WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained response rate

  1. Sustainable responsibilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...

  2. Auditory sustained field responses to periodic noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keceli Sumru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auditory sustained responses have been recently suggested to reflect neural processing of speech sounds in the auditory cortex. As periodic fluctuations below the pitch range are important for speech perception, it is necessary to investigate how low frequency periodic sounds are processed in the human auditory cortex. Auditory sustained responses have been shown to be sensitive to temporal regularity but the relationship between the amplitudes of auditory evoked sustained responses and the repetitive rates of auditory inputs remains elusive. As the temporal and spectral features of sounds enhance different components of sustained responses, previous studies with click trains and vowel stimuli presented diverging results. In order to investigate the effect of repetition rate on cortical responses, we analyzed the auditory sustained fields evoked by periodic and aperiodic noises using magnetoencephalography. Results Sustained fields were elicited by white noise and repeating frozen noise stimuli with repetition rates of 5-, 10-, 50-, 200- and 500 Hz. The sustained field amplitudes were significantly larger for all the periodic stimuli than for white noise. Although the sustained field amplitudes showed a rising and falling pattern within the repetition rate range, the response amplitudes to 5 Hz repetition rate were significantly larger than to 500 Hz. Conclusions The enhanced sustained field responses to periodic noises show that cortical sensitivity to periodic sounds is maintained for a wide range of repetition rates. Persistence of periodicity sensitivity below the pitch range suggests that in addition to processing the fundamental frequency of voice, sustained field generators can also resolve low frequency temporal modulations in speech envelope.

  3. Editorial. Sustainability: A social responsability

    OpenAIRE

    Palmero Iglesias, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Editorial nº2_1 Palmero Iglesias, L. (2017). Editorial. Sustainability: A social responsability. VITRUVIO - International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability. (1):vii-viii. doi:10.4995/vitruvio-ijats.2017.7650. vii viii 1 2

  4. Responsible marketing for sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Vaso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge associated with the concept of sustainable tourism is its operationalisation and perception as a process to be applied through development plans, projects and ongoing activities of tour operators. The traditional approach to marketing, focused on a limited idea of maximising profit businesses, was not able to respond to a number of social and environmental requirements imposed by the concept of sustainable development. This paper discusses the ways in which marketing could play a more important role in the sustainable development of tourism. This refers to the determination of consumer needs and preferences, the formation of certain products and pricing, product information and advertising to consumers of their benefits in a sustainable manner, as well as adequate distribution channels used by businesses to deliver products to consumers. Environmental and social marketing are now being confirmed as important elements of a much broader marketing perspective. In order to develop tourism with sustainable outcomes, responsible marketing can be crucial. The concept of marketing mix for sustainable tourism was used as a starting point to explore the specific role of responsible marketing in tourism.

  5. Corporate Social Responsibility for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Przychodzeń

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to is to provide insights on implementing corporate social responsibility for sustainability (CSRS concept and show how it differs from basic corporate social responsibility (CSR. Methodology: The paper discusses major issues with references to existing literature and real business cases from S&P500 consumer discretionary sector. Findings: The main fi nding of this paper is that CSRS could provide the company with a competitive advantage as a growing number of consumers become more sustainable conscious. It could also help to overcome the increasing consumers’ skepticism towards corporate social responsibility practices. Finally, it can also be seen as a step forward in defi ning what types of corporate activities are associated with desirable social and environmental gains. Research limitations: Our sample was restricted to the U.S. fi rms from the consumer discretionary sector. Therefore, conclusions should not be generalized to other markets. Our study is based on the analysis of environmental and social responsibility statements and assumes that they accurately represent corporate commitment in majority of the cases. Practical implications: CSRS offers corporations the opportunity to use their unique skills, culture, values, resources, and management capabilities to lead social progress by making sustainability part of its internal corporate logic. Originality: The paper raises the importance of the different conditions necessary for making sustainable development concept an important part of corporate strategy.

  6. Partiality of Responsibility: Ethics in Sustainability Consulting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Earhart, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability, Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) are both highly normative fields of professional practice, framed by various narratives: capitalist versus environmentalist, waste versus respect for the planet, consumerism versus responsibility;

  7. Responsible and sustainable business in the context of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Businesses in the contemporary world, detached from the classic entrepreneurial paradigm in keeping with which a business appears, grows and matures, are undergoing a process of adjustment to the new concept of sustainability, focusing on reconciling global, regional, national and local economic development and the quality of the environment. The practical organization of a responsible and sustainable business, the results of which are ever new products and services, which creates new jobs, and contributes, by aggregating systematically, to assessing new macroeconomic results, from GDP or NDP to import and export, and especially to sustainable economic development, requires the presence of both the three classical factors, i.e., capital, labour and location (land, and the other three essential new factors, which are called technology, information and the specific skills of the business owner, or simply of the entrepreneur.

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward; Hockerts, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Scandinavia is routinely cited as a global leader in corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability. In this article, we explore the foundation for this claim while also exploring potential contributing factors. We consider the deep-seated traditions of stakeholder engagement across...... this may entail. In sum, we depict the state of the art in CSR and sustainability in Scandinavia. We intend for this to serve as a basis to help establish a globally recognized research paradigm dedicated to considering CSR and sustainability in a Scandinavian context....

  9. Sustainability and Risk: Towards a Risk-Based Sustainability Rating for Real Estate Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Meins; Daniel Sager

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - To identify the relative contribution of selected sustainability features to property value risk with the aim of generating a risk-based weighting system for a property sustainability rating.Approach - For a given set of sustainability features, a discounted cash flow (DCF) model is used to derive the weights. The anticipated demand for each sustainability feature is described by three future states of nature. Subjective probability distributions describe the occurrence of the futur...

  10. What does sustainability mean in the HIV and AIDS response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberth, Gemma; Whiteside, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Immense progress has been made in the fight against HIV and AIDS. Achieving and exceeding the AIDS targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was accomplished, in large part, due to an unprecedented financial investment from the international community. Following an $800 million dip in donor disbursements in 2010, the discourse has since shifted to the need for greater sustainability of funding. But what does sustainability mean? Current efforts focus heavily on fiscal imperatives such as increasing domestic funding. This is important - needs are increasing at a faster rate than donor funding, especially with increased treatment coverage. The problem is that measures of financial sustainability tell very little about the actual sustainability of specific programmes, disease trajectories or enabling environments. Recognising that current definitions of sustainability lack clarity and depth, we offer a new six-tenet conceptualisation of what sustainability means in the HIV and AIDS response: (1) financial, (2) epidemiological, (3) political, (4) structural, (5) programmatic, and (6) human rights. Based on these, we examine examples of donor transitions for their approach to sustainability, including PEPFAR in South Africa, the Global Fund in Eastern Europe, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in India (Avahan). We conclude that sustainability must be understood within a broader framework beyond funding stability. We also recommend that certain interventions, such as programming for key populations, may have to continue to receive external support even if affected countries can afford to pay.

  11. Sustainable Logistics Responses to a Global Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Bretzke, Wolf-Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    Currently the notion of "sustainability" is used in an inflationary manner. Therefore the authors start with a definition which is stable to serve as an anchor for further research as well as for discussions among scientists, managers and politicians, ideally across different disciplines. The character of this book is purely conceptual. The argumentation is based on comparison of new and demanding requisites with existing models (process and network architectures in the field of logistics). Formerly neglected impacts on the environment will be included. Main features of a new approach will be developed which are capable to avoid these impacts and to align logistics with the requirements of sustainability. In order to make logistics sustainable large parts will have to be reinvented. The focus needs to be on decoupling transportation activities from economic growth rates.

  12. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  13. Sustainability rating as internal challenge for the financial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoeteman, Bastiaan; Kopp, H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability rating is rapidly maturing to a level where even the complex concept of sustainable development—including the ecological, sociocultural, and economic pillars and their components, as well as governance aspects such as attitudes—can be objectively described and quantitatively analyzed.

  14. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence and the Continuously Relevant and Responsible Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Bøllingtoft, Anne; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2013-01-01

    issues surrounding enterprise innovation and sustainability efforts and capabilities. Innovation and sustainability of the necessary trajectory, scale, and velocity are strategically integrated to deliver what we refer to as innovating sustainability. This provides an accelerated means path toward...... sustainable enterprise excellence, and hence toward the asymptotic aspiration of being a continuously relevant and responsible organization. Introduced are the concepts of innovating sustainability, sustainable enterprise excellence (SEE), and continuously relevant and responsible organizations (CRRO)....

  15. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSIBILITY OF BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Krykun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Today sustainable development is a widely used term, which has been increasingly influential in recent years. Debates about sustainability no longer consider sustainability solely as an environmental concern, but also incorporate economic and social dimensions. However, while a social and economic dimensions of sustainable development are widely discussed, environmental degradation becomes more and more crucial each year and is likely to reduce human well-being all across the world within the next few decades. The purpose of the paper is to analyse ecological ‘pillar’ of sustainable development, its historical background, main steps towards implementation of ‘new global environmental rules for society. Methodology. The paper is based on statistical information from public sources, reports of different international organizations and institutions, which are used to stress and underline main crucial points of research. Results of the survey show, that environmental quality, economic development and social well-being are interdependent and the main aim of international institutions, independent countries, businesses and society is to achieve environmentally sustainable development. Environmental issues make strong impact on modern economy. Responsible global strategy of development provides the whole society with rules, how ‘wise’ technological changes and economic policy can make industrial production processes less polluting and less resource intensive but yet more productive and profitable. Practical implications. Strategy of sustainable development and it’s three basic dimensions have found practical implication in one complex model, which illustrates the level of development of each country – the Human Development Index, which is focusing on three basic dimensions of human development: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita. Another data, which is

  16. Sustainability and Counteracting Factors to Profit Rate Decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability implications of barriers to growth as specified in the theory of the long-term falling rate of profit but focusing on the counteracting factors (CFs) specified by Marx. These depend much on political processes and are important in state theory for understanding...... which implies a destruction of capital that will counteract the falling rate of profit. This will require sustained political intervention....

  17. Managed Sustainable Development Classification Of Resources And Goods amp Services Calculating Sustainable Growth Rate And The Sustainable Development Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Saxena

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Macro-level manmade problems can often be best solved by understanding and manipulating the economics behind it. The world today is facing genuine problems of scarcity of resources and environmental amp ecological issues in view of intergenerational equity. The paper proposes a new approach of identification and classification of i Resources and ii Goods and services in the context of sustainable development. Every economy has ambitious economic growth aspirations which are often found conflicting with the commitments on natural resource conservation and climate change obligations. The proposed methodology is a reconciliation of the aspired economic growth of a region and the conservation of the resources and nature. The paper employs contribution of different types of goods and services in the gross domestic product GDP of a region to analyze sustainability of development. The important parameters that the paper establishes are Sustainability Ratio R Sustainable Growth Rate SG and the Sustainable Development Index SI. These parameters can be used to compare the sustainable development level of different regions. Ensuring natural resource and environmental sustainability will eventually ensure economic sustainability. The paper considers resource depletion concerns as well as the environmental pollutants biological risks carbon footprint warhead proliferation et cetera thereby ensuring all round sustainability from survival to economic end. The sustainability analysis is done for long periods such as 50 years 100 years et cetera. The index shows how sustainable the development of an economy is and how sustainability it is growing. The presently much revered GDP growth numbers are directionless it does not tell the type of growth an economy essentially has. The direction should be sustainability which the paper stresses upon. An illustration of sustainability analysis of India is also done. Such indices can help identifying sustainably developing

  18. Canadian STARS-Rated Campus Sustainability Plans: Priorities, Plan Creation and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Lidstone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of integrated sustainability plans is an emerging trend in higher education institutions (HEIs to set sustainability priorities and to create a work plan for action. This paper analyses the sustainability plans of 21 Canadian HEIs that have used the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment and Rating System (STARS from the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE. The plans were coded thematically with a focus on the sustainability goals, process of plan creation, and aspects of plan design outlined in the texts. This paper finds that sustainability goals focused on the environmental aspects of sustainability, while social and economic aspects were less emphasized. Further, most plans were described as being created through a broad stakeholder-consultation process, while fewer plans assigned timelines and parties responsible to sustainability goals. This paper contributes to our understanding of the priorities of Canadian HEI institutions at the end of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development and is useful for practitioners interested in developing their own sustainability plans.

  19. What is the impact of a country-wide scale-up in antiviral therapy on the characteristics and sustained viral response rates of patients treated for hepatitis C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott A; Innes, Hamish A; Hayes, Peter C; Dillon, John F; Mills, Peter R; Goldberg, David J; Barclay, Stephen; Allen, Sam; Fox, Ray; Fraser, Andrew; Kennedy, Nicholas; Bhattacharyya, Diptendu; Hutchinson, Sharon J

    2015-02-01

    The global burden associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has prompted a scale-up of antiviral therapy. Hitherto, no data exist on the impact of scaling-up, on the characteristics of treated populations, or on sustained viral response (SVR) rates. We assessed the country-wide scale-up of antiviral therapy in Scotland, a country which nationally monitors uptake of and response to HCV treatment. Data for patients, initiated on combined pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy at 13 specialist HCV clinics in 2001-2010, were extracted from the Scottish HCV Clinical Database (n=3895). Patient characteristics included age, genotype, PWID (people who inject drugs) status, prison referral, and diagnosed cirrhosis. Temporal trends in covariates and adjusted effects on a SVR were examined via mixed-effects regression. The number of patients starting treatment increased from 237 in 2001-2002 to 1560 in 2009-2010, with an increasing trend in SVR from 44% to 57% over this period. For a given clinic, between 2001/2 and 2010 there was a decrease in the odds of those treated being diagnosed with cirrhosis (odds ratio [OR]=0.84 per year), and increasing temporal trends for those treated being PWID (OR=1.08) and prison referrals (OR=1.06). Adjusting for covariates, the proportion of a given clinic's patients achieving SVR was positively associated with the percentage of PWID (OR=1.01 per percent increase; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.02) and genotype 2/3 (OR=1.03; 95% CI: 1.02-1.04). Despite changes in patient characteristics, a country-wide scale-up of antiviral therapy did not compromise SVR rates. Results are highly relevant to countries planning on scaling-up treatment, given the forthcoming availability of new interferon-free therapies. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Social responsibility and corporate sustainability factors in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernando Lámbarry

    2016-01-01

    .... However, corporate responsibility and sustainability are increasingly common among businessmen, so that literature has emerged on various approaches to this type of case identifying the factors...

  1. Hospitableness and sustainable development: New responsibilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [CC BY 4.0] (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0). Introduction. Within the hospitality industry, as in other industries, attention is given to environmental sustainability. Unfortunately, however, most hospitality companies are lagging behind in the process of becoming more sustainable (van Rheede & Blomme, 2012a).

  2. Practices of corporate social responsibility and sustainable systems work in Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angela Prialé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a literature review, this exploratory study seeks to determine whether the practices related to its colaborators, who report as part of its action responsible Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports can be considered sustainable management practices of human resources. To this end, it was used the approach of sustainable work systems as a general approach. It was found that some of the practices of responsible management of human resources that implement the analyzed companies address the human dimensions of sustainability, although not all dimensions are considered equally or similar depth.

  3. Responsible Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  4. Education as a response to sustainability issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Van Poeck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the field of environmental education and education for sustainable development, there is a lively discussion about the paradox between acknowledging pluralism and taking into account urgent sustainability concerns. With this article, we aim at nurturing this debate theoretically and empirically. We draw on concepts of Latour and Marres that allow an analysis of educational practices that strive to take into account a multiplicity of views, values, interests and knowledge claims without resorting to an ‘anything goes’ relativism vis-à-vis the far-reaching implications of sustainability issues. We present an analysis of a guided tour of a CSA farm (Community Supported Agriculture and articulate how the care for a sustainability issue can incite an interesting educational dynamic (understood as ‘education as a respons’e that emerges as a derivative of ‘mastery’.

  5. Consumer Sustainability and Responsibility: Beyond Green and Ethical Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Hosta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Most literature regarding sustainable behavior is based on the assumption that the reduction of consumption is inherently positive (mainly in the form of positive environmental consequences and based on ethical considerations. However, the issue of the social consequences of this reduction and self-interested intentions in consumption is not generally open to debate. This paper aims to identify dimensions of sustainable and responsible consumer behavior, distinguish between the two concepts, and present consumer obstacles to acting responsibly in all aspects that a sustainability agenda would suggest. Design/Methodology/Approach – The paper includes a literature review, proposes a framework of responsible and sustainable consumption (RSCB, and offers a set of propositions to achieve responsible and sustainable consumption. Insights from personal interviews with consumers are added for the sake of additional understanding of the concepts presented. Findings and implications – Through the RSCB framework, we show the potential trade-off decisions consumers have to make in order to implement sustainability and responsibility issues in everyday consumer decision processes. Struggles between doing what is good for them and what is good for the environment and society could be a reason why consumers have difficulties achieving responsible and sustainable consumption. Limitations – Qualitative study based on a small sample of personal interviews does not allow for generalizations. Originality – A research gap in understanding the dimensions of sustainable and responsible consumer actions in terms of their emphasis (environmental and social and intentions (self-interest and other-interest is addressed. By understanding those two dimensions of behavior, managers and consumers can resolve consumer sustainability and responsibility dilemmas that arise from a one-dimensional view in order to move sustainability research and practice

  6. Hospitableness and sustainable development: New responsibilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How does the current paradigm of the host-guest relationship cause the hospitality industry to lag behind in sustainable development? Hospitality is often defined as “a feeling of being welcome”. It is about “welcoming the stranger: a person who comes today and stays tomorrow”, or “a stranger who is treated like a god”.

  7. Industry specific sustainability benchmarks: an ECSF pilot bridging corporate sustainability with social responsible investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woerd, K.F.; van den Brink, T.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the state of the art with respect to sustainability reporting, its linkages with the corporations, internal measurement and monitoring systems and their combined impact on the quality of contemporary sustainability benchmarks, developed by SRI analysts and so-called rating

  8. Heart Rate Responses to Synthesized Affective Spoken Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirja Ilves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of brief synthesized spoken words with emotional content on the ratings of emotions and heart rate responses. Twenty participants' heart rate functioning was measured while they listened to a set of emotionally negative, neutral, and positive words produced by speech synthesizers. At the end of the experiment, ratings of emotional experiences were also collected. The results showed that the ratings of the words were in accordance with their valence. Heart rate deceleration was significantly the strongest and most prolonged to the negative stimuli. The findings are the first suggesting that brief spoken emotionally toned words evoke a similar heart rate response pattern found earlier for more sustained emotional stimuli.

  9. Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility: Linking Goals to Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radostina Bakardjieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is the core of sustainable development of companies. On one hand, the corporate social responsibility of companies is a prerequisite for sustainable business, on the other - sustainable development sets specific requirements for the development of businesses in the context of increasing requirements to the degree of quality and reliability of financial information. In recent years, sustainable development has become a strategic issue for companies and this trend applies to Bulgarian companies too. Development of non-financial reporting is a very dynamic process, whose peak is the establishment of an integrated system of accountability. Current paper makes analyses of advantages of CSR linking it to the implementation of sustainable development goals through the integrated reporting following the requirements of the standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI.

  10. Sustainable usability rating system for shopping centres; Kauppakeskusten kestaevaen kaeytettaevyyden arviointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissinen, K.; Mottonen, V.; Niemi, R.; Nenonen, S.; Alho, J.

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this study was to create a sustainable usability rating system for shopping centers. The system consists out of seven main factors divided into 80 sub factors. The main factors are: location and accessibility, technical characteristics of the real estate, energy efficiency, waste management and recycling efficiency, tenant mix sustainability, economic prerequisites for tenant business operations and responsible shopping center management. Each of the factors has its own weighting when calculating the total score. Some of the criteria are quantitative some qualitative. The scoring system is equal to opinion score system used in Finnish schools (4-10). The rating system was tested in five large scale shopping centers. Among the rated centers the total score varied from 7.3 to 7.9 and the average score was 7.6. (orig.)

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability in Danish Public Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    2017-01-01

    . Secondly, as Denmark has been known as a pioneer in sustainable development, including implementation of it in public purchasing this article focuses on recent developments in the areas of CSR and sustainable public procurement in Denmark, and analyses relevant Danish Public Procurement Complaints Board......The new EU Procurement Directives reinforced the importance of sustainable development by facilitating the strategic use of public procurement to achieve broader societal goals and as such offer significant new opportunities for sustainable public procurement. The task of today is to better...... understand the continuously developing concepts of SPP, as well as to identify the drivers and barriers that promote or hinder its further implementation. This article firstly deals with the relationship between the concepts of sustainability, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and public procurement...

  12. Sustainable and responsible supply chain governance: challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boström, M.; Jönsson, A.M.; Lockie, S.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Special Volume on sustainable and responsible supply chain governance. As globalized supply chains cross multiple regulatory borders, the firms involved in these chains come under increasing pressure from consumers, NGOs and governments to accept responsibility for social

  13. Applying a Transportation Rating System to Advance Sustainability Evaluation, Planning and Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrella, Elise; Lineburg, Kelsey; Hurley, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a pilot application of the Sustainable Transportation Analysis & Rating System (STARS), and highlight how a sustainability rating system can be used to promote sustainable urban development through a university-city partnership. STARS is an example of a second-generation "green"…

  14. Baseline response rates affect resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cook, James E; Lattal, Kennon A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of response rates on resistance to change, measured as resistance to extinction, was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, responding in transition from a variable-ratio schedule and its yoked-interval counterpart to extinction was compared with pigeons. Following training on a multiple variable-ratio yoked-interval schedule of reinforcement, in which response rates were higher in the former component, reinforcement was removed from both components during a single extended extinction session. Resistance to extinction in the yoked-interval component was always either greater or equal to that in the variable-ratio component. In Experiment 2, resistance to extinction was compared for two groups of rats that exhibited either high or low response rates when maintained on identical variable-interval schedules. Resistance to extinction was greater for the lower-response-rate group. These results suggest that baseline response rate can contribute to resistance to change. Such effects, however, can only be revealed when baseline response rate and reinforcement rate are disentangled (Experiments 1 and 2) from the more usual circumstance where the two covary. Furthermore, they are more cleanly revealed when the programmed contingencies controlling high and low response rates are identical, as in Experiment 2. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating......Identifying ways to efficiently maximize the response rate to surveys is important to survey-based research. However, evidence on the response rate effect of donation incentives and especially altruistic and egotistic-type text appeal interventions is sparse and ambiguous. By a randomized survey...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility And Sustainability In Romanian Commercial Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Cocris; Andra Lavinia Nichitean

    2010-01-01

    The research paper aims to underline the importance of civic behavior in business and bank’s role in the implementation of sound principles of corporate social responsibility. The authors analyzed terms such as corporate social responsibility, sustainable development, fi-nancial stability and the relationship between them, in order to explain their impact on the proper function of world economy. The authors provided a synthesis of corporate social responsibility principles and codes of con-du...

  17. Value Creation in the Context of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmida Ľubomír

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the influence of the new rules of the economy and the society, companies are achieving a notional line of a necessary change in the approach to creating new value, wealth. Implementation of changes in the system of wealth creation requires a review of existing assumptions of unlimited growth of the global economy and wealth creation in the environment accepting economic interests, society and the environment as a holistic unit. The main purpose of this paper is the clarification of a new requirements for business, presentation of the questionnaire survey Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility and inform on value creation in the context of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility.

  18. Value Creation in the Context of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmida, Ľubomír; Sakál, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Under the influence of the new rules of the economy and the society, companies are achieving a notional line of a necessary change in the approach to creating new value, wealth. Implementation of changes in the system of wealth creation requires a review of existing assumptions of unlimited growth of the global economy and wealth creation in the environment accepting economic interests, society and the environment as a holistic unit. The main purpose of this paper is the clarification of a new requirements for business, presentation of the questionnaire survey Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility and inform on value creation in the context of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility.

  19. SUSTAINABILITY AS A STRATEGY OF RESPONSIBLE AND COMPETITIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze a competitiveness strategy based on sustainability to lead the way to a model of responsible and competitive development. The analysis takes as its starting point the assumption that the maturity of a sustainable business strategy positively affects competitiveness. The used method is the critical analysis. Among other results of this analysis concludes that the current business strategy seeks a system ecologically appropriate, economically viable and socially fair to reach sustainable equilibrium. This strategy based on sustainability must be promoted by the institutions and strengthened by the capabilities and resources that each company counts on to develop advantages to foster the overall development and achieve the maximization of benefits from the tangible and intangible perspectives

  20. SUNRA - a sustainability rating system framework for National Road Administrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowerby, Chris; Langstraat, James; Harmer, Clare

    National Road Administrations (NRAs) across Europe strive to improve the performance of their road networks. This improvement has been underpinned by significant research in the optimisation of road planning, design, construction and maintenance, which has enhanced the understanding of the social......, environmental and economic aspects of managing a road network. Whilst there is common understanding in some aspects of sustainability there is not a common understanding of sustainability as a whole and thus how to benchmark and improve overall performance. The Sustainability: National Road Administrations...

  1. A Collaborative Programme in Sustainability and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albareda Tiana, Silvia; Alférez Villarreal, Azul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to collect methodological strategies used in the training of future teachers to develop competences in sustainability and social responsibility (SSR). The proposal in this paper is to show how students learn and develop competences by performing practical activities and through a collaborative experience,…

  2. Lesion Neuroanatomy of the Sustained Attention to Response Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenberghs, Pascal; Gillebert, Celine R.; Schoofs, Hanne; Dupont, Patrick; Peeters, Ronald; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2009-01-01

    The Sustained Attention to Response task is a classical neuropsychological test that has been used by many centres to characterize the attentional deficits in traumatic brain injury, ADHD, autism and other disorders. During the SART a random series of digits 1-9 is presented repeatedly and subjects have to respond to each digit (go trial) except…

  3. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  4. Sustainability assessment, rating systems and historical buildings Case study: Rehabilitated construction in a university site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrykia Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the indicators and different factors that “rating systems for green projects” concentrates on, and principles and factors considered in the rehabilitation of historical buildings. In recent years, different methods and systems concerned and improved for assessing environmental sustainability. LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and BREEAM (Building Research Establishment (BRE Environmental Assessment Method are two most commonly used rating systems, established in U.S and UK. These systems comprise some categories and different factors to achieve environmentally responsible design. Firstly, this study focuses on the list of rating systems indicators and criteria. Secondly this paper investigates a historical rehabilitated building in the site of Tabriz Art University, as a case study and has tried to compile its green design elements. Finally, this work intends to compare mentioned elements with indicators and factors of building rating systems. Findings of the study revealed that “Materials and Resources”, “indoor environmental quality” and also “Sustainable Sites” ,the most significant indicator of rating systems, had major and important role in the rehabilitation of the building. Beyond this materials’ life cycle was considerable in construction.

  5. Panel design effects on response rates and response quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Seger; Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTo understand changes in individuals' opinions and attitudes it would be best to collect data through panels. Such panels, however, often cause irritation among respondents, resulting in low response rates and low response quality. We address whether this problem can be alleviated by

  6. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Martha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. Methods A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP that matched Australian electoral records were approached. Results The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. Conclusion The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  7. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2008-11-03

    Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking) water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP) that matched Australian electoral records were approached. The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  8. Sustainable Urban Development Calls for Responsibility through Life Cycle Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Ristimäki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban development bestows a great opportunity to increase sustainability in the built environment as cities are responsible for the majority of environmental impacts. However, the urban development process is fragmented and sub-optimization leads to unsustainable life cycle outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the urban development process from a life cycle perspective and identify how different actors understand life cycle management. By utilizing an inductive qualitative research design, 38 in-depth thematic interviews were conducted within the Finnish urban development industry including a case study and independent interviews from different phases of the urban development life cycle. The theoretical perspective is a combination of the ecosystem construct and life cycle management. Results show that there is no clear responsible actor for life cycle management in urban development. All actors claim that there is value to be added, mostly in economic, but also environmental and social terms. This study reveals that investors should be the responsible actor in the urban development process. By claiming responsibility and focusing on life cycle leadership we can improve sustainability in urban development, and respond to the urban sustainability challenge, thus improving the quality of life and welfare in our urban society.

  9. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  10. Academic-community partnerships for sustainable preparedness and response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, Alexander; O'Neal, Patrick; Prescott, John; Stanley, Joan; Herrmann, Jack; Dunlop, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Academic institutions possess tremendous resources that could be important for community disaster response and preparedness activities. In-depth exploration of the role of academic institutions in community disaster response has elicited information about particular academic resources leveraged for and essential to community preparedness and response; factors that contribute to the decision-making process for partner engagement; and facilitators of and barriers to sustainable collaborations from the perspectives of academic institutions, public health and emergency management agencies, and national association and agency leaders. The Academic-Community Partnership Project of the Emory University Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center in collaboration with the Association of Schools of Public Health convened an invitational summit which included leadership from the National Association of County and City Health Officials, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Directors of Public Health Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, CDC Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Association of Schools of Public Health, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of Academic Health Centers, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and American Association of Poison Control Centers. From this convention, emerged recommendations for building and sustaining academic-public health-community collaborations for preparedness locally and regionally.

  11. Effect of sustained maternal responsivity on later vocabulary development in children with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Nancy; Warren, Steven F; Fleming, Kandace; Keller, Juliana; Sterling, Audra

    2014-02-01

    This research explored whether sustained maternal responsivity (a parent–child interaction style characterized by warmth, nurturance, and stability as well as specific behaviors, such as contingent positive responses to child initiations) was a significant variable predicting vocabulary development of children with fragile X syndrome through age 9 years. Fifty-five mother–child dyads were followed longitudinally when children were between 2 and 10 years of age. Measures of maternal responsivity and child vocabulary were obtained at regular intervals starting at age 2.9 years. Sustained responsivity was indicated by the average responsivity measured over Observations 2–5. Responsivity at the 1st time period, autism symptoms, and cognitive development were used as control variables. After controlling for development and autism symptoms, the authors found significant effects for sustained responsivity on receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and the rate of different words children produced through age 9. Maternal responsivity, which is typically a variable of interest during early childhood, continues to be a significant variable, predicting vocabulary development through the middle childhood period. Thus, responsivity is a potential target for language interventions through this age period.

  12. The effect of sustained maternal responsivity on later vocabulary development in children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Nancy; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace; Keller, Juliana; Sterling, Audra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The research question addressed was whether sustained maternal responsivity (a parent-child interaction style characterized by warmth, nurturance and stability as well as specific behaviors such as contingent positive responses to child initiations) was a significant variable predicting vocabulary development of children with FXS through age 9 years. Method Fifty-five mother-child dyads were followed longitudinally when children were between 2 and 10 years of age. Measures of maternal responsivity and child vocabulary were obtained at regular intervals starting at age 2.9 years. Sustained responsivity was indicated by the average responsivity measured over observations 2–5. Responsivity at the first time period, autism symptoms, and cognitive development were used as control variables. Results After controlling for development and autism symptoms, we found significant effects for sustained responsivity on receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and the rate of different words children produced through age 9. Conclusions Maternal responsivity, which is typically a variable of interest during early childhood, continues to be a significant variable, predicting vocabulary development through the middle childhood period. Thus, responsivity is a potential target for language interventions through this age period. PMID:24023370

  13. Sustainability Ethics Emergency and Media Responsibility in the Consumption Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Bianchi de Araujo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is discussed the sustainable development and the importance of the environmental cause, in order to create models of development that consider the sustainability and environmental preservation for the future generations. The participation of all society is essential in this debate. The establishment of new habits that do not compromise the subsistence and the conscience of the real self-destruction possibility must be studied and analysed; they consist in challenging intentions, which detach the relevance and the moral duty of the media to restore a new ethics and a new way to understand the reality, as well as to divulge the impact of this different perception in the human life. Therefore occurs the requirement of a responsible compromise relating to the development, by way of understanding the biosphere as the social life basis, considering that, in these ecosystems, the human being is only one of the many species that live in an interdependence relationship.

  14. Efficient Customer Selection for Sustainable Demand Response in Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zois, Vasileios; Frincu, Marc; Chelmis, Charalambos; Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2014-11-03

    Regulating the power consumption to avoid peaks in demand is a common practice. Demand Response(DR) is being used by utility providers to minimize costs or ensure system reliability. Although it has been used extensively there is a shortage of solutions dealing with dynamic DR. Past attempts focus on minimizing the load demand without considering the sustainability of the reduced energy. In this paper an efficient algorithm is presented which solves the problem of dynamic DR scheduling. Data from the USC campus micro grid were used to evaluate the efficiency as well as the robustness of the proposed solution. The targeted energy reduction is achieved with a maximum average approximation error of ≈ 0.7%. Sustainability of the reduced energy is achieved with respect to the optimal available solution providing a maximum average error less than 0.6%. It is also shown that a solution is provided with a low computational cost fulfilling the requirements of dynamic DR.

  15. Building Fluent Performance: Measuring Response Rate and Multiplying Response Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Precision teaching emerged from O.R. Lindsley's pristine application of Skinner's natural science of behavior, with a focus on response rate measurement and free operant procedures. When applied with human learners in instructional settings, these first principles led to a series of developments framed in this paper as four kinds of ceilings that…

  16. Alternative aviation jet fuel sustainability evaluation report - task 3 : sustainability criteria and rating systems for the use in aircraft alternative fuel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    This report identifies criteria that can be used to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels introduced into the aviation fuel supply chain. It describes the inputs, criteria and outputs that can be used in a sustainability rating system. It identifie...

  17. SUSTAINABILITY AND COMPANY’S CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY NEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA VIOLETA ACHIM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The company is a living organism, is an entity and its analysis should be made taking into account the whole system. The company is a dynamic environment, which has as a mainly aims to add value for all participants in the economic life. In the organizations, the achievement of the concept of sustainable development is achieved through the concept of societal responsibility of the organizations. For this scope we need to use the term introduced by Elkington namely “The Triple Bottom Line” which involve economic prosperity, environmental compliance and improve social cohesion. [11]. So, “The Triple Bottom Line” can be defined as an approach for measuring the overall performance of an organization according to its triple contribution to the three aspects mentioned above. The new conceptual framework change radically the final aim of a company because it is not anymore maximizing the value of shares held by shareholders, but it is maximizing value for all stakeholders, where shareholders are just another category of stakeholders. Sustainable development and globalization require new performance standards that exceed the economic field, for both national company and international ones. As a consequence, these standards must be integrated into the company's development strategy, to ensure sustainability of activities carried, by the harmonization of economic, social and environmental objectives.

  18. Heart rate variability and sustained attention in ADHD children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börger, N.A.; Van der Meere, J.J.; Ronner, A.; Alberts, E.; Geuze, R.H.; Bogte, H

    The major goal of the current study was to investigate the association between continuous performance tests (CPTs) and the heart rate variability (HRV) of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. The HRV, specifically the 0.10-Hz component, may be considered to be a

  19. Sustainable systems rating program: Marketing ``Green`` Building in Austin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    Four major resource issues for home construction were identified: water, energy, materials, and waste. A systems flow model was then developed that tracked the resource issues through interactive matrices in the areas of sourcing, processing, using, and disposing or recycling. This model served as the basis for a rating system used in an educational and marketing tool called the Eco-Home Guide.

  20. Sustainable Eco Coastal Development Through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanissazly, Arsi; Mursito Ardy, Yong; Abdullah

    2017-02-01

    Besides technical problems the company’s operational constraints that may effect high deficiency for the company is the company - community conflicts. Company - community conflict can also arise depends on the geographic conditions and characteristics of the community itself. Some studies has show that coastal community have higher level of social risk when compared to non-coastal community. Also, the coastal community ussually only rely on what sea provides as their main livelihood. Because of the level of education still contemtible the community couldn’t optimized the potential of their own area. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) har emerged as an important approach for addressing the social and environmental impact of company activities. Through CSR program, PT Pertamina EP Asset 3 Tambun Field (PEP) try to form value integration by utilizing resources from the community and the company by making sustainable eco - coastal living in Desa Tambaksari, Karawang, one of PEP working area. Using sustainable livelihood approach begin with compiling data by doing social mapping PEP has initiate the area to becoming Fish Processing Industry Centre. By implementing PDCA in every steps of the program, PEP has multiplied some other programs such as Organic Fish Feed Processing, Seaweed Farming and Waste Bank for Green Coastal Village. These program is PEP’s effort to create a sustainability environment by enhancing the community’s potentials as well as resolving social problems around Tambaksari. The most important result besides getting our license to operate from the community, is the community itself can grow into an eco coastal sustainable system.

  1. Predicting demographically sustainable rates of adaptation : Can great tit breeding time keep pace with climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Lof, Marjolein; Reed, Thomas E.; McNamara, John; Verhulst, Simon; Visser, Marcel E.

    2013-01-01

    Populations need to adapt to sustained climate change, which requires micro-evolutionary change in the long term. A key question is how the rate of this micro-evolutionary change compares with the rate of environmental change, given that theoretically there is a 'critical rate of environmental

  2. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...... in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should...

  3. The difference between lending interest rate and funds interest rate. Link with sustainable banking. Particularities of Romanian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gheorghe Iacob

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article, is trying to capture the way difference between active and passive interest rates influence macroeconomic sustainable development in a country. However the theory is limited on this area and the author is intending to merge practical aspects with conceptual terms. The role of banks in an economy is very important, as all inflows and outflows are done through financial institutions. Bank sustainability is the area of study and practice that captures the contribution of banks in sustainable development of a country. Banking instruments are the means by which banks are present and act in the economy. Banking techniques are the mechanisms of banking instruments. The most important banking instruments are the loans and the deposits. So banks take deposits from different entities and use them as resource to finance other entities. A bank is considered contributing to sustainable development, if lending divisions allocates resources to investments that bring long-term welfare to the community not only for today people, but for future generations. Therefore, we can establish a correlation between banking sustainability and sustainable development through the evolution of banking instruments. Looking to detail, bank sustainability is highly affected by the local macroeconomic issues, but also from global influences.

  4. Impact of corporate social responsibility on sustainable enterprise development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danubianu Mirela

    2017-06-01

    Top management endorsement and nomination of a complex CSR teamDeveloping formal company CSR policy documentsSelecting and engaging the company’s stakeholders as early as possible.Building a Project Advisory Board – useful in every modern managerial tool application should guide the progress toward CSR.An external facilitator would help solve internal conflicts.An audit of what CSR represents for the Company, what are the CSR options, e.g., promoting a “green company” profile, what would be the best impact of philanthropy and community volunteering, etc.Generate a CSR portfolio of actions, setting deadlines, responsibilities and allocating resources, establishing communication, reporting, monitoring and corrective proceduresupgrading the sustainable enterprise strategy.

  5. Firefighter Incident Rehabilitation: Interpreting Heart Rate Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Benedict, Ron; Moore-Merrell, Lori

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this observational study was to document the heart rate (HR) responses of firefighters during incident rehabilitation following firefighting activity in a high-rise building with a simulated fire on the 10th floor. Additionally, the study investigated potential factors, including firefighting workload, ambient temperature, firefighter movement, and individual characteristics, that may have affected HR during recovery. Firefighters (n = 198) were assigned to perform a simulation of fire suppression, search and rescue, or material support during one of six firefighting trials that involved different crew sizes and ascent modes, and were performed in different environmental conditions. After completing the simulated firefighting activity, firefighters reported to a rehabilitation area on the 8th floor. The rehabilitation area was staffed by firefighter/paramedics. HR was monitored continuously during simulated firefighting activity and a 15-minute rehabilitation period. Average HR during rehabilitation (HRmean) was calculated and compared across trials. Simulated firefighting activity was performed in the summer in Virginia, USA, and ambient conditions varied among trials (mean ± SD: 31 ± 4°C; 46 ± 15% relative humidity; 32 ± 4°C heat index). Duration of simulated firefighting activity ranged from 12.0 to 20.3 minutes among trials (mean: 15.4 ± 5.2 minutes). Over all trials, mean peak HR during simulations was 173 ± 18 beats·min(-1). Mean HR over all trials at entry into rehabilitation was 149 ± 24 beats·min(-1). Following 15 minutes of recovery, mean HR over all trials was 126 ± 23 beats·min(-1). Exploratory analyses revealed that higher workload during firefighting (stair trials), higher ambient temperature (≥30°C), greater movement during rehabilitation (≥0.1 g-force), higher age (≥45 years), and higher BMI (≥30.0 kg·m(-2)) were associated with higher HR responses during rehabilitation. During complex emergency

  6. Sustainable palm oil as a public responsibility? : On the governance capacity of Indonesian standard for sustainable palm oil (ISPO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, Nia; Offermans, Astrid; Glasbergen, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the observation that Southern governments start to take responsibility for a more sustainable production of agricultural commodities as a response to earlier private initiatives by businesses and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Indonesia is one of the leading

  7. Sustainability as an object of corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Marí Farinós

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We can observe that in the last few years companies and organizations of any nature have begun to show an increasing interest in establishing sustainable relationships with the environment by bridging those groups that are impacted or that impact on their activities, . In this context, the social responsibility report emerges as a management tool that allows companies to be accountable to society and its groups and measure, their environmental, financial and social actions. The Triple Bottom Line, triple accountability or triple counting of results, should be understood as the methodology to measure and report the performance of organizations contrasted with environmental, economic and social parameters. In addition, it allows companies to surpass accountability solely for their economic value as it used to be in the past, and also to consider the social and environmental value they add or destroy. Concern about these social and environmental issues generates a demand for information, which, in turn, leads to the need to have a document that collects the information demanded by society and that should be offered by the Companies, what is known as Social Responsibility. It is the American companies that originally, already in the late sixties and early seventies, found themselves in need of having to offer information regarding their social responsibility. This information was collected in what, we might conclude, is the first social balances, which were addressed mainly to groups outside the company itself, especially to consumers, since in the United States it was this collective that showed a greater concern about the issue.

  8. Differentiating Telephone Surveys from Telemarketing to Increase Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Joey; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finds that including the statement "I'm not selling anything" in a telephone survey introduction does not significantly affect response rates. Shows that only an introduction with a university reference significantly increased response rates. (SR)

  9. Sustaining Health Care Interventions to Achieve Quality Care: What We Can Learn From Rapid Response Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolldorf, Deonni P

    Rapid response team (RRT) adoption and implementation are associated with improved quality of care of patients who experience an unanticipated medical emergency. The sustainability of RRTs is vital to achieve long-term benefits of these teams for patients, staff, and hospitals. Factors required to achieve RRT sustainability remain unclear. This study examined the relationship between sustainability elements and RRT sustainability in hospitals that have previously implemented RRTs.

  10. Critical review of LEED system for rating sustainability of architecture of commercial interiors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The LEED rating system for sustainability of architecture has gained large marketing potential in USA and became one of main ways American builders are attacking ecological challenges. In this paper the LEED rating system for commercial interiors is critically reviewed, pointing out its positive - focus on integrated design process - and negative impacts - low thresholds for highest ratings and tendency to gain LEED rating with projects that hardly pass the thresholds, largely neglecting the principles of energy efficiency. Based on a few prominent LEED platinum examples, the beginnings of a LEED style of designing interiors in historical landmark buildings are pointed out as well.

  11. Sustainability Management in Agribusiness: Challenges, Concepts, Responsibilities and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Friedrich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of sustainable management has recently gained growing attention in the agribusiness sector. This is mainly due to a widespread discontent with the industrialization of agricultural production and food processing and growing public pressure on agribusiness firms to implement more sustainable management practices. In this paper we present the results of an explorative empirical study of sustainability management in German agribusiness firms. The study shows that agribusiness firms have developed a broad understanding of sustainability management and perceive a multi-facetted spectrum of societal demands they have to meet. The most important arguments for implementing more sustainable management practices are that companies have to make sure that they are trusted by society in the long run and that the perception of a company by external stakeholders has become more and more important. The companies surveyed know quite a number of sustainability programmes and standards, but the number of companies that actually participate in these initiatives is much smaller. Nonetheless, the majority of the respondents feels that their company is more successful with regard to sustainability management than industry average.

  12. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen...... breathing completely reversed the decrease in maximal heart rate to values not different from those at sea level. In conclusion, dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade with domperidone demonstrates that hypoxic exercise in humans activates D(2)-receptors, resulting in a decrease in circulating levels...

  13. Sustainable bonuses: Sign of corporate responsibility or window dressing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Perego, P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strong plea for integrating sustainability goals into traditional corporate bonus schemes, a comprehensive implementation of these systems has been lacking until recently. This article explores four illustrative cases from the Netherlands, where several multinationals started to pioneer

  14. Evaluation of rate of swelling and erosion of verapamil (VRP) sustained-release matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamanga, Sandile M; Walker, Roderick B

    2006-01-01

    Tablets manufactured in-house were compared to a marketed sustained-release product of verapamil to investigate the rate of hydration, erosion, and drug-release mechanism by measuring the wet and subsequent dry weights of the products. Swelling and erosion rates depended on the polymer and granulating fluid used, which ultimately pointed to their permeability characteristics. Erosion rate of the marketed product was highest, which suggests that the gel layer that formed around these tablets was weak as opposed to the robust and resistant layers of test products. Anomalous and near zero-order transport mechanisms were dominant in tests and commercial product, respectively.

  15. Sustained attention and heart rate variability in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kristi R; Quintana, Daniel S; Hermens, Daniel F; Spooner, Chris; Tsang, Tracey W; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael R

    2017-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in attention and self-regulation by modulating physiological arousal to meet environmental demands. Core symptoms of ADHD such as inattention and behavioral disinhibition may be related to dysregulation of the ANS, however previous findings have been equivocal. We examined autonomic activity and reactivity by assessing heart rate variability (HRV) in a large sample of un-medicated children and adolescents (6-19 years) with ADHD (n=229) compared to typically-developing controls (n=244) during rest and sustained attention. Four heart rate variability measures were extracted: Root mean square of successive differences between inter-beat-intervals (rMSSD), absolute high frequency (HFA) power, absolute low frequency (LFA) power and ratio of low frequency power to high frequency power (LF/HF). There were no group differences in HFA or rMSSD, even when assessing across child and adolescent groups separately, by gender or ADHD subtype. LF/HF however was higher in ADHD during both rest and sustained attention conditions, particularly in male children. Sustained attention was impaired in ADHD relative to controls, and a higher LF/HF ratio during sustained attention was associated with poorer performance in both groups. Lower rMSSD and HFA were associated with higher anxiety, oppositional behaviors and social problems, supporting prevailing theories that these measures index emotion regulation and adaptive social behavior. Different measures of heart rate variability provide important insights into the sustained attention and emotional and behavioral regulation impairments observed in ADHD and may aid in delineating ADHD pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. HAMDALA: STRATEGIC RESPONSE TO EXCHANGE RATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For Nigeria at the inception of SAP, a major strategic importance in the nexus of the exchange rate policy was the reduction of the parallel market premium given the existence of the market side by side the official markets. The Hamdala, a group of Hausa `currency sellers' came into existence as a reaction to the need to act ...

  17. Exporter Price Response to Exchange Rate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund

    Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly trade...... theoretical contributions to the litterature on pricing-to-market and exchange rate pass-through....... ows bring us closer to the transaction level where rm decisions are actually made. I nd that the utilization of monthly data does add new information about the average level of pricing-to-market, and the di¤erences between long-run pricing-to-market and short-run pricing-to-market. Furthermore, I nd...

  18. Sudden Stops, the Real Exchange Rate and Fiscal Sustainability: Argentina's Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo, Alejandro; Talvi, Ernesto; Calvo, Guillermo A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative explanation for t he fall of Argentina's Convertibility Program based on the country's vulnerability to Sudden Stops in capital flows. Sudden Stops are typically accompanied by a substantial increase in the real exchange rate that wreaks havoc in countries that are heavily dollarized in their liabilities, turning otherwise sustainable fiscal and corporate sector positions into unsustainable ones. In particular, we stress that the required change in relative pr...

  19. Responses of prawn to water flow rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vascotto, G.L.; Nilas, P.U.

    1987-05-28

    An aquarium study to determine the responses of postlarval macrobrachium rosenbergii to varying water changes was carried out. Six week old postlarvae were raised in glass aquaria receiving 0, 1.15, 7.2 and 14.4 water changes per day over a 12 week period. The treatments had significant influences on survival, biomass, and average size of the animals. Maximum survival and highest biomass were found in the 1.15 water turnover treatment; however, this treatment also produced the smallest average size animals. Early high mortalities were attributed to poor growing conditions in the high and low flow treatments, while later mortality appeared to be biomass dependent.

  20. Chasing Responsible Sourcing: The case of UK retailers and sustainable seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Chironna, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Responsible Sourcing is gaining growing importance for companies willing to demonstrate responsibility and commitment to sustainable practices. Sourcing is a key element of supply chain management and by adopting responsible sourcing practices, companies can greatly contribute to the sustainability of their entire supply chains. Being close to both customers and suppliers, retailers hold a particularly influential position in the supply chain and their sourcing choices can play a key role for...

  1. Reseña: Critical Studies on Corporate Responsibility, Governance and Sustainability, Vol. 4 y 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Zicari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Irresponsibility: A Challenging Concept. Series: Critical Studies on Corporate Responsibility, Governance and Sustainability, Vol. 4. Ralph Tench, William Sun and Brian Jones, 2012, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 315 pages. Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility Perspectives and Practice. Series: Critical Studies on Corporate Responsibility, Governance and Sustainability, Vol. 6. Ralph Tench, William Sun and Brian Jones, 2014, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 456 pages

  2. Responses to sheep browsing at different stocking rates: water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywods: botany; browsing; carbohydrates; carbon; carbon allocation; Eastern Sweet Grassveld; Eriocephalus ericoides; palatability; photosynthesis; polyphenols; Pteronia tricephala; response; semi-arid; sheep; shrubs; South Africa; stocking rates; water relations; acceptability; elevation; karoo; photosynthetic rate; plant ...

  3. Is zero central line-associated bloodstream infection rate sustainable? A 5-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Carmina; McAvoy, Linda L; Gupta, Munish; Pereira, Sunita; McGowan, Elisabeth C

    2015-06-01

    Adoption and implementation of evidence-based measures for catheter care leads to reductions in central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in the NICU. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether this rate reduction is sustainable for at least 1 year and to identify key determinants of this sustainability at the NICU of the Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center. We reviewed the incidence of CLABSIs in the NICU temporally to the implementation of new practice policies and procedures, from July 2008 to December 2013. Adoption of standardized care practices, including bundles and checklists, was associated with a significant reduction of the CLABSI rate to zero for >370 consecutive days in our NICU in 2012. Overall, our CLABSI rates decreased from 4.1 per 1000 line days in 2009 (13 infections; 3163 line days) to 0.94 in 2013 (2 infections; 2115 line days), which represents a 77% reduction over a 5-year period. In the first quarter of 2013, there was a brief increase in CLABSI rate to 3.3 per 1000 line days; after a series of interventions, the CLABSI rate was maintained at zero for >600 days. Ongoing training, surveillance, and vigilance with catheter insertion and maintenance practices and improved documentation were identified as key drivers for success. High-quality training, strict compliance with evidence-based guidelines, and thorough documentation is associated with significant reductions in CLABSIs. Mindful organizing may lead to a better understanding of what goes into a unit's ability to handle peak demands and sustain extraordinary performance in the long-term. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Knowledge, responsibility and ethics of sustainability in view of the global change

    OpenAIRE

    Ayestarán, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the interrelationship among scientificknowledge, ethical debates and the question of responsibility through sustainability thinking. In a globalising world which appears to be establishing itself, sustainability should form the basis for achieving a new ethics, shared on both a local and global scale. The sustainability culture should become an integral part in this process, in which the rights of future generations, of non-human species and global shared resources are t...

  5. Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tse Hung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This review article compiles the various advances made since 2008 in sustainable high-rate anaerobic technologies with emphasis on their performance enhancement when treating agro-food industrial wastewater. The review explores the generation and characteristics of different agro-food industrial wastewaters; the need for and the performance of high rate anaerobic reactors, such as an upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, hybrid systems etc.; operational challenges, mass transfer considerations, energy production estimation, toxicity, modeling, technology assessment and recommendations for successful operation

  6. Sustainable occupational responses to climate change through lifestyle choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Clare; Kroksmark, Ulla

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Occupational therapists and occupational scientists are increasingly aware of the relationship between occupation and global climate change, with some working to raise awareness of the issues and others proposing that an occupational perspective can make a valuable contribution to understanding and addressing the issues. In this discussion paper the United Nations Global Survey on Sustainable Lifestyles ( 1 ), which reports young adults' beliefs about everyday occupations that have a substantial impact on the environment (food, housekeeping, and transportation) is introduced. The authors argue that the survey findings are a valuable resource for occupational therapists who are concerned about global climate change and work with young adults (age 18-35), providing valuable insights into their concerns and preferences in relation to sustainability. To illustrate the insights contained in the reports, findings from four countries are presented: New Zealand and Sweden, the authors' countries of origin, and the Philippines and Lebanon which have people living in New Zealand and Sweden. Application to individual and community-based interventions to promote more sustainable lifestyles is suggested, along with studies to examine the perspectives of young adults with a disability, as their concerns and sustainability preferences might differ due to the barriers that limit their participation in educational and vocational occupations.

  7. Responsible and Sustainable Tourism : Strengthening Small-Scale ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to establish careers and become leaders in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics ... Itzama Project : Sustainable Indigenous Development based on the Ethnobotanical Garden and Traditional Medicine Concept.

  8. Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Martínez, Pablo Luis, E-mail: pablogm@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) and Sede Andina—Universidad Nacional de Río Negro (UNRN), Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atómico Bariloche (CAB-CNEA), Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina)

    2014-12-15

    The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.

  9. Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Pablo Luis; Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.

  10. Sustainability as the basic principle of responsible budgetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Viktorovich Galukhin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The author touches upon rather critical issues of management of the regional budget system sustainability. The prospect to studying this issue is confirmed at the highest level – by the RF President. The article indicates that the main components of the budgets financial sustainability concept are the following: the territory’s self-sufficiency (independence, its solvency, income and expenditure balance. The swot analysis of the public finances state in the Northwestern Federal District regions has revealed lowering independence of the territories, debt burden deterioration in the post-crisis period and the unsolved problem of income and expenses imbalance. The study shows the territories’ capacity constraints to find additional financial resources, although the anti-crisis instruments of the budget process (regional reserve funds are not used in full measure. The analysis has resulted in the development of directions to stimulate the regional budget system sustainability, such as the modernization model of fiscal federalism, strengthening and development of tax potential, improving the budget expenditures efficiency and encouraging the use of regional reserve funds potential. According to the author, the timeliness of these measures is to be achieved through continuous financial situation monitoring in the RF subjects

  11. Muscle vibration sustains motor unit firing rate during submaximal isometric fatigue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, L; Garland, S J; Ivanova, T; Gossen, E R

    2001-09-15

    1. In keeping with the 'muscular wisdom hypothesis', many studies have documented that the firing rate of the majority of motor units decreased during fatiguing isometric contractions. The present study investigated whether the application of periodic muscle vibration, which strongly activates muscle spindles, would alter the modulation of motor unit firing rate during submaximal fatiguing isometric contractions. 2. Thirty-three motor units from the lateral head of the triceps brachii muscle were recorded from 10 subjects during a sustained isometric 20 % maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the elbow extensors. Vibration was interposed on the contraction for 2 s every 10 s. Twenty-two motor units were recorded from the beginning of the fatigue task. The discharge rate of the majority of motor units remained constant (12/22) or increased (4/22) with fatigue. Six motor units demonstrated a reduction in discharge rate that later returned toward initial values; these motor units had higher initial discharge rates than the other 16 motor units. 3. In a second series of experiments, four subjects held a sustained isometric 20 % MVC for 2 min and then vibration was applied as above for the remainder of the contraction. In this case, motor units initially demonstrated a decrease in firing rate that increased after the vibration was applied. Thus muscle spindle disfacilitation of the motoneurone pool may be associated with the decline of motor unit discharge rate observed during the first 2 min of the contraction. 4. In a third set of experiments, seven subjects performed the main experiment on one occasion and repeated the fatigue task without vibration on a second occasion. Neither the endurance time of the fatiguing contraction nor the MVC torque following fatigue was affected by the application of vibration. This finding calls into question the applicability of the muscular wisdom hypothesis to submaximal contractions.

  12. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY A SURVEY OF WATER USE IN INDUSTRY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DOINA PRODAN PALADE; LEON DUMITRU DANIEL

    2015-01-01

    ...’ corporate governance and social responsibility. The work aims to highlight some of the main issues regarding the sustainable use of water, as a finite and vulnerable resource, essential element for life and environment...

  13. When not every response to climate change is a good one: identifying principles for sustainable adaptation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Eriksen, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ; third, integrate local knowledge into adaptation responses; and fourth, consider potential feedbacks between local and global processes. We argue that fundamental societal transformations are required in order to achieve sustainable development pathways...

  14. Influential Factors and Strategy of Sustainable Product Development under Corporate Social Responsibility in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Che Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to adopt the perspective of corporate social responsibility (CSR to explore the intention of sustainable product development in Taiwan, as well as leading to the creation of influential factors that affect corporate sustainable product development intention. In this research, the induction analysis was conducted to understand the implementation of sustainable product development, and this was supplemented with questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews to evaluate developmental intention. In addition, principal component analysis was used for factor analysis and content analysis in the 6 W expression method, leading to the creation of the influential factors. The research results have demonstrated that the factors affecting the intention of corporate sustainable product development include having a sustainable design and a development purpose, a corporate development purpose, sustainable development concepts, a sustainable design value, a sustainability concept, and a manufacturing process quality. For sustainable product development, corporate social responsibility needs to be most concerned with the added value of products, regulation requirements, and accommodation of the industrial chain, costs, and quality.

  15. Corporate social responsibility as a factor of sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    N. Suprun

    2009-01-01

    The author investigates the bases of corporate social responsibility as a factor of balanced socio-economic development and increase in competitiveness of the business and social sectors. The article provides analysis of the tendencies of the formation of corporate social responsibility in the world business practice and defines priorities of the development of corporate social responsibility in Ukraine.

  16. Effect and Analysis of Sustainable Cell Rate using MPEG video Traffic in ATM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Kaushal

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The broadband networks inhibit the capability to carry multiple types of traffic – voice, video and data, but these services need to be controlled according to the traffic contract negotiated at the time of the connection to maintain desired Quality of service. Such control techniques use traffic descriptors to evaluate its performance and effectiveness. In case of Variable Bit Rate (VBR services, Peak Cell Rate (PCR and its Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVTPCR are mandatory descriptors. In addition to these, ATM Forum proposed Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR and its Cell delay variation tolerance (CDVTSCR. In this paper, we evaluated the impact of specific SCR and CDVTSCR values on the Usage Parameter Control (UPC performance in case of measured MPEG traffic for improving the efficiency

  17. PREDICTORS OF SUSTAINED RESPONSE TO INTERFERON-BASED THERAPY IN CHRONIC HEPATITIS B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deian Jelev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: IFN-based therapy induces long-term remission in ~20% of CHB-patients. Identification of predictors of treatment response can facilitate the clinical decision. Methods: 168 CHB-patients treated with IFN-based therapy were studied. Predictors of end-of-treatment response (ETR and sustained response (SR one-year post therapy were identified by non-parametric chi-square test and correlation analysis. Results: Low baseline HBV DNA (4xULN were independent predictors of ETR. Low viral load was stronger predictor than high ALT level. If both factors coexist the probability of ETR was 92%. In HBeAg-negative subjects SR correlates significantly with age below 40 years, evidence of early viral response at 3rd month, fibrosis stage F<3 (METAVIR and prolongation of treatment duration. HBeAg-seroconversion up to 6-month post-therapy was the strongest predictor of SR in HBeAg-positive patients.Conclusion: More favorable results could be achieved by pretreatment selection according to patients’ age, baseline viral load, ALT and liver fibrosis. Extension of IFN-treatment in responders may enhance the SR rate.

  18. Equilibrium exchange rate assessment in Serbia using the IMF external sustainability approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pažun Brankica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exchange rate has always been a topical issue, particularly in the last two decades, at the time of strong world economy globalisation, as well as liberalization of international flows of goods, services and factors of production, which has resulted in stronger trade and financial integration. There has been a rise in the share of trade in world GDP. Growing developing countries contribute significantly to this growth, which is evident from the data that show increase of their share in world trade , as well as their importance in international capital flows. One of the most important concepts in open macroeconomics is the equilibrium real exchange rate - ERER. Deviations of the real exchange rate are considered to be the cause of the loss of competitiveness and economic slowdown, as well as possible currency crisis (overvaluation and undervaluation. Disadvantages of traditional concepts in exchange rate assessment which are very often reflected in unsuccessful empirical results, motivate experts to seek alternative models to assist in equilibrium exchange rate analysis. This paper aims to present one of three complementary methodologies used by the International Monetary Fund, for the equilibrium real exchange rate assessment in Serbia, as well as the deviation of the real exchange rate from its (estimated equilibrium, that is external sustainability approach.

  19. Sustainable Marketing - a new Era in the Responsible Marketing Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marek Seretny; Aleksandra Seretny

    2012-01-01

    ... processes - the responsibility which rests upon them in the face of rapid social change worldwide through increasing global economic turbulence, a continuously widening gap between rich and poor...

  20. Intensity-dependent EMG response for the biceps brachii during sustained maximal and submaximal isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joshua C; Beck, Travis W; Ye, Xin; Wages, Nathan P

    2016-09-01

    There have been recent attempts to characterize the mechanisms associated with fatigue-induced task failure. We compared the time to failure and the corresponding changes in the surface electromyogram (EMG) during sustained maximal and submaximal isometric force tasks. EMG activity was measured from the biceps brachii of 18 male participants as they sustained either a maximal or submaximal (60 % MVC) isometric contraction of the dominant elbow flexors until force could not be maintained above 55 % MVC. Intensity-dependent patterns of change were observed for EMG amplitude and mean power frequency (MNF) between the two force tasks. Interestingly, the only significant predictor of failure time was the rate of change in EMG MNF during the submaximal task (r (2) = 0.304). In addition, EMG amplitude at submaximal failure was significantly lower (p EMG response emphasize the basis of neuromuscular fatigue and task dependency. Additionally, our data suggest that the EMG MNF should be used when monitoring the progression of local muscle fatigue.

  1. Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Industries in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewole Simon Oginni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Present technological innovations and social organizations continue to impose risks and limitations on the efficient performance of the biosphere. Human activities have increasingly short-lived sustainable natural endowments, to the extent that, the multiplier effects have ripples beyond the traditional benefits of economic production and consumption. Therefore, this study addressed practical concerns on how industries in Sub-Saharan Africa promote sustainable development in their corporate social responsibility models, using industries in Cameroon as a case study; it examined economic, social, and environmental components of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR. Our sample consists of 335 business enterprises from the last Censure Survey of Enterprises in Cameroon. The study adopted a systematic analysis through the Adjusted Residual Test, and the Phi and Cramer’s V tests. Findings revealed that industries in Cameroon prioritize environmental and social dimensions over economic dimensions. However, a few large enterprises implement a broad CSR that promotes sustainable business practices, whereas smaller ones do not; industries in Cameroon implement environmental dimensions of CSR as a safe buffer and a social dimension as philanthropy. Hence, there is no concrete evidence that industries promote sustainable development via CSR in Cameroon. The implementation of a sustainable business model is a precondition for promoting sustainable development via CSR. Industries should realize the concrete value in implementing a sustainable business model that helps to adjust to the complex and increasingly changing business environment.

  2. Maximizing response rates in survey research: Issues and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Clay Siebert

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Collecting accurate data is a challenge for researchers, and securing sufficient response rates can be especially difficult, particularly when asking respondents to reveal sensitive information. This paper will review the relevant literature and illustrate the issues by reporting the methodes used to collect data for Work and Well Being: A Study of North Carolina Social Workers. By following a rigorous protocol, the study achieved a 75% response rate (N=751, a sample that was representative of the population, and minimal response bias. The results highlight the ways in which social work researchers can explore difficult substantive arenas and yet achieve an excellent response.

  3. Do low survey response rates bias results? Evidence from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald R. Rindfuss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developed countries, response rates have dropped to such low levels that many in the population field question whether the data can provide unbiased results. Objective: The paper uses three Japanese surveys conducted in the 2000s to ask whether low survey response rates bias results. A secondary objective is to bring results reported in the survey response literature to the attention of the demographic research community. Methods: Using a longitudinal survey as well as paradata from a cross-sectional survey, a variety of statistical techniques (chi square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, logistic regression, ordered probit or ordinary least squares regression (OLS, as appropriate are used to examine response-rate bias. Results: Evidence of response-rate bias is found for the univariate distributions of some demographic characteristics, behaviors, and attitudinal items. But when examining relationships between variables in a multivariate analysis, controlling for a variety of background variables, for most dependent variables we do not find evidence of bias from low response rates. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with results reported in the econometric and survey research literatures. Low response rates need not necessarily lead to biased results. Bias is more likely to be present when examining a simple univariate distribution than when examining the relationship between variables in a multivariate model. Comments: The results have two implications. First, demographers should not presume the presence or absence of low response-rate bias; rather they should test for it in the context of a specific substantive analysis. Second, demographers should lobby data gatherers to collect as much paradata as possible so that rigorous tests for low response-rate bias are possible.

  4. Mini-review: high rate algal ponds, flexible systems for sustainable wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P; Taylor, M; Fallowfield, H J

    2017-06-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been a growing requirement by governments around the world for organisations to adopt more sustainable practices. Wastewater treatment is no exception, with many currently used systems requiring large capital investment, land area and power consumption. High rate algal ponds offer a sustainable, efficient and lower cost option to the systems currently in use. They are shallow, mixed lagoon based systems, which aim to maximise wastewater treatment by creating optimal conditions for algal growth and oxygen production-the key processes which remove nitrogen and organic waste in HRAP systems. This design means they can treat wastewater to an acceptable quality within a fifth of time of other lagoon systems while using 50% less surface area. This smaller land requirement decreases both the construction costs and evaporative water losses, making larger volumes of treated water available for beneficial reuse. They are ideal for rural, peri-urban and remote communities as they require minimum power and little on-site management. This review will address the history of and current trends in high rate algal pond development and application; a comparison of their performance with other systems when treating various wastewaters; and discuss their potential for production of added-value products. Finally, the review will consider areas requiring further research.

  5. Sustainable Sites Initiative: US updated rating criteria for open spaces design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Valente

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the U.S. Sustainable Sites Initiative, by illustrating and commenting the recent updates of the rating criteria in addition to a number of certified projects, including some sites visited by the author in California. The system is compared with existing tools, as LEED 2009 for Neighborhood Development Rating System, albeit some differences also in scale of interventions. In the work, scientific literature and personal considerations are given about those aspects still not evaluated by the system and its potential wider applicability with regard to directions of research on the topic. The theme fits well in the mainstream of studies dedicated to the design of resilient open spaces, contributing to adaptation and mitigation of climate change.

  6. Challenges, responses and partnership for achieving sustainable tourism and heritage preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization has created the situation where the expectations of tourists are the same both with respect to the quality of services in all destinations and with respect to the authencity based on local attractions and experiences, which should be unique and different for each destination. The key element in maintaining destination attractiveness is the protection and presentation of natural and cultural heritage and its sustainable utilization for tourism development. The sustainability concept is of equal importance for long-term tourism development, destination competitiveness and heritage protection. The paper deals with the main challenges to achieving sustainable tourism and points to some key responses to them. Participation, cooperation and partnership should be a vital prerequisite for the implementation and performance of sustainable tourism and heritage protection. This attitude has been tested on several examples of good practice in heritage protection and the sustainable development of tourism destinations in Serbia. .

  7. Population Survey Features and Response Rates: A Randomized Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yimeng; Kopec, Jacek A; Cibere, Jolanda; Li, Linda C; Goldsmith, Charles H

    2016-08-01

    To study the effects of several survey features on response rates in a general population health survey. In 2012 and 2013, 8000 households in British Columbia, Canada, were randomly allocated to 1 of 7 survey variants, each containing a different combination of survey features. Features compared included administration modes (paper vs online), prepaid incentive ($2 coin vs none), lottery incentive (instant vs end-of-study), questionnaire length (10 minutes vs 30 minutes), and sampling frame (InfoCanada vs Canada Post). The overall response rate across the 7 groups was 27.9% (range = 17.1-43.4). All survey features except the sampling frame were associated with statistically significant differences in response rates. The survey mode elicited the largest effect on the odds of response (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61, 2.59), whereas the sampling frame showed the least effect (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.34). The highest response was achieved by mailing a short paper survey with a prepaid incentive. In a mailed general population health survey in Canada, a 40% to 50% response rate can be expected. Questionnaire administration mode, survey length, and type of incentive affect response rates.

  8. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indicators of the efficiency of foreign trade from the economic and environmental perspectives are proposed. Underlining the need for enterprises to switch over to environmentally responsible trade, the author proposes instruments to achieve this end.

  9. Effect of Sustained Maternal Responsivity on Later Vocabulary Development in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Nancy; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace; Keller, Juliana; Sterling, Audra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored whether sustained maternal responsivity (a parent-child interaction style characterized by warmth, nurturance, and stability as well as specific behaviors, such as contingent positive responses to child initiations) was a significant variable predicting vocabulary development of children with fragile X syndrome…

  10. FREEDOM CHOICE OF THE ROMANIAN ENTERPRISES TO CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucretia Mariana Constantinescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The declared aim of this paper is to be an attempt to analyze the opinions regarding the corporate sustainability and responsibility that’s providing to formulate a combination of diagnosis and prognosis, assessing the past and present conditions of corporate responsibility and the way ahead by the investors of the Romanian economy during the last economic recession crisis years.

  11. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  12. RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT RATES OF NITROGEN BY FIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to determine the optimum nitrogen fertilizer rate for the area as well as select the rice varieties that responded optimally. A split plot .... sub-plot were used for the measurement of growth parameters. .... 0.66. RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT RATES OF NITROGEN BY FIVE VARIETIES OF SWAMP RICE (ORZA SATIVA LINN). 23 ...

  13. Single-chamber, rate-responsive pacemaker-mediated tachycardia

    OpenAIRE

    Bohm, Adam; Kiss, Robert; Dorian, Paul; Pinter, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    The case of a patient with a unipolar VVIR, who developed a sensor-driven increased pacing rate at rest following pulse generator replacement, is presented. The cause was pectoral muscle stimulation, which triggered a sensor-driven rate response in the supine position. The possible causes and management are discussed.

  14. Eco-innovation, Responsible Leadership and Organizational Change for Corporate Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Mihai Paraschiv

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Creating a sustainable development strategy is essential for organizations that seek to reduce risks associated with tightening legislation, increased energy prices and natural resources and growing customer demands. Sustainability requires the full integration of social and environmental aspects into the vision, culture and operations of an organization, a profound process of organizational change being essential. The purpose of this paper is to present the main drivers of corporate sustainability, illustrating – after a thorough literature review – the link between the following elements: corporate sustainability – a necessity in the current global context; eco-innovation – as a way to implement sustainability in an organization; responsible leadership – as the art of building and maintaining strong and moral relationships with all stakeholders; organizational culture and organizational change – the basic elements through which organizations continuously renew their processes and products, adapting them to the new context. Furthermore, the paper provides an overview of organizations active in Romania in terms of sustainability practices, in general, and the ecological component of sustainable development, in particular, by presenting the results of an exploratory questionnaire-based research. The research reflects the importance of visionary management in adopting and implementing sustainability in the responding organizations.

  15. Critical Sustainability: Setting the Limits to Growth and Responsibility in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarkko Saarinen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of sustainable development has been discussed in tourism research for almost a quarter of a century. During that time, sustainability has become an important policy framework for tourism and regional developers guiding their planning and development thinking. Sustainability has also emerged academically as an important field of research with an emphasis on defining the limits to growth and responsibilities in tourism. However, while there are urgent needs to incorporate sustainability into tourism, there is also a growing amount of frustration among scholars on the conceptual nature of sustainability and how tourism as a private-driven economic activity relates to the ideals of sustainable development. This has created an increasing need to understand and potentially reframe the concept. The purpose of this paper is to overview the conceptual dimensions of sustainable tourism and discuss some of the main sources of frustration. Based on this, it is concluded that while a conceptual plurality seems to be unavoidable, there is a need to re-frame i.e., rescale and decentralize tourism in policy frameworks and practices aiming towards sustainability.

  16. How and When Retailers’ Sustainability Efforts Translate into Positive Consumer Responses: The Interplay Between Personal and Social Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofenk, D.; Birgelen, M.J.H. van; Bloemer, J.M.M.; Semeijn, J.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to address how (through which mechanisms) and when (under which conditions) retailers’ sustainability efforts translate into positive consumer responses. Hypotheses are developed and tested through a scenario-based experiment among 672 consumers. Retailers’ assortment sustainability

  17. Maximum rates of sustained metabolic rate in cold-exposed Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus): the second wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Thomas; Grafl, Beatrice

    2010-10-01

    Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) tolerate short-term exposure to ambient temperatures (T(a)s) down to -70°C, but surprisingly, previously appeared to reach maximum sustainable metabolic rate (SusMR) when kept at T(a)s as high as ≥-2°C. We hypothesized that SusMR in Djungarian hamsters may be affected by the degree of prior cold acclimation and temporal patterns of T(a) changes experienced by the animals, as average T(a) declines. After cold-acclimation at +5°C for 6 weeks, hamsters reached rates of SusMR that were 35% higher than previously determined and were able to maintain positive energy balances down to T(a) -9°C. SusMR was unaffected, however, by whether mean cold load was constant or caused by T(a)s cycling between +3°C and as low as -25°C, at hourly intervals. At mean T (a)s between +3 and -3°C hamsters significantly reduced body mass and energy expenditure, but were able to maintain stable body mass at lower T (a)s (-5 to -9°C). These results indicate that prior cold-acclimation profoundly affects SusMR in hamsters and that body mass regulation may play an integral part in maintaining positive energy balance during cold exposure. Because the degree of instantaneous cold load had no effect on SusMR, we hypothesize that limits to energy turnover in Djungarian hamsters are not determined by the capacity to withstand extreme temperatures (i.e., peripheral limits) but are due to central limitation of energy intake.

  18. Regular monitoring of breast-feeding rates: feasible and sustainable. The Emilia-Romagna experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Borsari, Silvana; Verdini, Eleonora; Battaglia, Sergio; Cisbani, Luca; Sforza, Stefano; Cuoghi, Chiara; Basevi, Vittorio

    2017-08-01

    An efficient breast-feeding monitoring system should be in place in every country to assist policy makers and health professionals plan activities to reach optimal breast-feeding rates. Design/Setting/Subjects From March to June 2015, breast-feeding rates at 3 and 5 months of age were monitored in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region, using four questions added to a newly developed paediatric immunization database with single records for each individual. Data were collected at primary-care centres. Breast-feeding definitions and 24 h recall as recommended by the WHO were used. Direct age standardization was applied to breast-feeding rates. Record linkage with the medical birth database was attempted to identify maternal, pregnancy and delivery factors associated with full breast-feeding rates at 3 and 5 months of age. Data on breast-feeding were collected for 14044 infants. The mean regional full breast-feeding rate at 3 months was 52 %; differences between local health authorities ranged from 42 to 62 %. At 5 months of age, the mean regional full breast-feeding rate dropped to 33 % (range between local health authorities: 26 to 46 %). Record linkage with the birth certificate database was successful for 93 % of records. Total observations more than doubled with respect to the previous regional survey. The new monitoring system implemented in 2015 in Emilia-Romagna region, totally integrated with the immunization database, has proved to be feasible, sustainable and more efficient than the previous one. This system can be a model for other regions and countries where the vast majority of mothers obtain vaccinations from public health facilities and that already have an immunization database in place.

  19. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  20. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - A VIABLE INSTRUMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN SOUTH WEST OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA OANA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the need for the tourism sector to adopt a policy of social responsibility for building sustainable development, necessary for the socio-economic recovery of Romania. The study includes a sample of 68 hotels in the five counties of South West Oltenia Region. Data for the research was collected by accessing the official websites for each hotel in order to analyze the degree of implementation of social responsibility on the basis of ten variables, required to achieve a sustainable tourism. The findings reveal a lack of transparency and involvement in social responsibility of the hotel industry in South West Oltenia. Research has shown that accomodation and tourism sector in the region analyzed is far from reaching the international standards, so the adoption of recommendations on best practices would be an important step forward for enhancing sustainable tourism in Romania.

  1. Sustainable Entrepreneurship Orientation: A Reflection on Status-Quo Research on Factors Facilitating Responsible Managerial Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Kraus

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the global financial system having undergone vast changes since the financial crisis of 2007, scientific research concerning the investor’s point of view on sustainable investments has drastically increased. However, there remains a lack of research focused on the entrepreneur’s angle regarding sustainable oriented investments. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of sustainable financial markets by bringing together entrepreneurial and financial research. This paper provides a structured literature review, based on which the authors identify three relevant levels that they believe have an effect on the successful implementation of managerial sustainable practices; these are the individual, the firm, and the contextual levels. The results show that on the individual level sustainable entrepreneurs tend to derive their will to act more sustainably from their personal values or traits. On the organizational level, though, it can be concluded that an small and medium sized enterprise’s internal culture and the reconfiguration of resources are critical determinants for adopting a sustainable entrepreneurial orientation. Finally, on the contextual level, researchers have focused on a better understanding of how entrepreneurs can help society and the environment through sustainable entrepreneurship, and how they can act as role models or change agents in light of the fact that the choice of investing or financing based on sustainability is still in its infancy. By providing an overview on facilitating factors for responsible managerial practices on the entrepreneur’s side, this research contributes to a better understanding for both theory and practice on how sustainable practices can be implemented and facilitated.

  2. Sustainable Ergonomic Program - Basic Condition for Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marková, Petra; Beňo, Rastislav; Hatiar, Karol

    2012-12-01

    Gradually increasing pressure on companies to start to behave socially responsible is a response to social, environmental and economic requirements. The society faces a period of changes that have occurred since the beginning of the crisis and revealing weaknesses in the economy. We become witnesses of rapid changes and challenges posed by globalization, lack of resources, demographic structure and innovation. Objective necessity becomes a corporate social responsibility (CSR) already at the companies’ level, which is supported by the approach of the EU institutions and the Slovak Republic. One of the possible appliance through which we can contribute to the sustainability of CSR are sustainable ergonomic programs. When we want to talk about sustainable ergonomic program is important to focus on three key areas. The first area is the Impact of technic and technology to employees at work, the second area is the Importance and impact of socially responsible HR in ergonomics and last area is the Creation of the work environment in relation to environmental sustainability. Ergonomic programs sustainability requires to apply appropriate methods for evaluation of their cost benefit and health effect.

  3. Multi-Criteria Indicator for Sustainability Rating in Suppliers of the Oil and Gas Industries in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Felipe Figueiredo Barata

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of sustainability evaluation is rapidly growing alongside the expansion of civilization. Likewise, the supply chain suitability improvement is a need that has arisen in the petroleum industry, especially as it is responsible for the most part of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. The modeling of this kind of problem deals with multiple criteria evaluations. This paper proposes an original multiple-criteria based approach to classifying the degree of organizational sustainability. This proposal was applied to evaluate a representative set of companies, which are suppliers of the Brazilian petroleum industry. The data collection was supported by a questionnaire. The results highlight that the studied companies have not yet reached an advanced level of maturity in the sustainability context. In a comprehensive vision of sustainability based on Triple Bottom Line (TBL, these companies are either in the initial stage or in the implementation phase of the sustainability practices.

  4. Sustainable Use of Pesticide Applications in Citrus: A Support Tool for Volume Rate Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Garcerá

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rational application of pesticides by properly adjusting the amount of product to the actual needs and specific conditions for application is a key factor for sustainable plant protection. However, current plant protection product (PPP labels registered for citrus in EU are usually expressed as concentration (%; rate/hl and/or as the maximum dose of product per unit of ground surface, without taking into account those conditions. In this work, the fundamentals of a support tool, called CitrusVol, developed to recommend mix volume rates in PPP applications in citrus orchards using airblast sprayers, are presented. This tool takes into consideration crop characteristics (geometry, leaf area density, pests, and product and application efficiency, and it is based on scientific data obtained previously regarding the minimum deposit required to achieve maximum efficacy, efficiency of airblast sprayers in citrus orchards, and characterization of the crop. The use of this tool in several commercial orchards allowed a reduction of the volume rate and the PPPs used in comparison with the commonly used by farmers of between 11% and 74%, with an average of 31%, without affecting the efficacy. CitrusVol is freely available on a website and in an app for smartphones.

  5. Social sustainability in healthcare facilities: a rating tool for analysing and improving social aspects in environments of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolongo, Stefano; Gola, Marco; di Noia, Michela; Nickolova, Maria; Nachiero, Dario; Rebecchi, Andrea; Settimo, Gaetano; Vittori, Gail; Buffoli, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays several rating systems exist for the evaluation of the sustainability of buildings, but often their focus is limited to environmental and efficiency aspects. Hospitals are complex constructions in which many variables affect hospital processes. Therefore, a research group has developed a tool for the evaluation of sustainability in healthcare facilities. The paper analyses social sustainability issues through a tool which evaluates users' perception from a the quality and well-being perspective. It presents a hierarchical structure composed of a criteria and indicators system which is organised through a weighing system calculated by using the Analytic Network Process. The output is the definition of a tool which evaluates how Humanisation, Comfort and Distribution criteria can affect the social sustainability of a building. Starting from its application, it is evident that the instrument enables the improvement of healthcare facilities through several design and organisational suggestions for achieving healing and sustainable architectures.

  6. STARS: A Sustainability Assessment and Rating System for Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Given the rapid growth of sustainability initiatives at institutions of higher education in the United States, measuring and assessing progress toward sustainability goals has become increasingly important. While many institutions have undertaken campus-wide assessments of their progress toward sustainability, and while a variety of sustainability…

  7. Response elimination, reinforcement rate and resurgence of operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A

    2013-11-01

    The effects of reinforcement rate of alternative responding on resurgence were studied in six experiments with pigeons. In Experiment 1A, key pecking was maintained on a multiple variable-interval (VI) VI schedule in the Training phase. In the Response-Elimination phase, a variable differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule was in effect in each component. Reinforcement rates were equal and then, higher in one (rich) component, and lower in the other (lean), than in the Training phase. More resurgence occurred in the lean component, but this could have resulted from response-rate differences between components in the Training-phase. Experiment 1B was a replication of Experiment 1A, but with experimentally-naïve pigeons. Response-Elimination phase reinforcement rates were manipulated systematically in subsequent experiments: In Experiment 2, reinforcement rate was equal, in one component, and lower or higher in the other, than in the Training phase. In Experiment 3, reinforcers were discontinued before differential reinforcement rates were effected. In Experiment 4, reinforcement rates first were differential and, then, equal to those in the Training phase. In Experiments 5 and 6, differential reinforcement rates were arranged by using fixed-DROs and VIs for pecking a different key, respectively. Even though resurgence was not obtained with every pigeon, at least some small-magnitude resurgence occurred in each experiment and was not related systematically to reinforcement rates of alternative responding. Schedule differences, response topography, order of conditions and the length of each phase were not sufficient to account for these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, Per; Donovan, E R

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection...... on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols...... and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR...

  9. How Useful Is The Genuine Savings Rate As A Macroeconomic Sustainability Indicator For Countries And Regions? Australia And Queensland Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Assoc Prof Richard Brown; John Asafu-Adjaye; Draca, M; A. Straton

    2003-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how macroeconomic indicators of sustainable development can be applied to the Queensland economy. We derive a Genuine Savings Rate (GSR) for Queensland for the period 1989 to 1999, which is then compared with the World Bank estimate of Australia's GSR for the same period. Specifically, we examine how well a single "headline" indicator based on the World Bank's GSR performs as a measure of overall sustainability. In doing so, we review criticisms of the GSR and compare ...

  10. Water hyacinth: a possible alternative rate retarding natural polymer used in sustained release tablet design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Sabera; Sutradhar, Kumar B

    2014-01-01

    In recent years natural polymers have been widely used because of their effectiveness and availability over synthetic polymers. In this present investigation matrix tablets of Metformin hydrochloride were formulated using Water hyacinth powder and its rate retardant activity was studied. Tablets were prepared using wet granulation method with 8% starch as granulating agent and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% of Water hyacinth powder to the drug. In preformulation study, angle of repose, Carr's Index and Hausner ratio were calculated. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies were performed and no interactions were found between drug and excipients. Weight variation, friability, hardness, thickness, diameter, and in vitro release study were performed with the prepared matrix tablets. Dissolution studies were conducted using USP type II apparatus at a speed of 100 rpm at 37°C ± 0.5 temperature for 8 h. Though all the formulations comply with both BP and USP requirements, formulation F-1 (5% of Water hyacinth) was the best fitted formula. The drug release patterns were explained in different kinetic models such as Zero order, First order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell, and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. The current investigation implies that Water hyacinth has the potential to be used as a rate-retarding agent in sustained release drug formulations.

  11. WATER HYACINTH: A POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE RATE RETARDING NATURAL POLYMER USED IN SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLET DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabera eKhatun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years natural polymers have been widely used, because of their effectiveness and availability over synthetic polymers. In this present investigation matrix tablets of Metformin hydrochloride were formulated using Water hyacinth powder and its rate retardant activity was studied. Tablets were prepared using wet granulation method with 8% starch as granulating agent and 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of Water hyacinth powder to the drug. In preformulation study, angle of repose, Carr’s Index and Hausner ratio were calculated. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM studies were performed and no interactions were found between drug and excipients. Weight variation, friability, hardness, thickness, diameter, and in vitro release study were performed with the prepared matrix tablets. Dissolution studies were conducted using USP type II apparatus at a speed of 100 rpm at 37oC ± 0.5 temperature, for 8 hours. All the formulations comply with both BP and USP requirements, but among all the formulations F-1 (5% of Water hyacinth was the best fitted formula. The drug release patterns were explained in different kinetic models such as Zero order, First order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. The current investigation implies that Water hyacinth has the potential to be used as a rate-retarding agent in sustained release drug formulations.

  12. Sustainable Development Commission response to the review of Food Standard Agency’s advice on fish consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2009-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Commission's response to the Food Standards Agency's review of its advice on fish consumption uses sustainable development as a lens through which to examine how the Agency can align its advice on fish consumption for health with evidence on sustainable sourcing. Publisher PDF

  13. Military personnel sustaining Lisfranc injuries have high rates of disability separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, George C; Hanley, M G; Pavey, G J; Rue, J-Ph

    2017-06-01

    Lisfranc injuries are relatively uncommon midfoot injuries disproportionately affecting young, active males. Previous studies in civilian populations have reported relatively good results with operative treatment. However, treatment results have not been specifically examined in military personnel, who may have higher physical demands than the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine rates of return to military duty following surgical treatment of isolated Lisfranc injuries. Surgical records and radiographic images from all active duty US military personnel treated for an isolated Lisfranc injury between January 2005 and July 2014 were examined. Demographic information, injury data, surgical details and subsequent return to duty information were recorded. The primary outcome was ability to return to unrestricted military duty following treatment. The secondary outcome was secondary conversion to a midfoot arthrodesis following initial open reduction internal fixation. Twenty-one patients meeting inclusion criteria were identified. Median patient age was 23 years, and mean follow-up was 43 months. Within this cohort, 14 patients were able to return to military service, while seven required a disability separation from the armed forces. Of the 18 patients who underwent initial fixation, eight were subsequently revised to midfoot arthrodesis for persistent pain. Military personnel sustaining Lisfranc injuries have high rates of persistent pain and disability, even after optimal initial surgical treatment. Military surgeons should counsel patients on the career-threatening nature of this condition and high rates of secondary procedures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Social Responsibility as a Means for the Sustainable Development in the Lower Danube River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvetelin Gueorguiev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of the world and the EU in particular is a priority outlined in a number of strategic documents. Social responsibility is an important topic covered by standards such as SA 8000:2001 and ISO 26000:2010. This paper presents a case study of the practical implementation of corporate social responsibility activities in a Bulgarian company. Several key initiatives have been undertaken to prove the company‘s commitment to all interested parties including local communities as well. Social responsibility is where the interests and benefits for all stakeholders meet, namely employers, employees, contractors, academics, authorities and society as a whole. This paper presents a critical and original point of view on the advantages of using standards for social responsibility as a means for sustainable development.

  15. Reviewing the Research on Mail Survey Response Rates: Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    One approach to examining the findings of multiple studies is descriptive. This descriptive review of the research on increasing the response rates to mail surveys is based on studies also subjected to a meta-analysis. An initial narrative review identified the studies to be used in both analyses, and results will allow the possibility of…

  16. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  17. Response of Amaranth ( Amaranthus hybridus ) to Different Rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus) to different rates and times of nitrogen (N) application was studied at Teaching and Research Farm,University of Ado-Ekiti in the late seasons of 2003 and 2004. The N was applied at 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ ha as urea (46%N) at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after sowing.Growth ...

  18. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lesley; Hegtvedt, Karen A.; Johnson, Cathryn; Parris, Christie L.; Subramanyam, Shruthi

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts--support by the administration (authorization) or from students' peers (endorsement)--as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students' environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs). Using survey data collected from…

  19. Corporate social responsibility in China: an analysis of domestic and foreign retailers' sustainability dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Hong, P.; van Dolen, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, a sizeable body of literature has built up on the concept and characteristics of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Western countries, where it has also been referred to as sustainability. More recently, attention has grown for CSR in emerging countries. Remarkably, China

  20. European pension funds and sustainable development : On trade-offs between finance and responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sievanen, Riikka; Rita, Hannu; Scholtens, Lambertus

    2017-01-01

    Pension funds try to account for sustainable development in their operations. This mainly translates in responsible investing. We investigate how this interacts with the financial objectives. We use a survey among more than 250 pension funds based in 15 European countries. Multinomial logistic

  1. Counteracting Educational Injustice with Applied Critical Leadership: Culturally Responsive Practices Promoting Sustainable Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Lorri J.; Santamaría, Andrés P.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution considers educational leadership practice to promote and sustain diversity. Comparative case studies are presented featuring educational leaders in the United States and New Zealand who counter injustice in their practice. The leaders' leadership practices responsive to the diversity presented in their schools offer…

  2. Long term clinical outcome of chronic hepatitis C patients with sustained virological response to interferon monotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Veldt (Bart); S.W. Schalm (Solko); G. Saracco; N. Boyer; C. Camma; A. Bellobuono (Antonio); U. Hopf; I. Castillo; O. Weiland (Ola); F. Nevens (Frederik); B.E. Hansen (Bettina)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The key end point for treatment efficacy in chronic hepatitis C is absence of detectable virus at six months after treatment. However, the incidence of clinical events during long term follow up of patients with sustained virological response is still poorly

  3. Governance through learning: making corporate social responsibility in dutch industry effective from a sustainable development perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.; Loeber, A.

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of firms try to implement corporate social responsibility (CSR) from the perspective of sustainable development. This article considers these efforts in the light of the changing relation between the state, society and the corporate sector, as a result of which governance

  4. Incorporating Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability into a Business Course: A Shared Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Obeua

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses how corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability were incorporated into a business course by using 4 assignments, a project with a CSR question, 7 ethics cases, and 17 ethics scenarios tied to a corporate code of ethics. The author also discusses student evaluation of CSR learning experience, strengths and…

  5. Responsible software: A research agenda to help enterprises become more sustainable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espana Cubillo, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412500949; Brinkkemper, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07500707X

    [BACKGROUND] Responsible enterprises are key to reaching a sustainable economy that cares about the people and the planet. Their spectrum is wide and it encompasses, among others, non-profit non-governmental organisations, social economy enterprises and companies with a committed corporate social

  6. European Pension Funds and Sustainable Development : Trade-Offs between Finance and Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sievanen, Riikka; Rita, Hannu; Scholtens, Lambertus

    2017-01-01

    Pension funds try to account for sustainable development in their operations. This mainly translates in responsible investing. We investigate how this interacts with the financial objectives. We use a survey among more than 250 pension funds based in 15 European countries. Multinomial logistic

  7. Heart Rate Response of Professional Musicians When Playing Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L; Irwin, Conor; Lightfoot, J T

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim was to determine the level of physiological stress evoked while playing music in a standing position as indicated by heart rate (HR) response. A secondary aim was to analyze the effect of music genre (classic rock, western, contemporary Christian, and metal rock) on the relative HR response. Lastly, we considered potential physiological initiators of the music-playing-induced HR response. HR response was monitored in 27 professional musicians (3 women, 24 men) between the ages of 21 and 67 yrs old during rehearsal and public performances. The percent maximal HR (%MHR) evoked was determined by taking a percentage of the age-predicted maximal HR for each musician and comparing the average %MHR in each genre during public and rehearsal events. The role of the potential initiators of these responses (e.g., number of years playing in public, event type, instrument type, tempo, etc.) was determined using multiple regression analyses. The overall average %MHR responses were 52 ± 5% and 59 ± 5% during rehearsal and public performances, respectively, with genre type having a significant effect on the HR response (p=0.01). Body mass index and tempo were each found to be significant contributors to the HR response while playing music (r²=0.506, p=0.001). Playing music professionally evokes considerable increases in HR response, with music genre influencing the level of the physiological response. We concluded that 50% of the HR response while playing music was associated with body mass index, music tempo, and instrument type.

  8. Heart Rate Responses of a Head Referee During a Football Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, D J; McClintock, S L

    1983-10-01

    In brief: To determine the heart rate responses of a football official to both physical and psychological stress during actual game conditions, a head referee was telemetered continuously from one- half hour before until the end of a college football game. The referee's cardiac system was stressed throughout the monitoring period: The highest average heart rate was 161 beats min(-1) (85% of maximum), and the lowest average heart rate was 140 beats min(-1) (74% of maximum). Because officiating is largely anaerobic, the sustained sinus tachycardia was probably caused by psychological stress. Football officials should have a maximal ECG stress test every year and participate in an aerobic conditioning program on a regular basis.

  9. Decreased heart rate variability responses during early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Brinth, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating to postope......BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating...... to postoperative autonomic dysfunction. Thus, based on a previous study on haemodynamic responses during mobilization before and after elective total hip arthroplasty (THA), we performed secondary analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) and aimed to identify possible abnormal postoperative autonomic responses...... in relation to postural change. METHODS: A standardized mobilization protocol before, 6 and 24 h after surgery was performed in 23 patients scheduled for elective THA. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure was measured by photoplethysmography and HRV was derived from pulse wave interbeat intervals and analysed...

  10. Noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y contribute to initial, but not sustained, vasodilatation in response to local skin warming in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Gary J; Sparks, Paul A

    2014-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Previous work has produced the counterintuitive finding that the vasoconstrictor neurotransmitters noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y are involved in vasodilatation. We aimed to discover whether sympathetic neurotransmitters are required for the sustained vasodilatation in response to local skin warming, as has been previously suggested, and to determine whether noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y are 'mediating' the sustained vasodilator response directly or acting to 'prime' (or kick-start) it. What is the main finding and its importance? We have found that noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y are required at the initiation of vasodilatation in response to local skin warming, if a complete vasodilator response is to be achieved; however, they are not required once vasodilatation has begun. In a three-part study, we examined whether noradrenaline, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were involved in the sustained vasodilatation in response to local skin warming. Forearm skin sites were instrumented with intradermal microdialysis fibres, local skin heaters and laser-Doppler flow probes. Local skin temperature (T(loc)) was increased from 34 to 42°C at a rate of 0.5°C (10 s)(-1). Laser-Doppler flow was expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler flow/mean arterial pressure). In part 1, three skin sites were prepared; two were treated with the study vehicle (lactated Ringer solution), while the third site was treated with yohimbine and propranolol to antagonize α- and β-receptors, and 10 min of baseline data were record at a T(loc) of 34°C. Receptor antagonism was confirmed via infusion of clonidine. The T(loc) was increased to 42°C at all sites. Once CVC had stabilized, site 2 was treated with yohimbine and propranolol to examine the effect of adrenergic receptor blockade on sustained vasodilatation of the skin. Receptor antagonism was again confirmed via infusion of clonidine

  11. Sustainable mechanical biological treatment of solid waste in urbanized areas with low recycling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trulli, Ettore; Ferronato, Navarro; Torretta, Vincenzo; Piscitelli, Massimiliano; Masi, Salvatore; Mancini, Ignazio

    2018-01-01

    Landfill is still the main technological facility used to treat and dispose municipal solid waste (MSW) worldwide. In developing countries, final dumping is applied without environmental monitoring and soil protection since solid waste is mostly sent to open dump sites while, in Europe, landfilling is considered as the last option since reverse logistic approaches or energy recovery are generally encouraged. However, many regions within the European Union continue to dispose of MSW to landfill, since modern facilities have not been introduced owing to unreliable regulations or financial sustainability. In this paper, final disposal activities and pre-treatment operations in an area in southern Italy are discussed, where final disposal is still the main option for treating MSW and the recycling rate is still low. Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) facilities are examined in order to evaluate the organic stabilization practices applied for MSW and the efficiencies in refuse derived fuel production, organic waste stabilization and mass reduction. Implementing MBT before landfilling the environmental impact and waste mass are reduced, up to 30%, since organic fractions are stabilized resulting an oxygen uptake rate less than 1600 mgO2 h-1 kg-1VS, and inorganic materials are exploited. Based on experimental data, this work examines MBT application in contexts where recycling and recovery activities have not been fully developed. The evidence of this study led to state that the introduction of MBT facilities is recommended for developing regions with high putrescible waste production in order to decrease environmental pollution and enhance human healthy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Infection Programs Sustained Lymphoid Stromal Cell Responses and Shapes Lymph Node Remodeling upon Secondary Challenge

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    Julia L. Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymph nodes (LNs are constructed of intricate networks of endothelial and mesenchymal stromal cells. How these lymphoid stromal cells (LSCs regulate lymphoid tissue remodeling and contribute to immune responses remains poorly understood. We performed a comprehensive functional and transcriptional analysis of LSC responses to skin viral infection and found that LSC subsets responded robustly, with different kinetics for distinct pathogens. Recruitment of cells to inflamed LNs induced LSC expansion, while B cells sustained stromal responses in an antigen-independent manner. Infection induced rapid transcriptional responses in LSCs. This transcriptional program was transient, returning to homeostasis within 1 month of infection, yet expanded fibroblastic reticular cell networks persisted for more than 3 months after infection, and this altered LN composition reduced the magnitude of LSC responses to subsequent heterologous infection. Our results reveal the complexity of LSC responses during infection and suggest that amplified networks of LN stromal cells support successive immune responses.

  13. A holistic approach to corporate social responsibility as a prerequisite for sustainable development: Empirical evidence

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    Zlatanović Dejana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR for contemporary organizations demands appropriate holistic tools. The paper highlights how Soft Systems Methodology (SSM, a relevant holistic, i.e., soft systems approach, supports the conceptualization and management of the complex issues of CSR and sustainable development. The SSM’s key methodological tools are used: rich picture, root definitions, and conceptual models. Empirical research compares a selected sample of enterprises in the automotive industry in the Republic of Serbia, to identify possible systemically desirable and culturally feasible changes to improve their CSR behaviour through promoting their sustainable development. Some limitations of this research and of SSM application are discussed. Combining SSM with some other systems approaches, such as System Dynamics or Critical Systems Heuristics, is recommended for future research.

  14. Association between insulin resistance and sustained virologic response in hepatitis C treatment, genotypes 1 versus 2 and 3: systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurito, Marcela Pezzoto; Parise, Edison Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Controversial results have been found in literature for the association between insulin resistance and sustained virologic response to standard chronic hepatitis C treatment. This study aims to provide a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, in order to evaluate if insulin resistance interferes with sustained virologic response in patients infected by the HCV genotype 1 versus HCV genotypes 2 and 3, undergoing treatment with interferon and ribavirin or pegylated interferon and ribavarin. Systematic search was performed on main electronic databases until May 2012. Primary outcome was sustained virologic response, defined as undetectable levels of HCV-RNA six months after the end of treatment. Meta-analytic measure was estimated using Dersimonian and Laird's method, using Stata software. Thirteen studies involving 2238 infected patients were included. There was a statistically significant association between insulin resistance and lower sustained virologic response rate, and this difference occurred in HCV genotype G1 (OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.59-3.13) and G2/G3 (OR: 4.45; 95% CI: 1.59-12.49). In addition, a difference was seen in the cut-offs used for defining insulin resistance by Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance. To minimize this limitation, sub-analysis that excluded the studies that did not use 2 as a cut-off value was performed and the results still demonstrated association between insulin resistance and sustained virologic response, for both genotypic groups. This meta-analysis provides evidence that elevated Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance is associated with a lower sustained virologic response rate in patients with hepatitis C treated with interferon and ribavirin or pegylated interferon and ribavarin, regardless of their genotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Linking public sector corporate social responsibility with sustainable development: lessons from India

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    Subhasis Ray

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic think tanks predict India to be the world’s largest economy by 2050. This would require India to accelerate its industrial and infrastructure development. Industrialization based economic development will have a negative impact on the environment and hence sustainable development. Such steps could affect the social and environmental bottom line of the national economy. In recent years, a number of regulatory measures have been proposed by the Indian government to ensure corporate support to the goals of sustainable and inclusive development. The objective of these regulations is to achieve triple bottom line based growth. Notable among them is the mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR guidelines for public sector undertakings, first issued in April, 2010. I study the possibility and problems created by this effort by analyzing the policy documents and interviewing managers responsible for implementing CSR programmers in Indian public sector. Managers interviewed came from hydropower, coal, power distribution and shipping industries. Based on the study, four areas are identified that requires attention for effective linking between sustainable development and CSR; stakeholder engagement, institutional mechanisms, capacity building and knowledge management. Both government-public sector and public sector-community engagements have to be more streamlined. Institutional mechanisms have to be developed to see that CSR projects are effective and delivering. Importantly, managers at all levels need a better understanding of CSR and sustainable development. Since most projects are in rural areas, understanding of rural issues and sustainability is very important. Finally, such a large scale exercise in CSR should have a knowledge management mechanism to learn from the achievements and mistakes of the early years. I discuss the implication of the findings on India and other emerging economies many of which are struggling to balance

  16. Responsibility and Sustainability in a Food Chain: A Priority Matrix Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caracciolo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  This paper shows the results of empirical research conducted to assess the sustainability of a typical food supply chain, suggesting feasible solutions to satisfy inter-dimensional requisites of durable development. The analysis was conducted with reference to the supply chain of the San Marzano tomato (SMZ, a typical local food. The product is endowed with an origin certification label (PDO, meeting demand within high-value market niches. The SMZ is a flagship product in the Italian region of Campania and has benefited from several regionally funded interventions, such as genetic research and support for the application for EU certification of origin. Two key findings emerged from the research. First, the results allowed us to define a Stakeholder Priority and Responsibilities’ Matrix (SPRM, and monitor the sustainability trend of SMZ food supply chains. Second, the consistency between the adoption of quality strategy (brand of origin and sustainable development of the sector was evaluated. Despite its intrinsic characteristics and its organized, well-defined structure, the SMZ food supply chain is unable to address sustainable objectives without considerable public intervention and support. In terms of sustainability, to be able to show desirable food chain characteristics, the existence of a fully collaborative relationship between the actors has to be ascertained. Identifying shared goals is essential to assign and implement coordinated actions, pooling responsibility for product quality into social and environmental dimensions.

  17. High strain rate response of rabbit femur bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Gupta, Nikhil; Coelho, Paulo G

    2010-11-16

    Strain rate dependence of the mechanical response of hard tissues has led to a keen interest in their dynamic properties. The current study attempts to understand the high strain rate characteristics of rabbit femur bones. The testing was conducted using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar equipped with a high speed imaging system to capture the fracture patterns. The bones were also characterized under quasi-static compression to enable comparison with the high strain rate results. The quasi-static compressive moduli of the epiphyseal and diaphyseal regions were measured to be in the range of 2-3 and 5-7GPa, respectively. Under high strain rate loading conditions the modulus is observed to increase with strain rate and attains values as high as 15GPa for epiphyseal and 30GPa for diaphyseal regions of the femur. The strength at high strain rate was measured to be about twice the quasi-static strength value. A large number of small cracks initiated on the specimen surface close to the incident bar. Coalescence of crack branches leading to fewer large cracks resulted in specimen fragmentation. In comparison, the quasi-static failure was due to shear cracking. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Remission, response, and relapse rates in patients with acute schizophrenia treated with olanzapine monotherapy or other atypical antipsychotic monotherapy: 12-month prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Michihiro; Nakahara, Naohiro; Fujikoshi, Shinji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2015-01-01

    To compare the rates of antipsychotic response, remission, and relapse in patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine or other antipsychotics in usual clinical care in Japan. This analysis of a 12-month, prospective, noninterventional study examined outcomes for 1,089 inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia who initiated antipsychotic monotherapy. All treatment decisions, including medication choice, were left to the discretion of the treating physician. The rates of treatment response, relapse, and 6-month sustained remission were compared between olanzapine monotherapy (OLZ) and other anti-psychotic monotherapy (OAN), and between OLZ and other atypical antipsychotic monotherapy (OAT). Visit-wise comparisons of treatment response and remission were examined using repeated-measures logistic regressions. Propensity scores were used to control for potential baseline differences between groups. Response rates were higher for OLZ patients and relapse rates were consistently lower for OLZ patients, however the differences were not statistically significant. Rates of 6-month sustained remission were significantly higher for OLZ than OAN patients (P=0.032) and for OLZ than OAT patients (P=0.041). An exploratory analysis of OLZ and OAN comparison found outpatients treated with OLZ or OAN had similar sustained remission rates (OLZ: 22.2%, OAN: 22.8%), while inpatients treated with OLZ had significantly higher sustained remission rates than inpatients treated with OAN (OLZ: 17.1%, OAN: 6.6%, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] =3.54 [2.00-6.25]). In usual care in Japan, treating the acute symptoms of schizophrenia with olanzapine was not found to be significantly different for response and relapse rates; however, treatment with olanzapine was found to have significantly greater sustained remission rates than treatment with other antipsychotics. In the inpatient setting, where patients tend to be more severe and difficult to manage, olanzapine treatment may

  19. Cholesterol enhances classical conditioning of the rabbit heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Bernard G; Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Darwish, Deya S; Wang, Desheng; Burhans, Lauren B; Gonzales-Joekes, Jimena; Deci, Stephen; Stankovic, Goran; Sparks, D Larry

    2007-07-19

    The cholesterol-fed rabbit is a model of atherosclerosis and has been proposed as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. Feeding rabbits cholesterol has been shown to increase the number of beta amyloid immunoreactive neurons in the cortex. Addition of copper to the drinking water of cholesterol-fed rabbits can increase this number still further and may lead to plaque-like structures. Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in cholesterol-fed rabbits is retarded in the presence of these plaque-like structures but may be facilitated in their absence. In a factorial design, rabbits fed 2% cholesterol or a normal diet (0% cholesterol) for 8 weeks with or without copper added to the drinking water were given trace classical conditioning using a tone and periorbital electrodermal stimulation to study the effects of cholesterol and copper on classical conditioning of heart rate and the nictitating membrane response. Cholesterol-fed rabbits showed significant facilitation of heart rate conditioning and conditioning-specific modification of heart rate relative to normal diet controls. Consistent with previous research, cholesterol had minimal effects on classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response when periorbital electrodermal stimulation was used as the unconditioned stimulus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala of the cholesterol-fed rabbits. Supplementation of drinking water with copper increased the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex of cholesterol-fed rabbits but did not produce plaque-like structures or have a significant effect on heart rate conditioning. The data provide additional support for our finding that, in the absence of plaques, dietary cholesterol may facilitate learning and memory.

  20. Sustained major molecular response on interferon alpha-2b in two patients with polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.S.; Pallisgaard, N.; Andersen, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    chromosome negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Reductions in the JAK2 V617F allele burden in patients treated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Peg-IFN-2a) have been demonstrated, although follow-up was relatively short. We report here the first profound and sustained molecular responses......Quantitative assessment of the JAK2 V617F allele burden during disease evolution and ongoing myelosuppressive treatment is likely to be implemented in the future clinical setting. Interferon alpha has demonstrated efficacy in treatment of both chronic myeloid leukemia and the Philadelphia...... with a JAK2 V617F allele burden below 1.0% in two patients with polycythemia vera treated with interferon alpha-2b (IFN-2b). Discontinuation of IFN-2b in one of the patients was followed by a sustained long-lasting (12 months of follow-up) major molecular response Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  1. Sustained major molecular response on interferon alpha-2b in two patients with polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Bjerrum, O W; Pallisgaard, N

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the JAK2 V617F allele burden during disease evolution and ongoing myelosuppressive treatment is likely to be implemented in the future clinical setting. Interferon alpha has demonstrated efficacy in treatment of both chronic myeloid leukemia and the Philadelphia...... chromosome negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Reductions in the JAK2 V617F allele burden in patients treated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Peg-IFN-2a) have been demonstrated, although follow-up was relatively short. We report here the first profound and sustained molecular responses...... with a JAK2 V617F allele burden below 1.0% in two patients with polycythemia vera treated with interferon alpha-2b (IFN-2b). Discontinuation of IFN-2b in one of the patients was followed by a sustained long-lasting (12 months of follow-up) major molecular response....

  2. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  3. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS AN INSTRUMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina GAWEŁ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of corporate social responsibility as an instrument of operationalising the paradigm of sustainable development on the microeconomic level in the sector of production enterprises. It presents a genesis and importance of CSR and indicates the most relevant essential instruments of CSR implementation on an enterprise level. The paper also analyses endogenous and exogenous benefits from implementing CSR into the business practice.

  4. Text-speak processing and the sustained attention to response task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James; Russell, Paul N; Dorahy, Martin J; Neumann, Ewald; Helton, William S

    2012-01-01

    We examined performance in a sustained attention to response task (SART) (Experiment 1) and a more traditionally formatted vigilance task (Experiment 2) using novel word stimuli (text-speak) and normally spelt words. This enabled us to address whether the SART is a better measure of sustained attention or of response strategy, and to investigate the cognitive demands of text-speak processing. In Experiment 1, 72 participants completed a subset (text-speak) and a word SART, as well as a self-reported text experience questionnaire. Those who reported more proficiency and experience with text-speak made more errors on the subset SART, but this appeared to be due to their increase in response speed. This did not occur in the word SART. In Experiment 2, 14 participants completed high No-Go, low-Go (more traditional response format) versions of these tasks to further investigate the cognitive demands of text-speak processing. Response latency increased over periods of watch only for the text-speak task, not for the word task. The results of Experiment 1 support the perspective that the SART is highly sensitive to response strategy, and the results of both experiments together indicate target detection tasks may be a novel way of investigating the cognitive demands of text-speak processing.

  5. Patient Characteristics Associated with HCV Treatment Adherence, Treatment Completion, and Sustained Virologic Response in HIV Coinfected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wagner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis C (HCV treatment efficacy among HIV patients is limited by poor treatment adherence and tolerance, but few studies have examined the psychosocial determinants of treatment adherence and outcomes. Methods. Chart abstracted and survey data were collected on 72 HIV patients who had received pegylated interferon and ribavirin to assess correlates of treatment adherence, completion, and sustained virologic response (SVR. Results. Nearly half (46% the sample had active psychiatric problems and 13% had illicit drug use at treatment onset; 28% reported <100% treatment adherence, 38% did not complete treatment (mostly due to virologic nonresponse, and intent to treat SVR rate was 49%. Having a psychiatric diagnosis was associated with nonadherence, while better HCV adherence was associated with both treatment completion and SVR. Conclusions. Good mental health may be an indicator of HCV treatment adherence readiness, which is in turn associated with treatment completion and response, but further research is needed with new HCV treatments emerging.

  6. Social responsibility, sustainability and micro-enterprises: Contributions made by a micro-enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dos Santos Argueta Lourdes Brazil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the experience of a small environmental consultancy company when adopting the concept of Social Responsibility. The goal is to encourage other businesses to accept the challenge of overcoming social and environmental problems to build sustainable societies. We will show how companies, even small ones, can work with transparency, valuing employees and staff, improving its environment continually, bringing together partners and suppliers, protecting consumers, promoting its community, and committing to the common good. The company mentioned in this article achieved these purposes by building ,social bridges' among institutions of various fields and locations in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro. Gênesis Environmental Education Centre is a consultancy firm whose mission is to educate about sustainability, through environmental education activities, aimed at various segments of society. It was created in 2005 and is located in Tenente Elias Magalhães street, 140, Colubandê, São Gonçalo, in an area of ecological interest due to the existence of threatened species, the Atlantic forest, streams and a spring. Gênesis Centre is always concerned about environmental issues and, since its implementation, it has conducted activities aimed at schools, businesses, and religious institutions. The main activities are training courses, workshops, development and implementation of projects, environmental education, and nature trails. The Centre promotes education for sustainability through the concept of Social Responsibility, applied as a guiding principle for all activities and networks. The company follows guidelines organized by Ethos Institute regarding Social Responsibility.

  7. Sustained responses for pitch and vowels map to similar sites in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Uppenkamp, Stefan

    2011-06-01

    Several studies have shown enhancement of auditory evoked sustained responses for periodic over non-periodic sounds and for vowels over non-vowels. Here, we directly compared pitch and vowels using synthesized speech with a "damped" amplitude modulation. These stimuli were parametrically varied to yield four classes of matched stimuli: (1) periodic vowels (2) non-periodic vowels, (3) periodic non-vowels, and (4) non-periodic non-vowels. 12 listeners were studied with combined MEG and EEG. Sustained responses were reliably enhanced for vowels and periodicity. Dipole source analysis revealed that a vowel contrast (vowel-non-vowel) and the periodicity-pitch contrast (periodic-non-periodic) mapped to the same site in antero-lateral Heschl's gyrus. In contrast, the non-periodic, non-vowel condition mapped to a more medial and posterior site. The sustained enhancement for vowels was significantly more prominent when the vowel identity was varied, compared to a condition where only one vowel was repeated, indicating selective adaptation of the response. These results render it unlikely that there are spatially distinct fields for vowel and pitch processing in the auditory cortex. However, the common processing of vowels and pitch raises the possibility that there is an early speech-specific field in Heschl's gyrus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Heart rate responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by structural alterations and dysfunction in central autonomic regulatory regions, which may impair dynamic and static cardiovascular regulation, and contribute to other syndrome pathologies. Characterizing cardiovascular responses to autonomic challenges may provide insights into central nervous system impairments, including contributions by sex, since structural alterations are enhanced in OSA females over males. The objective was to assess heart rate responses in OSA versus healthy control subjects to autonomic challenges, and, separately, characterize female and male patterns. We studied 94 subjects, including 37 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA patients (6 female, age mean ± std: 52.1 ± 8.1 years; 31 male aged 54.3 ± 8.4 years, and 57 healthy control subjects (20 female, 50.5 ± 8.1 years; 37 male, 45.6 ± 9.2 years. We measured instantaneous heart rate with pulse oximetry during cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. All challenges elicited significant heart rate differences between OSA and control groups during and after challenges (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. In post-hoc analyses, OSA females showed greater impairments than OSA males, which included: for cold pressor, lower initial increase (OSA vs. control: 9.5 vs. 7.3 bpm in females, 7.6 vs. 3.7 bpm in males, OSA delay to initial peak (2.5 s females/0.9 s males, slower mid-challenge rate-of-increase (OSA vs. control: -0.11 vs. 0.09 bpm/s in females, 0.03 vs. 0.06 bpm/s in males; for hand grip, lower initial peak (OSA vs. control: 2.6 vs. 4.6 bpm in females, 5.3 vs. 6.0 bpm in males; for Valsalva maneuver, lower Valsalva ratio (OSA vs. control: 1.14 vs. 1.30 in females, 1.29 vs. 1.34 in males, and OSA delay during phase II (0.68 s females/1.31 s males. Heart rate responses showed lower amplitude, delayed onset, and slower rate changes in OSA patients over healthy controls, and impairments may be more pronounced in

  9. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with a Sustained Response to Anti-Hepatitis C Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta D'Ambrosio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common, life-threatening complication of longstanding infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV, likely a consequence of the direct oncogenic activity of the virus cooperating with liver cell inflammation in transforming the liver into a mitogenic and mutagenic environment. The achievement of a sustained virological response (SVR to interferon-based therapies has been shown to benefit the course of hepatitis C in terms of reduced rates of liver-related complications and mortality from all causes. Interestingly, while achievement of an SVR is associated with a negligible risk of developing clinical decompensation over the years, the risk of HCC is not fully abrogated following HCV clearance, but it remains the dominant complication in all SVR populations. The factors accounting for such a residual risk of HCC in SVR patients are not fully understood, yet the persistence of the subverted architecture of the liver, diabetes and alcohol abuse are likely culprits. In the end, the risk of developing an HCC in SVR patients is attenuated by 75% compared to non-responders or untreated patients, whereas responders who develop an HCC may be stratified in different categories of HCC risk by a score based on the same demographic and liver disease-based variables, such as those that predict liver cancer in viremic patients. All in all, this prevents full understanding of those factors that drive HCC risk once HCV has been eradicated. Here, we critically review current understanding of HCC in SVR patients focusing on factors that predict residual risk of HCC among these patients and providing a glimpse of the expected benefits of new anti-HCV regimens based on direct antiviral agents.

  10. Comparing maximum rate and sustainability of pacing by mechanical vs. electrical stimulation in the Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T Alexander; Kohl, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical stimulation (MS) represents a readily available, non-invasive means of pacing the asystolic or bradycardic heart in patients, but benefits of MS at higher heart rates are unclear. Our aim was to assess the maximum rate and sustainability of excitation by MS vs. electrical stimulation (ES) in the isolated heart under normal physiological conditions. Trains of local MS or ES at rates exceeding intrinsic sinus rhythm (overdrive pacing; lowest pacing rates 2.5±0.5 Hz) were applied to the same mid-left ventricular free-wall site on the epicardium of Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Stimulation rates were progressively increased, with a recovery period of normal sinus rhythm between each stimulation period. Trains of MS caused repeated focal ventricular excitation from the site of stimulation. The maximum rate at which MS achieved 1:1 capture was lower than during ES (4.2±0.2 vs. 5.9±0.2 Hz, respectively). At all overdrive pacing rates for which repetitive MS was possible, 1:1 capture was reversibly lost after a finite number of cycles, even though same-site capture by ES remained possible. The number of MS cycles until loss of capture decreased with rising stimulation rate. If interspersed with ES, the number of MS to failure of capture was lower than for MS only. In this study, we demonstrate that the maximum pacing rate at which MS can be sustained is lower than that for same-site ES in isolated heart, and that, in contrast to ES, the sustainability of successful 1:1 capture by MS is limited. The mechanism(s) of differences in MS vs. ES pacing ability, potentially important for emergency heart rhythm management, are currently unknown, thus warranting further investigation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Heart rate responses provide an objective evaluation of human disturbance stimuli in breeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberg, Ursula; Mattern, Thomas; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Intuition is a poor guide for evaluating the effects of human disturbance on wildlife. Using the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes, as an example, we show that heart rate responses provide an objective tool to evaluate human disturbance stimuli and encourage the wider use of this simple and low-impact approach. Yellow-eyed penguins are a flagship species for New Zealand's wildlife tourism; however, unregulated visitor access has recently been associated with reduced breeding success and lower first year survival. We measured heart rate responses of Yellow-eyed penguins via artificial eggs to evaluate a range of human stimuli regularly occurring at their breeding sites. We found the duration of a stimulus to be the most important factor, with elevated heart rate being sustained while a person remained within sight. Human activity was the next important component; a simulated wildlife photographer, crawling slowly around during his stay, elicited a significantly higher heart rate response than an entirely motionless human spending the same time at the same distance. Stimuli we subjectively might perceive as low impact, such as the careful approach of a 'wildlife photographer', resulted in a stronger response than a routine nest-check that involved lifting a bird up to view nest contents. A single, slow-moving human spending 20 min within 2 m from the nest may provoke a response comparable to that of 10 min handling a bird for logger deployment. To reduce cumulative impact of disturbance, any human presence in the proximity of Yellow-eyed penguins needs to be kept at a minimum. Our results highlight the need for objective quantification of the effects of human disturbance in order to provide a sound basis for guidelines to manage human activity around breeding birds.

  12. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  13. Special issue on"social responsibility accounting and reporting in times of ‘sustainability Downturn/crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Correa-ruiz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available At a time when sustainability performance does not seem to match the expectations raised by the sustainable development concept and, moreover, when the economic downturn and crisis could be further eroding social and environmental concerns and values, the notion of sustainability crisis provides an interesting starting point to reflect on the role of Social and Environmental Accounting Research. Lack of humanity and values, short term economic approach, institutional capture and misunderstanding and misuse of democracy, have all served as catalysts of sustainability downturn and crisis. Thus, this editorial attempts to advance public interest accounting by discussing the controversy around Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility, expecting that the constitutive effects of researchers’ words in this special issue and in future research agendas, will result in more transformative power relations able to enhance a healthy democracy inspired by the capacity to do things and to transform individuals’ attitudes and behaviours, as well as the institutional response to the sustainability crisis.

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility as a tool to ensure sustainability and competitiveness of the monotowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sechina Asya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning the basics and trends of the development of corporate social responsibility is connected with the need to identify the reasons for its humanization and globalization in today’s business environment. Sustainability and competitiveness is one of the important characteristics of the company today. The characteristic of the Russian practice of corporate social responsibility highlights its features, levels and forms of development. Monotowns are a highly vulnerable category of Russian communities; they are in constant risk due to their specific characteristics and largely the underdeveloped economic base. The problems of monoprofile towns usually do not have simple solutions. They require a comprehensive approach and taking account of the existence and development of each monotown. The article deals with the concept of a monoprofile town, stages of formation and evolution of this phenomenon in the Russian economy. There is the problem of application of corporate social responsibility in the practice of Russian monotowns. There is the characteristic advantage of social responsibility in the monotowns. There is the influence of the organizations activities operating in a monotown on the quality of life of the population. There is the necessity of the use of corporate social responsibility in monotowns to enhance their sustainability and improve competitiveness.

  15. The effect of heart rate on the heart rate variability response to autonomic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, George E

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR) or heart period (R-R interval), has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20) or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9) autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD) and the high frequency (HF) variability (HF, 0.24-1.04 Hz) were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec)(2) for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF) while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation) even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  16. The Effect of Heart Rate on the Heart Rate Variability Response to Autonomic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Billman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR or heart period (R-R interval, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20 or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9 autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD and the high frequency variability (HF, 0.2 to 1.04 Hz were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec2 for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  17. Appeals to consumer responsibility and improving structural conditions as means to promote sustainable consumer behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    for their acts or (b) structural conditions determined by governments? In field experiments with large samples of ordinary consumers, the behavioral effects of perceptions of responsibility/personal moral norms and of altering an important structural condition are quantified by measuring a relevant behavior......-developed public transit service. The results suggest that there is often more to gain from changing structural conditions to be more facilitating for the desired behavior than from a campaign targeting consumer feelings of responsibility.......Environmental policy-makers increasingly emphasize consumers' responsibility for environmental side effects of their acts, but is this justified? This paper investigates which is the most important limiting factor for sustainable consumption: (a) the extent to which consumers assume responsibility...

  18. A Designed Model of Sustainable Competitiveness for Slovak Industrial Companies in the Global Context of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božiková, Lucia; Šnircová, Jana

    2016-06-01

    In this article we introduce a model of sustainable competitiveness, which we created on the basis of a long term study of literature and analysis. This article is divided into several parts. In the first part, we will introduce the problem of competitiveness and sustainable competitiveness. The second part is focused on the basic aspects for the creation of the model. In the third part the model itself is introduced and also an explanation and description of the mode is given.

  19. Company, Sustainability and Social Responsibility: Origins, Motivations, Critical and Practical Aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ribeiro Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the sustainability and its historical aspects, the emergence of global concern about the subject, with sustainable economic development and its major initiatives, from the effective involvement of the States in the discussions in the search for consensus in the quality of life on the planet, rationality in the exploitation of natural resources and concern for future generations. We research also the context of social responsibility (business, starting at historical aspect to following analyze its interrelationship as an instrument to combat the problem of social inequality and poverty, was discoursing on the possibility of state action while inducing corporate behavior on this theme, describing the concrete experience revealed in the actions of the Federal Public Ministry, through award-winning design that became known as "Green Cities / Meat Legal".

  20. Withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment: criminal responsibility for established medical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy; Allen, John

    2010-05-01

    The law recognises the right of a competent adult to refuse medical treatment even if this will lead to death. Guardianship and other legislation also facilitates the making of decisions to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment in certain circumstances. Despite this apparent endorsement that such decisions can be lawful, doubts have been raised in Queensland about whether decisions to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment would contravene the criminal law, and particularly the duty imposed by the Criminal Code (Qld) to provide the "necessaries of life". This article considers this tension in the law and examines various arguments that might allow for such decisions to be made lawfully. It ultimately concludes, however, that criminal responsibility may still arise and so reform is needed.

  1. Oral Ezatiostat HCl (TLK199) and Myelodysplastic syndrome: a case report of sustained hematologic response following an abbreviated exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quddus, Fahd; Clima, Jessica; Seedham, Helen; Sajjad, Ghulam; Galili, Naomi; Raza, Azra

    2010-04-23

    Treatment options for patients with lower risk non-del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who fail erythroid stimulating agents are restricted to one of the hypomethylating drugs with an expected response rate of approximately 50%. Ezatiostat HCl, an agent with the potential for producing multi-lineage responses in this population is currently in clinical investigation phase. This case report describes a 77 year old male who received less than two cycles of therapy with ezatiostat HCl which had to be aborted due to intolerable side effects, but which produced a sustained normalization of all three blood counts. This trilineage response has now lasted for more than a year. Interestingly, the patient began with a del(5q) abnormality and responded briefly to lenalidomide. Upon relapse of the anemia, a bone marrow showed the disappearance of the del(5q) but the appearance of a new clonal abnormality t(2;3). Given that the patient had a complete cytogenetic response to a truncated exposure to lenalidomide followed by a trilineage response to an even briefer course of ezatiostat HCl suggests a potential role for ezatiostat HCl in del(5q) patients who relapse following lenalidomide.

  2. Flower vs. leaf feeding by Pieris brassicae: glucosinolate-rich flower tissues are preferred and sustain higher growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegange, R C; van Loon, J J A; Blatt, S E; Harvey, J A; Agerbirk, N; Dicke, M

    2007-10-01

    Interactions between butterflies and caterpillars in the genus Pieris and plants in the family Brassicaceae are among the best explored in the field of insect-plant biology. However, we report here for the first time that Pieris brassicae, commonly assumed to be a typical folivore, actually prefers to feed on flowers of three Brassica nigra genotypes rather than on their leaves. First- and second-instar caterpillars were observed to feed primarily on leaves, whereas late second and early third instars migrated via the small leaves of the flower branches to the flower buds and flowers. Once flower feeding began, no further leaf feeding was observed. We investigated growth rates of caterpillars having access exclusively to either leaves of flowering plants or flowers. In addition, we analyzed glucosinolate concentrations in leaves and flowers. Late-second- and early-third-instar P. brassicae caterpillars moved upward into the inflorescences of B. nigra and fed on buds and flowers until the end of the final (fifth) instar, after which they entered into the wandering stage, leaving the plant in search of a pupation site. Flower feeding sustained a significantly higher growth rate than leaf feeding. Flowers contained levels of glucosinolates up to five times higher than those of leaves. Five glucosinolates were identified: the aliphatic sinigrin, the aromatic phenylethylglucosinolate, and three indole glucosinolates: glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Tissue type and genotype were the most important factors affecting levels of identified glucosinolates. Sinigrin was by far the most abundant compound in all three genotypes. Sinigrin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, and phenylethylglucosinolate were present at significantly higher levels in flowers than in leaves. In response to caterpillar feeding, sinigrin levels in both leaves and flowers were significantly higher than in undamaged plants, whereas 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin leaf levels were

  3. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV and a high viscosity (HV semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020, with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively while fullness was higher (P<0.001. In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001, higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001 and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001. However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  4. Pivotal role of cardiomyocyte TGF-β signaling in the murine pathological response to sustained pressure overload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koitabashi, Norimichi; Danner, Thomas; Zaiman, Ari L.; Pinto, Yigal M.; Rowell, Janelle; Mankowski, Joseph; Zhang, Dou; Nakamura, Taishi; Takimoto, Eiki; Kass, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The cardiac pathological response to sustained pressure overload involves myocyte hypertrophy and dysfunction along with interstitial changes such as fibrosis and reduced capillary density. These changes are orchestrated by mechanical forces and factors secreted between cells. One such secreted

  5. Sustainable Development Commission Scotland response to the Scottish Government 'Consultation on the consenting process for thermal power stations in Scotland'

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission Scotland

    2009-01-01

    This document is the response of the Sustainable Development Commission Scotland to the Scottish Government’s 'Consultation on the consenting process for thermal power stations in Scotland' Publisher PDF

  6. Sustainable Cotton Production in India: A Case Study in Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Takacs, PhD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the world’s most widely traded agricultural commodity, but it is also one of the world’s most toxic to grow. In India, the second largest producer of cotton, Zameen Organics Pvt. Ltd. has pioneered a business model of sustainable cotton production that is based on environmental stewardship and concern for the health and equity of farmers engaged in growing cotton. Zameen’s approach to business illustrates the principles of strategic corporate social responsibility, a business approach that leverages a company’s distinctive competencies to address external issues and by which all stakeholders, not just the shareholders, are enriched.

  7. "Omics" of maize stress response for sustainable food production: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fangping; Yang, Le; Tai, Fuju; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Maize originated in the highlands of Mexico approximately 8700 years ago and is one of the most commonly grown cereal crops worldwide, followed by wheat and rice. Abiotic stresses (primarily drought, salinity, and high and low temperatures), together with biotic stresses (primarily fungi, viruses, and pests), negatively affect maize growth, development, and eventually production. To understand the response of maize to abiotic and biotic stresses and its mechanism of stress tolerance, high-throughput omics approaches have been used in maize stress studies. Integrated omics approaches are crucial for dissecting the temporal and spatial system-level changes that occur in maize under various stresses. In this comprehensive analysis, we review the primary types of stresses that threaten sustainable maize production; underscore the recent advances in maize stress omics, especially proteomics; and discuss the opportunities, challenges, and future directions of maize stress omics, with a view to sustainable food production. The knowledge gained from studying maize stress omics is instrumental for improving maize to cope with various stresses and to meet the food demands of the exponentially growing global population. Omics systems science offers actionable potential solutions for sustainable food production, and we present maize as a notable case study.

  8. A Designed Model of Sustainable Competitiveness for Slovak Industrial Companies in the Global Context of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božiková Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a model of sustainable competitiveness, which we created on the basis of a long term study of literature and analysis. This article is divided into several parts. In the first part, we will introduce the problem of competitiveness and sustainable competitiveness. The second part is focused on the basic aspects for the creation of the model. In the third part the model itself is introduced and also an explanation and description of the mode is given.

  9. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  10. Effects of shifts in the rate of repetitive stimulation on sustained attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulewitz, J. E.; Warm, J. S.; Wohl, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of shifts in the rate of presentation of repetitive neutral events (background event rate) were studied in a visual vigilance task. Four groups of subjects experienced either a high (21 events/min) or a low (6 events/min) event rate for 20 min and then experienced either the same or the alternate event rate for an additional 40 min. The temporal occurrence of critical target signals was identical for all groups, irrespective of event rate. The density of critical signals was 12 signals/20 min. By the end of the session, shifts in event rate were associated with changes in performance which resembled contrast effects found in other experimental situations in which shift paradigms were used. Relative to constant event rate control conditions, a shift from a low to a high event rate depressed the probability of signal detections, while a shift in the opposite direction enhanced the probability of signal detections.

  11. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Screening Is Indicated Even After Sustained Virological Response: -Moroccan University Hospital Experience-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cherradi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C is the first aetiologic agent for HCC in Morocco. Antiviral treatment reduces the risk of developing HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis C but few cases of HCC have been still reported. We aimed to define population with high risk of HCC occurrence, confirm the protective role of SVR and to identify predictive factors of developing HCC after SVR. We’ll try to present suggestions about screening strategies (indications and interval after antiviral therapy according to level of HCC occurrence risk. Patients and Methods: We included all patients with chronic hepatitis C treated in our department from January 2002 to April 2010. We compare HCV-treated patients with no developed HCC to HCC population using khi-2 and Fisher Exact analysis. Results: 369 patients treated for hepatitis C were considered, and 20 HCC were reported. The risk of HCC occurrence was not significant according to gender and genotypes. Advanced age and severe fibrosis were significant risk factors. HCC was reported in 2.3% of sustained virological responders versus 12.5% of non responders. SVR is a significant protective factor. Conclusion: In our series, 5% of previously treated HCV carriers developed HCC and 2.3% of sustained virological responders developed. Achieving SVR after antiviral therapy is a protective factor. Advanced age (> 50 y. o, severe fibrosis (F>2 and lack of SVR at HCV diagnosis are predictive factors of HCC development in treated patients. Regular bi-annual ultrasonography screening should be indicated necessarily in patients with advanced fibrosis stage (F3- F4 even after SVR, particularly when co-morbid conditions are associated (advanced age, NASH, diabetes mellitus,…. Screening interval in sustained virological responders with reduced fibrosis stage may be reduced to annual surveillance. Establishing guidelines about consensual strategy to survey sustained virological responders is now necessary especially with high rates

  12. Is sustained virological response a marker of treatment efficacy in patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection with no response or relapse to previous antiviral intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi S; Wilson, Edward; Koretz, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of antiviral interventions in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection use sustained virological response (SVR) as the main outcome. There is sparse information on long-term mortality from RCTs.......Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of antiviral interventions in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection use sustained virological response (SVR) as the main outcome. There is sparse information on long-term mortality from RCTs....

  13. Corporate social responsibility: a real options approach to the challenge of financial sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Teresa Bosch-Badia

    Full Text Available In contemporary complex societies, social values like ethics, corporate social responsibility, and being respectful with the environment, among others, are becoming social requirements. Corporations are expected to fulfill them and, according to empirical evidence, an overwhelming majority aspires to good social valuation. At the same time, the maximization of market share value in the long run continues to be the central corporate goal. Making environmental and social expenses compatible with value creation is a central challenge for corporations since it implies the financial sustainability of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR.The value creation capacity of CSR projects, mainly through innovation, is widely acknowledged in economic literature and corporate practice. This fact arouses the need of having a quantitative framework capable of summarizing the value creation capacity of the variables involved in CSR projects. With this aim we build up a sensitivity analysis of real option ratios that studies and quantifies the value creation capacity of CSR projects connected with innovation. Ratio analysis has the advantage of being scale independent. Hence, it furnishes a homogeneous framework to express the interaction of value creation variables and, thus, supports strategic thinking quantitatively. Often, CSR expenses can be regarded as preliminary projects that create the opportunity to undertake a full future project. For them, we obtain the minimum expectations scenario that makes financially sustainable a preliminary project that can be interpreted as a call option. We propose a classification of CSR projects from the decision analysis perspective following a two-fold approach: Their relationship with value creation and their links with existing corporate activities. This classification of CSR projects aims at contributing to choose the best capital budgeting method to study the financial sustainability of the project and identifying

  14. Corporate social responsibility: a real options approach to the challenge of financial sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Badia, Maria-Teresa; Montllor-Serrats, Joan; Tarrazon-Rodon, Maria-Antonia

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary complex societies, social values like ethics, corporate social responsibility, and being respectful with the environment, among others, are becoming social requirements. Corporations are expected to fulfill them and, according to empirical evidence, an overwhelming majority aspires to good social valuation. At the same time, the maximization of market share value in the long run continues to be the central corporate goal. Making environmental and social expenses compatible with value creation is a central challenge for corporations since it implies the financial sustainability of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The value creation capacity of CSR projects, mainly through innovation, is widely acknowledged in economic literature and corporate practice. This fact arouses the need of having a quantitative framework capable of summarizing the value creation capacity of the variables involved in CSR projects. With this aim we build up a sensitivity analysis of real option ratios that studies and quantifies the value creation capacity of CSR projects connected with innovation. Ratio analysis has the advantage of being scale independent. Hence, it furnishes a homogeneous framework to express the interaction of value creation variables and, thus, supports strategic thinking quantitatively. Often, CSR expenses can be regarded as preliminary projects that create the opportunity to undertake a full future project. For them, we obtain the minimum expectations scenario that makes financially sustainable a preliminary project that can be interpreted as a call option. We propose a classification of CSR projects from the decision analysis perspective following a two-fold approach: Their relationship with value creation and their links with existing corporate activities. This classification of CSR projects aims at contributing to choose the best capital budgeting method to study the financial sustainability of the project and identifying those CSR projects

  15. Assessing the potential additionality of certification by the Round table on Responsible Soybeans and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Rachael D.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Rueda, Ximena; Noojipady, Praveen

    2016-04-01

    Multi-stakeholder roundtables offering certification programs are promising voluntary governance mechanisms to address sustainability issues associated with international agricultural supply chains. Yet, little is known about whether roundtable certifications confer additionality, the benefits of certification beyond what would be expected from policies and practices currently in place. Here, we examine the potential additionality of the Round table on Responsible Soybeans (RTRS) and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in mitigating conversion of native vegetation to cropland. We develop a metric of additionality based on business as usual land cover change dynamics and roundtable standard stringency relative to existing policies. We apply this metric to all countries with RTRS (n = 8) and RSPO (n = 12) certified production in 2013-2014, as well as countries that have no certified production but are among the top ten global producers in terms of soy (n = 2) and oil palm (n = 2). We find RSPO and RTRS both have substantially higher levels of stringency than existing national policies except in Brazil and Uruguay. In regions where these certification standards are adopted, the mean estimated rate of tree cover conversion to the target crop is similar for both standards. RTRS has higher mean relative stringency than the RSPO, yet RSPO countries have slightly higher enforcement levels. Therefore, mean potential additionality of RTRS and RSPO is similar across regions. Notably, countries with the highest levels of additionality have some adoption. However, with extremely low adoption rates (0.41% of 2014 global harvested area), RTRS likely has lower impact than RSPO (14%). Like most certification programs, neither roundtable is effectively targeting smallholder producers. To improve natural ecosystem protection, roundtables could target adoption to regions with low levels of environmental governance and high rates of forest-to-cropland conversion.

  16. 2. Quality Protein Maize Response to Nitrogen Rate and Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    result in corresponding increase in yield nor net benefit to merit the extra cost that may be incurred. From the study, application of 90 kg N/ha to hybrid ... maize in developing countries is produced under low N conditions (McCown et al., ... technical packages to increase and sustain agricultural production must be affordable,.

  17. Response of Fuel Subsidy Removal as Sustainable Transport Policy (Case Study: Workers in Jakarta Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octaviani Ariyanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motorization in urban areas contributes several problems such as congestion, accidents, gas emissions, noises, and infrastructure breakage. Meanwhile, most of the developing countries cannot overcome such growth activities, as well as in Jakarta. By December 2013, Vice Governor of Jakarta proposes fuel subsidy removal policy as one of sustainable transport policy. This study is intended to understand and investigate how fuel subsidy removal policy scenarios (25%, 50%, and 100% in Jakarta affects travelers’ behavior and analyze such policy to support sustainable transport by using qualitative research methodology. Interviews and questionnaires survey is conducted to workers in Jakarta, which includes ranking scale question for traveler response options. The result shows that half of the respondents are not affected and will only respond to fuel price increasing at IDR 31,400 for gasoline price and IDR 26,300 for ADO (Auto Diesel Oil. Moreover, there is a tendency of respondent's to the response by changing their travel mode choices into more fuel efficient private vehicle.

  18. Exchange rate volatility and oil prices shocks and its impact on economic sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of exchange rate volatility has received a great attention from the last century, its importance is certain in all sectors of the economy and it affects welfare as well as social life of the economy. Exchange rate between two currencies tells the value of one currency in terms of others one. Depreciation/Appreciation of exchange rate affects economic growth in terms of trade and shifts income to/from exporting countries from/to importing countries. The factors affecting exchange rate are inflation, interest rate, foreign direct investment, government consumption expenditure and balance of trade. This research study examines the impact of oil prices and exchange rate volatility on economic growth in Germany based on 40-year annual data. Cointegration technique is applied to check the impact of macroeconomic variables on exchange rate in the long run and short run. It is estimated that imports, exports, inflation, interest rate, government consumption expenditure and foreign direct investment had significant impacts on real effective exchange rate in the long run and short run. Sin addition, Engle Granger results indicate that relationship was significant for the long run and its error correction adjustment mechanism (ECM in short a run is significant and correctly signed for Germany.

  19. Venipuncture procedure affects heart rate variability and chronotropic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Esco, Michael R; E Bechke, Emily; Feito, Yuri; M Williamson, Cassie; Brown, Danielle; Price, Brandi

    2017-10-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to be influenced by several factors such as noise, sleep status, light, and emotional arousal; however, little evidence is available concerning autonomic responses to a venipuncture. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of HRV indexes and heart rate (HR) during and following a venipuncture procedure among healthy individuals. 33 healthy individuals (22.8 ± 0.56 years, 167 ± 1.56 cm, 69.5 ± 2.61 kg) participated. Testing included 10-minute HRV analysis prior to the venipuncture, a 1-minute venipuncture procedure followed by a 10-minute analysis of HRV, and a total recording of 21 minutes. The first 5 minutes of the 21-minute recordings were discarded, and the remaining 5 minutes of the resting segment was analyzed (PRE), and the last 5 minutes of the 21-minute recording (POST). The log transformation of the time domain root mean squared of successive differences (lnRMSSD) and the frequency domains of high frequency (lnHF) and low frequency (lnLF) and LF/HF ratio (lnLF/HF) were used to quantify autonomic activity. HR was measured in 1-minute segments at 2 minutes prior (PRE), venipuncture (STICK), and post (P1-5). HR significantly increased at STICK (P = 0.002), and fell below resting at P-5 (P < 0.001). lnRMSSD and lnHF increased significantly by POST (P < 0.001, P = 0.005). lnLF/HF ratio significantly decreased at POST (P = 0.047), while no significant changes occurred for lnLF (P = 0.590). HRV and HR are influenced for 10 minutes following the venipuncture procedure. Practitioners and researchers who are interested in collecting blood and measuring HRV need to account for the influence of the venipuncture. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Vitamin D Deficiency Reduces the Immune Response, Phagocytosis Rate, and Intracellular Killing Rate of Microglial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Marie Luise; Schütze, Sandra; Redlich, Sandra; Götz, Alexander; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Bertsch, Thomas; Ribes, Sandra; Hanenberg, Andrea; Schneider, Simon; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel; Nau, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression of T-cell proliferation, but its influence on microglial cells is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the phagocytosis rate, intracellular killing, and immune response of murine microglial cultures after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (TLR1/2), poly(I·C) (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9). Upon stimulation with high concentrations of TLR agonists, the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was decreased in vitamin D-deficient compared to that in vitamin D-sufficient microglial cultures. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 after stimulation of microglial cells with high concentrations of TLR3, -4, and -9 agonists and intracellular killing of E. coli K1 after stimulation with high concentrations of all TLR agonists were lower in vitamin D-deficient microglial cells than in the respective control cells. Our observations suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair the resistance of the brain against bacterial infections. PMID:24686054

  1. Orientation-specific responses to sustained uniaxial stretching in focal adhesion growth and turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Pasapera, Ana M.; Koretsky, Alan P.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2013-01-01

    Cells are mechanosensitive to extracellular matrix (ECM) deformation, which can be caused by muscle contraction or changes in hydrostatic pressure. Focal adhesions (FAs) mediate the linkage between the cell and the ECM and initiate mechanically stimulated signaling events. We developed a stretching apparatus in which cells grown on fibronectin-coated elastic substrates can be stretched and imaged live to study how FAs dynamically respond to ECM deformation. Human bone osteosarcoma epithelial cell line U2OS was transfected with GFP-paxillin as an FA marker and subjected to sustained uniaxial stretching. Two responses at different timescales were observed: rapid FA growth within seconds after stretching, and delayed FA disassembly and loss of cell polarity that occurred over tens of minutes. Rapid FA growth occurred in all cells; however, delayed responses to stretch occurred in an orientation-specific manner, specifically in cells with their long axes perpendicular to the stretching direction, but not in cells with their long axes parallel to stretch. Pharmacological treatments demonstrated that FA kinase (FAK) promotes but Src inhibits rapid FA growth, whereas FAK, Src, and calpain 2 all contribute to delayed FA disassembly and loss of polarity in cells perpendicular to stretching. Immunostaining for phospho-FAK after stretching revealed that FAK activation was maximal at 5 s after stretching, specifically in FAs oriented perpendicular to stretch. We hypothesize that orientation-specific activation of strain/stress-sensitive proteins in FAs upstream to FAK and Src promote orientation-specific responses in FA growth and disassembly that mediate polarity rearrangement in response to sustained stretch. PMID:23754369

  2. Hydro/Engineering Geophysical Parameters and Design Response Spectrum for Sustainable Development in Ras Muhammed National Park, Sinai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed H.; Gamal, Mohamed A.

    2016-06-01

    The Egyptian government is preparing a sustainable development master plan for the Ras Muhammed National Park (RMNP), south Sinai. Noteworthy, the scarcity of the freshwater resources and close proximity to the active seismic zones of the Gulf of Aqaba implicate geophysical investigations for the fresh groundwater aquifers and construct a design response spectrum, respectively. Accordingly, 14 VESs, hydro/engineering geophysical analysis, pumping tests, downhole seismic test, a design response spectrum for buildings, and borehole data were carried out in the study area. The unconfined freshwater aquifer was effectively depicted with true resistivities, thickness, and EC ranged from 56 to 135 Ω m, 11 to 112 m, and 1.4 to 7.1 mS/m, respectively. The Northeastern part was characterized by higher aquifer potentiality, where coarser grains size, highest thickness (112 m), high true resistivity (135 Ω m), groundwater flow (0.074 m3/day), tortuosity (1.293-1.312), formation resistivity factor (4.1-4.6), and storativity (0.281-0.276). An increase in pumping rate was accompanied by an increase in well loss, increase in aquifer losses, decrease in well specific capacity, and decrease in well efficiency. Design response spectrum prognosticated the short buildings (<7 floors) in RMNP to be suffering from a high peak horizontal acceleration and shear forces for acceleration between 0.25 and 0.35 g. Therefore, appropriate detailing of shear reinforcement is indispensable to reduce the risk of structural damages at RMNP.

  3. Influence of Treg cells and HBV genotype on sustained response and drug resistance in the treatment with nucleoside drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y R; Li, B; Wang, C X; Zhou, N; Qi, W; Li, X L; Wu, L Y; Wei, S F; Zhang, Y D

    2017-03-02

    We aimed to investigate the influence of regulatory T cells including CD4+CD25+, CD8+CD28- and hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype on sustained virological response and tolerance of nucleoside drugs. One hundred and thirty-seven patients were enrolled. Lamivudine was administered to 84 patients. Entecavir was administered to the other 53 patients. Before treatment, biochemical tests, HBV DNA load, HBV serum level, HBV genotype, PB CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+CD25+/CD3+, and CD8+CD28-/CD3+ frequencies were measured. Based on HBV DNA loads after 4 weeks of therapy, patients were divided into response group and suboptimal response group. The lamivudine group received treatment continuously, and then patients were categorized into non-resistance group and resistance group. Compared with the suboptimal response and resistance groups for lamivudine, CD4+CD25+/CD3+ levels were higher in the response and non-resistance groups (t=4.372, P=0.046; t=7.262, P=0.017). In the non-resistance group, CD8+CD28-/CD3+ frequency was lower than in the resistance group (t=5.527, P=0.037). Virus load and hepatitis B E antigen (HBeAg)-positive rate were significantly lower than in the response and resistance group (t=2.164, P=0.038; X2=4.239, P=0.040; t=2.015, P=0.044; X2=16.2, P=0.000). Incidence of drug resistance was high in patients with virogene type C. For the virological response to entecavir, CD8+CD28-/CD3+ level was significantly lower than that of the suboptimal response group (t=6.283, P=0.036). Response and suboptimal response groups were compared in CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+CD25+/CD3+ and virus genotype, and differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Baseline regulatory T cells including CD4+CD25+/CD3+ and CD8+CD28-/CD3+ frequencies have a relationship with the incidence of rapid virological response and the resistance to nucleoside drugs. Patients with HBV genotype C receiving lamivudine more often underwent drug resistance. Antiviral efficacy and the resistance to

  4. Influence of Treg cells and HBV genotype on sustained response and drug resistance in the treatment with nucleoside drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.R. Zhang

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the influence of regulatory T cells including CD4+CD25+, CD8+CD28- and hepatitis B virus (HBV genotype on sustained virological response and tolerance of nucleoside drugs. One hundred and thirty-seven patients were enrolled. Lamivudine was administered to 84 patients. Entecavir was administered to the other 53 patients. Before treatment, biochemical tests, HBV DNA load, HBV serum level, HBV genotype, PB CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+CD25+/CD3+, and CD8+CD28-/CD3+ frequencies were measured. Based on HBV DNA loads after 4 weeks of therapy, patients were divided into response group and suboptimal response group. The lamivudine group received treatment continuously, and then patients were categorized into non-resistance group and resistance group. Compared with the suboptimal response and resistance groups for lamivudine, CD4+CD25+/CD3+ levels were higher in the response and non-resistance groups (t=4.372, P=0.046; t=7.262, P=0.017. In the non-resistance group, CD8+CD28-/CD3+ frequency was lower than in the resistance group (t=5.527, P=0.037. Virus load and hepatitis B E antigen (HBeAg-positive rate were significantly lower than in the response and resistance group (t=2.164, P=0.038; X2=4.239, P=0.040; t=2.015, P=0.044; X2=16.2, P=0.000. Incidence of drug resistance was high in patients with virogene type C. For the virological response to entecavir, CD8+CD28-/CD3+ level was significantly lower than that of the suboptimal response group (t=6.283, P=0.036. Response and suboptimal response groups were compared in CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+CD25+/CD3+ and virus genotype, and differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05. Baseline regulatory T cells including CD4+CD25+/CD3+ and CD8+CD28-/CD3+ frequencies have a relationship with the incidence of rapid virological response and the resistance to nucleoside drugs. Patients with HBV genotype C receiving lamivudine more often underwent drug resistance. Antiviral efficacy and the

  5. Durable and sustained immune tolerance to ERT in Pompe disease with entrenched immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Zoheb B; Prater, Sean N; Kobori, Joyce A; Viskochil, David; Bailey, Carrie; Gera, Renuka; Stockton, David W; McIntosh, Paul; Rosenberg, Amy S; Kishnani, Priya S

    2016-07-21

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has prolonged survival and improved clinical outcomes in patients with infantile Pompe disease (IPD), a rapidly progressive neuromuscular disorder. Yet marked interindividual variability in response to ERT, primarily attributable to the development of antibodies to ERT, remains an ongoing challenge. Immune tolerance to ongoing ERT has yet to be described in the setting of an entrenched immune response. Three infantile Pompe patients who developed high and sustained rhGAA IgG antibody titers (HSAT) and received a bortezomib-based immune tolerance induction (ITI) regimen were included in the study and were followed longitudinally to monitor the long-term safety and efficacy. A trial to taper the ITI protocol was attempted to monitor if true immune tolerance was achieved. Bortezomib-based ITI protocol was safely tolerated and led to a significant decline in rhGAA antibody titers with concomitant sustained clinical improvement. Two of the 3 IPD patients were successfully weaned off all ITI protocol medications and continue to maintain low/no antibody titers. ITI protocol was significantly tapered in the third IPD patient. B cell recovery was observed in all 3 IPD patients. This is the first report to our knowledge on successful induction of long-term immune tolerance in patients with IPD and HSAT refractory to agents such as cyclophosphamide, rituximab, and methotrexate, based on an approach using the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. As immune responses limit the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of therapy for many conditions, proteasome inhibitors may have new therapeutic applications. This research was supported by a grant from the Genzyme Corporation, a Sanofi Company (Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA), and in part by the Lysosomal Disease Network, a part of NIH Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN).

  6. How Many Responses Do We Need? Using Generalizability Analysis to Estimate Minimum Necessary Response Rates for Online Student Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbase, Margaret W; Germond, Michèle; Cerutti, Bernard; Vu, Nu V; Baroffio, Anne

    2015-01-01

    CONSTRUCT: The study compares paper and online ratings of instructional units and analyses, with the G-study using the symmetry principle, the response rates needed to ensure acceptable precision of the measure when compliance is low. Students' ratings of teaching contribute to the quality of medical training programs. To date, many schools have replaced pen-and-paper questionnaires with electronic forms, despite the lower response rates consistently reported with the latter. Few available studies have examined the effects of low response rates on the reliability and precision of the evaluation measure. Moreover, the minimum number of raters to target when response rates are low remains unclear. Descriptive data were derived from 799 students' paper and online ratings of 11 preclinical instructional units (PIUs). Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The generalizability method applying the symmetry principle approach was used to analyze the precision of the measure with a reference standard error of mean (SEM) set at 0.10; optimization models were built to estimate minimum response rates. Overall, response rates were 74% and 30% (p Higher SEM levels and significantly larger 95% confidence intervals of PIUs rating scores were observed with online evaluations. To keep the SEM within preset limits of precision, a minimum of 48% response rate was estimated for online formats. The proposed generalizability analysis allowed estimating the minimum response needed to maintain acceptable precision in online evaluations. The effects of response rates on accuracy are discussed.

  7. Functional difference between sustained and transient modulations of cognitive control in the simon task: evidence from false alarm responses on no-go trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Shin'ya

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control in response compatibility tasks is modulated by the task context. Two types of contextual modulations have been demonstrated; sustained (block-wise) and transient (trial-by-trial). Recent research suggests that these modulations have different underlying mechanisms. This study presents new evidence supporting this claim by comparing false alarm (FA) responses on no-go trials of the Simon task between the sustained and transient contexts. In Experiment 1, the sustained context was manipulated so that a block included a larger number of incongruent trials. Results showed that participants made more FA responses by the hand opposite to the stimulus location. This suggests a generation of response bias in which the task-irrelevant location information is utilized in a reversed manner (i.e., to respond with the right hand to a stimulus presented on the left side and vice versa). Next, Experiment 2 examined the effect of the transient context and found that overall FA rate was lower when a no-go trial was preceded by an incongruent trial than by a congruent trial, whereas such response bias as that shown in Experiment 1 was not demonstrated. This suggests that the transient conflict context enhances inhibition of the task-irrelevant process but does not make the task-irrelevant information actively usable. Based on these results, we propound two types of cognitive control modulations as adaptive behaviors: response biasing based on utilization of the task-irrelevant information under the sustained conflict context and transient enhancement of inhibition of the task-irrelevant process based on the online conflict monitoring.

  8. Policy strategies to address sustainability of Alaskan boreal forests in response to a directionally changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F Stuart; Lovecraft, Amy L; Zavaleta, Erika S; Nelson, Joanna; Robards, Martin D; Kofinas, Gary P; Trainor, Sarah F; Peterson, Garry D; Huntington, Henry P; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2006-11-07

    Human activities are altering many factors that determine the fundamental properties of ecological and social systems. Is sustainability a realistic goal in a world in which many key process controls are directionally changing? To address this issue, we integrate several disparate sources of theory to address sustainability in directionally changing social-ecological systems, apply this framework to climate-warming impacts in Interior Alaska, and describe a suite of policy strategies that emerge from these analyses. Climate warming in Interior Alaska has profoundly affected factors that influence landscape processes (climate regulation and disturbance spread) and natural hazards, but has only indirectly influenced ecosystem goods such as food, water, and wood that receive most management attention. Warming has reduced cultural services provided by ecosystems, leading to some of the few institutional responses that directly address the causes of climate warming, e.g., indigenous initiatives to the Arctic Council. Four broad policy strategies emerge: (i) enhancing human adaptability through learning and innovation in the context of changes occurring at multiple scales; (ii) increasing resilience by strengthening negative (stabilizing) feedbacks that buffer the system from change and increasing options for adaptation through biological, cultural, and economic diversity; (iii) reducing vulnerability by strengthening institutions that link the high-latitude impacts of climate warming to their low-latitude causes; and (iv) facilitating transformation to new, potentially more beneficial states by taking advantage of opportunities created by crisis. Each strategy provides societal benefits, and we suggest that all of them be pursued simultaneously.

  9. [Sustainability and excellence of the Catalan health system. New paradigms, challenges and responses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández i Alegre, Roser; Argenter i Giralt, Miquel; Rodríguez i Guasch, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    The aim of a health system and the priority of any government is to anticipate problems before they appear, provide an innovative response to these new needs and healthcare models, improve access of the general public and patients to health care, especially care for the most vulnerable groups, improve healthcare results and implement the structural reforms necessary to maintain a viable and sustainable quality public healthcare system for everyone. In the current environment, health systems are facing new economic, demographic, care, social, technological and political paradigms to which health policy must respond. Faced with these challenges, health systems, especially in the case of Catalonia, are challenged to take decisions on how best to approach the implementation of structural reform designed to facilitate the necessary economic and fiscal sustainability in the service of fresh and innovative health policies and patient-centred care within a system marked by excellence and equity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Variety and sustainability of volcanic lakes: Response to subaqueous thermal activity predicted by a numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Akihiko; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    We use a numerical model to investigate the factors that control the presence or absence of a hot crater lake at an active volcano. We find that given a suitable pair of parameters (e.g., the enthalpy of subaqueous fumaroles and the ratio of mass flux of the fluid input at the lake bottom to lake surface area), hot crater lakes can be sustained on relatively long timescales. Neither a high rate of precipitation nor an impermeable layer beneath the lake bottom are always necessary for long-term sustainability. The two controlling parameters affect various hydrological properties of crater lakes, including temperature, chemical concentrations, and temporal variations in water levels. In the case of low-temperature crater lakes, increases in flux and enthalpy, which are a common precursor to phreatic or phreatomagmatic eruptions, result in an increase in both temperature and water level. In contrast, a decrease in water level accompanied by a rise in temperature occurs at high-temperature lakes. Furthermore, our model suggests that crater geometry is a key control on water temperature. For lakes with a conical topography, a perturbation in the water level due to trivial nonvolcanic activity, such as low levels of precipitation, can cause persistent increases in water temperature and chemical concentrations, and a decrease in the water level, even though subaqueous fumarolic activity does not change. Such changes in hot crater lakes which are not caused by changes in volcanic activity resemble the volcanic unrest that precedes eruptions.

  11. Sustained virologic response following HCV eradication in two brothers with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Houlihan, Diarmaid D

    2009-08-21

    X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) is a humoral immunodeficiency syndrome characterized from childhood by the absence of circulating B lymphocytes, absent or reduced levels of serum immunoglobulin and recurrent bacterial infections. For many affected patients, regular treatment with immunoglobulin is life saving. Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection acquired through contaminated blood products is widely described in this patient cohort. The natural history of HCV infection in patients with XLA tends to follow a more rapid and aggressive course compared to immunocompetent individuals. Furthermore, standard anti-viral therapy appears to be less efficacious in this patient cohort. Here we report the cases of two brothers with XLA who contracted HCV through contaminated blood products. They were treated with a six month course of Interferon alpha-2b and Ribavirin. We report a sustained virologic response five years after completing treatment.

  12. Assessment of soil sealing management responses, strategies, and targets toward ecologically sustainable urban land use management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artmann, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Soil sealing has negative impacts on ecosystem services since urban green and soil get lost. Although there is political commitment to stop further sealing, no reversal of this trend can be observed in Europe. This paper raises the questions (1) which strategies can be regarded as being efficient toward ecologically sustainable management of urban soil sealing and (2) who has competences and should take responsibility to steer soil sealing? The analyses are conducted in Germany. The assessment of strategies is carried out using indicators as part of a content analysis. Legal-planning, informal-planning, economic-fiscal, co-operative, and informational strategies are analyzed. Results show that there is a sufficient basis of strategies to secure urban ecosystem services by protecting urban green and reducing urban gray where microclimate regulation is a main target. However, soil sealing management lacks a spatial strategically overview as well as the consideration of services provided by fertile soils.

  13. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Watson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts—support by the administration (authorization or from students’ peers (endorsement—as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students’ environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs. Using survey data collected from fourth-year students at a university in the Southeastern US, we employ Seeming Unrelated Regression to analyze the impact of perceived legitimacy and context on recycling and conservation behaviors, controlling for demographic characteristics, pro-environmental attitudes, and environmental identity. Our findings indicate that students’ perceptions of what university administrators support affect the likelihood of students to enact recycling and conservation behaviors, and peer support influences conservation behaviors. This research contributes to the literature on legitimacy by examining how legitimacy processes work in natural, rather than experimental, settings.

  14. Sustainable systems rating program: Marketing Green'' Building in Austin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    Four major resource issues for home construction were identified: water, energy, materials, and waste. A systems flow model was then developed that tracked the resource issues through interactive matrices in the areas of sourcing, processing, using, and disposing or recycling. This model served as the basis for a rating system used in an educational and marketing tool called the Eco-Home Guide.

  15. Incorporating Human Rights into the Sustainability Agenda: A Commentary on "Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights and Business Schools' Responsibility to Teach It"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Jane

    2013-01-01

    In her commentary of McPhail's 2013 article "Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights and Business Schools' Responsibility to Teach It: Incorporating Human Rights into the Sustainability Agenda," Jane Andrew begins by highlighting a number of McPhail's primary arguments. She points out that McPhail sets out to achieve two things…

  16. Effects of Personalization and Invitation Email Length on Web-Based Survey Response Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trespalacios, Jesús H.; Perkins, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Individual strategies to increase response rate and survey completion have been extensively researched. Recently, efforts have been made to investigate a combination of interventions to yield better response rates for web-based surveys. This study examined the effects of four different survey invitation conditions on response rate. From a large…

  17. Comparing Response Rates in E-Mail and Paper Surveys: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tse-Hua; Fan, Xitao

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined 35 study results within last 10 years that directly compared the response rates of e-mail versus mail surveys. Individual studies reported inconsistent findings concerning the response rate difference between e-mail and mail surveys, but e-mail surveys generally have lower response rate (about 20% lower on the average)…

  18. Mobilising sustainable local government revenue in Ghana: modelling property rates and business taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel B Biitir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Property rates and business operating license fees constitute the major revenue sources for local government authorities. Accurate assessment of these revenues enhances the revenue base and effectiveness of their generation. Assessment of property rates and business operating license fees have been identified as one of the limiting factors that inhibit the revenue potential of local government authorities. Assessment must obey the principles of taxation such as efficiency, equity and fairness, adequacy, administrative feasibility and political acceptability. Over the years, the Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolitan Assembly (STMA acknowledges that, it has had problems in ensuring equity and fairness in the assessment of property rates and business operating license fees. The paper reports on a computer modelling study carried out to introduce measure to ensure equity and fairness in assessing tax objects. A computer application has been developed with quantitative measures to evaluate and assess equity in tax assessment. A test run of the system has been successful and a pilot test is currently being implemented by STMA.

  19. PENGARUH PROFIT MARGIN, ASSETS TURNOVER DAN LEVERAGE TERHADAP SUSTAINABLE GROWTH RATE PADA PERUSAHAAN SEKTOR JASA YANG TERDAFTAR DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA PERIODE 2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arim Nasim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of Profit Margin, Assets Turnover and Leverage on Sustainable Growth Rate. The variables used are profit margin, asset turnover and leverage as independent variable and sustainable growth rate as dependent variable. This study also aims to describe the state of profit margin projected by Net Profit Margin (NPM, asset turnover proxied by Total Assets Turnover (TATO, leverage which is proxied by Debt to Equity Ratio (DER and Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR Service sector. This research was conducted on service sector companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange 2010-2012.Data obtained from website Bursa Efek Indonesia.Teknik data analysis used is multiple linear regression and use t-statistics to test the influence of each independent variable to variable Dependent partially.Previously done classical assumption test that includes data normality test, multicolinierity test, heteroskedastisitas test and autocorrelation test.Based on data normality test, multicolinierity test, heteroscedasticity test and autocorrelation test did not found any variables that deviate from the classical assumption.From the results of research Shows that profit margin positively affect sustainable growth rate, asset turnover have positive effect to sustainable growth rate, and leverage have positive effect to sustainable growth rate.

  20. Various predictors of sustained virologic response in different age groups of patients with genotype-1 chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yen; Sheen, I-Shyan; Chen, Ji-Yih; Huang, Chang-Wen; Huang, Chien-Hao; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Chen, Wei-Ting

    2013-10-01

    Age is one of the sustained virologic response (SVR) predictors for genotype-1 chronic hepatitis C patients treated with pegylated interferon-α/ribavirin. However, variation of SVR predictors in different age groups was not explored before. We therefore conducted this study for investigating this issue. We retrospectively analyzed 265 genotype-1 chronic hepatitis C patients who received pegylated interferon-α/ribavirin treatment. These patients were divided into 3 age groups. Clinical parameters including the genotype of rs12979860 were analyzed. SVR rate was highest in patients younger than 45 years and lowest in patients older than 65 years even through propensity score matching analysis. As for rapid virologic response (RVR) predictors, genotype of rs12979860 was the predictor for the patients younger than 45 years and patients aged between 45 and 65 years, but no RVR predictor was found for patients older than 65 years. As for the SVR predictors, HbA1c, baseline viral load, and RVR but not genotype of rs12979860 were the predictors in patients younger than 45 years. For patients between 45 and 65 years, the predictors for SVR were liver fibrosis, genotype of rs12979860, and RVR. For patients older than 65 years, RVR was the only predictor for SVR. SVR predictors are various in different age groups. RVR is the SVR predictor for all age groups, but the genotype of rs12979860 is the SVR predictor only for patients with age between 45 and 65 years but not younger or older patients.

  1. A randomised trial and economic evaluation of the effect of response mode on response rate, response bias, and item non-response in a survey of doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Anthony; Jeon, Sung-Hee; Joyce, Catherine M; Humphreys, John S; Kalb, Guyonne; Witt, Julia; Leahy, Anne

    2011-09-05

    Surveys of doctors are an important data collection method in health services research. Ways to improve response rates, minimise survey response bias and item non-response, within a given budget, have not previously been addressed in the same study. The aim of this paper is to compare the effects and costs of three different modes of survey administration in a national survey of doctors. A stratified random sample of 4.9% (2,702/54,160) of doctors undertaking clinical practice was drawn from a national directory of all doctors in Australia. Stratification was by four doctor types: general practitioners, specialists, specialists-in-training, and hospital non-specialists, and by six rural/remote categories. A three-arm parallel trial design with equal randomisation across arms was used. Doctors were randomly allocated to: online questionnaire (902); simultaneous mixed mode (a paper questionnaire and login details sent together) (900); or, sequential mixed mode (online followed by a paper questionnaire with the reminder) (900). Analysis was by intention to treat, as within each primary mode, doctors could choose either paper or online. Primary outcome measures were response rate, survey response bias, item non-response, and cost. The online mode had a response rate 12.95%, followed by the simultaneous mixed mode with 19.7%, and the sequential mixed mode with 20.7%. After adjusting for observed differences between the groups, the online mode had a 7 percentage point lower response rate compared to the simultaneous mixed mode, and a 7.7 percentage point lower response rate compared to sequential mixed mode. The difference in response rate between the sequential and simultaneous modes was not statistically significant. Both mixed modes showed evidence of response bias, whilst the characteristics of online respondents were similar to the population. However, the online mode had a higher rate of item non-response compared to both mixed modes. The total cost of the online

  2. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  3. Angiotensin II AT1 receptors mediate neuronal sensitization and sustained blood pressure response induced by a single injection of amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, N A; Paz, M C; Caeiro, X; Dadam, F M; Baiardi, G; Perez, M F; Bregonzio, C

    2017-01-06

    A single exposure to amphetamine induces neurochemical sensitization in striatal areas. The neuropeptide angiotensin II, through AT1 receptors (AT1-R) activation, is involved in these responses. However, amphetamine-induced alterations can be extended to extra-striatal areas involved in blood pressure control and their physiological outcomes. Our aim for the present study was to analyze the possible role for AT1-R in these events using a two-injection protocol and to further characterize the proposed AT1-R antagonism protocol. Central effect of orally administered AT1-R blocker (Candesartan, 3mg/kg p.o.×5days) in male Wistar rats was analyzed by spontaneous activity of neurons within locus coeruleus. In another group of animals pretreated with the AT1-R blocker or vehicle, sensitization was achieved by a single administration of amphetamine (5mg/kg i.p. - day 6) followed by a 3-week period off drug. On day 27, after receiving an amphetamine challenge (0.5mg/kg i.p.), we evaluated: (1) the sensitized c-Fos expression in locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), caudal ventrolateral medulla (A1) and central amygdala (CeAmy); and (2) the blood pressure response. AT1-R blockade decreased LC neurons' spontaneous firing rate. Moreover, sensitized c-Fos immunoreactivity in TH+neurons was found in LC and NTS; and both responses were blunted by the AT1-R blocker pretreatment. Meanwhile, no differences were found neither in CeAmy nor A1. Sensitized blood pressure response was observed as sustained changes in mean arterial pressure and was effectively prevented by AT1-R blockade. Our results extend AT1-R role in amphetamine-induced sensitization over noradrenergic nuclei and their cardiovascular output. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tools of Realization of Social Responsibility of Industrial Business for Sustainable Socio-economic Development of Mining Region's Rural Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurzina, Tatyana; Egorova, Natalia; Zaruba, Natalia; Kosinskij, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Modern conditions of the Russian economy do especially relevant questions of social responsibility of industrial business of the mining region for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories that demands search of the new strategy, tools, ways for positioning and increase in competitiveness of the enterprises, which are carrying out the entrepreneurial activity in this territory. The article opens problems of an influence of the industrial enterprises on the territory of presence, reasons the theoretical base directed to the formation of practical tools (mechanism) providing realization of social responsibility of business for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories of the mining region.

  5. Sustained Magnetic Responses in Temporal Cortex Reflect Instantaneous Significance of Approaching and Receding Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik R Bach

    Full Text Available Rising sound intensity often signals an approaching sound source and can serve as a powerful warning cue, eliciting phasic attention, perception biases and emotional responses. How the evaluation of approaching sounds unfolds over time remains elusive. Here, we capitalised on the temporal resolution of magnetoencephalograpy (MEG to investigate in humans a dynamic encoding of perceiving approaching and receding sounds. We compared magnetic responses to intensity envelopes of complex sounds to those of white noise sounds, in which intensity change is not perceived as approaching. Sustained magnetic fields over temporal sensors tracked intensity change in complex sounds in an approximately linear fashion, an effect not seen for intensity change in white noise sounds, or for overall intensity. Hence, these fields are likely to track approach/recession, but not the apparent (instantaneous distance of the sound source, or its intensity as such. As a likely source of this activity, the bilateral inferior temporal gyrus and right temporo-parietal junction emerged. Our results indicate that discrete temporal cortical areas parametrically encode behavioural significance in moving sound sources where the signal unfolded in a manner reminiscent of evidence accumulation. This may help an understanding of how acoustic percepts are evaluated as behaviourally relevant, where our results highlight a crucial role of cortical areas.

  6. Sustained negative BOLD response in human fMRI finger tapping task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Liu

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the sustained negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response (sNBR using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a finger tapping task. We observed that the sNBR for this task was more extensive than has previously been reported. The cortical regions involved in sNBR are divided into the following three groups: frontal, somatosensory and occipital. By investigating the spatial structure, area, amplitude, and dynamics of the sNBR in comparison with those of its positive BOLD response (PBR counterpart, we made the following observations. First, among the three groups, the somatosensory group contained the greatest number of activated voxels and the fewest deactivated voxels. In addition, the amplitude of the sNBR in this group was the smallest among the three groups. Second, the onset and peak time of the sNBR are both larger than those of the PBR, whereas the falling edge time of the sNBR is less than that of the PBR. Third, the long distance between most sNBR foci and their corresponding PBR foci makes it unlikely that they share the same blood supply artery. Fourth, the couplings between the sNBR and its PBR counterpart are distinct among different regions and thus should be investigated separately. These findings imply that the origin of most sNBR foci in the finger-tapping task is much more likely to be neuronal activity suppression rather than "blood steal."

  7. Initial and sustained brain responses to threat anticipation in blood-injection-injury phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Brinkmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-injection-injury (BII phobia differs from other subtypes of specific phobia in that it is associated with elevated disgust-sensitivity as well as specific autonomic and brain responses during processing of phobia-relevant stimuli. To what extent these features play a role already during threat anticipation is unclear. In the current fMRI experiment, 16 female BII phobics and 16 female healthy controls anticipated the presentation of phobia-specific and neutral pictures. On the behavioral level, anxiety dominated the anticipatory period in BII phobics relative to controls, while both anxiety and disgust were elevated during picture presentation. By applying two different models for the analysis of brain responses to anticipation of phobia-specific versus neutral stimuli, we found initial and sustained increases of activation in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, insula, lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC, thalamus and visual areas, as well as initial activation in the amygdala for BII phobics as compared to healthy controls. These results suggest that BII phobia is characterized by activation of a typical neural defense network during threat anticipation, with anxiety as the predominant emotion.

  8. Initial and sustained brain responses to threat anticipation in blood-injection-injury phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Leonie; Poller, Hendrik; Herrmann, Martin J; Miltner, Wolfgang; Straube, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia differs from other subtypes of specific phobia in that it is associated with elevated disgust-sensitivity as well as specific autonomic and brain responses during processing of phobia-relevant stimuli. To what extent these features play a role already during threat anticipation is unclear. In the current fMRI experiment, 16 female BII phobics and 16 female healthy controls anticipated the presentation of phobia-specific and neutral pictures. On the behavioral level, anxiety dominated the anticipatory period in BII phobics relative to controls, while both anxiety and disgust were elevated during picture presentation. By applying two different models for the analysis of brain responses to anticipation of phobia-specific versus neutral stimuli, we found initial and sustained increases of activation in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), thalamus and visual areas, as well as initial activation in the amygdala for BII phobics as compared to healthy controls. These results suggest that BII phobia is characterized by activation of a typical neural defense network during threat anticipation, with anxiety as the predominant emotion.

  9. Dietary fat induces sustained reward response in the human brain without primary taste cortex discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eTzieropoulos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To disentangle taste from reward responses in the human gustatory cortex, we combined high density electro-encephalography with a gustometer delivering tastant puffs to the tip of the tongue. Stimuli were pure tastants (salt solutions at two concentrations, caloric emulsions of identical taste (two milk preparations differing in fat content and a mixture of high fat milk with the lowest salt concentration. Early event-related potentials showed a dose-response effect for increased taste intensity, with higher amplitude and shorter latency for high compared to low salt concentration, but not for increased fat content. However, the amplitude and distribution of late potentials were modulated by fat content independently of reported intensity and discrimination. Neural source estimation revealed a sustained activation of reward areas to the two high-fat stimuli. The results suggest calorie detection through specific sensors on the tongue independent of perceived taste. Finally, amplitude variation of the first peak in the event-related potential to the different stimuli correlated with papilla density, suggesting a higher discrimination power for subjects with more fungiform papillae.

  10. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2014-08-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50mg/L for general reuse was 6gCOD/L/d and 0.63gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m2/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Sustained attention in mice: expanding the translational utility of the SAT by incorporating the Michigan Controlled Access Response Port (MICARP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Peters, Megan; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Bradshaw, Marc; Sarter, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Advances in mouse genetic technology have spurred increasing interest in the development of cognitive tasks for mice. Here, we describe and discuss the modifications necessary to adapt a task for the assessment of sustained attention performance for use in mice, including for taxing the top-down control of such performance. The validity of the Sustained Attention Task (SAT), including the distractor version (dSAT), has previously been demonstrated in rats and humans. This task requires moveable or retractable operanda; insertion of operanda into the operant chambers cues animals to respond to a prior signal or non-signal event, reporting either a hit or a miss, or a correct rejection or false alarm, respectively. Retractable levers did not support sufficiently high and stable levels of performance in mice. Given the widespread use of static nose-poke devices for testing operant performance in mice, we therefore designed and fabricated a retractable nose-poke device. As this device extends into chambers, a hole for nose-poking is slowly opened and closed again as the device retracts (termed the "Michigan Controlled Access Response Port", MICARP). Results describe the effects of variation of signal duration and event rate, trial outcome and trial type probability, effects of mice deprivation levels, and the reliability of SAT and dSAT performance. Mice perform the SAT and dSAT at levels comparable to those observed in rats. This task will be of assistance in expanding the translational usefulness of the SAT and dSAT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Challenges for Sustainable Development and Its Legal Response in China: A Perspective for Social Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianbao Qin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development since the 1970s, China is entering a period of social transformation, which not only creates favorable conditions for sustainable development but also presents new challenges. The transitional period in China is a stage in which two types of social transformation coexist, the first is the social transformation from agricultural society to industrial society; the second is the transition from industrial society to postindustrial society. In this process of social transformation, new challenges arise for sustainable development in China. In the first layer of social transformation, we respond to the challenges presented by the social transformation through the establishment of basic principles of environmental law, legal enforcement mechanisms, basic legal regimes and so on. In the second layer of social transformation, the advent of a risk society raised new challenges to environmental law, including that of adjusting the function of environmental law, strengthening the precautionary principle, diversification of implementation mechanisms, and development of the preventive function of legal regimes. In order to better respond to these challenges, we should proceed with the following aspects: improve the legal functions of environmental law, including guaranteeing public security, ecological security and the coordination of multiple interests; expand and develop the content of the principle of prevention, and replace the polluter pays principle by the causer responsibility principle; combine administrative measures with economic incentives, and while setting government as the main executive body, effectively operate public participation mechanisms; expand the scope of environmental impact assessment of projects, and establish planning environmental impact assessment, build up and improve information disclosure system, and establish environmental risk assessment system and green tax system.

  13. Rate of coronary flow adaptation in response to changes in heart rate before and during anesthesia for coronary artery surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wezel, H. B.; Kal, J. E.; Vergroesen, I.; Vroom, M. B.; de Graaf, R.; Dankelman, J.; Porsius, M.; Spaan, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rate of adaptation of coronary blood flow in response to stepwise changes in heart rate (HR) has been extensively studied in dogs and goats to improve our understanding of the dynamics of coronary regulation processes and their pathophysiology and to obtain time constants for

  14. Social responsibility and sustainable development: a strategy to be practice; Responsabilidade social e desenvolvimento sustentavel - estrategias que conduzem a pratica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcia Amaral Estevao dos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Said, Nagib Albuquerque [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents the strategy adopted by the Research and Development Center of PETROBRAS - CENPES to disseminate the culture of social responsibility and sustainable development. It is associated to the strategic objectives of the company and is based on the integration of diagnosis, sensibility and training actions of CENPES manpower. The objective is to promote appropriate postures toward sustainability which will be manifested from individual attitudes in daily actions inside the company - as for instance the responsible consumption of paper and water - until the election of sustainability criteria, with emphasis in the social and environmental variables that will contribute to research and basic engineer projects evaluation. The diagnosis phase considers two fundamental actions: to check the 'state of the art' of the internal culture and to map the several relationship groups or stakeholders. In the sensibility stage, the objective is to offer knowledge and information about the theme using different approaches some times continued, other times segmented, through specific and appropriate media. Finally, the training of the researchers and sustainability concepts promoter and multiplier agents will close the virtuous cycle that will lead to practice the values proposed in the social responsibility and sustainable development agenda. (author)

  15. Scrub-Oak Biomass Stimulation by CO2 Enrichment: Sustained 11 Years But Mediated by Precipitation and Contrasting Species Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, T.; Li, J.; Dijkstra, P.; Anderson, H.; Johnson, D.; Hinkle, R.; Drake, B.

    2007-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems may mitigate rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2) through increased carbon uptake and sequestration in plant biomass. Elevated CO2 commonly produces initial stimulation of photosynthesis and growth, but due primarily to complex interactions with climate related factors (i.e. water, light and nutrients), uncertainty regarding long-term biomass response persists. After 11 years of CO2 enrichment (ambient and ambient + 350 ppm) using open-top chambers, aboveground biomass stimulation was sustained in a Florida scrub-oak ecosystem, yielding a 67% increase at final harvest in June 2007. The scrub oaks Quercus geminata and Quercus myrtifolia represented 85% of total ecosystem aboveground biomass but displayed contrasting responses to elevated CO2. Q. myrtifolia showed consistent increase in shoot biomass over the course of the study (128% stimulation by elevated CO2) while shoot biomass of Q. geminata was not significantly increased (+6% difference between treatments). Both species displayed long-term mean stimulation of net leaf photosynthesis to elevated CO2 under saturated light conditions: stimulation of photosynthesis in Q. myrtifolia was nearly twice that in Q. geminata (63% and 35%, respectively). Over the course of the study, Q. geminata consistently displayed photosynthetic acclimation via reductions in maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) while Q. myrtifolia photosynthesis did not acclimate to elevated CO2. Inter-annual variation in Q. myrtifolia annual biomass increment was correlated with rainfall and elevated CO2 stimulation of absolute biomass accumulation was greatest in wet years. This effect was muted at the ecosystem level because CO2 stimulation of biomass in Q. geminata, which utilizes the water table to a greater extent than Q. myrtifolia, showed no relationship with rainfall. These advantages afforded to Q. myrtifolia by elevated CO2 produced a significant change in

  16. A sustainable model for training teachers to use pivotal response training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrheinrich, Jessica

    2015-08-01

    The increase in the rate of autism diagnoses has created a growing demand for teachers who are trained to use effective interventions. The train-the-trainer model, which involves training supervisors to train others, may be ideal for providing cost-effective training and ongoing support to teachers. Although research supports interventions, such as pivotal response training, as evidence-based, dissemination to school environments has been problematic. This study assessed the benefits of using the train-the-trainer model to disseminate pivotal response training to school settings. A multiple-baseline design was conducted across three training groups, each consisting of one school staff member (trainer), three special education teachers, and six students. Trainers conducted the teacher-training workshop with high adherence to training protocol and met mastery criteria in their ability to implement pivotal response training, assess implementation of pivotal response training, and provide feedback to teachers. Six of the nine teachers mastered all components of pivotal response training. The remaining three teachers implemented 89% of the pivotal response training components correctly. The majority of trainers and teachers maintained their abilities at follow-up. These results support the use of the train-the-trainer model as an effective method of disseminating evidence-based practices in school settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Response rates to oestrogen treatment in perimenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, P; Tofteng, Charlotte L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise women with no response or with a good response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), evaluated by change in bone mineral density (BMD). Design: Nested case-control study within a comprehensive cohort study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study...... (DOPS), perimenopausal women were allocated to either HRT or no HRT. In the present study, we included 466 women who had been treated with HRT for 5 years and 466 untreated women from the same cohort. Non-responders were women in the treatment group, who decreased in BMD more than the mean decrease...... observed in the untreated group. Good responders were women with a larger increase in BMD than the upper 95% percentile of untreated women. Baseline characteristics were evaluated as predictors of response to HRT. RESULTS: 8.4 and 5.6% were classified as non-responders, whereas 25 and 57% were good...

  18. Blackcurrant Alters Physiological Responses and Femoral Artery Diameter during Sustained Isometric Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew David Cook

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Blackcurrant is rich in anthocyanins that may affect exercise-induced physiological responses. We examined tissue oxygen saturation, muscle activity, cardiovascular responses and femoral artery diameter during a submaximal sustained isometric contraction. In a randomised, double-blind, crossover design, healthy men (n = 13, age: 25 ± 4 years, BMI: 25 ± 3 kg·m−2, mean ± SD ingested New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC extract (600 mg∙day−1 CurraNZ™ or placebo (PL for 7-days separated by 14-days washout. Participants produced isometric maximal voluntary contractions (iMVC and a 120-s 30%iMVC of the quadriceps with electromyography (EMG, near-infrared spectroscopy, hemodynamic and ultrasound recordings. There was no effect of NZBC extract on iMVC (NZBC: 654 ± 73, PL: 650 ± 78 N. During the 30%iMVC with NZBC extract, total peripheral resistance, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure were lower with increased cardiac output and stroke volume. With NZBC extract, EMG root mean square of the vastus medialis and muscle oxygen saturation were lower with higher total haemoglobin. During the 30%iMVC, femoral artery diameter was increased with NZBC extract at 30 (6.9%, 60 (8.2%, 90 (7.7% and 120 s (6.0%. Intake of NZBC extract for 7-days altered cardiovascular responses, muscle oxygen saturation, muscle activity and femoral artery diameter during a 120-s 30%iMVC of the quadriceps. The present study provides insight into the potential mechanisms for enhanced exercise performance with intake of blackcurrant.

  19. Solar transition region and coronal response to heating rate perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariska, John T.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of Doppler shifts in UV emission lines formed in the solar transition region show continual plasma downflows and impulsive plasma upflows. Using numerical simulations, the authors examine the conjecture that areas of downflowing plasma are the base regions of coronal loops in which the heating is gradually decreasing and that areas of upflowing plasma are the base regions of coronal loops in which the heating rate is gradually increasing. Beginning with a coronal loop in equilibrium, the heating rate is reduced on time scales of 100, 1000, and 2000 s to 10 percent and 1 percent of the initial value, and the loop is allowed to evolve to a new equilibrium. The heating rate for the cooled models is then increased back to the initial value on the same time scales. While significant mass motions do develop in the simulations, both the emission measure and the velocity at 100,000 K do not show the characteristics present in UV observations.

  20. Screening for Mental Health Problems: Addressing the Base Rate Fallacy for a Sustainable Screening Program in Integrated Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, John V; Feldman, Marissa; Meyers, Kathryn Mendelsohn

    2016-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act has stimulated interest in screening for psychological problems in primary care. Given the scale with which screening might occur, the implications of a problem known as the base rate fallacy need to be considered. The concepts of sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and the base rate fallacy are discussed. The possibility that a screening program may not improve upon random selection is reviewed, as is the possibility that sequential screening might be useful. Developing effective screening programs for pediatric mental health problems is highly desirable, and properly addressing the high rate of false positives may improve the likelihood that such programs can be sustained. Consideration needs to be given to the use of sequential screening, which has both advantages and disadvantages, depending upon the type of problem to be screened for and the availability of resources for follow-up evaluations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Campione, Nicolás E; Carrano, Matthew T; Mannion, Philip D; Sullivan, Corwin; Upchurch, Paul; Evans, David C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation, representing an ecologically diverse group that dominated terrestrial ecosystems for 170 million years. Furthermore, with 10,000 species, extant dinosaurs (birds) are the most speciose living tetrapod clade. We assembled composite trees of 614-622 Mesozoic dinosaurs/birds, and a comprehensive body mass dataset using the scaling relationship of limb bone robustness. Maximum-likelihood modelling and the node height test reveal rapid evolutionary rates and a predominance of rapid shifts among size classes in early (Triassic) dinosaurs. This indicates an early burst niche-filling pattern and contrasts with previous studies that favoured gradualistic rates. Subsequently, rates declined in most lineages, which rarely exploited new ecological niches. However, feathered maniraptoran dinosaurs (including Mesozoic birds) sustained rapid evolution from at least the Middle Jurassic, suggesting that these taxa evaded the effects of niche saturation. This indicates that a long evolutionary history of continuing ecological innovation paved the way for a second great radiation of dinosaurs, in birds. We therefore demonstrate links between the predominantly extinct deep time adaptive radiation of non-avian dinosaurs and the phenomenal diversification of birds, via continuing rapid rates of evolution along the phylogenetic stem lineage. This raises the possibility that the uneven distribution of biodiversity results not just from large-scale extrapolation of

  2. Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B J Benson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation, representing an ecologically diverse group that dominated terrestrial ecosystems for 170 million years. Furthermore, with 10,000 species, extant dinosaurs (birds are the most speciose living tetrapod clade. We assembled composite trees of 614-622 Mesozoic dinosaurs/birds, and a comprehensive body mass dataset using the scaling relationship of limb bone robustness. Maximum-likelihood modelling and the node height test reveal rapid evolutionary rates and a predominance of rapid shifts among size classes in early (Triassic dinosaurs. This indicates an early burst niche-filling pattern and contrasts with previous studies that favoured gradualistic rates. Subsequently, rates declined in most lineages, which rarely exploited new ecological niches. However, feathered maniraptoran dinosaurs (including Mesozoic birds sustained rapid evolution from at least the Middle Jurassic, suggesting that these taxa evaded the effects of niche saturation. This indicates that a long evolutionary history of continuing ecological innovation paved the way for a second great radiation of dinosaurs, in birds. We therefore demonstrate links between the predominantly extinct deep time adaptive radiation of non-avian dinosaurs and the phenomenal diversification of birds, via continuing rapid rates of evolution along the phylogenetic stem lineage. This raises the possibility that the uneven distribution of biodiversity results not just from large

  3. Rates of Dinosaur Body Mass Evolution Indicate 170 Million Years of Sustained Ecological Innovation on the Avian Stem Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B. J.; Campione, Nicolás E.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Mannion, Philip D.; Sullivan, Corwin; Upchurch, Paul; Evans, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation, representing an ecologically diverse group that dominated terrestrial ecosystems for 170 million years. Furthermore, with 10,000 species, extant dinosaurs (birds) are the most speciose living tetrapod clade. We assembled composite trees of 614–622 Mesozoic dinosaurs/birds, and a comprehensive body mass dataset using the scaling relationship of limb bone robustness. Maximum-likelihood modelling and the node height test reveal rapid evolutionary rates and a predominance of rapid shifts among size classes in early (Triassic) dinosaurs. This indicates an early burst niche-filling pattern and contrasts with previous studies that favoured gradualistic rates. Subsequently, rates declined in most lineages, which rarely exploited new ecological niches. However, feathered maniraptoran dinosaurs (including Mesozoic birds) sustained rapid evolution from at least the Middle Jurassic, suggesting that these taxa evaded the effects of niche saturation. This indicates that a long evolutionary history of continuing ecological innovation paved the way for a second great radiation of dinosaurs, in birds. We therefore demonstrate links between the predominantly extinct deep time adaptive radiation of non-avian dinosaurs and the phenomenal diversification of birds, via continuing rapid rates of evolution along the phylogenetic stem lineage. This raises the possibility that the uneven distribution of biodiversity results not just from large-scale extrapolation

  4. Response Rates in Mail Surveys: A Review of the Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    As a predominant research method, the mail survey has been the subject of a considerable body of research. Several major reviews of research have been published that attempt to synthesize findings of empirical studies and identify techniques that stimulate responses. The review articles are examined, identifying procedures and potential…

  5. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Clearance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Police agencies devote vast resources to minimising the time that it takes them to attend the scene of a crime. Despite this, the long-standing consensus is that police response time has no meaningful effect on the likelihood of catching offenders. We revisit this question using a uniquely rich...

  6. Gonadal hormones and heart rate as an emotional response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Loos, Wolter Statius

    1988-01-01

    Animai experiments may give information on the physiology of hormones under stress conditions. The model for the investigation of acute emotional stress in animals that has been chosen permits the study of heart rate in freely moving laboratory rats as a sensitive psychophysiological parameter, This

  7. Association between sustained virological response and all-cause mortality among patients with chronic hepatitis C and advanced hepatic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.P. van der Meer (Adriaan); B.J. Veldt (Bart); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H. Wedemeyer (Heiner); J.F. Dufour (Jean-François); F. Lammert (Frank); A. Duarte-Rojo (Andres); E.J. Heathcote (Jenny); M.P. Manns (Michael); L. Kuske (Lorenz); S. Zeuzem (Stefan); W.P. Hofmann (Peter); R.J. de Knegt (Robert); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract_Context:_ Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection outcomes include liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver-related death. _Objective:_ To assess the association between sustained virological response (SVR) and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic HCV

  8. The influences of task repetition, napping, time of day, and instruction on the Sustained Attention to Response Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, M.K.M. van; Alblas, E.E.; Thijs, R.D.; Fronczek, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) helps to quantify vigilance impairments. Previous studies, in which five SART sessions on one day were administered, demonstrated worse performance during the first session than during the others. The present study comprises two

  9. Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Sustainability Education in AACSB Undergraduate and Graduate Marketing Curricula: A Benchmark Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Jeananne; Hair, Joseph F., Jr.; Ragland, Charles B.; Schimmel, Kurt E.

    2013-01-01

    AACSB International advocates integration of ethics, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability in all business school disciplines. This study provides an overview of the implementation of these three topics in teaching initiatives and assessment in business schools accredited by AACSB International. Since no comprehensive studies have…

  10. Effects of Vibration and G-Loading on Heart Rate, Breathing Rate, and Response Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinez, Angelica; Ayzenberg, Ruthie; Liston, Dorian B.; Stone, Leland S.

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace and applied environments commonly expose pilots and astronauts to G-loading and vibration, alone and in combination, with well-known sensorimotor (Cohen, 1970) and performance consequences (Adelstein et al., 2008). Physiological variables such as heart rate (HR) and breathing rate (BR) have been shown to increase with G-loading (Yajima et al., 1994) and vibration (e.g. Guignard, 1965, 1985) alone. To examine the effects of G-loading and vibration, alone and in combination, we measured heart rate and breathing rate under aerospace-relevant conditions (G-loads of 1 Gx and 3.8 Gx; vibration of 0.5 gx at 8, 12, and 16 Hz).

  11. ECO-INNOVATION, RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE FOR CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dorel Mihai Paraschiv; Estera Laura Nemoianu; Claudia Adriana Langa; Tünde Szabó

    2012-01-01

    .... Sustainability requires the full integration of social and environmental aspects into the vision, culture and operations of an organization, a profound process of organizational change being essential...

  12. Special Issue on "Social Responsibility Accounting and Reporting in Times of Sustainability Downturn/Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Correa Ruiz, María del Carmen; Moneva Abadía, José Mariano

    2011-01-01

    ... eroding social and environmental concerns and values, the notion of sustainability crisis provides an interesting starting point to reflect on the role of Social and Environmental Accounting Research...

  13. A study of best positive predictors for sustained virologic response to interferon alpha plus ribavirin therapy in naive chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazuddin Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the rate of sustained virological response (SVR and various factors associated with response rates in chronic hepatitis C infected patients treated with interferon alpha and ribavirin combination therapy. Methods A retrospective review of patients data collected at this Centre from 2001 to 2007 was performed. Out of 731 consecutive patients 400 patients that fulfilled the study criteria were evaluated and subsequently treated with a combination of interferon alpha 2b (3 MU subcutaneously three injections weekly and ribavirin (800–1200 mg orally daily. Treatment were administered for either 24 weeks or 48 weeks and patients were followed for an additional 6 months thereafter. End of the treatment response (ETR, SVR and side effects were recorded. Results Out of 400 patients, 394 completed the entire treatment course and six patients discontinued treatment at month 2. Over 67% responded at the end of treatment and 16% suffered relapse. Among all treated patients, 47.6% males and 56.7% females had sustained viral response with a total combined sustained viral response rate of 50.5%. Rapid response was seen in 46.5% patients. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, slow virological responders (adjusted OR 2.6 [95% CI 1.9–3.7], HCV genotype 1&4 (adjusted OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.7–3.5], pre-treatment viral load > 0.2 MIU/mL (adjusted OR 2.2 [95% CI 1.8–4.2], Panjabi ethnic group (adjusted OR 1.6 [95% CI 1.0–3.2] and Age > 40 years (adjusted OR 1.5 [95% CI 0.9–2.4] were independent risk factors for non response. Side effects were usual and tolerable and only 1.5% discontinued the treatment. Conclusion The best positive predictor for SVR in this country are: rapid virologic response, HCV genotype 2 & 3, age

  14. Responsible tourism: A guide for tourism and sustainability in small-scale fisheries and agri-food

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Adriana; Acott, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Responsible Tourism: a guide for tourism and sustainability in small-scale fisheries and agri-food’ is a product of TourFish, a project funded by the EU INTERREG IVA 2 Seas programme. The aim of TourFish was to explore opportunities for coastal areas through developing responsible tourism that draws together food, small-scale inshore fisheries, regional branding and place-based marketing opportunities.

  15. Sustained response of adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder to FOLFOX plus bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Minyuen; Swan, Niall C; McDermott, Ray S

    2011-05-01

    A 44-year-old patient presented with intermittent macroscopic hematuria on a background of chronic left-sided hydronephrosis and intestinal metaplasia of the bladder. Cystoscopic examination revealed a mass at the dome of the urinary bladder, which was resected. Histopathologic analysis of the specimen confirmed the presence of muscle-invasive adenocarcinoma. Radical cystectomy with curative intent was planned, but review of systems and subsequent CT demonstrated pleural effusion with positive cytology, confirming metastatic disease. Owing to the histologic similarity between this patient's tumor and colorectal cancer, palliative FOLFOX6 (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin) chemotherapy plus bevacizumab was administered. After 3 months of treatment the patient showed a good response, which was sustained for more than 10 months after diagnosis. However, his disease subsequently relapsed, and the patient died shortly thereafter. Physical examination, cystoscopy, transurethral resection of bladder tissue, CT, histopathologic, cytopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Metastatic adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder. 12 cycles of infused and bolus 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX6) plus bevacizumab.

  16. [Contribution of research to the responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, S; Boccuni, F

    2008-01-01

    The newly-fledged nanotechnologies offer opportunities for social development but uncertainties prevail about their impact on human and environmental health. Right now there is still a huge gap between technological progress and research into the health and safety aspects of nanomaterials. This is clear from the quantity of nano-products already on the market--more than 600--and the public and private funds dedicated to the development of nanotechnologies, which are almost a hundred times those available for research into their effects on health and safety. Estimates have it that by 2014 nanotechnologies will be widely used in our society, and ten million new jobs will be created. Therefore it becomes essential to plan an integrated approach to specific risk analysis at work. The following gaps and needs come to light: limited information; difficulties in relating nanotechnologies and production of nanomaterials to specific areas of application; efforts required to assess the hazards posed by nanomaterials in realistic exposure conditions; ethical issues about nanotechnology in the workplace likely to arise from today's knowledge about the hazards of nanomaterials and the risks they may pose to workers. An integrated approach to research, cooperation and communication strategies is essential if we are to direct our efforts towards responsible and sustainable growth of nanotechnologies.

  17. Financial sustainability of academic health centers: identifying challenges and strategic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Jim P; Li, Tao; Shiyanbola, Oyewale O; Jacobson, Janelle J

    2014-06-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) play a vital role in the health care system. The training of health care personnel and delivery of health care services, especially to the most complex and financially challenged patients, has been a responsibility increasingly shouldered by AHCs over the years. Additionally, AHCs play a significant role in researching and developing new treatment protocols, including discovering and validating new health technologies. However, AHCs face unique financial challenges in fulfilling their social mission in the health care system. Reforms being implemented under the Affordable Care Act and shifting economic patterns are threatening the financial sustainability of AHCs.The authors review challenges facing AHCs, including training new health care professionals with fewer funding resources, disproportionate clinical care of complex and costly patients, charity care to uninsured and underinsured, and reduced research funding opportunities. Then, they provide a review of some potential solutions to these challenges, including new reimbursement methods, improvements in operational efficiency, price regulation, subsidization of education, improved decision making and communication, utilization of industrial management tools, and increasing internal and external cooperation. Devising solutions to the evolving problems of AHCs is crucial to improving health care delivery in the United States. Most likely, a combination of market, government, and system reforms will be needed to improve the viability of AHCs and assist them in fulfilling their social and organizational missions.

  18. Systemic lupus international collaborating clinics renal activity/response exercise: comparison of agreement in rating renal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michelle; Kasitanon, Nuntana; Singh, Sukminder; Link, Kimberly; Magder, Laurence; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Hanly, John G; Nived, Ola; Sturfelt, Gunnar; van Vollenhoven, Ronald; Wallace, Daniel J; Alarcón, Graciela S; Adu, Dwomoa; Avila-Casado, Carmen; Bernatsky, Sasha R; Bruce, Ian N; Clarke, Ann E; Contreras, Gabriel; Fine, Derek M; Gladman, Dafna D; Gordon, Caroline; Kalunian, Kenneth C; Madaio, Michael P; Rovin, Brad H; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Steinsson, Kristjan; Aranow, Cynthia; Balow, James E; Buyon, Jill P; Ginzler, Ellen M; Khamashta, Munther A; Urowitz, Murray B; Dooley, Mary Anne; Merrill, Joan T; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Font, Josef; Tumlin, James; Stoll, Thomas; Zoma, Asad

    2008-06-01

    To assess the degree to which physicians agree with each other and with ratings obtained with 3 existing responder indices, in rating the response to treatment of lupus nephritis. Lupus nephritis patient medical records from 125 pairs of visits (6 months apart) were used to create renal response scenarios. Seven nephrologists and 22 rheumatologists rated each scenario as demonstrating complete response, partial response, same, or worsening. The plurality (most frequent) rating of renal response by the physicians was compared with the calculated score from the renal component of the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index (original and updated [2004] version) and of the Responder Index for Lupus Erythematosus (RIFLE). The degree of agreement among the physicians was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The degree of agreement between the plurality physician rating and ratings obtained with the established response indices was assessed using the kappa statistic. The ICC among all physicians was 0.64 (0.62 for nephrologists and 0.67 for rheumatologists). The chance-adjusted measure of agreement (kappa coefficient) between the plurality physician rating and the calculated score obtained using established indexes was 0.50 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.38-0.61) for the RIFLE, 0.14 (95% CI 0.03-0.25) for the original BILAG, and 0.23 (95% CI 0.21-0.44) for the BILAG 2004. These findings indicate that rheumatologists as a group and nephrologists as a group have equal agreement in their rating of renal response. There was moderate agreement between plurality physician ratings and ratings obtained using the renal component of the RIFLE. Ratings of response using an index based on the original BILAG did not have good agreement with the plurality physician rating.

  19. Visions for a sustainable world: A conference on science, technology and social responsibility. Conference report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This report summarizes the organization, activities, and outcomes of Student Pugwash USA`s 1992 International Conference, Visions for a Sustainable World: A Conference on Science, Technology and Social Responsibility. The conference was held June 14--20, 1992 at Emory University, and brought together 94 students and over 65 experts from industry, academe, and government. The conference addressed issues ranging from global environmental cooperation to the social impacts of the Human Genome Project to minority concerns in the sciences. It provided a valuable forum for talented students and professionals to engage in critical dialogue on many interdisciplinary issues at the juncture of science, technology and society. The conference challenged students -- the world`s future scientists, engineers, and political leaders -- to think broadly about global problems and to devise policy options that are viable and innovative. The success of the conference in stimulating interest, understanding, and enthusiasm about interdisciplinary global issues is clearly evident from both the participants` feedback and their continued involvement in Student Pugwash USA programs. Six working groups met each morning. The working group themes included: environmental challenges for developing countries; energy options: their social and environmental impact; health care in developing countries; changing dynamics of peace and global security; educating for the socially responsible use of technology; ethics and the use of genetic information. The conference was specifically designed to include mechanisms for ensuring its long-term impact. Participants were encouraged to focus on their individual role in helping resolve global issues. This was achieved through each participant`s development of a Personal Plan of Action, a plan which mapped out activities the student could undertake after the conference to continue the dialogue and work towards the resolution of global and local problems.

  20. Modern multiple myeloma therapy: deep, sustained treatment response and good clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, O; Iskander, K

    2017-04-01

    In the USA at the beginning of this century, the average overall survival in patients with multiple myeloma was about 3 years. Around that time, three drugs (bortezomib, lenalidomide and thalidomide) were introduced for the treatment of multiple myeloma and, in 2012, carfilzomib received accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Driven by access to better drugs, median overall survival in younger patients (aged 10 years by 2014. The FDA approved 14 new drugs for the treatment of cancer in 2015; four of these were approved for the treatment of myeloma (panobinostat, daratumumab, elotuzumab and ixazomib). In 2015 and 2016, expanded label indications were approved by the FDA for lenalidomide and carfilzomib, respectively. The recent increase in approved, highly effective combination therapies for patients with multiple myeloma has led the way to redefining the goals of therapy. Here, we review and provide a clinical perspective on the treatment goals and management of multiple myeloma in the era of modern therapy. Recent meta-analyses show that minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity is associated with longer progression-free and overall survival in patients with multiple myeloma. With the use of modern combination therapy, large proportions (>60-70%) of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients achieve complete responses and MRD negativity. Modern combination therapies induce rapid, deep and sustainable responses (including MRD negativity), supporting a treatment paradigm shift away from palliative two-drug combinations towards the use of modern, potent, three- or four-drug combination regimens in early lines of therapy. Data support the use of modern therapy upfront rather than reserving it for later stages of the disease. As survival time increases with modern combination therapies, development of early reliable surrogate end-points for survival, such as MRD negativity, are needed for expedited read-out of future randomized clinical

  1. Response of welsh onion to various rates of compost application

    OpenAIRE

    Maryati,; Warjana; Isnaini, Soni

    2011-01-01

    This research???s objective was to study effect of various rates of compost on growth and yield of welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) in Sekincau, West Lampung. An experiment was conducted in dry season of 2004, started from August and harvested in November 2004. It was arranged in a randomized completed block design. Treatments were no-compost, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 t ha-1 compost. Results revealed that compost increased plant height, tiller number, root length, number of dr...

  2. Social Responsibility and Sustainability: Multidisciplinary Perspectives through Service Learning. Service Learning for Civic Engagement Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tracy, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This concluding volume in the series presents the work of faculty who have been moved to make sustainability the focus of their work, and to use service learning as one method of teaching sustainability to their students. The chapters in the opening section of this book-- Environmental Awareness--offer models for opening students to the awareness…

  3. Liver-related morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis with and without sustained virologic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallager S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sofie Hallager,1 Steen Ladelund,2 Peer Brehm Christensen,3 Mette Kjær,4,5 Birgit Thorup Roege,6 Karin Elmegaard Grønbæk,7 Erika Belard,8 Toke S Barfod,9 Lone Galmstrup Madsen,10 Jan Gerstoft,11 Britta Tarp,12 Henrik Bygum Krarup,13 Nina Weis,1,5 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, 2Clinical Research Center, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, 3Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Institute, Odense University Hospital, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, 4Department of Hepatology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, 5Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Kolding Hospital, Kolding, 7Department of Gastroenterology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, 8Department of Gastroenterology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, 9Department of Internal Medicine, Zealand University Hospital, Roskilde, 10Department of Gastroenterology, Zealand University Hospital, Køge, 11Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, 12Diagnostic Centre, University Research Clinic for Innovative Patient Pathways, Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Silkeborg, 13Section of Molecular Diagnostics, Clinical Biochemistry and Department of Medical Gastroenterology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark Background: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC causes liver cirrhosis in 5%–20% of patients, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to estimate liver-related morbidity and mortality among patients with CHC and cirrhosis in Denmark with and without antiviral treatment and sustained virologic response (SVR. Furthermore we aimed to estimate the rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and decompensation associated with certain prognostic factors.Materials and methods: Patients with CHC and cirrhosis registered in the Danish Database for Hepatitis

  4. Corporate social responsibility for regional sustainability after mine closure: a case study of mining company in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarif, Andi Erwin; Hatori, Tsuyoshi

    2017-06-01

    Creating a soft-landing path for mine closure is key to the sustainability of the mining region. In this research, we presents a case of mine closure in Soroako, a small mining town in the north-east of South Sulawesi province, in the center of Sulawesi Island in Indonesia. Especially we investigates corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs of a mining company, PT Vale Indonesia Tbk (PTVI), towards a soft-landing of mine closure in this region. The data of the CSR programs are gathered from in-depth interviews, the annual reports and managerial reports. Furthermore we presents an integrated view of CSR to close mining in a sustainable manner. We then evaluate CSR strategies of the company and its performance from this viewpoint. Based on these steps, the way to improve the CSR mine closure scenario for enhancing the regional sustainability is discussed and recommended.

  5. Rate limit of protein elastic response is tether dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Ronen; Hermans, Rodolfo I.; Popa, Ionel; Stirnemann, Guillaume; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Berne, Bruce J.; Fernandez, Julio M.

    2012-01-01

    The elastic restoring force of tissues must be able to operate over the very wide range of loading rates experienced by living organisms. It is surprising that even the fastest events involving animal muscle tissues do not surpass a few hundred hertz. We propose that this limit is set in part by the elastic dynamics of tethered proteins extending and relaxing under a changing load. Here we study the elastic dynamics of tethered proteins using a fast force spectrometer with sub-millisecond time resolution, combined with Brownian and Molecular Dynamics simulations. We show that the act of tethering a polypeptide to an object, an inseparable part of protein elasticity in vivo and in experimental setups, greatly reduces the attempt frequency with which the protein samples its free energy. Indeed, our data shows that a tethered polypeptide can traverse its free-energy landscape with a surprisingly low effective diffusion coefficient Deff ∼ 1,200 nm2/s. By contrast, our Molecular Dynamics simulations show that diffusion of an isolated protein under force occurs at Deff ∼ 108 nm2/s. This discrepancy is attributed to the drag force caused by the tethering object. From the physiological time scales of tissue elasticity, we calculate that tethered elastic proteins equilibrate in vivo with Deff ∼ 104–106 nm2/s which is two to four orders magnitude smaller than the values measured for untethered proteins in bulk. PMID:22895787

  6. Plasma response to sustainment with imposed-dynamo current drive in HIT-SI and HIT-SI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, A. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Chandra, R. N.; Morgan, K. D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Penna, J. M.; Everson, C. J.; Nelson, B. A.

    2017-07-01

    The helicity injected torus—steady inductive (HIT-SI) program studies efficient, steady-state current drive for magnetic confinement plasmas using a novel experimental method. Stable, high-beta spheromaks have been sustained using steady, inductive current drive. Externally induced loop voltage and magnetic flux are oscillated together so that helicity and power injection are always positive, sustaining the edge plasma current indefinitely. Imposed-dynamo current drive (IDCD) theory further shows that the entire plasma current is sustained. The method is ideal for low aspect ratio, toroidal geometries with closed flux surfaces. Experimental studies of spheromak plasmas sustained with IDCD have shown stable magnetic profiles with evidence of pressure confinement. New measurements show coherent motion of a stable spheromak in response to the imposed perturbations. On the original device two helicity injectors were mounted on either side of the spheromak and the injected mode spectrum was predominantly n  =  1. Coherent, rigid motion indicates that the spheromak is stable and a lack of plasma-generated n  =  1 energy indicates that the maximum q is maintained below 1 during sustainment. Results from the HIT-SI3 device are also presented. Three inductive helicity injectors are mounted on one side of the spheromak flux conserver. Varying the relative injector phasing changes the injected mode spectrum which includes n  =  2, 3, and higher modes.

  7. On-treatment HCV RNA as a predictor of sustained virological response in HCV genotype 3-infected patients treated with daclatasvir and sofosbuvir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowdley, Kris V; Nelson, David R; Lalezari, Jacob P; Box, Terry; Gitlin, Norman; Poleynard, Gary; Rabinovitz, Mordechai; Ravendhran, Natarajan; Sheikh, Aasim M; Siddique, Asma; Bhore, Rafia; Noviello, Stephanie; Rana, Khurram

    2016-11-01

    Many currently available direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens are less effective against HCV genotype 3 than against other HCV genotypes. The all-oral, pangenotypic DAA combination of daclatasvir (NS5A inhibitor) + sofosbuvir (nucleotide NS5B inhibitor) was studied in genotype 3-infected treatment-naive and -experienced patients (ALLY-3) who achieved rates of sustained virological response at post-treatment Week 12 (SVR12) of 90 and 86% respectively. In this analysis, we assessed whether on-treatment responses to daclatasvir + sofosbuvir in genotype 3-infected patients could predict treatment outcome. In ALLY-3, treatment-naive and -experienced patients, with or without cirrhosis, were treated with daclatasvir + sofosbuvir for 12 weeks. HCV RNA kinetics and categorical virological responses on treatment were assessed. The proportions of responders and nonresponders by study week, and time to first undetectable HCV RNA, were analysed for utility in predicting treatment outcome. Overall, HCV RNA levels declined rapidly during Week 1 of treatment in both treatment-naive and -experienced cohorts. Although patients with cirrhosis had a slower initial virological response as measured by the proportion of patients with HCV RNA below the lower limit of quantification at Week 1, responses converged thereafter. Positive and negative predictive values calculated for on-treatment responses were generally comparable with the overall SVR12 rate and were therefore limited indicators of outcome. SVR12 rates were not impacted by time to first undetectable HCV RNA. On-treatment responses are not useful predictors of ultimate virological response to the daclatasvir + sofosbuvir regimen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Characterization of Nonlinear Rate Dependent Response of Shape Memory Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Brent; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Chen, Yi-Chao; Whitley, Karen S.

    2007-01-01

    the material while it was above its glass transition temperature. After deforming the material to a specified applied strain, the material was then cooled to below the glass transition temperature (Tg) while retaining the deformed shape. Finally, the specimen was heated again to above the transition temperature, and the resulting shape recovery profile was measured. Results show that strain recovery occurs at a nonlinear rate with respect to time. Results also indicate that the ratio of recoverable strain/applied strain increases as the applied strain increases.

  9. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  10. Assessing the role of alternative response rates and reinforcer rates in resistance to extinction of target responding when combining stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Bai, John Y H; Skinner, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Studies of behavioral momentum reveal that reinforcing an alternative response in the presence of a target response reduces the rate of target responding but increases its persistence, relative to training the target response on its own. Because of the parallels between these studies and differential-reinforcement techniques to reduce problem behavior in clinical settings, alternative techniques to reduce problem behavior without enhancing its persistence are being explored. One potential solution is to train an alternative response in a separate stimulus context from problem behavior before combining the alternative stimulus with the target stimulus. The present study assessed how differences in reinforcement contingencies and rate for alternative responding influenced resistance to extinction of target responding when combining alternative and target stimuli in pigeons. Across three experiments, alternative stimuli signaling a response-reinforcer dependency and greater reinforcer rates more effectively decreased the persistence of target responding when combining alternative and target stimuli within the same extinction tests, but not when compared across separate extinction tests. Overall, these findings reveal that differences in competition between alternative and target responding produced by contingencies of alternative reinforcement could influence the effectiveness of treating problem behavior through combining stimulus contexts. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Infants with univentricular heart have reduced heart rate and blood pressure responses to side motion and altered responses to head-up tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjavainen, Turkka; Viskari, Suvi; Pitkänen, Olli; Jokinen, Eero

    2005-02-01

    Cardiovascular control was studied in infants with univentricular heart (UVH). Side motion tests and 45-s 45 degrees head-up tilt tests were performed in 11 control and 9 UVH infants at the age of 13 +/- 3.2 wk. In addition, heart rate (HR) reactions to spontaneous arousals and HR variability during slow-wave sleep (SWS) were determined. All UVH infants had been hypoxic for several weeks, and during the sleep study the mean arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation was 82 +/- 5%. Tests were done at night during SWS, confirmed by polysomnographic recording. Continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) was measured. In the side-motion tests, control infants consistently showed a transient increase in HR and BP. This response was markedly reduced in all of the UVH infants (P < 0.0001). In tilt tests, the UVH infants showed normal BP responses, but, although a sustained 2.0% decrease in HR was observed in the controls, the UVH infants presented with a sustained 2.6% mean HR increase (P = 0.005). The UVH infants also showed attenuated HR acceleration during spontaneous arousals (P = 0.01), but HR variability did not differ significantly from the controls. In conclusion, UVH infants with chronic hypoxia exhibit defective vestibulosympathetic pathways, as expressed by an absence of acute HR and BP reactivity to side motion. HR reactions to postural challenge and spontaneous arousal are also altered. Autonomic function abnormalities in these infants are suggested to be secondary to hypoxia.

  12. Challenges for Sustainable Development and Its Legal Response in China: A Perspective for Social Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tianbao Qin

    2014-01-01

      With rapid development since the 1970s, China is entering a period of social transformation, which not only creates favorable conditions for sustainable development but also presents new challenges...

  13. Consumer response to health and environmental sustainability information regarding seafood consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2018-02-01

    Seafood consumption has an impact on both consumers' health and on the marine environment, making the integration of health and sustainability aspects in information and recommendation messages for consumers highly topical. This study presents the results of a consumer study in terms of the impact of exposure to a message about health and sustainability aspects of seafood on 986 participants from Belgium and Portugal. Possible drivers for behavioural change regarding seafood consumption frequency and sustainable seafood buying frequency are studied following exposure to the message. Initial behaviour emerges as the most important factor triggering a change in the intention to consume seafood twice per week and a change in the intention to buy sustainable seafood. A higher health benefit perception resulted in an increased intention to consume seafood twice per week. Attitude towards the message and the option to optimise consumers' choice of seafood species favouring sustainability were significant determinants of change in the intention to buy sustainable seafood. Different stakeholders may take the results of this communication strategy into account and, consequently, contribute to a seafood supply and related communication that supports public health and the marine environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tactics to Increase Course Evaluation Response Rates: A Comparison of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacek, Laura

    2015-01-01

    When an institution decides to move to online teaching evaluations, they often face concerns that their response rates will fall with the change. This fear need never come to pass, however. There are many interventions that can raise response rates. Good communication strategies, improved student and faculty engagement, and grade hold are just a…

  15. Survey Response Rates and Survey Administration in Counseling and Clinical Psychology: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Pamela S.; Green, Kathy E.; Martinussen, Monica

    2009-01-01

    This article reports results of a meta-analysis of survey response rates in published research in counseling and clinical psychology over a 20-year span and describes reported survey administration procedures in those fields. Results of 308 survey administrations showed a weighted average response rate of 49.6%. Among possible moderators, response…

  16. Effects of high, low, and thinning rates of alternative reinforcement on response elimination and resurgence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M; Shahan, Timothy A

    2013-07-01

    A common treatment for operant problem behavior is alternative reinforcement. When alternative reinforcement is removed or reduced, however, resurgence of the target behavior can occur. Shahan and Sweeney (2011) developed a quantitative model of resurgence based on behavioral momentum theory that suggests higher rates of alternative reinforcement result in faster response elimination and greater resurgence when removed, whereas lower rates of alternative reinforcement result in slower response elimination but are followed by less resurgence. Thus, the present study was designed to examine whether faster target response elimination and less resurgence could be achieved by beginning with a high rate of alternative reinforcement and gradually thinning it such that a low rate is ultimately removed during a simulated treatment lapse. Results showed that high rates of alternative reinforcement were more effective than low or thinning rates at target response suppression but resulted in resurgence when discontinued. Low and thinning rates, on the other hand, were less effective at response suppression but target responding did not increase when alternative reinforcement was discontinued. The quantitative model cannot currently account for the finding that lower-rate alternative reinforcement may not effectively disrupt behavior relative to an extinction only control. Relative advantages of high, low, thinning, or no alternative reinforcement are discussed with respect to suppression of target response rate during treatment, resurgence when alternative reinforcement is removed, and alternative response persistence, while taking into account differences between this animal model and modern applied behavior analytic treatments. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  18. The macroecology of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brown, James H.; Burnside, William R.; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.; Zuo, Wenyun

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  19. The macroecology of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R; Allen, Craig D; Brown, James H; Burnside, William R; Davidson, Ana D; Fristoe, Trevor S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C; Okie, Jordan G; Zuo, Wenyun

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  20. [Response rates in three opinion surveys performed through online questionnaires in the health setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerny Perreten, Nicole; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Astray Mochales, Jenaro; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Blanco Ancos, Luis Miguel; Lópaz Pérez, Ma Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The main advantages of online questionnaires are the speed of data collection and cost savings, but response rates are usually low. This study analyzed response rates and associated factors among health professionals in three opinion surveys in the autonomous region of Madrid. The participants, length of the questionnaire and topic differed among the three surveys. The surveys were conducted by using paid Internet software. The institutional e-mail addresses of distinct groups of health professionals were used. Response rates were highest in hospitals (up to 63%) and administrative services and were lowest in primary care (less than 33%). The differences in response rates were analyzed in primary care professionals according to age, sex and professional category and only the association with age was statistically significant. None of the surveys achieved a response rate of 60%. Differences were observed according to workplace, patterns of Internet usage, and interest in the subject. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  2. Import Response to Exchange Rate Fluctuations: A Micro-level Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Amber Li; Jenny Xu; Carol Zhao Chen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents theory and evidence on firms' import responses to exchange rate fluctuations using disaggregated Chinese imports data. The paper develops a heterogeneous-firm trade model that predicts import responses at both extensive and intensive margins as well as the more profound adjustment under ordinary trade than processing trade. Next, the paper empirically investigates import responses to exchange rate fluctuations at extensive and intensive margins in both the short run and th...

  3. Does Sustainability Pay Off for European Listed Real Estate Companies? The Dynamics between Risk and Provision of Responsible Information

    OpenAIRE

    Cajias, Marcelo; Bienert, Sven

    2011-01-01

    We follow the guidelines of the Global Reporting Initiative and the European Public Real Estate Association to investigate the quality of real estate-related sustainability information provided by European listed real estate companies in 13 countries. We find that human resources and stock price volatility play a significant role in the company’s strength with respect to corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. Business complexity and financial transparency enhance the provision of s...

  4. The Impacts of Social Responsibility and Ownership Structure on Sustainable Financial Development of China’s Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis, we integrated stakeholder and agency theories to explore the connection between corporate social responsibility (CSR and sustainable financial development by considering the moderating effect of ownership structure. After empirical analysis, we found the following conclusions. First, the short-term and long-term economic performance is positively affected by CSR, which leads to sustainable financial development. Second, ownership circulation has a positive relationship with economic performance in the short run, which short-term profit increases as ownership circulation strengthens. Third, the effect of CSR on short-term economic performance is moderated by ownership structure. Excessive concentrated ownership may lead to decisions that do not satisfy all key stakeholders and may reduce the positive effect of CSR on economic performance. Finally, we suggest that Chinese energy companies should pay more attention to improving corporate social responsibility to maintain good economic performance and develop sustainable competitive advantage. Meanwhile, companies should optimize ownership concentration to avoid weakening the positive effects of social responsibility on short-term economic performance.

  5. Clinical outcome of HIV-infected patients with sustained virologic response to antiretroviral therapy: long-term follow-up of a multicenter cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gutierrez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Limited information exists on long-term prognosis of patients with sustained virologic response to antiretroviral therapy. We aimed to assess predictors of unfavorable clinical outcome in patients who maintain viral suppression with HAART. METHODS: Using data collected from ten clinic-based cohorts in Spain, we selected all antiretroviral-naive adults who initiated HAART and maintained plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <500 copies/mL throughout follow-up. Factors associated with disease progression were determined by Cox proportional-hazards models. RESULTS: Of 2,613 patients who started HAART, 757 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 61% of them initiated a protease inhibitor-based HAART regimen, 29.7% a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen, and 7.8% a triple-nucleoside regimen. During 2,556 person-years of follow-up, 22 (2.9% patients died (mortality rate 0.86 per 100 person-years, and 40 (5.3% died or developed a new AIDS-defining event. The most common causes of death were neoplasias and liver failure. Mortality was independently associated with a CD4-T cell response <50 cells/L after 12 months of HAART (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 4.26 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.68-10.83]; P = .002, and age at initiation of HAART (AHR, 1.06 per year; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09; P = .001. Initial antiretroviral regimen chosen was not associated with different risk of clinical progression. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with sustained virologic response on HAART have a low mortality rate over time. Long-term outcome of these patients is driven by immunologic response at the end of the first year of therapy and age at the time of HAART initiation, but not by the initial antiretroviral regimen selected.

  6. Interferon alpha therapy for hepatitis C: treatment completion and response rates among patients with substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftis Jennifer M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs are at increased risk for hepatitis C viral infection (HCV, and few studies have explored their treatment responses empirically. The objective of this study was to assess interferon alpha therapy (IFN completion and response rates among patients with HCV who had a history of comorbid SUDs. More data is needed to inform treatment strategies and guidelines for these patients. Using a medical record database, information was retrospectively collected on 307,437 veterans seen in the Veterans Integrated Service Network 20 (VISN 20 of the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA between 1998 and 2003. For patients treated with any type of IFN (including regular or pegylated IFN or combination therapy (IFN and ribavirin who had a known HCV genotype, IFN completion and response rates were compared among patients with a history of SUD (SUD+ Group and patients without a history of SUD (SUD- Group. Results Odds ratio analyses revealed that compared with the SUD- Group, the SUD+ Group was equally likely to complete IFN therapy if they had genotypes 2 and 3 (73.1% vs. 68.0%, and if they had genotypes 1 and 4 (39.5% vs. 39.9%. Within the sample of all patients who began IFN therapy, the SUD- and SUD+ groups were similarly likely to achieve an end of treatment response (genotypes 2 and 3, 52.8% vs. 54.3%; genotypes 1 and 4, 24.5% vs. 24.8% and a sustained viral response (genotypes 2 and 3, 42.6% vs. 41.1%; genotypes 1 and 4: 16.0% vs. 22.3%. Conclusion Individuals with and without a history of SUD responded to antiviral therapy for HCV at similar rates. Collectively, these findings suggest that patients who have co-morbid SUD and HCV diagnoses can successfully complete a course of antiviral therapy.

  7. Responses of chemical erosion rates to transient perturbations in physical erosion rates, and implications for relationships between chemical and physical erosion rates in regolith-mantled hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Ken L.; West, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between chemical erosion rates (W) and physical erosion rates (E) is of wide interest due to their roles in driving landscape evolution, supplying nutrients to soils and streams, and modulating the global carbon cycle. Measured relationships between W and E vary around the globe, with some regions exhibiting positive correlations between W and E, some negative correlations, and others no correlation within uncertainty. Here we use a numerical model for mineral weathering in well-mixed ridgetop regolith to explore how complex W- E relationships can be generated by simple transient perturbations in E. We show that a Gaussian perturbation in E can produce positive or negative responses in W, and can result in a variety of hysteresis loops - clockwise, counterclockwise, or figure-eight - in plots of W against E. The nature of the transient response depends on the shape of the steady-state W- E relationship, which is set by regolith mineralogy, and the ratio of E to the maximum possible regolith production rate. The response time of W is controlled by the response time of soluble mineral concentrations at low E, where soluble mineral concentrations are low, and by the response time of regolith thickness at high E, where regolith thickness is low. These complex W- E relationships arise in the absence of variations in climate and lithology, which suggests that transients may account for some of the observed differences in W- E relationships among field sites, even among sites that share the same climate and lithology.

  8. Sustained specific and cross-reactive T cell responses to Zika and Dengue viruses NS3 in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Bobby Brooke; Tsai, Wen-Yang; Chang, Charlotte A; Hamel, Donald J; Wang, Wei-Kung; Lu, Yichen; Mboup, Souleymane; Kanki, Phyllis J

    2018-01-10

    Recent studies on the role of T cells in Zika virus (ZIKV) infection have shown that T cell responses to Asian ZIKV infection are important for protection, and that previous Dengue virus (DENV) exposure amplifies the protective T cell response to Asian ZIKV. Human T cell responses to African ZIKV infection, however, remain unexplored. Here, we utilized the modified anthrax toxin delivery system to develop a flavivirus ELISPOT. Using human ZIKV and DENV samples from Senegal, West Africa, our results demonstrate specific and cross-reactive T cell responses to nonstructural protein 3 (NS3). Specifically, we found that T cell responses to NS3 protease are ZIKV and DENV specific, but responses to NS3 helicase are cross-reactive. Sequential sample analyses revealed immune responses sustained many years after infection. These results have important implications for African ZIKV/DENV vaccine development, as well for potential flavivirus diagnostics based on T cell responses.IMPORTANCEThe recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Latin America and the associated congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome has raised questions as to why we have not recognized these distinct clinical diseases in Africa. The human immunologic response to ZIKV and related flaviviruses in Africa represents a research gap that may potentially shed light on the mechanisms contributing to protection. The goal of our study was to develop an inexpensive assay to detect and characterize the T cell response to African ZIKV and DENV. Our data show long-term specific and cross-reactive human immune responses against African ZIKV and DENV, suggesting the potential usefulness of a diagnostic based on the T cell response. Additionally, we show that prior flavivirus exposure influences the magnitude of the T cell response. The identification of immune responses to African ZIKV and DENV is of relevance to vaccine development. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Choice of rating scale labels: implication for minimizing patient satisfaction response ceiling effect in telemedicine surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Caterina; Lam, Tony C M

    2014-12-01

    Lack of response variability is problematic in surveys because of its detrimental effects on sensitivity and consequently reliability of the responses. In satisfaction surveys, this problem is caused by the ceiling effect resulting from high satisfaction ratings. A potential solution strategy is to manipulate the labels of the rating scale to create greater discrimination of responses on the high end of the response continuum. This study examined the effects of a positive-centered scale on the distribution and reliability of telemedicine satisfaction responses in a highly positive respondent population. In total, 216 telemedicine participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions as defined by the form of Likert scale: (1) 5-point Balanced Equal-Interval, (2) 5-point Positive-Packed, and (3) 5-point Positive-Centered Equal-Interval. Although the study findings were not statistically significant, partially because of sample size, the distribution and internal consistency reliability of responses occurred in the direction hypothesized. Loading the rating scale with more positive labels appears to be a useful strategy for reducing the ceiling effect and increases the discrimination ability of survey responses. The current research provides a survey design strategy to minimize ceiling effects. Although the findings provide some evidence suggesting the benefit of using rating scales loaded with positive labels, more research is needed to confirm this, as well as extend it to examine other types of rating scales and the interaction between rating scale formats and respondent characteristics.

  10. Estimating the clinical and economic benefit associated with incremental improvements in sustained virologic response in chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil McEwan

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is one of the principle causes of chronic liver disease. Successful treatment significantly decreases the risk of hepatic morbidity and mortality. Current standard of care achieves sustained virologic response (SVR rates of 40-80%; however, the HCV therapy landscape is rapidly evolving. The objective of this study was to quantify the clinical and economic benefit associated with increasing levels of SVR.A published Markov model (MONARCH that simulates the natural history of hepatitis C over a lifetime horizon was used. Discounted and non-discounted life-years (LYs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs and cost of complication management were estimated for various plausible SVR rates. To demonstrate the robustness of projections obtained, the model was validated to ten UK-specific HCV studies.QALY estimates ranged from 18.0 years for those treated successfully in fibrosis stage F0 to 7.5 years (discounted for patients in fibrosis stage F4 who remain untreated. Predicted QALY gains per 10% improvement in SVR ranged from 0.23 (F0 to 0.64 (F4 and 0.58 (F0 to 1.35 (F4 in 40 year old patients (discounted and non-discounted results respectively. In those aged 40, projected discounted HCV-related costs are minimised with successful treatment in F0/F1 (at approximately £ 300, increasing to £ 49,300 in F4 patients who remain untreated. Validation of the model to published UK cost-effectiveness studies produce R2 goodness of fit statistics of 0.988, 0.978 and of 0.973 for total costs, QALYs and incremental cost effectiveness ratios, respectively.Projecting the long-term clinical and economic consequences associated with chronic hepatitis C is a necessary requirement for the evaluation of new treatments. The principle analysis demonstrates the significant impact on expected costs, LYs and QALYs associated with increasing SVR. A validation analysis demonstrated the robustness of the results reported.

  11. Evaluation of electromyographic activity and heart rate responses to isometric exercise. The role played by muscular mass and type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Silva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the electromyographic (EMG activity and heart rate (HR responses induced by isometric exercise performed by knee extension (KE and flexion (KF in men. Fifteen healthy male subjects, 21 ± 1.3 years (mean ± SD, were submitted to KE and KF isometric exercise tests at 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC. The exercises were performed with one leg (right or left and with two legs simultaneously, for 10 s in the sitting position with the hip and knee flexed at 90o. EMG activity (root mean square values and HR (beats/min were recorded simultaneously both at rest and throughout the sustained contraction. The HR responses to isometric exercise in KE and KF were similar when performed with one and two legs. However, the HR increase was always significantly higher in KE than KF (P0.05 and KF (r = 0.15, P>0.05 contractions were not significant. These results suggest that the predominant mechanism responsible for the larger increase in HR response to KE as compared to KF in our study could be dependent on qualitative and quantitative differences in the fiber type composition found in each muscle group. This mechanism seems to demand a higher activation of motor units with a corresponding increase in central command to the cardiovascular centers that modulate HR control.

  12. T Cell Factor 1-Expressing Memory-like CD8(+) T Cells Sustain the Immune Response to Chronic Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzschneider, Daniel T; Charmoy, Mélanie; Chennupati, Vijaykumar; Pousse, Laurène; Ferreira, Daniela Pais; Calderon-Copete, Sandra; Danilo, Maxime; Alfei, Francesca; Hofmann, Maike; Wieland, Dominik; Pradervand, Sylvain; Thimme, Robert; Zehn, Dietmar; Held, Werner

    2016-08-16

    Chronic infections promote the terminal differentiation (or "exhaustion") of T cells and are thought to preclude the formation of memory T cells. In contrast, we discovered a small subpopulation of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells that sustained the T cell response during chronic infections. These cells were defined by, and depended on, the expression of the transcription factor Tcf1. Transcriptome analysis revealed that this population shared key characteristics of central memory cells but lacked an effector signature. Unlike conventional memory cells, Tcf1-expressing T cells displayed hallmarks of an "exhausted" phenotype, including the expression of inhibitory receptors such as PD-1 and Lag-3. This population was crucial for the T cell expansion that occurred in response to inhibitory receptor blockade during chronic infection. These findings identify a memory-like T cell population that sustains T cell responses and is a prime target for therapeutic interventions to improve the immune response in chronic infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti; Chakravartty, J. K.; Nudurupati, Saibaba; Mahobia, G. S.; Santhi Srinivas, N. C.; Singh, Vakil

    2015-02-01

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10-2, 10-3, and 10-4 s-1. Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C.

  14. Reexamining traditional issues in survey research: Just how evil is the anathema of low response rate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S.B. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States). Science/Engineering Education Division; Boser, J.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Survey researchers have long been exhorted to strive for high response rates in order to maximize the likelihood that the respondents are representative of the population being surveyed. It is not surprising then, that much survey research has been directed towards examining the effects of various manipulatable factors on response rate. It is clear that attempts to reach the goal of minimizing the likelihood of nonresponse bias through testing various methods of increasing survey response rates have consumed much research and debate. The results obtained in this research have been inconsistent. Some studies have found significant differences, others have found none. The present study was designed to determine the extent to which the results of an employment survey of former graduates of a teacher preparation program would have been affected by changes in response rate.

  15. Special Issue on "Social Responsibility Accounting and Reporting in Times of ‘Sustainability Downturn/Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Moneva-Abadía

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available At a time when sustainability performance does not seem to match the expectations raised by the sustainable development concept and, moreover, when the economic downturn and crisis could be further eroding social and environmental concerns and values, the notion of sustainability crisis provides an interesting starting point to reflect on the role of Social and Environmental Accounting Research. Lack of humanity and values, short term economic approach, institutional capture and misunderstanding and misuse of democracy, have all served as catalysts of sustainability downturn and crisis. Thus, this editorial attempts to advance public interest accounting by discussing the controversy around Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility, expecting that the constitutive effects of researchers’ words in this special issue and in future research agendas, will result in more transformative power relations able to enhance a healthy democracy inspired by the capacity to do things and to transform individuals’ attitudes and behaviours, as well as the institutional response to the sustainability crisis.En una época en la que el desempeño en materia de sostenibilidad parece no cumplir las expectativas creadas por el concepto de desarrollo sostenible y, en la que además, la recesión y la crisis económica podría estar erosionando aún más los valores y preocupaciones sociales y medioambientales, la noción de crisis de sostenibilidad proporciona un interesante punto de partida para reflexionar sobre el papel de la investigación en Contabilidad Social y Medioambiental. La falta de humanidad y la ausencia de valores, el enfoque económico cortoplacista, la captura institucional y la democracia mal entendida y su uso incorrecto, han servido como catalizadores de la crisis y la recesión de la sostenibilidad. Así, el presente editorial pretende avanzar en la contabilidad como interés general, debatiendo sobre la controversia existente

  16. Cardiodynamic and neurohormonal importance of atrial contribution in rate-responsive pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Y; Shimai, S; Nagae, Y; Ibuki, C; Takano, T; Tanaka, S; Hayakawa, H

    1993-07-01

    To elucidate the physiologic importance of atrial contribution in recently developed rate-responsive pacing, changes in cardiodynamics and neurohormonal factors were analyzed during exercise in patients with respiratory rate-dependent, rate-responsive atrial (AAIR; n = 6) and ventricular (VVIR; n = 9) demand mode pacemakers implanted for sick sinus syndrome. With increasing pacing rate during bicycle ergometer exercise, the AAIR group had significant increases in cardiac index (p AAIR group. At rest, the mean plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (p AAIR group and normal subjects (n = 8). Atrial natriuretic peptide, norepinephrine, and cyclic adenosine and guanosine monophosphates were significantly greater (p AAIR group (116.4 +/- 51.5) and normal subjects (30.8 +/- 19.2; p < 0.05); this suggested a further increase in the nonphysiologic atrial overload with VVIR pacing. The data show both the neurohormonal and cardiodynamic importance of atrioventricular synchrony in rate-responsive pacing.

  17. Effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensing, M; Mainz, Jan; Kramme, O

    1999-01-01

    Randomized trials were performed in Denmark and The Netherlands to determine the effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice. In both countries, general practitioners handed out questionnaires to 200 adult patients who came to visit them. An inter......) but not in Denmark (87% versus 81%, respectively). Mailed reminders can improve the response rate in surveys related to a general practice, but they are not effective in all situations....

  18. Placebo response rate in clinical trials of fistulizing Crohn's disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Luthra, Pavit; Hanauer, Stephen B; Travis, Simon P; Harris, M Scott; Reinisch, Walter

    2014-12-01

    It is important to determine the magnitude and identify modifiers of the rate of response to placebo in clinical trials of fistulizing Crohn's disease (CD), to understand disease progression, and to calculate sample size. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of rates of response to placebo in trials of patients with fistulizing CD. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, EMBASE CLASSIC, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing pharmacologic agents with placebo in adults with fistulizing CD. We identified studies that reported complete fistula closure, partial closure, or response. Data were extracted as intention-to-treat analyses and pooled by using a random-effects model. Proportions of patients who received placebo and had complete or partial fistula(e) closure were calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The effects of trial characteristics on the magnitude of response to placebo were examined. Thirteen RCTs were eligible for our analysis; these included 579 patients assigned to placebo groups. The pooled rate of response to placebo, among all RCTs, for complete fistula closure was 15.6% (95% CI, 10.9%-20.9%), with significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 62.5%, P = .001). The pooled rate of response to placebo for partial fistula closure or response in 9 trials, comprising 423 patients, was 18.3% (95% CI, 14.8%-22.1%). Rates of response to placebo were significantly lower in trials with shorter durations of therapy and shorter intervals to assessment of fistula closure. Neither exposure to the pharmacologic agent during the induction phase of the same (or related) RCT nor concomitant medications had any effect. In a meta-analysis of rate of response to placebo in patients with fistulizing CD, we found that fistulae closed in almost 1/6 patients given placebo in RCTs of pharmacologic agents. Future research should identify characteristics of patients that predict response to placebo. Copyright

  19. Supply Chain Response to Institutional Markets’ Demand for Healthy and Sustainable Food Options

    OpenAIRE

    Abate-Kassa, Getachew

    2011-01-01

    Institutional food buyers in the U.S. are increasingly demanding food products that are safe, traceable, healthier, local/regional, or sustainably produced and supplied. These markets consist of schools, universities, hospitals, charities, correction facilities, clubs and other similar organizations that buy goods and services to meet demands of their end-customers (students, patients, prisoners, etc.). These institutions comprise a large portion of the U.S. population. In 2008, the total num...

  20. Differences in the contents of two randomized surveys of GPs' prescribing intentions affected response rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Arash; van der Meulen, Jan; Russell, Ian

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the differences in response rates and the presence of response bias in two randomized surveys of prescribing intentions for statins and asthma. We conducted the surveys of British general practitioners (GPs) in 2002. The two surveys had similar designs, formats, administration time, administration methods, and target populations. We compared the response rates to the two surveys while controlling for the characteristics of respondents with nonrespondents. We also compared early respondents with late respondents and assessed heterogeneity in the answers of early and late respondents to two key questions. The response rates to the two surveys were significantly different (statins: 27%; asthma: 19%; P=0.002). We found no interaction between the survey type and any of the GP and practice characteristics we examined. The GPs' answers to the key questions did not differ regardless of the timing of the responses. We demonstrated that the surveys' contents significantly influenced the response rates. We found no evidence that the nonrespondents would have answered the key questions differently. Future studies should investigate the mechanisms by which contents of surveys may influence response rate.

  1. Stuttered and Fluent Speakers' Heart Rate and Skin Conductance in Response to Fluent and Stuttered Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Hudock, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found simultaneous increases in skin conductance response and decreases in heart rate when normally fluent speakers watched and listened to stuttered speech compared with fluent speech, suggesting that stuttering induces arousal and emotional unpleasantness in listeners. However, physiological responses of persons…

  2. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  3. Effects of corporate social responsibility and governance on its credit ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-young; Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings.

  4. Sustained virological response after a 17-day treatment with daclatasvir plus asunaprevir in a cirrhotic patient with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b and null response for peginterferon ribavirin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akira; Ishii, Toshiya; Adachi, Kayo; Kumon, Daisuke; Tamura, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Youhei; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Okuse, Chiaki

    2016-04-01

    Daclatasvir (DCV) plus asunaprevir (ASV) treatment, an oral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b infection, can achieve a high sustained viral response (SVR) rate within a 24-week treatment period. A 55-year-old Japanese female with cirrhosis and null response for peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy received DCV plus ASV therapy, but she reported a slight fever beginning on treatment day 4. The fever increased to >38.0 °C beginning on treatment day 15 and could not be controlled with antipyretics; thus, the treatment was discontinued on day 17. Although the patient was still positive for HCV RNA 6 days after treatment discontinuation, she achieved an SVR at week 24 after treatment cessation. In some patients with HCV genotype 1b infection, an SVR can be achieved with short-term DCV plus ASV treatment, and HCV RNA positivity at the end of treatment does not always indicate virological failure.

  5. Sustainability in global commodity trade: successful responsible entrepreneurship or fallacious market capture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2011-01-01

    In western countries NGOs have increasingly been pressing spearheaded firms to bring their corporate social responsibility into practice, especially in this international context. In response to this European and American producers and retailers are increasingly applying new forms of cooperation

  6. Partial inhibition of catecholamine activity and enhanced responsiveness to NMDA after sustained administration of vortioxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Vortioxetine is a multimodal drug that blocks serotonin (5-HT) reuptake and directly modulates 5-HT receptors. The effects of subacute and long-term administration of vortioxetine on various aspects of catecholamine and glutamate systems were investigated using single-unit extracellular recordings and microiontophoresis in the rat brain. The firing rate of dopamine (DA) neurons was significantly decreased (26%) after 14, but not 4 days of vortioxetine administration (vortioxetine-containing chow, 1.8 g/kg vortioxetine). Same 14- and 4-day regimens of vortioxetine decreased the firing activity of norepinephrine (NE) neurons (by 27% and 41%, respectively). For DA and NE neurons, 14-day vortioxetine exposure also decreased the number of bursts per minute, without changing the number of spikes per burst, percentage of spike firing in burst and the number of spontaneously active neurons per track. However, this vortioxetine-induced suppression of DA and NE neuronal activity is less than that obtained in previous studies with the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram. In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, 14 days of vortioxetine exposure did not change the sensitivity of postsynaptic α2-adrenoceptors nor did it increase the tonic activation of α1-and α2-adrenoceptors. Vortioxetine administration for 14 days increased the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-, but not α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-evoked responses of CA3 pyramidal neurons. Taken together, the results of the current study suggest that vortioxetine might produce a lesser inhibition of DA and NE neuronal activity when compared to those induced by escitalopram as reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    , but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour...... of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys....

  8. Micro-Structural Response of DP 600 to High Strain Rate Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, Brian; Schneider, Judy; Jones, Stanley E.

    2008-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the micro-structural response of DP 600 subjected to high strain rate, ballistic impact tests. The ballistic tests were conducted using normal impact of a hardened steel penetrator into a 2 mm thick sheet of DP 600. The average strain rates produced from this test method are on the order of 10(exp 5)/s. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure before and after high strain rate deformation. A variation in material response was observed between tests conducted at 0.8 x 105 and 25 x 10(exp 5)/s.

  9. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute {gamma}-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain.

  10. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Richard P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain.

  11. Effect of abacavir on sustained virologic response to HCV treatment in HIV/HCV co-infected patients, Cohere in Eurocoord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Colette; Arends, Joop; Peters, Lars

    2015-01-01

    collaboration. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the impact of abacavir on achieving a sustained virologic response (SVR) to HCV treatment. RESULTS: In total 1309 HIV/HCV co-infected patients who had received HCV therapy were included, of whom 490 (37 %) had achieved an SVR. No statistically significant...... to achieve an SVR compared to patients using a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen (OR: 0.61, 95 % CI: 0.41-0.91). The backbone combinations zidovudine&lamivudine (AZT + 3TC) and stavudine&lamivudine (d4t + 3TC) were associated with lower SRV rates (0.45 (0.24-0.82) and 0...

  12. Improving response rate and quality of survey data with a scratch lottery ticket incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Frank; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan Abel

    2012-04-19

    The quality of data collected in survey research is usually indicated by the response rate; the representativeness of the sample, and; the rate of completed questions (item-response). In attempting to improve a generally declining response rate in surveys considerable efforts are being made through follow-up mailings and various types of incentives. This study examines effects of including a scratch lottery ticket in the invitation letter to a survey. Questionnaires concerning oral health were mailed to a random sample of 2,400 adults. A systematically selected half of the sample (1,200 adults) received a questionnaire including a scratch lottery ticket. One reminder without the incentive was sent. The incentive increased the response rate and improved representativeness by reaching more respondents with lower education. Furthermore, it reduced item nonresponse. The initial incentive had no effect on the propensity to respond after the reminder. When attempting to improve survey data, three issues become important: response rate, representativeness, and item-response. This study shows that including a scratch lottery ticket in the invitation letter performs well on all the three.

  13. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  14. Does age matter? The influence of age on response rates in a mixed-mode survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Dietsch, Alia

    2014-01-01

    The appeal of cost savings and faster results has fish and wildlife management agencies considering the use of Internet surveys instead of traditional mail surveys to collect information from their constituents. Internet surveys, however, may suffer from differential age-related response rates, potentially producing biased results if certain age groups respond to Internet surveys differently than they do to mail surveys. We examined this concern using data from a mixed-mode angler survey conducted in South Dakota following the 2011 fishing season. Results indicated that young anglers (16–18) had the lowest return rates and senior anglers (65+) had the highest, regardless of survey mode. Despite this consistency in response rates, we note two concerns: (a) lower Internet response rates and (b) different age groups represented by the Internet and mail survey samples differed dramatically. Findings indicate that constituent groups may be represented differently with the use of various survey modes.

  15. Analysis of readmission rates to the intensive care unit after implementation of a rapid response team in a University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco E Paula, R; Tanita, M T; Festti, J; Queiroz Cardoso, L T; Carvalho Grion, C M

    2017-10-01

    To compare readmission rates to the intensive care unit (ICU) before and after the implementation of a rapid response team (RRT), and to identify risk factors for readmission. A quasi-experimental before-after study was carried out. A University Hospital. All patients discharged from the ICU from January to December 2008 (control group) and from January 2010 to December 2012 (intervention group). Implementation of an RRT. The data included demographic parameters, diagnoses upon admission, ICU readmission, APACHE II, SOFA, and TISS 28 scores, and routine daily assessment by an RRT of patients discharged from the ICU. During the study interval, 380 patients were analyzed in the period prior to the implementation of the RRT and 1361 after implementation. There was a tendency toward decreased readmission rates one year after RRT implementation. The APACHE II score and SOFA score at ICU discharge were independent factors associated to readmission, as well as clinical referral to the ICU. The RRT intervention resulted in a sustained decrease in readmission rates one year after implementation of this service. The use of a specialized team in health institutions can be recommended for ICU survivors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  16. The effectiveness of a monetary incentive offer on survey response rates and response completeness in a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengchao Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving adequate response rates is an ongoing challenge for longitudinal studies. The World Trade Center Health Registry is a longitudinal health study that periodically surveys a cohort of ~71,000 people exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York City. Since Wave 1, the Registry has conducted three follow-up surveys (Waves 2–4 every 3–4 years and utilized various strategies to increase survey participation. A promised monetary incentive was offered for the first time to survey non-respondents in the recent Wave 4 survey, conducted 13–14 years after 9/11. Methods We evaluated the effectiveness of a monetary incentive in improving the response rate five months after survey launch, and assessed whether or not response completeness was compromised due to incentive use. The study compared the likelihood of returning a survey for those who received an incentive offer to those who did not, using logistic regression models. Among those who returned surveys, we also examined whether those receiving an incentive notification had higher rate of response completeness than those who did not, using negative binomial regression models and logistic regression models. Results We found that a $10 monetary incentive offer was effective in increasing Wave 4 response rates. Specifically, the $10 incentive offer was useful in encouraging initially reluctant participants to respond to the survey. The likelihood of returning a survey increased by 30% for those who received an incentive offer (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4, and the incentive increased the number of returned surveys by 18%. Moreover, our results did not reveal any significant differences on response completeness between those who received an incentive offer and those who did not. Conclusions In the face of the growing challenge of maintaining a high response rate for the World Trade Center Health Registry follow-up surveys, this study showed the value of offering a

  17. Resting vs. active: a meta-analysis of the intra- and inter-specific associations between minimum, sustained, and maximum metabolic rates in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K; Killen, Shaun S; Rezende, Enrico L

    2017-09-01

    Variation in aerobic capacity has far reaching consequences for the physiology, ecology, and evolution of vertebrates. Whether at rest or active, animals are constrained to operate within the energetic bounds determined by their minimum (minMR) and sustained or maximum metabolic rates (upperMR). MinMR and upperMR can differ considerably among individuals and species but are often presumed to be mechanistically linked to one another. Specifically, minMR is thought to reflect the idling cost of the machinery needed to support upperMR. However, previous analyses based on limited datasets have come to conflicting conclusions regarding the generality and strength of their association.Here we conduct the first comprehensive assessment of their relationship, based on a large number of published estimates of both the intra-specific ( n  = 176) and inter-specific ( n  = 41) phenotypic correlations between minMR and upperMR, estimated as either exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate (VO 2 max), cold-induced summit metabolic rate (Msum), or daily energy expenditure (DEE).Our meta-analysis shows that there is a general positive association between minMR and upperMR that is shared among vertebrate taxonomic classes. However, there was stronger evidence for intra-specific correlations between minMR and Msum and between minMR and DEE than there was for a correlation between minMR and VO 2 max across different taxa. As expected, inter-specific correlation estimates were consistently higher than intra-specific estimates across all traits and vertebrate classes.An interesting exception to this general trend was observed in mammals, which contrast with birds and exhibit no correlation between minMR and Msum. We speculate that this is due to the evolution and recruitment of brown fat as a thermogenic tissue, which illustrates how some species and lineages might circumvent this seemingly general association.We conclude that, in spite of some variability across taxa and traits, the

  18. Interdependence of response rates, survival rates, stage and histology after radio-/chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepesi, T.; Kaercher, K.H.; Schratter, A.; Breitenecker, G.; Szalay, S.; Janisch, H.

    1982-11-01

    Between February 1977 and February 1981, 55 patients with ovarian cancer (45 at stage III and 10 at stage IV) underwent simultaneous radio-/chemotherapy and early therapeutic second-look operation. The overall response rate amounts to 94%, 63% of which are complete and 31% are partial emissions. Stage III comprises 74% complete and 26% partial remissions. Patients with complete remission at stage III have a significantly longer tumor-free survival time than patients with partial remission (median 16 vs. 8 months). A longer overall survival time (median 30 vs. 16 months) is also significant. At stage III there have been 74% successful therapeutic second operations. In all patients with residual tumors above 2 cm in diameter after primary operation a response rate of 92% could be achieved, 52% showed complete remissions. The survival time proved to be independent of both histological parameter and age. The remaining residual tumor above or under 2 cm in diameter in any single location is, however, a significant prognostic factor for long-time survival. Possible curative chances for patients with stage III disease are only to be expected through interdisciplinary oncological cooperation.

  19. Transient response of the global mean warming rate and its spatial variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Risbey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth has warmed over the past century. The warming rate (amount of warming over a given period varies in time and space. Observations show a recent increase in global mean warming rate, which is initially maintained in model projections, but which diverges substantially in future depending on the emissions scenario followed. Scenarios that stabilize forcing lead to much lower warming rates, as the rate depends on the change in forcing, not the amount. Warming rates vary spatially across the planet, but most areas show a shift toward higher warming rates in recent decades. The areal distribution of warming rates is also changing shape to include a longer tail in recent decades. Some areas of the planet are already experiencing extreme warming rates of about 1 °C/decade. The fat tail in areal distribution of warming rates is pronounced in model runs when the forcing and global mean warming rate is increasing, and indicates a climate state more prone to regime transitions. The area-proportion of the Earth displaying warming/cooling trends is shown to be directly related to the global mean warming rate, especially for trends of length 15 years and longer. Since the global mean warming rate depends on the forcing rate, the proportion of warming/cooling trend areas in future also depends critically on the choice of future forcing scenario. Keywords: Climate variability, Climate projection, Transient response, Extreme warming

  20. Creep Strain and Strain Rate Response of 2219 Al Alloy at High Stress Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Wagner, John A.; Lisagor, W. Barry

    1998-01-01

    As a result of high localized plastic deformation experienced during proof testing in an International Space Station connecting module, a study was undertaken to determine the deformation response of a 2219-T851 roll forging. After prestraining 2219-T851 Al specimens to simulate strains observed during the proof testing, creep tests were conducted in the temperature range from ambient temperature to 107 C (225 F) at stress levels approaching the ultimate tensile strength of 2219-T851 Al. Strain-time histories and strain rate responses were examined. The strain rate response was extremely high initially, but decayed rapidly, spanning as much as five orders of magnitude during primary creep. Select specimens were subjected to incremental step loading and exhibited initial creep rates of similar magnitude for each load step. Although the creep rates decreased quickly at all loads, the creep rates dropped faster and reached lower strain rate levels for lower applied loads. The initial creep rate and creep rate decay associated with primary creep were similar for specimens with and without prestrain; however, prestraining (strain hardening) the specimens, as in the aforementioned proof test, resulted in significantly longer creep life.

  1. Are People Responsive to a More Sustainable, Decentralized, and User-Driven Management of Urban Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Chelleri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart, green, and resilient city paradigms have been mainly promoted through top-down and technocratic approaches. However, based on the notion to return to “the right to the city”, emerging community-driven initiatives are providing self-managed infrastructures contributing to urban sustainability transitions. This paper explores the relevance of the behavioral aspects of people-centered approaches in dealing with two different facets of urban metabolism: physical infrastructure (involvement with the management of decentralized infrastructures and consumption patterns (involvement in proactive reduction of resources used. In the first case we assessed community perceptions about the roles, benefits, and willingness to proactively engage in the management of decentralized green infrastructures in Bogotá City, Colombia. For the second facet, we measured the effectiveness of change agents in re-shaping energy consumption decisions within urban social networks in South Africa and Saudi Arabia. This paper’s results show that pre-determined and standardized strategies do not guarantee positive, nor homogeneous, results in terms of meeting sustainability targets, or promoting community involvement. Hence, a better integration of people-centered and top-down approaches is needed through context-dependent policies, for enhancing both users’ appreciation of and commitment to urban metabolism participative management.

  2. Sustainable Investment. Literature Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-08-15

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns sustainability at the investment, fund or portfolio level and involves screening the sustainability of companies before investing in them. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on 'sustainable investment', amongst others addressing the economic rationale for CSR and SRI. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Carbon Trading; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability.

  3. Lottery incentives did not improve response rate to a mailed survey: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ian A; Khoo, Oliver K; Young, Jane M; Solomon, Michael J; Rae, Hamish

    2008-06-01

    Our study aimed to examine the effect of an instant lottery ticket incentive on the response rate to a mailed questionnaire in a population of trauma patients. A randomized controlled trial at a major trauma center with 728 patients randomized into 2 groups prior to mailing of a questionnaire. One group of patients (Group A) had a sentence inserted into the cover letter stating that they would receive a $4 instant lottery ticket upon receipt of a completed questionnaire; Group B did not have an incentive. The response rate for both groups was measured after the initial mailing and at the end of the study. The results were analyzed using the X2 test to compare 2 proportions and a P value of .05 was considered significant. The early response rate in Group A was lower than in Group B, and the response rates for both groups were similar at final follow-up. The differences at both time periods were not statistically significant. The use of an instant lottery ticket incentive did not improve the response rate to a mailed questionnaire.

  4. Heat shock response in yeast involves changes in both transcription rates and mRNA stabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Castells-Roca

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the heat stress response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by determining mRNA levels and transcription rates for the whole transcriptome after a shift from 25 °C to 37 °C. Using an established mathematical algorithm, theoretical mRNA decay rates have also been calculated from the experimental data. We have verified the mathematical predictions for selected genes by determining their mRNA decay rates at different times during heat stress response using the regulatable tetO promoter. This study indicates that the yeast response to heat shock is not only due to changes in transcription rates, but also to changes in the mRNA stabilities. mRNA stability is affected in 62% of the yeast genes and it is particularly important in shaping the mRNA profile of the genes belonging to the environmental stress response. In most cases, changes in transcription rates and mRNA stabilities are homodirectional for both parameters, although some interesting cases of antagonist behavior are found. The statistical analysis of gene targets and sequence motifs within the clusters of genes with similar behaviors shows that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulons apparently contribute to the general heat stress response by means of transcriptional factors and RNA binding proteins.

  5. Getting physicians to open the survey: little evidence that an envelope teaser increases response rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician surveys are an important tool to assess attitudes, beliefs and self-reported behaviors of this policy relevant group. In order for a physician to respond to a mailed survey, they must first open the envelope. While there is some evidence that package elements can impact physician response rates, the impact of an envelope teaser is unknown. Here we assess this by testing the impact of adding a brightly colored "$25 incentive" sticker to the outside of an envelope on response rates and nonresponse bias in a survey of physicians. Methods In the second mailing of a survey assessing physicians' moral beliefs and views on controversial health care topics, initial nonrespondents were randomly assigned to receive a survey in an envelope with a colored "$25 incentive" sticker (teaser group or an envelope without a sticker (control group. Response rates were compared between the teaser and control groups overall and by age, gender, region of the United States, specialty and years in practice. Nonresponse bias was assessed by comparing the demographic composition of the respondents to the nonrespondents in the experimental and control condition. Results No significant differences in response rates were observed between the experimental and control conditions overall (p = 0.38 or after stratifying by age, gender, region, or practice type. Within the teaser condition, there was some variation in response rate by years since graduation. There was no independent effect of the teaser on response when simultaneously controlling for demographic characteristics (OR = 0.875, p = 0.4112. Conclusions Neither response rates nor nonresponse bias were impacted by the use of an envelope teaser in a survey of physicians in the United States.

  6. Comparing Treatment Effect Measurements in Narcolepsy: The Sustained Attention to Response Task, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Astrid; van Schie, Mojca K M; Lammers, Gert Jan; Dauvilliers, Yves; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mayer, Geert; Bassetti, Claudio L; Ding, Claire-Li; Lehert, Philippe; van Dijk, J Gert

    2015-07-01

    To validate the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) as a treatment effect measure in narcolepsy, and to compare the SART with the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Validation of treatment effect measurements within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Ninety-five patients with narcolepsy with or without cataplexy. The RCT comprised a double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter trial comparing the effects of 8-w treatments with pitolisant (BF2.649), modafinil, or placebo (NCT01067222). MWT, ESS, and SART were administered at baseline and after an 8-w treatment period. The severity of excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy was also assessed using the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI-C). The SART, MWT, and ESS all had good reliability, obtained for the SART and MWT using two to three sessions in 1 day. The ability to distinguish responders from nonresponders, classified using the CGI-C score, was high for all measures, with a high performance for the SART (r = 0.61) and the ESS (r = 0.54). The Sustained Attention to Response Task is a valid and easy-to-administer measure to assess treatment effects in narcolepsy, enhanced by combining it with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage: A Corporate Socialenvironmental Responsibility in the Light of the Resource-Based View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Prazeres Balbino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of a greater concern with respect to corporate social and environmental aspects viewed in society, the Corporate Social-Environmental Responsibility (CSER is understood as a new management perspective to be used, no longer restricted to meet the aspirations of profit shareholders, but seeks include in your analysis other stakeholders such as society and the environment. According to the Resource-Based View (RBV, the CSER is regarded as an organizational capacity, because it involves a set of resources and depending on how it is integrated with business planning, could be a source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA. The objective of the study is to analyze the likely social and environmental responsibility as a sustainable competitive advantage for an organization in light of the Resource-Based View . From the discussion held to theoretical essay, we identified some aspects of CSER that can be elevated to the level of a SCA, namely: the generation of a good reputation and organizational image, and corporate citizenship in favor of the practice of CSER. It is appropriate therefore to carry out empirical studies, qualitative and/or quantitative, that can confirm and extend the arguments of this discussion, from the development of constructs, development of measurement instruments and proposing models, on CSER.

  8. Standards of socially responsible management – Impact on sustainable development of the organization, the social and natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Peršič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to outline the results of a study on the importance of the introduction/implementation of standards of socially responsible management and their impact on the business performance of organizations as well as to confirm the correlations with the sustainable development of the broader social and natural environment. The research included a population of medium-sized and large organizations (over 50 employees in the fields of marketing services in the Republic of Slovenia. Research results confirmed a direct link of understanding the management standards in organizations with a larger number of employees and the achieved higher income from operations. Research participants are familiar with the requirements of the Quality Management System Standard ISO 9001 and the Environmental Management System Standard ISO 14001, which is particularly significant for older business executives with many years of work experience in the company they run. The hypothesis that the implementation of the principles of social responsibility has a positive impact on sustainable development and the financial indicators of the organization – higher profits, business growth, productivity and cost-effectiveness in operations – has been confirmed.

  9. [Adequacy of of pacemakers responsive to the volume-minute ventilation rate in heart transplantation patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, J R; Castro, I; Lima, L L; Reis, A; Kalil, R A; Prates, P R; Lucchese, F A; Halperin, C; Pereira, E; Rodrigues, R

    1995-06-01

    To evaluate in the late post-operative period (PO) the chronotropic response to exercise of patients submitted to orthotopic cardiac transplantation (CT) and the implant of a cardiac pacemaker (PM). A rate response ventricular PM (VVI+R) which uses minute ventilation (MV) as a sensor was implanted in five patients in the early PO of CT due to chronotropic incompetence. The patients were 31 to 64 years old and the indication to implant of PM was low ventricular escape rhythm following atrial taquicardia/bradycardia (one case) or sinus bradycardia (4 cases). The study was performed by means of paired exercise tests using Naughton protocol in order to compare the heart rate in VVI (prefixed heart rate) and VVIR+MV (rate response) mode. The duration of the exercise was compared between the two modes of stimulation. In VVI mode the heart rate was significantly lower than in VVIR+MV mode for comparable periods of exercise (101 +/- 12 ppm vs 132 +/- 4 ppm; p < 0.05); in VVIR+MV mode the patients had a prolonged time of exercise as compared to VVI mode (15 +/- 7 min vs 12 +/- 7 min; NS). The MV rate response PM provided patients with satisfactory heart during exercise and may be an adequate option to patients submitted to CT who present chronotropic incompetence.

  10. Safety Standards: Implementing Fall Prevention Interventions and Sustaining Lower Fall Rates by Promoting the Culture of Safety on an Inpatient Rehabilitation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Rita Marie; Adams, Rachel Joy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review a quality improvement project aimed to examine how nurse leaders in an inpatient rehabilitation (IPR) unit can reduce the number of patient falls by implementing multiple fall prevention interventions and sustain their results by promoting a strong culture of safety on the unit. A retrospective review of IPR fall rates was performed. Quarterly fall rates were then compared with implementation dates of fall prevention interventions (safety huddles, signage, and hourly rounding). Culture of safety scores were also examined to assess the effect of an enhanced culture of safety on the sustainability of lowered fall rates. The largest decrease in fall rate was noted after initial revitalization efforts of the IPR unit's culture of safety concurrently with hourly rounding. Fall rates rise and fall despite multiple fall prevention interventions and encouraging a positive shift in the culture of safety. Physical injuries following a fall can reduce mobility and increase morbidity. Costs associated with falls negatively impact costs and reimbursement. Employing evidence-based fall prevention strategies are then of critical importance to nurse leaders as falls remain an ongoing serious adverse event. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  11. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  12. Transcription controls growth, cell kinetics and cholesterol supply to sustain ACTH responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert I; Zhao, Xin; Mullins, Linda J; Mullins, John J; Cairns, Carolynn; Wrobel, Nicola; Dunbar, Donald R; Bailey, Matthew A; Kenyon, Christopher J

    2017-10-01

    Chronic ACTH exposure is associated with adrenal hypertrophy and steroidogenesis. The underlying molecular processes in mice have been analysed by microarray, histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Synacthen infused for 2 weeks markedly increased adrenal mass and plasma corticosterone levels. Microarray analysis found greater than 2-fold changes in expression of 928 genes (P change in cell proliferation. Growth arrest genes, Cdkn1a and Cdkn1c, which are known to be active in hypertrophied cells, were increased >4-fold and cross-sectional area of fasciculata cells was 2-fold greater. In contrast, genes associated with apoptosis (eg Casp12, Clu,) were downregulated and apoptotic cells (Tunel staining) were fewer (P sustained by genes controlling cholesterol supply and adrenal mass. ACTH effects on adrenal morphology and genes controlling cell hypertrophy, proliferation and apoptosis suggest the involvement of different cell types and separate molecular pathways. © 2017 The authors.

  13. Geoengineering Responses to Climate Change Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Failure by the international community to make substantive progress in reducing CO2 emissions, coupled with recent evidence of accelerating climate change, has brought increasing urgency to the search for additional remediation approaches.  This book presents a selection of state-of-the-art geoengineering methods for deliberately reducing the effects of anthropogenic climate change, either by actively removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or by decreasing the amount of sunlight absorbed at the Earth’s surface.  These methods contrast with more conventional mitigation approaches which focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide. Geoengineering technologies could become a key tool to be used in conjunction with emissions reduction to limit the magnitude of climate change.  Featuring authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, this book presents a wide range of climate change remediation technologies. Examines th...

  14. The empowerment of sustainable design in food packaging as designer responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, V.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is emphasized on the empowerment of sustainable design in providing the dual function of a food packaging. Which can extend the life of paper, cardboard, plastic, aluminum foil so as to reduce the contribution of waste on earth. The methodology used in this research is using qualitative research. With the main approach taken on the layout of the packaging design, the approach that relies heavily on the data in the form of packaging design. For the process of observation, the authors should compare with the forms of food packaging designs that are contained in the diversity of food packaging types from products outside Indonesia. The purpose of this study is also intended as a recommendation through observation of data interviews and survey related products. Conclusion through material exploration, packaging structure exploration, efficient exploration of ink usage and packaging usage patterns.

  15. Daily physical activity and heart rate response in people with a unilateral traumatic transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Johannes B; Schrauwen, Hannelore J; Stam, Henk J

    2008-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that people with a unilateral traumatic transtibial amputation are less active than people without an amputation, and to explore whether both groups have a similar heart rate response while walking. A case-comparison study. General community. Nine subjects with a unilateral traumatic transtibial amputation and 9 matched subjects without known impairments. Not applicable. Percentage of dynamic activities in 48 hours (expressing activity level). Additionally, we examined heart rate and percentage heart rate reserve during walking (expressing heart rate response) and body motility during walking (expressing walking speed). These parameters were objectively measured at participants' homes on 2 consecutive days. Subjects with an amputation showed a lower percentage of dynamic activities (6.0% vs 11.7% in a 48-h period, P=.02). No significant differences were found between the 2 groups in heart rate (91.1 bpm vs 89.5 bpm, P=.86) and percentage heart rate reserve during walking (28.2% vs 27.5%, P=1.0). Body motility during walking was lower in the amputation group (.14 g vs .18 g, Ptranstibial amputation are considerably less active than persons without known impairments. The results indicate that heart rate response during walking is similar in both groups, and is probably regulated by adapting one's walking speed.

  16. Strategic Planning for Sustainability in Canadian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bieler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews representations of sustainability in the strategic plans of Canadian higher education institutions (HEIs. A content analysis of the strategic plans of 50 HEIs was undertaken to determine the extent to which sustainability is included as a significant policy priority in the plans, including across the five domains of governance, education, campus operations, research, and community outreach. We found 41 strategic plans with some discussion of sustainability, and identified three characteristic types of response: (i accommodative responses that include sustainability as one of many policy priorities and address only one or two sustainability domains; (ii reformative responses that involve some alignment of policy priorities with sustainability values in at least a few domains; and (iii progressive responses that make connections across four or five domains and offer a more detailed discussion of sustainability and sustainability-specific policies. Accommodative responses were dominant. More progressive responses were typically from institutions participating in the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment and Rating System (STARS of the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education. The paper concludes with consideration of the political and economic contexts contributing to this relative prevalence of accommodative responses to sustainability.

  17. Predictors of response rates to a long term follow-up mail out survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A Koloski

    Full Text Available Very little is known about predictors of response rates to long-term follow-up mail-out surveys, including whether the timing of an incentive affects response rates. We aimed to determine whether the timing of the incentive affects response rates and what baseline demographic and psychological factors predict response rates to a 12 year follow-up survey.Participants were 450 randomly selected people from the Penrith population, Australia who had previously participated in a mail-out survey 12 years earlier. By random allocation, 150 people received no incentive, 150 received a lottery ticket inducement with the follow-up survey and 150 received a lottery ticket inducement on the return of a completed survey.The overall response rate for the study was 63%. There were no significant differences in terms of response rates between the no incentive (58.8%;95%CI 49.8%,67.3%, incentive with survey (65.1%;95%CI 56.2%,73.3% and promised incentive (65.3%;95%CI 56.1%,73.7% groups. Independent predictors of responding to the 12 year survey were being older (OR=1.02, 95%CI 1.01,1.05,P=0.001 and being less neurotic as reported on the first survey 12 years earlier (OR=0.92, 95%CI 0.86,0.98, P=0.010.Psychological factors may play a role in determining who responds to long-term follow-up surveys although timing of incentives does not.

  18. Sustaining soil productivity in response to global climate change: science, policy, and ethics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norman, John M; Sauer, Thomas J; Siva Kumar, M. V. K

    2011-01-01

    "Sustaning Soil Productivity in Response to Global Climate Change is a two-part text bringing together the latest research in soil science and climatology and the ethical, political and social issues...

  19. Diameter growth rates in tropical dry forests: contributions to the sustainable management of forests in the Bolivian Cerrado biogeographical province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, L.; Villalba, R.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth ring variations were used to provide the rates in diameter growth for seven tree species in the Bolivian Cerrado biogeographical province. Ten to 50 trees were measured per species. Ring width measurements provided accurate data on the rates of tree growth. Variations in growth rates were

  20. Corporate sustainability and responsibility : creating value for business, society and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Today’s corporations are increasingly implementing responsible behaviours as they pursue profit-making activities. A thorough literature review suggests that there is a link between corporate social responsibility (CSR) or corporate social performance (CSP) and financial performance. In addition, there are relevant theoretical underpinnings and empirical studies that have often used other concepts, including corporate citizenship, stakeholder management and business ethics. In this light, thi...

  1. Cognitive Consequences of a Sustained Monocyte Type 1 IFN Response in HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pulliam, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    With successful antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1-infected subjects can achieve undetectable peripheral viral loads and immune homeostasis. However, in a subset of individuals on therapy, peripheral monocytes have a gene expression profile characteristic of a type 1 interferon α (IFN) response. This type 1 IFN response correlates with a number of pathogenic conditions including neural cell injury and in combination with HCV infection, cognitive impairment. Lessons from the non-human primate model...

  2. Response function and count rates with the SODART Bragg-Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halm, I.; Wiebicke, H.J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1998-01-01

    The SODART X-ray telescope includes an Objective Crystal Spectrometer (OCS) providing an energy resolving power around 1000 by Bragg reflection upon crystals. The SODART-OCS response function is used within the XSPEC package for the calculation of count rates for X-ray line and continuum registra......The SODART X-ray telescope includes an Objective Crystal Spectrometer (OCS) providing an energy resolving power around 1000 by Bragg reflection upon crystals. The SODART-OCS response function is used within the XSPEC package for the calculation of count rates for X-ray line and continuum...

  3. An advance letter did not increase the response rates in a telephone survey: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Renee N; Reid, Alison; Driscoll, Timothy R; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-12-01

    To test the impact of an advance letter on response and cooperation rates in a nationwide telephone survey, given previous inconsistent results. Within the context of a larger telephone survey, 1,000 Australian households were randomly selected to take part in this trial. Half were randomly allocated to receive an advance letter, whereas the remainder did not receive any advance communication. Response and cooperation rates were compared between the two groups. A total of 244 interviews were completed, 134 of which were with households that had been sent an advance letter. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant difference in response between those who had received a letter and those who had not (26.8% vs. 22.0%, respectively). In addition, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of either cooperation (78.4% vs. 79.7%) or response rate (56.3% vs. 57.9%), and no clear differences emerged in terms of the demographic characteristics of the two groups. An advance letter was not seen to be effective in increasing response or cooperation rates in a nationwide telephone survey. Researchers should consider alternative methods of increasing participation in telephone surveys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The rate of immune escape vanishes when multiple immune responses control an HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W M; Wijnker, Gilles; de Boer, Rob J

    2013-09-15

    During the first months of HIV infection, the virus typically evolves several immune escape mutations. These mutations are found in epitopes in viral proteins and reduce the impact of the CD8⁺ T cells specific for these epitopes. Recent data show that only a subset of the epitopes escapes, that most of these escapes evolve early, and that the rate of immune escape slows down considerably. To investigate why the evolution of immune escape slows down over the time of infection, we have extended a consensus mathematical model to allow several immune responses to control the virus together. In the extended model, most escapes also occur early, and the immune escape rate becomes small later, and typically only a minority of the epitopes escape. We show that escaping one of the many immune responses provides little advantage after viral setpoint has been approached because the total killing rate hardly depends on the breadth of the immune response. If the breadth of the immune response slowly wanes during disease progression, the model predicts an increase in the rate of immune escape at late stages of infection. Overall, the most striking prediction of the model is that HIV evolves a small number of immune escapes, in both relative and absolute terms, when the CTL immune response is broad.

  5. In Situ Rates of Sulfate Reduction in Response to Geochemical Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeshaw, T.A.; McGuire, J.T.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Smith, E.W.

    2011-01-01

    Rates of in situ microbial sulfate reduction in response to geochemical perturbations were determined using Native Organism Geochemical Experimentation Enclosures (NOGEEs), a new in situ technique developed to facilitate evaluation of controls on microbial reaction rates. NOGEEs function by first trapping a native microbial community in situ and then subjecting it to geochemical perturbations through the introduction of various test solutions. On three occasions, NOGEEs were used at the Norman Landfill research site in Norman, Oklahoma, to evaluate sulfate-reduction rates in wetland sediments impacted by landfill leachate. The initial experiment, in May 2007, consisted of five introductions of a sulfate test solution over 11 d. Each test stimulated sulfate reduction with rates increasing until an apparent maximum was achieved. Two subsequent experiments, conducted in October 2007 and February 2008, evaluated the effects of concentration on sulfate-reduction rates. Results from these experiments showed that faster sulfate-reduction rates were associated with increased sulfate concentrations. Understanding variability in sulfate-reduction rates in response to perturbations may be an important factor in predicting rates of natural attenuation and bioremediation of contaminants in systems not at biogeochemical equilibrium. Copyright ?? 2011 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2011 National Ground Water Association.

  6. Sustainable breeding objectives and possible selection response: Finding the balance between economics and breeders' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst-Waltl, Birgit; Fuerst, Christian; Obritzhauser, Walter; Egger-Danner, Christa

    2016-12-01

    To optimize breeding objectives of Fleckvieh and Brown Swiss cattle, economic values were re-estimated using updated prices, costs, and population parameters. Subsequently, the expected selection responses for the total merit index (TMI) were calculated using previous and newly derived economic values. The responses were compared for alternative scenarios that consider breeders' preferences. A dairy herd with milk production, bull fattening, and rearing of replacement stock was modeled. The economic value of a trait was derived by calculating the difference in herd profit before and after genetic improvement. Economic values for each trait were derived while keeping all other traits constant. The traits considered were dairy, beef, and fitness traits, the latter including direct health traits. The calculation of the TMI and the expected selection responses was done using selection index methodology with estimated breeding values instead of phenotypic deviations. For the scenario representing the situation up to 2016, all traits included in the TMI were considered with their respective economic values before the update. Selection response was also calculated for newly derived economic values and some alternative scenarios, including the new trait vitality index (subindex comprising stillbirth and rearing losses). For Fleckvieh, the relative economic value for the trait groups milk, beef, and fitness were 38, 16, and 46%, respectively, up to 2016, and 39, 13, and 48%, respectively, for the newly derived economic values. Approximately the same selection response may be expected for the milk trait group, whereas the new weightings resulted in a substantially decreased response in beef traits. Within the fitness block, all traits, with the exception of fertility, showed a positive selection response. For Brown Swiss, the relative economic values for the main trait groups milk, beef, and fitness were 48, 5, and 47% before 2016, respectively, whereas for the newly derived

  7. Shortening a survey and using alternative forms of prenotification: Impact on response rate and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Sarah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that survey response rates are decreasing and that the level of survey response can be influenced by questionnaire length and the use of pre-notification. The goal of the present investigation was determine the effect of questionnaire length and pre-notification type (letter vs. postcard on measures of survey quality, including response rates, response times (days to return the survey, and item nonresponse. Methods In July 2008, the authors randomized 900 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota aged 25-65 years to one of two versions of the Talley Bowel Disease Questionnaire, a survey designed to assess the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. One version was two pages long and the other 4 pages. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, respondents were randomized to survey length and one of two pre-notification types, letter or postcard; 780 residents ultimately received a survey, after excluding those who had moved outside the county or passed away. Results Overall, the response rates (RR did not vary by length of survey (RR = 44.6% for the 2-page survey and 48.4% for the 4-page or pre-notification type (RR = 46.3% for the letter and 46.8% for the postcard. Differences in response rates by questionnaire length were seen among younger adults who were more likely to respond to the 4-page than the 2-page questionnaire (RR = 39.0% compared to 21.8% for individuals in their 20s and RR = 49.0% compared to 32.3% for those in their 30s. There were no differences across conditions with respect to item non-response or time (days after mailing to survey response. Conclusion This study suggests that the shortest survey does not necessarily provide the best option for increased response rates and survey quality. Pre-notification type (letter or postcard did not impact response rate suggesting that postcards may be more beneficial due to the lower associated costs of this method of contact.

  8. Serum testosterone and heart rate response to short-term intense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serum testosterone and heart rate responses to short strenuous physical exercise were studied in twenty-one non-athletic male students. The body mass index was also determined. Serum testosterone rose significantly (p<0.05) from 0.8±0.2 ng/ml to 1.7±0.2 ng/ml (273.5±100.2%, p<0.05). Likewise, the heart rate rose ...

  9. Individual differences in eye blink rate predict both transient and tonic pupil responses during reversal learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Sara; Knapen, Tomas; Theeuwes, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The pupil response under constant illumination can be used as a marker of cognitive processes. In the past, pupillary responses have been studied in the context of arousal and decision-making. However, recent work involving Parkinson's patients suggested that pupillary responses are additionally affected by reward sensitivity. Here, we build on these findings by examining how pupil responses are modulated by reward and loss while participants (N = 30) performed a Pavlovian reversal learning task. In fast (transient) pupil responses, we observed arousal-based influences on pupil size both during the expectation of upcoming value and the evaluation of unexpected monetary outcomes. Importantly, after incorporating eye blink rate (EBR), a behavioral correlate of striatal dopamine levels, we observed that participants with lower EBR showed stronger pupil dilation during the expectation of upcoming reward. Subsequently, when reward expectations were violated, participants with lower EBR showed stronger pupil responses after experiencing unexpected loss. Across trials, the detection of a reward contingency reversal was reflected in a slow (tonic) dilatory pupil response observed already several trials prior to the behavioral report. Interestingly, EBR correlated positively with this tonic detection response, suggesting that variability in the arousal-based detection response may reflect individual differences in striatal dopaminergic tone. Our results provide evidence that a behavioral marker of baseline striatal dopamine level (EBR) can potentially be used to describe the differential effects of value-based learning in the arousal-based pupil response. PMID:28961277

  10. Does response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlate with the conversion rate and survival in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases?: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, M; Hatano, E; Nishino, H; Seo, S; Taura, K; Uemoto, S

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlates with the conversion rate, R0 resection rate, and survival in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). We reviewed the literature of prospective, controlled trials of systemic chemotherapy for patients with unresectable liver-only CRLM, including resectable extrahepatic metastases. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. A total of 26 patient groups from 18 studies were reviewed. The response rate was significantly correlated with the conversion rate (r = 0.66) and R0 resection rate (r = 0.43) in overall patients. In subgroup analysis, only the conversion rate in patients with chemotherapy only (r = 0.75) and anti-EGFR therapy (r = 0.78) were significantly strongly correlated with the response rate. A non-significant strong trend toward correlation between response and conversion rates was observed in patients with bevacizumab (r = 0.73, p = 0.10). The regression line in the scatter plot of patients using bevacizumab showed a less steep slope. This indicated that conversion rates were relatively less affected by response rates under anti-VEGF therapy compared with the other patient groups. The response rate in chemotherapy-only patients was significantly correlated with median progression-free survival (r = 0.61) and overall survival (r = 0.66). Chemotherapy without molecular target agents and with anti-EGFR agents shows similar results of correlation between response and conversion/R0 resection rates. Under anti-VEGF therapy, conversion would be expected, even with a relatively lower response rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  11. Transient and sustained components of the sensorimotor BOLD response in fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxen, Michael; Cassidy, Ryan J.; Dawson, Tara L.; Ross, Bernhard; Graham, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal time courses in functional magnetic resonance imaging are estimated within the framework of general linear modeling by convolving an input function, that represents neural activity, with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF). Here we investigate the performance of different neural input functions and latency-optimized HRFs for modeling BOLD signals in response to vibrotactile somatosensory stimuli of variable durations (0.5, 1, 4, 7 s) in 14 young, healthy adults who were required to make button press responses at each stimulus cessation. Informed by electrophysiology and the behavioral task, three nested models with an increasing number of parameters were considered: a boxcar; boxcar and offset transient; and onset transient, boxcar and offset transient (TBT). The TBT model provided the best fit of the group-averaged BOLD time courses based on χ2 and F statistics. Only the TBT model was capable of fitting the bimodal shape of the BOLD response to the 7-s stimulus and the relative peak amplitudes for all stimulus lengths in key somatosensory and motor areas. This suggests that the TBT model provides a more comprehensive description of brain sensorimotor responses in this experiment than provided by the simple boxcar model. Work comparing the activation maps obtained with the TBT model with magnetoencephalography data is under way. PMID:22495237

  12. Anger responses to psychosocial stress predict heart rate and cortisol stress responses in men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupis, Sarah B; Lerman, Michelle; Wolf, Jutta M

    2014-11-01

    While previous research has suggested that anger and fear responses to stress are linked to distinct sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress responses, little is known about how these emotions predict hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. Further, earlier research primarily relied on retrospective self-report of emotion. The current study aimed at addressing both issues in male and female individuals by assessing the role of anger and fear in predicting heart rate and cortisol stress responses using both self-report and facial coding analysis to assess emotion responses. We exposed 32 healthy students (18 female; 19.6±1.7 yr) to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (TSST) and measured heart rate and salivary cortisol levels throughout the protocol. Anger and fear before and after stress exposure was assessed by self-report, and video recordings of the TSST were assessed by a certified facial coder to determine emotion expression (FACS). Self-reported emotions and emotion expressions did not correlate (all p>.23). Increases in self-reported fear predicted blunted cortisol responses in men (β=0.41, p=.04). Also for men, longer durations of anger expression predicted exaggerated cortisol responses (β=0.67 p=.004), and more anger incidences predicted exaggerated cortisol and heart rate responses (β=0.51, p=.033; β=0.46, p=.066, resp.). Anger and fear did not predict SNS or HPA activity for females (all p>.23). The current differential self-report and facial coding findings support the use of multiple modes of emotion assessment. Particularly, FACS but not self-report revealed a robust anger-stress association that could have important downstream health effects for men. For women, future research may clarify the role of other emotions, such as self-conscious expressions of shame, for physiological stress responses. A better understanding of the emotion-stress link may contribute to behavioral interventions targeting health-promoting ways of

  13. Rates of missing responses in personal digital assistant (PDA) versus paper assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palen, Lori-Ann; Graham, John W; Smith, Edward A; Caldwell, Linda L; Mathews, Catherine; Flisher, Alan J

    2008-06-01

    This article describes rates of missing item responses in personal digital assistant (PDA) assessments as compared to paper assessments. Data come from the evaluation of a classroom-based leisure, life skills, and sexuality education program delivered to high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Analyses show that the paper assessments had much higher rates of missing-ness than PDA assessments. This association is moderated by item order. Certain analyses also suggest that paper assessments have higher rates of missingness for items pertaining to participants' sexual behavior. Implications of these results for evaluation research will be discussed.

  14. Proposal for structure of the national system for support of sustainable tourism and a methodology of rating of selected tourist services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Burian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis is focused on preparation of basic elements of the National System for Support of Sustainable Tourism in the Czech Republic and on development of a methodology for ranking of selected tourist services from the sustainable point of view. Its result is planned to be used as a basis for real decisions potentially taken by the Czech government in near future.The first part analyses and summarises existing approaches worldwide to sustainable tourism, potential benefits and different impacts of tourism in order to specify possible measures avoiding unwanted impacts later on. The need to change towards sutainability in tourism is based on analysis of different policies and documents and a summary of duties of the Czech government (national ones and international ones. There is also a list of the best experiences available how to promote, support and encourage development of sustainable tourism based on analysis of the World Tourism Organisation studies and recommendations, existing EMS systems like ISO, EU ecolabel or methods, approaches, criteria and indicators used by different labels.Next part defines neccessary elements for successful system functioning in the Czech Republic, based on existing and working governmental and non-governmental structures not forgetting such important activities like information, education, marketing and motivation and sets expected responsibilities and roles of different potential partners participating on the system implementation.Unfortunately, there is no one certified tourist business in Czechia according to ISO, EMAS or EU flower before end of October 2004. Main reasons are price, missing benefits and motivations for businesses. Therefore an self-assesment questionnaire for a small-scale accommodation is developed. This fits with the „easy to understand, easy to answer“. This option is missing in the country and it is understood as a prestep to more sophisticated methods of measurment. The main

  15. Minimal changes in heart rate of incubating American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) in response to human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, Tracy E.; Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    An organism's heart rate is commonly used as an indicator of physiological stress due to environmental stimuli. We used heart rate to monitor the physiological response of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) to human activity in their nesting environment. We placed artificial eggs with embedded microphones in 42 oystercatcher nests to record the heart rate of incubating oystercatchers continuously for up to 27 days. We used continuous video and audio recordings collected simultaneously at the nests to relate physiological response of birds (heart rate) to various types of human activity. We observed military and civilian aircraft, off-road vehicles, and pedestrians around nests. With the exception of high-speed, low-altitude military overflights, we found little evidence that oystercatcher heart rates were influenced by most types of human activity. The low-altitude flights were the only human activity to significantly increase average heart rates of incubating oystercatchers (12% above baseline). Although statistically significant, we do not consider the increase in heart rate during high-speed, low-altitude military overflights to be of biological significance. This noninvasive technique may be appropriate for other studies of stress in nesting birds.

  16. The Proposal Concept of Development and Implementation in Strategy of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility in the Context of the HCS Model 3E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakál, Peter; Hrdinová, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    This article is the result of a conceptual design methodology for the development of a sustainable strategy of sustainable corporate social responsibility (SCSR) in the context of the HCS model 3E formed, as a co-author within the stated grants and dissertation. On the basis of the use of propositional logic, the SCSR procedure is proposed for incorporation into the corporate strategy of sustainable development and the integrated management system (IMS) of the industrial enterprise. The aim of this article is the proposal of the concept of development and implementation strategy of SCSR in the context of the HCS model 3E.

  17. Harnessing a community for sustainable disaster response and recovery: an operational model for integrating nongovernmental organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Joie; Chandra, Anita

    2013-08-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are important to a community during times of disaster and routine operations. However, their effectiveness is reduced without an operational framework that integrates response and recovery efforts. Without integration, coordination among NGOs is challenging and use of government resources is inefficient. We developed an operational model to specify NGO roles and responsibilities before, during, and after a disaster. We conducted an analysis of peer-reviewed literature, relevant policy, and federal guidance to characterize the capabilities of NGOs, contextual factors that determine their involvement in disaster operations, and key services they provide during disaster response and recovery. We also identified research questions that should be prioritized to improve coordination and communication between NGOs and government. Our review showed that federal policy stresses the importance of partnerships between NGOs and government agencies and among other NGOs. Such partnerships can build deep local networks and broad systems that reach from local communities to the federal government. Understanding what capacities NGOs need and what factors influence their ability to perform during a disaster informs an operational model that could optimize NGO performance. Although the operational model needs to be applied and tested in community planning and disaster response, it holds promise as a unifying framework across new national preparedness and recovery policy, and provides structure to community planning, resource allocation, and metrics on which to evaluate NGO disaster involvement.

  18. Professional Learning Communities: An Effective Mechanism for the Successful Implementation and Sustainability of Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschenk, Nancy A.; Fuchs, Wendy W.

    2016-01-01

    Models of response to intervention (RtI) are being widely implemented in schools across the country in order to increase effective teaching and remove barriers to student learning. The implementation of RtI is greatly facilitated when teachers and staff see themselves as a professional learning community (PLC). This article begins with an…

  19. Optimization of sustained-release propranolol dosage form using factorial design and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Yang, Wan-Chiech; Chang, Jui-Sheng; Wu, Pao-Chu

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop propranolol extended release formulations containing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). The results indicate that the drug release from the tablet form containing a high amount of HPMC was incomplete, and avicel addition could increase the release percent at a later stage. In order to readily obtain an optimal formulation, response surface methodology and multiple response optimization utilizing a quadratic polynomial equation was used. The model formulations were prepared according to a factorial design. The effects of causal factors including the HPMC/drug ratio (X1) and avicel level (X2), on drug release were also measured. The drug release percentage at 1.5, 4, 8, 14 and 24 h were the target response and were restricted to not more than 25%, 35-50%, 55-70%, 75-90%, and 95-110%, respectively. The results showed that the optimized formulation provided a dissolution pattern equivalent to the predicted curve, which indicated that the optimal formulation could be obtained using response surface methodology. The mechanism of drug release from HMPC matrices tablets followed quasi-Fickian diffusion.

  20. Overexpectation: Response Loss during Sustained Stimulus Compounding in the Rabbit Nictitating Membrane Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, E. James; White, Natasha E.

    2004-01-01

    Rabbits were given reinforced training of the nictitating membrane (NM) response using separate conditioned stimuli (CSs), which were a tone, light, and/or tactile vibration. Then, two CSs were compounded and given further pairings with the unconditioned stimulus (US). Evidence of both overexpectation and summation effects appeared. That is,…

  1. Sustaining the Dream: A Response to Excessive Positivism in Person-Centered Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Excessive Positivism in Person-Centered Planning," by Steve Holburn and Christine D. Cea. The author begins by complementing Holburn and Cea on their courage to voice concerns that perhaps may not appear to be politically correct or perhaps too bold to express in the context of a journal like…

  2. A Sustainable Model for Training Teachers to Use Pivotal Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrheinrich, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the rate of autism diagnoses has created a growing demand for teachers who are trained to use effective interventions. The train-the-trainer model, which involves training supervisors to train others, may be ideal for providing cost-effective training and ongoing support to teachers. Although research supports interventions, such…

  3. Reexamining Traditional Issues in Survey Research: Just How Evil Is the Anathema of Low Response Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sheldon B.; Boser, Judith A.

    This study was designed to determine the extent to which the results of an employment survey of graduates of a teacher preparation program would have been affected by changes in response rate. At the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, a followup of teacher education program graduates is conducted annually. A total of 284 graduates of the 1992…

  4. Factors Influencing Mail Survey Response Rates: What Do We Really Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    Most studies of mail survey methodology focus on specific design elements, but several major reviews of research have attempted to synthesize the findings of independent empirical studies. This study examined the review articles for what they have to say about factors influencing response rates and for their methodology. A literature review…

  5. Effect of Loading Rate and Orientation on the Compressive Response of Human Cortical Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    primarily animal cortical bone. Tennyson et al. (8) studied specimens from bovine femurs subjected to a range of strain rates from 10 to 450/s and provided a...Biomech. (Bristol, Avon) 2008, 23,1294–1298. 8. Tennyson , R. C.; Ewert, R. Niranjan, V. Dynamic Viscoelastic Response of Bone. Experimental Mechanics

  6. Heart rate response during sleep in elderly patients after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Variability in heart rate response (HRR) can be used as a measure for autonomic nervous system function, which may influence sleep disturbances and the recovery phase after major surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic function by assessment of HRR during sleep arousals in the po...

  7. The response rate at chemotherapy in advanced Hodgkin's disease reflected by peripheral lymphocyte count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizan, Z; Korec, S; Bohunický, L

    1978-01-01

    Forty patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease stage III and IV were treated with combination chemotherapy. Absolute lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood was determined before start to chemotherapy. Higher levels of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were associated with higher chemotherapy response rates. This difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.05).

  8. Effects of an Introductory Letter on Response Rates to a Teen/Parent Telephone Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Susan I.; Mayer, Joni A.; Clapp, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a pilot study in preparation for a larger investigation that will rely on telephone surveys to assess select health behaviors of teens and their parents, with a focus on indoor tanning. This study used a randomized design to assess the impact of a presurvey letter on response rates to a telephone survey, as well as prevalence…

  9. Intake rates and the functional response in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) eating macro-invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goss-Custard, John D.; West, Andrew D.; Yates, Michael G.; Caldow, Richard W. G.; Stillman, Richard A.; Bardsley, Louise; Castilla, Juan; Castro, Macarena; Dierschke, Volker; Durell, Sarah E. A. Le V. Dit; Eichhorn, Goetz; Ens, Bruno J.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Udayangani-Fernando, P. U.; Ferns, Peter N.; Hockey, Philip A. R.; Gill, Jennifer A.; Johnstone, Ian; Kalejta-Summers, Bozena; Masero, Jose A.; Moreira, Francisco; Nagarajan, Rajarathina Velu; Owens, Ian P. F.; Pacheco, Cristian; Perez-Hurtado, Alejandro; Rogers, Danny; Scheiffarth, Gregor; Sitters, Humphrey; Sutherland, William J.; Triplet, Patrick; Worrall, Dave H.; Zharikov, Yuri; Zwarts, Leo; Pettifor, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    As field determinations take much effort, it would be useful to be able to predict easily the coefficients describing the functional response of free-living predators, the function relating food intake rate to the abundance of food organisms in the environment. As a means easily to parameterise an

  10. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based...

  11. The heartbrake of social rejection: heart rate deceleration in response to unexpected peer rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunther Moor, B.; Crone, E.A.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Social relationships are vitally important in human life. Social rejection in particular has been conceptualized as a potent social cue resulting in feelings of hurt. Our study investigated the psychophysiological manifestation of hurt feelings by examining the beat-by-beat heart rate response

  12. Heart rate responses to agonistic encounters in greylag geese, Anser anser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, Claudia A. F.; Scheiber, Isabella B. R.; Weiss, Brigitte M.; Kotrschal, Kurt

    As in most social groups, agonistic interactions of various intensities are common in a goose flock. This may cause social stress, modulating heart rate (HR), which may serve as a measure of energetic investment and also of individual emotional involvement. We investigated HR responses to social

  13. Can Lottery Incentives Boost Web Survey Response Rates? Findings from Four Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguilles, Jerold S.; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Saunders, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Institutions of higher education rely on student surveys for a number of purposes, including planning, assessment, and research. Web surveys are especially prevalent given their ease of use and low-cost; yet, obtaining a high response rate is a challenge. Although researchers have investigated the use of incentives in traditional mail surveys,…

  14. Response and Remission in Adolescent Mania: Signal Detection Analyses of the Young Mania Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nick C.; Patrick, Danielle M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal criteria for defining response and remission in adolescents with acute mania. Method: Data were analyzed from three treatment studies of adolescents with acute mania (N = 99). Trained raters completed the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and clinicians completed the Clinical Global…

  15. Rates of Missing Responses in Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) versus Paper Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palen, Lori-Ann; Graham, John W.; Smith, Edward A.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Mathews, Catherine; Flisher, Alan J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes rates of missing item responses in personal digital assistant (PDA) assessments as compared to paper assessments. Data come from the evaluation of a classroom-based leisure, life skills, and sexuality education program delivered to high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Analyses show that the paper assessments had…

  16. Slew-rate dependence of tracer magnetization response in magnetic particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saqlain A; Ferguson, R M; Krishnan, K M

    2014-10-28

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging technique that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. Currently, 25 kHz and 20 mT/μ0 excitation fields are common in MPI, but lower field amplitudes may be necessary for patient safety in future designs. Here, we address fundamental questions about MPI tracer magnetization dynamics and predict tracer performance in future scanners that employ new combinations of excitation field amplitude (Ho ) and frequency (ω). Using an optimized, monodisperse MPI tracer, we studied how several combinations of drive field frequencies and amplitudes affect the tracer's response, using Magnetic Particle Spectrometry and AC hysteresis, for drive field conditions at 15.5, 26, and 40.2 kHz, with field amplitudes ranging from 7 to 52 mT/μ0. For both fluid and immobilized nanoparticle samples, we determined that magnetic response was dominated by Néel reversal. Furthermore, we observed that the peak slew-rate (ωHo) determined the tracer magnetic response. Smaller amplitudes provided correspondingly smaller field of view, sometimes resulting in excitation of minor hysteresis loops. Changing the drive field conditions but keeping the peak slew-rate constant kept the tracer response almost the same. Higher peak slew-rates led to reduced maximum signal intensity and greater coercivity in the tracer response. Our experimental results were in reasonable agreement with Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories.

  17. A nonlinear filter-bank model of the guinea-pig cochlear nerve: Rate responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Christian J.; O'Mard, Lowel P.; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.; Meddis, Ray

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study is to produce a functional model of the auditory nerve (AN) response of the guinea-pig that reproduces a wide range of important responses to auditory stimulation. The model is intended for use as an input to larger scale models of auditory processing in the brain-stem. A dual-resonance nonlinear filter architecture is used to reproduce the mechanical tuning of the cochlea. Transduction to the activity on the AN is accomplished with a recently proposed model of the inner-hair-cell. Together, these models have been shown to be able to reproduce the response of high-, medium-, and low-spontaneous rate fibers from the guinea-pig AN at high best frequencies (BFs). In this study we generate parameters that allow us to fit the AN model to data from a wide range of BFs. By varying the characteristics of the mechanical filtering as a function of the BF it was possible to reproduce the BF dependence of frequency-threshold tuning curves, AN rate-intensity functions at and away from BF, compression of the basilar membrane at BF as inferred from AN responses, and AN iso-intensity functions. The model is a convenient computational tool for the simulation of the range of nonlinear tuning and rate-responses found across the length of the guinea-pig cochlear nerve.

  18. Mechanical response of porcine skin under compression from low to high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Chiara; Butler, Ben; Williams, Alun; Brown, Katherine; Proud, William

    2013-06-01

    Uniaxial compression experiments were performed on fresh porcine skin samples at different strain rates to study the stress-strain response. Low strain rate experiments were performed with an Instron 5566, while high strain rates were achieved using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system. Magnesium bars and semiconductor strain gauges were used respectively to maximize the signal transmission from porcine skin to the output bar and to allow the signal measurement. Skin samples were harvested from different area of the animal to investigate the heterogeneity of such material. The experimental results showed that the mechanical response of skin in compression is strongly dependent on the strain rate of loading and on the location from which the samples were collected. Specimens collected from the rump showed a stiffer response compared to samples harvested from the thigh. Finally, a histological analysis of the samples post compression was carried out to examine the extent of tissue damage as a function of strain rate. This work is supported by the Atomic Weapons Establishment, UK and The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies at Imperial College London, UK.

  19. Neuronal response impedance mechanism implementing cooperative networks with low firing rates and μs precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Roni; Goldental, Amir; Marmari, Hagar; Brama, Haya; Stern, Edward A; Sardi, Shira; Sabo, Pinhas; Kanter, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Realizations of low firing rates in neural networks usually require globally balanced distributions among excitatory and inhibitory links, while feasibility of temporal coding is limited by neuronal millisecond precision. We show that cooperation, governing global network features, emerges through nodal properties, as opposed to link distributions. Using in vitro and in vivo experiments we demonstrate microsecond precision of neuronal response timings under low stimulation frequencies, whereas moderate frequencies result in a chaotic neuronal phase characterized by degraded precision. Above a critical stimulation frequency, which varies among neurons, response failures were found to emerge stochastically such that the neuron functions as a low pass filter, saturating the average inter-spike-interval. This intrinsic neuronal response impedance mechanism leads to cooperation on a network level, such that firing rates are suppressed toward the lowest neuronal critical frequency simultaneously with neuronal microsecond precision. Our findings open up opportunities of controlling global features of network dynamics through few nodes with extreme properties.

  20. Empirically observed learning rates for concentrating solar power and their responses to regime change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliestam, Johan; Labordena, Mercè; Patt, Anthony; Pfenninger, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) capacity has expanded slower than other renewable technologies and its costs are still high. Until now, there have been too few CSP projects to derive robust conclusions about its cost development. Here we present an empirical study of the cost development of all operating CSP stations and those under construction, examining the roles of capacity growth, industry continuity, and policy support design. We identify distinct CSP expansion phases, each characterized by different cost pressure in the policy regime and different industry continuity. In 2008-2011, with low cost pressure and following industry discontinuity, costs increased. In the current phase, with high cost pressure and continuous industry development, costs decreased rapidly, with learning rates exceeding 20%. Data for projects under construction suggest that this trend is continuing and accelerating. If support policies and industrial structure are sustained, we see no near-term factors that would hinder further cost decreases.

  1. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  2. Analysis of Factors Influencing Telephone Call Response Rate in an Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Matías-Guiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive epidemiology research involves collecting data from large numbers of subjects. Obtaining these data requires approaches designed to achieve maximum participation or response rates among respondents possessing the desired information. We analyze participation and response rates in a population-based epidemiological study though a telephone survey and identify factors implicated in consenting to participate. Rates found exceeded those reported in the literature and they were higher for afternoon calls than for morning calls. Women and subjects older than 40 years were the most likely to answer the telephone. The study identified geographical differences, with higher RRs in districts in southern Spain that are not considered urbanized. This information may be helpful for designing more efficient community epidemiology projects.

  3. Gender-specific cold responses induce a similar body-cooling rate but different neuroendocrine and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Brazaitis, Marius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether there are any gender differences in body-heating strategies during cold stress and whether the immune and neuroendocrine responses to physiological stress differ between men and women. Thirty-two participants (18 men and 14 women) were exposed to acute cold stress by immersion to the manubrium level in 14 °C water. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature (TRE) reached 35.5 °C or for a maximum of 170 min. The responses to cold stress of various indicators of body temperature, insulation, metabolism, shivering, stress, and endocrine and immune function were compared between men and women. During cold stress, TRE and muscle and mean skin temperatures decreased in all subjects (Pcold strain did not differ between men and women, but men exhibited larger changes in the indicators of neuroendocrine (epinephrine level) and in immune (tumor necrosis factor-α level) responses (both Pcold stress, whereas women exhibited a greater insulative response. Despite the similar experience of cold strain in men and women, the neuroendocrine and immune responses were larger in men. Contrary to our expectations, the cooling rate was similar in men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. HIV treatment as prevention in Jamaica and Barbados: magic bullet or sustainable response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Geoffrey; Barrow, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This discursive article introduces HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) and identifies various models for its extrapolation to wider population levels. Drawing on HIV surveillance data for Jamaica and Barbados, the article identifies significant gaps in HIV response programming in relation to testing, antiretroviral treatment coverage, and treatment adherence, thereby highlighting the disparity between assumptions and prerequisites for TasP success. These gaps are attributable, in large part, to sociocultural impediments and structural barriers, severe resource constraints, declining political will, and the redefinition of HIV as a manageable, chronic health issue. Antiretroviral treatment and TasP can realize success only within a combination prevention frame that addresses structural factors, including stigma and discrimination, gender inequality and gender-based violence, social inequality, and poverty. The remedicalization of the response compromises outcomes and undermines the continued potential of HIV programming as an entry point for the promotion of sexual, health, and human rights. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Sustained antigen availability during germinal center initiation enhances antibody responses to vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myungsun; Pelet, Jeisa M.; Ruda, Vera M.; Foley, Maria H.; Hu, Joyce K.; Kumari, Sudha; Crampton, Jordan; Baldeon, Alexis D.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.; Crotty, Shane; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural infections expose the immune system to escalating antigen and inflammation over days to weeks, whereas nonlive vaccines are single bolus events. We explored whether the immune system responds optimally to antigen kinetics most similar to replicating infections, rather than a bolus dose. Using HIV antigens, we found that administering a given total dose of antigen and adjuvant over 1–2 wk through repeated injections or osmotic pumps enhanced humoral responses, with exponentially increasing (exp-inc) dosing profiles eliciting >10-fold increases in antibody production relative to bolus vaccination post prime. Computational modeling of the germinal center response suggested that antigen availability as higher-affinity antibodies evolve enhances antigen capture in lymph nodes. Consistent with these predictions, we found that exp-inc dosing led to prolonged antigen retention in lymph nodes and increased Tfh cell and germinal center B-cell numbers. Thus, regulating the antigen and adjuvant kinetics may enable increased vaccine potency. PMID:27702895

  6. Towards Corporate Sustainability: The Link Between Business Ethics, Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Yazıcı, Selim

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The root of this study is mostly grounded to an old dilemma between the corporations and the society. The important issue is that, solving this problem requires that, managers should understand the critical factors such as business ethics, corporate governance, and corporate social responsibility and creates solutions by using the outcomes. The aim of this paper is to reframe the discussion and find a link between business ethics, corporate governance and corporate social responsibi...

  7. Structural Response of Fire-Exposed Cross-Laminated Timber Beams under Sustained Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Lineham, Sean A.; Thomson, Daniel; Bartlett, Alastair I.; Bisby, Luke A.; Hadden, Rory M.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a popular construction material for low and medium-rise construction. However an architectural aspiration exists for tall mass timber buildings, and this is currently hindered by knowledge gaps and perceptions regarding the fire behaviour of mass timber buildings. To begin to address some of the important questions regarding the structural response of fire-exposed CLT structures in real fires, this paper presents a series of novel fire tests on CLT beams subjec...

  8. Auditory steady state cortical responses indicate deviant phonemic-rate processing in adults with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen; Vandermosten, Maaike; Boets, Bart; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Speech intelligibility is strongly influenced by the ability to process temporal modulations. It is hypothesized that in dyslexia, deficient processing of rapidly changing auditory information underlies a deficient development of phonological representations, causing reading and spelling problems. Low-frequency modulations between 4 and 20 Hz correspond to the processing rate of important phonological segments (syllables and phonemes, respectively) in speech and therefore provide a bridge between low-level auditory and phonological processing. In the present study, temporal modulation processing was investigated by auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) in normal-reading and dyslexic adults. Multichannel ASSRs were recorded in normal-reading and dyslexic adults in response to speech-weighted noise stimuli amplitude modulated at 80, 20, and 4 Hz. The 80 Hz modulation is known to be primarily generated by the brainstem, whereas the 20 and 4 Hz modulations are mainly generated in the cortex. Furthermore, the 20 and 4 Hz modulations provide an objective auditory performance measure related to phonemic- and syllabic-rate processing. In addition to neurophysiological measures, psychophysical tests of speech-in-noise perception and phonological awareness were assessed. On the basis of response strength and phase coherence measures, normal-reading and dyslexic participants showed similar processing at the brainstem level. At the cortical level of the auditory system, dyslexic subjects demonstrated deviant phonemic-rate responses compared with normal readers, whereas no group differences were found for the syllabic rate. Furthermore, a relationship between phonemic-rate ASSRs and psychophysical tests of speech-in-noise perception and phonological awareness was obtained. The results suggest reduced cortical processing for phonemic-rate modulations in dyslexic adults, presumably resulting in limited integration of temporal information in the dorsal phonological pathway.

  9. Interferon Alpha Induces Sustained Changes in NK Cell Responsiveness to Hepatitis B Viral Load Suppression In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upkar S Gill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available NK cells are important antiviral effectors, highly enriched in the liver, with the potential to regulate immunopathogenesis in persistent viral infections. Here we examined whether changes in the NK pool are induced when patients with eAg-positive CHB are 'primed' with PegIFNα and importantly, whether these changes are sustained or further modulated long-term after switching to nucleos(tides (sequential NUC therapy, an approach currently tested in the clinic. Longitudinal sampling of a prospectively recruited cohort of patients with eAg+CHB showed that the cumulative expansion of CD56bright NK cells driven by 48-weeks of PegIFNα was maintained at higher than baseline levels throughout the subsequent 9 months of sequential NUCs. Unexpectedly, PegIFNα-expanded NK cells showed further augmentation in their expression of the activating NK cell receptors NKp30 and NKp46 during sequential NUCs. The expansion in proliferating, functional NK cells was more pronounced following sequential NUCs than in comparison cohorts of patients treated with de novo NUCs or PegIFNα only. Reduction in circulating HBsAg concentrations, a key goal in the path towards functional cure of CHB, was only achieved in those patients with enhancement of NK cell IFNγ and cytotoxicity but decrease in their expression of the death ligand TRAIL. In summary, we conclude that PegIFNα priming can expand a population of functional NK cells with an altered responsiveness to subsequent antiviral suppression by NUCs. Patients on sequential NUCs with a distinct NK cell profile show a decline in HBsAg, providing mechanistic insights for the further optimisation of treatment strategies to achieve sustained responses in CHB.

  10. Sustained Complete Response after Maintenance Therapy with Topotecan and Erlotinib for Recurrent Cervical Cancer with Distant Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Callegaro-Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent cervical cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. Most treatment responses are partial and of short duration. The development of new therapies is vital to improve treatment for recurrent disease. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors may have a role in this setting. Case Description: A 53-year-old woman with stage IB2 squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix was initially treated with chemoradiation. Six months after completing treatment, she developed a recurrence in the common iliac and para-aortic lymph nodes above the previous radiation field and was treated with additional radiation therapy. Two years later, she developed recurrent disease in the left supraclavicular lymph nodes and was treated with chemoradiation followed by 3 cycles of adjuvant cisplatin and topotecan. She had a complete response and was placed on maintenance therapy with topotecan and erlotinib, which was well tolerated and produced minimal side effects. After 20 months of maintenance therapy, it was discontinued given the long interval without evidence of disease. The patient is currently without evidence of disease 5 years after completing the topotecan-erlotinib treatment. Conclusion: We noted a sustained response in a patient with recurrent metastatic cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy, cisplatin, and topotecan followed by maintenance therapy with topotecan and erlotinib. Further evaluation of the role of EGFR inhibitors in this setting should be considered given their favorable toxicity profile and biological relevance.

  11. Sustained stimulation and expansion of Tregs by IL2 control autoimmunity without impairing immune responses to infection, vaccination and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churlaud, Guillaume; Jimenez, Veronica; Ruberte, Jesus; Amadoudji Zin, Martin; Fourcade, Gwladys; Gottrand, Gaelle; Casana, Estefania; Lambrecht, Benedicte; Bellier, Bertrand; Piaggio, Eliane; Bosch, Fatima; Klatzmann, David

    2014-04-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL2) is the key cytokine supporting survival and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs). We recently reported that low-dose IL2 safely expands/stimulates Tregs and improves autoimmune conditions in humans. Further development of IL2 in autoimmune diseases will require chronic IL2 administration, which could affect beneficial effector immune responses regulated by Tregs. We used recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV)-mediated gene transfer to continuously release IL2 in mice and assessed its long-term effects on immune responses. A single rAAV-IL2 injection enabled sustained stimulation and expansion of Tregs without inducing Teff activation and prevented diabetes in NOD mice. After several weeks of IL2 production, mice responded normally to a viral challenge and to vaccination, and had pregnancies with offspring that developed normally. They showed no change in the occurrence and growth of chemically-induced tumors. Altogether, chronic low-dose IL2 treatment does not affect beneficial effector immune responses at doses that prevent autoimmune diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-linear Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Interaction in Response to Lower-Body Negative Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K. Verma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of hemorrhage remains an open problem. In this regard, blood pressure has been an ineffective measure of blood loss due to numerous compensatory mechanisms sustaining arterial blood pressure homeostasis. Here, we investigate the feasibility of causality detection in the heart rate and blood pressure interaction, a closed-loop control system, for early detection of hemorrhage. The hemorrhage was simulated via graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP from 0 to −40 mmHg. The research hypothesis was that a significant elevation of causal control in the direction of blood pressure to heart rate (i.e., baroreflex response is an early indicator of central hypovolemia. Five minutes of continuous blood pressure and electrocardiogram (ECG signals were acquired simultaneously from young, healthy participants (27 ± 1 years, N = 27 during each LBNP stage, from which heart rate (represented by RR interval, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP were derived. The heart rate and blood pressure causal interaction (RR↔SBP and RR↔MAP was studied during the last 3 min of each LBNP stage. At supine rest, the non-baroreflex arm (RR→SBP and RR→MAP showed a significantly (p < 0.001 higher causal drive toward blood pressure regulation compared to the baroreflex arm (SBP→RR and MAP→RR. In response to moderate category hemorrhage (−30 mmHg LBNP, no change was observed in the traditional marker of blood loss i.e., pulse pressure (p = 0.10 along with the RR→SBP (p = 0.76, RR→MAP (p = 0.60, and SBP→RR (p = 0.07 causality compared to the resting stage. Contrarily, a significant elevation in the MAP→RR (p = 0.004 causality was observed. In accordance with our hypothesis, the outcomes of the research underscored the potential of compensatory baroreflex arm (MAP→RR of the heart rate and blood pressure interaction toward differentiating a simulated moderate category hemorrhage from

  13. Phase II stopping rules that employ response rates and early progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, John R; Tu, Dongsheng

    2008-08-01

    Phase II oncology trials traditionally have used response rate (RR) as the primary end point, but newer targeted agents require the consideration of alternative end points. High rates of early progressive disease (EPD) suggest inadequate drug activity and may be useful in the early stopping of trials. This study used a simulation to define a set of rules to assess a combined end point of RR and EPD. The simulation assumed a two-stage trial with a specified alpha error and power. It randomly generated the true response rate, r, of the agent under study and its true rate of early progressive disease, epd, for each run of the simulation. Two pairs of parameters were specified: (r(nul), epd(nul)) and (r(alt), epd(alt)). A drug was considered uninteresting for further development if r was less than or equal to r(nul) and epd was greater than or equal to epd(nul) (ie, the null hypothesis) and interesting for further development if r was greater than or equal to r(alt) or epd was less than or equal to epd(alt) (ie, the alternate hypotheses). Thresholds for the required number of patients with responses, n(r) and EPD, n(p), were generated for each set of parameters. Thresholds for n(r) and n(p) that satisfied the specified error rates were generated. There was at least an 89% likelihood that a study would be stopped at the first stage of accrual if r and epd were uninteresting. The simulation was able to establish stopping rules by combining the RR and the EPD that achieved the desired error rates. High rates of early stopping suggest that this design could shorten phase II trials of inactive agents.

  14. A controlled trial of envelope colour for increasing response rates in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Natasha; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J

    2011-06-01

    Postal questionnaires are widely used in health research to provide measurable outcomes in areas such as quality of life. Participants who fail to return postal questionnaires can introduce non-response bias. Previous studies within populations over the age of 65 years have shown that response rates amongst older people can be 60% or less. The current study sought to investigate whether envelope colour affected response rates in a study about the effectiveness of screening older women for osteoporosis. A total of 2803 eligible female participants aged between 70 and 85 were sent an invitation pack from their GP practice. The invitation was either in a brown or white envelope and contained a matching pre-paid reply envelope. A study questionnaire was also sent out in brown or white envelopes 1 week after consenting to participate in the trial. The overall response rate was 78%. There was little evidence of an effect of envelope colour on response to the invitation to participate in the trial (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.87-1.24). Similarly, there was no influence of envelope colour on the number of participants returning their questionnaires (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.60-1.63). There was weak evidence of an effect of envelope colour on the response rates of the consent process (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00). When we updated a recent meta-analysis with the results of this study, there was a non-statistically- significant trend for greater response rates with brown envelopes compared with white envelopes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.86-1.64, I2=92%). However, the results where influenced by one study and when this study was excluded the pooled estimate was 0.98 (95% CI 0.89-1.08, I2=0%). This study found no evidence to suggest envelope colour has an effect on response to participate in a trial or questionnaire returns. There is weak evidence to suggest envelope colour may affect consent into a trial.

  15. High expression levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor sustain the innate immune responses of neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Anina; Weier, Manuela; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Le Roy, Didier; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Calandra, Thierry; Giannoni, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The vulnerability to infection of newborns is associated with a limited ability to mount efficient immune responses. High concentrations of adenosine and prostaglandins in the fetal and neonatal circulation hamper the antimicrobial responses of newborn immune cells. However, the existence of mechanisms counterbalancing neonatal immunosuppression has not been investigated. Remarkably, circulating levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory immunoregulatory cytokine expressed constitutively, were 10-fold higher in newborns than in children and adults. Newborn monocytes expressed high levels of MIF and released MIF upon stimulation with Escherichia coli and group B Streptococcus, the leading pathogens of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Inhibition of MIF activity or MIF expression reduced microbial product-induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases and secretion of cytokines. Recombinant MIF used at newborn, but not adult, concentrations counterregulated adenosine and prostaglandin E2-mediated inhibition of ERK1/2 activation and TNF production in newborn monocytes exposed to E. coli. In agreement with the concept that once infection is established high levels of MIF are detrimental to the host, treatment with a small molecule inhibitor of MIF reduced systemic inflammatory response, bacterial proliferation, and mortality of septic newborn mice. Altogether, these data provide a mechanistic explanation for how newborns may cope with an immunosuppressive environment to maintain a certain threshold of innate defenses. However, the same defense mechanisms may be at the expense of the host in conditions of severe infection, suggesting that MIF could represent a potential attractive target for immune-modulating adjunctive therapies for neonatal sepsis. PMID:26858459

  16. Aggressiveness, family history of alcoholism, and the heart rate response to alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Jean-Marc; Pihl, Robert O; Séguin, Jean R; Nagin, Daniel; Vitaro, Frank; Carbonneau, René; Tremblay, Richard E

    2003-05-01

    Some sons of male alcoholics (SOMAs) are characterized by an increased heart rate (HR) response to alcohol intoxication, which is thought to reflect increased sensitivity to alcohol-induced reward. Such a response has also been related to increased physical aggression. However, the confounding effect of aggression in SOMAs may be obscuring the interpretation of these findings. The HR response to alcohol was therefore assessed in 4 groups: high/low aggressive SOMAs and high/low aggressive non-SOMAs. Results indicate that aggressive SOMAs had the highest intoxicated HR response and that they reported the most alcohol consumption. This suggests that in some cases the high comorbidity between alcohol misuse and aggression is related to an increased sensitivity to alcohol-induced reward.

  17. Exploring how to increase response rates to surveys of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palonen, Mira; Kaunonen, Marja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    To address the special considerations that need to be taken into account when collecting data from older people in healthcare research. An objective of all research studies is to ensure there is an adequate sample size. The final sample size will be influenced by methods of recruitment and data collection, among other factors. There are some special considerations that need to be addressed when collecting data among older people. Quantitative surveys of people aged 60 or over in 2009-2014 were analysed using statistical methods. A quantitative study of patients aged 75 or over in an emergency department was used as an example. A methodological approach to analysing quantitative studies concerned with older people. The best way to ensure high response rates in surveys involving people aged 60 or over is to collect data in the presence of the researcher; response rates are lowest in posted surveys and settings where the researcher is not present when data are collected. Response rates do not seem to vary according to the database from which information about the study participants is obtained or according to who is responsible for recruitment to the survey. Implications for research/practice To conduct coherent studies with older people, the data collection process should be carefully considered.

  18. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system in Ireland: methods and response rates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Keeffe, Linda M.

    2014-06-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers’ information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland.

  19. Fewer peak trials per session facilitate acquisition of peak responding despite elimination of response rate differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Daren H

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown in previous research [Kaiser, D.H., 2008. The proportion of fixed interval trials to probe trials affects acquisition of the peak procedure fixed interval timing task. Behav. Process., 77 (1), 100-108] that rats acquired peak responding sooner when fewer peak trials were presented during sessions of training with the peak procedure timing task. One potential problem with that research was that there were large differences in response rates among the groups. The present experiment attempted to examine the effect of proportion of peak trials when differences in response rate were controlled. Two groups of rats were each simultaneously tested with two versions of the peak procedure. One group was tested with 10% peak trials per session, and the other group was tested with 50% peak trials per session. For both of the groups, one of the panel lights and levers was associated with the traditional peak procedure. The other panel light and lever was associated with a similar peak procedure; however, reinforcement was provided at the end of each peak trial. This manipulation eliminated differences in response rate among the groups, however, Group 10% acquired peak responding more quickly than Group 50%, effectively replicating previous work in the absence of a response bias.

  20. The high strain rate compressive response of Mg-Al alloy/fly Ash cenosphere composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Dung D.; Gupta, Nikhil; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    2011-02-01

    The strain rate dependence of mechanical properties of AZ91D alloy composites filled with 5 wt.% hollow fly ash cenosphere is examined in the strain rate range of 630-1,203 s-1 using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar system. In addition, a test scheme is designed to study the intermediate strain rate response of the material. Addition of fly ash caused grain refinement and finer precipitates in the matrix alloy. Compared to the matrix alloy, the energy absorption is higher in AZ91D/fly ash cenosphere composites at comparable strain rates. In addition, the yield strength is found to be about 19-41% higher in the composites containing fly ash cenospheres.

  1. KLHL40-related nemaline myopathy with a sustained, positive response to treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natera-de Benito, D; Nascimento, A; Abicht, A; Ortez, C; Jou, C; Müller, J S; Evangelista, T; Töpf, A; Thompson, R; Jimenez-Mallebrera, C; Colomer, J; Lochmüller, H

    2016-03-01

    Congenital myopathies are a group of inherited muscle disorders characterized by hypotonia, weakness and a non-dystrophic muscle biopsy with the presence of one or more characteristic histological features. Neuromuscular transmission defects have recently been reported in several patients with congenital myopathies (CM). Mutations in KLHL40 are among the most common causes of severe forms of nemaline myopathy. Clinical features of affected individuals include fetal akinesia or hypokinesia, respiratory failure, and swallowing difficulties at birth. Muscle weakness is usually severe and nearly half of the individuals have no spontaneous antigravity movement. The average age of death has been reported to be 5 months in a recent case series. Herein we present a case of a patient with a nemaline myopathy due to KLHL40 mutations (c.604delG, p.Ala202Argfs*56 and c.1513G>C, p.Ala505Pro) with an impressive and prolonged beneficial response to treatment with high-dose pyridostigmine. Myasthenic features or response to ACEI have not previously been reported as a characteristic of nemaline myopathy or KLHL40-related myopathy.

  2. Injectable and Biodegradable pH-Responsive Hydrogels for Localized and Sustained Treatment of Human Fibrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liubing; Gu, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Xie, Zonggang; Lu, Yufeng; Shen, Liqin; Dong, Qirong; Wang, Yangyun

    2015-04-22

    Injectable hydrogels are an important class of biomaterials, and they have been widely used for controlled drug release. This study evaluated an injectable hydrogel formed in situ system by the reaction of a polyethylene glycol derivative with α,β-polyaspartylhydrazide for local cancer chemotherapy. This pH-responsive hydrogel was used to realize a sol-gel phase transition, where the gel remained a free-flowing fluid before injection but spontaneously changed into a semisolid hydrogel just after administration. As indicated by scanning electron microscopy images, the hydrogel exhibited a porous three-dimensional microstructure. The prepared hydrogel was biocompatible and biodegradable and could be utilized as a pH-responsive vector for drug delivery. The therapeutic effect of the hydrogel loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) after intratumoral administration in mice with human fibrosarcoma was evaluated. The inhibition of tumor growth was more obvious in the group treated by the DOX-loaded hydrogel, compared to that treated with the free DOX solution. Hence, this hydrogel with good syringeability and high biodegradability, which focuses on local chemotherapy, may enhance the therapeutic effect on human fibrosarcoma.

  3. Compensatory T cell responses in IRG-deficient mice prevent sustained Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Coers

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. In women C. trachomatis can establish persistent genital infections that lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility. In contrast to natural infections in humans, experimentally induced infections with C. trachomatis in mice are rapidly cleared. The cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ plays a critical role in the clearance of C. trachomatis infections in mice. Because IFNγ induces an antimicrobial defense system in mice but not in humans that is composed of a large family of Immunity Related GTPases (IRGs, we questioned whether mice deficient in IRG immunity would develop persistent infections with C. trachomatis as observed in human patients. We found that IRG-deficient Irgm1/m3((-/- mice transiently develop high bacterial burden post intrauterine infection, but subsequently clear the infection more efficiently than wildtype mice. We show that the delayed but highly effective clearance of intrauterine C. trachomatis infections in Irgm1/m3((-/- mice is dependent on an exacerbated CD4(+ T cell response. These findings indicate that the absence of the predominant murine innate effector mechanism restricting C. trachomatis growth inside epithelial cells results in a compensatory adaptive immune response, which is at least in part driven by CD4(+ T cells and prevents the establishment of a persistent infection in mice.

  4. Cognitive consequences of a sustained monocyte type 1 IFN response in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    With successful antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1-infected subjects can achieve undetectable peripheral viral loads and immune homeostasis. However, in a subset of individuals on therapy, peripheral monocytes have a gene expression profile characteristic of a type 1 interferon α (IFN) response. This type 1 IFN response correlates with a number of pathogenic conditions including neural cell injury and in combination with HCV infection, cognitive impairment. Lessons from the non-human primate models of pathogenic and nonpathogenic SIV suggest that returning the initial IFN spike in acute SIV infection to normal allows the immune system to control infection and return to homeostasis. An IFN "alarm" signature, defined as monocyte activation with overexpression of the type1 IFN genes IFI27 and CD169, would be useful for identifying a subset of subjects with HIV-1 infection that could progress to a number of pathologies associated with immune activation including cognitive dysfunction. This strategy is being actively pursued for autoimmune diseases that are characterized by an IFN signature. Therapies to block the IFN signature are under investigation as a means to reset the immune system and in a subset of HIV-1-infected subjects may be an adjuvant to standard antiviral therapy to return cognitive function.

  5. Microchannel system for rate-controlled, sequential, and pH-responsive drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dasom; Lee, Jung Seung; Choi, Chang-Kuk; Lee, Hong-Pyo; Cho, Seung-Woo; Ryu, WonHyoung

    2017-12-18

    Controlled delivery of drug at a constant rate, in a sequential order, or responsive to environment conditions has been pursued for a long time to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic molecules and to minimize side effects of highly potent drugs. However, achieving such delicately-controlled delivery of a drug molecule is non-trivial and still remains a challenge. We propose the use of microchannels to control the rate, sequence, and pH-responsiveness of drug delivery for high precision and predictability. In this study, we introduce elementary drug delivery units consisting of micro-reservoirs and microchannels that have variations in their lengths, widths, numbers, and straightness. The release study demonstrates that the release rates of model drugs can be modulated by the design of microchannels. Finite element modeling of drug release predicts the performance of the drug delivery units with high accuracy. The possibility of sequential drug delivery is also demonstrated using biodegradable polymer plug in microchannels. Finally, pH-responsive delivery of drugs in microfluidic units is also discussed and demonstrated via cell viability tests. In this work, we developed microchannel-based drug delivery devices whose release rate could be accurately calculated and controlled by design of microchannel geometry. Although there have been many advances in microfabricated drug delivery systems, in particular, reservoir-based systems, no systematic investigation has been made to utilize the release channels. In our work, an equivalent electrical circuit concept was applied to the microfluidic systems for more detailed design and analysis. A microfluidic channel was regarded as an electrical resistor; their diffusion/electrical flux could be tuned with geometric factors such as length, width, a number of channel/resistor and their connections. Furthermore, from delivery rate control using channel geometry, multifunctional channel-based release systems for sequential and pH-responsive

  6. Examining the Sustainability of an Evidence-Based Preschool Curriculum: The REDI Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford DeRousie, Rebecca M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which an evidence-based preschool curriculum (Head Start REDI) was sustained by 20 teachers during the year following a randomized controlled efficacy trial, when teachers were no longer required by the research project to implement the curriculum. Two quantitative measures of sustainability (teacher ratings, REDI coach ratings) and a qualitative measure (teacher interview) were collected and compared. Sustainability varied by the specific curriculum component, with higher rates of sustainability for the social-emotional component (Preschool PATHS) than for the language and literacy components. Estimates of sustainability were affected by the method of measurement, with REDI coach ratings and qualitative teacher interviews more closely aligned than teacher ratings. Responses from qualitative interviews identified the main factors that teachers thought affected sustainability. Teacher responses suggest that efforts to promote sustainability are best targeted at reducing barriers, such as competing demands, rather than simply highlighting the benefits of the new curriculum. PMID:22408287

  7. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Nina N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Larvie, Mykol [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Curtin, Hugh [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); McKenna, Michael J. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  8. Heart rate responses to standardized trauma-related pictures in acute posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Anke; Suendermann, Oliver; Boellinghaus, Inga; Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna; Gamer, Matthias; Briddon, Emma; Martin, Melanie Walwyn; Glucksman, Edward

    2010-10-01

    Physiological responses to trauma reminders are one of the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nevertheless, screening measures for PTSD largely rely on symptom self-reports. It has been suggested that psychophysiological assessments may be useful in identifying trauma survivors with PTSD (Orr and Roth, 2000). This study investigated whether heart rate (HR) responses to standardized trauma-related pictures distinguish between trauma survivors with and without acute PTSD. Survivors of motor vehicle accidents or physical assaults (N=162) watched standardized trauma-related, generally threatening and neutral pictures at 1 month post-trauma while their ECG was recorded. At 1 and 6 months, structured clinical interviews assessed PTSD diagnoses. Participants completed self-report measures of PTSD severity and depression, peritraumatic responses, coping behaviors and appraisals. Trauma survivors with acute PTSD showed greater HR responses to trauma-related pictures than those without PTSD, as indicated by a less pronounced mean deceleration, greater peak responses, and a greater proportion showing HR acceleration of greater than 1 beat per minute. There were no group differences in HR responses to generally threatening or neutral pictures. HR responses to trauma-related pictures contributed to the prediction of PTSD diagnosis over and above what could be predicted from self-reports of PTSD and depression. HR responses to trauma-related pictures were related to fear and data-driven processing during the trauma, safety behaviors, suppression of trauma memories, and overgeneralized appraisals of danger. The results suggest that HR responses to standardized trauma-related pictures may help identify a subgroup of patients with acute PTSD who show generalized fear responses to trauma reminders. The early generalization of triggers of reexperiencing symptoms observed in this study is consistent with associative learning and cognitive models of PTSD. 2010

  9. A regulated response to impaired respiration slows behavioral rates and increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cristina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When mitochondrial respiration or ubiquinone production is inhibited in Caenorhabditis elegans, behavioral rates are slowed and lifespan is extended. Here, we show that these perturbations increase the expression of cell-protective and metabolic genes and the abundance of mitochondrial DNA. This response is similar to the response triggered by inhibiting respiration in yeast and mammalian cells, termed the "retrograde response". As in yeast, genes switched on in C. elegans mitochondrial mutants extend lifespan, suggesting an underlying evolutionary conservation of mechanism. Inhibition of fstr-1, a potential signaling gene that is up-regulated in clk-1 (ubiquinone-defective mutants, and its close homolog fstr-2 prevents the expression of many retrograde-response genes and accelerates clk-1 behavioral and aging rates. Thus, clk-1 mutants live in "slow motion" because of a fstr-1/2-dependent pathway that responds to ubiquinone. Loss of fstr-1/2 does not suppress the phenotypes of all long-lived mitochondrial mutants. Thus, although different mitochondrial perturbations activate similar transcriptional and physiological responses, they do so in different ways.

  10. Analysis of the Human Mucosal Response to Cholera Reveals Sustained Activation of Innate Immune Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Daniel L; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Genereux, Diane P; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Ellis, Crystal N; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Haq Alam, Nur; Lazina Hossain, Anik Paul; Mayo-Smith, Leslie M; Charles, Richelle C; Weil, Ana A; LaRocque, Regina C; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ryan, Edward T; Karlsson, Elinor K; Qadri, Firdausi; Harris, Jason B

    2017-11-13

    To better understand the innate immune response to Vibrio cholerae infection, we tracked gene expression in the duodenal mucosa of eleven Bangladeshi adults with cholera, using biopsies obtained immediately after rehydration and at 30 and 180 days later. We identified differentially expressed genes and performed an analysis to predict differentially regulated pathways and upstream regulators. During acute cholera, there was a broad increase in the expression of genes associated with innate immunity, including activation of the NF-κB, MAPK, and TLR-mediated signaling pathways, which unexpectedly persisted even 30 days after infection. Focusing on early differences in gene expression, we identified 37 genes that were differentially expressed on days 2 and 30 across eleven participants. These genes included the endosomal toll like receptor, TLR8, which was expressed in lamina propria cells. Underscoring a potential role for endosomal TLR-mediated signaling in vivo, our pathway analysis found that IRF7 and interferons β1 and α2 were among the top upstream regulators activated during cholera. Among innate immune effectors, we found that DUOX2, an NADPH-oxidase involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, was upregulated in intestinal epithelial cells during cholera. Notably, the observed increases in DUOX2 and TLR8 expression were also modeled in vitro when stimulating Caco-2 or THP-1 cells, respectively, with live V. cholerae but not with heat killed organisms or cholera toxin alone. These previously unidentified features of the innate immune response to V. cholerae extend our understanding mucosal immune signaling pathways and effectors activated in vivo following cholera. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Evaluating research recruitment strategies to improve response rates amongst South African nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Nurse recruitment to and participation in empirical research is increasingly important in understanding and improving nursing practice. However, the low participation and recruitment rate amongst nurses is not well understood.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate three research recruitment methods for their impact on recruitment and participation rates amongst South African nurses.Motivation for the study: A limited number of studies exist that formally evaluates different recruitment strategies to improve participation in research amongst nurses within developing contexts, especially South Africa.Research approach, design and method: Participants were recruited using three different methods. Of the 250 nurses randomly selected and invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey, 201 agreed and 162 (81% returned the questionnaires.Main findings: Nursing management participation in the recruitment and data collection process produces more favourable response rates. Reminders and the use of shorter questionnaires also aid higher response rates.Practical/managerial implications: Reminders as well as face-to-face recruitment strategies (especially by a familiar person successfully improved participation rates amongst South African nurses in this study.Contribution/value-add: This study identifies some strategies that could be used more widely to increase the recruitment and participation of South African nurses in research whilst potentially improving their work situation.

  12. Response Load Extrapolation for Wind Turbines during Operation Based on Average Conditional Exceedance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid; Saha, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    within a hierarchical model where the variables that influence the loading are divided into ergodic variables and time-invariant non-ergodic variables. The presented method for statistical response load extrapolation was compared with the existing methods based on peak extrapolation for the blade out-of-plane...... bending moment and the tower mudline bending moment of a pitch-controlled wind turbine. In general, the results show that the method based on average conditional exceedance rates predicts the extrapolated characteristic response loads at the individual mean wind speeds well and results in more consistent...

  13. Influence of Dose Rate on the Cellular Response to Low- and High-LET Radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozny, Anne-Sophie; Alphonse, Gersende; Battiston-Montagne, Priscillia; Simonet, Stéphanie; Poncet, Delphine; Testa, Etienne; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Rancoule, Chloé; Magné, Nicolas; Beuve, Michael; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treatment failure is mostly explained by locoregional progression or intrinsic radioresistance. Radiotherapy (RT) has recently evolved with the emergence of heavy ion radiations or new fractionation schemes of photon therapy, which modify the dose rate of treatment delivery. The aim of the present study was then to evaluate the in vitro influence of a dose rate variation during conventional RT or carbon ion hadrontherapy treatment in order to improve the therapeutic care of patient. In this regard, two HNSCC cell lines were irradiated with photons or 72 MeV/n carbon ions at a dose rate of 0.5, 2, or 10 Gy/min. For both radiosensitive and radioresistant cells, the change in dose rate significantly affected cell survival in response to photon exposure. This variation of radiosensitivity was associated with the number of initial and residual DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). By contrast, the dose rate change did not affect neither cell survival nor the residual DNA DSBs after carbon ion irradiation. As a result, the relative biological efficiency at 10% survival increased when the dose rate decreased. In conclusion, in the RT treatment of HNSCC, it is advised to remain very careful when modifying the classical schemes toward altered fractionation. At the opposite, as the dose rate does not seem to have any effects after carbon ion exposure, there is less need to adapt hadrontherapy treatment planning during active system irradiation.

  14. Characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Annica; Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Lövheim, Hugo; Edvardsson, David

    2017-12-01

    To identify characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes. An ageing population entails fundamental social, economic and organizational challenges for future aged care. Knowledge is limited of both specific leadership behaviours and organizational and managerial characteristics which have an impact on the leadership of contemporary nursing home care. Cross-sectional. From 290 municipalities, 60 were randomly selected and 35 agreed to participate, providing a sample of 3605 direct-care staff employed in 169 Swedish nursing homes. The staff assessed their managers' (n = 191) leadership behaviours using the Leadership Behaviour Questionnaire. Data were collected from November 2013 - September 2014, and the study was completed in November 2016. A two-parameter item response theory approach and regression analyses were used to identify specific characteristics of highly rated leadership. Five specific behaviours of highly rated nursing home leadership were identified; that the manager: experiments with new ideas; controls work closely; relies on subordinates; coaches and gives direct feedback; and handles conflicts constructively. The regression analyses revealed that managers with social work backgrounds and privately run homes were significantly associated with higher leadership ratings. This study highlights the five most important leadership behaviours that characterize those nursing home managers rated highest in terms of leadership. Managers in privately run nursing homes and managers with social work backgrounds were associated with higher leadership ratings. Further work is needed to explore these behaviours and factors predictive of higher leadership ratings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Explicit Rate Adjustment (ERA: Responsiveness, Network Utilization Efficiency and Fairness for Layered Multicast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnuk PUANGPRONPITAG

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available To provide layered multicast with responsiveness, efficiency in network utilization, scalability and fairness (including inter-protocol fairness, intra-protocol fairness, intra-session fairness and TCP-friendliness for layered multicast, we propose in this paper a new multicast congestion control, called Explicit Rate Adjustment (ERA. Our protocol uses an algorithm relying on TCP throughput equation and Packet-bunch Probe techniques to detect optimal bandwidth utilization; then adjusts the reception rate accordingly. We have built ERA into a network simulator (ns2 and demonstrate via simulations that the goals are reached.

  16. Attenuated heart rate response in REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with Parkinson's disease with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder and patients with idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder have an attenuated heart rate response to arousals or to leg movements during...... associated with arousal or leg movement from all sleep stages was analyzed from 10 heartbeats before the onset of the sleep event to 15 heartbeats following onset of the sleep event. The heart rate reponse to arousals was significantly lower in both parkinsonian groups compared with the control group...

  17. Heart rate variability and cognitive processing: The autonomic response to task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Perales, José C; Cárdenas, David; Sanabria, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated variations in heart rate variability (HRV) as a function of cognitive demands. Participants completed an execution condition including the psychomotor vigilance task, a working memory task and a duration discrimination task. The control condition consisted of oddball versions (participants had to detect the rare event) of the tasks from the execution condition, designed to control for the effect of the task parameters (stimulus duration and stimulus rate) on HRV. The NASA-TLX questionnaire was used as a subjective measure of cognitive workload across tasks and conditions. Three major findings emerged from this study. First, HRV varied as a function of task demands (with the lowest values in the working memory task). Second, and crucially, we found similar HRV values when comparing each of the tasks with its oddball control equivalent, and a significant decrement in HRV as a function of time-on-task. Finally, the NASA-TLX results showed larger cognitive workload in the execution condition than in the oddball control condition, and scores variations as a function of task. Taken together, our results suggest that HRV is highly sensitive to overall demands of sustained attention over and above the influence of other cognitive processes suggested by previous literature. In addition, our study highlights a potential dissociation between objective and subjective measures of mental workload, with important implications in applied settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustained action of developmental ethanol exposure on the cortisol response to stress in zebrafish larvae and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Matteo; Brennan, Caroline H; Vinson, Gavin P

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of preventable birth defects, leading to a range of symptoms collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. More moderate levels of prenatal ethanol exposure lead to a range of behavioural deficits including aggression, poor social interaction, poor cognitive performance and increased likelihood of addiction in later life. Current theories suggest that adaptation in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuroendocrine systems contributes to mood alterations underlying behavioural deficits and vulnerability to addiction. In using zebrafish (Danio rerio), the aim is to determine whether developmental ethanol exposure provokes changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis (the teleost equivalent of the HPA), as it does in mammalian models, therefore opening the possibilities of using zebrafish to elucidate the mechanisms involved, and to test novel therapeutics to alleviate deleterious symptoms. The results showed that developmental exposure to ambient ethanol, 20mM-50mM 1-9 days post fertilisation, had immediate effects on the HPI, markedly reducing the cortisol response to air exposure stress, as measured by whole body cortisol content. This effect was sustained in adults 6 months later. Morphology, growth and locomotor activity of the animals were unaffected, suggesting a specific action of ethanol on the HPI. In this respect the data are consistent with mammalian results, although they contrast with the higher corticosteroid stress response reported in rats after developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms that underlie the specific sensitivity of the HPI to ethanol require elucidation.

  19. Evaluation of superabsorbent linseed-polysaccharides as a novel stimuli-responsive oral sustained release drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Muhammad Tahir; Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Bashir, Sajid; Ashraf, Muhammad Umer; Ahmad, Naveed

    2017-03-01

    Advancement in technology has transformed the conventional dosage forms to intelligent drug delivery systems. Such systems are helpful for targeted and efficient drug delivery with minimum side effects. Drug release from these systems is governed and controlled by external stimuli (pH, enzymes, ions, glucose, etc.). Polymeric biomaterial having stimuli-responsive properties has opened a new area in drug delivery approach. Potential of a polysaccharide (rhamnogalacturonan)-based hydrogel from Linseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) was investigated as an intelligent drug delivery material. Different concentrations of Linseed hydrogel (LSH) were used to prepare caffeine and diacerein tablets and further investigated for pH and salt solution-responsive swelling, pH-dependent drug release, and release kinetics. Morphology of tablets was observed using SEM. LSH tablets exhibited dynamic swelling-deswelling behavior with tendency to swell at pH 7.4 and in deionized water while deswell at pH 1.2, in normal saline and ethanol. Consequently, pH controlled release of the drugs was observed from tablets with lower release (drug release was greatly influenced by the amount of LSH in the tablets. Drug release from LSH tablets was governed by the non-Fickian diffusion. These finding indicates that LSH holds potential to be developed as sustained release material for tablet.

  20. Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility - An Alternative for a Paradigm Change of Business in the 21St Century

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    Hrdinová, Gabriela; Sakál, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The critical system analysis of the current status of all areas of human activity on the planet Earth (in Europe and the Slovak Republic) convinces us, that this development is unsustainable. Many prominent personalities of scientific, cultural, social and political life stated that our planet Earth and mankind with it, and all that man has created during its existence is only one step finds itself on the brink of disaster and it will turn against man. Many theoretical concepts, based on the historical development and experience notes that this status is natural and inevitable. However, we hold a different opinion. If the man is team, that is declared, it must show (now at the turning point) themselves and future generations, that it thinks with its existence on planet Earth seriously and responsibly. Given by the current global crisis and also our belief that the fundamental problem of humanity is unfair creation and distribution of wealth on planet Earth, we maintain opinion for changing the paradigm of thinking in this area. As the only alternative for solving this problem we see in the application of the concept of sustainable corporate social responsibility. The article presents our idea.

  1. Associations of objectively measured physical activity with daily mood ratings and psychophysiological stress responses in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Lydia; Steptoe, Andrew; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Bostock, Sophie; Mitchell, Ellen S; Hamer, Mark

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations of objectively measured physical activity with daily mood ratings and psychophysiological stress responses. We recruited 40 healthy females (aged 28.7 ± 6.1 yrs) who completed a once-a-day mood rating scale for 7 days, along with a 7-day assessment of physical activity using accelerometers and psychophysiological stress testing. The findings suggest that levels of physical activity as measured using an accelerometer are associated with both depressive symptoms over the past 2 weeks (CES-D) (r = - .33, p = .038) and with daily positive emotional style (r = .49, p = .001). The relationship between physical activity and positive emotional style remained after controlling for age, body mass index, and negative emotional style (t = 3.31, p = .002). Physical activity was not related to any psychophysiological stress responses. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. The Effects of Environmental and Social Dimensions of Sustainability in Response to the Economic Crisis of European Cities

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    Domingo Nevado-Peña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development, which has emerged over the last few decades, has moved away from the global to the local level. The sustainability measurements at the global level use the triple bottom line, considering environmental, economic and social dimensions; however, the limited data available at the local level has driven what little research there is to use these optics when considering cities sustainability. In this paper, we use a sustainability city index based on the intellectual capital approach, which considers the three dimensions for European cities. Concretely, we use the environmental and social dimensions of this city index to analyze the effect of different levels of development in terms of sustainability over the main economic variables with available information. The results highlight the importance of the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability in cities economic recovery and show that cities with best positions in sustainability have better performance in economic terms.

  3. Public Sector Responses to Sustainable Haze Management in Upper Northern Thailand

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    Yongyut Tiyapairat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on urban haze in Upper Northern Thailand (UNT, where smoke haze often produce impacts on human health, tourism, and transportation. The objective was to better understand how the public sector responded to the haze impacts in policy review interviews and analyses of compiled haze-related data during 2007-2011. Moreover, integration of haze adaptation policy and coherency was also explored. The results revealed that Thailand has mainly implemented three National Haze Action Plans since 1997, together with laws and regulations for haze management. Further examination of haze policy at all levels of governance disclosed only vertical integration, whereas cross-boundary integration was reported only with the data and budget. Practically, manpower and function have not yet brought satisfactory outcomes. Moreover, the extent of state responses has been centralized –not decentralized from their centralized political structure. Low participation of people living in both urban and rural areas and cooperative efforts were identified as the main factors contributing to failures in combating smoke haze. Therefore, individuals are of utmost importance for effective solutions. There is a continuous need for prevention campaigns to enhance local people's understanding and participation as well as local communities' networking for solutions to the haze problem.

  4. Sustained response to combination therapy in a patient with chronic hepatitis C and thrombocytopenia secondary to alpha-interferon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sáenz, M; Rojas, M; Piñar, A; Salas, E; Rebollo, J; Carmona, I; Herrerías-Esteban, J M; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, J M

    2000-05-01

    Recent data suggest that hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection may induce a significant autoimmune reaction to platelets, but the mechanism is unknown. Many patients with chronic hepatitis C, in fact, have high levels of platelet-associated immunoglobulin G (PAIgG) and HCV-RNA is present in the platelets of 100% of those patients with thrombocytopenia and high PAIgG levels. Hepatitis C virus infection has been associated with the development of thrombocytopenic purpura, sometimes triggered during interferon (IFN) therapy. In such cases, the treatment of the underlying disease is a difficult problem to solve. We report the case of a patient with chronic hepatitis C, who developed life-threatening thrombocytopenic purpura after a prolonged course of IFN-alpha2b over a 4-year period. Treatment with anti-immunoglobulin gammaglobulin (Polyglobin; Química Farmaceutica Bayer, Barcelona, Spain) had a transient effect on the platelet count, but prolonged therapy with prednisone was necessary for definitive relief of the haematological complication. Two years later, the patient was treated with combined therapy, including ribavirin (1200 mg/day) and IFN-alpha2b (5 mU, t.i.w.) for 12 months. This therapy induced a sustained response, both biochemical and virological, without haematological complications. This observation suggests that ribavirin may be of benefit in the treatment of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic hepatitis C, preventing the harmful effect of IFN-alpha but also allowing both drugs to be combined so as to increase the probability of sustained remission of the liver disease.

  5. Biological responses of three-dimensional cultured fibroblasts by sustained compressive loading include apoptosis and survival activity.

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    Toshiki Kanazawa

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are characterized by chronicity, which results in delayed wound healing due to pressure. Early intervention for preventing delayed healing due to pressure requires a prediction method. However, no study has reported the prediction of delayed healing due to pressure. Therefore, this study focused on biological response-based molecular markers for the establishment of an assessment technology to predict delayed healing due to pressure. We tested the hypothesis that sustained compressive loading applied to three dimensional cultured fibroblasts leads to upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs, CD44, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 along with apoptosis via disruption of adhesion. First, sustained compressive loading was applied to fibroblast-seeded collagen sponges. Following this, collagen sponge samples and culture supernatants were collected for apoptosis and proliferation assays, gene expression analysis, immunocytochemistry, and quantification of secreted substances induced by upregulation of mRNA and protein level. Compared to the control, the compressed samples demonstrated that apoptosis was induced in a time- and load- dependent manner; vinculin and stress fiber were scarce; HSP90α, CD44, HAS2, and COX2 expression was upregulated; and the concentrations of HSP90α, hyaluronan (HA, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were increased. In addition, the gene expression of antiapoptotic Bcl2 was significantly increased in the compressed samples compared to the control. These results suggest that compressive loading induces not only apoptosis but also survival activity. These observations support that HSP90α, HA, and, PGE2 could be potential molecular markers for prediction of delayed wound healing due to pressure.

  6. Response rate in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents – ERICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the response rate and characteristics of people who either took part or not in from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) , according to information subsets. METHODS ERICA is a school-based, nation-wide investigation with a representative sample of 12 to 17-year-old adolescents attending public or private schools in municipalities with over 100,000 inhabitants in Brazil. Response rate of eligible subjects were calculated according to macro-regions, sex, age, and type of school (public or private). We also calculated the percentages of replacement schools in comparison with the ones originally selected as per the sample design, according to the types of schools in the macro-regions. The subjects and non-subjects were compared according to sex, age, and average body mass indices (kg/m2). RESULTS We had 102,327 eligible adolescents enrolled in the groups drawn. The highest percentage of complete information was obtained for the subset of the questionnaire (72.9%). Complete information regarding anthropometric measurements and the ones from the questionnaire were obtained for 72.0% of the adolescents, and the combination of these data with the 24-hour dietary recall were obtained for 70.3% of the adolescents. Complete information from the questionnaire plus biochemical blood evaluation data were obtained for 52.5% of the morning session adolescents (selected for blood tests). The response percentage in private schools was higher than the one in public schools for most of the combination of information. The ratio of older and male adolescents non-participants was higher than the ratio among participants. CONCLUSIONS The response rate for non-invasive procedures was high. The response rate for blood collection – an invasive procedure that requires a 12-hour fasting period and the informed consent form from legal guardians – was lower. The response rate observed in public schools was lower than in the private ones, and

  7. Response Rates for Mixed-Mode Surveys Using Mail and E-Mail/Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Patrick D.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Huang, Xiaoting; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines response rates for mixed-mode survey implementation involving mail and e-mail/Web components. Using Dillman's Tailored Design Method, 1,500 participants were sent a survey either (a) via mail with a follow-up contact via e-mail that directed them to a Web-based questionnaire or (b) via e-mail that directed them to a Web-based…

  8. Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study

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    Orchard Jo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105 compared with 88.0% (389 of 442 for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%. Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009 with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study.

  9. Habituation of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to recurring acoustic startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W; Grafft, Amanda; Chapleau, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Startle habituation is a type of implicit and automatic emotion regulation. Diminished startle habituation is linked to several psychiatric or neurological disorders. Most previous studies quantified startle habituation by assessing skin conductance response (SCR; reflecting sympathetic-mediated sweating), eye-blink reflex, or motor response. The habituation of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to recurrent startle stimuli is not well understood. A variety of methods and metrics have been used to quantify parasympathetic activity and its effects on the heart. We hypothesized that these different measures reflect unique psychological and physiological processes that may habituate differently during repeated startle stimuli. We measured cardiac inter-beat intervals (IBIs) to recurring acoustic startle probes in 75 eight year old children. Eight acoustic stimuli of 500 ms duration were introduced at intervals of 15-25 s. Indices of parasympathetic effect included: (1) the initial rapid decrease in IBI post-startle mediated by parasympathetic inhibition (PI); (2) the subsequent IBI recovery mediated by parasympathetic reactivation (PR); (3) rapid, beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV) measured from the first seven IBIs following each startle probe. SCR and motor responses to startle were also measured. Results showed that habituation of PR (IBI recovery and overshoot) and SCRs were rapid and robust. In addition, changes in PR and SCR were significantly correlated. In contrast, habituation of PI (the initial decrease in IBI) was slower and relatively modest. Measurement of rapid HRV provided an index reflecting the combination of PI and PR. We conclude that different measures of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to repeated startle probes habituate in a differential manner.

  10. Sustainability Evaluation.

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    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  11. THE RATE OF CLINICAL RESPONSE OF ORAL LOADING SODIUM VALPROATE IN ACUTELY MANLC PATIENT

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    K SHAFIEE

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acheiving accelerated clinical response is desirable in patients with acute manic episode. We conducted a prospective study to compare the rate of clinical response of oral loading sodium valproate versus standard dose titration. Methods: Fourty - two patients who met DSM - IV critevia for current manic episode and who had a "Young mania rating scale "score between 20 and 50 were randomly assigned on a double blind basis to recieve valproate oral "loading"(N = 21 at a dose of 20 mg/kg in divided doses for 7 days and valproate "non -loading" at a starting dose of 10 mg/kg followed by standard titration which at day 6 , they recieved 20 mg/kg valproate. Patients were scored at day 0, 3, 5 and 7 by a blindraterusing YMRS. Results: There was no significat differences between the groups in advers events and useing of adjunctive tranquilizer .The efficacy of valproate in both two groups was similar but " the rate of improvement on YMRS" over the first 3 days was significantly greater in loading group. Conclusion: Valproate oral loading with sodium valproate can induced a more rapid clinical response in acutely manic patient.

  12. Comparing Response Times and Error Rates in a Simultaneous Masking Paradigm

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    F Hermens

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In simultaneous masking, performance on a foveally presented target is impaired by one or more flanking elements. Previous studies have demonstrated strong effects of the grouping of the target and the flankers on the strength of masking (e.g., Malania, Herzog & Westheimer, 2007. These studies have predominantly examined performance by measuring offset discrimination thresholds as a measure of performance, and it is therefore unclear whether other measures of performance provide similar outcomes. A recent study, which examined the role of grouping on error rates and response times in a speeded vernier offset discrimination task, similar to that used by Malania et al. (2007, suggested a possible dissociation between the two measures, with error rates mimicking threshold performance, but response times showing differential results (Panis & Hermens, 2014. We here report the outcomes of three experiments examining this possible dissociation, and demonstrate an overall similar pattern of results for error rates and response times across a broad range of mask layouts. Moreover, the pattern of results in our experiments strongly correlates with threshold performance reported earlier (Malania et al., 2007. Our results suggest that outcomes in a simultaneous masking paradigm do not critically depend on the outcome measure used, and therefore provide evidence for a common underlying mechanism.

  13. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

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    Jannika De Rubeis

    Full Text Available Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing. We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52 and disorganized attachment status (n = 45. Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051. These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  14. Sustainable forest management and impacts on forest responses to a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, D. B.; Parker, G.; Riutta, T.; Capretz, R.; Murthy, I.; Haibao, R.; Bebber, D.

    2009-12-01

    Impacts from human activities at varying scales and intensities have a profound influence on forest carbon dynamics in addition to interactions with climate. As such, forest carbon stocks and fluxes are among the least well-defined elements of the global carbon cycle, and great uncertainty remains in predicting the effect of climate change on forest dynamics. In some cases, these management-climate interactions are well known, but often represent a fundamental gap in our understanding of ecosystem responses and are likely to be important in improving modeling of climate change, and in valuing forest carbon. To improve understanding of human induced forest management-climate interactions, a network of permanent study plots has been established in five sites around the world - in the US, UK, Brazil, India and China. The sites are near larger global monitoring (Smithsonian CTFS) plots to facilitate comparisons. At each site, a series of 1-ha plots have been placed in forest stands with differing management regimes and histories. Utilizing citizen scientists from HSBC bank, all trees >5 cm dbh are tagged, mapped, identified to species, and diameter is recorded within each plot. A subset of trees have dendrometer bands attached, to record seasonal growth. Dead wood and litterfall samples are taken, and microclimate is recorded with automatic sensors. Serial measurements will allow correlation of forest dynamics with weather. Although the studies are at an early stage current results indicate above-ground biomass estimates are 102-288 Mg ha-1 for intermediate and mature Liriodendron tulipifera-dominated stands in the US, respectively. In India, mature semi-natural evergreen forests biomass estimates are 192-235 Mg ha-1 while plantation and semi-natural core forests in the UK are estimated at 211-292 Mg ha-1. Successional Atlantic forests in Brazil are estimated to contain 192-235 Mg ha-1. In the US, initial results have demonstrated dramatic differences in microclimate

  15. Intrapericardial denervation - Radial artery blood flow and heart rate responses to LBNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeever, Kenneth H.; Skidmore, Michael G.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1990-01-01

    The effects of intrapericardial denervation on the radial artery blood flow velocity (RABFV) and heart rate (HR) responses to LBNP in rhesus monkeys were investigated by measuring the RABFV transcutaneously by a continuous-wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter in order to derive an index of forearm blood flow response to low (0 to -20 mm Hg) and high (0 to -60 mm Hg) ramp exposures during supine LBNP. Four of the eight subjects were subjected to efferent and afferent cardiac denervation. It was found that, during low levels of LBNP, monkeys with cardiac denervation exhibited no cardiopulmonary baroreceptor-mediated change in the RABFV or HR, unlike the intact animals, which showed steady decreases in RABFV during both high- and low-pressure protocols. It is suggested that forearm blood flow and HR responses to low-level LBNP, along with pharmacological challenge, are viable physiological tests for verifying the completeness of atrial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptor denervation.

  16. Natural killer KIR3DS1 is closely associated with HCV viral clearance and sustained virological response in HIV/HCV patients.

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    Antonio Rivero-Juarez

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the influence of the presence of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR 3DS1 on HCV treatment response in HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients. METHODS: HIV/HCV co-infected patients were included. KIR3DS1, their specific HLA-B ligands and IL28B gene were genotyped. Reductions of plasma HCV RNA levels between baseline and week 1, week 2 and week 4 were analyzed for IL28B genotype and KIR3DS1 (HLA Bw4 or Bw6. Rapid and sustained virological response (RVR and SVR rates were also analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients were included. Patients with KIR3DS1 and Bw4 had higher rates of HCV viral decline than those who were not carriers of KIR3DS1 (week 1: p = 0.01; week 2: p = 0.038; week 4: p = 0.03. Patients carrying KIR3DS1/Bw4 had higher rates of RVR and SVR than those who did not carry KIR3DS1 (RVR: 46.15% versus 17.02%, p = 0.012; SVR: 63.6% versus 13 26.5%, p = 0.031. With respect to patients carrying the IL28B-CC genotype, those with KIR3DS1/Bw4 had greater rates of HCV viral clearance (week 1: p<0.001; week 2: p = 0.01; week 4: p = 0.02, RVR (p = 0.015 and SVR (p = 0.029 than those not carrying KIR3DS1. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the KIR3DS1 genotype has a positive effect on HCV viral clearance during the first weeks of Peg-IFN/RBV treatment in HCV/HCV co-infected patients bearing genotype 1, and higher RVR and SVR rates.

  17. Determining dose rate with a semiconductor detector - Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordenfors, C

    1999-02-01

    To determine dose rate in a gamma radiation field, based on measurements with a semiconductor detector, it is necessary to know how the detector effects the field. This work aims to describe this effect with Monte Carlo simulations and calculations, that is to identify the detector response function. This is done for a germanium gamma detector. The detector is normally used in the in-situ measurements that is carried out regularly at the department. After the response function is determined it is used to reconstruct a spectrum from an in-situ measurement, a so called unfolding. This is done to be able to calculate fluence rate and dose rate directly from a measured (and unfolded) spectrum. The Monte Carlo code used in this work is EGS4 developed mainly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is a widely used code package to simulate particle transport. The results of this work indicates that the method could be used as-is since the accuracy of this method compares to other methods already in use to measure dose rate. Bearing in mind that this method provides the nuclide specific dose it is useful, in radiation protection, since knowing what the relations between different nuclides are and how they change is very important when estimating the risks

  18. The performance quality rating scale (PQRS): reliability, convergent validity, and internal responsiveness for two scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Rose; Rios, Jorge; Polatajko, Helene; Wolf, Timothy; McEwen, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The performance quality rating scale (PQRS) is an observational measure of performance quality of client-selected, personally meaningful activities. It has been used inconsistently with different scoring systems, and there have been no formal publications on its psychometric properties. The purpose of this study was to test and compare the psychometric properties of two PQRS scoring systems in two populations. A secondary analysis of video recorded participant-selected activities from previous studies involving either adults living with stroke or children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) was conducted. Three pairs of raters scored the video recorded performances with PQRS operational definitions (PQRS-OD) and a generic rating system (PQRS-G). For inter-rater reliability, PQRS-OD ICCs were substantial, ranging from 0.83 to 0.93; while the PQRS-G ICCs were moderate, ranging from 0.71 to 0.77. Test-retest reliability was substantial, >0.80 (ICC), for both rating systems across all rater pairs. Internal responsiveness was high for both rating systems. Convergent validity with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was inconsistent, with scores ranging from low to moderate. Both scoring systems have demonstrated they are reliable and have good internal responsiveness. The PQRS-OD demonstrated greater consistency across raters and is more sensitive to clinically important change than the PQRS-G and should be used when greater accuracy is required. Further exploration of validity with actual rather than perceived performance measures is required.

  19. CHARADE: A characteristic code for calculating rate-dependent shock-wave response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.N.; Tonks, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this report we apply spatially one-dimensional methods and simple shock-tracking techniques to the solution of rate-dependent material response under flat-plate-impact conditions. This method of solution eliminates potential confusion of material dissipation with artificial dissipative effects inherent in finite-difference codes, and thus lends itself to accurate calculation of elastic-plastic deformation, shock-to-detonation transition in solid explosives, and shock-induced structural phase transformation. Equations are presented for rate-dependent thermoelastic-plastic deformation for (100) planar shock-wave propagation in materials of cubic symmetry (or higher). Specific numerical calculations are presented for polycrystalline copper using the mechanical threshold stress model of Follansbee and Kocks with transition to dislocation drag. A listing of the CHARADE (for characteristic rate dependence) code and sample input deck are given. 26 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Public Administration, Social Responsibility and Sustainability, the Commitment of Public Education Institutions: Instituto Federal Fluminense Case Study

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    Isabel Grigorio Freitas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available School is part of the community and as such should provide ongoing discussions which are conducive to creating a more just society, striving to provide educational and vocational training in order to educate citizens who are free, able to think critically, and supportive of each other. In pursuit of this objective, education emerges as a springboard for sustainable development with social inclusion, bringing down certain barriers created by the need to meet government targets, and discussing the options associated to local characteristics, empowering people who are looking for a more dignified life.The objectives of this research are to analyse the commitment of public teaching institutions in the area of social development and sustainability; identify the main difficulties of implementing social projects according to federal government guidelines, considering not only the general characteristics, but also those given by local communities; and understand the importance of education for improving communal living conditions, helping strengthen collaboration between communities and schools in tackling these social issues and identifying practices currently adopted. This will be done by reviewing the literature and case studies available, aiming to improve the management of future actions.The method employed to answer the research question included the use of questionnaires and interviews, direct observation by the author, literature review and a study of best practices dentified throughout the research process, the use of the concept of social responsibility and sustainability to analyse public policies focused on education, and the case study of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia to improve the handling and understanding of research data.It became apparent that the biggest difficulties encountered in the projects created by the federal government and operated by the Instituto Federal Fluminense had to do with lack of

  1. Interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 in chronic hepatitis C: Correlations with insulin resistance, histological features & sustained virological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Dana; Grigorescu, Mircea Dan; Radu, Corina; Suciu, Alina; Grigorescu, Mircea

    2017-04-01

    One of the multiple factors contributing to virological response in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10). Its level reflects the status of interferon-stimulated genes, which in turn is associated with virological response to antiviral therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of serum IP-10 levels on sustained virological response (SVR) and the association of this parameter with insulin resistance (IR) and liver histology. Two hundred and three consecutive biopsy proven CHC patients were included in the study. Serum levels of IP-10 were determined using ELISA method. IR was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR). Histological features were assessed invasively by liver biopsy and noninvasively using FibroTest, ActiTest and SteatoTest. Predictive factors for SVR and their interrelations were assessed. A cut-off value for IP-10 of 392 pg/ml was obtained to discriminate between responders and non-responders. SVR was obtained in 107 patients (52.70%). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for SVR was 0.875 with a sensitivity of 91.6 per cent, specificity 74.7 per cent, positive predictive value 80.3 per cent and negative predictive value 88.7 per cent. Higher values of IP-10 were associated with increasing stages of fibrosis (P<0.01) and higher grades of inflammation (P=0.02, P=0.07) assessed morphologically and noninvasively through FibroTest and ActiTest. Significant steatosis and IR were also associated with increased levels of IP-10 (P=0.01 and P=0.02). In multivariate analysis, IP-10 levels and fibrosis stages were independently associated with SVR. Our findings showed that the assessment of serum IP-10 level could be a predictive factor for SVR and it was associated with fibrosis, necroinflammatory activity, significant steatosis and IR in patients with chronic HCV infection.

  2. Responses to Environmental & Societal Challenges for our Unstable Earth (RESCUE) foresight initiative - towards a European response to grand challenges in sustainability research and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, B.; et al.

    2012-04-01

    The "Responses to Environmental and Societal Challenges for our Unstable Earth" (RESCUE; www.esf.org/rescue) foresight initiative - a joint COST-ESF "Frontiers of Science" initiative - aimed to help Europe address the societal and scientific challenges related to global environmental change and the related resilience issues. In RESCUE, the focus of attention was on people and the goal was to stimulate an integrated, innovative response from natural, social and human sciences. The RESCUE foresight initiative began in September 2009 and has recently been completed. RESCUE had the following key objectives: 1. To propose a strategic process for natural, social and human sciences to improve their ability and capacity to work together to address global environmental change through interdisciplinary synergy and to respond effectively to societal and policy-relevant needs; 2. To articulate new scientific issues related to global environmental change and the related resilience issues, especially those of transdisciplinary nature and of major relevance to society; 3. To explore new approaches towards truly integrated, interdisciplinary science, and to facilitate the 'revolution' in education and capacity building it requires. The work of RESCUE focused on the following themes: · Contributions from social sciences and humanities in developing responses to challenges of the Anthropocene; · Collaboration between the natural, social and human sciences in global environmental change and resilience studies; · Requirements for research methodologies and data; · Education and capacity building - towards a 'revolution'; · The interface between science and policy, communication and outreach. The RESCUE recommendations include the following issues to be addressed by science-funders, science policy-makers, researchers, practitioners, educators and a range of other societal actors: · develop an institutional framework for an open knowledge society, · re-organise research so

  3. Managing non-response rates for the National Child Safety Seat Survey in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Wen, Tang; Snowdon, Anne W; Hussein, Abdulkadir; Ahmed, S Ejaz

    2011-04-01

    Canada has a Road Safety Vision of having the safest roads in the world, yet vehicle crashes have remained the leading cause of death of Canadian children for a number of years. Determine the influence of high rates of non-participation on the estimates for correct use of safety seats for child occupants in vehicles. Examine the impact of three different criteria for determining correct safety seat use on the estimates of correct use of safety seats for children in Canada. A national child seat safety survey was conducted in 200 randomly selected sites across Canada that included both naturalistic observation of child seat safety use at intersections and a detailed vehicle inspection in nearby parking lots. Non-participation in the detailed parking lot study was high. This study reports on statistical methods for managing high rates of non-response and compared estimates of correct use using three different criteria. Results revealed that high non-participation rates introduced bias into the raw estimates of correct safety seat use. Correct use estimates also varied substantially depending on which criterion (more stringent or less stringent) for correct use was applied in the analysis. When child age was the only criterion for correct use, estimates were higher than when more stringent criteria of child height and weight were applied to estimate rates of correct use. This study identifies the importance of managing high rates of non-response in safety seat observation studies using statistical techniques. Stringent criteria for correct use may provide more accurate estimates of the correct use of safety seats. Studies of child seat use in vehicles (using voluntary participation) may benefit from the use of naturalistic observation to capture non-participants' use of child occupant restraints, as it may more accurately estimate the rates of correct use in populations.

  4. Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lončarić, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary

  5. Temperature-dependent responses of the photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence attributes of apple (Malus domestica) leaves during a sustained high temperature event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Dennis H

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to follow changes in the temperature-dependent responses of photosynthesis and photosystem II performance in leaves of field-grown trees of Malus domestica (Borkh.) cv. 'Red Gala' before and after exposure to a long-term heat event occurring late in the growing season. Light-saturated photosynthesis was optimal at 25 °C before the heat event. The high temperatures caused a reduction in rates at low temperatures (15-20 °C) but increased rates at high temperatures (30-40 °C) and a shift in optimum to 30 °C. Rates at all temperatures increased after the heat event and the optimum shifted to 33 °C, indicative of some acclimation to the high temperatures occurring. Photosystem II attributes were all highly temperature-dependent. The operating quantum efficiency of PSII during the heat event declined, but mostly at high temperatures, partly because of decreased photochemical quenching but also from increased non-photochemical quenching. However, a further reduction in PSII operating efficiency occurred after the heat event subsided. Non-photochemical quenching had subsided, whereas photochemical quenching had increased in the post-heat event period and consistent with a greater fraction of open PSII reaction centres. What remained uncertain was why these effects on PSII performance appeared to have no effect on the process of light-saturated photosynthesis. However, the results provide an enhanced understanding of the impacts of sustained high temperatures on the photosynthetic process and its underlying reactions, notably photochemistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  7. Intake rates and the functional response in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) eating macro-invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss-Custard, John D; West, Andrew D; Yates, Michael G; Caldow, Richard W G; Stillman, Richard A; Bardsley, Louise; Castilla, Juan; Castro, Macarena; Dierschke, Volker; Durell, Sarah E A Le V Dit; Eichhorn, Goetz; Ens, Bruno J; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Udayangani-Fernando, P U; Ferns, Peter N; Hockey, Philip A R; Gill, Jennifer A; Johnstone, Ian; Kalejta-Summers, Bozena; Masero, Jose A; Moreira, Francisco; Nagarajan, Rajarathina Velu; Owens, Ian P F; Pacheco, Cristian; Perez-Hurtado, Alejandro; Rogers, Danny; Scheiffarth, Gregor; Sitters, Humphrey; Sutherland, William J; Triplet, Patrick; Worrall, Dave H; Zharikov, Yuri; Zwarts, Leo; Pettifor, Richard A

    2006-11-01

    As field determinations take much effort, it would be useful to be able to predict easily the coefficients describing the functional response of free-living predators, the function relating food intake rate to the abundance of food organisms in the environment. As a means easily to parameterise an individual-based model of shorebird Charadriiformes populations, we attempted this for shorebirds eating macro-invertebrates. Intake rate is measured as the ash-free dry mass (AFDM) per second of active foraging; i.e. excluding time spent on digestive pauses and other activities, such as preening. The present and previous studies show that the general shape of the functional response in shorebirds eating approximately the same size of prey across the full range of prey density is a decelerating rise to a plateau, thus approximating the Holling type II ('disc equation') formulation. But field studies confirmed that the asymptote was not set by handling time, as assumed by the disc equation, because only about half the foraging time was spent in successfully or unsuccessfully attacking and handling prey, the rest being devoted to searching.A review of 30 functional responses showed that intake rate in free-living shorebirds varied independently of prey density over a wide range, with the asymptote being reached at very low prey densities (<150/m-2). Accordingly, most of the many studies of shorebird intake rate have probably been conducted at or near the asymptote of the functional response, suggesting that equations that predict intake rate should also predict the asymptote.A multivariate analysis of 468 'spot' estimates of intake rates from 26 shorebirds identified ten variables, representing prey and shorebird characteristics, that accounted for 81% of the variance in logarithm-transformed intake rate. But four-variables accounted for almost as much (77.3%), these being bird size, prey size, whether the bird was an oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus eating mussels

  8. The effect of low dose rate on metabolomic response to radiation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudarzi, Maryam [Georgetown University, Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Washington, DC (United States); Mak, Tytus D. [Georgetown University, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC (United States); Chen, Congju; Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Brenner, David J. [Columbia University, Center for High-Throughput Minimally-Invasive Radiation Biodosimetry, New York, NY (United States); Fornace, Albert J. [Georgetown University, Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Washington, DC (United States); Georgetown University, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Metabolomics has been shown to have utility in assessing responses to exposure by ionizing radiation (IR) in easily accessible biofluids such as urine. Most studies to date from our laboratory and others have employed γ-irradiation at relatively high dose rates (HDR), but many environmental exposure scenarios will probably be at relatively low dose rates (LDR). There are well-documented differences in the biologic responses to LDR compared to HDR, so an important question is to assess LDR effects at the metabolomics level. Our study took advantage of a modern mass spectrometry approach in exploring the effects of dose rate on the urinary excretion levels of metabolites 2 days after IR in mice. A wide variety of statistical tools were employed to further focus on metabolites, which showed responses to LDR IR exposure (0.00309 Gy/min) distinguishable from those of HDR. From a total of 709 detected spectral features, more than 100 were determined to be statistically significant when comparing urine from mice irradiated with 1.1 or 4.45 Gy to that of sham-irradiated mice 2 days post-exposure. The results of this study show that LDR and HDR exposures perturb many of the same pathways such as TCA cycle and fatty acid metabolism, which also have been implicated in our previous IR studies. However, it is important to note that dose rate did affect the levels of particular metabolites. Differences in urinary excretion levels of such metabolites could potentially be used to assess an individual's exposure in a radiobiological event and thus would have utility for both triage and injury assessment. (orig.)

  9. Study of long-term sustained operation of gaseous detectors for the high rate environment in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00366989; Sharma, Archana

    The muon system of CMS aims to provide an efficient and fast identification of the muons produced in the proton-proton collisions. However, the forward region of the end-caps is only instrumented with Cathode Strip Chambers. This lack of redundancy will be problematic after the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), for which the increase of the background rate would degrade the Level-1 trigger performance and thus the selection of interesting physics channels. The goal of the CMS muon upgrade is to maintain the L1 trigger rate with maximum selection efficiency in order to fully exploit the HL-LHC. The CMS GEM Collaboration has proposed to instrument the vacant high-eta region of the muon end-caps with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, called GE1/1 chambers. The Ph.D. subject proposed by the CMS GEM Collaboration aims to demonstrate that the GE1/1 technology is the most suitable choice for the upgrade of the muon end-caps. Three main research projects were conducted in this context. The first pro...

  10. Evaluation of Ocimum basilicum L. seed mucilage as rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Saeedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Ocimum basilicum L. (family Lamiaceae was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. Basil mucilage was extracted and several tablets were formulated. The effect of mucilage on drug release rate was evaluated in comparison with tablets containing two kinds of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M as standard polymer. The release data were fitted to several models for kinetic evaluation. The results showed that hardness decreased and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased. The rate of release of propranolol HCl from O. basilicm mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug: mucilage ratio. Drug release was slower from the HPMC K4M and HPMCK100M containing tablets compared to the mucilage containing matrices than the drug release from matrices containing O. basilicum seed mucilage in similar ratios.  Formulations containing O. basilicm mucilage were found to exhibit suitable release pattern. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in tablets containing O. basilicm mucilage the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that, as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets.

  11. The macroecology of sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Burger

    Full Text Available The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1 physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2 smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3 global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  12. Dynamics of a Delayed HIV-1 Infection Model with Saturation Incidence Rate and CTL Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Liu, Haihong; Xu, Chenglin; Yan, Fang

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a five-dimensional virus model incorporating saturation incidence rate, CTL immune response and three time delays which represent the latent period, virus production period and immune response delay, respectively. We begin this model by proving the positivity and boundedness of the solutions. Our model admits three possible equilibrium solutions, namely the infection-free equilibrium E0, the infectious equilibrium without immune response E1 and the infectious equilibrium with immune response E2. Moreover, by analyzing corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of each of the feasible equilibria and the existence of Hopf bifurcation at the equilibrium point E2 are established, respectively. Further, by using fluctuation lemma and suitable Lyapunov functionals, it is shown that E0 is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproductive numbers for viral infection R0 is less than unity. When the basic reproductive numbers for immune response R1 is less than unity and R0 is greater than unity, the equilibrium point E1 is globally asymptotically stable. Finally, some numerical simulations are carried out for illustrating the theoretical results.

  13. Do, but Don't Tell: The Search for Social Responsibility and Sustainability in the Websites of the Top-100 US MBA Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Timothy A.; Fox, Corey J.; Ede, Kenneth F.; Korstad, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the degree to which business schools, in particular MBA programs, have developed academic programs and centers specifically focused on corporate social responsibility and sustainability (CSRS) and, for those that have, promote them on their Web sites. The instruction of CSRS in institutions of…

  14. Special Issue on "Social Responsibility Accounting and Reporting in Times of ‘Sustainability Downturn/Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José M. Moneva-Abadía; Carmen Correa-Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    ... eroding social and environmental concerns and values, the notion of sustainability crisis provides an interesting starting point to reflect on the role of Social and Environmental Accounting Research...

  15. Radiation response of industrial materials: Dose-rate and morphology implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2007-08-01

    Industrial uses of ionizing radiation mostly rely upon high current, high dose-rate (100 kGy/s) electron beam (EB) accelerators. To a lesser extent, industry uses low dose-rate (2.8 × 10-3 kGy/s) radioactive Cobalt-60 as a gamma source, generally for some rather specific purposes, as medical device sterilization and the treatment of food and foodstuffs. There are nearly nine times as many (∼1400) high current EB units in commercial operation than gamma sources (∼160). However, gamma sources can be easily scaled-down so that much research on materials effects is conducted using gamma radiation. Likewise, laboratories are more likely to have very low beam current and consequently low dose-rate accelerators such as Van de Graaff generators and linear accelerators. With the advent of very high current EB accelerators, X-ray processing has become an industrially viable option. With X-rays from high power sources, dose-rates can be modulated based upon accelerator power and the attenuation of the X-ray by the distance of the material from the X-ray target. Dose and dose-rate dependence has been found to be of consequence in several commercial applications which can employ the use of ionizing radiation. The combination of dose and dose-rate dependence of the polymerization and crosslinking of wood impregnants and of fiber composite matrix materials can yield more economically viable results which have promising commercial potential. Monomer and oligomer structure also play an important role in attaining these desirable results. The influence of morphology is shown on the radiation response of olefin polymers, such as ethylene, propylene and isobutylene polymers and their copolymers. Both controlled morphology and controlled dose-rate have commercial consequences. These are also impacted both by the adroit selection of materials and through the possible use of X-ray processing.

  16. Evoked response of heart rate variability using short-duration white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guo-She; Chen, Mei-Ling; Wang, Gin-You

    2010-06-24

    To investigate and to establish a model for evaluation of the instant cardiovascular responses to the noises of low-to-moderate intensity, sixteen healthy subjects were enrolled. The white noises were binaurally presented with a supra-aural earphone. The test intensities of noises were no noise, 50, 60, 70 and 80 dBA. Each noise was continued for 5 min and the electrocardiogram was simultaneously recorded. The cardiac autonomic responses were evaluated using power spectral analysis of the R-R contour obtained from digital signal processing of the ECG tracings. The result showed that the mean heart rate and mean blood pressure did not change significantly with the noises. However, the low-frequency power (LF) which represents cardiac autonomic modulations and the ratio (LHR) of LF to high-frequency power (HF) which reflects cardiac sympathetic modulations were significantly greater in the noise intensity of 50, 60, 70 and 80dBA (pnoise intensity (rho=0.90, pwhite noises can be detected using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability and the evoked responses may provide a sensitive way to evaluate the instant effect of noise to humans.

  17. Neural correlates of fear-induced sympathetic response associated with the peripheral temperature change rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yamazaki, Mika; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is essential for coping with environmental stressors such as fearful stimuli. Recent human imaging studies demonstrated that activity in some cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula cortex (aIC), is related to sympathetic activity. However, little is known about the functional brain connectivity related to sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. The participants were 32 healthy, right-handed volunteers. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity when watching horror and control movies. Fingertip temperature was taken during the scanning as a measure of sympathetic response. The movies were watched a second time, and the degree of fear (9-point Likert-type scale) was evaluated every three seconds. The brain activity of the ACC, bilateral aIC, and bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) was correlated with the change rate of fingertip temperature, with or without fearful stimuli. Functional connectivity analysis revealed significantly greater positive functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ACC and between the amygdala and the aIC when watching the horror movie than when watching the control movie. Whole-brain psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that the functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC was modulated according to the fear rating. Our results indicate that the increased functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC represents a sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Correspondence of verbal descriptor and numeric rating scales for pain intensity: an item response theory calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Saliba, Debra

    2010-07-01

    Assessing pain intensity in older adults is critical and challenging. There is debate about the most effective way to ask older adults to describe their pain severity, and clinicians vary in their preferred approaches, making comparison of pain intensity scores across settings difficult. A total of 3,676 residents from 71 community nursing homes across eight states were asked about pain presence. The 1,960 residents who reported pain within the past 5 days (53% of total, 70% female; age: M = 77.9, SD = 12.4) were included in analyses. Those who reported pain were also asked to provide a rating of pain intensity using either a verbal descriptor scale (VDS; mild, moderate, severe, and very severe and horrible), a numeric rating scale (NRS; 0 = no pain to 10 = worst pain imaginable), or both. We used item response theory (IRT) methods to identify the correspondence between the VDS and the NRS response options by estimating item parameters for these and five additional pain items. The sample reported moderate amounts of pain on average. Examination of the IRT location parameters for the pain intensity items indicated the following approximate correspondence: VDS mild approximately NRS 1-4, VDS moderate approximately NRS 5-7, VDS severe approximately NRS 8-9, and VDS very severe, horrible approximately NRS 10. This IRT calibration provides a crosswalk between the two response scales so that either can be used in practice depending on the preference of the clinician and respondent.

  19. Effects of autogenic training on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Joo; Kim, Chunmi

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to confirm the effects of autogenic training (AT) on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing school students experiencing stress related to clinical training. The study was carried out from September 2012 to April 2013 in a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group using a pretest-posttest design. The participants were 40 nursing students in their third year at either of two nursing colleges. All consented to participate. Nineteen nursing students at one college were assigned to the experimental group and underwent the 8-week AT program, and the other 21 were assigned to the control group and did not undergo any training. Stress response was assessed by questionnaire and HRV was measured three times, that is, before the program, at the end of the program, and 6 months after the end of the AT program. A significant time/group interaction was found for stress response (F = 4.68, p = .012), a subjective indicator. However, no significant interaction was found for the objective indicators of heart rate variability, normalized low frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), normalized high frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), or low frequency to high frequency ratio (F = 1.38, p = .257). The results suggest that AT provides an acceptable approach to stress reduction in nursing students. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Differential heart rate responses to social and monetary reinforcement in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube, Jana; Schrimpf, Anne; García-García, Isabel; Villringer, Arno; Neumann, Jane; Horstmann, Annette

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by weight stigmatization; subsequently, individuals with obesity frequently face social rejection. It has been shown that recurrent negative social experiences can alter the perception of social cues. However, the way individuals with obesity process social stimuli is not well understood. This study aims to investigate obesity-related alterations in social compared to nonsocial information processing. Women with obesity (n = 14) and without obesity (n = 14) participated in a social and a monetary incentive delay task in which they anticipated and received positive, negative, and neutral outcomes in the form of faces or money. During the experiment, phasic heart rate changes and reaction times were measured. Women with obesity, compared to lean women, exhibited a stronger differentiation during the anticipation of monetary and social reinforcement, showing slower reaction times to social cues compared to monetary cues. During the outcome processing phase, women with obesity relative to controls demonstrated diminished heart rate responses particularly to negative social outcomes. Interestingly, differences in cardiac responses in participants with obesity were moderated by weight-related teasing experiences. In women with obesity, a higher BMI was associated with blunted cardiac responses to social cues relative to monetary cues only if they reported more emotional pain after weight-related teasing. Our results contribute to a better understanding of social information processing in obesity and give first evidence for the role of negative social experiences in reinforcement processing. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Clinical application of fluctuation dissipation theory - Prediction of heart rate response to spontaneous breathing trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niestemski, Liang R.; Chen, Man; Prevost, Robert; McRae, Michael; Cholleti, Sharath; Najarro, Gabriel; Buchman, Timothy G.; Deem, Michael W.

    2013-03-01

    Contrary to the traditional view of the healthy physiological state as being a single static state, variation in physiologic variables has more recently been suggested to be a key component of the healthy state. Indeed, aging and disease are characterized by a loss of such variability. We apply the conceptual framework of fluctuation-dissipation theory (FDT) to predict the response to a common clinical intervention from historical fluctuations in physiologic time series data. The non-equilibrium FDT relates the response of a system to a perturbation to natural fluctuations in the stationary state of the system. We seek to understand with the FDT a common clinical perturbation, the spontaneous breathing trial (SBT), in which mechanical ventilation is briefly suspended while the patient breathes freely for a period of time. As a stress upon the heart of the patient, the SBT can be characterized as a perturbation of heart rate dynamics. A non-equilibrium, but steady-state FDT allows us to predict the heart rate recovery after the SBT stress. We show that the responses of groups of similar patients to the spontaneous breathing trial can be predicted by this approach. This mathematical framework may serve as part of the basis for personalized critical care.

  2. The heartbrake of social rejection: heart rate deceleration in response to unexpected peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Crone, Eveline A; van der Molen, Maurits W

    2010-09-01

    Social relationships are vitally important in human life. Social rejection in particular has been conceptualized as a potent social cue resulting in feelings of hurt. Our study investigated the psychophysiological manifestation of hurt feelings by examining the beat-by-beat heart rate response associated with the processing of social rejection. Study participants were presented with a series of unfamiliar faces and were asked to predict whether they would be liked by the other person. Following each judgment, participants were provided with feedback indicating that the person they had viewed had either accepted or rejected them. Feedback was associated with transient heart rate slowing and a return to baseline that was considerably delayed in response to unexpected social rejection. Our results reveal that the processing of unexpected social rejection is associated with a sizable response of the parasympathetic nervous system. These findings are interpreted in terms of a cardiovagal manifestation of a neural mechanism implicated in the central control of autonomic function during cognitive processes and affective regulation.

  3. HEART RATE AND BLOOD LACTATE RESPONSES TO CHANGQUAN AND DAOSHU FORMS OF MODERN WUSHU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerri Luiz Ribeiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of specific training designed to enhance physiological aspects of performance relies heavily on the availability of accurate and validity physiological data. In the combat sport of Wushu, katas are used to develop aerobic fitness. It is arguably important to assess and monitor heart rate (HR and lactate (La responses when designing effective training programs. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate heart rate and lactate responses to forms execution among Wushu combatants. Male elite modern Wushu athletes (n = 4 from a South Brazilian regional team participated in the study. Athletes were aged 22.5 ± 2.08 years old and had at least eight years of Wushu experience. Athletes carried out the Changquan and Daoshu forms in random order, HR and La were measured pre- and post-exercise. Results indicate that HR was 176 ± 3 and 176 ± 2 bpm and La was 4.38 ± 1.3 and 5.15 ± 1.07 mmol·l-1 for Changquan and Daoshu forms, respectively. There were no significantly differences in HR and La between the two forms. HR values represent 89.2 ± 1.1 and 89.1 ± 1.8% of age-predicted maximal heart rate and lactate was near of 4 mmol·l-1 point. In conclusion, training programs to Wushu combatants could target the range of physiological values cited above with no differences between two forms

  4. Responses of the sustained inward current to autonomic agonists in guinea-pig sino-atrial node pacemaker cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Futoshi; Ding, Wei-Guang; Matsuura, Hiroshi

    2005-03-01

    1. The present study was undertaken to examine the responses of the sustained inward current (I(st)) to beta-adrenergic and muscarinic agonists in guinea-pig sino-atrial (SA) node cells using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. I(st) was detected as the nicardipine (1 microM)-sensitive inward current at potentials between approximately -80 and +20 mV in the presence of low concentration (0.1 mM) of extracellular Ca2+, where the L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca,L)) was practically abolished. 2. Beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline (ISO) in nanomolar concentrations not only increased the amplitude of I(st) but also shifted the membrane potential producing the peak amplitude (Vpeak) to a negative direction by approximately 15 mV without appreciably affecting potential range for the current activation. The stimulatory effect of ISO was concentration-dependent with an EC50 of 2.26 nM and the maximal effect (96.4+/-22.9% increase, n=6) was obtained at 100 nM ISO, when evaluated by the responses at -50 mV. 3. Bath application of acetylcholine (ACh) significantly inhibited I(st), which had been maximally augmented by 100 nM ISO; this inhibitory effect of ACh was concentration-dependent with an IC50 of 133.9 nM. High concentration (1000 nM) of ACh depressed basal I(st) by 10.5+/-2.0% (n=3). 4. In action potential clamp experiments, I(st) was also detected under control conditions and was markedly potentiated by exposure to ISO. 5. These results strongly suggest that I(st) not only contributes to the spontaneous action potentials of mammalian SA node cells but also plays a substantial role in mediating autonomic regulation of SA node pacemaker activity.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells from osteoporotic patients feature impaired signal transduction but sustained osteoinduction in response to BMP-2 stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Wolf Christian; Haasters, Florian; Heggebö, Jostein; Polzer, Hans; Schwarz, Christina; Gassner, Christoph; Grote, Stefan; Anz, David; Jäger, Marcus; Mutschler, Wolf; Schieker, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    Osteoporotic fractures show reduced callus formation and delayed bone healing. Cellular sources of fracture healing are mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that differentiate into osteoblasts by stimulation with osteoinductive cytokines, such as BMP-2. We hypothesized that impaired signal transduction and reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity in response to BMP-2 may underlie the delayed fracture healing. Therefore, MSC were isolated from femoral heads of healthy and osteoporotic patients. Grouping was carried out by bone mineral densitometry in an age-matched manner. MSC were stimulated with BMP-2. Signal transduction was assessed by western blotting of pSMAD1/5/8 and pERK1/2 as well as by quantitative RT-PCR of Runx-2, Dlx5, and Osteocalcin. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by quantifying Alizarin Red staining. Osteoporotic MSC featured an accurate phosphorylation pattern of SMAD1/5/8 but a significantly reduced activation of ERK1/2 by BMP-2 stimulation. Furthermore, osteoporotic MSC showed significantly reduced basal expression levels of Runx-2 and Dlx5. However, Runx-2, Dlx5, and Osteocalcin expression showed adequate up-regulation due to BMP-2 stimulation. The global osteogenic differentiation in standard osteogenic differentiation media was reduced in osteoporotic MSC. Nevertheless, osteoporotic MSC were shown to feature an adequate induction of osteogenic differentiation due to BMP-2 stimulation. Taken together, we here demonstrate osteoporosis associated alterations in BMP-2 signaling but sustained specific osteogenic differentiation capacity in response to BMP-2. Therefore, BMP-2 may represent a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of fractures in osteoporotic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustained action of developmental ethanol exposure on the cortisol response to stress in zebrafish larvae and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Baiamonte

    Full Text Available Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of preventable birth defects, leading to a range of symptoms collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. More moderate levels of prenatal ethanol exposure lead to a range of behavioural deficits including aggression, poor social interaction, poor cognitive performance and increased likelihood of addiction in later life. Current theories suggest that adaptation in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and neuroendocrine systems contributes to mood alterations underlying behavioural deficits and vulnerability to addiction. In using zebrafish (Danio rerio, the aim is to determine whether developmental ethanol exposure provokes changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal (HPI axis (the teleost equivalent of the HPA, as it does in mammalian models, therefore opening the possibilities of using zebrafish to elucidate the mechanisms involved, and to test novel therapeutics to alleviate deleterious symptoms.The results showed that developmental exposure to ambient ethanol, 20mM-50mM 1-9 days post fertilisation, had immediate effects on the HPI, markedly reducing the cortisol response to air exposure stress, as measured by whole body cortisol content. This effect was sustained in adults 6 months later. Morphology, growth and locomotor activity of the animals were unaffected, suggesting a specific action of ethanol on the HPI. In this respect the data are consistent with mammalian results, although they contrast with the higher corticosteroid stress response reported in rats after developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms that underlie the specific sensitivity of the HPI to ethanol require elucidation.

  7. Predictive Value of PTEN and AR Coexpression of Sustained Responsiveness to Hormonal Therapy in Prostate Cancer—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha Salama El Sheikh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available One limitation of current biochemical or histologic analysis of advanced prostate cancer (PC; T3/T4 ±Nx Mx is the ability to identify on first diagnostic biopsy patients who will make a durable response to hormone ablation therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value (sustained response to hormonal therapy and clinical outcome (relapse-free and overall survival of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN and the androgen receptor (AR immunoexpression in the presenting biopsy. Analysis was performed on 47 samples (10 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia and 37 hormone-naive PCs. Patients selected represented two stages in the natural history of PC: The “clinical metastatic androgen–responsive” (androgen-dependent PC, ADPC and the “clinical metastatic androgen–resistant” (androgen-independent PC, AIPC. Reduced immunoreactivity (IR of either or both PTEN/AR in the initial hormone-naive PC samples was observed with increased frequency in AIPCs. In the ADPC group, low PTEN and/or AR-IR was associated with a shorter median relapse-free survival, i.e., at 30 months after surgery, the probability of relapse-free survival for high expressors of PTEN and AR was 85.7% (SEM = 9.3 compared with only 16.6% (SEM = 15.2 in low expressors. At 36 months, only 28.5% (SEM = 9.3 of ADPC high expressors had experienced a biochemical relapse compared with 100% of low expressors (hazard ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.7-146.8. Further studies analyzing the coexpression of PTEN and AR should be undertaken to validate this pilot study and the utility of these biomarkers in routine histopathologic workup of patients with PC.

  8. The mortality and response rate after FLANG regimen in patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali A Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncologists today are greatly concerned about the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. FLANG regimen, combination of novantron, cytarabine, fludarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has been used in treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia since 1990s. The present study has evaluated mortality and response rate of this regimen. Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia aged 15-55 years underwent FLANG regimen at Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2008-2009. One month later, bone marrow samples were taken to evaluate the responsiveness to treatment. Participants were followed for a year. The data was analyzed by student-t and chi-square tests, logistic, and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves in SPSS 19. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 8 patients (32% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5 refractory and 3 relapsed cases and 17 subjects had acute myeloid leukemia (7 refractory and 10 relapsed cases. According to the bone marrow biopsies taken one month after FLANG regimen, 10 patients (40% had responded to treatment. Five patients of the 10 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT. On the other hand, 13 patients (52%, who had not entered the CR period, died during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between disease type and responsiveness to treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated higher rates of unresponsiveness to treatment while its mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Overall, according to limitations for BMT (as the only chance for cure in Iran, it seems that FLANG therapy is an acceptable choice for these patients.

  9. Abscisic acid and transpiration rate are involved in the response to boron toxicity in Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Rivero, Miguel Ángel; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan José; Herrera-Rodríguez, María Begoña; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for vascular plant development, but its toxicity is a major problem affecting crop yields in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. In the literature, several genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and responses are upregulated in Arabidopsis roots after treatment with excess B. It is known that the AtNCED3 gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme for ABA biosynthesis, plays a key role in the plant response to drought stress. In this study, root AtNCED3 expression and shoot ABA content were rapidly increased in wild-type plants upon B-toxicity treatment. The Arabidopsis ABA-deficient nced3-2 mutant had higher transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and accumulated more B in their shoots than wild-type plants, facts that were associated with the lower levels of ABA in this mutant. However, in wild-type plants, B toxicity caused a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate. This response could be a mechanism to limit the transport of excess B from the roots to the leaves under B toxicity. In agreement with the higher transpiration rate of the nced3-2 mutant, this genotype showed an increased leaf B concentration and damage upon exposure to 5 mM B. Under B toxicity, ABA application decreased B accumulation in wild-type and nced3-2 plants. In summary, this work shows that excess B applied to the roots leads to rapid changes in AtNCED3 expression and gas exchange parameters that would contribute to restrain the B entry into the leaves, this effect being mediated by ABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. The frequency response of dynamic friction: Enhanced rate-and-state models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabboi, A.; Putelat, T.; Woodhouse, J.

    2016-07-01

    The prediction and control of friction-induced vibration requires a sufficiently accurate constitutive law for dynamic friction at the sliding interface: for linearised stability analysis, this requirement takes the form of a frictional frequency response function. Systematic measurements of this frictional frequency response function are presented for small samples of nylon and polycarbonate sliding against a glass disc. Previous efforts to explain such measurements from a theoretical model have failed, but an enhanced rate-and-state model is presented which is shown to match the measurements remarkably well. The tested parameter space covers a range of normal forces (10-50 N), of sliding speeds (1-10 mm/s) and frequencies (100-2000 Hz). The key new ingredient in the model is the inclusion of contact stiffness to take into account elastic deformations near the interface. A systematic methodology is presented to discriminate among possible variants of the model, and then to identify the model parameter values.

  11. Manipulation of heart rate variability can modify response to anger-inducing stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Heather M; Penglis, Kathryn M; McDonald, Skye

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that heart rate variability (HRV) is a physiological indicator of the flexibility of the autonomic nervous system and can provide an objective measure of an individual's ability to appropriately match emotional responses to environmental demands. The present study investigated whether angry response to emotional stimuli was related to HRV, and whether manipulation of HRV using biofeedback could change the anger response in a healthy adult population. Fifty-eight participants received HRV biofeedback (n = 29) or an active control condition (n = 29). HRV measures included standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) power, and was recorded across three sessions: baseline, training, and anger induction. The anger induction procedure resulted in increased subjective experience of anger, as well as physiological changes. The biofeedback group had higher HRV than active controls both during the training session (SDNN and LF HRV) and during anger induction (LF HRV). HRV during anger induction was significantly associated with self-reported emotional response for participants receiving biofeedback but not for active controls. Results provide support for HRV as an index of emotion regulation, specifically anger. Further research is needed to determine whether long-term HRV biofeedback can have a lasting effect on managing anger.

  12. Age affects exercise-induced improvements in heart rate response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolac, E G; Roberts, C K; da Silva, J M Rodrigues; Guimarães, G V

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of age on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscle strength and heart rate (HR) response to exercise adaptation in women in response to a long-term twice-weekly combined aerobic and resistance exercise program. 85 sedentary women, divided into young (YG; n=22, 30.3 ± 6.2 years), early middle-aged (EMG; n=28, 44.1 ± 2.5 years), late middle-aged (LMG; n=20, 56.7 ± 3.5 years) and older (OG; n=15, 71.4 ± 6.9 years) groups, had their CRF, muscle strength (1-repetition maximum test) and HR response to exercise (graded exercise test) measured before and after 12 months of combined exercise training. Exercise training improved CRF and muscle strength in all age groups (Pdifferences were observed between groups. Exercise training also improved resting HR and recovery HR in YG and EMG (Pgroup. Combined aerobic and resistance training at a frequency of 2 days/week improves CRF and muscle strength throughout the lifespan. However, exercise-induced improvements in the HR recovery response to exercise may be impaired in late middle-aged and older women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. An exploration of heart rate response to differing music rhythm and tempos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ariany G; Guida, Heraldo L; Antônio, Ana Márcia Dos S; Marcomini, Renata S; Fontes, Anne M G G; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Roque, Adriano L; Silva, Sidney B; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acute cardiac response and heart rate variability (HRV) when listening to differing forms of music. Eleven healthy men aged between 18 and 25 years old were included in the study. HRV was recorded at rest for ten minutes with no music, then were asked to listen to classical baroque or heavy metal music for a period of 20 min. It was noted that heart rate variability did not affect HRV indices for time and frequency. In conclusion, music with different tempos does not influence cardiac autonomic regulation in men. However more studies are suggested to explore this topic in greater detail. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of hemorrhage rate on early hemodynamic responses in conscious sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, Christopher G.; Daluwatte, Chathuri; Marques, Nicole R.; Khan, Muzna; Salter, Michael; Wolf, Jordan; Nelson, Christina; Salsbury, John; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Kinsky, Michael; Kramer, George C.; Strauss, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physiological compensatory mechanisms can mask the extent of hemorrhage in conscious mammals, which can be further complicated by individual tolerance and variations in hemorrhage onset and duration. We assessed the effect of hemorrhage rate on tolerance and early physiologic responses to hemorrhage in conscious sheep. Eight Merino ewes (37.4???1.1?kg) were subjected to fast (1.25?mL/kg/min) and slow (0.25?mL/kg/min) hemorrhages separated by at least 3?days. Blood was withdrawn until...

  15. Nonlinear Loading-Rate-Dependent Force Response of Individual Vimentin Intermediate Filaments to Applied Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Johanna; Witt, Hannes; Candelli, Andrea; Peterman, Erwin J. G.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Janshoff, Andreas; Köster, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells are to a great extent determined by the cytoskeleton, a composite network of different filamentous proteins. Among these, intermediate filaments (IFs) are exceptional in their molecular architecture and mechanical properties. Here we directly record stress-strain curves of individual vimentin IFs using optical traps and atomic force microscopy. We find a strong loading rate dependence of the mechanical response, supporting the hypothesis that IFs could serve to protect eukaryotic cells from fast, large deformations. Our experimental results show different unfolding regimes, which we can quantitatively reproduce by an elastically coupled system of multiple two-state elements.

  16. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young...... males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....

  17. Temperature response of denitrification rate and greenhouse gas production in agricultural river marginal wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, S A F; Blackwell, M S A; Leah, R; Cook, V; O'Connor, M; Maltby, E

    2013-05-01

    Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions. It was hypothesized that the temperature response is dependent on interactions with NO3--enriched flooding, and the physicochemical conditions of these soil types. Denitrification rate (mean, 746 ± 97.3 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ), net N2 O production (mean, 180 ± 26.6 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) and net CH4 production (mean, 1065 ± 183 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) were highest in the organic Histosol, with higher organic matter, ammonium and moisture, and lower NO3- concentrations. Heterotrophic respiration (mean, 127 ± 4.6 mg m(-2)  h(-1) ) was not significantly different between soil types and dominated total GHG (CO2 eq) production in all soil types. Generally, the temperature responses of denitrification rate and net N2 O production were exponential, whilst net CH4 production was unresponsive, possibly due to substrate limitation, and heterotrophic respiration was exponential but limited in summer at higher temperatures. Flooding with NO3- increased denitrification rate, net N2 O production and heterotrophic respiration, but a reduction in net CH4 production suggests inhibition of methanogenesis by NO3- or N2 O produced from denitrification. Implications for management and policy are that warming and flood events may promote microbial interactions in soil between distinct microbial communities and increase

  18. Genetic variation for farrowing rate in pigs in response to change in photoperiod and ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, C A; Mulder, H A; Rashidi, H; Mathur, P K; Knol, E F

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal infertility is often observed as anestrus and a lower conception rate resulting in a reduced farrowing rate (FR) during late summer and early autumn. This is often regarded as an effect of heat stress; however, we observed a reduction in the FR of sows even after correcting for ambient temperature in our data. Therefore, we added change in photoperiod in the analysis of FR considering its effect on sow fertility. Change in photoperiod was modeled using the cosine of the day of first insemination within a year. On an average, the FR decreased by 2% during early autumn with decreasing daily photoperiod compared with early summer with almost no change in daily photoperiod. It declined 0.2% per degree Celsius of ambient temperature above 19.2°C. This result is a step forward in disentangling the 2 environmental components responsible for seasonal infertility. Our next aim was to estimate the magnitude of genetic variation in FR in response to change in photoperiod and ambient temperature to explore opportunities for selecting pigs to have a constant FR throughout the year. We used reaction norm models to estimate additive genetic variation in response to change in photoperiod and ambient temperature. The results revealed a larger genetic variation at stressful environments when daily photoperiod decreased and ambient temperatures increased above 19.2°C compared with neutral environments. Genetic correlations between stressful environments and nonstressful environments ranged from 0.90 (±0.03) to 0.46 (±0.13) depending on the severity of the stress, indicating changes in expression of FR depending on the environment. The genetic correlation between responses of pigs to changes in photoperiod and to those in ambient temperature were positive, indicating that pigs tolerant to decreasing daily photoperiod are also tolerant to high ambient temperatures. Therefore, selection for tolerance to decreasing daily photoperiod should also increase tolerance to high

  19. Sustained virological response on second-line antiretroviral therapy following virological failure in HIV-infected patients in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Schoffelen

    2012-11-01

    virological treatment failure and WHO-defined immunological failure in PI-based therapy. Conclusions: Promising virological outcomes are achieved with PI-based, second-line antiretroviral therapy in adult and pediatric patients in rural South Africa. Results were sustainable during the two-year follow-up period with a high retention rate, although persisting low-level viremia occurred in a subset of patients. The observed viro-immunological dissociation emphasizes the need for virological monitoring.

  20. Talimogene Laherparepvec Improves Durable Response Rate in Patients With Advanced Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andtbacka, Robert H I; Kaufman, Howard L; Collichio, Frances; Amatruda, Thomas; Senzer, Neil; Chesney, Jason; Delman, Keith A; Spitler, Lynn E; Puzanov, Igor; Agarwala, Sanjiv S; Milhem, Mohammed; Cranmer, Lee; Curti, Brendan; Lewis, Karl; Ross, Merrick; Guthrie, Troy; Linette, Gerald P; Daniels, Gregory A; Harrington, Kevin; Middleton, Mark R; Miller, Wilson H; Zager, Jonathan S; Ye, Yining; Yao, Bin; Li, Ai; Doleman, Susan; VanderWalde, Ari; Gansert, Jennifer; Coffin, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is a herpes simplex virus type 1-derived oncolytic immunotherapy designed to selectively replicate within tumors and produce granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to enhance systemic antitumor immune responses. T-VEC was compared with GM-CSF in patients with unresected stage IIIB to IV melanoma in a randomized open-label phase III trial. Patients with injectable melanoma that was not surgically resectable were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to intralesional T-VEC or subcutaneous GM-CSF. The primary end point was durable response rate (DRR; objective response lasting continuously ≥ 6 months) per independent assessment. Key secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and overall response rate. Among 436 patients randomly assigned, DRR was significantly higher with T-VEC (16.3%; 95% CI, 12.1% to 20.5%) than GM-CSF (2.1%; 95% CI, 0% to 4.5%]; odds ratio, 8.9; P < .001). Overall response rate was also higher in the T-VEC arm (26.4%; 95% CI, 21.4% to 31.5% v 5.7%; 95% CI, 1.9% to 9.5%). Median OS was 23.3 months (95% CI, 19.5 to 29.6 months) with T-VEC and 18.9 months (95% CI, 16.0 to 23.7 months) with GM-CSF (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.00; P = .051). T-VEC efficacy was most pronounced in patients with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease and in patients with treatment-naive disease. The most common adverse events (AEs) with T-VEC were fatigue, chills, and pyrexia. The only grade 3 or 4 AE occurring in ≥ 2% of T-VEC-treated patients was cellulitis (2.1%). No fatal treatment-related AEs occurred. T-VEC is the first oncolytic immunotherapy to demonstrate therapeutic benefit against melanoma in a phase III clinical trial. T-VEC was well tolerated and resulted in a higher DRR (P < .001) and longer median OS (P = .051), particularly in untreated patients or those with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease. T-VEC represents a novel potential therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma. © 2015 by

  1. In Pichia pastoris, growth rate regulates protein synthesis and secretion, mating and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebnegger, Corinna; Graf, Alexandra B; Valli, Minoska; Steiger, Matthias G; Gasser, Brigitte; Maurer, Michael; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2014-04-01

    Protein production in yeasts is related to the specific growth rate μ. To elucidate on this correlation, we studied the transcriptome of Pichia pastoris at different specific growth rates by cultivating a strain secreting human serum albumin at μ = 0.015 to 0.15 h(-1) in glucose-limited chemostats. Genome-wide regulation revealed that translation-related as well as mitochondrial genes were upregulated with increasing μ, while autophagy and other proteolytic processes, carbon source-responsive genes and other targets of the TOR pathway as well as many transcriptional regulators were downregulated at higher μ. Mating and sporulation genes were most active at intermediate μ of 0.05 and 0.075 h(-1) . At very slow growth (μ = 0.015 h(-1) ) gene regulation differs significantly, affecting many transporters and glucose sensing. Analysis of a subset of genes related to protein folding and secretion reveals that unfolded protein response targets such as translocation, endoplasmic reticulum genes, and cytosolic chaperones are upregulated with increasing growth rate while proteolytic degradation of secretory proteins is downregulated. We conclude that a high μ positively affects specific protein secretion rates by acting on multiple cellular processes. © 2014 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs Licence, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non- commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  2. The Association between Organisational Commitment And Corporate Social Responsibility-Environmental Performance Within an Integrated Sustainability Balanced Scorecard Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Rae

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether organisational commitment is associated with organisations‘CSR performance within sustainability aspects of their internal process. A structural equation model (SEM tested two sequential direct associations between: (1 senior management employees‘ affective and continuance organisational commitment and organisations‘ conventional value-creating internal processes; (2 conventional value-creating internal processes and organisations‘ CSR performance within sustainability value-creating internal process. The SEM results show an indirect association between affective commitment and CSR performance within sustainability value-creating internal process, which is mediated by the conventional value-creating internal processes. The findings support an integrated sustainability internal process within a sustainability balanced scorecard (SBSC as depicted in Kaplan and Norton‘s strategy map. Organisations may develop internal processes that promote CSR outcome characteristics when employees possess higher levels of affective organisational commitment. Future research could investigate a broader  range of environmental outcomes within CSR performance.

  3. The Effect of Incentives and Other Instructor-Driven Strategies to Increase Online Student Evaluation Response Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, James; Anson, Robert; Belcheir, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Course evaluations (often termed student evaluations of teaching or SETs) are pervasive in higher education. As SETs increasingly shift from pencil-and-paper to online, concerns grow over the lower response rates that typically accompany online SETs. This study of online SET response rates examined data from 678 faculty respondents and student…

  4. Participation rates, response bias and response behaviours in the community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Christine; Segerer, Wolfgang; Gemperli, Armin; Brinkhof, Martin W G

    2015-10-08

    Surveying persons with disabilities is challenging, as targeted subjects may experience specific barriers to survey participation. Here we report on participation rates and response behaviour in a community survey of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Switzerland. The cross-sectional survey was implemented as part of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI) and represents the largest population-based SCI survey in Europe including nearly 2000 persons. Design features to enhance participation rates included the division of the questionnaire volume over three successive modules; recurrent and mixed-mode reminding of non-responders; and mixed-mode options for response. We describe participation rates of the SwiSCI community survey (absolute and cumulative cooperation, contact, response, and attrition rates) and report on response rates in relation to recruitment efforts. Potential non-response bias and the association between responders' characteristics and response behaviour (response speed: reminding until participation; response mode: paper-pencil vs. online completion) were assessed using regression modelling. Over the successive modules, absolute response rates were 61.1, 80.6 and 87.3% which resulted in cumulative response rates of 49.3 and 42.6% for the second and third modules. Written reminders effectively increased response rates, with the first reminder showing the largest impact. Telephone reminders, partly with direct telephone interviewing, enhanced response rate to the first module, but were essentially redundant in subsequent modules. Non-response to the main module was related to current age, membership of Swiss Paraplegic Association (SPA) and time since injury, but not to gender, lesion level and preferred language of response. Response speed increased with household income, but was not associated to other sociodemographic factors, lesion characteristics or health indicators. We found significant associations between online completion

  5. Method of administration affects adolescent post-immunization survey response rate: phone, paper, internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielak, Karen L; Buxton, Jane; McIntyre, Cheryl; Tu, Andrew; Botnick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The recent introduction of new vaccines into the school-based immunization program in British Columbia (BC) included monitoring of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) for these new vaccines. This commentary discusses different methods used to collect AEFIs in school immunization campaigns and the effects on response rate. The results of a study using an internet-based tool inspired this paper. The study examined adverse events following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine given to grades 6 and 9 students. The low response rate of the internet survey resulted in insufficient findings regarding adverse events. Consequent to the analysis of the study's data, a literature review was conducted to examine survey methodologies used to collect adverse event data following school-based immunization of adolescents. A PubMed search used various combinations of the following terms: vaccine, immunization, immunization programs, reactogenicity, adverse reactions, safety, adolescent, schoolchildren, and survey. Potentially relevant papers were identified based upon the titles and abstracts and subsequently reviewed. Only four studies were deemed appropriate for comparison purposes: all were done in Canada.

  6. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell R Bennett

    Full Text Available Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular connections.

  7. Depressive dimensions and item response analysis of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Virginia; Santos, Borja; Yllá, Luis; Bulbena, Antoni; Bilbao, Juan; Fernández, Esther; de Lazarraga, Isabel Pérez; González-Pinto, Ana M; González-Pinto, Asunción

    2012-05-01

    Most patients having eating disorders (EDs) experience depressive symptoms. To date, there have been few reports about the different depressive dimensions in EDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the dimensions of depressive symptoms and highlight the distribution of the symptoms. The psychometric properties of these measures were tested using item response theory methods. A total of 103 consecutively admitted inpatients and outpatients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Fourth Edition, criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and EDs not otherwise specified were rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17). A factor analysis of the HDRS-17 was carried out with the Cf-varimax rotation. Factor analysis showed 2 independent and clinically interpretable factors corresponding to "anxious depression" and "somatic complaints" that constituted the core of depression. For the HDRS-17, item response theory analyses revealed that most of the items were maximally related to the core concept of depression and provided a good functioning. The 17 items were distributed in almost the same way as in the factor analyses found by other authors with different clinical groups. We conclude therefore that for the sample of EDs, 2 factors constitute the core symptoms of depression and most of the items provided a good functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia blunts heart rate responses and alters neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Jameson, Heather; Dergacheva, Olga; Jain, Vivek; Alhusayyen, Mona; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-07-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea experience chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia (CIHH) during sleep that elicit sympathetic overactivity and diminished parasympathetic activity to the heart, leading to hypertension and depressed baroreflex sensitivity. The parasympathetic control of heart rate arises from pre-motor cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) located in nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX). The mechanisms underlying diminished vagal control of heart rate were investigated by studying the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and neurotransmission to CVNs evoked by acute hypoxia-hypercapnia (H-H) and CIHH. In vivo telemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in adult rats during 4 weeks of CIHH exposure. Retrogradely labelled CVNs were identified in an in vitro brainstem slice preparation obtained from adult rats exposed either to air or CIHH for 4 weeks. Postsynaptic inhibitory or excitatory currents were recorded using whole cell voltage clamp techniques. Rats exposed to CIHH had increases in blood pressure, leading to hypertension, and blunted heart rate responses to acute H-H. CIHH induced an increase in GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA and DMNX, respectively; and a reduction in glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs in both nuclei. CIHH blunted the bradycardia evoked by acute H-H and abolished the acute H-H evoked inhibition of GABAergic transmission while enhancing glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA. These changes with CIHH inhibit CVNs and vagal outflow to the heart, both in acute and chronic exposures to H-H, resulting in diminished levels of cardioprotective parasympathetic activity to the heart as seen in OSA patients. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  9. Numbering questionnaires had no impact on the response rate and only a slight influence on the response content of a patient safety culture survey: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundig, François; Staines, Anthony; Kinge, Thompson; Perneger, Thomas V

    2011-11-01

    In self-completed surveys, anonymous questionnaires are sometimes numbered so as to avoid sending reminders to initial nonrespondents. This number may be perceived as a threat to confidentiality by some respondents, which may reduce the response rate, or cause social desirability bias. In this study, we evaluated whether using nonnumbered vs. numbered questionnaires influenced the response rate and the response content. During a patient safety culture survey, we randomized participants into two groups: one received an anonymous nonnumbered questionnaire and the other a numbered questionnaire. We compared the survey response rates and distributions of the responses for the 42-questionnaire items across the two groups. Response rates were similar in the two groups (nonnumbered, 75.2%; numbered, 72.8%; difference, 2.4%; P=0.28). Five of the 42 questions had statistically significant differences in distributions, but these differences were small. Unexpectedly, in all five instances, the patient safety culture ratings were more favorable in the nonnumbered group. Numbering of mailed questionnaires had no impact on the response rate. Numbering influenced significantly the response content of several items, but these differences were small and ran against the hypothesis of social desirability bias. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of sustained virologic response with reduced progression to liver cirrhosis in elderly patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng CW

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Wei Tseng,1,2 Ting-Tsung Chang,3,4 Shinn-Jia Tzeng,5 Yu-Hsi Hsieh,1,2 Tsung-Hsing Hung,1,2 Hsiang-Ting Huang,6 Shu-Fen Wu,7 Kuo-Chih Tseng1,2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Chia-Yi, 2School of Medicine, Tzuchi University, Hualien, 3Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Medical College and Hospital, 4Infectious Disease and Signaling Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 5Department of Agronomy, National Chiayi University, 6Department of Nursing, Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, 7Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan Objective: We studied the effect of sustained virologic response (SVR after treatment with pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN plus ribavirin on the development of liver cirrhosis in elderly patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC. Patients and methods: This retrospective study enrolled 145 elderly CHC patients (aged ≥65 years who were treatment-naïve and were treated with PEG-IFN plus ribavirin for 6 months between January 2005 and December 2011. Abdominal sonography was performed and liver biochemistry was studied at baseline, at the end of treatment, and every 3–6 months thereafter. The development of liver cirrhosis and related complications was evaluated at the follow-ups. The aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index was used as a noninvasive maker for fibrosis. Results: The mean patient age was 69.1±3.3 years, and the average follow-up time was 5.5 years (standard deviation: 2.5 years, range: 1.1–12.3 years. Ninety-five patients (65.5% achieved SVR, and 26 (17.9% discontinued treatment. Twenty-seven patients (18.6% developed liver cirrhosis after treatment. Patients without SVR had significantly greater risk of liver cirrhosis than those with SVR (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.312–8.761, P=0.012. The

  11. Sustainable investment: Literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns

  12. GERD assessment including pH metry predicts a high response rate to PPI standard therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandulski Arne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is reported in up to 40%. Patients with non erosive reflux disease (NERD have lower response rates compared to patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD; pH metry contributes to GERD diagnosis and is critical for proper diagnosis of NERD. Aim of the study was to assess the need for doubling esomeprazole standard dose (40 mg for 4 weeks in PPI naive patients with typical reflux symptoms and diagnosis of GERD based on endoscopy and 48 hours, wireless pH metry. Methods All patients underwent upper GI endoscopy. Symptoms were recorded with a structured questionnaire (RDQ and acid exposure was determined by 48 hours, wireless pH monitoring (BRAVO. In case of abnormal acid exposure, patients received a short term treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg q.d. for 4 weeks. If symptoms persisted, patients underwent a second pH metry on PPI and the dose was increased to 40 mg b.i.d. Results 31 consecutive patients with typical reflux symptoms underwent 48 hours pH monitoring. 22 patients (71% had abnormal acid exposure, 9 patients had normal pH metry (29%. Of the 9 patients with normal pH metry, 2 were found with erosive esophagitis and 7 without endoscopic abnormalities. 24 patients with documented GERD received esomeprazole treatment. 21 patients achieved complete symptom resolution with 40 mg q.d. after 4 weeks (88%. Only 2 patients required doubling the dose of esomeprazole for complete symptom resolution, 1 patient remained with symptoms. Conclusions Patients with typical reflux symptoms and abnormal acid exposure have a high response rate to standard dose esomeprazole regardless of whether they have ERD or NERD.

  13. Differences in heart rate response to adenosine and regadenoson in patients with and without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Fadi G; Heo, Jaekyeong; Franks, Billy; Belardinelli, Luiz; Blackburn, Brent; Wang, Whedy; Iskandrian, Ami E

    2009-04-01

    Adenosine and regadenoson increase heart rate (HR) when used as stress agents to produce coronary hyperemia due to direct sympathetic stimulation. We hypothesized that the HR response will be lower in patients with than in those without diabetes mellitus (DM). We studied the HR response (percentage maximal increase) in 2,000 patients in The ADenoscan Versus regAdenosoN Comparative Evaluation for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (ADVANCE MPI 1 and 2) Trials with known DM status. There were 643 patients with a history of DM (65.4 +/- 0.4 years, 32% women) and 1,357 patients with no DM (65.5 +/- 0.3 years, 29% women). Compared with non-DM, the DM group had higher HR at baseline (68.4 +/- 0.48 vs 65.2 +/- 0.31 beat/min, P adenosine or regadenoson administration (29.4% +/- 0.64% vs 36.1% +/- 0.54%, P adenosine and regadenoson in patients with DM is blunted. If additional studies confer an agreement between traditional tests for determination of autonomic neuropathy and this measure, then examination of HR response to these agents during myocardial perfusion imaging might add prognostic power.

  14. The influences of task repetition, napping, time of day, and instruction on the Sustained Attention to Response Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schie, Mojca K M; Alblas, Eva E; Thijs, Roland D; Fronczek, Rolf; Lammers, Gert Jan; van Dijk, J Gert

    2014-01-01

    The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) helps to quantify vigilance impairments.Previous studies, in which five SART sessions on one day were administered, demonstrated worse performance during the first session than during the others. The present study comprises two experiments to identify a cause of this phenomenon. Experiment 1, counting eighty healthy participants, assessed effects of repetition,napping, and time of day on SART performance through a between-groups design. The SART was performed twice in the morning or twice in the afternoon; half of the participants took a 20-minute nap before the second SART. A strong correlation between error count and reaction time (RT) suggested effects of test instruction. Participants gave equal weight to speed and accuracy in Experiment 1; therefore, results of 20 participants were compared to those of 20 additional participants who were told to prefer accuracy (Experiment 2). The average SART error count in Experiment 1 was 10.1; the median RT was 280 ms. Neither repetition nor napping influenced error count or RT. Time of day did not influence error count, but RT was significantly longer for morning than for afternoon SARTs. The additional participants in Experiment 2 had a 49% lower error count and a 14% higher RT than the participants in Experiment 1. Error counts reduced by 50% from the first to the second session of Experiment 2, irrespective of napping or time of day. Preferring accuracy over speed was associated with a significantly lower error count. The data suggest that a worse performance in the first SART session only occurs when instructing participants to prefer accuracy, which is caused by repetition, not by napping or time of day. We advise that participants are instructed to prefer accuracy over speed when performing the SART and that a full practice session is included.

  15. Complement C3d conjugation to anthrax protective antigen promotes a rapid, sustained, and protective antibody response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi V Kolla

    Full Text Available B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Pathogenesis is primarily mediated through the exotoxins lethal factor and edema factor, which bind protective antigen (PA to gain entry into the host cell. The current anthrax vaccine (AVA, Biothrax consists of aluminum-adsorbed cell-free filtrates of unencapsulated B. anthracis, wherein PA is thought to be the principle target of neutralization. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the natural adjuvant, C3d, versus alum in eliciting an anti-PA humoral response and found that C3d conjugation to PA and emulsion in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA imparted superior protection from anthrax challenge relative to PA in IFA or PA adsorbed to alum. Relative to alum-PA, immunization of mice with C3d-PA/IFA augmented both the onset and sustained production of PA-specific antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies to the receptor-binding portion (domain 4 of PA. C3d-PA/IFA was efficacious when administered either i.p. or s.c., and in adolescent mice lacking a fully mature B cell compartment. Induction of PA-specific antibodies by C3d-PA/IFA correlated with increased efficiency of germinal center formation and plasma cell generation. Importantly, C3d-PA immunization effectively protected mice from intranasal challenge with B. anthracis spores, and was approximately 10-fold more effective than alum-PA immunization or PA/IFA based on dose challenge. These data suggest that incorporation of C3d as an adjuvant may overcome shortcomings of the currently licensed aluminum-based vaccine, and may confer protection in the early days following acute anthrax exposure.

  16. SUSTAINABLE CORPORATE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU CÎRNU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the image of the international business environment has changed significantly. Studies conducted by UNCTAD shows that corporate phenomenon developments in the world economy is growing. Without claiming to present an exhaustive topic so vast we tried to capture some "facets" of sustainable development from the perspective of multinational corporations, given the expansion of these economic entities and strengthening their power in the global economy. We present more negative aspects of the actions of multinational corporations in terms of sustainable development, it is very important to know both sides of the coin, which will not only help transnational giants including release. Based on issues such as corporate social responsibility, environmental pollution and workers' rights, we sought to counter official statements. The conclusion is that these economic entities are real forces that can not be ignored in today's world and the obvious problem of sustainable development can not be addressed independently of the phenomenon, context we also identified some possible solutions to conflict of corporations and essence of the concept of sustainable development.

  17. Profile of match performance and heart rate response in Japanese amputee soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehana, Hirofumi; Miyamoto, Aya; Koshiyama, Kenichi; Tanaka Yanagiya, Toshio; Yoshimura, Masafumi

    2017-05-05

    The purpose of this study was to profile the match performance and heart rate response in Japanese amputee soccer. Twelve amputee soccer players participated in this study. Match data were collected 20 samples in 4 matches. Match performances data such as total distance, high-intensity running (HIR: ≥13km·h-1) were collected using a global positioning systems technology. Heart rate (HR) was recorded using short-range radio telemetry. In addition, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed immediately using Borg's original after the first half and the second half. This study showed that the distance covered over the 50 minutes of the match was 2984.2±56.1m, and it was significantly shorter in the second half than the first half (pamputee soccer. Results of this study indicated that the exercise intensity was high in amputee soccer. It would be considered that causes were amputee soccer own rules and exercise style. These findings would serve as the reference when advance the future studies of amputee soccer.

  18. Sustained virological response on second-line antiretroviral therapy following virological failure in HIV-infected patients in rural South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelot F Schoffelen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the virological, immunological and clinical efficacy of protease inhibitor (PI-based second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART in rural South Africa. METHODS: An observational cohort study was performed on 210 patients (including 39 children who initiated PI-based second-line therapy at least 12 months prior to data collection. Biannual clinical, immunological and virological monitoring was performed. Primary endpoints were adequate virological response (plasma HIV-1 RNA1000 after initial virological response or on-going viremia (plasma HIV-1 RNA never<400 copies/ml for more than six months. Data were analyzed by an on-treatment (OT and intention-to-treat (ITT approach. Analyses were primarily performed on the group of patients who switched following first-line virological failure. RESULTS: Median duration of follow-up after switch to second-line treatment was 20 months [IQR 11-35]. 191 patients had switched to second-line ART due to first-line virological failure. 139/191 of them (72.8%, ITT were in care and on treatment at the end of follow-up and 11/191 (5.8%, ITT had died. After twelve months, an adequate virological response was seen in 92/128 patients (71.9%, OT, of which 78/128 (60.9%, OT experienced full virological suppression. Virological response remained stable after 24 months. Virological efficacy was similar amongst adult and pediatric patients. As in first-line ART, we observed a lack of correlation between virological failure and WHO-defined immunological failure. CONCLUSIONS: Good virological outcomes following first-line failure can be achieved with PI-based, second-line antiretroviral therapy in both adult and pediatric patients in rural South Africa. Retention rates were high and virological outcomes were sustainable during the two-year follow-up period, although persisting low-level viremia occurred in a subset of patients. The observed viro-immunological dissociation emphasizes the need

  19. Explaining low rates of sustained use of siphon water filter: evidence from follow-up of a randomised controlled trial in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najnin, Nusrat; Arman, Shaila; Abedin, Jaynal; Unicomb, Leanne; Levine, David I; Mahmud, Minhaj; Leder, Karin; Yeasmin, Farzana; Luoto, Jill E; Albert, Jeff; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-04-01

    To assess sustained siphon filter usage among a low-income population in Bangladesh and study relevant motivators and barriers. After a randomised control trial in Bangladesh during 2009, 191 households received a siphon water filter along with educational messages. Researchers revisited households after 3 and 6 months to assess filter usage and determine relevant motivators and barriers. Regular users were defined as those who reported using the filter most of the time and were observed to be using the filter at follow-up visits. Integrated behavioural model for water, sanitation and hygiene (IBM-WASH) was used to explain factors associated with regular filter use. Regular filter usage was 28% at the 3-month follow-up and 21% at the 6-month follow-up. Regular filter users had better quality water at the 6-month, but not at the 3-month visit. Positive predictors of regular filter usage explained through IBM-WASH at both times were willingness to pay >US$1 for filters, and positive attitude towards filter use (technology dimension at individual level); reporting boiling drinking water at baseline (psychosocial dimension at habitual level); and Bengali ethnicity (contextual dimension at individual level). Frequently reported barriers to regular filter use were as follows: considering filter use an additional task, filter breakage and time required for water filtering (technology dimension at individual level). The technological, psychosocial and contextual dimensions of IBM-WASH contributed to understanding the factors related to sustained use of siphon filter. Given the low regular usage rate and the hardware-related problems reported, the contribution of siphon filters to improving water quality in low-income urban communities in Bangladesh is likely to be minimal. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. School Facilities and Sustainability-Related Concepts: A Study of Hellenic Secondary School Principals', Teachers', Pupils' and Parents' Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vasiliki Zepatou; Maria Loizidou; Archontoula Chaloulakou; Nicolas Spyrellis

    2016-01-01

    ... and attitudes of pupils, teachers, principals and parents towards sustainable construction and the selection and use of materials in schools that are friendly to the environment and human health...