic community outside of education has largely embraced liberal criticisms of corporate school reform or neoliberal educational restructuring, typified by the highly publicized writing and speaking of Diane Ravitch and Linda Darling-Hammond. Despite offering valuable policy information, the liberal view is grounded…

  16. Examining the Potential of Critical and Kaupapa Maori Approaches to Leading Education Reform in New Zealand's English-Medium Secondary Schools (United States)

    Berryman, Mere; Egan, Margaret; Ford, Therese


    This paper discusses expectations, policies and practices that currently underpin education within the New Zealand context. It acknowledges the ongoing failure of this policy framework to positively influence reform for Indigenous Maori students in regular, state-funded schools and highlights the need for extensive change in the positioning and…

  17. School Finance Reform: The Equity and Efficiency Implications of Capitalization and Tax-Price Changes in Connecticut. Real Estate Report: No. 22. (United States)

    McEachern, William A.

    The author argues that the effect of tax capitalization on the value of property has been neglected in the judicial and legislative discussion of school finance reform, even though this phenomena may weigh heavily on an equitable solution to the current funding dilemma. He examines theoretical and empirical support for the thesis that if, because…

  18. The Curricular Reform of Art Education in Primary School in Slovenia in Terms of Certain Components of the European Competence of Cultural Awareness and Expression (United States)

    Bracun Sova, Rajka; Kemperl, Metoda


    One of the important positions of the last curricular reform in Slovenia, which included systemic issues of education (White Paper on Education, 2011) and curricula for compulsory subjects in primary school, is the fact that Slovenia has been integrated into Europe, and thus education should also include the development of core European…

  19. The Setting-up of Multi-Site School Collaboratives: The Benefits of This Organizational Reform in Terms of Networking Opportunities and Their Effects (United States)

    Mifsud, Denise


    This article, which is set within the Maltese education scenario of unfolding decentralization through the setting-up of multi-site school collaboratives (legally termed "colleges") via a policy mandate, explores a particular aspect of this reform--that of "networking". This is examined in terms of the potential for…

  20. Examining mutable reform options for urban schools with multilevel analysis in the National Educational Longitudinal Study:88 (United States)

    Roberts, John Kyle


    The present study examined the effects of science course taking and school urbanicity on students' science achievement levels. More specifically, this study analyzed the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) with multilevel techniques to investigate mutable reform options for urban schools in the area of science achievement. This study provided a unique insight into current research because all analyses were conducted with both ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and multilevel modeling techniques. Results from the comparison of OLS and multilevel techniques showed little effect on either overestimation or underestimation between the OLS weighted sample and the multilevel analysis. Although the differences between these two analyses were small, the multilevel techniques were optimized when the differences between schools was largest. Results from the multilevel and weighted analyses produced large differences when compared against the unweighted analysis. The unweighted sample consistently overestimated the coefficients of slope for each of the predictor variables. Because of these findings, researchers should be strongly cautioned against interpreting analyses run with the NELS:88 dataset without a weighted sample or without multilevel techniques. The results from the multiple regression analysis in both multilevel modeling and weighted OLS indicated that students who had parents who attended a school event, were not afraid to ask questions in science class, spent more time on homework each week, did not attend a school where science was taught in a non-English language, and had parents who belonged to a parent/teacher organization scored higher in terms of student science achievement than did their urban counterparts who did not meet these qualifications. From these results, several recommendations were made for schools concerning ways they could improve science education, including fostering attitudes of inquiry in science, increasing the

  1. Leadership Practice in the Context of U.S. School Choice Reform (United States)

    Cravens, Xiu Chen; Goldring, Ellen; Penaloza, Roberto


    Choice schools provide a unique laboratory where variation in governance and management structure is predicted. We examine the results from principal surveys from traditional and choice public schools, and compare challenges faced by principals and their leadership practice. Analyses show that while differences across school types are small, there…

  2. Conclusion to Higher Education's Role in Public School Reform and Community Engagement (United States)

    Kronick, Robert F.; Lester, Jessica Nina; Luter, D. Gavin


    When this issue of "Peabody Journal of Education" was originally conceived, the authors of this article had several questions: What are universities doing to assist urban schools to meet their potential? How are universities leveraging human resources in service to schools, particularly as many such schools undergo restructuring? Do…

  3. Illusive Competition in School Reform: Commentary on Merrifield's "Imagined Evidence and False Imperatives" and Merrifield's Reply (United States)

    Berg, Nathan; Merrifield, John


    Merrifield (2009) provides a useful polemic about the sad state of data analysis too frequently encountered in the school choice literature. Available data come from limited policy experiments with only modest amounts of choice and competition. The effects of very modest changes in school choice on school performance are, as one might expect,…

  4. Re-imagining Educational Reform: Public Schools and the Nurture of Consciousness. (United States)

    Finkelstein, Barbara


    A comparative analysis of urban public schools as learning environments during the early 1900s shows that although public schools in the early 1900s were ageist, sexist, and racist, they were, nonetheless, havens of liberating possibility. Schools today, although stripped of racism, sexism, and ethnocentricity, are nurseries of oppression. (RM)

  5. High School Reform in Colorado: A History of Efforts and Lessons for the Future (United States)

    Padgette, Heather Clapp


    The need to complete a successful high school education has never been more important for an individual's future success. But, across the nation, high schools are not living up to their promise. U.S. high school graduation rates have remained virtually the same for the last 30 years--about 30 percent of students fail to graduate from high school…

  6. Educational Reforms and the Practices of Professional Learning Community in Hong Kong Primary Schools (United States)

    Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung; Wang, Ting; Leung, Zoe Lai-Mei


    This study explored the characteristics of professional learning communities (PLCs) in Hong Kong primary schools. It investigated the profiles of the strengths of professional learning community in schools under study and particularly examined the practices in schools which were identified as strong PLCs. It extends research on PLCs in the Hong…

  7. From Front Yards to Schoolyards: Linking Housing Policy and School Reform. Working Paper #09-07 (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Carlton, Abigail Conover


    Housing and education share strong ties in the United States. This relationship is shaped, in large part, by mobility. Students move to new schools, homes and neighborhoods as a result of planned and unplanned family relocations. Taxpayers move from one school district to another in a nation where school quality is closely tied to the district in…

  8. Toward Culturally Sustaining Leadership: Innovation beyond ‘School Improvement’ Promoting Equity in Diverse Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorri J. Santamaría


    Full Text Available Whilst school principals and educational leaders are increasingly constrained by standardized assessment results and student achievement, persistent achievement gaps continue to separate poor and historically underserved students from their wealthier mainstream peers in the United States (US and similar countries. Unprecedented levels of cultural, linguistic, ethnic, racial, and gender school diversity underscore these phenomena. As a result, leadership for ‘school improvement’ has become the norm and as evidenced by chronic academic disparities, ineffective. This review article considers culturally sustaining leadership as an innovative practice to promote and advance equity in schools.

  9. A sustainable school for the citizens of tomorrow; Une ecole durable pour les citoyens de demain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hondekyn, L.A.; Heise, N.; Wurzner, E.; Djigaouri, D.; Faure, L.; Weksej, E.; Irigoin, M.; Le Vannier, I.; Petersen, M.; Reff, R.


    All municipalities in Europe have schools to manage, renovate and build. In all of these schools, hundreds of thousands of children are being taught, among other things, to be good citizens. Many boroughs and local councils have been looking to improve energy consumption in schools, with savings of up to 40% or more. A whole variety of initiatives have taken place to raise children's awareness of energy saving, renewable energy and environmental protection for sustainable urban development. This publication presents many realizations in European schools. (A.L.B.)

  10. Promising practices for school-located vaccination clinics-- part II: clinic operations and program sustainability. (United States)

    Lott, John; Johnson, Jennifer


    A school-located mass vaccination program can enable rapid vaccination of a large number of students while minimizing disruption of their school activities. During 3 consecutive influenza seasons beginning in 2005, the Knox County Health Department conducted school-located mass vaccination clinics using live attenuated influenza vaccine. Overall, the proportion of elementary schoolchildren vaccinated with live attenuated influenza vaccine exceeded 40% each year. We describe key lessons learned in clinic operations, including obtaining informed consent, defining the organizational structure and roles, preparing the school, staffing, training, supplies, vaccine management, team communication, and data management. We conclude by discussing program costs and sustainability.

  11. Model Development on Awareness of Education for Sustainable Schools Development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifah Mahat


    Full Text Available ἀis article aims to develope the Structural Equation Model (SEM on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD student awareness around Sustainable Schools in Malaysia. ἀe cluster sampling technique was used in selecting the school samples and the respondents were then also selected through simple random sampling among upper second-ary pupils. A questionnaire survey was administered for 447 pupils, to evaluate the aḀer eᴀects of the SLAAS. ἀe results showed that the model has been developed to provide an overview of each construct (knowledge on SLAAS Program, ESD content knowledge, ESD practices knowledge, attitudes of ESD and behavioral constructs of ESD formed a ᰀt model. ἀe implication of this article showed that SLAAS Program implemented in Malaysia can be an indicator for the achievement of sustainable school.

  12. Development of National Assessment Criteria for Green Schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has promoted both education reform and socially sustainable development. Recently, the assessment criteria for green schools ... sustainable development in society. There are, however, still many problems in the present green ..... Review the restaurants, classrooms, laboratories, garbage station, infirmary in the schools ...

  13. Portfolio District Reform Meets School Turnaround: Early Implementation Findings from the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative (United States)

    Marsh, Julie A.; Strunk, Katharine O.; Bush, Susan


    Purpose: Despite the popularity of school "turnaround" and "portfolio district" management as solutions to low performance, there has been limited research on these strategies. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the strategic case of Los Angeles Unified School District's Public School Choice…

  14. Easier said than done: intervention sustainability in an urban after-school program. (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Frazier, Stacy L; Mehta, Tara; Atkins, Marc S; Weisbach, Jessica


    Although sustainability is frequently described as a project goal in community-based programs, concentrated efforts to sustain interventions beyond the conclusion of research funding have only recently emerged as a focus of implementation research. The current paper describes a study of behavioral consultation to after-school program staff in low-SES, urban communities. Following consultation, staff use of four recommended tools and strategies was examined, emphasizing facilitators and barriers to sustainability. Results indicated high perceived utility and intention to use intervention components, but low sustainability at two follow-up time points within 1 year after the initial consultation concluded. Findings suggest that ongoing implementation support in community settings may be necessary to ensure the sustainability of interventions and meet the mental health needs of participating high-risk youth.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau Remus Mircea


    Full Text Available Between the elements which mark the global processes, we can include educational issues, the management of processes in pre-university education. Therefore, the synthetic approach to educational problems in Romania, studied in terms of the processes and the phenomena of social development, but also due to the need for submiting the pre-university Romanian educational process to the European Union requirements, appears to be current and important. This analysis focuses on the decentralization of education. This theme is a true significant of the stage and of the the changing potential of the management practice in the public area. Its actuality is also hard to contest under the conditions in which changes in this area have been slow compared to those of the other countries that joined the European Union (Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland, contradictory and inconsistent (Herczynski and Levitas, 2001: 1-2. The legislative changes, training facilities, as well as the constant institutional reorganization of pre-university education show the presence of an active interest in this matter. However, the real reform of university education still requires essential improvements. This study analyzes the social perception of performers in pre-university system, establishes positive and negative aspects of the reform in pre-university education, all from the perspective of teachers. The research was conducted between March 1st, 2011 and April 1st, 2011. During this time the questionnaire was applied and the data interpreted. The data obtained from the questionnaire interpretation were introduced into the SPSS program. For the analysis and interpretation of data we used SPSS 15.0. under Windows license. My investigation efforts were directed towards the impact of decentralization on the performers in pre-university education system and on their perception. The main purpose of the experimental study was to determine the essential perceptions of the performers

  16. Training Special Educators: Sustaining Professional Development in Special School Placements (United States)

    Peter, Melanie


    With the rapidly changing demographic due to survival rates from medical advances, the need to strengthen training on SEND is now recognised, and special school placements valued, having been previously marginalised within initial teacher training. Practices developed since 2008 at one university to support progression of trainees to gain advanced…

  17. Re-Engineering Primary School Teachers for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    and accommodation, lack of materials and equipment to teach in class, low teachers' morale, and intimidation from parents and guardians whenever they happen to correct their children or wards through flogging or any other reasonable punishment. Current school environments are a reward-scare setting for professional ...

  18. Education for Sustainable Development and Multidimensional Implementation. A Study of Implementations of Sustainable Development in Education with the Curriculum of Upper Secondary School in Sweden as an Example (United States)

    Svalfors, Ulrika


    This article discusses different interpretations of sustainable development in education and if different interpretations of the concept are implemented in Curriculum, with the Swedish Curriculum of Upper Secondary School as an example. According to Agenda 21 sustainable development should be implemented in a multidimensional way. In 2011, a new…

  19. Are school meals a viable and sustainable tool to improve the healthiness and sustainability of children´s diet and food consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Wang, Qing


    There is little agreement among governments, institutions, scientists and food activists as to how to best tackle the challenging issues of health and sustainability in the food sector. This essay discusses the potential of school meals as a platform to promote healthy and sustainable food behavior...

  20. Between Public and Private: Politics, Governance, and the New Portfolio Models for Urban School Reform (United States)

    Bulkley, Katrina E., Ed.; Henig, Jeffrey R., Ed.; Levin, Henry M., Ed.


    "Between Public and Private" examines an innovative approach to school district management that has been adopted by a number of urban districts in recent years: a portfolio management model, in which "a central office oversees a portfolio of schools offering diverse organizational and curricular themes, including traditional public…

  1. Challenging School Reform from Below: Is Leadership the Missing Link in Mobilization Theory? (United States)

    Stevenson, Howard


    This article presents research relating to the experiences of union and community-based campaigns that have sought to challenge the establishment of academy and free schools in England. Such schools are removed from local government control and are seen as a defining element of the neoliberal restructuring of public education. The research draws…

  2. The Logistics of Implementing a Field-Based Comprehensive School Reform Initiative (United States)

    Reeves, Dawn E.


    This research is a qualitative, reflective case study regarding a cohort in the form of a district-university partnership between the Oak Park Schools in Oak Park, Michigan and the College of Education at Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The initiators of the program envisioned a more successful urban school district by offering…

  3. The tension between organisational sub-structures in secondary schools and educational reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imants, J.G.M.; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Witziers, B.


    In Dutch secondary schools the recent trend has been to replace the two existing sub-structures of subject departments and student guidance units by one system of integrated and decentralised teams. The aim of this article is to gain more insight into how secondary schools can provide supportive

  4. Incomplete Reform in Baltimore: A Shift in Authority to School Leaders Falls Short (United States)

    Gross, Betheny; Jochim, Ashley


    Five years ago, Baltimore City Public Schools seemed on the brink of a breakthrough. The district had been freed from mayoral control after more than a century, and a high-energy superintendent was leading bold moves to de-emphasize central administration, give schools greater autonomy, and engage families in a revitalized portfolio of educational…

  5. School Finance Reform: Can It Support California's College- and Career-Ready Goal? Report 2 (United States)

    Perry, Mary


    For decades, when California's state leaders have wanted to see local school districts respond to shifts in policy and expectations they relied on the state-controlled school finance system to leverage local change. Through the use of categorical programs and earmarked funding, they created incentives for districts that complied and penalties for…

  6. Effective Consultants: A Conceptual Framework for Helping School Systems Achieve Systemic Reform (United States)

    Hazle Bussey, Leslie; Welch, Jennie C.; Mohammed, Meca B.


    A growing number of organisations--universities, non-profits, independent consultants--are emerging as partners to school systems pursuing systemic improvement. This proliferation invites questions probing the interaction between school systems and their consulting partners. Drawing on a cross-disciplinary review of literature, this theoretical…

  7. Implementing EFL Policy Reform in Elementary Schools in Japan: A Case Study (United States)

    Machida, Tomohisa; Walsh, Daniel J.


    This case study examines the implementation of "Foreign Language Activities" (English language education), which officially began in Japanese elementary schools in 2011. Subjects in this study included 37 Japanese classroom teachers (20 males and 17 females) in four elementary schools in Tokyo. The Teacher Foreign Language Anxiety Scale…

  8. Principals Fostering the Instructional Leadership Capacities of Department Chairs: A Strategy for Urban High School Reform (United States)

    Klar, Hans W.


    A growing body of literature has highlighted the affordances of distributive forms of instructional leadership as a means to broaden and deepen instructional leadership capacity within schools. Yet, specifically how the capabilities of such key leaders as high school department chairs can be fostered to realize enhanced instructional capacity…

  9. Rootless Reforms? State Takeovers and School Governance in Detroit and Memphis (United States)

    Mason, Mary L.; Reckhow, Sarah


    State takeovers were an infrequently applied strategy to address financially and academically troubled schools for many decades. The opportunity for a more extensive state role in taking over troubled schools grew further with the announcement of the federal "Race to the Top" (RTTT) program in 2009. RTTT required states to develop plans…

  10. Unlikely Allies: Unions and Districts in the Battle for School Reform. Education Sector Reports (United States)

    Silva, Elena; Headden, Susan


    Providence, Rhode Island, is one of those gritty eastern mill towns that wears its centuries-old history on its sleeve. Like many American cities, Providence is home to a struggling public school system with chronically low-performing schools. They include Roger Williams Middle, where last year only 17 percent of eighth-graders scored at or above…

  11. Successes and Challenges in School Meal Reform: Qualitative Insights from Food Service Directors (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Ziemann, Margaret; Zatz, Lara; Chriqui, Jamie


    Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards to increase healthy food offerings. A critical stakeholder in the implementation of standards is Food Service Directors (FSDs). We sought to examine FSDs' perspectives on revised school meal standards to…

  12. School Reform in a Vacuum: Demographic Change, Social Policy, and the Future of Children (United States)

    Fusarelli, Lance D.


    In their search for magic bullets to fix failing schools, policymakers seldom directly address powerful ecological factors impacting schooling. This article identifies several major demographic, societal, economic, and educational changes and trends in U.S. society over the past several years; analyzes their impact on schoolchildren; and offers a…

  13. The missed Constitutional Reform and its possible impact on the sustainability of the Italian National Health Service. (United States)

    Signorelli, Carlo; Odone, Anna; Gozzini, Armando; Petrelli, Fabio; Tirani, Marcello; Zangrandi, Antonello; Zoni, Roberta; Florindo, Nicola


    The rejection of the Constitutional Law Bill No.1429-D in the December 2016 referendum, has stimulated a cause for reflection on current health legislation and the future prospects of the Italian National Health Service; also in the context of the recent approval of the new Essential Levels of care (LEA) and other relevant laws approved by the Parliament. This article analyzes possible future legislative and organizational scenarios with particular regard to issues related to National health system's sustainability.

  14. Educational Reform Implementation: A Co-Constructed Process


    Datnow, Amanda; Hubbard, Lea; Mehan, Hugh


    We seek to understand the process by which a school incorporates or enacts an externally developed reform design. An externally developed school reform design is a model for school improvement that is developed by an outside design team. This team generally conceives the reform design; develops the principles, implementation strategy, and materials that accompany the reform; and sometimes provides training and supports that enable local schools to prepare educators to implement the reform. Wh...

  15. Primary Schools Eco-Friendly Education in the Frame of Education for Sustainable Development (United States)

    Prabawani, Bulan; Hanika, Ita Musfirowati; Pradhanawati, Ari; Budiatmo, Agung


    A research on primary school education in the frame of education for sustainable development, as known as ESD, is important because the awareness of eco-friendly activities and environment empowerment cannot be developed in a short time. Meanwhile, human activities have caused significant environmental degradation. This is an exploratory study…

  16. Networking for Education for Sustainable Development in Austria: The Austrian ECOLOG-Schools Programme (United States)

    Rauch, Franz


    This case describes networking for education for sustainable development within the Austrian ECOLOG-schools network. The article presents theoretical concepts of networks in education in general, and the organization of the ECOLOG-network in particular. Based upon these foundations, the concept and results of a participatory evaluation study are…

  17. Mobile inquiry-based learning for sustainability education in secondary schools. Effects on knowledge and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Firssova, Olga; Börner, Dirk; Ternier, Stefaan; Prinsen, Fleur; Rusman, Ellen; Drachsler, Hendrik; Specht, Marcus


    This paper reports about experiences and lessons learned from a recently conducted pilot study about sustainability education with mobile inquiry-based learning in a secondary school in the Netherlands. In the pilot study learners were involved in a mobile location-based game that was conducted in

  18. Teachers' Values Related to Sustainable Development in Polish and Latvian Secondary Schools (United States)

    Switala, Eugeniusz


    The aim of the paper is to present the results of the research on highlighting values related to sustainable development in Poland and Latvia by secondary school teachers and to compare two models by the use of action research. The research is presented as a process of identifying values mainly from the point of view of social development which is…

  19. Sustaining Inquiry-Based Teaching Methods in the Middle School Science Classroom (United States)

    Murphy, Amy Fowler


    This dissertation used a combination of case study and phenomenological research methods to investigate how individual teachers of middle school science in the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) program sustain their use of inquiry-based methods of teaching and learning. While the overall context for the cases was the AMSTI…

  20. Preconditions for Sustainable Changes in Didactics Applying Self-Directed Learning in the General Education School (United States)

    Kazlauskiene, Ausra; Gaucaite, Ramute; Poceviciene, Rasa


    Implementation of the result-oriented (self-)education paradigm in the general education school requires sustainable changes in didactics not only on the strategic document plane but also in educational practice. However, its implementation in practice is complicated. The success of the interaction between theory and practice largely depends on…

  1. The Role of Leadership Capacity in Sustaining the School Improvement Initiative of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports (United States)

    Combs, Christine; Martin, Barbara N.


    This article examines what occurred within schools successfully implementing and sustaining Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports through the lens of leadership capacity. Leadership capacity, a broad-based, skillful participation in leadership, promotes the capabilities of many organizational members to lead. Researchers used quantitative analysis…

  2. Action Research to Encourage Pupils' Active Participation in the Sustainable School (United States)

    Katsenou, Christina; Flogaitis, Evgenia; Liarakou, Georgia


    This article aims to explore the contribution of action research to the development of active participation of pupils in the context of the sustainable school. Action research is looked at not simply as a methodological tool for the exploration of participation, but as a key element of the educational actions that promote the active participation…

  3. Sustainable Development and ICT in Slovenian Primary and Secondary Schools: Media-Ecological Perspective (United States)

    Zakrajšek, Srecko; Purg, Peter


    The goal of the research was to get an overview on the possibilities of sustainable development in relation to information and communication technologies in primary and secondary schools in Slovenia from the perspective of media ecology. The study analyses the reasons for a reorientation of the educational system and new programmes towards…

  4. The Ecological Footprint as an Educational Tool for Sustainability: A Case Study Analysis in an Israeli Public High School (United States)

    Gottlieb, Dan; Vigoda-Gadot, Eran; Haim, Abraham; Kissinger, Meidad


    Education is widely acknowledged to be a means for advancing environmental sustainability. Many schools have recently introduced the idea of sustainability into their educational agenda and curriculum. This study uses an innovative method of communicating the principle of sustainability, the "Ecological Footprint" Analysis, which…

  5. Creating Safer and More Nurturing Schools: Expanding the Capacity of Schools in the Era of Future National Reform (United States)

    Hughes, Tammy L.; Fenning, Pamela A.; Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Reddy, Linda A.


    Positive academic performance is a strong indicator of subsequent positive life course outcomes (e.g., employment) as well as underrepresentation in psychiatric populations, drug use, school dropout, and subsequent legal trouble (A. Farn & J. Adams, 2016). As such, helping all children to be successful in school is a top priority for parents,…

  6. Improving the Quality of School Facilities through Building Performance Assessment: Educational Reform and School Building Quality in Sao Paulo, Brazil (United States)

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva; Ono, Rosaria; Limongi Franca, Ana J. G.; Nogueira, Roselene A. M. F.


    Purpose: The paper describes the purpose of and strategies for conducting post-occupancy evaluations (POEs) as a method for assessing school building performance. Set within the larger context of global efforts to develop and apply common indicators of school building quality, the authors describe research conducted within the newest generation of…

  7. Collective inquiry in the context of school-wide reform: Exploring science curriculum and instruction through team-based professional development (United States)

    Eddy Spicer, David Henning

    Teacher collaboration and joint reflective inquiry have been viewed as central elements of progressive educational reform for more than two decades. More recently, researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners have heralded "blended" or "hybrid" approaches that combine online and on-site environments for collaborative learning as especially promising for "scaling up" instructional improvement. Yet, relatively little is known about how teachers working together navigate organizational and interpersonal constraints to develop and sustain conditions essential to collective inquiry. This in-depth study of meaning making about curriculum and instruction among a group of 11 physics teachers in a public, urban secondary school in the U.S. is an effort to explore collective inquiry as a resource for teacher learning and innovations in teaching practice. Through extended observations, multiple interviews, and close analyses of interaction, the study followed teachers for 7 months as they worked together across 3 settings organized in fundamentally different ways to promote joint inquiry into teaching practice. The explanatory framework of the study rests on the mutually-reinforcing conceptual underpinnings of sociocultural theory and systemic functional linguistics to establish connections between micro-social interactions and macro-social processes. Drawing on systemic functional linguistics, the study explores interpersonal meaning making through close analyses of speech function and speech role in 6 extended sequences of generative interaction. Concepts from activity theory elucidate those features of settings and school that directly impinged on or advanced teachers' collaborative work. Findings run counter to prevailing congenial views of teacher collegiality by identifying ways in which collective inquiry is inherently unstable. That instability makes itself apparent at two levels: (a) the dynamics of authority within the group, and (b) middle-level features of

  8. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.


    fundamental reforms in public education is challenging. The coalition must be able to reach consensus on a vision of reform and, then, sustain the reform over an extended period of time. This is not easy when power and authority are highly fragmented (and perhaps at odds), where interest groups live or die on confromtation politics, when public and private sectors exhibit a basic distrust of one another, and when everyone is an expert--real or imagined--on topics more-or-less related to education. In addition, the SSI's are operating in a turbulent climate. Policy makers may be working on standards-based reforms in K-12 education at the same time they are seeking efficiencies in state government, consider deregulation, and experiment with integrated social services. Criminal justice, health, and welfare are competing in state capitols for the resources required to bring about education reforms. And, within this shifting policy landscape, the SSI's are seeking higher priority for mathematics and science, as well as attempting to develop the infrastructure and capacity to support change in the schools. Simply keeping mathematics and science education high on the agenda of state policy-makers is a challenge. Each of these component strategies of the SSI's is important. The critical question is whether, in a given state, the SSI strategies, when combined with other state reform initiatives, form a coherent, comprehensive plan for improving public education. While the oldest of the SSI's are only in their fourth year of activity, it is already clear that the reforms they are seeking will take longer than five years to accomplish. (The SSI's are supported by five-year grants from the NSF.) The instructional reforms advocated by the SSI's require time to implement, and once in place, additional time to produce results. Elected officials often focus on the short-term, and they can become impatient when the results are slow. There appears to be no ready solution to the conflict

  9. When Policy and Infrastructure Provisions Are Exemplary but Still Insufficient: Paradoxes Affecting Education for Sustainability (EfS) in a Custom-Designed Sustainability School (United States)

    Kuzich, Sonja; Taylor, Elisabeth; Taylor, Peter Charles


    Schools willing to implement education for sustainability (EfS) commonly find themselves confronted with curricula, school grounds and buildings and teaching practices that do not lend themselves easily to best practice EfS. In this article, we present what we learned about some of the challenges confronted daily by the staff of a purpose-built…

  10. Sustainable Schools, Sustainable Communities: The View from the West. CAE Spring 2001 Conference [Proceedings] (San Diego, California, March 22-24, 2001). (United States)

    Malone, Sara

    This paper presents summary conclusions reached by discussion panels that participated in the Committee on Architecture for Education's conference. The conference explored the symbiotic relationship between schools and communities and the ways that schools and communities sustain one another. Panel titles were: "City Heights Urban Village"; "High…

  11. Enacting sustainable school-based health initiatives: a communication-centered approach to policy and practice. (United States)

    LeGreco, Marianne; Canary, Heather E


    Communication plays an important role in all aspects of the development and use of policy. We present a communication-centered perspective on the processes of enacting public health policies. Our proposed conceptual framework comprises 4 communication frames: orientation, amplification, implementation, and integration. Empirical examples from 2 longitudinal studies of school-based health policies show how each frame includes different communication processes that enable sustainable public health policy practices in school-based health initiatives. These 4 frames provide unique insight into the capacity of school-based public health policy to engage youths, parents, and a broader community of stakeholders. Communication is often included as an element of health policy; however, our framework demonstrates the importance of communication as a pivotal resource in sustaining changes in public health practices.

  12. School Vegetable Patch as a Didactic Resource to the Sustainable Development of the Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inmaculada Hernández


    Full Text Available This research aims to implement a school vegetable patchs as a didactic resource to the sustainable development toward an environmental culture in the Francisco Tamayo Technical School located in Barinitas parish, Bolívar municipality state Barinas. The main purpose of this research is to give a viable and sustainable choice from the school to community. The approach of this study is qualitative thorough the participatory action research. The methodological design is structured in five phases: (1 Diagnosis, (2 Planning, (3 Execution Plan, (4 Evaluation, (5 Systematization. The key people will be: (03 teachers related to the agriculture field, (03 third year senior students section A and a Principal who will give the accurate information to plan and execute the strategies. The technique of gathering information will be the deep interview and the document observations. The technique of gathering information will be the observation and the deep interview. The analysis techniques of information were categorization, triangulation and interpretation.

  13. Outlook on teaching school science for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta A. Opara


    Full Text Available During the past few decades, resources have been allocated in many parts of the world for developing curricula in school science, which were directed to the need for more scientists that can promote national development. In the light of this, many developing country has emphasized the education of its citizens in Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM. This mode was reflected in the Nigerian National Policy on Education when it recommended an enrolment ratio of 60:40 in favour of STM and related courses in higher institution of learning (Federal Republic of Nigeria 2004. This guideline became necessary in order to boost our manpower development and researches in these professions. The role of STM in the development of a nation cannot be over emphasized as it is very important in solving a country’s problem. STM is the base for the overall development of a nation, the instrument for the orderly and ethical behaviour of it citizens

  14. Accomplishing Districtwide Reform (United States)

    Sharratt, Lyn; Fullan, Michael


    This is a mystery story. It is about a district that apparently did the right things but seemed not to get commensurate results across all classrooms and schools. In this article, we look closely at the details and discover an important lesson about districtwide reform. The district is York Region District School Board, which is a large…

  15. Has the reform of electricity in Africa allowed sustainable Growth in the industry? The case of Cameroon; La reforme de l'electricite en Afrique a-t-elle permis un developpement durable de cette industrie? Une analyse dans le cas du Cameroun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekolo, C. [Universite de Douala (Cameroon); Biwole Fouda, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland)


    Several studies analyse the reform of the electricity industry in African countries. But such studies do not take an evolutionary approach and very often the period covered does not correspond to the life cycle of the assets employed by this industry (infrastructure, financial contract, concession contract). The purpose of this study is to offer, in a sustainable growth (SG) prospect, a dynamic analysis of the reform of electricity industry reform in African countries, by highlighting the various stages of its development and the conditions necessary for their implementation. We study here the case of Cameroon to show that, in the African context, the electricity industry goes through stages of opportunism, social responsibility and on to maturity. It is a lengthy process in which SG cannot be initiated before the last step. (authors)

  16. Welfare Reform & the Health of Single Mothers


    Narain, Kimberly Danae Cauley


    Objective: This dissertation explores the relationship between welfare reform and the health of single mothers with less than a high school diploma or GED (LESMS) by addressing six research questions: (1) what impact did welfare reform have on the health insurance coverage of LESMS, (2) what impact did welfare reform have on the annual medical provider contact of LESMS, (3) what impact did welfare reform have on the health outcomes of LESMS, (4) what impact did welfare reform have on the fede...

  17. Energy-water-food nexus under financial constraint environment: good, the bad, and the ugly sustainability reforms in sub-Saharan African countries. (United States)

    Zaman, Khalid; Shamsuddin, Sadaf; Ahmad, Mehboob


    Environmental sustainability agenda are generally compromised by energy, water, and food production resources, while in the recent waves of global financial crisis, it mediates to increase the intensity of air pollutants, which largely affected the less developing countries due to their ease of environmental regulation policies and lack of optimal utilization of economic resources. Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are no exception that majorly hit by the recent global financial crisis, which affected the country's natural environment through the channel of unsustainable energy-water-food production. The study employed panel random effect model that addresses the country-specific time-invariant shocks to examine the non-linear relationship between water-energy-food resources and air pollutants in a panel of 19 selected SSA countries, for a period of 2000-2014. The results confirmed the carbon-fossil-methane environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) that turned into inverted U-shaped relationships in a panel of selected SSA countries. Food resources largely affected greenhouse gas (GHG), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions while water resource decreases carbon dioxide (CO2), fossil fuel, and CH4 emissions in a region. Energy efficiency improves air quality indicators while industry value added increases CO2 emissions, fossil fuel energy, and GHG emissions. Global financial crisis increases the risk of climate change across countries. The study concludes that although SSA countries strive hard to take some "good" initiatives to reduce environmental degradation in a form of improved water and energy sources, however, due to lack of optimal utilization of food resources and global financial constraints, it leads to "the bad" and "the ugly" sustainability reforms in a region.

  18. Toward a Healthy High Schools Movement: Strategies for Mobilizing Public Health for Educational Reform (United States)

    Ruglis, Jessica


    Although research shows that education and health are closely intertwined, health professionals have difficulty using this evidence to improve health and educational outcomes and reduce inequities. We call for a social movement for healthy high schools in the United States that would improve school achievement and graduation rates; create school environments that promote lifelong individual, family, and community health and prevent chronic illness, violence, and problems of sexual health; and engage youths in creating health-promoting environments. Achieving these goals will require strengthening and better linking often uncoordinated efforts to improve child health and education. Only a broad social movement has the power and vision to mobilize the forces that can transform educational and health systems to better achieve health and educational equity. PMID:20634448

  19. Does more education lead to better health habits? Evidence from the school reforms in Australia. (United States)

    Li, Jinhu; Powdthavee, Nattavudh


    The current study provides new empirical evidence on the causal effect of education on health-related behaviors by exploiting historical changes in the compulsory schooling laws in Australia. Since World War II, Australian states increased the minimum school leaving age from 14 to 15 in different years. Using differences in the laws regarding minimum school leaving age across different cohorts and across different states as a source of exogenous variation in education, we show that more education improves people's diets and their tendency to engage in more regular exercise and drinking moderately, but not necessarily their tendency to avoid smoking and to engage in more preventive health checks. The improvements in health behaviors are also reflected in the estimated positive effect of education on some health outcomes. Our results are robust to alternative measures of education and different estimation methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toward a healthy high schools movement: strategies for mobilizing public health for educational reform. (United States)

    Ruglis, Jessica; Freudenberg, Nicholas


    Although research shows that education and health are closely intertwined, health professionals have difficulty using this evidence to improve health and educational outcomes and reduce inequities. We call for a social movement for healthy high schools in the United States that would improve school achievement and graduation rates; create school environments that promote lifelong individual, family, and community health and prevent chronic illness, violence, and problems of sexual health; and engage youths in creating health-promoting environments. Achieving these goals will require strengthening and better linking often uncoordinated efforts to improve child health and education. Only a broad social movement has the power and vision to mobilize the forces that can transform educational and health systems to better achieve health and educational equity.

  1. Sustaining Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Schools: Needs and Barriers Identified by School Leaders (United States)

    Craft, Lesley R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Prince, Mary


    Background: To reduce teen pregnancy rates, prevention programs must be consistently available to large numbers of youth. However, prevention efforts have been historically conducted with little emphasis on ensuring program sustainability. This study examined the needs and barriers to sustaining teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) programming in…

  2. Cost-free and sustainable incentive increases healthy eating decisions during elementary school lunch. (United States)

    Pittman, D W; Parker, J S; Getz, B R; Jackson, C M; Le, T-A P; Riggs, S B; Shay, J M


    We aimed to develop a cost-free and sustainable program to influence healthier eating decisions during elementary school lunch. Baseline food and beverage choices were assessed for 9 days during lunch service at two racially and economically diverse elementary schools in Spartanburg County, SC, USA. After being informed that the labeled items on the daily lunch menu represented the healthiest choice, students were allowed to ring a call bell in the cafeteria for public recognition when they chose all of the identified healthiest food and beverage items during lunch service. Using menus matched to the baseline phase, food and beverage choices were measured during a 9-day intervention phase. After 30 days, food and beverage choices were reassessed during a 3-day follow-up phase. Healthiest food & beverage choices increased 49% with >60% of students choosing non-flavored milk over flavored milk during the intervention phase. There was no difference in the success of the program between the two schools. The program continued and healthy eating decisions were significantly sustained at a 30-day follow-up assessment. Public recognition through bell ringing appears to be an effective practice to sustain increases in healthy eating decisions during elementary school lunch and warrants expansion to larger scale, longitudinal trials.

  3. The guide to sustainable energy technologies for schools; Un guide pour les technologies energetiques durables dans les ecoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    There are significant attractions for municipalities to opt for sustainable solutions which involve energy efficient technologies and measures. This is the challenging background which led to the production the Guide to Sustainable Energy Technologies for Schools. This guide is a decision-making tool intended for European municipalities and school managers. Its aim is to: assist them in choosing between the energy technologies that will be used in school building or retrofitting projects and provide them with a framework for measuring and comparing different aspects of energy performance that can be used to convince decision-makers to select sustainable energy technologies and measures. The guide is composed of three parts: an illustrative list of sustainable energy technologies, an introduction to energy performance indicators and fifteen case studies describing practical sustainable energy solutions applied to schools in seven European countries. (A.L.B.)

  4. Children’s exposure to sustainability practices during the transition from preschool into school and their learning and socioemotional development (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Thornton, Anna; Crosnoe, Robert


    Evidence that the learning gains of preschool fade as children transition into elementary school has led to increased efforts to sustain preschool advantages during this key transitional period. This study explores whether the observed benefits of sustainability practices for a range of child outcomes are explained and/or moderated by family and school mechanisms selecting children into experiencing these practices. Analyses of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that both family and school factors predicted children’s exposure to several PK-3 sustainability practices. PK-3 sustainability practices were associated with reading (but not math) gains and better interpersonal skills (but not fewer externalizing behaviors) following the transition into kindergarten. These links were not conditioned by the selection mechanisms. The findings highlight who is more likely to seek out (at the family level) or offer (at the school level) sustainability practices and how relevant they are to fighting preschool fadeout. PMID:28794610

  5. Transforming Schools into Learning Organizations: Supports and Barriers to Educational Reform (United States)

    Williams, Raymond B.; Brien, Ken; LeBlanc, Janelle


    The outdated manner in which we operate schools is tied to a reality that no longer exists. The society for which we prepare our students has shifted from a factory to a learning organization model. If we hope to prepare our graduates for successful participation in learning organizations we must transform both the structure and culture of our…

  6. Successful Leadership in Urban Schools: Principals and Critical Spirituality, a New Approach to Reform (United States)

    Dantley, Michael E.


    This article offers an alternative perspective on educational leadership based on the tenets of critical spirituality. It offers an educational leadership grounded in critical theory and African American spirituality. The two coalesce to provide school leaders with a conceptual frame that not only centers on academic achievement but academic…

  7. Visionaries, Reformers, Saviors, and Opportunists: Visions and Metaphors for Teaching in the Urban Schools (United States)

    Castro, Antonio J.


    This qualitative study investigated the visions and metaphors for teaching held by teacher candidates enrolled in an urban-based alternative certification program. While late-entry teacher recruits are considered to have high motivations for urban school teaching, few studies explore the nature of these motivations. Findings from this study…

  8. The Four "I's" of School Reform: How Interests, Ideology, Information, and Institution Affect Teachers and Principals. (United States)

    Weiss, Carol H.


    Examines high schools with and without shared decision making in terms of interests, ideology, information, and the institution. Finds that institutions strongly influenced teachers' willingness to innovate and that they tended to ignore external information sources that would mediate that influence. Principals had more latitude to be reform…

  9. The End of the Bush-Obama Regulatory Approach to School Reform (United States)

    Peterson, Paul E.


    At the turn of the century, the United States was trying to come to grips with a serious education crisis. The country was lagging behind its international peers, and a half-century effort to erode racial disparities in school achievement had made little headway. Many people expected action from the federal government. George W. Bush and Barack…

  10. A Study of Secondary School English Teachers' Beliefs in the Context of Curriculum Reform in China (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjuan; Liu, Yongbing


    This study examines the beliefs of Chinese junior high school English teachers about foreign language teaching and influencing contextual factors in a time when curriculum innovation is confronting deep-rooted cultural traditions and complex teaching realities. Drawing upon data collected by means of questionnaires and interviews, this study…

  11. An Insider's View of School Reform: Don't Forget the Students (United States)

    Allen, Michael


    Michael Allen focuses on the personal and social issues (antisocial behavior, peer pressure, sex, special education, and lack of parent involvement) that students bring to school each day. He examines how administrators and teachers can wade through the psycho/social dysfunction in order to give their students the survival skills they need to be…

  12. Superhero School Reform Heading Your Way: Now Playing in Newark, NJ (United States)

    Karp, Stan


    Watching the rise to fame of Michelle Rhee, the former Washington, D.C., schools chancellor who is one of the heroes of director Davis Guggenheim's "Waiting for 'Superman'," the author was struck by how the targets had changed. Clark's baseball bat was aimed at the young black males who were demonized as a criminal element in the…

  13. Top-Down, Routinized Reform in Low-Income, Rural Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bickel


    Full Text Available Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has funded fifty-nine state, urban, and rural systemic initiatives. The purpose of the initiatives is to promote achievement in math, science, and technology among all students, and to encourage schools and communities to secure the resources needed to maintain such outcomes. The Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative (ARSI is a six-state consortium which focuses these efforts on low-income, rural schools. The primary means of accomplishing ARSI's aims is a one-day-one-school site visit, called a Program Improvement Review, done by an ARSI math or science expert. The centrally important Program Improvement Reviews, however, seem to be premised on unsubstantiated assumptions as to the static, easy-to-understand, easy-to-evaluate nature of educational achievement in rural Appalachian schools. As a result, the Reviews resemble exercises in early-twentieth century scientific management, and are unlikely to enhance achievement in science or math. Consequently, even if there is merit to the commonsense human capital approach to economic growth and development on which systemic initiatives are tacitly premised, this first- person account makes a case that desired payoffs are unlikely to follow from the work of ARSI.

  14. Virtual Virtu: The Moral State and the Online Re-Formation of the School and Society (United States)

    Laspina, James Andrew


    The chapter examines John Dewey's concepts of society and the public in the context of digital technology and its potential to transform society and the moral ethos of the public school. I argue that Dewey's theory of society and the public, though articulated for an industrial age, are, like his moral vision of social democracy and…

  15. Fear and Trembling in the American High School: Educational Reform and Teacher Alienation (United States)

    Brooks, Jeffrey S.; Hughes, Roxanne M.; Brooks, Melanie C.


    This article reports findings from a two-year case study of teachers in a single public high school. Data were gathered and analyzed using a conceptual framework that conceived of alienation as a set of five sub-constructs: powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation, and estrangement. Findings suggested that teachers experienced each…

  16. Cognitive and Affection Reform in Urban Elementary Schools: Listening to the Voices of Children (United States)

    Friend, Jennifer; Caruthers, Loyce


    This heuristic narratological inquiry used video-taped interviews and observations to explore the experiences of 145 urban students in grades one through six who also represented diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. The goal of the study was to identify curricular and pedagogical strategies that enhance what students love about school,…

  17. Working with What They Have: Professional Development as a Reform Strategy in Rural Schools (United States)

    Barrett, Nathan; Cowen, Joshua; Toma, Eugenia; Troske, Suzanne


    In-service teacher professional development has been used to improve teacher effectiveness. In Kentucky, the National Science Foundation funded a large professional development program called the Appalachian Math and Science Partnership (AMSP) to provide content-based professional development to teachers in rural schools. We show that students…

  18. Understanding Comprehensive School Reforms: Insights from Comparative-Historical Sociology and Power Resources Theory (United States)

    Sass, Katharina


    The historical origins and development of comprehensive schooling have seldom been analyzed systematically and comparatively. However, there is a rich comparative and historically grounded literature on the development of welfare states, which focuses on many relevant policies, but ignores the education system. In particular, the power resources…

  19. Examining the Parent Trigger as a Strategy for School Reform and Parental Engagement (United States)

    Rogers, John; Lubienski, Chris; Scott, Janelle; Welner, Kevin G.


    Background: Purpose: This analysis considers the emergence, evidentiary basis, and potential of parent trigger policies. In particular, we focus on the policy, political and social circumstances in which parent trigger legislation emerged in California, the efficacy of the school improvement levers on which it draws, and the underlying assumptions…

  20. Empowerment Patterns of Leaders in ICT and School Strengths Following the Implementation of National ICT Reform (United States)

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Shamir-Inbal, Tamar


    The Ministry of Education in Israel has, over the past two years, been running an education program designed to lead the implementation of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) in schools. Implementation of the program is accompanied by training and support of teachers selected to be ICT leaders. The role of the ICT leader is divided to…

  1. Creating Optimal Learning Environments through Invitational Education: An Alternative to Control Oriented School Reform (United States)

    Fretz, Joan R.


    Understanding what motivates people to put forth effort, persevere in the face of obstacles, and choose their behaviors is key to creating an optimal learning environment--the type of school that policy makers desire, but are unknowingly sabotaging (Dweck, 2000). Many motivation and self-concept theories provide important insight with regard to…

  2. The Curricular Reform of Art Education in Primary School in Slovenia in Terms of Certain Components of the European Competence of Cultural Awareness and Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Bračun Sova


    Full Text Available One of the important positions of the last curricular reform in Slovenia, which included systemic issues of education (White Paper on Education, 2011 and curricula for compulsory subjects in primary school, is the fact that Slovenia has been integrated into Europe, and thus education should also include the development of core European competences. One such competence is cultural awareness and expression, which until now has been an issue more in the context of cultural policies than school policies in Slovenia. The purpose of the present article is to critically analyse the curricular reform of art education (i.e., visual art education, through which, in terms of certain components of the competence of cultural awareness and expression, it is foreseen that the student will gain a knowledge of art, develop an ability to experience works of art and develop a creative attitude towards art and heritage. Because the starting point and goal of curricular change is the curriculum, our analysis is derived from curriculum theories, and not from the art theories and pedagogical theories that have predominantly framed previous attempts at curriculum analysis. Critical consideration of the curricular reform of art education in primary school in terms of certain components of the competence of cultural awareness and expression was undertaken by comparing curricula in the field of aesthetic education. We compared art education with music education and literature within the Slovenian language curriculum. Qualitative analysis showed that, despite the reform, the curriculum for arts education does not realise selected components of the competence of cultural awareness and expression, largely due to the curriculum’s conceptual structure. Art education is centred principally on art-making activities, with an obvious neglect of appreciation. The integration of arts subjects at school, as proposed by the White Paper, is therefore not possible, due to the existing

  3. Educational Effectiveness at the End of Upper Secondary School: Further Insights Into the Effects of Statewide Policy Reforms


    Hübner, Nicolas


    For several decades, educational policy reforms have been understood as major instruments of educational governance that can impact existing educational practices, for instance, in terms of changes in teaching strategies, learning materials, and students’ achievements (Fullan, 1983). However, in contrast to their huge sociopolitical relevance, scientific evaluations of such reforms are scarce (e.g., OECD, 2015). Rigorous evaluations and deeper investigations of reforms are of special socie...

  4. Creating a Culture for High-Performing Schools: A Comprehensive Approach to School Reform and Dropout Prevention. Second Edition (United States)

    Bulach, Cletus R.; Lunenberg, Fred C.; Potter, Les


    A high-performing school is described as one where student achievement is high and student and teacher absenteeism is low. Student behavior is such that teachers seldom have to control them or tell them what to do. This results in greater time on task, higher teacher morale, low teacher absenteeism, and improved parental support. One other…

  5. Creating a Culture for High-Performing Schools: A Comprehensive Approach to School Reform and Dropout Prevention (United States)

    Bulach, Cletus R.; Lunenburg, Fred C.; Potter, Les


    A high performing school is described as one where student achievement is high and student and teacher absenteeism is low. Student behavior is such that teachers seldom have to control them or tell them what to do. This results in greater time on task, higher teacher morale, low teacher absenteeism, and improved parental support. One other…

  6. Educational Reforms with Their Impacts on School Effectiveness and School Improvement in Taiwan, R.O.C. (United States)

    Pan, Hui-Ling; Yu, Chien


    The aim of Taiwanese education, based on Sun Yat-Sen's principles, is to improve living standards; support a decent existence in society; and prolong the nation's life to achieve national independence, implement democracy, and advance the national livelihood. Deregulation, equal educational opportunities, smaller schools and classes, and…

  7. Reforming a middle school for educational equity : implications for teacher interaction


    Edwards, Barbara


    A growing body of research concludes that teacher knowledge is critical for high levels of student achievement. One mechanism for improving teacher knowledge is the development of "professional communities" of teachers at a school site. Indeed, many policy-makers and educators have placed considerable faith in these communities without a detailed understanding of the efficacy or dynamics of teacher interaction in the workplace. This research study examined teacher professional interactions at...

  8. QUEST for sustainable CPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund


    in the local learning communities we have seen a positive trend from the first to the last course-module, but with great variation between schools. Factors potentially supporting sustainable development seem to be about (1) continuingly scaffolding teachers’ collaborative inquiries by organizing activities......Continuous Professional Development (CPD) can be crucial for reforming science teaching, but more knowledge is needed about how to support sustainability of the effects. The Danish QUEST project is a large scale, long-term collaborative CPD project designed according to widely agreed criteria...... phase. The findings are discussed looking forward to the institutionalization phase identifying factors potentially supporting sustainable development pertaining to local science teachers developing a shared focus on student learning in science, and perceived individual and collective efficacy...

  9. Improving school and community partnership for sustainable quality assurance in secondary schools in Nigeria


    Ayeni, Adeolu Joshua


    The paper highlights the objectives of secondary education, principal’s, teacher’s and student’s tasks in the attainment of quality education in secondary schools. It also examines the effectiveness of school-community partnership in ensuring quality instructional management, resource inputs, process and students’ learning outcomes. The paper concluded that the challenges that principals and teachers faced require effective application of a goal-oriented school and community partnership model...

  10. Associations Among Family Environment, Sustained Attention, and School Readiness for Low-Income Children (United States)

    Razza, Rachel A.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne


    In this study, we examined the developmental pathways from children’s family environment to school readiness within a low-income sample (N = 1,046), with a specific focus on the role of sustained attention. Six distinct factors of the family environment representing maternal parenting behaviors, the physical home environment, and maternal mental health at 3 years of age were explored as independent predictors of children’s observed sustained attention as well as cognitive and behavioral outcomes at 5 years of age. Children were grouped by poverty status (poor vs. near-poor). Results suggest specificity in the associations among attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) and its correlates, with different patterns emerging by poverty status group. Overall, the family environment was largely unrelated to children’s sustained attention. For both groups, focused attention was associated with receptive vocabulary; however, it partially mediated the association between maternal lack of hostility and receptive vocabulary only among the near-poor. In addition, lack of impulsivity was associated with both receptive vocabulary and externalizing behaviors but only for the poor group. Findings indicate sustained attention as a potential target for efforts aimed at enhancing school readiness among predominantly poor children. PMID:20677860

  11. The Political Economy of Market-Based Educational Policies: Race and Reform in Urban School Districts, 1915 to 2016 (United States)

    Scott, Janelle; Holme, Jennifer Jellison


    The authors situate the emergence and effects of contemporary market-based reforms within a framework of urban political economy that centers on racial inequality. They discuss how and why market-based reforms have evolved alongside racialized political and economic trends that have transformed cities over the past century, and they critically…

  12. Why Reform Sometimes Succeeds: Understanding the Conditions That Produce Reforms That Last (United States)

    Cohen, David K.; Mehta, Jal D.


    Counter to narratives of persistently failed school reform, we argue that reforms sometimes succeed and seek to understand why. Drawing on examples from the founding of public schools to the present, we find that successful system-wide reforms addressed problems that teachers thought they had by being consistent with prevailing norms and values,…

  13. Schools Ethos and the Construction of Masculine Identity: Do Schools Create, Condone and Sustain Aggression? (United States)

    Carter, Charlotte


    An action research project in a British boys' school found the dominant school ethos to include an authoritarian style and an expectation of predetermined masculinity. The ethos was maintained by explicit and implicit encouragement of aggressive behavior. Students exhibited low self-esteem, deficit interpersonal skills, nonparticipation, and…

  14. Promoting and Sustaining High Quality Physical Education and School Sport through School Sport Partnerships (United States)

    Flintoff, Anne; Foster, Rebecca; Wystawnoha, Simon


    School sport partnerships (SSPs) have been at the centre of a national strategy for Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) in England for the last seven years, aiming to improve both the range and quality of opportunities for young people to be physically active. While annual surveys show significantly increased opportunities for young people…

  15. An epidemiologic comparison of high school sports injuries sustained in practice and competition. (United States)

    Rechel, Julie A; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn


    More than 7 million US high school students play sports. To compare practice and competition injury rates and patterns in 5 boys' sports (football, soccer, basketball, wrestling, and baseball) and 4 girls' sports (soccer, volleyball, basketball, and softball) during the 2005-2006 school year. Prospective injury surveillance study. Injury data were collected from 100 nationally representative United States high schools via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online). Athletes from participating high schools injured while participating in a school-sanctioned practice or competition in one of the above sports. Practice and competition injury rates, body site, diagnosis, and severity. High school athletes participating in these 9 sports at participating schools sustained 4350 injuries during the 2005-2006 school year, which corresponds to an estimated 1 442 533 injuries nationally. The rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was higher in competition (4.63) than in practice (1.69) (rate ratio [RR] = 2.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.58, 2.90). Of all sports, football had the highest competition (12.09) and practice (2.54) injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures. Compared with injuries sustained during practice, higher proportions of competition injuries were head/face/neck injuries (proportion ratio [PR] = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.34, 1.94), particularly in boys' soccer (PR = 7.74, 95% CI = 2.53, 23.65) and girls' basketball (PR = 6.03, 95% CI = 2.39, 15.22). Competition injuries were more likely to be concussions (PR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.56, 2.62), especially in boys' soccer (PR = 6.94, 95% CI = 2.01, 23.95) and girls' basketball (PR = 5.83, 95% CI = 2.06, 16.49). Higher proportions of competition injuries caused the athlete to miss more than 3 weeks of play (PR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.52), particularly in baseball (PR = 3.47, 95% CI = 1.48, 8.11) and volleyball (PR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.01, 8.24). Rates and patterns of high school sport injuries differed between

  16. Sustainability of smallholder tea production in developing countries: Learning experiences from farmer field schools in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Onduru


    Full Text Available A study to determine the impacts of farmers field schools (FFS on smallholders’ adoption of good agricultural practices in tea and to assess sustainability of smallholder tea production was conducted in the highlands of Kenya. Input-output data on tea management and on sustainability indicators (score 0-10 were collected from a sample of 120 FFS participants at the beginning of the study and from 60 randomly selected FFS participants and a comparison group of 60 non-FFS participants at the end of the study, 18 months later. The study showed that the smallholder tea systems are moving towards social sustainability and economic returns were positive. Sustainability indicator scores, for FFS members, increased by 4% from the base period. The FFS participants also attained a significantly higher level of farm sustainability, knowledge gains on good agricultural practices (GAP and higher yields and farm and tea income than their non-FFS counterparts. These findings indicate that FFS methodology had a positive contribution to enhancing farmer learning and adoption of good agricultural practices in tea and improved farmers’ livelihoods.

  17. Effects of a school reform on longitudinal stability of students' preferences with regard to education. (United States)

    Könings, Karen D; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Elen, Jan


    Students' perspective on education is of crucial importance for its effectivity, but students' opinions are seldom acknowledged by teachers and designers. Student participation in the educational design process could be a suitable tool to better take students' preferences into account. However, for effective participatory design, it is necessary to know whether students have stable preferences for the design of their education. Changeability of preferences would require a more continuing design process allowing continuous adaptations. This longitudinal survey study aimed to determine the changeability over time of students' preferences for different aspects of a learning environment. Additionally, causes of possible changes in preferences are investigated. The participants were 1,335 high school students of five schools for secondary education in the Netherlands, joining this study during a period of 2 years. Data about students' preferences were collected at three moments, using the Inventory of Perceived Study Environment Extended. Learning-related student characteristics, such as processing strategies and motivational orientations, were measured with the Inventory of Learning Styles. Additionally, data on learning performances were collected. The results showed stability on preferences for almost all studied characteristics of the learning environment. Particularly remarkable was a drop in desirability for student autonomy. This was larger for students with a certificate-oriented motivation and smaller for self-regulated students. Additionally, poorly performing students had a larger decrease in preference for autonomy. The stability on most aspects supports that participatory design might result in fairly stable instructional designs, although caution is needed with respect to student autonomy. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Sustenance and sustainability: maximizing the impact of school gardens on health outcomes. (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie N; Spaniol, Mackenzie R; Somerset, Shawn


    School garden programmes have become popular action-oriented learning environments in many countries, often driven by converging priorities of environmental sustainability and healthful diets. Many of these programmes have assessed the impact on dietary intake, specifically fruit and vegetable intake, and related dietary behaviours, such as knowledge, preference, motivation, intention and self-efficacy to eat and prepare fruit and vegetables. The objective of the present study was twofold: (i) to review published garden-based programmes conducted in schools targeting dietary intake and/or determinants of dietary behaviour in children; and (ii) to identify similar strategies and components employed by these garden-based programmes. The review included thirteen studies that have examined the impact of garden-based programmes conducted in school, either during school hours or in after-school settings, on dietary behaviours in children (kindergarten through 8th grade students). Three of the reviewed studies did not have a comparison or control group and simply evaluated within-group changes after a garden intervention. None of the reviewed studies were randomized, but were assigned based on school's interest and timing of new school gardens being built. Out of the eleven programmes that examined dietary intake, six found that the programme resulted in increased vegetable intake, whereas four showed no effect. Seven of the eight studies that measured preference found that the programmes resulted in increased preference for vegetables. Gardening programmes also resulted in improved attitudes towards, willingness to taste, identification of and self-efficacy to prepare/cook fruit and vegetables. Similar strategies/components employed by the majority of the programmes included: 'hands on' curriculum, incorporation of a cooking component, providing the instructors, parental and stakeholder support, food provision and using the garden as the focal point for media promotion

  19. Logistical and fiscal sustainability of a school-based, pharmacist-administered influenza vaccination program. (United States)

    Fontanesi, John; Jue-Leong, Sierra


    To assess the fiscal and logistical viability of school-based, pharmacist-administered influenza vaccination programs. Econometric observational study. Nine schools in the Rincon Unified School District, Santa Rosa, CA. Safeway Pharmacies; Rincon Unified School District; California Department of Public Health, Immunization Branch; and University of California, San Diego. Assessment of direct workflow observations and administrative data. Unit costs, productivity, and effectiveness of school-based, pharmacist-administered influenza vaccination programs. The results showed a unit cost of $23.63 (compared with $25.60 for mass vaccination and $39.79 for walk-in shot-only vaccination clinics). The productivity index ($0.88) and efficiency index ($1.12) were better compared with data reported for comparable vaccination programs. School-based, pharmacist-administered vaccination programs are fiscally and logistically self-sustaining, viable alternatives to medical office-based or community-based mass vaccination clinics, and may offer a practical strategy for vaccinating children and adolescents.

  20. The Significance of "Participation" as an Educational Ideal in Education for Sustainable Development and Health Education in Schools (United States)

    Andreasen Lysgaard, Jonas; Simovska, Venka


    This article examines the significance of the concept of participation for teacher meaning-making processes in education for sustainable development and health education. In Scandinavian public schools, education for sustainable development and health education focus on a wide palette of societal problems rather than on narrow curricula. Drawing…