WorldWideScience

Sample records for sustained reactivation hypothesis

  1. Parallelism Effects and Verb Activation: The Sustained Reactivation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes underlying parallelism by evaluating the activation of a parallel element (i.e., a verb) throughout "and"-coordinated sentences. Four points were tested: (1) approximately 1,600ms after the verb in the first conjunct (PP1), (2) immediately following the conjunction (PP2), (3) approximately 1,100ms after the…

  2. Reactive or proactive approach towards sustainability? A conceptual framework based on sustainable business models to increase stakeholders' sustainable value capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Francesco; Morioka, Sandra; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly

    2016-01-01

    and challenging companies to seek for business opportunities with an entrepreneurial attitude to help solving sustainable development challenges. By combining both approaches, organizations have the opportunity to increase sustainable value capture by its stakeholders, acting on their institutional responsibility...... as instrument to help companies describe, analyze, manage and communicate their sustainable value proposition, creation, delivery and capture mechanism. In particular, this research focuses on value capture dynamics, aiming to explore how companies can increase their contribution to sustainable development...... sustainability. In this sense, a proactive approach to foster sustainable value capture can complement the reactive approach by delivering value beyond stakeholders' expectations. In this case, companies use their capabilities to identify opportunities to create and deliver sustainable value that stakeholders...

  3. Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Perspective of Sustainable Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galuh Nuansa Citrasmara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development with three main pillars, namely environmental, economic, and social, is the concept of country’s development to achieve inclusive economic growth, good environmental quality, and improvement of people's welfare. However, the dominance of economic factors cause various environmental problem. This phenomenon occurs in most of developing countries, including in Indonesia. The relationship between economic activity and environmental quality has been widely discussed and empirically tested by scholars. This descriptive research analysed the hypothesis called Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC from a perspective of sustainable development in Indonesia. EKC hypothesis illustrates the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation forming an inverted U-curve, indicating that at the beginning of development, environmental quality will decrease along with increasing economic growth, and then reached a certain point the environmental quality will gradually improve. In this paper will be discussed how the relationship between environmental quality and economic growth in Indonesia was investigated. The preliminary results show that most of the empirical studies use the conventional approach, in which the CO2 emission used as the proxy of environmental degradation. The existence of inverted U-curve is also inconclusive. Therefore, the extension research on the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality in Indonesia using the EKC hypothesis is required.

  4. Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Perspective of Sustainable Development in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuansa, Citrasmara Galuh; Widodo, Wahyu

    2018-02-01

    Sustainable development with three main pillars, namely environmental, economic, and social, is the concept of country's development to achieve inclusive economic growth, good environmental quality, and improvement of people's welfare. However, the dominance of economic factors cause various environmental problem. This phenomenon occurs in most of developing countries, including in Indonesia. The relationship between economic activity and environmental quality has been widely discussed and empirically tested by scholars. This descriptive research analysed the hypothesis called Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) from a perspective of sustainable development in Indonesia. EKC hypothesis illustrates the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation forming an inverted U-curve, indicating that at the beginning of development, environmental quality will decrease along with increasing economic growth, and then reached a certain point the environmental quality will gradually improve. In this paper will be discussed how the relationship between environmental quality and economic growth in Indonesia was investigated. The preliminary results show that most of the empirical studies use the conventional approach, in which the CO2 emission used as the proxy of environmental degradation. The existence of inverted U-curve is also inconclusive. Therefore, the extension research on the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality in Indonesia using the EKC hypothesis is required.

  5. Orienting-defense responses and psychophysiological reactivity in isolated clinic versus sustained hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vera, María Paz; Sanz, Jesús; Labrador, Francisco J

    2007-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether patients with white-coat or isolated clinic hypertension (ICH) show, in comparison to patients with sustained hypertension (SH), a defense response pattern to novel stimuli and an enhanced psychophysiological reactivity to stress. Forty-three patients with essential hypertension were divided into two groups after 16 days of self-monitoring blood pressure (BP): ICH (24 men; self-measured BP men; self-measured BP >or= 135/85 mmHg). Defense responses were measured as the cardiac changes to phasic non-aversive auditory stimuli. Psychophysiological reactivity (heart and breath rate, blood volume pulse, electromyography, and skin conductance) was measured during mental arithmetic and video game tasks. The standard deviation of self-measured BPs and the difference between mean BPs at work and at home were used as indicators of cardiovascular reactivity to daily stress. No significant differences were seen in defense responses or psychophysiological reactivity to laboratory or naturally occurring stressors. These results do not support the hypothesis that ICH can be explained in terms of a generalized hyperreactivity to novel or stressful stimuli.

  6. 5-HTTLPR Expression Outside the Skin: An Experimental Test of the Emotional Reactivity Hypothesis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Joyce; Slagt, Meike; Brummelman, Eddie; Matthys, Walter; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 (i.e., the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism) moderates the impact of environmental stressors on child psychopathology. Emotional reactivity -the intensity of an individual's response to other's emotions- has been put forward as a possible mechanism underlying these gene-by-environment interactions (i.e., G×E). Compared to children homozygous for the L-allele (LL-genotypes), children carrying an S-allele (SS/SL-genotypes), specifically when they have been frequently exposed to negative emotions in the family environment, might be more emotionally reactive and therefore more susceptible to affective environmental stressors. However, the association between 5-HTTLPR and emotional reactivity in children has not yet been empirically tested. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test this association in a large-scale experiment. Children (N = 521, 52.5% boys, Mage = 9.72 years) were genotyped and randomly assigned to happy, angry or neutral dynamic facial expressions and vocalizations. Motor and affective emotional reactivity were assessed through children's self-reported negative and positive affect (n = 460) and facial electromyography activity (i.e., fEMG: the zygomaticus or "smile" muscle and the corrugator or "frown" muscle, n = 403). Parents reported on their negative and positive parenting behaviors. Children mimicked and experienced the emotion they were exposed to. However, neither motor reactivity nor affective reactivity to these emotions depended on children's 5-HTTLPR genotype: SS/SL-genotypes did not manifest any stronger response to emotional stimuli than LL-genotypes. This finding remained the same when taking the broader family environment into account, controlling for kinship, age, gender and genetic ancestry, and when including a tri-allelic factor. We found no evidence for an association between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and children's emotional

  7. Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Perspective of Sustainable Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Galuh Nuansa Citrasmara; Widodo Wahyu

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable development with three main pillars, namely environmental, economic, and social, is the concept of country’s development to achieve inclusive economic growth, good environmental quality, and improvement of people's welfare. However, the dominance of economic factors cause various environmental problem. This phenomenon occurs in most of developing countries, including in Indonesia. The relationship between economic activity and environmental quality has been widely discussed and em...

  8. Episodic retrieval involves early and sustained effects of reactivating information from encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey D; Price, Mason H; Leiker, Emily K

    2015-02-01

    Several fMRI studies have shown a correspondence between the brain regions activated during encoding and retrieval, consistent with the view that memory retrieval involves hippocampally-mediated reinstatement of cortical activity. With the limited temporal resolution of fMRI, the precise timing of such reactivation is unclear, calling into question the functional significance of these effects. Whereas reactivation influencing retrieval should emerge with neural correlates of retrieval success, that signifying post-retrieval monitoring would trail retrieval. The present study employed EEG to provide a temporal landmark of retrieval success from which we could investigate the sub-trial time course of reactivation. Pattern-classification analyses revealed that early-onsetting reactivation differentiated the outcome of recognition-memory judgments and was associated with individual differences in behavioral accuracy, while reactivation was also evident in a sustained form later in the trial. The EEG findings suggest that, whereas prior fMRI findings could be interpreted as reflecting the contribution of reinstatement to retrieval success, they could also indicate the maintenance of episodic information in service of post-retrieval evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Permeable Reactive Barriers: a multidisciplinary approach of a new emerging sustainable groundwater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diels, L.; Bastiaens, L. [Vito, Mol (BL); O' Hannessin, S. [EnviroMetal Technologies Inc., Ontario (Canada); Cortina, J.L. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d' Enginyeria Quimica; Alvarez, P.J. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa-City (United States). Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing; Ebert, M. [Christian-Albrechts Univ. Kiel (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Schad, H. [I.M.E.S. GmbH, Amtzell (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Permeable reactive barriers or zones are becoming an interesting sustainable and cost-effective technology for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater. The technology is based on chemical processes as the dehalogenating activity of zerovalent iron, biological processes in bioscreens or reactive zones and on sorption technology (e.g. heavy metal adsorption or adsorption on granular activated carbon). Three technical sessions will be devoted to this nowadays becoming mature technology. This special session intends to pay attention to the discussion about some questions related to PRBs. These include the sustainability (e.g. life time and clogging) especially for zerovalent iron barriers, the need and quality of feasibility tests, drawbacks and restrictions of PRBs. Combined with long term performance monitoring os these systems will be discussed. Further attention will be paid to cost evaluation and the relationship between zerovalent barriers and bacterial growth. Also attention will be paid to new reactive materials (e.g. activated carbon for organics and inorganic materials for heavy metals) and consequences (e.g. environmental impact). Finally the session will combine al these approaches in a discussion about combined barriers or multibarriers for treatment of mixed pollution (e.g. landfill leachates contaminated groundwater). Specialists involved in these subjects will introduce these topics and allow for a large and intensive discussion to improve future applications of this technology. (orig.)

  10. The Bio-Inspired Optimization of Trading Strategies and Its Impact on the Efficient Market Hypothesis and Sustainable Development Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Dreżewski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the evolutionary algorithm for the optimization of Forex market trading strategies is proposed. The introduction to issues related to the financial markets and the evolutionary algorithms precedes the main part of the paper, in which the proposed trading system is presented. The system uses the evolutionary algorithm for optimization of a parameterized greedy strategy, which is then used as an investment strategy on the Forex market. In the proposed system, a model of the Forex market was developed, including all elements that are necessary for simulating realistic trading processes. The proposed evolutionary algorithm contains several novel mechanisms that were introduced to optimize the greedy strategy. The most important of the proposed techniques are the mechanisms for maintaining the population diversity, a mechanism for protecting the best individuals in the population, the mechanisms preventing the excessive growth of the population, the mechanisms of the initialization of the population after moving the time window and a mechanism of choosing the best strategies used for trading. The experiments, conducted with the use of real-world Forex market data, were aimed at testing the quality of the results obtained using the proposed algorithm and comparing them with the results obtained by the buy-and-hold strategy. By comparing our results with the results of the buy-and-hold strategy, we attempted to verify the validity of the efficient market hypothesis. The credibility of the hypothesis would have more general implications for many different areas of our lives, including future sustainable development policies.

  11. Task stressfulness moderates the effects of verbal person centeredness on cardiovascular reactivity: a dual-process account of the reactivity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the impact of person-centered comfort on cardiovascular reactivity and to test a recently developed dual-process theory of supportive message outcomes proposing that the impact of supportive communication is moderated by the motivation and ability to attend to message content. Participants (n = 179) completed a public speaking task that served to experimentally manipulate stress. During the preparation period, instant messages containing either low or high person-centered messages or containing no imbedded supportive message were sent. Results indicated that, in line with theoretical predictions, message content did influence mean arterial pressure and heart rate for participants exposed to moderate but not to low or high stress. Results are discussed in terms of the dual-process theory of supportive message outcomes, and the discussion offers both theoretical and practical implications of the research.

  12. Impaired sustained attention and altered reactivity to errors in an animal model of prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendle, Mathew H; Strawderman, Myla S; Mactutus, Charles F; Booze, Rosemarie M; Levitsky, David A; Strupp, Barbara J

    2003-12-30

    Although correlations have been reported between maternal cocaine use and impaired attention in exposed children, interpretation of these findings is complicated by the many risk factors that differentiate cocaine-exposed children from SES-matched controls. For this reason, the present dose-response study (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg cocaine HCl) was designed to explore the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on visual attention in a rodent model, using an intravenous injection protocol that closely mimics the pharmacokinetic profile and physiological effects of human recreational cocaine use. In adulthood, animals were tested on an attention task in which the duration, location, and onset time of a brief visual cue varied randomly between trials. The 3.0 mg/kg exposed males committed significantly more omission errors than control males during the final 1/3 of each testing session, specifically on trials that followed an error, which implicates impaired sustained attention and increased reactivity to committing an error. During the final 1/3 of each testing session, the 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg exposed females took longer to enter the testing alcove at trial onset, and failed to enter the alcove more frequently than control females. Because these effects were not seen in other tasks of similar duration and reinforcement density, these findings suggest an impairment of sustained attention. This inference is supported by the finding that the increase in omission errors in the final block of trials in each daily session (relative to earlier in the session) was significantly greater for the 1.0 mg/kg females than for controls, a trend also seen for the 0.5 mg/kg group. Unlike the cocaine-exposed males, who remain engaged in the task when attention is waning, the cocaine-exposed females appear to opt for another strategy; namely, refusing to participate when their ability to sustain attention is surpassed.

  13. Investigation into the Heat of Hydration and Alkali Silica Reactivity of Sustainable Ultrahigh Strength Concrete with Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Aguayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the hydration reactivity and alkali silica reaction (ASR of ultrahigh strength concrete (UHSC that has been made more sustainable by using spent foundry sand. Spent foundry sand not only is sustainable but has supplementary cementitious material (SCM characteristics. Two series of UHSC mixtures were prepared using a nonreactive and reactive sand (in terms of ASR to investigate both the impact of a more reactive aggregate and the use of spent foundry sand. Conduction calorimetry was used to monitor the heat of hydration maintained under isothermal conditions, while ASR was investigated using the accelerated mortar bar test (AMBT. Additionally, the compressive strengths were measured for both series of mixtures at 7, 14, and 28 days to confirm high strength requirements. The compressive strengths ranged from 85 MPa (12,345 psi to 181.78 MPa (26,365 psi. This result demonstrates that a UHSC mixture was produced. The calorimetry results revealed a slight acceleration in the heat of hydration flow curve compared to the control from both aggregates indicating increased hydration reactivity from the addition of foundry waste. The combination of foundry sand and reactive sand was found to increase ASR reactivity with increasing additions of foundry sand up to 30% replacement.

  14. Changes in emotional reactivity and distress tolerance among heavy drinking adolescents during sustained abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winward, Jennifer L; Bekman, Nicole M; Hanson, Karen L; Lejuez, Carl W; Brown, Sandra A

    2014-06-01

    Negative affect and low distress tolerance have been associated with increased likelihood of alcohol consumption and relapse. This study utilized the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test - Computerized Version (PASAT-C) to examine affective reactivity, cognitive performance, and distress tolerance during early abstinence among heavy drinking adolescents. Participants, ages 16 to 18 (50% female), were 23 heavy episodic drinking youth (HED) and 23 demographically matched, nondrinking teens (CON). Both groups were drawn from the same schools and assessed at 3 time points: HED was first studied within 10 days (M = 4.26, SD = 4.4) of heavy episodic drinking and then at two 2-week intervals over 4 subsequent weeks of abstinence from alcohol and drugs. CON were studied at the same 2-week intervals. From the findings, it was observed that HED responded with greater emotional response to the PASAT-C (i.e., greater increases in frustration and irritability and greater decreases in happiness) at the initial assessment, but their affective responses diminished with sustained abstinence. CON and HED task performance did not differ at the initial assessment or across time. HED showed faster task discontinuation times to the PASAT-C at the first assessment, and both groups reduced task persistence across testings. Among HED, greater lifetime and recent alcohol consumption, alcohol-induced blackouts, and withdrawal symptoms were associated with increases in negative affect with PASAT-C exposure. Earlier age of onset of alcohol use was linked to poorer performance. Heavy episodic drinking adolescents demonstrated heightened emotional reactivity and poorer distress tolerance to a cognitively challenging task during early abstinence. The combination of elevated negative affect and low distress tolerance may place adolescents at a heightened risk of escalations in or return to alcohol involvement. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Astrocytes sustain long-term productive HIV-1 infection without establishment of reactivable viral latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Corinne; Proust, Alizé; Deshiere, Alexandre; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Drouin, Jean; Tremblay, Michel J

    2018-02-21

    The "shock and kill" HIV-1 cure strategy proposes eradication of stable cellular reservoirs by clinical treatment with latency-reversing agents (LRAs). Although resting CD4 + T cells latently infected with HIV-1 constitute the main reservoir that is targeted by these approaches, their consequences on other reservoirs such as the central nervous system are still unknown and should be taken into consideration. We performed experiments aimed at defining the possible role of astrocytes in HIV-1 persistence in the brain and the effect of LRA treatments on this viral sanctuary. We first demonstrate that the diminished HIV-1 production in a proliferating astrocyte culture is due to a reduced proliferative capacity of virus-infected cells compared with uninfected astrocytes. In contrast, infection of non-proliferating astrocytes led to a robust HIV-1 infection that was sustained for over 60 days. To identify astrocytes latently infected with HIV-1, we designed a new dual-color reporter virus called NL4.3 eGFP-IRES-Crimson that is fully infectious and encodes for all viral proteins. Although we detected a small fraction of astrocytes carrying silent HIV-1 proviruses, we did not observe any reactivation using various LRAs and even strong inducers such as tumor necrosis factor, thus suggesting that these proviruses were either not transcriptionally competent or in a state of deep latency. Our findings imply that astrocytes might not constitute a latent reservoir per se but that relentless virus production by this brain cell population could contribute to the neurological disorders seen in HIV-1-infected persons subjected to combination antiretroviral therapy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  17. Sustained Na+/H+ exchanger activation promotes gliotransmitter release from reactive hippocampal astrocytes following oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Cengiz

    Full Text Available Hypoxia ischemia (HI-related brain injury is the major cause of long-term morbidity in neonates. One characteristic hallmark of neonatal HI is the development of reactive astrogliosis in the hippocampus. However, the impact of reactive astrogliosis in hippocampal damage after neonatal HI is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of Na(+/H(+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1 protein in mouse reactive hippocampal astrocyte function in an in vitro ischemia model (oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation, OGD/REOX. 2 h OGD significantly increased NHE1 protein expression and NHE1-mediated H(+ efflux in hippocampal astrocytes. NHE1 activity remained stimulated during 1-5 h REOX and returned to the basal level at 24 h REOX. NHE1 activation in hippocampal astrocytes resulted in intracellular Na(+ and Ca(2+ overload. The latter was mediated by reversal of Na(+/Ca(2+ exchange. Hippocampal astrocytes also exhibited a robust release of gliotransmitters (glutamate and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα during 1-24 h REOX. Interestingly, inhibition of NHE1 activity with its potent inhibitor HOE 642 not only reduced Na(+ overload but also gliotransmitter release from hippocampal astrocytes. The noncompetitive excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor TBOA showed a similar effect on blocking the glutamate release. Taken together, we concluded that NHE1 plays an essential role in maintaining H(+ homeostasis in hippocampal astrocytes. Over-stimulation of NHE1 activity following in vitro ischemia disrupts Na(+ and Ca(2+ homeostasis, which reduces Na(+-dependent glutamate uptake and promotes release of glutamate and cytokines from reactive astrocytes. Therefore, blocking sustained NHE1 activation in reactive astrocytes may provide neuroprotection following HI.

  18. Emotional Reactivity and Appraisal of Food in Relation to Eating Disorder Cognitions and Behaviours: Evidence to Support the Motivational Conflict Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E; Hebert, Karen R; Benning, Stephen D

    2018-01-01

    Eating disorders are associated with both negative and positive emotional reactions towards food. Individual eating disorder symptoms may relate to distinct emotional responses to food, which could necessitate tailored treatments based on symptom presentation. We examined associations between eating disorder symptoms and psychophysiological responses to food versus neutral images in 87 college students [mean (SD) age = 19.70 (2.09); mean (SD) body mass index = 23.25(2.77)]. Reflexive and facial electromyography measures tapping negative emotional reactivity (startle blink reflex) and appraisal (corrugator muscle response) as well as positive emotional reactivity (postauricular reflex) and appraisal (zygomaticus muscle response) were collected. Eating disorder cognitions correlated with more corrugator activity to food versus neutral images, indicating negative appraisals of food. Binge eating was associated with increased postauricular reflex reactivity to food versus neutral images, suggesting enhanced appetitive motivation to food. The combination of cognitive eating disorder symptoms and binge eating may result in motivational conflict towards food. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  19. Where the rubber meets the road: What is needed to sustainably manage reactive nitrogen in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is essential for food, fuel and fiber production of a growing human population. Intensification of reactive N (defined as any N compound other than N2) release to the environment, however, has resulted in important and mounting impacts on human health and e...

  20. The ICE hypothesis stands: How the dogma of late Cenozoic tectonic uplift can no longer be sustained in the light of data and physical laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. B.; Clausen, O. R.; Jacobsen, B. H.; Thomsen, E.; Huuse, M.; Gallagher, K.; Balling, N.; Egholm, D.

    2010-08-01

    In this reply, we address the issues raised by the comment of Chalmers et al. (2010) regarding our ICE hypothesis for the evolution of western Scandinavia. We reject their conjectures as based, uncritically and without consideration of physical mechanisms, on the long-standing dogma of late Cenozoic tectonic uplift. Our hypothesis, in contrast, honours well-documented physical laws and the present wealth of actual data constraints (as opposed to dogma-biased inferences). After careful consideration of the points raised by Chalmers et al. (2010) we maintain our simple explanation for the evolution of Scandinavian topography, as it honours well-documented actual data constraints, such as crustal structure (including its spatio-temporal variability), thermal history in the eastern North Sea, global and regional climatic change (including eustacy) and sedimentation in the adjacent basins. The inevitable conclusion is that, although more data constraints are desirable, the current best fit hypothesis, is that the Scandinavian topography is of Caledonide origin, and has been shaped by fluvial and glacial buzzsaw and periglacial processes, and most recently (last few Myr) been re-invigorated by extensive glacial erosion in the fjords and on the shelf.

  1. Prognostic value of sustained elevated C-reactive protein levels in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitai, Takeshi; Kaji, Shuichiro; Kim, Kitae; Ehara, Natsuhiko; Tani, Tomoko; Kinoshita, Makoto; Furukawa, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate management of aortic intramural hematoma is still controversial, because a variety of aortic events can arise during follow-up in some patients. However, simplified identification of these patients remains challenging. The present study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of serial C-reactive protein measurements for the prediction of adverse events in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma. A total of 180 patients with aortic intramural hematoma were retrospectively reviewed. The C-reactive protein data were obtained at admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, and the maximum value was obtained during the acute phase. Adverse aorta-related events were defined by a composite of aortic rupture, aortic aneurysm, and surgical or endovascular aortic repair. The C-reactive protein value was 3.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 5.9, 9.0 ± 5.5, and 5.7 ± 4.5 mg/dL on admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, respectively. The maximal value of C-reactive protein was 12.4 ± 6.3 mg/dL at a mean of 4 days from the onset. Patients with elevated C-reactive protein levels (≥7.2 mg/dL) at 2 weeks had significantly greater rates of aorta-related events (P analysis, an elevated C-reactive protein level at 2 weeks (hazard ratio, 3.16; P value compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection (chi-square, 16.94 for ulcer-like projection only vs 34.32 with the addition of C-reactive protein at 2 weeks, P < .001). C-reactive protein was a simple and useful marker providing incremental prognostic information compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection in patients with aortic intramural hematoma. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. THE FRACTAL MARKET HYPOTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    FELICIA RAMONA BIRAU

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the concept of capital market is analysed using Fractal Market Hypothesis which is a modern, complex and unconventional alternative to classical finance methods. Fractal Market Hypothesis is in sharp opposition to Efficient Market Hypothesis and it explores the application of chaos theory and fractal geometry to finance. Fractal Market Hypothesis is based on certain assumption. Thus, it is emphasized that investors did not react immediately to the information they receive and...

  3. Variability: A Pernicious Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis of greater male variability in test results is discussed in its historical context, and reasons feminists have objected to the hypothesis are considered. The hypothesis acquires political importance if it is considered that variability results from biological, rather than cultural, differences. (SLD)

  4. THE FRACTAL MARKET HYPOTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA RAMONA BIRAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the concept of capital market is analysed using Fractal Market Hypothesis which is a modern, complex and unconventional alternative to classical finance methods. Fractal Market Hypothesis is in sharp opposition to Efficient Market Hypothesis and it explores the application of chaos theory and fractal geometry to finance. Fractal Market Hypothesis is based on certain assumption. Thus, it is emphasized that investors did not react immediately to the information they receive and of course, the manner in which they interpret that information may be different. Also, Fractal Market Hypothesis refers to the way that liquidity and investment horizons influence the behaviour of financial investors.

  5. Physiopathological Hypothesis of Cellulite

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, José Maria Pereira; de Godoy, Maria de Fátima Guerreiro

    2009-01-01

    A series of questions are asked concerning this condition including as regards to its name, the consensus about the histopathological findings, physiological hypothesis and treatment of the disease. We established a hypothesis for cellulite and confirmed that the clinical response is compatible with this hypothesis. Hence this novel approach brings a modern physiological concept with physiopathologic basis and clinical proof of the hypothesis. We emphasize that the choice of patient, correct diagnosis of cellulite and the technique employed are fundamental to success. PMID:19756187

  6. Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ostrovskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops the Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-hypothesis, according to which living-matter simplest elements (LMSEs, which are N-bases, riboses, nucleosides, nucleotides, DNA- and RNA-like molecules, amino-acids, and proto-cells repeatedly originated on the basis of thermodynamically controlled, natural, and inevitable processes governed by universal physical and chemical laws from CH4, niters, and phosphates under the Earth's surface or seabed within the crystal cavities of the honeycomb methane-hydrate structure at low temperatures; the chemical processes passed slowly through all successive chemical steps in the direction that is determined by a gradual decrease in the Gibbs free energy of reacting systems. The hypothesis formulation method is based on the thermodynamic directedness of natural movement and consists ofan attempt to mentally backtrack on the progression of nature and thus reveal principal milestones alongits route. The changes in Gibbs free energy are estimated for different steps of the living-matter origination process; special attention is paid to the processes of proto-cell formation. Just the occurrence of the gas-hydrate periodic honeycomb matrix filled with LMSEs almost completely in its final state accounts for size limitation in the DNA functional groups and the nonrandom location of N-bases in the DNA chains. The slowness of the low-temperature chemical transformations and their “thermodynamic front” guide the gross process of living matter origination and its successive steps. It is shown that the hypothesis is thermodynamically justified and testable and that many observed natural phenomena count in its favor.

  7. Hypothesis analysis methods, hypothesis analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P [Richland, WA; Cowell, Andrew J [Kennewick, WA; Gregory, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Baddeley, Robert L [Richland, WA; Paulson, Patrick R [Pasco, WA; Tratz, Stephen C [Richland, WA; Hohimer, Ryan E [West Richland, WA

    2012-03-20

    Hypothesis analysis methods, hypothesis analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a hypothesis analysis method includes providing a hypothesis, providing an indicator which at least one of supports and refutes the hypothesis, using the indicator, associating evidence with the hypothesis, weighting the association of the evidence with the hypothesis, and using the weighting, providing information regarding the accuracy of the hypothesis.

  8. On the Keyhole Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kaare B.; Kidmose, Preben; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2017-01-01

    simultaneously recorded scalp EEG. A cross-validation procedure was employed to ensure unbiased estimates. We present several pieces of evidence in support of the keyhole hypothesis: There is a high mutual information between data acquired at scalp electrodes and through the ear-EEG "keyhole," furthermore we......We propose and test the keyhole hypothesis that measurements from low dimensional EEG, such as ear-EEG reflect a broadly distributed set of neural processes. We formulate the keyhole hypothesis in information theoretical terms. The experimental investigation is based on legacy data consisting of 10...

  9. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economistís model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  10. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economist's model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  11. Revisiting the Dutch hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Dirkje S.; Weiss, Scott T.; van den Berge, Maarten; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    The Dutch hypothesis was first articulated in 1961, when many novel and advanced scientific techniques were not available, such as genomics techniques for pinpointing genes, gene expression, lipid and protein profiles, and the microbiome. In addition, computed tomographic scans and advanced analysis

  12. The Lehman Sisters Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article explores the Lehman Sisters Hypothesis. It reviews empirical literature about gender differences in behavioral, experimental, and neuro-economics as well as in other fields of behavioral research. It discusses gender differences along three dimensions of

  13. The constructive process in the Cimorro zone in the the Cathedral of Avila, (century XII-XIV. Hypothesis and its verification through the analysis of Structural Stability Smart and Sustainable Offices (SSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª A. Benito Pradillo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hypothesis about the order in the constructive process for the head zone in the Cathedral of Ávila, called Cimorro. The hypothesis proposed in this area considers for its construction three different stages: XII Century, XIII Century and XIV Century. The proposed hypotesis have been verified with the Analysis of Stability realised. The theoretical Framework used is the Limit Analysis to Masonry Structures. After prooving the Structural Stability for each of the building stages, the following conclusions are made: Through the XII Century, the possibility of closing the central vault without Buttress System for a short period of time and the subsequent placement of a tribune is stated. A fortification formed by the barbican and the «adarves» were built during the XIII Century. In the XIV Century, the tribune is removed and replaced with the Buttress System with buttress and double flying buttress, which we can see nowadays.

  14. Bayesian Hypothesis Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Stephen A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sigeti, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-15

    These are a set of slides about Bayesian hypothesis testing, where many hypotheses are tested. The conclusions are the following: The value of the Bayes factor obtained when using the median of the posterior marginal is almost the minimum value of the Bayes factor. The value of τ2 which minimizes the Bayes factor is a reasonable choice for this parameter. This allows a likelihood ratio to be computed with is the least favorable to H0.

  15. The Drift Burst Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Drift Burst Hypothesis postulates the existence of short-lived locally explosive trends in the price paths of financial assets. The recent US equity and Treasury flash crashes can be viewed as two high profile manifestations of such dynamics, but we argue that drift bursts of varying magnitude are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the...

  16. Hypothesis in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudaldo Enrique Espinoza Freire

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is intended with this work to have a material with the fundamental contents, which enable the university professor to formulate the hypothesis, for the development of an investigation, taking into account the problem to be solved. For its elaboration, the search of information in primary documents was carried out, such as thesis of degree and reports of research results, selected on the basis of its relevance with the analyzed subject, current and reliability, secondary documents, as scientific articles published in journals of recognized prestige, the selection was made with the same terms as in the previous documents. It presents a conceptualization of the updated hypothesis, its characterization and an analysis of the structure of the hypothesis in which the determination of the variables is deepened. The involvement of the university professor in the teaching-research process currently faces some difficulties, which are manifested, among other aspects, in an unstable balance between teaching and research, which leads to a separation between them.

  17. [Dilemma of null hypothesis in ecological hypothesis's experiment test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji

    2016-06-01

    Experimental test is one of the major test methods of ecological hypothesis, though there are many arguments due to null hypothesis. Quinn and Dunham (1983) analyzed the hypothesis deduction model from Platt (1964) and thus stated that there is no null hypothesis in ecology that can be strictly tested by experiments. Fisher's falsificationism and Neyman-Pearson (N-P)'s non-decisivity inhibit statistical null hypothesis from being strictly tested. Moreover, since the null hypothesis H 0 (α=1, β=0) and alternative hypothesis H 1 '(α'=1, β'=0) in ecological progresses are diffe-rent from classic physics, the ecological null hypothesis can neither be strictly tested experimentally. These dilemmas of null hypothesis could be relieved via the reduction of P value, careful selection of null hypothesis, non-centralization of non-null hypothesis, and two-tailed test. However, the statistical null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) should not to be equivalent to the causality logistical test in ecological hypothesis. Hence, the findings and conclusions about methodological studies and experimental tests based on NHST are not always logically reliable.

  18. The Bergschrund Hypothesis Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J. W.; Cuffey, K. M.; MacGregor, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    After Willard Johnson descended into the Lyell Glacier bergschrund nearly 140 years ago, he proposed that the presence of the bergschrund modulated daily air temperature fluctuations and enhanced freeze-thaw processes. He posited that glaciers, through their ability to birth bergschrunds, are thus able to induce rapid cirque headwall retreat. In subsequent years, many researchers challenged the bergschrund hypothesis on grounds that freeze-thaw events did not occur at depth in bergschrunds. We propose a modified version of Johnson’s original hypothesis: that bergschrunds maintain subfreezing temperatures at values that encourage rock fracture via ice lensing because they act as a cold air trap in areas that would otherwise be held near zero by temperate glacial ice. In support of this claim we investigated three sections of the bergschrund at the West Washmawapta Glacier, British Columbia, Canada, which sits in an east-facing cirque. During our bergschrund reconnaissance we installed temperature sensors at multiple elevations, light sensors at depth in 2 of the 3 locations and painted two 1 m2 sections of the headwall. We first emphasize bergschrunds are not wanting for ice: verglas covers significant fractions of the headwall and icicles dangle from the base of bödens or overhanging rocks. If temperature, rather than water availability, is the limiting factor governing ice-lensing rates, our temperature records demonstrate that the bergschrund provides a suitable environment for considerable rock fracture. At the three sites (north, west, and south walls), the average temperature at depth from 9/3/2006 to 8/6/2007 was -3.6, -3.6, and -2.0 °C, respectively. During spring, when we observed vast amounts of snow melt trickle in to the bergschrund, temperatures averaged -3.7, -3.8, and -2.2 °C, respectively. Winter temperatures are even lower: -8.5, -7.3, and -2.4 °C, respectively. Values during the following year were similar. During the fall, diurnal

  19. Assessing the reactivation potential of pre-existing fractures in the southern Karoo, South Africa: Evaluating the potential for sustainable exploration across its Critical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhansay, Taufeeq; Navabpour, Payman; de Wit, Maarten; Ustaszewski, Kamil

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the kinematics of pre-existing fractures under the present-day stress field is an indispensable prerequisite for hydraulically increasing fracture-induced rock permeability, i.e. through hydraulic stimulation, which forms the basis of economically viable exploitation of resources such as natural gas and geothermal energy. Predicting the likelihood of reactivating pre-existing fractures in a target reservoir at particular fluid injection pressures requires detailed knowledge of the orientations and magnitudes of the prevailing stresses as well as pore fluid pressures. In the absence of actual in-situ stress measurements, e.g. derived from boreholes, as is mostly the case in previously underexplored ;frontier areas;, such predictions are often difficult. In this study, the potential of reactivating pre-existing fractures in a likely exploration region of the southern Karoo of South Africa is investigated. The orientations of the present-day in-situ stresses were assessed from surrounding earthquake focal mechanisms, implying c. NW-SE oriented maximum horizontal stress and a stress regime changing between strike-slip and normal faulting. A comparison with paleo-stress axes derived from inverted fault-slip data suggests that the stress field very likely did not experience any significant reorientation since Cretaceous times. Maximum possible in-situ stress magnitudes are estimated by assuming that these are limited by frictional strength on pre-existing planes and subsequently, slip and dilation tendency calculations were performed, assuming hydrostatic pore fluid pressures of c. 32 MPa at targeted reservoir depth. The results suggest that prevalent E-W and NW-SE oriented sub-vertical fractures are likely to be reactivated at wellhead pressures exceeding hydrostatic pore fluid pressures by as little as 2-5 MPa, while less prevalent sub-horizontal and moderately inclined fractures require higher wellhead pressures that are still technically feasible

  20. Evolution of Motor Control: From Reflexes and Motor Programs to the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Latash, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    This brief review analyzes the evolution of motor control theories along two lines that emphasize active (motor programs) and reactive (reflexes) features of voluntary movements. It suggests that the only contemporary hypothesis that integrates both approaches in a fruitful way is the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Physical, physiological, and behavioral foundations of the EP-hypothesis are considered as well as relations between the EP-hypothesis and the recent developments of the notion of m...

  1. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust. PMID:24806729

  2. Evolution of Motor Control: From Reflexes and Motor Programs to the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    This brief review analyzes the evolution of motor control theories along two lines that emphasize active (motor programs) and reactive (reflexes) features of voluntary movements. It suggests that the only contemporary hypothesis that integrates both approaches in a fruitful way is the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Physical, physiological, and behavioral foundations of the EP-hypothesis are considered as well as relations between the EP-hypothesis and the recent developments of the notion of motor synergies. The paper ends with a brief review of the criticisms of the EP-hypothesis and challenges that the hypothesis faces at this time.

  3. Reactive Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Erken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis is an acute, sterile, non-suppurative and inflammatory arthropaty which has occured as a result of an infectious processes, mostly after gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract infections. Reiter syndrome is a frequent type of reactive arthritis. Both reactive arthritis and Reiter syndrome belong to the group of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, associated with HLA-B27 positivity and characterized by ongoing inflammation after an infectious episode. The classical triad of Reiter syndrome is defined as arthritis, conjuctivitis and urethritis and is seen only in one third of patients with Reiter syndrome. Recently, seronegative asymmetric arthritis and typical extraarticular involvement are thought to be adequate for the diagnosis. However, there is no established criteria for the diagnosis of reactive arthritis and the number of randomized and controlled studies about the therapy is not enough. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 283-299

  4. Hypothesis Designs for Three-Hypothesis Test Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Li; Xiaolong Pu

    2010-01-01

    As a helpful guide for applications, the alternative hypotheses of the three-hypothesis test problems are designed under the required error probabilities and average sample number in this paper. The asymptotic formulas and the proposed numerical quadrature formulas are adopted, respectively, to obtain the hypothesis designs and the corresponding sequential test schemes under the Koopman-Darmois distributions. The example of the normal mean test shows that our methods are qu...

  5. Tests of the lunar hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The concept that the Moon was fissioned from the Earth after core separation is the most readily testable hypothesis of lunar origin, since direct comparisons of lunar and terrestrial compositions can be made. Differences found in such comparisons introduce so many ad hoc adjustments to the fission hypothesis that it becomes untestable. Further constraints may be obtained from attempting to date the volatile-refractory element fractionation. The combination of chemical and isotopic problems suggests that the fission hypothesis is no longer viable, and separate terrestrial and lunar accretion from a population of fractionated precursor planetesimals provides a more reasonable explanation.

  6. Evaluating the Stage Learning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hoben

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for evaluating the Genevan stage learning hypothesis is illustrated by analyzing Inhelder, Sinclair, and Bovet's guided learning experiments (in "Learning and the Development of Cognition." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974). (Author/MP)

  7. The Purchasing Power Parity Hypothesis:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... reject the unit root hypothesis in real exchange rates may simply be due to the shortness ..... Violations of Purchasing Power Parity and Their Implications for Efficient ... Official Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market:.

  8. Sustainable biodiesel production by catalytic reactive distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Rothenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter outlines the properties of biodiesel as renewable fuel, as well as the problems associated with its conventional production processes. The synthesis via fatty acid esterification using solid acid catalysts is investigated. The major challenge is finding a suitable catalyst that is

  9. The atomic hypothesis: physical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that matter is made of some ultimate and indivisible objects, together with the restricted relativity principle, establishes a constraint on the kind of variables we are allowed to use for the variational description of elementary particles. We consider that the atomic hypothesis not only states the indivisibility of elementary particles, but also that these ultimate objects, if not annihilated, cannot be modified by any interaction so that all allowed states of an elementary particle are only kinematical modifications of any one of them. Therefore, an elementary particle cannot have excited states. In this way, the kinematical group of spacetime symmetries not only defines the symmetries of the system, but also the variables in terms of which the mathematical description of the elementary particles can be expressed in either the classical or the quantum mechanical description. When considering the interaction of two Dirac particles, the atomic hypothesis restricts the interaction Lagrangian to a kind of minimal coupling interaction

  10. Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, I P

    1997-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis remains a rare neurological disease of unknown aetiology, with a unique distribution, both geographically and historically. Rare in equatorial regions, it becomes increasingly common in higher latitudes; historically, it was first clinically recognized in the early nineteenth century. A hypothesis, based on geographical reasoning, is here proposed: that the disease is the result of a specific vitamin deficiency. Different individuals suffer the deficiency in separate and often unique ways. Evidence to support the hypothesis exists in cultural considerations, in the global distribution of the disease, and in its historical prevalence.

  11. Discussion of the Porter hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    In the reaction to the long-range vision of RMNO, published in 1996, The Dutch government posed the question whether a far-going and progressive modernization policy will lead to competitive advantages of high-quality products on partly new markets. Such a question is connected to the so-called Porter hypothesis: 'By stimulating innovation, strict environmental regulations can actually enhance competitiveness', from which statement it can be concluded that environment and economy can work together quite well. A literature study has been carried out in order to determine under which conditions that hypothesis is endorsed in the scientific literature and policy documents. Recommendations are given for further studies. refs

  12. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaag, A A; Grunnet, L G; Arora, G P

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Hales and Barker along with their co-workers published some of their pioneering papers proposing the 'thrifty phenotype hypothesis' in Diabetologia (4;35:595-601 and 3;36:62-67). Their postulate that fetal programming could represent an important player in the origin of type 2...... of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes is a multiple-organ disease, and developmental programming, with its idea of organ plasticity, is a plausible hypothesis for a common basis for the widespread organ dysfunctions in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Only two among the 45 known type 2...

  13. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  14. Questioning the social intelligence hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E

    2007-02-01

    The social intelligence hypothesis posits that complex cognition and enlarged "executive brains" evolved in response to challenges that are associated with social complexity. This hypothesis has been well supported, but some recent data are inconsistent with its predictions. It is becoming increasingly clear that multiple selective agents, and non-selective constraints, must have acted to shape cognitive abilities in humans and other animals. The task now is to develop a larger theoretical framework that takes into account both inter-specific differences and similarities in cognition. This new framework should facilitate consideration of how selection pressures that are associated with sociality interact with those that are imposed by non-social forms of environmental complexity, and how both types of functional demands interact with phylogenetic and developmental constraints.

  15. Whiplash and the compensation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B

    2011-12-01

    Review article. To explain why the evidence that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes is not compelling, either in general, or in the specific case of whiplash. There is a common view that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes ("the compensation hypothesis"), despite the presence of important, and unresolved sources of bias. The empirical evidence on this question has ramifications for the design of compensation schemes. Using studies on whiplash, this article outlines the methodological problems that impede attempts to confirm or refute the compensation hypothesis. Compensation studies are prone to measurement bias, reverse causation bias, and selection bias. Errors in measurement are largely due to the latent nature of whiplash injuries and health itself, a lack of clarity over the unit of measurement (specific factors, or "compensation"), and a lack of appreciation for the heterogeneous qualities of compensation-related factors and schemes. There has been a failure to acknowledge and empirically address reverse causation bias, or the likelihood that poor health influences the decision to pursue compensation: it is unclear if compensation is a cause or a consequence of poor health, or both. Finally, unresolved selection bias (and hence, confounding) is evident in longitudinal studies and natural experiments. In both cases, between-group differences have not been addressed convincingly. The nature of the relationship between compensation-related factors and health is unclear. Current approaches to testing the compensation hypothesis are prone to several important sources of bias, which compromise the validity of their results. Methods that explicitly test the hypothesis and establish whether or not a causal relationship exists between compensation factors and prolonged whiplash symptoms are needed in future studies.

  16. A Molecular–Structure Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. A. Boeyens

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The self-similar symmetry that occurs between atomic nuclei, biological growth structures, the solar system, globular clusters and spiral galaxies suggests that a similar pattern should characterize atomic and molecular structures. This possibility is explored in terms of the current molecular structure-hypothesis and its extension into four-dimensional space-time. It is concluded that a quantum molecule only has structure in four dimensions and that classical (Newtonian structure, which occurs in three dimensions, cannot be simulated by quantum-chemical computation.

  17. Antiaging therapy: a prospective hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bonjar MR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Rashid Shahidi Bonjar,1 Leyla Shahidi Bonjar2 1School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman Iran; 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: This hypothesis proposes a new prospective approach to slow the aging process in older humans. The hypothesis could lead to developing new treatments for age-related illnesses and help humans to live longer. This hypothesis has no previous documentation in scientific media and has no protocol. Scientists have presented evidence that systemic aging is influenced by peculiar molecules in the blood. Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, and Harvard University in Cambridge discovered elevated titer of aging-related molecules (ARMs in blood, which trigger cascade of aging process in mice; they also indicated that the process can be reduced or even reversed. By inhibiting the production of ARMs, they could reduce age-related cognitive and physical declines. The present hypothesis offers a new approach to translate these findings into medical treatment: extracorporeal adjustment of ARMs would lead to slower rates of aging. A prospective “antiaging blood filtration column” (AABFC is a nanotechnological device that would fulfill the central role in this approach. An AABFC would set a near-youth homeostatic titer of ARMs in the blood. In this regard, the AABFC immobilizes ARMs from the blood while blood passes through the column. The AABFC harbors antibodies against ARMs. ARM antibodies would be conjugated irreversibly to ARMs on contact surfaces of the reaction platforms inside the AABFC till near-youth homeostasis is attained. The treatment is performed with the aid of a blood-circulating pump. Similar to a renal dialysis machine, blood would circulate from the body to the AABFC and from there back to the body in a closed circuit until ARMs were sufficiently depleted from the blood. The

  18. Why Does REM Sleep Occur? A Wake-up Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. W. R. eKlemm

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses REM to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, 1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly ca...

  19. Grassland Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  20. Is PMI the Hypothesis or the Null Hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Aaron M; Sanford, Michelle R

    2017-09-01

    Over the past several decades, there have been several strident exchanges regarding whether forensic entomologists estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), minimum PMI, or something else. During that time, there has been a proliferation of terminology reflecting this concern regarding "what we do." This has been a frustrating conversation for some in the community because much of this debate appears to be centered on what assumptions are acknowledged directly and which are embedded within a list of assumptions (or ignored altogether) in the literature and in case reports. An additional component of the conversation centers on a concern that moving away from the use of certain terminology like PMI acknowledges limitations and problems that would make the application of entomology appear less useful in court-a problem for lawyers, but one that should not be problematic for scientists in the forensic entomology community, as uncertainty is part of science that should and can be presented effectively in the courtroom (e.g., population genetic concepts in forensics). Unfortunately, a consequence of the way this conversation is conducted is that even as all involved in the debate acknowledge the concerns of their colleagues, parties continue to talk past one another advocating their preferred terminology. Progress will not be made until the community recognizes that all of the terms under consideration take the form of null hypothesis statements and that thinking about "what we do" as a null hypothesis has useful legal and scientific ramifications that transcend arguments over the usage of preferred terminology. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The Stoichiometric Divisome: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar eVollmer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dividing Escherichia coli cells simultaneously constrict the inner membrane, peptidoglycan layer and outer membrane to synthesize the new poles of the daughter cells. For this, more than 30 proteins localize to mid-cell where they form a large, ring-like assembly, the divisome, facilitating division. Although the precise function of most divisome proteins is unknown, it became apparent in recent years that dynamic protein-protein interactions are essential for divisome assembly and function. However, little is known about the nature of the interactions involved and the stoichiometry of the proteins within the divisome. A recent study (Li et al., 2014 used ribosome profiling to measure the absolute protein synthesis rates in E. coli. Interestingly, they observed that most proteins which participate in known multiprotein complexes are synthesized proportional to their stoichiometry. Based on this principle we present a hypothesis for the stoichiometry of the core of the divisome, taking into account known protein-protein interactions. From this hypothesis we infer a possible mechanism for PG synthesis during division.

  2. Reactive Oxygen Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchina, Davide G.; Dostert, Catherine; Brenner, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    T cells are a central component of defenses against pathogens and tumors. Their effector functions are sustained by specific metabolic changes that occur upon activation, and these have been the focus of renewed interest. Energy production inevitably generates unwanted products, namely reactive...... and transcription factors, influencing the outcome of the T cell response. We discuss here how ROS can directly fine-tune metabolism and effector functions of T cells....... oxygen species (ROS), which have long been known to trigger cell death. However, there is now evidence that ROS also act as intracellular signaling molecules both in steady-state and upon antigen recognition. The levels and localization of ROS contribute to the redox modeling of effector proteins...

  3. C reactive protein and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Vestbo, Jørgen; Zacho, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear whether elevated plasma C reactive protein (CRP) is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated plasma CRP causes COPD using a Mendelian randomisation design.......It is unclear whether elevated plasma C reactive protein (CRP) is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated plasma CRP causes COPD using a Mendelian randomisation design....

  4. Persistent high job demands and reactivity to mental stress predict future ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Cropley, M

    2000-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that work stress (persistent high job demands over 1 year) in combination with high reactivity to mental stress predict ambulatory blood pressure. Assessment of cardiovascular responses to standardized behavioural tasks, job demands, and ambulatory blood pressure over a working day and evening after 12 months. We studied 81 school teachers (26 men, 55 women), 36 of whom experienced persistent high job demands over 1 year, while 45 reported lower job demands. Participants were divided on the basis of high and low job demands, and high and low systolic pressure reactions to an uncontrollable stress task. Blood pressure and concurrent physical activity were monitored using ambulatory apparatus from 0900 to 2230 h on a working day. Cardiovascular stress reactivity was associated with waist/hip ratio. Systolic and diastolic pressure during the working day were greater in high job demand participants who were stress reactive than in other groups, after adjustment for age, baseline blood pressure, body mass index and negative affectivity. The difference was not accounted for by variations in physical activity. Cardiovascular stress reactivity and sustained psychosocial stress may act in concert to increase cardiovascular risk in susceptible individuals.

  5. Genetic influences on cardiovascular stress reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Ting; Snieder, Harold; de Geus, Eco

    Individual differences in the cardiovascular response to stress play a central role in the reactivity hypothesis linking frequent exposure to psychosocial stress to adverse outcomes in cardiovascular health. To assess the importance of genetic factors, a meta-analysis was performed on all published

  6. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  7. Memory in astrocytes: a hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudle Robert M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has indicated an increasingly complex role for astrocytes in the central nervous system. Astrocytes are now known to exchange information with neurons at synaptic junctions and to alter the information processing capabilities of the neurons. As an extension of this trend a hypothesis was proposed that astrocytes function to store information. To explore this idea the ion channels in biological membranes were compared to models known as cellular automata. These comparisons were made to test the hypothesis that ion channels in the membranes of astrocytes form a dynamic information storage device. Results Two dimensional cellular automata were found to behave similarly to ion channels in a membrane when they function at the boundary between order and chaos. The length of time information is stored in this class of cellular automata is exponentially related to the number of units. Therefore the length of time biological ion channels store information was plotted versus the estimated number of ion channels in the tissue. This analysis indicates that there is an exponential relationship between memory and the number of ion channels. Extrapolation of this relationship to the estimated number of ion channels in the astrocytes of a human brain indicates that memory can be stored in this system for an entire life span. Interestingly, this information is not affixed to any physical structure, but is stored as an organization of the activity of the ion channels. Further analysis of two dimensional cellular automata also demonstrates that these systems have both associative and temporal memory capabilities. Conclusion It is concluded that astrocytes may serve as a dynamic information sink for neurons. The memory in the astrocytes is stored by organizing the activity of ion channels and is not associated with a physical location such as a synapse. In order for this form of memory to be of significant duration it is necessary

  8. The reactivity meter and core reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siltanen, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discussed in depth the point kinetic equations and the characteristics of the point kinetic reactivity meter, particularly for large negative reactivities. From a given input signal representing the neutron flux seen by a detector, the meter computes a value of reactivity in dollars (ρ/β), based on inverse point kinetics. The prompt jump point of view is emphasised. (Author)

  9. Robust and distributed hypothesis testing

    CERN Document Server

    Gül, Gökhan

    2017-01-01

    This book generalizes and extends the available theory in robust and decentralized hypothesis testing. In particular, it presents a robust test for modeling errors which is independent from the assumptions that a sufficiently large number of samples is available, and that the distance is the KL-divergence. Here, the distance can be chosen from a much general model, which includes the KL-divergence as a very special case. This is then extended by various means. A minimax robust test that is robust against both outliers as well as modeling errors is presented. Minimax robustness properties of the given tests are also explicitly proven for fixed sample size and sequential probability ratio tests. The theory of robust detection is extended to robust estimation and the theory of robust distributed detection is extended to classes of distributions, which are not necessarily stochastically bounded. It is shown that the quantization functions for the decision rules can also be chosen as non-monotone. Finally, the boo...

  10. The venom optimization hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, David; King, Glenn F

    2013-03-01

    Animal venoms are complex chemical mixtures that typically contain hundreds of proteins and non-proteinaceous compounds, resulting in a potent weapon for prey immobilization and predator deterrence. However, because venoms are protein-rich, they come with a high metabolic price tag. The metabolic cost of venom is sufficiently high to result in secondary loss of venom whenever its use becomes non-essential to survival of the animal. The high metabolic cost of venom leads to the prediction that venomous animals may have evolved strategies for minimizing venom expenditure. Indeed, various behaviors have been identified that appear consistent with frugality of venom use. This has led to formulation of the "venom optimization hypothesis" (Wigger et al. (2002) Toxicon 40, 749-752), also known as "venom metering", which postulates that venom is metabolically expensive and therefore used frugally through behavioral control. Here, we review the available data concerning economy of venom use by animals with either ancient or more recently evolved venom systems. We conclude that the convergent nature of the evidence in multiple taxa strongly suggests the existence of evolutionary pressures favoring frugal use of venom. However, there remains an unresolved dichotomy between this economy of venom use and the lavish biochemical complexity of venom, which includes a high degree of functional redundancy. We discuss the evidence for biochemical optimization of venom as a means of resolving this conundrum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alien abduction: a medical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, David V

    2008-01-01

    In response to a new psychological study of persons who believe they have been abducted by space aliens that found that sleep paralysis, a history of being hypnotized, and preoccupation with the paranormal and extraterrestrial were predisposing experiences, I noted that many of the frequently reported particulars of the abduction experience bear more than a passing resemblance to medical-surgical procedures and propose that experience with these may also be contributory. There is the altered state of consciousness, uniformly colored figures with prominent eyes, in a high-tech room under a round bright saucerlike object; there is nakedness, pain and a loss of control while the body's boundaries are being probed; and yet the figures are thought benevolent. No medical-surgical history was apparently taken in the above mentioned study, but psychological laboratory work evaluated false memory formation. I discuss problems in assessing intraoperative awareness and ways in which the medical hypothesis could be elaborated and tested. If physicians are causing this syndrome in a percentage of patients, we should know about it; and persons who feel they have been abducted should be encouraged to inform their surgeons and anesthesiologists without challenging their beliefs.

  12. The oxidative hypothesis of senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilca M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative hypothesis of senescence, since its origin in 1956, has garnered significant evidence and growing support among scientists for the notion that free radicals play an important role in ageing, either as "damaging" molecules or as signaling molecules. Age-increasing oxidative injuries induced by free radicals, higher susceptibility to oxidative stress in short-lived organisms, genetic manipulations that alter both oxidative resistance and longevity and the anti-ageing effect of caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are a few examples of accepted scientific facts that support the oxidative theory of senescence. Though not completely understood due to the complex "network" of redox regulatory systems, the implication of oxidative stress in the ageing process is now well documented. Moreover, it is compatible with other current ageing theories (e.g., those implicating the mitochondrial damage/mitochondrial-lysosomal axis, stress-induced premature senescence, biological "garbage" accumulation, etc. This review is intended to summarize and critically discuss the redox mechanisms involved during the ageing process: sources of oxidant agents in ageing (mitochondrial -electron transport chain, nitric oxide synthase reaction- and non-mitochondrial- Fenton reaction, microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, peroxisomal β -oxidation and respiratory burst of phagocytic cells, antioxidant changes in ageing (enzymatic- superoxide dismutase, glutathione-reductase, glutathion peroxidase, catalase- and non-enzymatic glutathione, ascorbate, urate, bilirubine, melatonin, tocopherols, carotenoids, ubiquinol, alteration of oxidative damage repairing mechanisms and the role of free radicals as signaling molecules in ageing.

  13. Menstrual cycle and skin reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Damm, P; Skouby, S O

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that a cyclic variation exists in skin reactivity to irritant stimuli. Twenty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles were challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate as an irritant patch test at day 1 and at days 9 through 11 of the menstrual cycle. The skin response...... to the applied irritant stimulus was evaluated by visual scoring and also quantified by measurements of transepidermal water loss, edema formation, and blood flow in the skin. The skin response to challenge with sodium lauryl sulfate was found to be significantly stronger at day 1 than at days 9 through 11...

  14. Sustainability of common pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  15. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  16. Updating the mild encephalitis hypothesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechter, K

    2013-04-05

    Schizophrenia seems to be a heterogeneous disorder. Emerging evidence indicates that low level neuroinflammation (LLNI) may not occur infrequently. Many infectious agents with low overall pathogenicity are risk factors for psychoses including schizophrenia and for autoimmune disorders. According to the mild encephalitis (ME) hypothesis, LLNI represents the core pathogenetic mechanism in a schizophrenia subgroup that has syndromal overlap with other psychiatric disorders. ME may be triggered by infections, autoimmunity, toxicity, or trauma. A 'late hit' and gene-environment interaction are required to explain major findings about schizophrenia, and both aspects would be consistent with the ME hypothesis. Schizophrenia risk genes stay rather constant within populations despite a resulting low number of progeny; this may result from advantages associated with risk genes, e.g., an improved immune response, which may act protectively within changing environments, although they are associated with the disadvantage of increased susceptibility to psychotic disorders. Specific schizophrenic symptoms may arise with instances of LLNI when certain brain functional systems are involved, in addition to being shaped by pre-existing liability factors. Prodrome phase and the transition to a diseased status may be related to LLNI processes emerging and varying over time. The variability in the course of schizophrenia resembles the varying courses of autoimmune disorders, which result from three required factors: genes, the environment, and the immune system. Preliminary criteria for subgrouping neurodevelopmental, genetic, ME, and other types of schizophrenias are provided. A rare example of ME schizophrenia may be observed in Borna disease virus infection. Neurodevelopmental schizophrenia due to early infections has been estimated by others to explain approximately 30% of cases, but the underlying pathomechanisms of transition to disease remain in question. LLNI (e.g. from

  17. Validity of Linder Hypothesis in Bric Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Atabay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the theory of similarity in preferences (Linder hypothesis has been introduced and trade in BRIC countries has been examined whether the trade between these countries was valid for this hypothesis. Using the data for the period 1996 – 2010, the study applies to panel data analysis in order to provide evidence regarding the empirical validity of the Linder hypothesis for BRIC countries’ international trade. Empirical findings show that the trade between BRIC countries is in support of Linder hypothesis.

  18. Sustainable Consumption Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Vringer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine which considerations play a role when individuals make decisions to purchase sustainable product varieties or not, we have conducted a large scale field experiment with more than 600 participating households. Households can vote on whether the budgets they receive should only be spent on purchasing the sustainable product variety, or whether every household in a group is free to spend their budget on any product variety. By conducting several treatments, we tested whether people tend to view sustainable consumption as a social dilemma or as a moral dilemma. We find little support for the hypothesis that social dilemma considerations are the key drivers of sustainable consumption behaviour. Participants seem to be caught in a moral dilemma in which they not only weigh their individual financial costs with the sustainable benefits but they also consider the consequences of restricting other people’s freedom of choice. Complementary survey results further substantiate this claim and show that many people are reluctant to impose restrictions on their peers, but, at the same time, our results also suggest substantial support for the government to regulate the availability of unsustainable product varieties.

  19. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  20. Hypothesis Testing in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Critics of null hypothesis significance testing suggest that (a) its basic logic is invalid and (b) it addresses a question that is of no interest. In contrast to (a), I argue that the underlying logic of hypothesis testing is actually extremely straightforward and compelling. To substantiate that, I present examples showing that hypothesis…

  1. Error probabilities in default Bayesian hypothesis testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Xin; Hoijtink, Herbert; Mulder, J,

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the classical type I and type II error probabilities of default Bayes factors for a Bayesian t test. Default Bayes factors quantify the relative evidence between the null hypothesis and the unrestricted alternative hypothesis without needing to specify prior distributions for

  2. Reassessing the Trade-off Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas, Guillermo; Manzetti, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Do economic conditions drive voters to punish politicians that tolerate corruption? Previous scholarly work contends that citizens in young democracies support corrupt governments that are capable of promoting good economic outcomes, the so-called trade-off hypothesis. We test this hypothesis based...

  3. Mastery Learning and the Decreasing Variability Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Gentile, J. Ronald

    1996-01-01

    This report results from studies that tested two variations of Bloom's decreasing variability hypothesis using performance on successive units of achievement in four graduate classrooms that used mastery learning procedures. Data do not support the decreasing variability hypothesis; rather, they show no change over time. (SM)

  4. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güzel, Günduz

    As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase and chemi......As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase...... and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline...

  5. Reactive perforating collagenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Mukesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive perforating collagenosis is a rare cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology. We hereby describe a case of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis in a patient of diabetes and chronic renal failure.

  6. Visual perception and imagery: a new molecular hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókkon, I

    2009-05-01

    Here, we put forward a redox molecular hypothesis about the natural biophysical substrate of visual perception and visual imagery. This hypothesis is based on the redox and bioluminescent processes of neuronal cells in retinotopically organized cytochrome oxidase-rich visual areas. Our hypothesis is in line with the functional roles of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in living cells that are not part of haphazard process, but rather a very strict mechanism used in signaling pathways. We point out that there is a direct relationship between neuronal activity and the biophoton emission process in the brain. Electrical and biochemical processes in the brain represent sensory information from the external world. During encoding or retrieval of information, electrical signals of neurons can be converted into synchronized biophoton signals by bioluminescent radical and non-radical processes. Therefore, information in the brain appears not only as an electrical (chemical) signal but also as a regulated biophoton (weak optical) signal inside neurons. During visual perception, the topological distribution of photon stimuli on the retina is represented by electrical neuronal activity in retinotopically organized visual areas. These retinotopic electrical signals in visual neurons can be converted into synchronized biophoton signals by radical and non-radical processes in retinotopically organized mitochondria-rich areas. As a result, regulated bioluminescent biophotons can create intrinsic pictures (depictive representation) in retinotopically organized cytochrome oxidase-rich visual areas during visual imagery and visual perception. The long-term visual memory is interpreted as epigenetic information regulated by free radicals and redox processes. This hypothesis does not claim to solve the secret of consciousness, but proposes that the evolution of higher levels of complexity made the intrinsic picture representation of the external visual world possible by regulated

  7. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes...

  8. Reactivity on the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, James; Bry, François; Eckert, Michael; Patrânjan, Paula Lavinia

    2005-01-01

    Reactivity, the ability to detect simple and composite events and respond in a timely manner, is an essential requirement in many present-day information systems. With the emergence of new, dynamic Web applications, reactivity on the Web is receiving increasing attention. Reactive Web-based systems need to detect and react not only to simple events but also to complex, real-life situations. This paper introduces XChange, a language for programming reactive behaviour on the Web,...

  9. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  10. Monadic Functional Reactive Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van der Ploeg (Atze); C Shan

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractFunctional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a way to program reactive systems in functional style, eliminating many of the problems that arise from imperative techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative FRP formulation that is based on the notion of a reactive computation: a

  11. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  12. A test of the reward-contrast hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Stefan J; Panoz-Brown, Danielle E; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2017-12-01

    Source memory, a facet of episodic memory, is the memory of the origin of information. Whereas source memory in rats is sustained for at least a week, spatial memory degraded after approximately a day. Different forgetting functions may suggest that two memory systems (source memory and spatial memory) are dissociated. However, in previous work, the two tasks used baiting conditions consisting of chocolate and chow flavors; notably, the source memory task used the relatively better flavor. Thus, according to the reward-contrast hypothesis, when chocolate and chow were presented within the same context (i.e., within a single radial maze trial), the chocolate location was more memorable than the chow location because of contrast. We tested the reward-contrast hypothesis using baiting configurations designed to produce reward-contrast. The reward-contrast hypothesis predicts that under these conditions, spatial memory will survive a 24-h retention interval. We documented elimination of spatial memory performance after a 24-h retention interval using a reward-contrast baiting pattern. These data suggest that reward contrast does not explain our earlier findings that source memory survives unusually long retention intervals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkus, B.; Anac, H.; Alsan, S.; Erk, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nowadays, various digital methods making use of microcomputers for neutron detector signals and determining the reactivity by numerical calculations are used in reactor control systems in place of classical reactivity meters. In this work, a calculation based on the ''The Time Dependent Transport Equation'' has been developed for determining the reactivity numerically. The reactivity values have been obtained utilizing a computer-based data acquisition and control system and compared with the analog reactivity meter values as well as the values calculated from the ''Inhour Equation''

  14. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  15. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  16. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  17. Method of controlling reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochihara, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reactivity controlling characteristics by artificially controlling the leakage of neutron from a reactor and providing a controller for controlling the reactivity. Method: A reactor core is divided into several water gaps to increase the leakage of neutron, its reactivity is reduced, a gas-filled control rod or a fuel assembly is inserted into the gap as required, the entire core is coupled in a system to reduce the leakage of the neutron, and the reactivity is increased. The reactor shutdown is conducted by the conventional control rod, and to maintain critical state, boron density varying system is used together. Futher, a control rod drive is used with that similar to the conventional one, thereby enabling fast reactivity variation, and the positive reactivity can be obtained by the insertion, thereby improving the reactivity controlling characteristics. (Yoshihara, H.)

  18. Afterschool Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Joyce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation in quality extended learning opportunities (ELOs results in positive academic, physical, mental health, and social/emotional outcomes. Funding is essential to implementing and sustaining quality ELOs; however multiple funding barriers and challenges exist. Understanding the types of funds available for ELOs and the factors that influence sustainability is critical. Through surveys and telephone interviews of ELO providers, this descriptive study identified and examined ELO funding streams, the ways ELO providers use these funding streams, and the barriers and challenges to sustainability. ELO programs often relied on one major funding stream coupled with nutrition supports as well as in-kind resources. Barriers to sustainability included year-to-year funding, transportation costs, reducing community partnerships, and difficulty in diversifying funds. Recommendations to enhance ELO sustainability are offered, particularly in relation to overcoming the challenges to diversification of funding resources and establishing mutually supportive partnerships and collaboration.

  19. Implications of the Bohm-Aharonov hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.

    1976-01-01

    It is proved that the Bohm-Aharonov hypothesis concerning largerly separated subsystems of composite quantum systems implies that it is impossible to express the dynamical evolution in terms of the density operator

  20. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well

  1. The (not so) Immortal Strand Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasetti, Cristian; Bozic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-random segregation of DNA strands during stem cell replication has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize accumulated genetic errors in stem cells of rapidly dividing tissues. According to this hypothesis, an “immortal” DNA strand is passed to the stem cell daughter and not the more differentiated cell, keeping the stem cell lineage replication error-free. After it was introduced, experimental evidence both in favor and against the hypothesis has been presented. Principal...

  2. PERM Hypothesis: The Fundamental Machinery Able to Elucidate the Role of Xenobiotics and Hormesis in Cell Survival and Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Chirumbolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the Proteasome, Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria (PERM hypothesis is discussed. The complex machinery made by three homeostatic mechanisms involving the proteasome (P, endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria (M is addressed in order to elucidate the beneficial role of many xenobiotics, either trace metals or phytochemicals, which are spread in the human environment and in dietary habits, exerting their actions on the mechanisms underlying cell survival (apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and turnover, autophagy and stress response. The “PERM hypothesis” suggests that xenobiotics can modulate this central signaling and the regulatory engine made fundamentally by the ER, mitochondria and proteasome, together with other ancillary components such as peroxisomes, by acting on the energetic balance, redox system and macromolecule turnover. In this context, reactive species and stressors are fundamentally signalling molecules that could act as negative-modulating signals if PERM-mediated control is offline, impaired or dysregulated, as occurs in metabolic syndrome, degenerative disorders, chronic inflammation and cancer. Calcium is an important oscillatory input of this regulation and, in this hypothesis, it might play a role in maintaining the correct rhythm of this PERM modulation, probably chaotic in its nature, and guiding cells to a more drastic decision, such as apoptosis. The commonest effort sustained by cells is to maintain their survival balance and the proterome has the fundamental task of supporting this mechanism. Mild stress is probably the main stimulus in this sense. Hormesis is therefore re-interpreted in the light of this hypothetical model and that experimental evidence arising from flavonoid and hormesis reasearch.

  3. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  4. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  5. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  6. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  7. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  8. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  9. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  10. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  11. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  12. Reactive Programming in Java

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Reactive Programming in gaining a lot of excitement. Many libraries, tools, and frameworks are beginning to make use of reactive libraries. Besides, applications dealing with big data or high frequency data can benefit from this programming paradigm. Come to this presentation to learn about what reactive programming is, what kind of problems it solves, how it solves them. We will take an example oriented approach to learning the programming model and the abstraction.

  13. Multiple hypothesis tracking for the cyber domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwoegler, Stefan; Blackman, Sam; Holsopple, Jared; Hirsch, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses how methods used for conventional multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) can be extended to domain-agnostic tracking of entities from non-kinematic constraints such as those imposed by cyber attacks in a potentially dense false alarm background. MHT is widely recognized as the premier method to avoid corrupting tracks with spurious data in the kinematic domain but it has not been extensively applied to other problem domains. The traditional approach is to tightly couple track maintenance (prediction, gating, filtering, probabilistic pruning, and target confirmation) with hypothesis management (clustering, incompatibility maintenance, hypothesis formation, and Nassociation pruning). However, by separating the domain specific track maintenance portion from the domain agnostic hypothesis management piece, we can begin to apply the wealth of knowledge gained from ground and air tracking solutions to the cyber (and other) domains. These realizations led to the creation of Raytheon's Multiple Hypothesis Extensible Tracking Architecture (MHETA). In this paper, we showcase MHETA for the cyber domain, plugging in a well established method, CUBRC's INFormation Engine for Real-time Decision making, (INFERD), for the association portion of the MHT. The result is a CyberMHT. We demonstrate the power of MHETA-INFERD using simulated data. Using metrics from both the tracking and cyber domains, we show that while no tracker is perfect, by applying MHETA-INFERD, advanced nonkinematic tracks can be captured in an automated way, perform better than non-MHT approaches, and decrease analyst response time to cyber threats.

  14. Aminoglycoside antibiotics and autism: a speculative hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manev Hari

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, it has been suspected that there is a relationship between therapy with some antibiotics and the onset of autism; but even more curious, some children benefited transiently from a subsequent treatment with a different antibiotic. Here, we speculate how aminoglycoside antibiotics might be associated with autism. Presentation We hypothesize that aminoglycoside antibiotics could a trigger the autism syndrome in susceptible infants by causing the stop codon readthrough, i.e., a misreading of the genetic code of a hypothetical critical gene, and/or b improve autism symptoms by correcting the premature stop codon mutation in a hypothetical polymorphic gene linked to autism. Testing Investigate, retrospectively, whether a link exists between aminoglycoside use (which is not extensive in children and the onset of autism symptoms (hypothesis "a", or between amino glycoside use and improvement of these symptoms (hypothesis "b". Whereas a prospective study to test hypothesis "a" is not ethically justifiable, a study could be designed to test hypothesis "b". Implications It should be stressed that at this stage no direct evidence supports our speculative hypothesis and that its main purpose is to initiate development of new ideas that, eventually, would improve our understanding of the pathobiology of autism.

  15. Seeking Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  16. BN600 reactivity definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltyshev, V.; Ivanov, A.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, the fast BN600 reactor with sodium coolant has been operated at Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant. The periodic monitoring of the reactivity modifications should be implemented in compliance with the standards and regulations applied in nuclear power engineering. The reactivity measurements are carried out in order to confirm the basic neutronic features of a BN600 reactor. The reactivity measurements are aimed to justify that nuclear safety is provided in course of the in-reactor installation of the experimental core components. Two reactivity meters are to be used on BN600 operation: 1. Digital on-line reactivity calculated under stationary reactor operation on power (approximation of the point-wise kinetics is applied). 2. Second reactivity meter used to define the reactor control rod operating components efficiency under reactor startup and take account of the changing efficiency of the sensor, however, this is more time-consumptive than the on-line reactivity meter. The application of two reactivity meters allows for the monitoring of the reactor reactivity under every operating mode. (authors)

  17. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  18. Politics of sustainability in the Arctic (POSUSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram; Jakobsen, Uffe; Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The concept of sustainability is of central importance in Arctic politics. However, for different actors (governments, indigenious peoples, NGOs) the concept implies different sets of precautions and opportunities. Sustainability, therefore, is much more a fundamental concept to be further...... elaborated than a definable term with a specific meaning. This is the core hypothesis in a collective research project, the POSUSA project (Politics of Sustainability in the Arctic) that aims to map and analyse the role of sustainability in various political and economic strategies in the Arctic....

  19. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  20. Testing competing forms of the Milankovitch hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Juselius, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    We test competing forms of the Milankovitch hypothesis by estimating the coefficients and diagnostic statistics for a cointegrated vector autoregressive model that includes 10 climate variables and four exogenous variables for solar insolation. The estimates are consistent with the physical...... ice volume and solar insolation. The estimated adjustment dynamics show that solar insolation affects an array of climate variables other than ice volume, each at a unique rate. This implies that previous efforts to test the strong form of the Milankovitch hypothesis by examining the relationship...... that the latter is consistent with a weak form of the Milankovitch hypothesis and that it should be restated as follows: Internal climate dynamics impose perturbations on glacial cycles that are driven by solar insolation. Our results show that these perturbations are likely caused by slow adjustment between land...

  1. Rejecting the equilibrium-point hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, G L

    1998-01-01

    The lambda version of the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis as developed by Feldman and colleagues has been widely used and cited with insufficient critical understanding. This article offers a small antidote to that lack. First, the hypothesis implicitly, unrealistically assumes identical transformations of lambda into muscle tension for antagonist muscles. Without that assumption, its definitions of command variables R, C, and lambda are incompatible and an EP is not defined exclusively by R nor is it unaffected by C. Second, the model assumes unrealistic and unphysiological parameters for the damping properties of the muscles and reflexes. Finally, the theory lacks rules for two of its three command variables. A theory of movement should offer insight into why we make movements the way we do and why we activate muscles in particular patterns. The EP hypothesis offers no unique ideas that are helpful in addressing either of these questions.

  2. The linear hypothesis and radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1981-10-01

    An assumption central to most estimations of the carcinogenic potential of low levels of ionising radiation is that the risk always increases in direct proportion to the dose received. This assumption (the linear hypothesis) has been both strongly defended and attacked on several counts. It appears unlikely that conclusive, direct evidence on the validity of the hypothesis will be forthcoming. We review the major indirect arguments used in the debate. All of them are subject to objections that can seriously weaken their case. In the present situation, retention of the linear hypothesis as the basis of extrapolations from high to low dose levels can lead to excessive fears, over-regulation and unnecessarily expensive protection measures. To offset these possibilities, support is given to suggestions urging a cut-off dose, probably some fraction of natural background, below which risks can be deemed acceptable

  3. Rayleigh's hypothesis and the geometrical optics limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfouhaily, Tanos; Hahn, Thomas

    2006-09-22

    The Rayleigh hypothesis (RH) is often invoked in the theoretical and numerical treatment of rough surface scattering in order to decouple the analytical form of the scattered field. The hypothesis stipulates that the scattered field away from the surface can be extended down onto the rough surface even though it is formed by solely up-going waves. Traditionally this hypothesis is systematically used to derive the Volterra series under the small perturbation method which is equivalent to the low-frequency limit. In this Letter we demonstrate that the RH also carries the high-frequency or the geometrical optics limit, at least to first order. This finding has never been explicitly derived in the literature. Our result comforts the idea that the RH might be an exact solution under some constraints in the general case of random rough surfaces and not only in the case of small-slope deterministic periodic gratings.

  4. Electrospinning of reactive mesogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, J.; Picot, O.T.; Hughes-Brittain, N.F.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Peijs, T.

    2016-01-01

    The reinforcement potential of reactive liquid crystals or reactive mesogens (RMs) in electrospun fibers was investigated through the blending of two types of RMs (RM257 and RM82) with two types of thermoplastics; polyamide 6 (PA6) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Polymer/RM blends were

  5. Why Does REM Sleep Occur? A Wake-up Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. W. R. eKlemm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses REM to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, 1 when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV, a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, 2 conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, 3 the last awakening during a night’s sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, 4 both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system 5 N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and 6 corticofugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.

  6. Why does rem sleep occur? A wake-up hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W R

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses rapid eye movement (REM) to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, (1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV), a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, (2) conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, (3) the last awakening during a night's sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, (4) both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system (5) N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and (6) cortico-fugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.

  7. On the generalized gravi-magnetic hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, C.

    1989-01-01

    According to a generalization of the gravi-magnetic hypothesis (GMH) any neutral mass moving in a curvilinear path with respect to an inertial frame creates a magnetic field, dependent on the curvature radius of the path. A simple astrophysical consequence of the generalized GMH is suggested considering the special cases of binary pulsars and binary neutron stars

  8. Remarks about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    Remarks are made about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. In particular, the concept of favored and disfavored fragment distribution is introduced. Also, a sum rule is proved leading to a useful quantity called energy-fragmentation fraction. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of

  10. The (not so immortal strand hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tomasetti

    2015-03-01

    Significance: Utilizing an approach that is fundamentally different from previous efforts to confirm or refute the immortal strand hypothesis, we provide evidence against non-random segregation of DNA during stem cell replication. Our results strongly suggest that parental DNA is passed randomly to stem cell daughters and provides new insight into the mechanism of DNA replication in stem cells.

  11. A Developmental Study of the Infrahumanization Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Bennett, Mark; Murray, Wayne S.

    2008-01-01

    Intergroup attitudes in children were examined based on Leyen's "infrahumanization hypothesis". This suggests that some uniquely human emotions, such as shame and guilt (secondary emotions), are reserved for the in-group, whilst other emotions that are not uniquely human and shared with animals, such as anger and pleasure (primary…

  12. Morbidity and Infant Development: A Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, Ernesto

    1983-01-01

    Results of a study conducted in 14 villages of Sui Lin Township, Taiwan, suggest the hypothesis that, under conditions of extreme economic impoverishment and among children within populations where energy protein malnutrition is endemic, there is an inverse relationship between incidence of morbidity in infancy and measures of motor and mental…

  13. Diagnostic Hypothesis Generation and Human Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rick P.; Dougherty, Michael R.; Sprenger, Amber M.; Harbison, J. Isaiah

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic hypothesis-generation processes are ubiquitous in human reasoning. For example, clinicians generate disease hypotheses to explain symptoms and help guide treatment, auditors generate hypotheses for identifying sources of accounting errors, and laypeople generate hypotheses to explain patterns of information (i.e., data) in the…

  14. Multi-hypothesis distributed stereo video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    for stereo sequences, exploiting an interpolated intra-view SI and two inter-view SIs. The quality of the SI has a major impact on the DVC Rate-Distortion (RD) performance. As the inter-view SIs individually present lower RD performance compared with the intra-view SI, we propose multi-hypothesis decoding...

  15. [Resonance hypothesis of heart rate variability origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheĭkh-Zade, Iu R; Mukhambetaliev, G Kh; Cherednik, I L

    2009-09-01

    A hypothesis is advanced of the heart rate variability being subjected to beat-to-beat regulation of cardiac cycle duration in order to ensure the resonance interaction between respiratory and own fluctuation of the arterial system volume for minimization of power expenses of cardiorespiratory system. Myogenic, parasympathetic and sympathetic machanisms of heart rate variability are described.

  16. In Defense of Chi's Ontological Incompatibility Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotta, James D.

    2011-01-01

    This article responds to an article by A. Gupta, D. Hammer, and E. F. Redish (2010) that asserts that M. T. H. Chi's (1992, 2005) hypothesis of an "ontological commitment" in conceptual development is fundamentally flawed. In this article, I argue that Chi's theoretical perspective is still very much intact and that the critique offered by Gupta…

  17. Vacuum counterexamples to the cosmic censorship hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    In cylindrically symmetric vacuum spacetimes it is possible to specify nonsingular initial conditions such that timelike singularities will (necessarily) evolve from these conditions. Examples are given; the spacetimes are somewhat analogous to one of the spherically symmetric counterexamples to the cosmic censorship hypothesis

  18. Does reactivation trigger episodic memory change? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Iiona D; Napper, Lucy E; Hupbach, Almut

    2017-07-01

    According to the reconsolidation hypothesis, long-term memories return to a plastic state upon their reactivation, leaving them vulnerable to interference effects and requiring re-storage processes or else these memories might be permanently lost. The present study used a meta-analytic approach to critically evaluate the evidence for reactivation-induced changes in human episodic memory. Results indicated that reactivation makes episodic memories susceptible to physiological and behavioral interference. When applied shortly after reactivation, interference manipulations altered the amount of information that could be retrieved from the original learning event. This effect was more pronounced for remote memories and memories of narrative structure. Additionally, new learning following reactivation reliably increased the number of intrusions from new information into the original memory. These findings support a dynamic view of long-term memory by showing that memories can be changed long after they were acquired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel hypothesis splitting method implementation for multi-hypothesis filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a multi-hypothesis filter library featuring a novel method for splitting Gaussians into ones with smaller variances. The library is written in C++ for high performance and the source code is open and free1. The multi-hypothesis filters commonly approximate the distribution tran...

  20. The Income Inequality Hypothesis Revisited : Assessing the Hypothesis Using Four Methodological Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, N.; Rözer, J.

    The income inequality hypothesis states that income inequality has a negative effect on individual’s health, partially because it reduces social trust. This article aims to critically assess the income inequality hypothesis by comparing several analytical strategies, namely OLS regression,

  1. Einstein's Revolutionary Light-Quantum Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuewer, Roger H.

    2005-05-01

    The paper in which Albert Einstein proposed his light-quantum hypothesis was the only one of his great papers of 1905 that he himself termed ``revolutionary.'' Contrary to widespread belief, Einstein did not propose his light-quantum hypothesis ``to explain the photoelectric effect.'' Instead, he based his argument for light quanta on the statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics, with the photoelectric effect being only one of three phenomena that he offered as possible experimental support for it. I will discuss Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and his introduction of the wave-particle duality in 1909 and then turn to the reception of his work on light quanta by his contemporaries. We will examine the reasons that prominent physicists advanced to reject Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis in succeeding years. Those physicists included Robert A. Millikan, even though he provided convincing experimental proof of the validity of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. The turning point came after Arthur Holly Compton discovered the Compton effect in late 1922, but even then Compton's discovery was contested both on experimental and on theoretical grounds. Niels Bohr, in particular, had never accepted the reality of light quanta and now, in 1924, proposed a theory, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory, which assumed that energy and momentum were conserved only statistically in microscopic interactions. Only after that theory was disproved experimentally in 1925 was Einstein's revolutionary light-quantum hypothesis generally accepted by physicists---a full two decades after Einstein had proposed it.

  2. A Dopamine Hypothesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavăl, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits and stereotyped behaviors. While several theories have emerged, the pathogenesis of ASD remains unknown. Although studies report dopamine signaling abnormalities in autistic patients, a coherent dopamine hypothesis which could link neurobiology to behavior in ASD is currently lacking. In this paper, we present such a hypothesis by proposing that autistic behavior arises from dysfunctions in the midbrain dopaminergic system. We hypothesize that a dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic circuit leads to social deficits, while a dysfunction of the nigrostriatal circuit leads to stereotyped behaviors. Furthermore, we discuss 2 key predictions of our hypothesis, with emphasis on clinical and therapeutic aspects. First, we argue that dopaminergic dysfunctions in the same circuits should associate with autistic-like behavior in nonautistic subjects. Concerning this, we discuss the case of PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections) which displays behaviors similar to those of ASD, presumed to arise from dopaminergic dysfunctions. Second, we argue that providing dopamine modulators to autistic subjects should lead to a behavioral improvement. Regarding this, we present clinical studies of dopamine antagonists which seem to have improving effects on autistic behavior. Furthermore, we explore the means of testing our hypothesis by using neuroreceptor imaging, which could provide comprehensive evidence for dopamine signaling dysfunctions in autistic subjects. Lastly, we discuss the limitations of our hypothesis. Along these lines, we aim to provide a dopaminergic model of ASD which might lead to a better understanding of the ASD pathogenesis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Reactivation of Rate Remapping in CA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindel, C Daniela; Navratilova, Zaneta; Ali, Karim; Tatsuno, Masami; McNaughton, Bruce L

    2016-09-07

    The hippocampus is thought to contribute to episodic memory by creating, storing, and reactivating patterns that are unique to each experience, including different experiences that happen at the same location. Hippocampus can combine spatial and contextual/episodic information using a dual coding scheme known as "global" and "rate" remapping. Global remapping selects which set of neurons can activate at a given location. Rate remapping readjusts the firing rates of this set depending on current experience, thus expressing experience-unique patterns at each location. But can the experience-unique component be retrieved spontaneously? Whereas reactivation of recent, spatially selective patterns in hippocampus is well established, it is never perfect, raising the issue of whether the experiential component might be absent. This question is key to the hypothesis that hippocampus can assist memory consolidation by reactivating and broadcasting experience-specific "index codes" to neocortex. In CA3, global remapping exhibits attractor-like dynamics, whereas rate remapping apparently does not, leading to the hypothesis that only the former can be retrieved associatively and casting doubt on the general consolidation hypothesis. Therefore, we studied whether the rate component is reactivated spontaneously during sleep. We conducted neural ensemble recordings from CA3 while rats ran on a circular track in different directions (in different sessions) and while they slept. It was shown previously that the two directions of running result in strong rate remapping. During sleep, the most recent rate distribution was reactivated preferentially. Therefore, CA3 can retrieve patterns spontaneously that are unique to both the location and the content of recent experience. The hippocampus is required for memory of events and their spatial contexts. The primary correlate of hippocampal activity is location in space, but multiple memories can occur in the same location. To be useful

  4. Roundtabling Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... and procedures to meet ‘good practice’ in standard setting and management. This is opening space for competing initiatives that are less democratic, quicker, and more aligned with industry interests to establish substantial presence in the market for sustainability certifications. These tend to more easily...

  5. Theory of weakly nonlinear self-sustained detonations

    KAUST Repository

    Faria, Luiz; Kasimov, Aslan R.; Rosales, Rodolfo R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a theory of weakly nonlinear multidimensional self-sustained detonations based on asymptotic analysis of the reactive compressible Navier-Stokes equations. We show that these equations can be reduced to a model consisting of a forced

  6. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  7. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  8. Exergy sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  9. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  10. Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Beckmann, Markus; Hockerts, Kai

    2018-01-01

    . We also explore the transformation path of the case company, which starts with simple use and then moves to the feedback to core business pattern. By drawing on insights from lead user theory in innovation management and sustainable entrepreneurship, we ground the new concept in extant literature...

  11. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  12. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  13. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  14. Sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2004-01-01

    Marcel Boiteux evokes the results of the work on the sustainable development by the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. This is a vast political programme with the goal of allowing all humanity to live well in growing unity while protecting the environment and favouring economic growth. (author)

  15. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    Ethiopia is selected as a case study in light of its pace in economic growth ... Interrogating the Economy-First Paradigm in 'Sustainable Development' … 65 .... agreement, since such effective global cooperation on climate change ultimately ..... and foster innovation; reduce inequality within and among countries; make cities.

  16. Sustainable Soesterkwartier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, H.; Goosen, H.; Jong, de F.; Sickmann, J.; Prins, D.

    2010-01-01

    The municipality of Amersfoort wants to construct an endurable and sustainable eco-town in the Soesterkwartier neighbourhood, by taking future climate change into account. The impact of climate change at the location of the proposed eco-town was studied by a literature review.

  17. Re-Engineering Primary School Teachers for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    engineer primary school teachers for sustainable development in Onitsha North Local Government Area. Three research questions and a hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey research design was used. 300 primary ...

  18. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  19. Tests of the Giant Impact Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    The giant impact hypothesis has gained popularity as a means of explaining a volatile-depleted Moon that still has a chemical affinity to the Earth. As Taylor's Axiom decrees, the best models of lunar origin are testable, but this is difficult with the giant impact model. The energy associated with the impact would be sufficient to totally melt and partially vaporize the Earth. And this means that there should he no geological vestige of Barber times. Accordingly, it is important to devise tests that may be used to evaluate the giant impact hypothesis. Three such tests are discussed here. None of these is supportive of the giant impact model, but neither do they disprove it.

  20. The discovered preference hypothesis - an empirical test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott [31], offers...... an nterpretation and explanation of biases which entails that the stated preference methods need not to be completely written off. In this paper we conduct a test for the validity and relevance of the DPH interpretation of biases. In a choice experiment concerning preferences for protection of Danish nature areas...... as respondents evaluate more and more choice sets. This finding supports the Discovered Preference Hypothesis interpretation and explanation of starting point bias....

  1. The Hypothesis-Driven Physical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, Brian T; Olson, Andrew P J

    2018-05-01

    The physical examination remains a vital part of the clinical encounter. However, physical examination skills have declined in recent years, in part because of decreased time at the bedside. Many clinicians question the relevance of physical examinations in the age of technology. A hypothesis-driven approach to teaching and practicing the physical examination emphasizes the performance of maneuvers that can alter the likelihood of disease. Likelihood ratios are diagnostic weights that allow clinicians to estimate the post-probability of disease. This hypothesis-driven approach to the physical examination increases its value and efficiency, while preserving its cultural role in the patient-physician relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. MOLIERE: Automatic Biomedical Hypothesis Generation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybrandt, Justin; Shtutman, Michael; Safro, Ilya

    2017-08-01

    Hypothesis generation is becoming a crucial time-saving technique which allows biomedical researchers to quickly discover implicit connections between important concepts. Typically, these systems operate on domain-specific fractions of public medical data. MOLIERE, in contrast, utilizes information from over 24.5 million documents. At the heart of our approach lies a multi-modal and multi-relational network of biomedical objects extracted from several heterogeneous datasets from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). These objects include but are not limited to scientific papers, keywords, genes, proteins, diseases, and diagnoses. We model hypotheses using Latent Dirichlet Allocation applied on abstracts found near shortest paths discovered within this network, and demonstrate the effectiveness of MOLIERE by performing hypothesis generation on historical data. Our network, implementation, and resulting data are all publicly available for the broad scientific community.

  3. The Method of Hypothesis in Plato's Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Aboie Mehrizi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the examination of method of hypothesis in Plato's philosophy. This method, respectively, will be examined in three dialogues of Meno, Phaedon and Republic in which it is explicitly indicated. It will be shown the process of change of Plato’s attitude towards the position and usage of the method of hypothesis in his realm of philosophy. In Meno, considering the geometry, Plato attempts to introduce a method that can be used in the realm of philosophy. But, ultimately in Republic, Plato’s special attention to the method and its importance in the philosophical investigations, leads him to revise it. Here, finally Plato introduces the particular method of philosophy, i.e., the dialectic

  4. Debates—Hypothesis testing in hydrology: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöschl, Günter

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces the papers in the "Debates—Hypothesis testing in hydrology" series. The four articles in the series discuss whether and how the process of testing hypotheses leads to progress in hydrology. Repeated experiments with controlled boundary conditions are rarely feasible in hydrology. Research is therefore not easily aligned with the classical scientific method of testing hypotheses. Hypotheses in hydrology are often enshrined in computer models which are tested against observed data. Testability may be limited due to model complexity and data uncertainty. All four articles suggest that hypothesis testing has contributed to progress in hydrology and is needed in the future. However, the procedure is usually not as systematic as the philosophy of science suggests. A greater emphasis on a creative reasoning process on the basis of clues and explorative analyses is therefore needed.

  5. Multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K.

    2014-12-15

    This paper considers multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing and presents a framework for strategic learning in sequential games with explicit consideration of both temporal and spatial coordination. The associated Bayes risk functions explicitly incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well-defined value functions with respect to (a) the belief states for the case of conditional independent private noisy measurements that are also assumed to be independent identically distributed over time, and (b) the information states for the case of correlated private noisy measurements. A sequential investment game of strategic coordination and delay is also discussed as an application of the proposed strategic learning rules.

  6. Hypothesis testing of scientific Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerberger, Markus; Gull, Emanuel

    2017-11-01

    The steadily increasing size of scientific Monte Carlo simulations and the desire for robust, correct, and reproducible results necessitates rigorous testing procedures for scientific simulations in order to detect numerical problems and programming bugs. However, the testing paradigms developed for deterministic algorithms have proven to be ill suited for stochastic algorithms. In this paper we demonstrate explicitly how the technique of statistical hypothesis testing, which is in wide use in other fields of science, can be used to devise automatic and reliable tests for Monte Carlo methods, and we show that these tests are able to detect some of the common problems encountered in stochastic scientific simulations. We argue that hypothesis testing should become part of the standard testing toolkit for scientific simulations.

  7. Reverse hypothesis machine learning a practitioner's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Parag

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces a paradigm of reverse hypothesis machines (RHM), focusing on knowledge innovation and machine learning. Knowledge- acquisition -based learning is constrained by large volumes of data and is time consuming. Hence Knowledge innovation based learning is the need of time. Since under-learning results in cognitive inabilities and over-learning compromises freedom, there is need for optimal machine learning. All existing learning techniques rely on mapping input and output and establishing mathematical relationships between them. Though methods change the paradigm remains the same—the forward hypothesis machine paradigm, which tries to minimize uncertainty. The RHM, on the other hand, makes use of uncertainty for creative learning. The approach uses limited data to help identify new and surprising solutions. It focuses on improving learnability, unlike traditional approaches, which focus on accuracy. The book is useful as a reference book for machine learning researchers and professionals as ...

  8. Exploring heterogeneous market hypothesis using realized volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wen Cheong; Isa, Zaidi; Mohd Nor, Abu Hassan Shaari

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the heterogeneous market hypothesis using high frequency data. The cascaded heterogeneous trading activities with different time durations are modelled by the heterogeneous autoregressive framework. The empirical study indicated the presence of long memory behaviour and predictability elements in the financial time series which supported heterogeneous market hypothesis. Besides the common sum-of-square intraday realized volatility, we also advocated two power variation realized volatilities in forecast evaluation and risk measurement in order to overcome the possible abrupt jumps during the credit crisis. Finally, the empirical results are used in determining the market risk using the value-at-risk approach. The findings of this study have implications for informationally market efficiency analysis, portfolio strategies and risk managements.

  9. Water Taxation and the Double Dividend Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Kilimani

    2014-01-01

    The double dividend hypothesis contends that environmental taxes have the potential to yield multiple benefits for the economy. However, empirical evidence of the potential impacts of environmental taxation in developing countries is still limited. This paper seeks to contribute to the literature by exploring the impact of a water tax in a developing country context, with Uganda as a case study. Policy makers in Uganda are exploring ways of raising revenue by taxing environmental goods such a...

  10. [Working memory, phonological awareness and spelling hypothesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindri, Gigiane; Keske-Soares, Márcia; Mota, Helena Bolli

    2007-01-01

    Working memory, phonological awareness and spelling hypothesis. To verify the relationship between working memory, phonological awareness and spelling hypothesis in pre-school children and first graders. Participants of this study were 90 students, belonging to state schools, who presented typical linguistic development. Forty students were preschoolers, with the average age of six and 50 students were first graders, with the average age of seven. Participants were submitted to an evaluation of the working memory abilities based on the Working Memory Model (Baddeley, 2000), involving phonological loop. Phonological loop was evaluated using the Auditory Sequential Test, subtest 5 of Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), Brazilian version (Bogossian & Santos, 1977), and the Meaningless Words Memory Test (Kessler, 1997). Phonological awareness abilities were investigated using the Phonological Awareness: Instrument of Sequential Assessment (CONFIAS - Moojen et al., 2003), involving syllabic and phonemic awareness tasks. Writing was characterized according to Ferreiro & Teberosky (1999). Preschoolers presented the ability of repeating sequences of 4.80 digits and 4.30 syllables. Regarding phonological awareness, the performance in the syllabic level was of 19.68 and in the phonemic level was of 8.58. Most of the preschoolers demonstrated to have a pre-syllabic writing hypothesis. First graders repeated, in average, sequences of 5.06 digits and 4.56 syllables. These children presented a phonological awareness of 31.12 in the syllabic level and of 16.18 in the phonemic level, and demonstrated to have an alphabetic writing hypothesis. The performance of working memory, phonological awareness and spelling level are inter-related, as well as being related to chronological age, development and scholarity.

  11. Privacy on Hypothesis Testing in Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zuxing; Oechtering, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of privacy information leakage in a smart grid. The privacy risk is assumed to be caused by an unauthorized binary hypothesis testing of the consumer's behaviour based on the smart meter readings of energy supplies from the energy provider. Another energy supplies are produced by an alternative energy source. A controller equipped with an energy storage device manages the energy inflows to satisfy the energy demand of the consumer. We study the optimal ener...

  12. Box-particle probability hypothesis density filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, M.; Gning, A.; Mihaylova, L.; Cremers, D.; Koch, W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multitarget tracking, called box-particle probability hypothesis density filter (box-PHD filter). The approach is able to track multiple targets and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic, and data association uncertainty. The box-PHD filter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The small number of box-p...

  13. Quantum effects and hypothesis of cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnovskij, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that filamentary characteristics with linear mass of less than 10 25 g/cm distort slightly the space-time at distances, exceeding Planck ones. Their formation doesn't change vacuum energy and doesn't lead to strong quantum radiation. Therefore, the problem of their occurrence can be considered within the framework of classical collapse. Quantum effects can be ignored when considering the problem of validity of cosmic censorship hypothesis

  14. The (not so) immortal strand hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetti, Cristian; Bozic, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    Non-random segregation of DNA strands during stem cell replication has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize accumulated genetic errors in stem cells of rapidly dividing tissues. According to this hypothesis, an "immortal" DNA strand is passed to the stem cell daughter and not the more differentiated cell, keeping the stem cell lineage replication error-free. After it was introduced, experimental evidence both in favor and against the hypothesis has been presented. Using a novel methodology that utilizes cancer sequencing data we are able to estimate the rate of accumulation of mutations in healthy stem cells of the colon, blood and head and neck tissues. We find that in these tissues mutations in stem cells accumulate at rates strikingly similar to those expected without the protection from the immortal strand mechanism. Utilizing an approach that is fundamentally different from previous efforts to confirm or refute the immortal strand hypothesis, we provide evidence against non-random segregation of DNA during stem cell replication. Our results strongly suggest that parental DNA is passed randomly to stem cell daughters and provides new insight into the mechanism of DNA replication in stem cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A test of the orthographic recoding hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaygen, Daniel E.

    2003-04-01

    The Orthographic Recoding Hypothesis [D. E. Gaygen and P. A. Luce, Percept. Psychophys. 60, 465-483 (1998)] was tested. According to this hypothesis, listeners recognize spoken words heard for the first time by mapping them onto stored representations of the orthographic forms of the words. Listeners have a stable orthographic representation of words, but no phonological representation, when those words have been read frequently but never heard or spoken. Such may be the case for low frequency words such as jargon. Three experiments using visually and auditorily presented nonword stimuli tested this hypothesis. The first two experiments were explicit tests of memory (old-new tests) for words presented visually. In the first experiment, the recognition of auditorily presented nonwords was facilitated when they previously appeared on a visually presented list. The second experiment was similar, but included a concurrent articulation task during a visual word list presentation, thus preventing covert rehearsal of the nonwords. The results were similar to the first experiment. The third experiment was an indirect test of memory (auditory lexical decision task) for visually presented nonwords. Auditorily presented nonwords were identified as nonwords significantly more slowly if they had previously appeared on the visually presented list accompanied by a concurrent articulation task.

  16. Consumer health information seeking as hypothesis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla; Browne, Allen C; Kaufman, David R

    2008-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of consumer health sites, lay individuals often experience difficulty finding health information online. The present study attempts to understand users' information seeking difficulties by drawing on a hypothesis testing explanatory framework. It also addresses the role of user competencies and their interaction with internet resources. Twenty participants were interviewed about their understanding of a hypothetical scenario about a family member suffering from stable angina and then searched MedlinePlus consumer health information portal for information on the problem presented in the scenario. Participants' understanding of heart disease was analyzed via semantic analysis. Thematic coding was used to describe information seeking trajectories in terms of three key strategies: verification of the primary hypothesis, narrowing search within the general hypothesis area and bottom-up search. Compared to an expert model, participants' understanding of heart disease involved different key concepts, which were also differently grouped and defined. This understanding provided the framework for search-guiding hypotheses and results interpretation. Incorrect or imprecise domain knowledge led individuals to search for information on irrelevant sites, often seeking out data to confirm their incorrect initial hypotheses. Online search skills enhanced search efficiency, but did not eliminate these difficulties. Regardless of their web experience and general search skills, lay individuals may experience difficulty with health information searches. These difficulties may be related to formulating and evaluating hypotheses that are rooted in their domain knowledge. Informatics can provide support at the levels of health information portals, individual websites, and consumer education tools.

  17. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zongbing

    1996-02-01

    The importance and the usual methods of reactivity measurement in a nuclear reactor are presented. Emphasis is put upon the calculation principle, software and hardware components, main specifications, application, as well as the features of the digital reactivity meter. The test results of operation in various reactors shown that the meter possess the following features: high accuracy, short response time, low output noise, high resolution, wide measuring range, simple and flexible to operate, high stability and reliability. In addition, the reactivity meter can save the measuring data automatically and have a perfect capability of self-verifying. It not only meet the requirement of the reactivity measurement in nuclear power plant, but also can be applied to various types of reactors. (1 tab.)

  18. Stress Reactivity in Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrman, Philip R; Hall, Martica; Barilla, Holly; Buysse, Daniel; Perlis, Michael; Gooneratne, Nalaka; Ross, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with primary insomnia (PI) are more reactive to stress than good sleepers (GS). PI and GS (n = 20 per group), matched on gender and age, completed three nights of polysomnography. On the stress night, participants received a mild electric shock and were told they could receive additional shocks during the night. Saliva samples were obtained for analysis of cortisol and alpha amylase along with self-report and visual analog scales (VAS). There was very little evidence of increased stress on the stress night, compared to the baseline night. There was also no evidence of greater stress reactivity in the PI group for any sleep or for salivary measures. In the GS group, stress reactivity measured by VAS scales was positively associated with an increase in sleep latency in the experimental night on exploratory analyses. Individuals with PI did not show greater stress reactivity compared to GS.

  19. Structure, Reactivity and Dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding structure, reactivity and dynamics is the core issue in chemical ... functional theory (DFT) calculations, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, light- ... between water and protein oxygen atoms, the superionic conductors which ...

  20. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  1. Reactive sputter deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Mahieu, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    In this valuable work, all aspects of the reactive magnetron sputtering process, from the discharge up to the resulting thin film growth, are described in detail, allowing the reader to understand the complete process. Hence, this book gives necessary information for those who want to start with reactive magnetron sputtering, understand and investigate the technique, control their sputtering process and tune their existing process, obtaining the desired thin films.

  2. Reactive power compensator

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  3. Reactive power compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  4. Updating the lamellar hypothesis of hippocampal organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Sloviter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1971, Andersen and colleagues proposed that excitatory activity in the entorhinal cortex propagates topographically to the dentate gyrus, and on through a trisynaptic circuit lying within transverse hippocampal slices or lamellae [Andersen, Bliss, and Skrede. 1971. Lamellar organization of hippocampal pathways. Exp Brain Res 13, 222-238]. In this way, a relatively simple structure might mediate complex functions in a manner analogous to the way independent piano keys can produce a nearly infinite variety of unique outputs. The lamellar hypothesis derives primary support from the lamellar distribution of dentate granule cell axons (the mossy fibers, which innervate dentate hilar neurons and area CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons within the confines of a thin transverse hippocampal segment. Following the initial formulation of the lamellar hypothesis, anatomical studies revealed that unlike granule cells, hilar mossy cells, CA3 pyramidal cells, and Layer II entorhinal cells all form axonal projections that are more divergent along the longitudinal axis than the clearly lamellar mossy fiber pathway. The existence of pathways with translamellar distribution patterns has been interpreted, incorrectly in our view, as justifying outright rejection of the lamellar hypothesis [Amaral and Witter. 1989. The three-dimensional organization of the hippocampal formation: a review of anatomical data. Neuroscience 31, 571-591]. We suggest that the functional implications of longitudinally-projecting axons depend not on whether they exist, but on what they do. The observation that focal granule cell layer discharges normally inhibit, rather than excite, distant granule cells suggests that longitudinal axons in the dentate gyrus may mediate "lateral" inhibition and define lamellar function, rather than undermine it. In this review, we attempt a reconsideration of the evidence that most directly impacts the physiological concept of hippocampal lamellar

  5. Hypothesis Testing as an Act of Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Grey

    2017-04-01

    Statistical hypothesis testing is ad hoc in two ways. First, setting probabilistic rejection criteria is, as Neyman (1957) put it, an act of will rather than an act of rationality. Second, physical theories like conservation laws do not inherently admit probabilistic predictions, and so we must use what are called epistemic bridge principles to connect model predictions with the actual methods of hypothesis testing. In practice, these bridge principles are likelihood functions, error functions, or performance metrics. I propose that the reason we are faced with these problems is because we have historically failed to account for a fundamental component of basic logic - namely the portion of logic that explains how epistemic states evolve in the presence of empirical data. This component of Cox' (1946) calculitic logic is called information theory (Knuth, 2005), and adding information theory our hypothetico-deductive account of science yields straightforward solutions to both of the above problems. This also yields a straightforward method for dealing with Popper's (1963) problem of verisimilitude by facilitating a quantitative approach to measuring process isomorphism. In practice, this involves data assimilation. Finally, information theory allows us to reliably bound measures of epistemic uncertainty, thereby avoiding the problem of Bayesian incoherency under misspecified priors (Grünwald, 2006). I therefore propose solutions to four of the fundamental problems inherent in both hypothetico-deductive and/or Bayesian hypothesis testing. - Neyman (1957) Inductive Behavior as a Basic Concept of Philosophy of Science. - Cox (1946) Probability, Frequency and Reasonable Expectation. - Knuth (2005) Lattice Duality: The Origin of Probability and Entropy. - Grünwald (2006). Bayesian Inconsistency under Misspecification. - Popper (1963) Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge.

  6. Cation dyshomeostasis and cardiomyocyte necrosis: the Fleckenstein hypothesis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Brian J.; Cheema, Yaser; Shahbaz, Atta U.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Weber, Karl T.

    2011-01-01

    An ongoing loss of cardiomyocytes to apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways contributes to the progressive nature of heart failure. The pathophysiological origins of necrotic cell loss relate to the neurohormonal activation that accompanies acute and chronic stressor states and which includes effector hormones of the adrenergic nervous system. Fifty years ago, Albrecht Fleckenstein and coworkers hypothesized the hyperadrenergic state, which accompanies such stressors, causes cardiomyocyte necrosis based on catecholamine-initiated excessive intracellular Ca2+ accumulation (EICA), and mitochondrial Ca2+ overloading in particular, in which the ensuing dysfunction and structural degeneration of these organelles leads to necrosis. In recent years, two downstream factors have been identified which, together with EICA, constitute a signal–transducer–effector pathway: (i) mitochondria-based induction of oxidative stress, in which the rate of reactive oxygen metabolite generation exceeds their rate of detoxification by endogenous antioxidant defences; and (ii) the opening of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability transition pore (mPTP) followed by organellar swelling and degeneration. The pathogenesis of stress-related cardiomyopathy syndromes is likely related to this pathway. Other factors which can account for cytotoxicity in stressor states include: hypokalaemia; ionized hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia with resultant elevations in parathyroid hormone serving as a potent mediator of EICA; and hypozincaemia with hyposelenaemia, which compromise antioxidant defences. Herein, we revisit the Fleckenstein hypothesis of EICA in leading to cardiomyocyte necrosis and the central role played by mitochondria. PMID:21398641

  7. The intense world syndrome - an alternative hypothesis for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Markram

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder with a polygenetic predisposition that seems to be triggered by multiple environmental factors during embryonic and/or early postnatal life. While significant advances have been made in identifying the neuronal structures and cells affected, a unifying theory that could explain the manifold autistic symptoms has still not emerged. Based on recent synaptic, cellular, molecular, microcircuit, and behavioral results obtained with the valproic acid (VPA rat model of autism, we propose here a unifying hypothesis where the core pathology of the autistic brain is hyper-reactivity and hyper-plasticity of local neuronal circuits. Such excessive neuronal processing in circumscribed circuits is suggested to lead to hyper-perception, hyper-attention, and hyper-memory, which may lie at the heart of most autistic symptoms. In this view, the autistic spectrum are disorders of hyper-functionality, which turns debilitating, as opposed to disorders of hypo-functionality, as is often assumed. We discuss how excessive neuronal processing may render the world painfully intense when the neocortex is affected and even aversive when the amygdala is affected, leading to social and environmental withdrawal. Excessive neuronal learning is also hypothesized to rapidly lock down the individual into a small repertoire of secure behavioral routines that are obsessively repeated. We further discuss the key autistic neuropathologies and several of the main theories of autism and re-interpret them in the light of the hypothesized Intense World Syndrome.

  8. The conscious access hypothesis: Explaining the consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of conscious awareness or consciousness is complicated but fascinating. Although this concept has intrigued the mankind since antiquity, exploration of consciousness from scientific perspectives is not very old. Among myriad of theories regarding nature, functions and mechanism of consciousness, off late, cognitive theories have received wider acceptance. One of the most exciting hypotheses in recent times has been the "conscious access hypotheses" based on the "global workspace model of consciousness". It underscores an important property of consciousness, the global access of information in cerebral cortex. Present article reviews the "conscious access hypothesis" in terms of its theoretical underpinnings as well as experimental supports it has received.

  9. Interstellar colonization and the zoo hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    Michael Hart and others have pointed out that current estimates of the number of technological civilizations arisen in the Galaxy since its formation is in fundamental conflict with the expectation that such a civilization could colonize and utilize the entire Galaxy in 10 to 20 million years. This dilemma can be called Hart's paradox. Resolution of the paradox requires that one or more of the following are true: we are the Galaxy's first technical civilization; interstellar travel is immensely impractical or simply impossible; technological civilizations are very short-lived; or we inhabit a wildnerness preserve. The latter is the zoo hypothesis

  10. RANDOM WALK HYPOTHESIS IN FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae-Marius JULA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Random walk hypothesis states that the stock market prices do not follow a predictable trajectory, but are simply random. If you are trying to predict a random set of data, one should test for randomness, because, despite the power and complexity of the used models, the results cannot be trustworthy. There are several methods for testing these hypotheses and the use of computational power provided by the R environment makes the work of the researcher easier and with a cost-effective approach. The increasing power of computing and the continuous development of econometric tests should give the potential investors new tools in selecting commodities and investing in efficient markets.

  11. Confluence Model or Resource Dilution Hypothesis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    have a negative effect on educational attainment most studies cannot distinguish empirically between the CM and the RDH. In this paper, I use the different theoretical predictions in the CM and the RDH on the role of cognitive ability as a partial or complete mediator of the sibship size effect......Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories – for substantively different reasons – predict that sibship size should...

  12. Set theory and the continuum hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of a notorious mathematical problem is the work of the man who discovered the solution. The independence of the continuum hypothesis is the focus of this study by Paul J. Cohen. It presents not only an accessible technical explanation of the author's landmark proof but also a fine introduction to mathematical logic. An emeritus professor of mathematics at Stanford University, Dr. Cohen won two of the most prestigious awards in mathematics: in 1964, he was awarded the American Mathematical Society's Bôcher Prize for analysis; and in 1966, he received the Fields Medal for Logic.

  13. Statistical hypothesis testing with SAS and R

    CERN Document Server

    Taeger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to statistical hypothesis testing with examples in SAS and R When analyzing datasets the following questions often arise:Is there a short hand procedure for a statistical test available in SAS or R?If so, how do I use it?If not, how do I program the test myself? This book answers these questions and provides an overview of the most commonstatistical test problems in a comprehensive way, making it easy to find and performan appropriate statistical test. A general summary of statistical test theory is presented, along with a basicdescription for each test, including the

  14. Why Does Rem Sleep Occur? A Wake-Up Hypothesis 1

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses rapid eye movement (REM) to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, (1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into ...

  15. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copie, M.; Valantic, B.

    1978-01-01

    Digital reactivity meters (DRM) are mostly used as measuring instruments, e.g. for calibration of control rods, and there are only a few cases of their incorporation into the control systems of the reactors. To move in this direction there is more development work needed. First of all, fast algorithms are needed for inverse kinetics equations to relieve the computer for more important tasks of reactor model solving in real time. The next problem, currently under investigation, is the incorporation of the reactor thermal-hydraulic model into the DRM so that it can be used in the power range. Such an extension of DHM allows presentation not only of the instantaneous reactivity of the system, but also the inserted reactivity can be estimated from the temperature reactivity feed-backs. One of the applications of this concept is the anomalous digital reactivity monitor (ADRN) as part of the reactor protection system. As a solution of the first problem, a fast algorithm for solving the inverse kinetics equations has been implemented in the off-line program RODCAL on CDC 1700 computer and tested for its accuracy by performing different control rod calibrations on the reactor TRIGA

  16. Hypothesis-driven physical examination curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sharon; Olson, Andrew; Menk, Jeremiah; Nixon, James

    2017-12-01

    Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres. Alternatives like hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) may promote students' understanding of the contribution of physical examination to diagnostic reasoning. We sought to determine whether first-year medical students can effectively learn to perform a physical examination using an HDPE approach, and then tailor the examination to specific clinical scenarios. Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres CONTEXT: First-year medical students at the University of Minnesota were taught both traditional and HDPE approaches during a required 17-week clinical skills course in their first semester. The end-of-course evaluation assessed HDPE skills: students were assigned one of two cardiopulmonary cases. Each case included two diagnostic hypotheses. During an interaction with a standardised patient, students were asked to select physical examination manoeuvres in order to make a final diagnosis. Items were weighted and selection order was recorded. First-year students with minimal pathophysiology performed well. All students selected the correct diagnosis. Importantly, students varied the order when selecting examination manoeuvres depending on the diagnoses under consideration, demonstrating early clinical decision-making skills. An early introduction to HDPE may reinforce physical examination skills for hypothesis generation and testing, and can foster early clinical decision-making skills. This has important implications for further research in physical examination instruction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  17. A default Bayesian hypothesis test for mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijten, Michèle B; Wetzels, Ruud; Matzke, Dora; Dolan, Conor V; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2015-03-01

    In order to quantify the relationship between multiple variables, researchers often carry out a mediation analysis. In such an analysis, a mediator (e.g., knowledge of a healthy diet) transmits the effect from an independent variable (e.g., classroom instruction on a healthy diet) to a dependent variable (e.g., consumption of fruits and vegetables). Almost all mediation analyses in psychology use frequentist estimation and hypothesis-testing techniques. A recent exception is Yuan and MacKinnon (Psychological Methods, 14, 301-322, 2009), who outlined a Bayesian parameter estimation procedure for mediation analysis. Here we complete the Bayesian alternative to frequentist mediation analysis by specifying a default Bayesian hypothesis test based on the Jeffreys-Zellner-Siow approach. We further extend this default Bayesian test by allowing a comparison to directional or one-sided alternatives, using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques implemented in JAGS. All Bayesian tests are implemented in the R package BayesMed (Nuijten, Wetzels, Matzke, Dolan, & Wagenmakers, 2014).

  18. Gaussian Hypothesis Testing and Quantum Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mark M; Tomamichel, Marco; Lloyd, Seth; Berta, Mario

    2017-09-22

    Quantum hypothesis testing is one of the most basic tasks in quantum information theory and has fundamental links with quantum communication and estimation theory. In this paper, we establish a formula that characterizes the decay rate of the minimal type-II error probability in a quantum hypothesis test of two Gaussian states given a fixed constraint on the type-I error probability. This formula is a direct function of the mean vectors and covariance matrices of the quantum Gaussian states in question. We give an application to quantum illumination, which is the task of determining whether there is a low-reflectivity object embedded in a target region with a bright thermal-noise bath. For the asymmetric-error setting, we find that a quantum illumination transmitter can achieve an error probability exponent stronger than a coherent-state transmitter of the same mean photon number, and furthermore, that it requires far fewer trials to do so. This occurs when the background thermal noise is either low or bright, which means that a quantum advantage is even easier to witness than in the symmetric-error setting because it occurs for a larger range of parameters. Going forward from here, we expect our formula to have applications in settings well beyond those considered in this paper, especially to quantum communication tasks involving quantum Gaussian channels.

  19. Inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Elizabeth J; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A

    2015-02-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Athlete's Heart: Is the Morganroth Hypothesis Obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykowsky, Mark J; Samuel, T Jake; Nelson, Michael D; La Gerche, Andre

    2018-05-01

    In 1975, Morganroth and colleagues reported that the increased left ventricular (LV) mass in highly trained endurance athletes versus nonathletes was primarily due to increased end-diastolic volume while the increased LV mass in resistance trained athletes was solely due to an increased LV wall thickness. Based on the divergent remodelling patterns observed, Morganroth and colleagues hypothesised that the increased "volume" load during endurance exercise may be similar to that which occurs in patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation while the "pressure" load associated with performing a Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) during resistance exercise may mimic the stress imposed on the heart by systemic hypertension or aortic stenosis. Despite widespread acceptance of the four-decade old Morganroth hypothesis in sports cardiology, some investigators have questioned whether such a divergent "athlete's heart" phenotype exists. Given this uncertainty, the purpose of this brief review is to re-evaluate the Morganroth hypothesis regarding: i) the acute effects of resistance exercise performed with a brief VM on LV wall stress, and the patterns of LV remodelling in resistance-trained athletes; ii) the acute effects of endurance exercise on biventricular wall stress, and the time course and pattern of LV and right ventricular (RV) remodelling with endurance training; and iii) the value of comparing "loading" conditions between athletes and patients with cardiac pathology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The Debt Overhang Hypothesis: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Muhammad Imran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the debt overhang hypothesis for Pakistan in the period 1960-2007. The study examines empirically the dynamic behaviour of GDP, debt services, the employed labour force and investment using the time series concepts of unit roots, cointegration, error correlation and causality. Our findings suggest that debt-servicing has a negative impact on the productivity of both labour and capital, and that in turn has adversely affected economic growth. By severely constraining the ability of the country to service debt, this lends support to the debt-overhang hypothesis in Pakistan. The long run relation between debt services and economic growth implies that future increases in output will drain away in form of high debt service payments to lender country as external debt acts like a tax on output. More specifically, foreign creditors will benefit more from the rise in productivity than will domestic producers and labour. This suggests that domestic labour and capital are the ultimate losers from this heavy debt burden.

  2. Roots and Route of the Artification Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Dissanayake

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over four decades, my ideas about the arts in human evolution have themselves evolved, from an original notion of art as a human behaviour of “making special” to a full-fledged hypothesis of artification. A summary of the gradual developmental path (or route of the hypothesis, based on ethological principles and concepts, is given, and an argument presented in which artification is described as an exaptation whose roots lie in adaptive features of ancestral mother–infant interaction that contributed to infant survival and maternal reproductive success. I show how the interaction displays features of a ritualised behavior whose operations (formalization, repetition, exaggeration, and elaboration can be regarded as characteristic elements of human ritual ceremonies as well as of art (including song, dance, performance, literary language, altered surroundings, and other examples of making ordinary sounds, movement, language, environments, objects, and bodies extraordinary. Participation in these behaviours in ritual practices served adaptive ends in early Homo by coordinating brain and body states, and thereby emotionally bonding members of a group in common cause as well as reducing existential anxiety in individuals. A final section situates artification within contemporary philosophical and popular ideas of art, claiming that artifying is not a synonym for or definition of art but foundational to any evolutionary discussion of artistic/aesthetic behaviour.

  3. Hypothesis: does ochratoxin A cause testicular cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary G

    2002-02-01

    Little is known about the etiology of testicular cancer, which is the most common cancer among young men. Epidemiologic data point to a carcinogenic exposure in early life or in utero, but the nature of the exposure is unknown. We hypothesize that the mycotoxin, ochratoxin A, is a cause of testicular cancer. Ochratoxin A is a naturally occurring contaminant of cereals, pigmeat, and other foods and is a known genotoxic carcinogen in animals. The major features of the descriptive epidemiology of testicular cancer (a high incidence in northern Europe, increasing incidence over time, and associations with high socioeconomic status, and with poor semen quality) are all associated with exposure to ochratoxin A. Exposure of animals to ochratoxin A via the diet or via in utero transfer induces adducts in testicular DNA. We hypothesize that consumption of foods contaminated with ochratoxin A during pregnancy and/or childhood induces lesions in testicular DNA and that puberty promotes these lesions to testicular cancer. We tested the ochratoxin A hypothesis using ecologic data on the per-capita consumption of cereals, coffee, and pigmeat, the principal dietary sources of ochratoxin A. Incidence rates for testicular cancer in 20 countries were significantly correlated with the per-capita consumption of coffee and pigmeat (r = 0.49 and 0.54, p = 0.03 and 0.01). The ochratoxin A hypothesis offers a coherent explanation for much of the descriptive epidemiology of testicular cancer and suggests new avenues for analytic research.

  4. Urbanization and the more-individuals hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Claudia; Dinetti, Marco; Licciardello, Cinzia; Licitra, Gaetano; Pautasso, Marco

    2010-03-01

    1. Urbanization is a landscape process affecting biodiversity world-wide. Despite many urban-rural studies of bird assemblages, it is still unclear whether more species-rich communities have more individuals, regardless of the level of urbanization. The more-individuals hypothesis assumes that species-rich communities have larger populations, thus reducing the chance of local extinctions. 2. Using newly collated avian distribution data for 1 km(2) grid cells across Florence, Italy, we show a significantly positive relationship between species richness and assemblage abundance for the whole urban area. This richness-abundance relationship persists for the 1 km(2) grid cells with less than 50% of urbanized territory, as well as for the remaining grid cells, with no significant difference in the slope of the relationship. These results support the more-individuals hypothesis as an explanation of patterns in species richness, also in human modified and fragmented habitats. 3. However, the intercept of the species richness-abundance relationship is significantly lower for highly urbanized grid cells. Our study confirms that urban communities have lower species richness but counters the common notion that assemblages in densely urbanized ecosystems have more individuals. In Florence, highly inhabited areas show fewer species and lower assemblage abundance. 4. Urbanized ecosystems are an ongoing large-scale natural experiment which can be used to test ecological theories empirically.

  5. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.

  6. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available particu- lar social environment also being awarded. If a building can be used by the community after hours, it should be awarded extra points.” School sports facilities or meeting halls in corporate buildings, are some example. Multi-purpose use..., architect and senior researcher for the CSIR’s Built Environment Unit, the integra- tion of sustainability in building design cannot begin soon enough before it is too late. He says: “Unfortunately nothing is in place in South Africa. For a start...

  7. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: A requiem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Nicholas; Scott, Andrew C.; Daulton, Tyrone L.; Podoll, Andrew; Koeberl, Christian; Anderson, R. Scott; Ishman, Scott E.

    2011-06-01

    The Younger Dryas (YD) impact hypothesis is a recent theory that suggests that a cometary or meteoritic body or bodies hit and/or exploded over North America 12,900 years ago, causing the YD climate episode, extinction of Pleistocene megafauna, demise of the Clovis archeological culture, and a range of other effects. Since gaining widespread attention in 2007, substantial research has focused on testing the 12 main signatures presented as evidence of a catastrophic extraterrestrial event 12,900 years ago. Here we present a review of the impact hypothesis, including its evolution and current variants, and of efforts to test and corroborate the hypothesis. The physical evidence interpreted as signatures of an impact event can be separated into two groups. The first group consists of evidence that has been largely rejected by the scientific community and is no longer in widespread discussion, including: particle tracks in archeological chert; magnetic nodules in Pleistocene bones; impact origin of the Carolina Bays; and elevated concentrations of radioactivity, iridium, and fullerenes enriched in 3He. The second group consists of evidence that has been active in recent research and discussions: carbon spheres and elongates, magnetic grains and magnetic spherules, byproducts of catastrophic wildfire, and nanodiamonds. Over time, however, these signatures have also seen contrary evidence rather than support. Recent studies have shown that carbon spheres and elongates do not represent extraterrestrial carbon nor impact-induced megafires, but are indistinguishable from fungal sclerotia and arthropod fecal material that are a small but common component of many terrestrial deposits. Magnetic grains and spherules are heterogeneously distributed in sediments, but reported measurements of unique peaks in concentrations at the YD onset have yet to be reproduced. The magnetic grains are certainly just iron-rich detrital grains, whereas reported YD magnetic spherules are

  8. Approaches to informed consent for hypothesis-testing and hypothesis-generating clinical genomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, Flavia M; Sapp, Julie C; Linn, Amy; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2012-10-10

    Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies create challenges for informed consent of research participants given the enormous scale of the data and the wide range of potential results. We propose that the consent process in these studies be based on whether they use MPS to test a hypothesis or to generate hypotheses. To demonstrate the differences in these approaches to informed consent, we describe the consent processes for two MPS studies. The purpose of our hypothesis-testing study is to elucidate the etiology of rare phenotypes using MPS. The purpose of our hypothesis-generating study is to test the feasibility of using MPS to generate clinical hypotheses, and to approach the return of results as an experimental manipulation. Issues to consider in both designs include: volume and nature of the potential results, primary versus secondary results, return of individual results, duty to warn, length of interaction, target population, and privacy and confidentiality. The categorization of MPS studies as hypothesis-testing versus hypothesis-generating can help to clarify the issue of so-called incidental or secondary results for the consent process, and aid the communication of the research goals to study participants.

  9. Learning-Related Changes in Adolescents' Neural Networks during Hypothesis-Generating and Hypothesis-Understanding Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yongju

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen science high school students participated in this study, which investigated neural-network plasticity associated with hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-understanding in learning. The students were divided into two groups and participated in either hypothesis-generating or hypothesis-understanding type learning programs, which were…

  10. Biodiesel by catalytic reactive distillation powered by metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Dimian, A.C.; Rothenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    The properties and use of biodiesel as a renewable fuel as well as the problems associated with its current production processes are outlined. A novel sustainable esterification process based on catalytic reactive distillation is proposed. The pros and cons of manufacturing biodiesel via fatty acid

  11. Alternatives to the linear risk hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical argument is presented which suggests that in using the linear hypothesis for all values of LET the low dose risk is overestimated for low LET but that it is underestimated for very high LET. The argument is based upon the idea that cell lesions which do not lead to cell death may in fact lead to a malignant cell. Expressions for the Surviving Fraction and the Cancer Risk based on this argument are given. An advantage of this very general approach is that is expresses cell survival and cancer risk entirely in terms of the cell lesions and avoids the rather contentious argument as to how the average number of lesions should be related to the dose. (U.K.)

  12. Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.

  13. Artistic talent in dyslexia--a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-10-01

    The present article hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of development of artistic talents in some children with dyslexia. The article also takes note of the phenomenon of creating in the midst of language disability as observed in the lives of such creative people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein who were most probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesised that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely 'disinhibits' the non-dominant parietal lobe to unmask talents, artistic or otherwise, in some such individuals. The present hypothesis follows the phenomenon of paradoxical functional facilitation described earlier. It has been suggested that children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to overemphasising on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations, in remedial training.

  14. Tissue misrepair hypothesis for radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Sohei

    1991-01-01

    Dose-response curves for chronic leukemia in A-bomb survivors and liver tumors in patients given Thorotrast (colloidal thorium dioxide) show large threshold effects. The existence of these threshold effects can be explained by the following hypothesis. A high dose of radiation causes a persistent wound in a cellrenewable tissue. Disorder of the injured cell society partly frees the component cells from territorial restraints on their proliferation, enabling them to continue development of their cellular functions toward advanced autonomy. This progression might be achieved by continued epigenetic and genetic changes as a result of occasional errors in the otherwise concerted healing action of various endogeneous factors recruited for tissue repair. Carcinogenesis is not simply a single-cell problem but a cell-society problem. Therefore, it is not warranted to estimate risk at low doses by linear extrapolation from cancer data at high doses without knowledge of the mechanism of radiation carcinogenesis. (author) 57 refs

  15. Statistical hypothesis tests of some micrometeorological observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SethuRaman, S.; Tichler, J.

    1977-01-01

    Chi-square goodness-of-fit is used to test the hypothesis that the medium scale of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is normally distributed. Coefficients of skewness and excess are computed from the data. If the data are not normal, these coefficients are used in Edgeworth's asymptotic expansion of Gram-Charlier series to determine an altrnate probability density function. The observed data are then compared with the modified probability densities and the new chi-square values computed.Seventy percent of the data analyzed was either normal or approximatley normal. The coefficient of skewness g 1 has a good correlation with the chi-square values. Events with vertical-barg 1 vertical-bar 1 vertical-bar<0.43 were approximately normal. Intermittency associated with the formation and breaking of internal gravity waves in surface-based inversions over water is thought to be the reason for the non-normality

  16. The hexagon hypothesis: Six disruptive scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtles, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to bring a simple but effective and comprehensive approach to the development, delivery and monitoring of business continuity solutions. To ensure that the arguments and principles apply across the board, the paper sticks to basic underlying concepts rather than sophisticated interpretations. First, the paper explores what exactly people are defending themselves against. Secondly, the paper looks at how defences should be set up. Disruptive events tend to unfold in phases, each of which invites a particular style of protection, ranging from risk management through to business continuity to insurance cover. Their impact upon any business operation will fall into one of six basic scenarios. The hexagon hypothesis suggests that everyone should be prepared to deal with each of these six disruptive scenarios and it provides them with a useful benchmark for business continuity.

  17. Novae, supernovae, and the island universe hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Bergh, S.

    1988-01-01

    Arguments in Curtis's (1917) paper related to the island universe hypothesis and the existence of novae in spiral nebulae are considered. It is noted that the maximum magnitude versus rate-of-decline relation for novae may be the best tool presently available for the calibration of the extragalactic distance scale. Light curve observations of six novae are used to determine a distance of 18.6 + or - 3.5 MPc to the Virgo cluster. Results suggest that Type Ia supernovae cannot easily be used as standard candles, and that Type II supernovae are unsuitable as distance indicators. Factors other than precursor mass are probably responsible for determining the ultimate fate of evolving stars. 83 references

  18. Extra dimensions hypothesis in high energy physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volobuev Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the history of the extra dimensions hypothesis and the physics and phenomenology of models with large extra dimensions with an emphasis on the Randall- Sundrum (RS model with two branes. We argue that the Standard Model extension based on the RS model with two branes is phenomenologically acceptable only if the inter-brane distance is stabilized. Within such an extension of the Standard Model, we study the influence of the infinite Kaluza-Klein (KK towers of the bulk fields on collider processes. In particular, we discuss the modification of the scalar sector of the theory, the Higgs-radion mixing due to the coupling of the Higgs boson to the radion and its KK tower, and the experimental restrictions on the mass of the radion-dominated states.

  19. Multiple model cardinalized probability hypothesis density filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Ramona; Willett, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter propagates the first-moment approximation to the multi-target Bayesian posterior distribution while the Cardinalized PHD (CPHD) filter propagates both the posterior likelihood of (an unlabeled) target state and the posterior probability mass function of the number of targets. Extensions of the PHD filter to the multiple model (MM) framework have been published and were implemented either with a Sequential Monte Carlo or a Gaussian Mixture approach. In this work, we introduce the multiple model version of the more elaborate CPHD filter. We present the derivation of the prediction and update steps of the MMCPHD particularized for the case of two target motion models and proceed to show that in the case of a single model, the new MMCPHD equations reduce to the original CPHD equations.

  20. Interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Mioara CÂMPEANU; Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development and sustainable economy are mostly used concepts. Understanding clearly their meaning allows their use in an appropriate context and, therefore, their boundaries in terms of theoretical and practical approaches on which occasion it can be given their interdependencies. The paper aim is to analyze the interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy.

  1. On the immunostimulatory hypothesis of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bruzzo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a rather generalized belief that the worst possible outcome for the application of immunological therapies against cancer is a null effect on tumor growth. However, a significant body of evidence summarized in the immunostimulatory hypothesis of cancer suggests that, upon certain circumstances, the growth of incipient and established tumors can be accelerated rather than inhibited by the immune response supposedly mounted to limit tumor growth. In order to provide more compelling evidence of this proposition, we have explored the growth behavior characteristics of twelve murine tumors -most of them of spontaneous origin- arisen in the colony of our laboratory, in putatively immunized and control mice. Using classical immunization procedures, 8 out of 12 tumors were actually stimulated in "immunized" mice while the remaining 4 were neither inhibited nor stimulated. Further, even these apparently non-antigenic tumors could reveal some antigenicity if more stringent than classical immunization procedures were used. This possibility was suggested by the results obtained with one of these four apparently non-antigenic tumors: the LB lymphoma. In effect, upon these stringent immunization pretreatments, LB was slightly inhibited or stimulated, depending on the titer of the immune reaction mounted against the tumor, with higher titers rendering inhibition and lower titers rendering tumor stimulation. All the above results are consistent with the immunostimulatory hypothesis that entails the important therapeutic implications -contrary to the orthodoxy- that, anti-tumor vaccines may run a real risk of doing harm if the vaccine-induced immunity is too weak to move the reaction into the inhibitory part of the immune response curve and that, a slight and prolonged immunodepression -rather than an immunostimulation- might interfere with the progression of some tumors and thus be an aid to cytotoxic therapies.

  2. The Stress Acceleration Hypothesis of Nightmares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Nielsen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse childhood experiences can deleteriously affect future physical and mental health, increasing risk for many illnesses, including psychiatric problems, sleep disorders, and, according to the present hypothesis, idiopathic nightmares. Much like post-traumatic nightmares, which are triggered by trauma and lead to recurrent emotional dreaming about the trauma, idiopathic nightmares are hypothesized to originate in early adverse experiences that lead in later life to the expression of early memories and emotions in dream content. Accordingly, the objectives of this paper are to (1 review existing literature on sleep, dreaming and nightmares in relation to early adverse experiences, drawing upon both empirical studies of dreaming and nightmares and books and chapters by recognized nightmare experts and (2 propose a new approach to explaining nightmares that is based upon the Stress Acceleration Hypothesis of mental illness. The latter stipulates that susceptibility to mental illness is increased by adversity occurring during a developmentally sensitive window for emotional maturation—the infantile amnesia period—that ends around age 3½. Early adversity accelerates the neural and behavioral maturation of emotional systems governing the expression, learning, and extinction of fear memories and may afford short-term adaptive value. But it also engenders long-term dysfunctional consequences including an increased risk for nightmares. Two mechanisms are proposed: (1 disruption of infantile amnesia allows normally forgotten early childhood memories to influence later emotions, cognitions and behavior, including the common expression of threats in nightmares; (2 alterations of normal emotion regulation processes of both waking and sleep lead to increased fear sensitivity and less effective fear extinction. These changes influence an affect network previously hypothesized to regulate fear extinction during REM sleep, disruption of which leads to

  3. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  4. Reactivity of nitriles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, Yu.N.

    1987-01-01

    Reactivity of coordination nitriles in transition metal (Ru, Mo, W, Zr, Hf) complexes, namely: transformation of nitriles of the first coordination sphere into N-acyl-substituted amides, amidines, nitrile interaction; with water, alkalines, alcoholes, hydrogen, azide and cyanide ions is considered. Introduction of acetonitrile molecule to uranium (4)-carbon double bond is discussed

  5. Clojure reactive programming

    CERN Document Server

    Borges, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Clojure developer who is interested in using Reactive Programming to build asynchronous and concurrent applications, this book is for you. Knowledge of Clojure and Leiningen is required. Basic understanding of ClojureScript will be helpful for the web chapters, although it is not strictly necessary.

  6. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  7. Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

  8. Reactive power compensating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  9. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  10. The iodine reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies) dealing with: the 129 I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  11. Upscaling of reactive flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, K.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with the upscaling of reactive flows in complex geometry. The reactions which may include deposition or dissolution take place at a part of the boundary and depending on the size of the reaction domain, the changes in the pore structure that are due to the deposition process may or

  12. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  13. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  14. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  15. Relationship between behavioural reactivity and feed efficiency in housed sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Williams, Andrew Richard; Maloney, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we test the hypothesis that selecting sheep for a low behavioural reactivity to stressful situations will improve their metabolic efficiency, and thereby feed efficiency, during a controlled trial in an animal house. Twenty-four Merino wethers were used, 12 each from lines selected...... for high (HBR) and low (LBR) behavioural reactivity to stressful stimuli (human presence and social isolation). The sheep were habituated to the experimental procedures for 10 days, followed by 45 days during which voluntary feed intake was measured so that total daily energy intake was quantified....... It is possible that LBR sheep may be more efficient than HBR sheep in more stressful situations....

  16. The TRIPS (Toll-like receptors in immuno-inflammatory pathogenesis) Hypothesis: a novel postulate to understand schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Debnath, Monojit

    2013-07-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that immune activation and/or immuno-inflammatory reactions during neurodevelopment apparently contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of schizophrenia. One of the important environmental factors that is known to trigger immune activation/inflammatory responses during early pregnancy is prenatal infection. Recent understanding from animal studies suggests that prenatal infection induced maternal immune activation (MIA)/inflammation in congruence with oxidative/nitrosative stress can lead to neurodevelopmental damage and behavioral abnormalities in the offspring. Although the underlying precise mechanistic processes of MIA/inflammation are yet to be completely elucidated, it is being increasingly recognized that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that form the first line of defense against invading microorganisms could participate in the prenatal infection induced immune insults. Interestingly, some of the TLRs, especially TLR3 and TLR4 that modulate neurodevelopment, neuronal survival and neuronal plasticity by regulating the neuro-immune cross-talk in the developing and adult brain could also be affected by prenatal infection. Importantly, sustained activation of TLR3/TLR4 due to environmental factors including infection and stress has been found to generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) as well as pro-inflammatory mediators during embryogenesis, which result into neuronal damage by necrosis/apoptosis. In recent times, ROS/RNS and immuno-inflammatory mediators are being increasingly linked to progressive brain changes in schizophrenia. Although a significant role of TLR3/TLR4 in neurodegeneration is gaining certainty, their importance in establishing a causal link between prenatal infection and immuno-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) responses and influence on adult presentation of schizophrenia is yet to be ascertained. We review here the current knowledge generated from

  17. The Matter-Gravity Entanglement Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2018-03-01

    I outline some of my work and results (some dating back to 1998, some more recent) on my matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis, according to which the entropy of a closed quantum gravitational system is equal to the system's matter-gravity entanglement entropy. The main arguments presented are: (1) that this hypothesis is capable of resolving what I call the second-law puzzle, i.e. the puzzle as to how the entropy increase of a closed system can be reconciled with the asssumption of unitary time-evolution; (2) that the black hole information loss puzzle may be regarded as a special case of this second law puzzle and that therefore the same resolution applies to it; (3) that the black hole thermal atmosphere puzzle (which I recall) can be resolved by adopting a radically different-from-usual description of quantum black hole equilibrium states, according to which they are total pure states, entangled between matter and gravity in such a way that the partial states of matter and gravity are each approximately thermal equilibrium states (at the Hawking temperature); (4) that the Susskind-Horowitz-Polchinski string-theoretic understanding of black hole entropy as the logarithm of the degeneracy of a long string (which is the weak string coupling limit of a black hole) cannot be quite correct but should be replaced by a modified understanding according to which it is the entanglement entropy between a long string and its stringy atmosphere, when in a total pure equilibrium state in a suitable box, which (in line with (3)) goes over, at strong-coupling, to a black hole in equilibrium with its thermal atmosphere. The modified understanding in (4) is based on a general result, which I also describe, which concerns the likely state of a quantum system when it is weakly coupled to an energy-bath and the total state is a random pure state with a given energy. This result generalizes Goldstein et al.'s `canonical typicality' result to systems which are not necessarily small.

  18. The Matter-Gravity Entanglement Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2018-05-01

    I outline some of my work and results (some dating back to 1998, some more recent) on my matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis, according to which the entropy of a closed quantum gravitational system is equal to the system's matter-gravity entanglement entropy. The main arguments presented are: (1) that this hypothesis is capable of resolving what I call the second-law puzzle, i.e. the puzzle as to how the entropy increase of a closed system can be reconciled with the asssumption of unitary time-evolution; (2) that the black hole information loss puzzle may be regarded as a special case of this second law puzzle and that therefore the same resolution applies to it; (3) that the black hole thermal atmosphere puzzle (which I recall) can be resolved by adopting a radically different-from-usual description of quantum black hole equilibrium states, according to which they are total pure states, entangled between matter and gravity in such a way that the partial states of matter and gravity are each approximately thermal equilibrium states (at the Hawking temperature); (4) that the Susskind-Horowitz-Polchinski string-theoretic understanding of black hole entropy as the logarithm of the degeneracy of a long string (which is the weak string coupling limit of a black hole) cannot be quite correct but should be replaced by a modified understanding according to which it is the entanglement entropy between a long string and its stringy atmosphere, when in a total pure equilibrium state in a suitable box, which (in line with (3)) goes over, at strong-coupling, to a black hole in equilibrium with its thermal atmosphere. The modified understanding in (4) is based on a general result, which I also describe, which concerns the likely state of a quantum system when it is weakly coupled to an energy-bath and the total state is a random pure state with a given energy. This result generalizes Goldstein et al.'s `canonical typicality' result to systems which are not necessarily small.

  19. Immune reactivities against gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. The study was a randomized, controlled trial. 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with

  20. Morvan's syndrome and the sustained absence of all sleep rhythms for months or years: An hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzet, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Despite the predation costs, sleep is ubiquitous in the animal realm. Humans spend a third of their life sleeping, and the quality of sleep has been related to co-morbidity, Alzheimer disease, etc. Excessive wakefulness induces rapid changes in cognitive performances, and it is claimed that one could die of sleep deprivation as quickly as by absence of water. In this context, the fact that a few people are able to go without sleep for months, even years, without displaying any cognitive troubles requires explanations. Theories ascribing sleep to memory consolidation are unable to explain such observations. It is not the case of the theory of sleep as the hebbian reinforcement of the inhibitory synapses (ToS-HRIS). Hebbian learning (Long Term Depression - LTD) guarantees that an efficient inhibitory synapse will lose its efficiency just because it is efficient at avoiding the activation of the post-synaptic neuron. This erosion of the inhibition is replenished by hebbian learning (Long Term Potentiation - LTP) when pre and post-synaptic neurons are active together - which is exactly what happens with the travelling depolarization waves of the slow-wave sleep (SWS). The best documented cases of months-long insomnia are reports of patients with Morvan's syndrome. This syndrome has an autoimmune cause that impedes - among many things - the potassium channels of the post-synaptic neurons, increasing LTP and decreasing LTD. We hypothesize that the absence of inhibitory efficiency erosion during wakefulness (thanks to a decrease of inhibitory LTD) is the cause for an absence of slow-wave sleep (SWS), which results also in the absence of REM sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypothesis test for synchronization: twin surrogates revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, M Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Kurths, Jürgen; Mergenthaler, Konstantin; Engbert, Ralf

    2009-03-01

    The method of twin surrogates has been introduced to test for phase synchronization of complex systems in the case of passive experiments. In this paper we derive new analytical expressions for the number of twins depending on the size of the neighborhood, as well as on the length of the trajectory. This allows us to determine the optimal parameters for the generation of twin surrogates. Furthermore, we determine the quality of the twin surrogates with respect to several linear and nonlinear statistics depending on the parameters of the method. In the second part of the paper we perform a hypothesis test for phase synchronization in the case of experimental data from fixational eye movements. These miniature eye movements have been shown to play a central role in neural information processing underlying the perception of static visual scenes. The high number of data sets (21 subjects and 30 trials per person) allows us to compare the generated twin surrogates with the "natural" surrogates that correspond to the different trials. We show that the generated twin surrogates reproduce very well all linear and nonlinear characteristics of the underlying experimental system. The synchronization analysis of fixational eye movements by means of twin surrogates reveals that the synchronization between the left and right eye is significant, indicating that either the centers in the brain stem generating fixational eye movements are closely linked, or, alternatively that there is only one center controlling both eyes.

  2. Marginal contrasts and the Contrastivist Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Currie Hall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Contrastivist Hypothesis (CH; Hall 2007; Dresher 2009 holds that the only features that can be phonologically active in any language are those that serve to distinguish phonemes, which presupposes that phonemic status is categorical. Many researchers, however, demonstrate the existence of gradient relations. For instance, Hall (2009 quantifies these using the information-theoretic measure of entropy (unpredictability of distribution and shows that a pair of sounds may have an entropy between 0 (totally predictable and 1 (totally unpredictable. We argue that the existence of such intermediate degrees of contrastiveness does not make the CH untenable, but rather offers insight into contrastive hierarchies. The existence of a continuum does not preclude categorical distinctions: a categorical line can be drawn between zero entropy (entirely predictable, and thus by the CH phonologically inactive and non-zero entropy (at least partially contrastive, and thus potentially phonologically active. But this does not mean that intermediate degrees of surface contrastiveness are entirely irrelevant to the CH; rather, we argue, they can shed light on how deeply ingrained a phonemic distinction is in the phonological system. As an example, we provide a case study from Pulaar [ATR] harmony, which has previously been claimed to be problematic for the CH.

  3. The Stem Cell Hypothesis of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is probably no single way to age. Indeed, so far there is no single accepted explanation or mechanisms of aging (although more than 300 theories have been proposed. There is an overall decline in tissue regenerative potential with age, and the question arises as to whether this is due to the intrinsic aging of stem cells or rather to the impairment of stem cell function in the aged tissue environment. CONTENT: Recent data suggest that we age, in part, because our self-renewing stem cells grow old as a result of heritable intrinsic events, such as DNA damage, as well as extrinsic forces, such as changes in their supporting niches. Mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer, such as senescence and apoptosis, which rely on telomere shortening and the activities of p53 and p16INK4a may also induce an unwanted consequence: a decline in the replicative function of certain stem cells types with advancing age. This decrease regenerative capacity appears to pointing to the stem cell hypothesis of aging. SUMMARY: Recent evidence suggested that we grow old partly because of our stem cells grow old as a result of mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer over a lifetime. We believe that a further, more precise mechanistic understanding of this process will be required before this knowledge can be translated into human anti-aging therapies. KEYWORDS: stem cells, senescence, telomere, DNA damage, epigenetic, aging.

  4. Confabulation: Developing the 'emotion dysregulation' hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Oliver H; Salas, Christian E

    2017-02-01

    Confabulations offer unique opportunities for establishing the neurobiological basis of delusional thinking. As regards causal factors, a review of the confabulation literature suggests that neither amnesia nor executive impairment can be the sole (or perhaps even the primary) cause of all delusional beliefs - though they may act in concert with other factors. A key perspective in the modern literature is that many delusions have an emotionally positive or 'wishful' element, that may serve to modulate or manage emotional experience. Some authors have referred to this perspective as the 'emotion dysregulation' hypothesis. In this article we review the theoretical underpinnings of this approach, and develop the idea by suggesting that the positive aspects of confabulatory states may have a role in perpetuating the imbalance between cognitive control and emotion. We draw on existing evidence from fields outside neuropsychology, to argue for three main causal factors: that positive emotions are related to more global or schematic forms of cognitive processing; that positive emotions influence the accuracy of memory recollection; and that positive emotions make people more susceptible to false memories. These findings suggest that the emotions that we want to feel (or do not want to feel) can influence the way we reconstruct past experiences and generate a sense of self - a proposition that bears on a unified theory of delusional belief states. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolutionary hypothesis for Chiari type I malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yvens Barbosa; Ramina, Ricardo; Campos-Herrera, Cynthia Resende; Borges, Guilherme

    2013-10-01

    Chiari I malformation (CM-I) is classically defined as a cerebellar tonsillar herniation (≥5 mm) through the foramen magnum. A decreased posterior fossa volume, mainly due to basioccipital hypoplasia and sometimes platybasia, leads to posterior fossa overcrowding and consequently cerebellar herniation. Regardless of radiological findings, embryological genetic hypothesis or any other postulations, the real cause behind this malformation is yet not well-elucidated and remains largely unknown. The aim of this paper is to approach CM-I under a broader and new perspective, conjoining anthropology, genetics and neurosurgery, with special focus on the substantial changes that have occurred in the posterior cranial base through human evolution. Important evolutionary allometric changes occurred during brain expansion and genetics studies of human evolution demonstrated an unexpected high rate of gene flow interchange and possibly interbreeding during this process. Based upon this review we hypothesize that CM-I may be the result of an evolutionary anthropological imprint, caused by evolving species populations that eventually met each other and mingled in the last 1.7 million years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis. A Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2004-01-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis postulates an inverted-U-shaped relationship between different pollutants and per capita income, i.e., environmental pressure increases up to a certain level as income goes up; after that, it decreases. An EKC actually reveals how a technically specified measurement of environmental quality changes as the fortunes of a country change. A sizeable literature on EKC has grown in recent period. The common point of all the studies is the assertion that the environmental quality deteriorates at the early stages of economic development/growth and subsequently improves at the later stages. In other words, environmental pressure increases faster than income at early stages of development and slows down relative to GDP growth at higher income levels. This paper reviews some theoretical developments and empirical studies dealing with EKC phenomenon. Possible explanations for this EKC are seen in (1) the progress of economic development, from clean agrarian economy to polluting industrial economy to clean service economy; (2) tendency of people with higher income having higher preference for environmental quality, etc. Evidence of the existence of the EKC has been questioned from several corners. Only some air quality indicators, especially local pollutants, show the evidence of an EKC. However, an EKC is empirically observed, till there is no agreement in the literature on the income level at which environmental degradation starts declining. This paper provides an overview of the EKC literature, background history, conceptual insights, policy and the conceptual and methodological critique

  7. DAMPs, ageing, and cancer: The 'DAMP Hypothesis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Xie, Yangchun; Sun, Xiaofang; Zeh, Herbert J; Kang, Rui; Lotze, Michael T; Tang, Daolin

    2015-11-01

    Ageing is a complex and multifactorial process characterized by the accumulation of many forms of damage at the molecular, cellular, and tissue level with advancing age. Ageing increases the risk of the onset of chronic inflammation-associated diseases such as cancer, diabetes, stroke, and neurodegenerative disease. In particular, ageing and cancer share some common origins and hallmarks such as genomic instability, epigenetic alteration, aberrant telomeres, inflammation and immune injury, reprogrammed metabolism, and degradation system impairment (including within the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagic machinery). Recent advances indicate that damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) such as high mobility group box 1, histones, S100, and heat shock proteins play location-dependent roles inside and outside the cell. These provide interaction platforms at molecular levels linked to common hallmarks of ageing and cancer. They can act as inducers, sensors, and mediators of stress through individual plasma membrane receptors, intracellular recognition receptors (e.g., advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptors, AIM2-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, and NOD1-like receptors, and toll-like receptors), or following endocytic uptake. Thus, the DAMP Hypothesis is novel and complements other theories that explain the features of ageing. DAMPs represent ideal biomarkers of ageing and provide an attractive target for interventions in ageing and age-associated diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identity of Particles and Continuum Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2001-04-01

    Why all electrons are the same? Unlike other objects, particles and atoms (same isotopes) are forbidden to have individuality or personal history (or reveal their hidden variables, even if they do have them). Or at least, what we commonly call physics so far was unable to disprove particle's sameness (Berezin and Nakhmanson, Physics Essays, 1990). Consider two opposing hypotheses: (A) particles are indeed absolutely same, or (B) they do have individuality, but it is beyond our capacity to demonstrate. This dilemma sounds akin to undecidability of Continuum Hypothesis of existence (or not) of intermediate cardinalities between integers and reals (P.Cohen). Both yes and no of it are true. Thus, (alleged) sameness of electrons and atoms may be a physical translation (embodiment) of this fundamental Goedelian undecidability. Experiments unlikely to help: even if we find that all electrons are same within 30 decimal digits, could their masses (or charges) still differ in100-th digit? Within (B) personalized informationally rich (infinitely rich?) digital tails (starting at, say, 100-th decimal) may carry individual record of each particle history. Within (A) parameters (m, q) are indeed exactly same in all digits and their sameness is based on some inherent (meta)physical principle akin to Platonism or Eddington-type numerology.

  9. Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis. A Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinda, Soumyananda [Economic Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203, B.T. Road, Kolkata-108 (India)

    2004-08-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis postulates an inverted-U-shaped relationship between different pollutants and per capita income, i.e., environmental pressure increases up to a certain level as income goes up; after that, it decreases. An EKC actually reveals how a technically specified measurement of environmental quality changes as the fortunes of a country change. A sizeable literature on EKC has grown in recent period. The common point of all the studies is the assertion that the environmental quality deteriorates at the early stages of economic development/growth and subsequently improves at the later stages. In other words, environmental pressure increases faster than income at early stages of development and slows down relative to GDP growth at higher income levels. This paper reviews some theoretical developments and empirical studies dealing with EKC phenomenon. Possible explanations for this EKC are seen in (1) the progress of economic development, from clean agrarian economy to polluting industrial economy to clean service economy; (2) tendency of people with higher income having higher preference for environmental quality, etc. Evidence of the existence of the EKC has been questioned from several corners. Only some air quality indicators, especially local pollutants, show the evidence of an EKC. However, an EKC is empirically observed, till there is no agreement in the literature on the income level at which environmental degradation starts declining. This paper provides an overview of the EKC literature, background history, conceptual insights, policy and the conceptual and methodological critique.

  10. What makes ecological systems reactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin E

    2010-06-01

    Although perturbations from a stable equilibrium must ultimately vanish, they can grow initially, and the maximum initial growth rate is called reactivity. Reactivity thus identifies systems that may undergo transient population surges or drops in response to perturbations; however, we lack biological and mathematical intuition about what makes a system reactive. This paper presents upper and lower bounds on reactivity for an arbitrary linearized model, explores their strictness, and discusses their biological implications. I find that less stable systems (i.e. systems with long transients) have a smaller possible range of reactivities for which no perturbations grow. Systems with more species have a higher capacity to be reactive, assuming species interactions do not weaken too rapidly as the number of species increases. Finally, I find that in discrete time, reactivity is determined largely by mean interaction strength and neither discrete nor continuous time reactivity are sensitive to food web topology. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bearing for the reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Ecopetrol undertook an aggressive plan to reactivate the activities of seismic that allows fulfilling the goals proposed for this year (2003). Although the production registered a descent of 9%, the financial results throw utilities for $1.1 trillion pesos to the closing of September and contributions in bonuses for $1.2 trillions. The author also refers to the general balance, to the finances, raw production, taxes and transfers

  12. A NONPARAMETRIC HYPOTHESIS TEST VIA THE BOOTSTRAP RESAMPLING

    OpenAIRE

    Temel, Tugrul T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper adapts an already existing nonparametric hypothesis test to the bootstrap framework. The test utilizes the nonparametric kernel regression method to estimate a measure of distance between the models stated under the null hypothesis. The bootstraped version of the test allows to approximate errors involved in the asymptotic hypothesis test. The paper also develops a Mathematica Code for the test algorithm.

  13. Structural network heterogeneities and network dynamics: a possible dynamical mechanism for hippocampal memory reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Piotr; Poe, Gina; Zochowski, Michal

    2007-03-01

    The hippocampus has the capacity for reactivating recently acquired memories and it is hypothesized that one of the functions of sleep reactivation is the facilitation of consolidation of novel memory traces. The dynamic and network processes underlying such a reactivation remain, however, unknown. We show that such a reactivation characterized by local, self-sustained activity of a network region may be an inherent property of the recurrent excitatory-inhibitory network with a heterogeneous structure. The entry into the reactivation phase is mediated through a physiologically feasible regulation of global excitability and external input sources, while the reactivated component of the network is formed through induced network heterogeneities during learning. We show that structural changes needed for robust reactivation of a given network region are well within known physiological parameters.

  14. Unusual Reactivity of the Martian Soil: Oxygen Release Upon Humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent lab results show that oxygen evolves from superoxide-coated mineral grains upon exposure to water vapor. This observation is additional support of the hypothesis that UV-generated O2 is responsible for the reactivity of the martian soil. Discussion of current NASA research opportunities, status of various programs within the Solar System Exploration Division, and employment opportunities within NASA Headquarters to support these programs. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. [Psychodynamic hypothesis about suicidality in elderly men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Reinhard

    2010-08-01

    Old men are overrepresented in the whole of all suicides. In contrast, only very few elderly men find their way to specialised treatment facilities. Elderly accept psychotherapy more rarely than younger persons. Therefore presentations on the psychodynamics of suicidality in old men are rare and mostly casuistical. By means of a stepwise reconstructable qualitative case comparison of five randomly chosen elderly suicidal men with ideal types of suicidal (younger) men concerning biography, suicidal symptoms and transference, psychodynamic hypothesis of suicidality in elderly men are developed. All patients came into psychotherapy in a specialised academic out-patient clinic for psychodynamic treatment of acute and chronic suicidality. The five elderly suicidal men predominantly were living in long-term, conflictuous sexual relationships and also had ambivalent relationships to their children. Suicidality in old age refers to lifelong existing intrapsychic conflicts, concerning (male) identity, self-esteem and a core conflict between fusion and separation wishes. The body gets a central role in suicidal experiences, being a defensive instance modified by age and/or physical illness, which brings up to consciousness aggressive and envious impulses, but also feelings of emptiness and insecurity, which have to be warded off again by projection into the body. In transference relationships there are on the one hand the regular transference, on the other hand an age specific turned around transference, with their counter transference reactions. The chosen methodological approach serves the systematic finding of hypotheses with a higher degree in evidence than hypotheses generated from single case studies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.

  16. Atopic dermatitis and the hygiene hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Carsten; Yeo, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    We published a systematic review on atopic dermatitis (AD) and the hygiene hypothesis in 2005. Since then, the body of literature has grown significantly. We therefore repeated our systematic review to examine the evidence from population-based studies for an association between AD risk and specific infections, childhood immunizations, the use of antibiotics and environmental exposures that lead to a change in microbial burden. Medline was searched from 1966 until June 2010 to identify relevant studies. We found an additional 49 papers suitable for inclusion. There is evidence to support an inverse relationship between AD and endotoxin, early day care, farm animal and dog exposure in early life. Cat exposure in the presence of skin barrier impairment is positively associated with AD. Helminth infection at least partially protects against AD. This is not the case for viral and bacterial infections, but consumption of unpasteurized farm milk seems protective. Routine childhood vaccinations have no effect on AD risk. The positive association between viral infections and AD found in some studies appears confounded by antibiotic prescription, which has been consistently associated with an increase in AD risk. There is convincing evidence for an inverse relationship between helminth infections and AD but no other pathogens. The protective effect seen with early day care, endotoxin, unpasteurized farm milk and animal exposure is likely to be due to a general increase in exposure to non-pathogenic microbes. This would also explain the risk increase associated with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Future studies should assess skin barrier gene mutation carriage and phenotypic skin barrier impairment, as gene-environment interactions are likely to impact on AD risk. Copyright © 041_ S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Energy Threshold Hypothesis for Household Consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Samira; Castro-Sitiriche, Marcel; Amador, Isamar

    2017-01-01

    A strong positive relationship among quality of life and electricity consumption at impoverished countries is found in many studies. However, previous work has presented that the positive relationship does not hold beyond certain electricity consumption threshold. Consequently, there is a need of exploring the possibility for communities to live with sustainable level of energy consumption without sacrificing their quality of life. The Gallup-Healthways Report measures global citizen’s wellbeing. This paper provides a new outlook using these elements to explore the relationships among actual percentage of population thriving in most countries and their energy consumption. A measurement of efficiency is computed to determine an adjusted relative social value of energy considering the variability in the happy life years as a function of electric power consumption. Adjustment is performed so single components don’t dominate in the measurement. It is interesting to note that the countries with the highest relative social value of energy are in the top 10 countries of the Gallup report.

  18. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  19. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Pro Reactive Extensions and LINQ is a deep dive into the next important technology for .NET developers: Reactive Extensions. This in-depth tutorial goes beyond what is available anywhere else to teach how to write WPF, Silverlight, and Windows Phone applications using the Reactive Extensions (Rx) to handle events and asynchronous method calls. Reactive programming allows you to turn those aspects of your code that are currently imperative into something much more event-driven and flexible. For this reason, it's sometimes referred to as LINQ for Events. Reactive programming hinges on the concep

  20. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  1. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...

  2. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  3. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  4. Reactivity costs in MARIA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkowska, Zuzanna E.; Pytel, Krzysztof M.; Frydrysiak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The methodology for calculating consumed fuel cost of excess reactivity is proposed. • Correlation between time integral of the core excess reactivity and released energy. • Reactivity price gives number of fuel elements required for given excess reactivity. - Abstract: For the reactor operation at high power level and carrying out experiments and irradiations the major cost of reactor operation is the expense of nuclear fuel. In this paper the methodology for calculating consumed fuel cost-relatedness of excess reactivity is proposed. Reactivity costs have been determined on the basis of operating data. A number of examples of calculating the reactivity costs for processes such as: strong absorbing material irradiation, molybdenium-99 production, beryllium matrix poisoning and increased moderator temperature illustrates proposed method.

  5. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J A Craddock

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau, and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1 used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2 performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3 used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of

  6. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A; Chopra, Deepak; Casey, Noel; Goldstein, Lee E; Hameroff, Stuart R; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ), intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau), and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques) not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1) used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2) performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3) used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of polymerized

  7. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Nakata, H.; Yorihaz, H.

    1990-04-01

    The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author) [pt

  8. Reactive documentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnlein, Thomas R.; Kramb, Victoria

    2018-04-01

    Proper formal documentation of computer acquired NDE experimental data generated during research is critical to the longevity and usefulness of the data. Without documentation describing how and why the data was acquired, NDE research teams lose capability such as their ability to generate new information from previously collected data or provide adequate information so that their work can be replicated by others seeking to validate their research. Despite the critical nature of this issue, NDE data is still being generated in research labs without appropriate documentation. By generating documentation in series with data, equal priority is given to both activities during the research process. One way to achieve this is to use a reactive documentation system (RDS). RDS prompts an operator to document the data as it is generated rather than relying on the operator to decide when and what to document. This paper discusses how such a system can be implemented in a dynamic environment made up of in-house and third party NDE data acquisition systems without creating additional burden on the operator. The reactive documentation approach presented here is agnostic enough that the principles can be applied to any operator controlled, computer based, data acquisition system.

  9. Hauntings and poltergeist-like episodes as a confluence of conventional phenomena: a general hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houran, J; Lange, R

    1996-12-01

    Hauntings and poltergeist-like episodes are argued to be products of contagious reactions to ambiguous environmental or cognitive events. In particular, evidence suggests that the subjective and objective effects reported by percipients are the function of independent, nonparanoraml etiologies whose constitutions have been previously established and described. According to this multivariate model, the labeling of ambiguous events as "abnormal" or "paranormal" initiates the reactive process which is subsequently sustained by perceptual contagion, i.e., flurries of paranormal observations due self-reinforcing attentional processes.

  10. Test of the hypothesis; a lymphoma stem cells exist which is capable of self-renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Malene Krag

      Test of the hypothesis; a lymphoma stem cell exist which is capable of self-renewal   Malene Krag Pedersen, Karen Dybkaer, Hans E. Johnsen   The Research Laboratory, Department of Haematology, Aalborg Hospital, Århus University   Failure of current therapeutics in the treatment of diffuse large B...... and sustaining cells(1-3). My project is based on studies of stem and early progenitor cells in lymphoid cell lines from patients with advanced DLBCL. The cell lines are world wide recognised and generously provided by Dr. Hans Messner and colleagues.   Hypothesis and aims: A lymphoma stem and progenitor cell...

  11. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-Sustaining Thorium Boiling Water Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Greenspan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A thorium-fueled water-cooled reactor core design approach that features a radially uniform composition of fuel rods in stationary fuel assembly and is fuel-self-sustaining is described. This core design concept is similar to the Reduced moderation Boiling Water Reactor (RBWR proposed by Hitachi to fit within an ABWR pressure vessel, with the following exceptions: use of thorium instead of depleted uranium for the fertile fuel; elimination of the internal blanket; and elimination of absorbers from the axial reflectors, while increasing the length of the fissile zone. The preliminary analysis indicates that it is feasible to design such cores to be fuel-self-sustaining and to have a comfortably low peak linear heat generation rate when operating at the nominal ABWR power level of nearly 4000 MWth. However, the void reactivity feedback tends to be too negative, making it difficult to have sufficient shutdown reactivity margin at cold zero power condition. An addition of a small amount of plutonium from LWR used nuclear fuel was found effective in reducing the magnitude of the negative void reactivity effect and enables attaining adequate shutdown reactivity margin; it also flattens the axial power distribution. The resulting design concept offers an efficient incineration of the LWR generated plutonium in addition to effective utilization of thorium. Additional R&D is required in order to arrive at a reliable practical and safe design.

  13. Technology and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Boersema, J.J.; Tellegen, E.; Cremers, A.

    2011-01-01

    In ten essays, this book addresses a broad range of issues related to the interplay of sustainability and technology. How do population growth and technology relate to sustainable development? Can globalization be reconciled with sustainable development? Is sustainability a subjective or an

  14. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  15. Reactive Power from Distributed Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Rizy, Tom; Li, Fangxing; Fall, Ndeye

    2006-12-15

    Distributed energy is an attractive option for solving reactive power and distribution system voltage problems because of its proximity to load. But the cost of retrofitting DE devices to absorb or produce reactive power needs to be reduced. There also needs to be a market mechanism in place for ISOs, RTOs, and transmission operators to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where DE usually resides. (author)

  16. Reactive Power from Distributed Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Rizy, Tom; Li, Fangxing; Fall, Ndeye

    2006-01-01

    Distributed energy is an attractive option for solving reactive power and distribution system voltage problems because of its proximity to load. But the cost of retrofitting DE devices to absorb or produce reactive power needs to be reduced. There also needs to be a market mechanism in place for ISOs, RTOs, and transmission operators to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where DE usually resides. (author)

  17. Reactive programming in eventsourcing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kučinskas, Žilvinas

    2017-01-01

    Eventsourcing describes current state as series of events that occurred in a system. Events hold all information that is needed to recreate current state. This method allows to achieve high volume of transactions, and enables efficient replication. Whereas reactive programming lets implement reactive systems in declarative style, decomposing logic into smaller, easier to understand components. Thesis aims to create reactive programming program interface, incorporating both principles. Applyin...

  18. Reactive Programming in Standard ML

    OpenAIRE

    Pucella, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Reactive systems are systems that maintain an ongoing interaction with their environment, activated by receiving input events from the environment and producing output events in response. Modern programming languages designed to program such systems use a paradigm based on the notions of instants and activations. We describe a library for Standard ML that provides basic primitives for programming reactive systems. The library is a low-level system upon which more sophisticated reactive behavi...

  19. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  20. Reativação do perímetro irrigado de Gravatá: uma abordagem otimizante sobre agricultura irrigada e sustentabilidade hídrica Reactivation of the irrigated perimeter of Gravatá: an optimization approach to irrigated agriculture and water sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero A. G. Lima

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se analisa a possibilidade de reativação do Perímetro Irrigado de Gravatá, com uma área potencial de 934 ha, localizado na bacia do Rio Piancó, no sudoeste do Estado da Paraíba. Com tal objetivo utilizaram-se o modelo de otimização ORNAP, para seleção, alocação de área e demandas hídricas mensais das culturas e o modelo de simulação MODSIM P32 para verificação da sustentabilidade hídrica dos reservatórios Canoas e Saco de Nova Olinda, responsáveis pelo suprimento de água para o perímetro; depois se avaliou o comportamento hídrico do sistema, através de análises, para diversos cenários climáticos e de volumes iniciais nos reservatórios considerando-se um horizonte de planejamento de dois anos. O estudo mostrou que, com as mudanças propostas no plano de cultivo e no sistema de irrigação e se utilizando de modelo de alocação otimizada de água através de um plano de operação dos reservatórios, é possível, mesmo em condições climáticas e de volumes iniciais nos reservatórios desfavoráveis, irrigar até 70% da área potencial do referido perímetro.This work is concerned with the possibility of reactivation of Irrigated Perimeter of Gravatá, with potential land availability of 934 ha, which is located at Piancó river basin in the southern part of Paraiba State. To perform the analysis, the ORNAP optimization model was used to allocate optimal irrigated areas to a pre-selected set of crops, as well as their water requirement, and the MODSIM P32, a simulation model, was used to verify the water sustainability of Canoas and Saco de Nova Olinda reservoirs, which supply water. The hydro behavior of system was verified through the design of scenarios for climatic and initial volumes for the reservoirs, taking into account a planning time horizon of two years. The results have shown that up to 70% of the available land can be irrigated, even with unfavorable climatic conditions and initial

  1. The Global Phylogeography of Lyssaviruses - Challenging the 'Out of Africa' Hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T S Hayman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus kills tens of thousands of people globally each year, especially in resource-limited countries. Yet, there are genetically- and antigenically-related lyssaviruses, all capable of causing the disease rabies, circulating globally among bats without causing conspicuous disease outbreaks. The species richness and greater genetic diversity of African lyssaviruses, along with the lack of antibody cross-reactivity among them, has led to the hypothesis that Africa is the origin of lyssaviruses. This hypothesis was tested using a probabilistic phylogeographical approach. The nucleoprotein gene sequences from 153 representatives of 16 lyssavirus species, collected between 1956 and 2015, were used to develop a phylogenetic tree which incorporated relevant geographic and temporal data relating to the viruses. In addition, complete genome sequences from all 16 (putative species were analysed. The most probable ancestral distribution for the internal nodes was inferred using three different approaches and was confirmed by analysis of complete genomes. These results support a Palearctic origin for lyssaviruses (posterior probability = 0.85, challenging the 'out of Africa' hypothesis, and suggest three independent transmission events to the Afrotropical region, representing the three phylogroups that form the three major lyssavirus clades.

  2. The Global Phylogeography of Lyssaviruses - Challenging the 'Out of Africa' Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Anthony R.; Marston, Denise A.; Garcia-R, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Rabies virus kills tens of thousands of people globally each year, especially in resource-limited countries. Yet, there are genetically- and antigenically-related lyssaviruses, all capable of causing the disease rabies, circulating globally among bats without causing conspicuous disease outbreaks. The species richness and greater genetic diversity of African lyssaviruses, along with the lack of antibody cross-reactivity among them, has led to the hypothesis that Africa is the origin of lyssaviruses. This hypothesis was tested using a probabilistic phylogeographical approach. The nucleoprotein gene sequences from 153 representatives of 16 lyssavirus species, collected between 1956 and 2015, were used to develop a phylogenetic tree which incorporated relevant geographic and temporal data relating to the viruses. In addition, complete genome sequences from all 16 (putative) species were analysed. The most probable ancestral distribution for the internal nodes was inferred using three different approaches and was confirmed by analysis of complete genomes. These results support a Palearctic origin for lyssaviruses (posterior probability = 0.85), challenging the ‘out of Africa’ hypothesis, and suggest three independent transmission events to the Afrotropical region, representing the three phylogroups that form the three major lyssavirus clades. PMID:28036390

  3. Positive void reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report is a review of some of the important aspects of the analysis of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). One important aspect is the calculation of positive void reactivity. To study this subject the lattice physics codes used for void worth calculations and the coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic codes used for the transient analysis are reviewed. Also reviewed are the measurements used to help validate the codes. The application of these codes to large LOCAs is studied with attention focused on the uncertainty factor for the void worth used to bias the results. Another aspect of the subject dealt with in the report is the acceptance criteria that are applied. This includes the criterion for peak fuel enthalpy and the question of whether prompt criticality should also be a criterion. To study the former, fuel behavior measurements and calculations are reviewed. (Author) (49 refs., 2 figs., tab.)

  4. Massive florid reactive periostitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nance, K.V.; Renner, J.B.; Brashear, H.R.; Siegal, G.P.; North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC

    1990-01-01

    Florid reactive periostitis is a rare, benign process usually occurring in the small, tubular bones of the hands and feet. Typically the lesion occurs in an adolescent or young adult and presents as a small area of pain and erythema over the affected bone. Although the histologic features may suggest malignancy, there is usually little radiographic evidence to support such a diagnosis. In the following report an unusual example of this entity is described whose large size and relentless local progression led to initial diagnostic uncertainty and eventual aggressive management. This case suggests that a wide spectrum of radiologic and morphologic changes may be seen in this entity and that a seemingly unrelated genetic disease may alter the typical clinical course. (orig.)

  5. Pembrolizumab reactivates pulmonary granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdi Al-dliw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoid like reaction is a well-known entity that occurs as a consequence to several malignancies or their therapies. Immunotherapy has gained a lot of interest in the past few years and has recently gained approval as first line therapy in multiple advanced stage malignancies. Pneumonitis has been described as complication of such therapy. Granulomatous inflammation has been only rarely reported subsequent to immunotherapy. We describe a case of granulomatous inflammation reactivation affecting the lungs in a patient previously exposed to Pembrolizumab and have evidence of a distant granulomatous infection. We discuss potential mechanisms of the inflammation and assert the importance of immunosuppression in controlling the dis-inhibited immune system.

  6. Weigle Reactivation in Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berenstein, Dvora

    1982-01-01

    phage and host survivals of about 5 times 10-6 and 1 times 10-1, respectively. Intracellular development of W-reactivated P78 was followed by one-step growth experiments. Conditions which allowed maximal W-reactivation also extended the period of phage production and yielded a somewhat reduced burst......Weigle (W)-reactivation was demonstrated in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus for the UV-irra-diated lysogenic phage P78. The reactivation factor (survival of irradiated phage on irradiated bacteria/ survival on unirradiated bacteria) reached a maximum value of 20. This was obtained at UV-doses giving...

  7. Engineering Sustainability: A Technical Approach to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that engineering processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on the environment. Many factors that need to be considered and appropriate...

  8. Men’s Perception of Raped Women: Test of the Sexually Transmitted Disease Hypothesis and the Cuckoldry Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rape is a recurrent adaptive problem of female humans and females of a number of non-human animals. Rape has various physiological and reproductive costs to the victim. The costs of rape are furthermore exaggerated by social rejection and blaming of a victim, particularly by men. The negative perception of raped women by men has received little attention from an evolutionary perspective. Across two independent studies, we investigated whether the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (the STD hypothesis, Hypothesis 1 or paternity uncertainty (the cuckoldry hypothesis, Hypothesis 2 influence the negative perception of raped women by men. Raped women received lower attractiveness score than non-raped women, especially in long-term mate attractiveness score. The perceived attractiveness of raped women was not influenced by the presence of experimentally manipulated STD cues on faces of putative rapists. Women raped by three men received lower attractiveness score than women raped by one man. These results provide stronger support for the cuckoldry hypothesis (Hypothesis 2 than for the STD hypothesis (Hypothesis 1. Single men perceived raped women as more attractive than men in a committed relationship (Hypothesis 3, suggesting that the mating opportunities mediate men’s perception of victims of rape. Overall, our results suggest that the risk of cuckoldry underlie the negative perception of victims of rape by men rather than the fear of disease transmission.

  9. Persistent Latent Tuberculosis Reactivation Risk in United States Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, John; Parker, Matthew; Lowenthal, Phillip; Flood, Jennifer; Fu, Yunxin; Asis, Redentor; Reves, Randall

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Current guidelines limit latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) evaluation to persons in the United States less than or equal to 5 years based on the assumption that high TB rates among recent entrants are attributable to high LTBI reactivation risk, which declines over time. We hypothesized that high postarrival TB rates may instead be caused by imported active TB. Objectives: Estimate reactivation and imported TB in an immigrant cohort. Methods: We linked preimmigration records from a cohort of California-bound Filipino immigrants during 2001–2010 with subsequent TB reports. TB was likely LTBI reactivation if the immigrant had no evidence of active TB at preimmigration examination, likely imported if preimmigration radiograph was abnormal and TB was reported less than or equal to 6 months after arrival, and likely reactivation of inactive TB if radiograph was abnormal but TB was reported more than 6 months after arrival. Measurements and Main Results: Among 123,114 immigrants, 793 TB cases were reported. Within 1 year of preimmigration examination, 85% of TB was imported; 6 and 9% were reactivation of LTBI and inactive TB, respectively. Conversely, during Years 2–9 after U.S. entry, 76 and 24% were reactivation of LTBI and inactive TB, respectively. The rate of LTBI reactivation (32 per 100,000) did not decline during Years 1–9. Conclusions: High postarrival TB rates were caused by detection of imported TB through active postarrival surveillance. Among immigrants without active TB at baseline, reported TB did not decline over 9 years, indicating sustained high risk of LTBI reactivation. Revised guidelines should support LTBI screening and treatment more than 5 years after U.S. arrival. PMID:24308495

  10. New Hypothesis for SOFC Ceramic Oxygen Electrode Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Graves, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    A new hypothesis for the electrochemical reaction mechanism in solid oxide cell ceramic oxygen electrodes is proposed based on literature including our own results. The hypothesis postulates that the observed thin layers of SrO-La2O3 on top of ceramic perovskite and other Ruddlesden-Popper...

  11. Assess the Critical Period Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lihong

    2010-01-01

    The Critical Period Hypothesis aims to investigate the reason for significant difference between first language acquisition and second language acquisition. Over the past few decades, researchers carried out a series of studies to test the validity of the hypothesis. Although there were certain limitations in these studies, most of their results…

  12. Dynamical agents' strategies and the fractal market hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2005), s. 172-179 ISSN 1210-0455 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 454/2004/A EK/FSV Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : efficient market hypothesis * fractal market hypothesis * agent's investment horizons Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  13. An Exercise for Illustrating the Logic of Hypothesis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Hypothesis testing is one of the more difficult concepts for students to master in a basic, undergraduate statistics course. Students often are puzzled as to why statisticians simply don't calculate the probability that a hypothesis is true. This article presents an exercise that forces students to lay out on their own a procedure for testing a…

  14. A default Bayesian hypothesis test for ANOVA designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, R.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.; Wagenmakers, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a Bayesian hypothesis test for analysis of variance (ANOVA) designs. The test is an application of standard Bayesian methods for variable selection in regression models. We illustrate the effect of various g-priors on the ANOVA hypothesis test. The Bayesian test for ANOVA

  15. Adaptation hypothesis of biological efficiency of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudritskij, Yu.K.; Georgievskij, A.B.; Karpov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Adaptation hypothesis of biological efficiency of ionizing radiation is based on acknowledgement of invariance of fundamental laws and principles of biology related to unity of biota and media, evolution and adaptation for radiobiology. The basic arguments for adaptation hypothesis validity, its correspondence to the requirements imposed on scientific hypothes are presented

  16. New methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaboob, B.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Mokeshrayalu, G.; Balasiddamuni, P.

    2017-11-01

    This research paper discusses the method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative Nonlinear Least Squares (NLLS) estimator. Takeshi Amemiya [1] explained this method. However in the present research paper, a modified Wald test statistic due to Engle, Robert [6] is proposed to test the nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator. An alternative method for testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals has been proposed. In this research article an innovative method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative restricted NLLS estimator is derived. Pesaran and Deaton [10] explained the methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis. This paper uses asymptotic properties of nonlinear least squares estimator proposed by Jenrich [8]. The main purpose of this paper is to provide very innovative methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator, iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals and iterative restricted NLLS estimator. Eakambaram et al. [12] discussed least absolute deviation estimations versus nonlinear regression model with heteroscedastic errors and also they studied the problem of heteroscedasticity with reference to nonlinear regression models with suitable illustration. William Grene [13] examined the interaction effect in nonlinear models disused by Ai and Norton [14] and suggested ways to examine the effects that do not involve statistical testing. Peter [15] provided guidelines for identifying composite hypothesis and addressing the probability of false rejection for multiple hypotheses.

  17. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, A.; Hoek, W.Z.; Pennock, G.M.; Drury, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis suggests that multiple extraterrestrial airbursts or impacts resulted in the Younger Dryas cooling, extensive wildfires, megafaunal extinctions and changes in human population. After the hypothesis was first published in 2007, it gained much criticism, as the

  18. Sustainability in Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Vej, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level of market...... managers' mindsets, a framework addressing sustainability from four organisational learning schools was designed and followed......How do companies integrate sustainability into their strategy and practices, and what factors explain their approach? In this paper a typology of sustainability strategies is presented as well as a conceptual framework relating sustainability at the company level to the functional level...... of marketing. The central contribution of the typology is a strategic and managerial view on sustainability. Furthermore, the typology shows that sustainability in business is enacted from different areas of competences and fields in the literature (e.g. supply chain management, corporate branding, value...

  19. Pulsed remineralisation in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea: a hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Michel; Martin, Valérie; Momzikoff, André; Gondry, Geneviève; Stemmann, Lars; Demers, Serge; Gorsky, Gaby; Andersen, Valérie

    2003-02-01

    A general study of biogeochemical processes (DYNAPROC cruise) was conducted in May 1995 at a time-series station in the open northwestern Mediterranean Sea where horizontal advection was weak. Short-term variations of the vertical distributions of pico- and nanophytoplankton were investigated over four 36-h cycles, along with parallel determinations of metabolic CO 2 production rates and amino acid-containing colloid (AACC) concentrations at the chlorophyll maximum depth. The vertical (0-1000-m depth) distributions of (i) AACC, (ii) suspended particles and (iii) metabolic CO 2 production rate were documented during the initial and final stages of these 36-h cycles. This study was concerned with diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton, which provided periodic perturbations. Accordingly, the time scale of the experimental work varied from a few hours to a few days. Although all distributions exhibited a periodic behaviour, AACC distributions were generally not linked to diel vertical migrations. In the subsurface layer, Synechococcus made the most abundant population and large variations in concentration were observed both at day and at night. The corresponding integrated (over the upper 90 m) losses of Synechococcus during one night pointed to a potential source of exported organic matter amounting to 534 mg C m -2. This study stresses the potential importance of organic matter export from the euphotic zone through the daily grazing activity of vertically migrating organisms, which would not be accounted for by measurements at longer time scales. The metabolic CO 2 production exhibited a peak of activity below 500 m that was shifted downward, apparently in a recurrent way and independently of the vertical distributions of AACC or of suspended particulate material. To account for this phenomenon, a «sustained wave train» hypothesis is proposed that combines the effect of the diel superficial faecal pellet production by swarming migrators and the repackaging

  20. Sleep Reactivity and Insomnia: Genetic and Environmental Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher L.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Roth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Determine the genetic and environmental contributions to sleep reactivity and insomnia. Design: Population-based twin cohort. Participants: 1782 individual twins (988 monozygotic or MZ; 1,086 dizygotic or DZ), including 744 complete twin pairs (377 MZ and 367 DZ). Mean age was 22.5 ± 2.8 years; gender distribution was 59% women. Measurements: Sleep reactivity was measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST). The criterion for insomnia was having difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or nonrefreshing sleep “usually or always” for ≥ 1 month, with at least “somewhat” interference with daily functioning. Results: The prevalence of insomnia was 21%. Heritability estimates for sleep reactivity were 29% for females and 43% for males. The environmental variance for sleep reactivity was greater for females and entirely due to nonshared effects. Insomnia was 43% to 55% heritable for males and females, respectively; the sex difference was not significant. The genetic variances in insomnia and FIRST scores were correlated (r = 0.54 in females, r = 0.64 in males), as were the environmental variances (r = 0.32 in females, r = 0.37 in males). In terms of individual insomnia symptoms, difficulty staying asleep (25% to 35%) and nonrefreshing sleep (34% to 35%) showed relatively more genetic influences than difficulty falling asleep (0%). Conclusions: Sleep reactivity to stress has a substantial genetic component, as well as an environmental component. The finding that FIRST scores and insomnia symptoms share genetic influences is consistent with the hypothesis that sleep reactivity may be a genetic vulnerability for developing insomnia. Citation: Drake CL; Friedman NP; Wright KP; Roth T. Sleep reactivity and insomnia: genetic and environmental influences. SLEEP 2011;34(9):1179-1188. PMID:21886355

  1. Regarding KUR Reactivity Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Akira; Hasegawa, Kei; Tsuchiyama, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Okumura, Ryo; Sano, Tadafumi

    2012-01-01

    This article reported: (1) the outline of the reactivity measurement system of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), (2) the calibration data of control rod, (3) the problems and the countermeasures for range switching of linear output meter. For the laptop PC for the reactivity measurement system, there are four input signals: (1) linear output meter, (2) logarithmic output meter, (3) core temperature gauge, and (4) control rod position. The hardware of reactivity measurement system is controlled with Labview installed on the laptop. Output, reactivity, reactor period, and the change in reactivity due to temperature effect or Xenon effect are internally calculated and displayed in real-time with Labview based on the four signals above. Calculation results are recorded in the form of a spreadsheet. At KUR, the reactor core arrangement was changed, so the control rod was re-calibrated. At this time, calculated and experimental values of reactivity based on the reactivity measurement system were compared, and it was confirmed that the reactivity calculation by Labview was accurate. The range switching of linear output meter in the nuclear instrumentation should automatically change within the laptop, however sometimes this did not function properly in the early stage. It was speculated that undefined percent values during the transition of percent value were included in the calculation and caused calculation errors. The range switching started working properly after fixing this issue. (S.K.)

  2. Reactive agents and perceptual ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dartel, M. van; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.; Herik, H.J. van den

    2005-01-01

    Reactive agents are generally believed to be incapable of coping with perceptual ambiguity (i.e., identical sensory states that require different responses). However, a recent finding suggests that reactive agents can cope with perceptual ambiguity in a simple model (Nolfi, 2002). This paper

  3. Sustainable Table | Welcome to Sustainable Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Seafood Industrial Agriculture Industrial Livestock Production Antibiotics Hormones rBGH Animal , safeguarding animal welfare and supporting local communities. Questions to Ask Asking questions is the best way Livestock Husbandry Sustainable Crop Production Innovative Agriculture New Farmers Organic Agriculture Local

  4. The impact of parenthood on environmental attitudes and behaviour: a longitudinal investigation of the legacy hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory O; Fisher, Rose; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Milfont, Taciano L; Poortinga, Wouter

    2018-01-01

    Willingness to engage in sustainable actions may be limited by the psychological distance of climate change. In this study, we test the legacy hypothesis , which holds that having children leads parents to consider the legacy left to offspring in respect of environmental quality. Using the Understanding Society dataset, a longitudinal survey representative of the UK population ( n  = 18,176), we assess how having children may change people's individual environmental attitudes and behaviour. Results indicate that having a new child is associated with a small decrease in the frequency of a few environmental behaviours. Only parents with already high environmental concern show a small increase in the desire to act more sustainably after the birth of their first child. Overall, the results do not provide evidence in support of the legacy hypothesis in terms of individual-level environmental attitudes and behaviours. We argue that the transition to parenthood is a time where concern is prioritised on the immediate wellbeing of the child and not on the future environmental threats.

  5. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would

  6. Education for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2009-01-01

     An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related ...... to the use of natural resources and other matters, and how that kind of issues can be dealt with in education as ESD....... An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related...

  7. Silica fractionation and reactivity in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzué Belmonte, Dácil; Barão, Lúcia; Vandevenne, Floor; Schoelynck, Jonas; Struyf, Eric; Meire, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The Si cycle is a globally important biogeochemical cycle, with strong connections to other biogeochemical cycles, including C. Silica is taken up by plants to form protective structures called phytoliths, which become a part of the soil and contribute strongly to soil Si cycling upon litter burial. Different silica fractions are found in soils, with phytoliths among the most easily soluble, especially compared to silicate minerals. A whole set of secondary non-biogenic fractions exist, that also have a high reactivity (adsorbed Si, reactive secondary minerals…). A good characterization of the different fractions of reactive silica is crucial to move forward knowledge on ecosystem Si cycling, which has been recognized in the last decade as crucial for terrestrial Si fluxes. A new method to analyze the different fractions of silica in soils has been described by Koning et al. (2002) and adapted by our research team (Barão et al. 2013). Using a continuous extraction of Si and aluminum in 0.5M NaOH, biogenic and non-biogenic reactive fractions are separated based on their Si/Al ratios and their reactivity in NaOH. Applying this new method I will investigate three emerging ideas on how humans can affect directly terrestrial Si fluxes. -Land use. I expect strong silica fractionation and reactivity differences in different land uses. These effects due to agricultural and forestry management have already been shown earlier in temperate soils (Vandevenne et al. 2012). Now we will test this hypothesis in recently deforested soils, in the south of Brazil. 'Pristine' forest, managed forest and tobacco field soils (with and without rotation crops) will be studied. This research belongs to an interdisciplinary project on soils and global change. -Fire. According to the IPCC report, extreme events such as fires (number and intensity) would increase due to climate change. We analyzed litter from spruce forest, beech forest and peat soils at two burning levels, after 350°C and

  8. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  9. PROCEEDINGS: MULTIPOLLUTANT SORBENT REACTIVITY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a compilation of technical papers and visual aids presented by representatives of industry, academia, and government agencies at a workshop on multipollutant sorbent reactivity that was held at EPA's Environmental Research Center in Research Triangle Park, NC, on July 19-20, 1994. There were 16 technical presentations in three sessions, and a panel discussion between six research experts. The workshop was a forum for the exchange of ideas and information on the use of sorbents to control air emissions of acid gases (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen chloride); mercury and dioxins; and toxic metals, primarily from fossil fuel combustion. A secondary purpose for conducting the workshop was to help guide EPA's research planning activities. A general theme of the workshop was that a strategy of controlling many pollutants with a single system rather than systems to control individual pollutants should be a research goal. Some research needs cited were: hazardous air pollutant removal by flue gas desulfurization systems, dioxin formation and control, mercury control, waste minimization, impact of ash recycling on metals partitioning, impact of urea and sorbents on other pollutants, high temperature filtration, impact of coal cleaning on metals partitioning, and modeling dispersion of sorbents in flue gas. information

  10. Reactivation with productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Carlos Hernando

    2002-01-01

    A market to five years that it will move near $63.000 millions, starting from the production of 254.000 reserves that Ecopetrol requires for its maintenance and operation, it was projected with base in the offer study and it demands that they carried out the universities Javeriana and Industrial of Santander for the Colombian Company of Petroleum around the metal mechanic sector. In accordance with the figures of the report, Ecopetrol, like one of the state entities selected by the national government to design pilot programs, guided to reactivate the Colombian industry; it is projecting a good perspective for the Colombian economy and the invigoration of the national productive sector. In practical terms, the report points out that Ecopetrol, in its different operative centers, will require in next five years the quantity of had restored before mentioned in the lines of mechanical stamps, centrifugal bombs, inter chambers of heat, compressors and valves of security; pieces that are elaborated by international makers in 99%. To produce them nationally would represent to the company an economy of 52% of the total value of the purchases in next five years and a reduction of time of delivery of 17 weeks to one week

  11. Conceptualising sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jenny; Annandale, David; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many

  12. Advertising investment as a tool for boosting consumption: testing Galbraith's hypothesis for Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín-Alejandro Martínez-Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recession that most of the world economies have been facing in the last years has caused a great interest in the study of its macroeconomic effects. In this context, a debate has resurged regarding the advertising investment, as for its potential capacity to impel the consumer spending and to impact positively on the economic recovery. This idea, sustained in the so-called Galbraith's hypothesis, constitutes the core of this paper, where the main objective is to test that hypothesis by means of an empirical analysis. In this study, we focus on the Spanish case and the data correspond to the period 1976 -2010. A cointegration analysis is carried out, using two different approaches (Engle-Granger test and Gregory-Hansen test, respectively, to determine if there is any relationship between the advertising investment and six macromagnitudes (GDP, National Income, Consumption, Savings and Fixed Capital Formation, as well as the registered unemployment rate. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that Galbraith's hypothesis is not fulfilled for the Spanish case.

  13. Environmental policy without costs? A review of the Porter hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar; Lundgren, Tommy. e-mail: runar.brannlund@econ.umu.se

    2009-03-15

    This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature connected to the so called Porter Hypothesis. That is, to review the literature connected to the discussion about the relation between environmental policy and competitiveness. According to the conventional wisdom environmental policy, aiming for improving the environment through for example emission reductions, do imply costs since scarce resources must be diverted from somewhere else. However, this conventional wisdom has been challenged and questioned recently through what has been denoted the 'Porter hypothesis'. Those in the forefront of the Porter hypothesis challenge the conventional wisdom basically on the ground that resources are used inefficiently in the absence of the right kind of environmental regulations, and that the conventional neo-classical view is too static to take inefficiencies into account. The conclusions that can be made from this review is (1) that the theoretical literature can identify the circumstances and mechanisms that must exist for a Porter effect to occur, (2) that these circumstances are rather non-general, hence rejecting the Porter hypothesis in general, (3) that the empirical literature give no general support for the Porter hypothesis. Furthermore, a closer look at the 'Swedish case' reveals no support for the Porter hypothesis in spite of the fact that Swedish environmental policy the last 15-20 years seems to be in line the prerequisites stated by the Porter hypothesis concerning environmental policy

  14. The linear hypothesis - an idea whose time has passed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschaeche, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    The linear no-threshold hypothesis is the basis for radiation protection standards in the United States. In the words of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), the hypothesis is: open-quotes In the interest of estimating effects in humans conservatively, it is not unreasonable to follow the assumption of a linear relationship between dose and effect in the low dose regions for which direct observational data are not available.close quotes The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) stated the hypothesis in a slightly different manner: open-quotes One such basic assumption ... is that ... there is ... a linear relationship without threshold between dose and the probability of an effect. The hypothesis was necessary 50 yr ago when it was first enunciated because the dose-effect curve for ionizing radiation for effects in humans was not known. The ICRP and NCRP needed a model to extrapolate high-dose effects to low-dose effects. So the linear no-threshold hypothesis was born. Certain details of the history of the development and use of the linear hypothesis are presented. In particular, use of the hypothesis by the U.S. regulatory agencies is examined. Over time, the sense of the hypothesis has been corrupted. The corruption of the hypothesis into the current paradigm of open-quote a little radiation, no matter how small, can and will harm youclose quotes is presented. The reasons the corruption occurred are proposed. The effects of the corruption are enumerated, specifically, the use of the corruption by the antinuclear forces in the United States and some of the huge costs to U.S. taxpayers due to the corruption. An alternative basis for radiation protection standards to assure public safety, based on the weight of scientific evidence on radiation health effects, is proposed

  15. Handbook of sustainable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kun-Mo

    2013-01-01

    "The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook’s content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key asse...

  16. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  17. Sustainable development. First part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.; Lanzavecchia, G.; Berrini, M; Zambrini, M.; Bologna, G.; Carraro, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Mastino, G.; Federico, A.; Gaudioso, D.; Luise, A.; Mauro, F.; Padovani, L.; Federico, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes a collective effort and represents the second edition of: Environment, energy, economy: a sustainable future. In this work are reported various interventions on sustainable development problem [it

  18. Sustainable Public Bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil César Costa de Paula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the issue of sustainability in public procurement, given that the government in Brazil is constituted as a great promoter of economic development and needs to adapt its acquisitions worldwide sustainability agenda.

  19. Neighbourhood facilities for sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper these are referred to as ‘Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability’. Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability (NFS) are initiatives undertaken by individuals and communities to build local sustainable systems which not only improve...

  20. FORUM: Is Ecotourism Sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall

    1997-07-01

    / It is legitimate to ask whether and in what form tourism might contribute to sustainable development. This is not the same as sustainable tourism which, as a single-sector approach to development, may overlook important linkages with other sectors. If tourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then it must be economically viable, ecologically sensitive and culturally appropriate. Ecotourism is often advocated as being a sustainable form of tourism but imprecision in terminology clouds basic issues and there are strong economic, ecological, and cultural reasons for believing that, even in its purest forms, ecotourism is likely to present substantial challenges to destination areas, particularly if it competes for scarce resources and displaces existing uses and users. Sustainable tourism and ecotourism are not synonyms, many forms of ecotourism may not be sustainable, and if ecotourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then careful planning and management will be required.KEY WORDS: Ecotourism; Sustainable development; Development; Tourism

  1. Differential Exposure and Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress Predict Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Josephine H.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that higher rates of depression in adolescent girls are explained by their greater exposure and reactivity to stress in the interpersonal domain in a large sample of 15-year-olds. Findings indicate that adolescent girls experienced higher levels of total and interpersonal episodic stress, whereas boys experienced…

  2. Biostatistics series module 2: Overview of hypothesis testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Hazra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesis testing (or statistical inference is one of the major applications of biostatistics. Much of medical research begins with a research question that can be framed as a hypothesis. Inferential statistics begins with a null hypothesis that reflects the conservative position of no change or no difference in comparison to baseline or between groups. Usually, the researcher has reason to believe that there is some effect or some difference which is the alternative hypothesis. The researcher therefore proceeds to study samples and measure outcomes in the hope of generating evidence strong enough for the statistician to be able to reject the null hypothesis. The concept of the P value is almost universally used in hypothesis testing. It denotes the probability of obtaining by chance a result at least as extreme as that observed, even when the null hypothesis is true and no real difference exists. Usually, if P is < 0.05 the null hypothesis is rejected and sample results are deemed statistically significant. With the increasing availability of computers and access to specialized statistical software, the drudgery involved in statistical calculations is now a thing of the past, once the learning curve of the software has been traversed. The life sciences researcher is therefore free to devote oneself to optimally designing the study, carefully selecting the hypothesis tests to be applied, and taking care in conducting the study well. Unfortunately, selecting the right test seems difficult initially. Thinking of the research hypothesis as addressing one of five generic research questions helps in selection of the right hypothesis test. In addition, it is important to be clear about the nature of the variables (e.g., numerical vs. categorical; parametric vs. nonparametric and the number of groups or data sets being compared (e.g., two or more than two at a time. The same research question may be explored by more than one type of hypothesis test

  3. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate…

  4. The sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development week (june 2003), Actu Environnement published a complete document on the sustainable development to inform the public, recall the main steps of this notion (Rio conference and the following conferences) and the possible employments. It presents also the main organizations acting in the sustainable development domain. (A.L.B.)

  5. Toward sustainable logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, Mehmet; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    The fast evolution of sustainability leads to the development of a new fast-growing concept called sustainable logistics management. This research addresses recent business trends and challenges in logistics and their implications for sustainable logistics management. Additionally, we discuss policy

  6. ORNL Annual Sustainability Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    As described in this report, we have made substantial progress across the 25 roadmaps of the Sustainable Campus Initiative. The report also outlines our plans to continue integrating sustainable practices into the planning, execution, and evaluation of all ORNL activities. We appreciate your interest in our journey to sustainability, and we welcome your comments, questions, and suggestions.

  7. Toward sustainable logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, Mehmet; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.

    2018-01-01

    The fast evolution of sustainability leads to the development of a new fast-growing concept called sustainable logistics management. This research addresses recent business trends and challenges in logistics and their implications for sustainable logistics management. Additionally, we discuss policy

  8. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  9. Sustainability Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  10. Sustainability Annual Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  11. Sustainability Annual Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  12. Sustainability Annual Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  13. Sustainability Annual Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  14. Sustainability Annual Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  15. Sustainability Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  16. Present art of reactivity determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Masafumi; Matsuura, Shojiro

    1977-01-01

    Experimental techniques for reactivity determination of a reactor have been one of the long standing subjects in reactor physics. Recently, such a requirement was proposed by the reactor designers and operators that the values of reactivity should be measured more accurately. This is because importance is emphasized for the role of reactivity to the performance of reactor safety, economics and operability. Motivated by the requirement, some remarkable progresses are being made for the improvement of the experimental techniques. Then, the present review summarizes the research activities on this subject, identifies several reactor physics problems to be overcome, and makes mention of the future targets. (auth.)

  17. Nebivolol might be Beneficial in Osteoporosis Treatment: A Hypothesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    cytokines termed. 'bone remodeling'. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural ... due to direct reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is ... bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell cultures40.

  18. Processing of polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, P.J.; Kurja, J.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    1997-01-01

    A review with many refs. on processing of polymers using reactive solvents including classification of synthetic polymers, guidelines for the selection of reactive solvents, basic aspects of processing, examples of intractable and tractable polymer/reactive solvent system

  19. UV-radiation-induced electron emission by hormones. Hypothesis for specific communication mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getoff, Nikola [University of Vienna, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology, Althanstr. 14, UZAII, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2009-11-15

    The highlights of recently observed electron emission from electronically excited sexual hormones (17{beta}-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) and the phytohormone genistein in polar media are briefly reviewed. The electron yield, Q(e{sub aq}{sup -}), dependence from substrate concentration, hormone structure, polarity of solvent, absorbed energy and temperature are discussed. The hormones reactivity with e{sub aq}{sup -} and efficiency in electron transfer ensure them the ability to communicate with other biological systems in an organism. A hypothesis is presented for the explanation of the mechanisms of the distinct recognition of signals transmitted by electrons, originating from different types of hormones to receiving centres. Biological consequences of the electron emission in respect to cancer are mentioned.

  20. Exacerbation of lupus erythematodes visceralis as a result of UV irradiation - a hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diezel, W; Meffert, H; Guenther, W; Huse, K; Soennichsen, N [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite)

    1979-09-01

    In the culture medium of human fibroblasts a proteolytic activity is evident after UV irradiation (290 - 320 nm). The effect of this proteolytic activity on human serum results in an electrophoretic mobility towards the anode of the C3 component of complement, which thus proves to be activated. In discussing recent and former results, a hypothesis on the exacerbation of lupus erythematodes visceralis is presented: UV irradiation causes peroxydation of lipids resulting in the release of proteolytic enzymes from lysosomal membranes and activation of the complemental system. Thus the reactivity of the immune system is increased and the disease becomes exacerbated. Further the following hypothetic aspects are discussed: porphyrins cause enhanced peroxydation of lipids, increased synthesis rate of porphyrins by drugs, decrease of lipid peroxydation by antioxidants, e.g. vitamin E, in relation to possible therapeutic effects.

  1. Exacerbation of lupus erythematodes visceralis as a result of UV irradiation - a hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diezel, W.; Meffert, H.; Guenther, W.; Huse, K.; Soennichsen, N.

    1979-01-01

    In the culture medium of human fibroblasts a proteolytic activity is evident after UV irradiation (290 - 320 nm). The effect of this proteolytic activity on human serum results in an electrophoretic mobility towards the anode of the C3 component of complement, which thus proves to be activated. In discussing recent and former results, a hypothesis on the exacerbation of lupus erythematodes visceralis is presented: UV irradiation causes peroxydation of lipids resulting in the release of proteolytic enzymes from lysosomal membranes and activation of the complemental system. Thus the reactivity of the immune system is increased and the disease becomes exacerbated. Further the following hypothetic aspects are discussed: porphyrins cause enhanced peroxydation of lipids, increased synthesis rate of porphyrins by drugs, decrease of lipid peroxydation by antioxidants, e.g. vitamin E, in relation to possible therapeutic effects

  2. Sustaining Community Partnership across Transition in District Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeChasseur, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    This case of district turnover was developed as part of a project with state leaders and funders supporting local early education systems development. Understanding strategic and reactive activities during district leadership transition can be useful in assisting educators and their partners to prepare for sustainability. In this case, early…

  3. Null but not void: considerations for hypothesis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Pamela A; Proschan, Michael A

    2013-01-30

    Standard statistical theory teaches us that once the null and alternative hypotheses have been defined for a parameter, the choice of the statistical test is clear. Standard theory does not teach us how to choose the null or alternative hypothesis appropriate to the scientific question of interest. Neither does it tell us that in some cases, depending on which alternatives are realistic, we may want to define our null hypothesis differently. Problems in statistical practice are frequently not as pristinely summarized as the classic theory in our textbooks. In this article, we present examples in statistical hypothesis testing in which seemingly simple choices are in fact rich with nuance that, when given full consideration, make the choice of the right hypothesis test much less straightforward. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Alzheimer's disease: the amyloid hypothesis and the Inverse Warburg effect

    KAUST Repository

    Demetrius, Lloyd A.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Pellerin, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and biochemical studies show that the sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by the following hallmarks: (a) An exponential increase with age; (b) Selective neuronal vulnerability; (c) Inverse cancer comorbidity. The present article appeals to these hallmarks to evaluate and contrast two competing models of AD: the amyloid hypothesis (a neuron-centric mechanism) and the Inverse Warburg hypothesis (a neuron-astrocytic mechanism). We show that these three hallmarks of AD conflict with the amyloid hypothesis, but are consistent with the Inverse Warburg hypothesis, a bioenergetic model which postulates that AD is the result of a cascade of three events—mitochondrial dysregulation, metabolic reprogramming (the Inverse Warburg effect), and natural selection. We also provide an explanation for the failures of the clinical trials based on amyloid immunization, and we propose a new class of therapeutic strategies consistent with the neuroenergetic selection model.

  5. Cross-system log file analysis for hypothesis testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Glahn, C. (2008). Cross-system log file analysis for hypothesis testing. Presented at Empowering Learners for Lifelong Competence Development: pedagogical, organisational and technological issues. 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. April, 10, 2008, Madrid, Spain.

  6. Hypothesis Testing Using the Films of the Three Stooges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Davidson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The use of The Three Stooges' films as a source of data in an introductory statistics class is described. The Stooges' films are separated into three populations. Using these populations, students may conduct hypothesis tests with data they collect.

  7. Incidence of allergy and atopic disorders and hygiene hypothesis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bencko, V.; Šíma, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2, 6 March (2017), č. článku 1244. ISSN 2474-1663 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : allergy disorders * atopic disorders * hygiene hypothesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology

  8. Alzheimer's disease: the amyloid hypothesis and the Inverse Warburg effect

    KAUST Repository

    Demetrius, Lloyd A.

    2015-01-14

    Epidemiological and biochemical studies show that the sporadic forms of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) are characterized by the following hallmarks: (a) An exponential increase with age; (b) Selective neuronal vulnerability; (c) Inverse cancer comorbidity. The present article appeals to these hallmarks to evaluate and contrast two competing models of AD: the amyloid hypothesis (a neuron-centric mechanism) and the Inverse Warburg hypothesis (a neuron-astrocytic mechanism). We show that these three hallmarks of AD conflict with the amyloid hypothesis, but are consistent with the Inverse Warburg hypothesis, a bioenergetic model which postulates that AD is the result of a cascade of three events—mitochondrial dysregulation, metabolic reprogramming (the Inverse Warburg effect), and natural selection. We also provide an explanation for the failures of the clinical trials based on amyloid immunization, and we propose a new class of therapeutic strategies consistent with the neuroenergetic selection model.

  9. The Double-Deficit Hypothesis in Spanish Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Juan E.; Hernandez-Valle, Isabel; Rodriguez, Cristina; Guzman, Remedios; Diaz, Alicia; Ortiz, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of developmental dyslexia was investigated in seven to twelve year old Spanish children. It was observed that the double deficit (DD) group had the greatest difficulty with reading.

  10. Effects of family cohesion, and heart rate reactivity on aggressive/rule-breaking behavior and prosocial behavior in adolescence : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle; Nederhof, Esther; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Ellis, Bruce J.

    The biological sensitivity to context hypothesis posits that high physiological reactivity (i.e., increases in arousal from baseline) constitutes heightened sensitivity to environmental influences, for better or worse. To test this hypothesis, we examined the interactive effects of family cohesion

  11. Towards a glutamate hypothesis of depression: an emerging frontier of neuropsychopharmacology for mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanacora, Gerard; Treccani, Giulia; Popoli, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Half a century after the first formulation of the monoamine hypothesis, compelling evidence implies that long-term changes in an array of brain areas and circuits mediating complex cognitive-emotional behaviors represent the biological underpinnings of mood/anxiety disorders. A large number of clinical studies suggest that pathophysiology is associated with dysfunction of the predominant glutamatergic system, malfunction in the mechanisms regulating clearance and metabolism of glutamate, and cytoarchitectural/morphological maladaptive changes in a number of brain areas mediating cognitive-emotional behaviors. Concurrently, a wealth of data from animal models have shown that different types of environmental stress enhance glutamate release/transmission in limbic/cortical areas and exert powerful structural effects, inducing dendritic remodeling, reduction of synapses and possibly volumetric reductions resembling those observed in depressed patients. Because a vast majority of neurons and synapses in these areas and circuits use glutamate as neurotransmitter, it would be limiting to maintain that glutamate is in some way 'involved' in mood/anxiety disorders; rather it should be recognized that the glutamatergic system is a primary mediator of psychiatric pathology and, potentially, also a final common pathway for the therapeutic action of antidepressant agents. A paradigm shift from a monoamine hypothesis of depression to a neuroplasticity hypothesis focused on glutamate may represent a substantial advancement in the working hypothesis that drives research for new drugs and therapies. Importantly, despite the availability of multiple classes of drugs with monoamine-based mechanisms of action, there remains a large percentage of patients who fail to achieve a sustained remission of depressive symptoms. The unmet need for improved pharmacotherapies for treatment-resistant depression means there is a large space for the development of new compounds with novel mechanisms

  12. The Random-Walk Hypothesis on the Indian Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Mishra; Vinod Mishra; Russell Smyth

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the random walk hypothesis for the Indian stock market. Using 19 years of monthly data on six indices from the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), this study applies three different unit root tests with two structural breaks to analyse the random walk hypothesis. We find that unit root tests that allow for two structural breaks alone are not able to reject the unit root null; however, a recently developed unit root test that simultaneously accou...

  13. The Fractal Market Hypothesis: Applications to Financial Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Blackledge, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Most financial modelling systems rely on an underlying hypothesis known as the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) including the famous Black-Scholes formula for placing an option. However, the EMH has a fundamental flaw: it is based on the assumption that economic processes are normally distributed and it has long been known that this is not the case. This fundamental assumption leads to a number of shortcomings associated with using the EMH to analyse financial data which includes failure to ...

  14. Dopamine and Reward: The Anhedonia Hypothesis 30 years on

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Roy A.

    2008-01-01

    The anhedonia hypothesis – that brain dopamine plays a critical role in the subjective pleasure associated with positive rewards – was intended to draw the attention of psychiatrists to the growing evidence that dopamine plays a critical role in the objective reinforcement and incentive motivation associated with food and water, brain stimulation reward, and psychomotor stimulant and opiate reward. The hypothesis called to attention the apparent paradox that neuroleptics, drugs used to treat ...

  15. Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products...... of sustainability is the communicability of the results by means of a graphical representation (a cartogram), characterized by a suitable chromatic scale and ranking score. The integration of LCSA and the dashboard of sustainability into a so-called Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard (LCSD) is described here...

  16. LCA and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders

    2018-01-01

    LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report...... is then demonstrated, and the strategy of LCA to achieving environmental protection, namely to guide the reduction of environmental impacts per delivery of a function, is explained. The attempt to broaden the scope of LCA, beyond environmental protection, by so-called life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA......) is outlined. Finally, the limitations of LCA in guiding a sustainable development are discussed....

  17. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on

  18. Testing the null hypothesis: the forgotten legacy of Karl Popper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Testing of the null hypothesis is a fundamental aspect of the scientific method and has its basis in the falsification theory of Karl Popper. Null hypothesis testing makes use of deductive reasoning to ensure that the truth of conclusions is irrefutable. In contrast, attempting to demonstrate the new facts on the basis of testing the experimental or research hypothesis makes use of inductive reasoning and is prone to the problem of the Uniformity of Nature assumption described by David Hume in the eighteenth century. Despite this issue and the well documented solution provided by Popper's falsification theory, the majority of publications are still written such that they suggest the research hypothesis is being tested. This is contrary to accepted scientific convention and possibly highlights a poor understanding of the application of conventional significance-based data analysis approaches. Our work should remain driven by conjecture and attempted falsification such that it is always the null hypothesis that is tested. The write up of our studies should make it clear that we are indeed testing the null hypothesis and conforming to the established and accepted philosophical conventions of the scientific method.

  19. Mannuronic Acids : Reactivity and Selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; de Jong, Ana-Rae; Lodder, Gerrit; Overkleeft, Herman S.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.

    2011-01-01

    This review describes our recent studies toward the reactivity and selectivity of mannopyranosyl uronic acid donors, which have been found to be very powerful donors for the construction of beta-mannosidic linkages.

  20. Fur and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Csaba, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of deeper luxury, which insists that 'real' luxury should involve sustainable practices in the production and consumption of luxury goods. It traces historical and recent developments in the field of fur, to understand the implications, uncertainties and ambiguities...... of luxury’s confrontation with sustainability. Considering fur in relation to future standards for luxury products, we raise questions about moral problematisation and justification of luxury in terms of sustainability. We first examine the encounter of luxury with sustainability and explain...... the significance of the notion of ‘deeper luxury’. After taking stock of the impact of sustainability on luxury and various directions in which sustainable luxury is evolving, we discuss concepts of sustainable development in relation to the history of moral problematisation of luxury. This leads to the case...

  1. Sustainability index for Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  2. Sustainability and Entrepreneurial Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair

    Abstract Objectives - This paper explores how entrepreneurial action can lead to environmental sustainability. It builds on the assumption that the creation of sustainble practices is one of the most important challenges facing the global society, and that entrepreneurial action is a vital......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action.  Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship.  Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship -  resource oriented...... entrepreneurship - which uses bricolage in various ways to create sustainable solutions. Implications and value - The concept of resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurship contributes to the theoretical understanding of how entrepreneurial action can support sustainability, Furthermore the case study has...

  3. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  4. Health and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjӕrgård, Bente; Land, Birgit; Bransholm Pedersen, Kirsten

    2014-09-01

    In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the 'duality of structure' is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion and sustainability. Third, we use examples from agriculture and food production to illustrate that health and sustainability are mutually enabling and constraining. We conclude that while the renewed focus on food security and food inequalities has brought the health and sustainability dimensions of the food system onto the political agenda, the conceptualization of duality between health and sustainability could be a new platform for a critical and theoretical stance towards the market-oriented food system strategy. Thinking along the lines of duality means that the integration of health promotion strategies and sustainable development strategies cannot be based on an approach to integration in which either health or sustainability is given precedence over the other. From a duality perspective, integration means conceiving sustainability from a health perspective and health from a sustainability perspective. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maazoun, F; Deschamps, O; Barros-Kogel, E; Ngwem, E; Fauchet, N; Buffet, P; Froissart, A

    2015-11-01

    Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly is a rare and severe form of chronic malaria. This condition is a common cause of splenomegaly in endemic areas. The pathophysiology of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly involves an intense immune reaction (predominantly B cell-driven) to repeated/chronic infections with Plasmodium sp. The diagnosis may be difficult, due to a poorly specific clinical presentation (splenomegaly, fatigue, cytopenias), a long delay between residence in a malaria-endemic area and onset of symptoms, and a frequent absence of parasites on conventional thin and thick blood smears. A strongly contributive laboratory parameter is the presence of high levels of total immunoglobulin M. When the diagnostic of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly is considered, search for anti-Plasmodium antibodies and Plasmodium nucleic acids (genus and species) by PCR is useful. Diagnosis of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly relies on the simultaneous presence of epidemiological, clinical, biological and follow-up findings. Regression of both splenomegaly and hypersplenism following antimalarial therapy allows the differential diagnosis with splenic lymphoma, a common complication of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly. Although rare in Western countries, hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly deserves increased medical awareness to reduce the incidence of incorrect diagnosis, to prevent progression to splenic lymphoma and to avoid splenectomy. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Renal damage mediated by oxidative stress: a hypothesis of protective effects of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Ramón; Rivera, Gonzalo

    2002-08-01

    Over the last decade, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of seemingly unrelated renal diseases. Epidemiological studies have documented an association of moderate wine consumption with a decreased risk of cardiovascular and neurological diseases; however, similar studies in the kidney are still lacking. The kidney is an organ highly vulnerable to damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), likely due to the abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the composition of renal lipids. ROS are involved in the pathogenic mechanism of conditions such as glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The health benefits of moderate consumption of red wine can be partly attributed to its antioxidant properties. Indeed, the kidney antioxidant defense system is enhanced after chronic exposure to moderate amounts of wine, a response arising from the combined effects of ethanol and the nonalcoholic components, mainly polyphenols. Polyphenols behave as potent ROS scavengers and metal chelators; ethanol, in turn, modulates the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, a hypothesis that red wine causes a decreased vulnerability of the kidney to the oxidative challenges could be proposed. This view is partly supported by direct evidences indicating that wine and antioxidants isolated from red wine, as well as other antioxidants, significantly attenuate or prevent the oxidative damage to the kidney. The present hypothesis paper provides a collective body of evidence suggesting a protective role of moderate wine consumption against the production and progression of renal diseases, based on the existing concepts on the pathophysiology of kidney injury mediated by oxidative stress.

  7. Reactive sites influence in PMMA oligomers reactivity: a DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, C. V.; Vásquez, S. R.; Flores, N.; García, L.; Rico, J. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we present a theoretical study of methyl methacrylate (MMA) living anionic polymerization. The study was addressed to understanding two important experimental observations made for Michael Szwarc in 1956. The unexpected effect of reactive sites concentration in the propagation rate, and the self-killer behavior of MMA (deactivating of living anionic polymerization). The theoretical calculations were performed by density functional theory (DFT) to obtain the frontier molecular orbitals values. These values were used to calculate and analyze the chemical interaction descriptors in DFT-Koopmans’ theorem. As a result, it was observed that the longest chain-length species (related with low concentration of reactive sites) exhibit the highest reactivity (behavior associated with the increase of the propagation rate). The improvement in this reactivity was attributed to the crosslinking produced in the polymethyl methacrylate chains. Meanwhile, the self-killer behavior was associated with the intermolecular forces present in the reactive sites. This behavior was associated to an obstruction in solvation, since the active sites remained active through all propagation species. The theoretical results were in good agreement with the Szwarc experiments.

  8. Distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress predict women's problematic alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Wemm, Stephanie; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2017-06-01

    Research has shown that measures of reactivity to distress-including distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress-are dysregulated in women who misuse alcohol. These variables may interact and create a risk profile for young adult women, reflecting patterns of stress reactivity that confer a risk for alcohol misuse. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the independent and interactive associations of subjective distress tolerance, behavioral distress tolerance, and physiological stress reactivity with women's alcohol misuse. The study was conducted with a sample of 91 college women recruited on a large northeastern university campus. Results showed that subjective levels of distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress (skin conductance reactivity, SCR), but not behavioral distress tolerance, were independently associated with alcohol misuse. In addition, subjective distress tolerance moderated the relationship between SCR and negative alcohol-related consequences. Specifically, women with low physiological reactivity (SCR) to a stressful task and greater urge to quickly rid themselves of distress (low subjective distress tolerance) endorsed a significantly greater number of adverse consequences from their alcohol use. These results extend prior findings by showing that, even among a nonclinical sample of women, lower stress reactivity in combination with low subjective distress tolerance is associated with increased risk for various drinking-related negative consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. SMART SUSTAINABLE ISLANDS VS SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Pantazis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  10. A large scale test of the gaming-enhancement hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Przybylski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A growing research literature suggests that regular electronic game play and game-based training programs may confer practically significant benefits to cognitive functioning. Most evidence supporting this idea, the gaming-enhancement hypothesis, has been collected in small-scale studies of university students and older adults. This research investigated the hypothesis in a general way with a large sample of 1,847 school-aged children. Our aim was to examine the relations between young people’s gaming experiences and an objective test of reasoning performance. Using a Bayesian hypothesis testing approach, evidence for the gaming-enhancement and null hypotheses were compared. Results provided no substantive evidence supporting the idea that having preference for or regularly playing commercially available games was positively associated with reasoning ability. Evidence ranged from equivocal to very strong in support for the null hypothesis over what was predicted. The discussion focuses on the value of Bayesian hypothesis testing for investigating electronic gaming effects, the importance of open science practices, and pre-registered designs to improve the quality of future work.

  11. A large scale test of the gaming-enhancement hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K; Wang, John C

    2016-01-01

    A growing research literature suggests that regular electronic game play and game-based training programs may confer practically significant benefits to cognitive functioning. Most evidence supporting this idea, the gaming-enhancement hypothesis , has been collected in small-scale studies of university students and older adults. This research investigated the hypothesis in a general way with a large sample of 1,847 school-aged children. Our aim was to examine the relations between young people's gaming experiences and an objective test of reasoning performance. Using a Bayesian hypothesis testing approach, evidence for the gaming-enhancement and null hypotheses were compared. Results provided no substantive evidence supporting the idea that having preference for or regularly playing commercially available games was positively associated with reasoning ability. Evidence ranged from equivocal to very strong in support for the null hypothesis over what was predicted. The discussion focuses on the value of Bayesian hypothesis testing for investigating electronic gaming effects, the importance of open science practices, and pre-registered designs to improve the quality of future work.

  12. Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Saboori, Behnaz; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam during the period 1981–2011. To realize the goals of this study, a pollution model was established applying the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology. The results revealed that the pollution haven hypothesis does exist in Vietnam because capital increases pollution. In addition, imports also increase pollution which indicates that most of Vietnam's imported products are energy intensive and highly polluted. However, exports have no effect on pollution which indicates that the level of exports is not significant enough to affect pollution. Moreover, fossil fuel energy consumption increases pollution while renewable energy consumption has no significant effect in reducing pollution. Furthermore, labor force reduces pollution since most of Vietnam's labor force is in the agricultural and services sectors which are less energy intensive than the industrial sector. Based on the obtained results, the EKC hypothesis does not exist because the relationship between GDP and pollution is positive in both the short and long run. - Highlights: • The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam is investigated. • The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology was utilized. • The EKC hypothesis does not exist

  13. Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P.; Burkart, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    If social learning is more efficient than independent individual exploration, animals should learn vital cultural skills exclusively, and routine skills faster, through social learning, provided they actually use social learning preferentially. Animals with opportunities for social learning indeed do so. Moreover, more frequent opportunities for social learning should boost an individual's repertoire of learned skills. This prediction is confirmed by comparisons among wild great ape populations and by social deprivation and enculturation experiments. These findings shaped the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which complements the traditional benefit hypotheses for the evolution of intelligence by specifying the conditions in which these benefits can be reaped. The evolutionary version of the hypothesis argues that species with frequent opportunities for social learning should more readily respond to selection for a greater number of learned skills. Because improved social learning also improves asocial learning, the hypothesis predicts a positive interspecific correlation between social-learning performance and individual learning ability. Variation among primates supports this prediction. The hypothesis also predicts that more heavily cultural species should be more intelligent. Preliminary tests involving birds and mammals support this prediction too. The cultural intelligence hypothesis can also account for the unusual cognitive abilities of humans, as well as our unique mechanisms of skill transfer. PMID:21357223

  14. Dopamine and reward: the anhedonia hypothesis 30 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Roy A

    2008-10-01

    The anhedonia hypothesis--that brain dopamine plays a critical role in the subjective pleasure associated with positive rewards--was intended to draw the attention of psychiatrists to the growing evidence that dopamine plays a critical role in the objective reinforcement and incentive motivation associated with food and water, brain stimulation reward, and psychomotor stimulant and opiate reward. The hypothesis called to attention the apparent paradox that neuroleptics, drugs used to treat a condition involving anhedonia (schizophrenia), attenuated in laboratory animals the positive reinforcement that we normally associate with pleasure. The hypothesis held only brief interest for psychiatrists, who pointed out that the animal studies reflected acute actions of neuroleptics whereas the treatment of schizophrenia appears to result from neuroadaptations to chronic neuroleptic administration, and that it is the positive symptoms of schizophrenia that neuroleptics alleviate, rather than the negative symptoms that include anhedonia. Perhaps for these reasons, the hypothesis has had minimal impact in the psychiatric literature. Despite its limited heuristic value for the understanding of schizophrenia, however, the anhedonia hypothesis has had major impact on biological theories of reinforcement, motivation, and addiction. Brain dopamine plays a very important role in reinforcement of response habits, conditioned preferences, and synaptic plasticity in cellular models of learning and memory. The notion that dopamine plays a dominant role in reinforcement is fundamental to the psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction, to most neuroadaptation theories of addiction, and to current theories of conditioned reinforcement and reward prediction. Properly understood, it is also fundamental to recent theories of incentive motivation.

  15. Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P; Burkart, Judith M

    2011-04-12

    If social learning is more efficient than independent individual exploration, animals should learn vital cultural skills exclusively, and routine skills faster, through social learning, provided they actually use social learning preferentially. Animals with opportunities for social learning indeed do so. Moreover, more frequent opportunities for social learning should boost an individual's repertoire of learned skills. This prediction is confirmed by comparisons among wild great ape populations and by social deprivation and enculturation experiments. These findings shaped the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which complements the traditional benefit hypotheses for the evolution of intelligence by specifying the conditions in which these benefits can be reaped. The evolutionary version of the hypothesis argues that species with frequent opportunities for social learning should more readily respond to selection for a greater number of learned skills. Because improved social learning also improves asocial learning, the hypothesis predicts a positive interspecific correlation between social-learning performance and individual learning ability. Variation among primates supports this prediction. The hypothesis also predicts that more heavily cultural species should be more intelligent. Preliminary tests involving birds and mammals support this prediction too. The cultural intelligence hypothesis can also account for the unusual cognitive abilities of humans, as well as our unique mechanisms of skill transfer.

  16. Health and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Kjærgård, Bente

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the ‘duality of structure’ is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering...... the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems...... or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion...

  17. ICT innovations for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Aebischer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators.   Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...

  18. Engineering students' sustainability approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The empirical base of the article is a nation-wide, web-based survey sent to all newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark commencing their education in the fall term 2010. The response rate was 46%. The survey focused on a variety of different aspects of what can be conceived as sustainability. By means of cluster analysis, three engineering student approaches to sustainability are identified and described. The article provides knowledge on the different prerequisites of engineering students in relation to the role of sustainability in engineering. This information is important input to educators trying to target new engineering students and contribute to the provision of engineers equipped to meet sustainability challenges.

  19. Sustainable Concrete Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern over global warming and significant ecological changes requires sustainable development in all fields of science and technology. Concrete not only consumes huge amount of energy and natural sources, but also emits large amount of CO2, mainly due to the production of cement. It is evident that such large amount of concrete production has put significant impact on the energy, resource, environment, and ecology of the society. Hence, how to develop the concrete technology in a sustainable way has become a significant issue. In this paper, some of Korean researches for sustainable development of concrete are presented. These are sustainable strengthening for deteriorated concrete structure, sustainable reinforcement of new concrete structure, sustainable concrete using recycled aggregate and supplementary cementing materials and finally application of each technique to precast concrete.

  20. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... When designing sustainable housing, energy optimization and satisfactory indoor climates are central issues that need to be incorporated from early design phases if to reach a coherent design. It might also be argued that the energy consumption of contemporary buildings only plays a rela-tively minor...

  1. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  2. Reactive Strength Index: A Poor Indicator of Reactive Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Robin; Kenny, Ian; Harrison, Drew

    2017-11-28

    The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0.3 m box onto a force platform with dependent variables contact time (CT), landing time (TLand), push-off time (TPush), flight time (FT), jump height (JH), reactive strength index (RSI, calculated as JH / CT), reactive strength ratio (RSR, calculated as FT / CT) and vertical leg spring stiffness (Kvert) recorded. Pearson's correlation test found very high to near perfect relationships between RSI and RSR (r = 0.91 to 0.97), with mixed relationships found between RSI, RSR and the key performance variables, (Men: r = -0.86 to -0.71 between RSI/RSR and CT, r = 0.80 to 0.92 between RSI/RSR and JH; Women: r = -0.85 to -0.56 between RSR and CT, r = 0.71 between RSI and JH). This study demonstrates that the method of assessing reactive strength (RSI versus RSR) may be influenced by the performance strategies adopted i.e. whether an athlete achieves their best reactive strength scores via low CTs, high JHs or a combination. Coaches are advised to limit the variability in performance strategies by implementing upper and / or lower CT thresholds to accurately compare performances between individuals.

  3. How Myopia Archetypes Lead to Non-Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Mella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Much of the literature on sustainability has tried to define the “virtuous behaviour” of “agents” (man and his social and economic organizations so that it respects the “sustainability constraint.” This paper provides a “mirror-image” approach, based on the idea that it is above all necessary to understand why men and organizations tend to develop, at times unconsciously and dishonestly, damaging behaviour that turns into non-sustainability. In other words, to orient man toward sustainable behaviour it is indispensable to understand the “reasons” for the behaviour that produces non-sustainable effects. Regarding sustainability problems, we shall introduce the hypothesis that non-sustainable behaviour is not irrational in an absolute sense but derives from the action of three connected “behavioural archetypes” that accurately describe the “natural” behaviour of individuals in pursuing their aims: behaving in a way that will provide evident short-term advantages, both individual and local, while ignoring the disadvantages and harm such behaviour produces in the long run, at the collective and global level. To solve the problem, we shall try to identify the “levers” that weaken the archetypes and reverse their effects, thereby requiring sacrifices which are unacceptable to some. The paper presents four emblematic cases of non-sustainable behaviour and demonstrates that sustainability must become a fundamental strategic driver.

  4. Motivations Behind Sustainable Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Vörösmarty, Gyöngyi; Dobos, Imre; Tátrai, Tünde

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability issues in purchasing are receiving greater attention. Literature is rapidly growing, with several research programs being initiated to investigate the topic. This study presents the results of a research project which aims to reveal and structure the motivating forces leading companies to make efforts in sustainability purchasing and the means used to attain achievements in some fields of sustainability. Results presented in the literature are scattered in terms of ...

  5. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk]. [nl

  6. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk] [nl

  7. Managing Supplier Sustainability Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Harilainen, Hanna-Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Supply chains are increasingly global, often reaching to developing regions. The media pressure brand owners to be responsible, but a product is only as sustainable as the practices of all the companies involved in manufacturing it are. It’s not enough that the brand owner acts responsibly; sustainable practices have to reach component and raw material suppliers upstream. Image risk has often been recognized as reason for investing in sustainability. In the supply chain context, supplier m...

  8. Sustainability and Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnikov, Catălina

    2012-01-01

    The relevant and, above all, remarkable feature of sustainability is due to its "duality": on the one hand, it is an indispensable element within the companies even if, on the other hand, it increases the costs of many activities and processes. Facing the challenge of sustainability will determine and create, in the coming years, emerging organizational forms. If ten years ago, many managers clearly expressed their doubts regarding the financial feasibility of sustainability, today, they admi...

  9. Towards a Sustainable Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Patuel Chust, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    The growing awareness of the importance of ecology in the last decades has led many architects to rethink their construction proposals to make them more respectful of the environment and sustainability. The present article analyzes the legislation, conferences and international declarations (Earth Summit, Declaration of Interdependence for a Sustainable Future, Introduction to Sustainable Design) that have advocated the practice of a more ecological architecture. Also examined ...

  10. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important ... Few chemically different dyes such as Reactive Black (75%), Reactive Yellow (70%),. Reactive Red (33%) and ..... Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin degrading ...

  11. Substation Reactive Power Regulation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Chunwang; Ma, Daqing

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing requirements on the power supply quality and reliability of distribution network, voltage and reactive power regulation of substations has become one of the indispensable ways to ensure voltage quality and reactive power balance and to improve the economy and reliability of distribution network. Therefore, it is a general concern of the current power workers and operators that what kind of flexible and effective control method should be used to adjust the on-load tap-changer (OLTC) transformer and shunt compensation capacitor in a substation to achieve reactive power balance in situ, improve voltage pass rate, increase power factor and reduce active power loss. In this paper, based on the traditional nine-zone diagram and combining with the characteristics of substation, a fuzzy variable-center nine-zone diagram control method is proposed and used to make a comprehensive regulation of substation voltage and reactive power. Through the calculation and simulation of the example, this method is proved to have satisfactorily reconciled the contradiction between reactive power and voltage in real-time control and achieved the basic goal of real-time control of the substation, providing a reference value to the practical application of the substation real-time control method.

  12. A comparator-hypothesis account of biased contingency detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Barberia, Itxaso

    2018-02-12

    Our ability to detect statistical dependencies between different events in the environment is strongly biased by the number of coincidences between them. Even when there is no true covariation between a cue and an outcome, if the marginal probability of either of them is high, people tend to perceive some degree of statistical contingency between both events. The present paper explores the ability of the Comparator Hypothesis to explain the general pattern of results observed in this literature. Our simulations show that this model can account for the biasing effects of the marginal probabilities of cues and outcomes. Furthermore, the overall fit of the Comparator Hypothesis to a sample of experimental conditions from previous studies is comparable to that of the popular Rescorla-Wagner model. These results should encourage researchers to further explore and put to the test the predictions of the Comparator Hypothesis in the domain of biased contingency detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The large numbers hypothesis and a relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y.K.; Prokhovnik, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    A way to reconcile Dirac's large numbers hypothesis and Einstein's theory of gravitation was recently suggested by Lau (1985). It is characterized by the conjecture of a time-dependent cosmological term and gravitational term in Einstein's field equations. Motivated by this conjecture and the large numbers hypothesis, we formulate here a scalar-tensor theory in terms of an action principle. The cosmological term is required to be spatially dependent as well as time dependent in general. The theory developed is appled to a cosmological model compatible with the large numbers hypothesis. The time-dependent form of the cosmological term and the scalar potential are then deduced. A possible explanation of the smallness of the cosmological term is also given and the possible significance of the scalar field is speculated

  14. Universality hypothesis breakdown at one-loop order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P. R. S.

    2018-05-01

    We probe the universality hypothesis by analytically computing the at least two-loop corrections to the critical exponents for q -deformed O (N ) self-interacting λ ϕ4 scalar field theories through six distinct and independent field-theoretic renormalization group methods and ɛ -expansion techniques. We show that the effect of q deformation on the one-loop corrections to the q -deformed critical exponents is null, so the universality hypothesis is broken down at this loop order. Such an effect emerges only at the two-loop and higher levels, and the validity of the universality hypothesis is restored. The q -deformed critical exponents obtained through the six methods are the same and, furthermore, reduce to their nondeformed values in the appropriated limit.

  15. Unicorns do exist: a tutorial on "proving" the null hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiner, David L

    2003-12-01

    Introductory statistics classes teach us that we can never prove the null hypothesis; all we can do is reject or fail to reject it. However, there are times when it is necessary to try to prove the nonexistence of a difference between groups. This most often happens within the context of comparing a new treatment against an established one and showing that the new intervention is not inferior to the standard. This article first outlines the logic of "noninferiority" testing by differentiating between the null hypothesis (that which we are trying to nullify) and the "nill" hypothesis (there is no difference), reversing the role of the null and alternate hypotheses, and defining an interval within which groups are said to be equivalent. We then work through an example and show how to calculate sample sizes for noninferiority studies.

  16. Almost-Quantum Correlations Violate the No-Restriction Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Ana Belén; Guryanova, Yelena; Acín, Antonio; Navascués, Miguel

    2018-05-18

    To identify which principles characterize quantum correlations, it is essential to understand in which sense this set of correlations differs from that of almost-quantum correlations. We solve this problem by invoking the so-called no-restriction hypothesis, an explicit and natural axiom in many reconstructions of quantum theory stating that the set of possible measurements is the dual of the set of states. We prove that, contrary to quantum correlations, no generalized probabilistic theory satisfying the no-restriction hypothesis is able to reproduce the set of almost-quantum correlations. Therefore, any theory whose correlations are exactly, or very close to, the almost-quantum correlations necessarily requires a rule limiting the possible measurements. Our results suggest that the no-restriction hypothesis may play a fundamental role in singling out the set of quantum correlations among other nonsignaling ones.

  17. Motor synergies and the equilibrium-point hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L

    2010-07-01

    The article offers a way to unite three recent developments in the field of motor control and coordination: (1) The notion of synergies is introduced based on the principle of motor abundance; (2) The uncontrolled manifold hypothesis is described as offering a computational framework to identify and quantify synergies; and (3) The equilibrium-point hypothesis is described for a single muscle, single joint, and multijoint systems. Merging these concepts into a single coherent scheme requires focusing on control variables rather than performance variables. The principle of minimal final action is formulated as the guiding principle within the referent configuration hypothesis. Motor actions are associated with setting two types of variables by a controller, those that ultimately define average performance patterns and those that define associated synergies. Predictions of the suggested scheme are reviewed, such as the phenomenon of anticipatory synergy adjustments, quick actions without changes in synergies, atypical synergies, and changes in synergies with practice. A few models are briefly reviewed.

  18. On Using Taylor's Hypothesis for Three-Dimensional Mixing Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Richard L.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, errors in using Taylor's hypothesis to transform measurements obtained in a temporal (or phase) frame onto a spatial one were evaluated. For the first time, phase-averaged ('real') spanwise and streamwise vorticity data measured on a three-dimensional grid were compared directly to those obtained using Taylor's hypothesis. The results show that even the qualitative features of the spanwise and streamwise vorticity distributions given by the two techniques can be very different. This is particularly true in the region of the spanwise roller pairing. The phase-averaged spanwise and streamwise peak vorticity levels given by Taylor's hypothesis are typically lower (by up to 40%) compared to the real measurements.

  19. Sustainable Management of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information to organizations to help them implement sustainable food management, including joining the Food Recovery Challenge. To provide education and information to communities and concerned citizens.

  20. Sustainable wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their

  1. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, the work shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia, where aspects...

  2. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...

  3. The frequentist implications of optional stopping on Bayesian hypothesis tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Adam N; Hills, Thomas T

    2014-04-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the most commonly used statistical methodology in psychology. The probability of achieving a value as extreme or more extreme than the statistic obtained from the data is evaluated, and if it is low enough, the null hypothesis is rejected. However, because common experimental practice often clashes with the assumptions underlying NHST, these calculated probabilities are often incorrect. Most commonly, experimenters use tests that assume that sample sizes are fixed in advance of data collection but then use the data to determine when to stop; in the limit, experimenters can use data monitoring to guarantee that the null hypothesis will be rejected. Bayesian hypothesis testing (BHT) provides a solution to these ills because the stopping rule used is irrelevant to the calculation of a Bayes factor. In addition, there are strong mathematical guarantees on the frequentist properties of BHT that are comforting for researchers concerned that stopping rules could influence the Bayes factors produced. Here, we show that these guaranteed bounds have limited scope and often do not apply in psychological research. Specifically, we quantitatively demonstrate the impact of optional stopping on the resulting Bayes factors in two common situations: (1) when the truth is a combination of the hypotheses, such as in a heterogeneous population, and (2) when a hypothesis is composite-taking multiple parameter values-such as the alternative hypothesis in a t-test. We found that, for these situations, while the Bayesian interpretation remains correct regardless of the stopping rule used, the choice of stopping rule can, in some situations, greatly increase the chance of experimenters finding evidence in the direction they desire. We suggest ways to control these frequentist implications of stopping rules on BHT.

  4. Thermalization without eigenstate thermalization hypothesis after a quantum quench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takashi; Shiraishi, Naoto

    2017-08-01

    Nonequilibrium dynamics of a nonintegrable system without the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis is studied. It is shown that, in the thermodynamic limit, this model thermalizes after an arbitrary quantum quench at finite temperature, although it does not satisfy the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. In contrast, when the system size is finite and the temperature is low enough, the system may not thermalize. In this case, the steady state is well described by the generalized Gibbs ensemble constructed by using highly nonlocal conserved quantities. We also show that this model exhibits prethermalization, in which the prethermalized state is characterized by nonthermal energy eigenstates.

  5. Tunguska, 1908: the gas pouch and soil fluidization hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Siberian taiga explosion of 30 June 1908 remains one of the great mysteries of the 20th century: millions of trees put down over an area of 2200 km2 without trace of a crater or meteorite fragments. Hundred years of failed searches have followed, resulting in as many flawed hypothesis which could not offer satisfactory explanations: meteorite, comet, UFO, etc. In the author's opinion, the cause is that the energy the explorers looked for was simply not there! The author's hypothesis is that a meteoroid encountered a gas pouch in the atmosphere, producing a devastating explosion, its effects being amplified by soil fluidization.

  6. The equilibrium-point hypothesis--past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G; Levin, Mindy F

    2009-01-01

    This chapter is a brief account of fundamentals of the equilibrium-point hypothesis or more adequately called the threshold control theory (TCT). It also compares the TCT with other approaches to motor control. The basic notions of the TCT are reviewed with a major focus on solutions to the problems of multi-muscle and multi-degrees of freedom redundancy. The TCT incorporates cognitive aspects by explaining how neurons recognize that internal (neural) and external (environmental) events match each other. These aspects as well as how motor learning occurs are subjects of further development of the TCT hypothesis.

  7. The cosmic censorship hypothesis and the positive energy conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, P.S.; Wald, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The position so far is summarized. Penrose derived an inequality; if a data set was found to violate this then the assumptions deriving the inequality must be false. In this case it could show a counter example to the cosmic censorship hypothesis. The authors have shown elsewhere that a positive energy argument of Geroch can be modified to rule out a violation of Penrose's inequality with any time-symmetric initial data set whose apparent horizon consists of a single component. This increases confidence in the hypothesis and also indicates there may be a close relationship between this conjecture and the positive energy conjecture. (UK)

  8. Eat dirt and avoid atopy: the hygiene hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Anil

    2007-01-01

    The explosive rise in the incidence of atopic diseases in the Western developed countries can be explained on the basis of the so-called "hygiene hypothesis". In short, it attributes the rising incidence of atopic dermatitis to reduced exposure to various childhood infections and bacterial endotoxins. Reduced exposure to dirt in the clean environment results in a skewed development of the immune system which results in an abnormal allergic response to various environmental allergens which are otherwise innocuous. This article reviews the historical aspects, epidemiological and immunological basis of the hygiene hypothesis and implications for Indian conditions.

  9. Sustaining Collective Action in Urbanizing China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuang, Xianwen; Goebel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The recent years have seen a proliferation of scholarship on protests and other forms of collective action in China. Important insights have been gained into how conflicts between social groups and local governments begin, which strategies and instruments protesters apply, and under which...... challenges of sustaining collective action in China: the continuing existence of substantial grievances, the re-activation of strong social ties, the presence of unifying frames and an adaptive protest leadership. The comparison shows that especially the last factor is crucial: while the two villages were...... similar in all other respects, leadership in Village B was far more adaptive in Village A, which goes a long way towards explaining why collective action could be sustained twice as long in Village B....

  10. The reactivity of natural phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    This review surveys physicochemical data of natural phenols published in recent years. The structures of some compounds of this class are given. A complete set of the dissociation energies of the O-H bonds for 71 natural phenols is presented. Kinetic characteristics of the reactions of peroxyl, alkyl and thiyl radicals with natural phenols, exchange reactions of phenoxyl radicals with phenols and reactions of phenoxyl radicals with lipids, hydroperoxides, cysteine and ascorbic acid are compiled and described systematically. The reactivity of phenols in radical reactions and the factors that determine the reactivity (the enthalpy of reaction, triplet repulsion, the electronegativities of atoms at the reaction centre, the presence of pi-electrons adjacent to the reaction centre, the radii of atoms at the reaction centre, steric hindrance, the force constants of the reacting bonds) are discussed. An important role of hydrogen bonding between surrounding molecules and the OH groups of natural phenols in decreasing their reactivities is noted.

  11. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Our current society is not successful in mitigation of global social and environmental challenges. States lack legal tools, and sometimes also the will, to secure social and environmental interests transnationally and the existing soft and private regulation is criticized for its weak legitimacy...... but also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability...... contractual clauses (SCCs) in international supply chain agreements may help to overcome the regulatory gap in relation to global sustainability while concurrently protect companies against potential social, economic and legal risks threatening in connection to unethical behaviour of their suppliers. As parts...

  12. Treatment of dyeing wastewater including reactive dyes (Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal growth was not observed at pH 2. Maximum fungal decolourisation ocurred at pH 3 for anionic reactive dyes (RR, RBB, RB) and pH 6 for cationic MB dye. The fungal dye bioremoval was associated with the surface charge of the fungus due to electrostatic interactions. Growing R. arrhizus strain decolourised 100% of ...

  13. Memory reactivation improves visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar-Halpert, Rotem; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Nemni, Shlomi; Rosenblatt, Jonathan D; Censor, Nitzan

    2017-10-01

    Human perception thresholds can improve through learning. Here we report findings challenging the fundamental 'practice makes perfect' basis of procedural learning theory, showing that brief reactivations of encoded visual memories are sufficient to improve perceptual discrimination thresholds. Learning was comparable to standard practice-induced learning and was not due to short training per se, nor to an epiphenomenon of primed retrieval enhancement. The results demonstrate that basic perceptual functions can be substantially improved by memory reactivation, supporting a new account of perceptual learning dynamics.

  14. Green innovation and sustainable industrial systems within sustainability and company improvement perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edi Nugroho Soebandrija, Khristian

    2017-12-01

    This paper comprises discussion of Green Innovation and Sustainable Industrial Systems within Sustainability and Company Improvement Perspective of beverage manufacturing company (BMC). The stakeholder theory is the grand theory for the company improvement perspective in this paper. The data processing in this paper is conducted through software which are SEM-PLS with SmartPLS 2.0 and SPSS 19. The specified objective of this paper has focus on sustainability as one of 6 variables, in lieu of those 6 variables as the big picture. The reason behind this focus on sustainability is the fact that there are assorted challenges in sustainability that is ranging from economic, environment and company perspectives. Those challenges in sustainability include the sustainable service supply chain management and its involvement of society. The overall objective is to analyze relationship hypothesis of 6 variables, 4 of them (leadership, organizational learning, innovation, and performance) are based on Malcolm Baldrige’s performance excellence concept to achieve sustainability and competitive advantage through company-competitor and customer questionnaire, and its relation to Total Quality Management (TQM) and Quality Management System (QMS). In conclusion, the spearheaded of company improvement in this paper is in term of consumer satisfaction through 99.997% quality standards. These can be achieved by ambidexterity through exploitation and exploration innovation. Furthermore, in this paper, TQM enables to obtain popularity brand index achievement that is greater than 45.9%. Subsequently, ISO22000 of food security standard encompasses quality standard of ISO9000 and HACCP. Through the ambidexterity of exploitation and exploration (Non Standard Product Inspection) NOSPI machine, the company improvement generates the achievement of 75% automation, 99.997% quality control standard and 80% of waste reduction.

  15. Sustainable building organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.

    1998-01-01

    Sustainable Development and Sustainable Building is mainly a question of (human) environmentally-conscious Organisation and Management Criteria are needed in order to capture the best practices in the field. Therefore we developed modells and methods, which help to choose the most adequate

  16. At Home with Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    of default rules in subconscious decision-making, this research finds that, ultimately, awareness drives the demand necessary for the creation of sustainable consumption. Whereas direct appeal to individuals has a disappointing level of influence on sustainability choices, it is understood that green...

  17. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...

  18. Sustainability in Software Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfram, N.J.E.; Lago, P.; Osborne, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The intersection between software engineering research and issues related to sustainability and green IT has been the subject of increasing attention. In spite of that, we observe that sustainability is still not clearly defined, or understood, in the field of software engineering. This lack of

  19. Sustainable Agriculture: Cover Cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture practices are increasingly being used by farmers to maintain soil quality, increase biodiversity, and promote production of food that is environmentally safe. There are several types of sustainable agriculture practices such as organic farming, crop rotation, and aquaculture. This lesson plan focuses on the sustainable…

  20. Sustaining Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak

    2003-01-01

    The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...

  1. Engineering Students' Sustainability Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…

  2. Thermodynamics and sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Rene

    1997-01-01

    It is the objective of this thesis to demonstrate exergy analysis as a powerful instrument to obtain sustainable development. An important aspect of sustainable development is the minimisation of irreversibilities caused by the use of non-renewables. In order to limit the scope of this thesis

  3. Sustainability at BPA 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.

  4. Gut microbiota sustains hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim

    2017-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Josefsdottir et al provide substantial evidence that commensal gut microbes regulate and sustain normal steady-state hematopoiesis.1......In this issue of Blood, Josefsdottir et al provide substantial evidence that commensal gut microbes regulate and sustain normal steady-state hematopoiesis.1...

  5. Sustainable economic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellink, R.B.; Bennis, M.; Verbruggen, H.

    1999-01-01

    The paper introduces four scenarios for sustainable economic structures in the Netherlands for 2030. The aim of this paper is to provide possible answers to what a sustainable future might look like in terms of alternative economic structures. To this end, an empirical economy-ecology model is

  6. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  7. Leading Sustainability in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Katie

    2016-01-01

    What is the role of schools, and more specifically school leadership, in the transition to a sustainable future for humankind? What different forms of leadership are needed to enable this role? The challenges are huge and complex and for those of us engaged in promoting sustainability learning, it is clear that the issue has never been more…

  8. Aesthetics of sustainable architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Hill, G.; Sauerbruch, M.; Hutton, L.; Knowles, R.; Bothwell, K.; Brennan, J.; Jauslin, D.; Holzheu, H.; AlSayyad, N.; Arboleda, G.; Bharne, V.; Røstvik, H.; Kuma, K.; Sunikka-Blank, M.; Glaser, M.; Pero, E.; Sjkonsberg, M.; Teuffel, P.; Mangone, G.; Finocchiaro, L.; Hestnes, A.; Briggs, D.; Frampton, K.; Lee, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to reveal, explore and further the debate on the aesthetic potentials of sustainable architecture and its practice. This book opens a new area of scholarship and discourse in the design and production of sustainable architecture, one that is based in aesthetics. The

  9. Sustaining the wild equals sustaining the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G

    1994-01-01

    Sustainable development and carrying capacity are concepts that denote meeting society's needs without compromising the survival of future generations. The United States and other industrialized countries are pursuing a self-destructive course when fueling their economies by consuming their capital and degrading and depleting their resource base. Maximum exploitation of all resources has been the guiding ethic without paying respect to the environmental consequences. A sustainable society is still possible if strong political leadership and an ecologically literate society with an environmental ethic evolves. In the 1990s the world's population is calculated to increase to 6.3 billion people, the population of the United States already exceeds its carrying capacity and neither of these population increases are sustainable in the long run. In 1916 the US had 98 million people, and in 1994 it had about 260 million and it is still growing. The consequences are already obvious: the National Park System had just 358,000 visitors in 1916, 33 million in 1950, 172 million in 1970, and over 270 million in 1993. Often economists are an impediment to a sustainable economy because they fail to factor in the accumulated environmental deficit or annual cost of environmental deterioration when measuring annual economic output. Fortunately, in the US a conservation ethic is beginning to develop that will eventually become a strong social, political, and economic force. For instance, Wisconsin has mandated environmental education in every school from kindergarten through 12th grade. Such a program will provide the moral and political support to move the country to a sustainable economy. Even losing nations have recovered from World War II, but there is no recovery from destroyed ecosystems.

  10. New Hypothesis and Theory about Functions of Sleep and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola N. Ilanković

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: IEP-P1 could be a new biological marker to distinction of sleep organization in different psychotic states and other states of altered consciousness. The developed statistical models could be the basis for new hypothesis and theories about functions of sleep and dreams.

  11. A test of the reward-value hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexandra E; Dalecki, Stefan J; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2017-03-01

    Rats retain source memory (memory for the origin of information) over a retention interval of at least 1 week, whereas their spatial working memory (radial maze locations) decays within approximately 1 day. We have argued that different forgetting functions dissociate memory systems. However, the two tasks, in our previous work, used different reward values. The source memory task used multiple pellets of a preferred food flavor (chocolate), whereas the spatial working memory task provided access to a single pellet of standard chow-flavored food at each location. Thus, according to the reward-value hypothesis, enhanced performance in the source memory task stems from enhanced encoding/memory of a preferred reward. We tested the reward-value hypothesis by using a standard 8-arm radial maze task to compare spatial working memory accuracy of rats rewarded with either multiple chocolate or chow pellets at each location using a between-subjects design. The reward-value hypothesis predicts superior accuracy for high-valued rewards. We documented equivalent spatial memory accuracy for high- and low-value rewards. Importantly, a 24-h retention interval produced equivalent spatial working memory accuracy for both flavors. These data are inconsistent with the reward-value hypothesis and suggest that reward value does not explain our earlier findings that source memory survives unusually long retention intervals.

  12. Revisiting Hudson’s (1992) OO = O2 hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibuya, Yoshikata; Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2018-01-01

    In an important paper on the English “double-object”, or ditransitive, construction, Richard Hudson proposes a hypothesis that conflates the ditransitive direct object, or O2, and the monotransitive direct object, or OO, into the same syntactic functional category. While making important departures...

  13. Hypothesis, Prediction, and Conclusion: Using Nature of Science Terminology Correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines the terms "hypothesis," "prediction," and "conclusion" and shows how to use the terms correctly in scientific investigations in both the school and science education research contexts. The scientific method, or hypothetico-deductive (HD) approach, is described and it is argued that an understanding of the scientific method,…

  14. A sequential hypothesis test based on a generalized Azuma inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijsbergen, D.P.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk

    We present a new power-one sequential hypothesis test based on a bound for the probability that a bounded zero-mean martingale ever crosses a curve of the form $a(n+k)^b$. The proof of the bound is of independent interest.

  15. Planned Hypothesis Tests Are Not Necessarily Exempt from Multiplicity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frane, Andrew V.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research often involves testing more than one hypothesis at a time, which can inflate the probability that a Type I error (false discovery) will occur. To prevent this Type I error inflation, adjustments can be made to the testing procedure that compensate for the number of tests. Yet many researchers believe that such adjustments are…

  16. A default Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations and partial correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, R.; Wagenmakers, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a default Bayesian hypothesis test for the presence of a correlation or a partial correlation. The test is a direct application of Bayesian techniques for variable selection in regression models. The test is easy to apply and yields practical advantages that the standard frequentist tests

  17. Semiparametric Power Envelopes for Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael

    This paper derives asymptotic power envelopes for tests of the unit root hypothesis in a zero-mean AR(1) model. The power envelopes are derived using the limits of experiments approach and are semiparametric in the sense that the underlying error distribution is treated as an unknown...

  18. Using Employer Hiring Behavior to Test the Educational Signaling Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, J.W.; van Ours, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a test of the educational signaling hypothesis.If employers use education as a signal in the hiring process, they will rely more on education when less is otherwise known about applicants.We nd that employers are more likely to lower educational standards when an informal, more

  19. Explorations in Statistics: Hypothesis Tests and P Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This second installment of "Explorations in Statistics" delves into test statistics and P values, two concepts fundamental to the test of a scientific null hypothesis. The essence of a test statistic is that it compares what…

  20. THE BARKER HYPOTHESIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review covers the past year’s papers germane to the Barker hypothesis. While much of the literature has centered on maternal and developmental nutrition, new findings have emerged on the ability of toxic exposures during development to impact fetal/developmental programming....

  1. Tax Evasion, Information Reporting, and the Regressive Bias Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boserup, Simon Halphen; Pinje, Jori Veng

    A robust prediction from the tax evasion literature is that optimal auditing induces a regressive bias in effective tax rates compared to statutory rates. If correct, this will have important distributional consequences. Nevertheless, the regressive bias hypothesis has never been tested empirically...

  2. Developmental Dyslexia: The Visual Attention Span Deficit Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Tainturier, Marie Josephe; Valdois, Sylviane

    2007-01-01

    The visual attention (VA) span is defined as the amount of distinct visual elements which can be processed in parallel in a multi-element array. Both recent empirical data and theoretical accounts suggest that a VA span deficit might contribute to developmental dyslexia, independently of a phonological disorder. In this study, this hypothesis was…

  3. The "Discouraged-Business-Major" Hypothesis: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangos, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…

  4. The Twin Deficits Hypothesis: An Empirical Analysis for Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manamba Epaphra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between current account and government budget deficits in Tanzania. The paper tests the validity of the twin deficits hypothesis, using annual time series data for the 1966-2015 period. The paper is thought to be significant because the concept of the twin deficit hypothesis is fraught with controversy. Some researches support the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between current account deficits and fiscal deficits in the economy while others do not. In this paper, the empirical tests fail to reject the twin deficits hypothesis, indicating that rising budget deficits put more strain on the current account deficits in Tanzania. Specifically, the Vector Error Correction Model results support the conventional theory of a positive relationship between fiscal and external balances, with a relatively high speed of adjustment toward the equilibrium position. This evidence is consistent with a small open economy. To address the problem that may result from this kind of relationship, appropriate policy variables for reducing budget deficits such as reduction in non-development expenditure, enhancement of domestic revenue collection and actively fight corruption and tax evasion should be adopted. The government should also target export oriented firms and encourage an import substitution industry by creating favorable business environments.

  5. Etiology of common childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the adrenal hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Vestergaard, T.; Nielsen, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of infections in the first years of life modulates our immune system, and a low incidence of infections has been linked to an increased risk of common childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We here present a new interpretation of these observations--the adrenal hypothesis...

  6. Cross-system log file analysis for hypothesis testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Schoonenboom, Judith; Sligte, Henk; Moghnieh, Ayman; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Stefanov, Krassen; Lemmers, Ruud; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Glahn, C., Specht, M., Schoonenboom, J., Sligte, H., Moghnieh, A., Hernández-Leo, D. Stefanov, K., Lemmers, R., & Koper, R. (2008). Cross-system log file analysis for hypothesis testing. In H. Sligte & R. Koper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. Empowering Learners for

  7. The catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis of bipolar disorder revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Janowsky, David S; Olivier, Berend; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a unique illness characterized by fluctuations between mood states of depression and mania. Originally, an adrenergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis was postulated to underlie these different affective states. In this review, we update this hypothesis with recent findings from human and animal studies, suggesting that a catecholaminergic-cholinergic hypothesis may be more relevant. Evidence from neuroimaging studies, neuropharmacological interventions, and genetic associations support the notion that increased cholinergic functioning underlies depression, whereas increased activations of the catecholamines (dopamine and norepinephrine) underlie mania. Elevated functional acetylcholine during depression may affect both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a compensatory fashion. Increased functional dopamine and norepinephrine during mania on the other hand may affect receptor expression and functioning of dopamine reuptake transporters. Despite increasing evidence supporting this hypothesis, a relationship between these two neurotransmitter systems that could explain cycling between states of depression and mania is missing. Future studies should focus on the influence of environmental stimuli and genetic susceptibilities that may affect the catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance underlying cycling between the affective states. Overall, observations from recent studies add important data to this revised balance theory of bipolar disorder, renewing interest in this field of research. PMID:25107282

  8. A "Projective" Test of the Golden Section Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chris; Adams-Webber, Jack

    1987-01-01

    In a projective test of the golden section hypothesis, 24 high school students rated themselves and 10 comic strip characters on basis of 12 bipolar constructs. Overall proportion of cartoon figures which subjects assigned to positive poles of constructs was very close to golden section. (Author/NB)

  9. The Lehman Sisters Hypothesis: an exploration of literature and bankers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article tests the Lehman Sisters Hypothesis in two complementary, although incomplete ways. It reviews the diverse empirical literature in behavioral, experimental, and neuroeconomics as well as related fields of behavioral research. And it presents the findings from an

  10. The Lehman Sisters Hypothesis: an exploration of literature and bankers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis article tests the Lehman Sisters Hypothesis in two complementary, although incomplete ways. It reviews the diverse empirical literature in behavioural, experimental, and neuroeconomics as well as related fields of behavioural research. And it presents the findings from an

  11. A Life-Course Perspective on the "Gateway Hypothesis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gundy, Karen; Rebellon, Cesar J.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on stress and life-course perspectives and using panel data from 1,286 south Florida young adults, we assess three critical questions regarding the role of marijuana in the "gateway hypothesis." First, does teen marijuana use independently (causally) affect subsequent use of more dangerous substances? Second, if so, does that…

  12. Shaping Up the Practice of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Howard; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses criticisms of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), suggesting that historical use of NHST was reasonable, and current users should read Sir Ronald Fisher's applied work. Notes that modifications to NHST and interpretations of its outcomes might better suit the needs of modern science. Concludes that NHST is most often useful as…

  13. Rational Variability in Children's Causal Inferences: The Sampling Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Stephanie; Bonawitz, Elizabeth; Gopnik, Alison; Griffiths, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a proposal--"The Sampling Hypothesis"--suggesting that the variability in young children's responses may be part of a rational strategy for inductive inference. In particular, we argue that young learners may be randomly sampling from the set of possible hypotheses that explain the observed data, producing different hypotheses with…

  14. Assessing Threat Detection Scenarios through Hypothesis Generation and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Publications. Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Fisher, S. D., Gettys, C. F...therefore, subsequent F statistics are reported using the Huynh-Feldt correction (Greenhouse-Geisser Epsilon > .775). Experienced and inexperienced...change in hypothesis using experience and initial confidence as predictors. In the Dog Day scenario, the regression was not statistically

  15. Fecundity of trees and the colonization-competition hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Clark; Shannon LaDeau; Ines Ibanez

    2004-01-01

    Colonization-competition trade-offs represent a stabilizing mechanism that is thought to maintain diversity of forest trees. If so, then early-successional species should benefit from high capacity to colonize new sites, and late-successional species should be good competitors. Tests of this hypothesis in forests have been precluded by an inability to estimate...

  16. Scalar fields and cosmic censorship hypothesis in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnovs'kij, S.L.; Gajdamaka, O.Z.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss an influence of the presence of some nonstandard scalar fields in the vicinity of naked time-like singularity on the type and properties of this singularity. The main goal is to study the validity of the Penrose's Cosmic Censorship hypothesis in the General Relativity

  17. Hypothesis Sampling Systems among Preoperational and Concrete Operational Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Barry; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Preoperational and concrete operational kindergarten children received stimulus differentiation training, either with or without feedback, and then a series of discrimination learning problems in which a blank trial probe was used to detect a child's hypothesis after each feedback trial. Piagetian stage theory requires elaboration to account…

  18. Bayesian Approaches to Imputation, Hypothesis Testing, and Parameter Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steven J.; Mackey, Beth

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces three applications of Bayesian inference to common and novel issues in second language research. After a review of the critiques of conventional hypothesis testing, our focus centers on ways Bayesian inference can be used for dealing with missing data, for testing theory-driven substantive hypotheses without a default null…

  19. Animal Models for Testing the DOHaD Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the seminal work in human populations by David Barker and colleagues, several species of animals have been used in the laboratory to test the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, sheep, pigs and non-human primates have bee...

  20. An investigation of the competitiveness hypothesis of the resource curse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Serino (Leandro)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper I investigate the competitiveness explanation of the resource curse: to what extent slow growth in primary producer countries is related to the properties of this pattern of trade specialization. To address this hypothesis that has not been adequately explored in the

  1. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.

  2. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...... these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers...... of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how...

  3. The challenge of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability in a world that has changed rapidly. The author suggests that ecological assumptions embedded in communism and capitalism are badly flawed, but the flaws were not apparent when there were fewer than a billion people on earth living at low technology levels. Sustaining the earth's vital signs is a challenge to our perception of time, and the numbers - population, environmental damage, oil consumption, waste disposal - are too large to comprehend easily. There is a global debate about what sustainability means. In fact the challenge of sustainability is 6 different challenges: overcoming the tendency to deny inconvenient realities; establishing accurate indicators of human and ecological health; questions about the kinds of technology necessary to make the transition to sustainability; education; the need for an emotional bond between man and nature; rebuilding the existing democratic institutions. 16 refs

  4. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  5. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  6. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability......Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...

  7. Sustainability and Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catălina Sitnikov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevant and, above all, remarkable feature of sustainability is due to its "duality": on the one hand, it is an indispensable element within the companies even if, on the other hand, it increases the costs of many activities and processes. Facing the challenge of sustainability will determine and create, in the coming years, emerging organizational forms. If ten years ago, many managers clearly expressed their doubts regarding the financial feasibility of sustainability, today, they admit the importance of sustainability for the competitive advantage of the companies they manage. Currently, companies have great opportunities to support build a sustainable global economy, becoming one of the solutions to the most pressing societal challenges. Whether it is about reducing pollution, global warming, reducing use of water resources and other limited resources or ensuring a better work environment for employees throughout the supply chain, there are many things that companies can and should do.

  8. What is sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgaertner, Stefan [Department of Sustainability Sciences, Leuphana University of Lueneburg (Germany); Department of Economics, Leuphana University of Lueneburg (Germany); Quaas, Martin [Department of Economics, University of Kiel (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    While economists have been contributing to the discussion of various aspects of sustainability for decades, it is just recently that the term 'sustainability economics' was used explicitly in the ecological, environmental, and resource economics community. Yet, the contributions that use the term 'sustainability economics' do not refer to any explicit definition of the term, and are not obviously joined by common or unifying characteristics, such as subject focus, methodology, or institutional background. The question thus arises: what is 'sustainability economics'? In this essay, we systematically define and delineate 'sustainability economics' in terms of its normative foundation, aims, subject matter, ontology, and genuine research agenda. (author)

  9. Sustainability and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    The widely used concept of sustainability is seldom precisely defined, and its clarification involves making up one's mind about a range of difficult questions. One line of research (bottom-up) takes sustaining a system over time as its starting point and then infers prescriptions from...... this requirement. Another line (top-down) takes an economical interpretation of the Brundtland Commission's suggestion that the present generation's needsatisfaction should not compromise the need-satisfaction of future generations as its starting point. It then measures sustainability at the level of society...... a clarified ethical goal, disagreements can arise. At present we do not know what substitutions will be possible in the future. This uncertainty clearly affects the prescriptions that follow from the measure of sustainability. Consequently, decisions about how to make future agriculture sustainable...

  10. Sustainability of abrasive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aurich, J.C.; Linke, B.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    , the content of technical presentations in STC G, and the results of a comprehensive literature study. The approach to sustainability includes environmental, social, and economic sustainability in accordance with the definition proposed in the Brundtland Report of the United Nations [156]. The main focus......This paper presents an overview of research on sustainability of abrasive processes. It incorporates results from a round robin study on ‘‘energy-efficiency of abrasive processes’’ which has been carried out within the scientific technical committee ‘‘abrasive processes’’ (STC G) of CIRP...... is on environmental and social sustainability. Economic sustainability will be considered as manufacturing productivity. © 2013 CIRP....

  11. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  12. The Effectiveness of the Comprehension Hypothesis: A Review on the Current Research on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehension Hypothesis (CH) is the most powerful hypothesis in the field of Second Language Acquisition despite the presence of the rivals the skill-building hypothesis, the output hypothesis, and the interaction hypothesis. The competing hypotheses state that consciously learned linguistic knowledge is a necessary step for the development…

  13. Simultaneity modeling analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Youssef, Adel; Hammoudeh, Shawkat; Omri, Anis

    2016-01-01

    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis has been recognized in the environmental economics literature since the 1990's. Various statistical tests have been used on time series, cross section and panel data related to single and groups of countries to validate this hypothesis. In the literature, the validation has always been conducted by using a single equation. However, since both the environment and income variables are endogenous, the estimation of a single equation model when simultaneity exists produces inconsistent and biased estimates. Therefore, we formulate simultaneous two-equation models to investigate the EKC hypothesis for fifty-six countries, using annual panel data from 1990 to 2012, with the end year is determined by data availability for the panel. To make the panel data analysis more homogeneous, we investigate this issue for a three income-based panels (namely, high-, middle-, and low-income panels) given several explanatory variables. Our results indicate that there exists a bidirectional causality between economic growth and pollution emissions in the overall panels. We also find that the relationship is nonlinear and has an inverted U-shape for all the considered panels. Policy implications are provided. - Highlights: • We have given a new look for the validity of the EKC hypothesis. • We formulate two-simultaneous equation models to validate this hypothesis for fifty-six countries. • We find a bidirectional causality between economic growth and pollution emissions. • We also discover an inverted U-shaped between environmental degradation and economic growth. • This relationship varies at different stages of economic development.

  14. A critique of statistical hypothesis testing in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somik Raha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many have documented the difficulty of using the current paradigm of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs to test and validate the effectiveness of alternative medical systems such as Ayurveda. This paper critiques the applicability of RCTs for all clinical knowledge-seeking endeavors, of which Ayurveda research is a part. This is done by examining statistical hypothesis testing, the underlying foundation of RCTs, from a practical and philosophical perspective. In the philosophical critique, the two main worldviews of probability are that of the Bayesian and the frequentist. The frequentist worldview is a special case of the Bayesian worldview requiring the unrealistic assumptions of knowing nothing about the universe and believing that all observations are unrelated to each other. Many have claimed that the first belief is necessary for science, and this claim is debunked by comparing variations in learning with different prior beliefs. Moving beyond the Bayesian and frequentist worldviews, the notion of hypothesis testing itself is challenged on the grounds that a hypothesis is an unclear distinction, and assigning a probability on an unclear distinction is an exercise that does not lead to clarity of action. This critique is of the theory itself and not any particular application of statistical hypothesis testing. A decision-making frame is proposed as a way of both addressing this critique and transcending ideological debates on probability. An example of a Bayesian decision-making approach is shown as an alternative to statistical hypothesis testing, utilizing data from a past clinical trial that studied the effect of Aspirin on heart attacks in a sample population of doctors. As a big reason for the prevalence of RCTs in academia is legislation requiring it, the ethics of legislating the use of statistical methods for clinical research is also examined.

  15. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A

    2017-10-01

    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  16. Hydroxyl radical reactivity with diethylhydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorse, R.A. Jr.; Lii, R.R.; Saunders, B.B.

    1977-01-01

    Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) reacts with gas-phase hydroxyl radicals on every third collision, whereas the corresponding reaction in aqueous solution is considerably slower. The high gas-phase reactivity explains the predicted inhibitory effect of DEHA in atmospheric smog processes. Results from the studies in the aqueous phase are helpful in predicting the mechanism of the reaction of DEHA with hydroxyl radicals

  17. Backup passive reactivity shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurko, Yu.M.; Kuznetsov, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs) for liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Principles of operation are described, advantages and drawbacks analyzed, and prospects for application in advanced fast reactors examined. Ways to improve reactor self-protection via reactivity feedback amplification and related problems are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs

  18. Insertion material for controlling reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Iwao.

    1994-01-01

    Moderators and a group of suspended materials having substantially the same density as the moderator are sealed in a hollow rod vertically inserted to a fuel assembly. Specifically, the group of suspended materials is adapted to have a density changing stepwise from density of the moderator at the exit temperature of the reactor core to that at the inlet temperature of the reactor core. Reactivity is selectively controlled for a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity by utilizing the density of the moderator and the distribution of the density. That is, if the power distribution is flat, the density of the moderators changes at a constant rate over the vertical direction of the reactor core and the suspended materials stay at a portion of the same density, to form a uniform distribution. Further, upon reactor shutdown, since the liquid temperature of the moderators is lowered and the density is increased, all of beads are collected at the upper portion to remove water at the upper portion of the reactor core of low burnup degree thereby selectively controlling the reactivity at a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity. (N.H.)

  19. Treating water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated

  20. Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guyot, A.; Tauer, K.; Asua, J.M.; Es, van J.J.G.S.; Gauthier, C.; Hellgren, A.C.; Sherrington, D.C.; Montoya-Goni, A.; Sjöberg, M.; Sindt, O.; Vidal, F.F.M.; Unzue, M.; Schoonbrood, H.A.S.; Schipper, E.T.W.M.; Lacroix-Desmazes, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work carried out during 3 years in a Network of the program "Human Capital and Mobility" of the European Union CHRX 93-0159 entitled "Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization for high performance polymers". A series of about 25 original papers will be published in

  1. Backup passive reactivity shutdown systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashurko, Yu M; Kuznetsov, L A [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The paper reviews self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs) for liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Principles of operation are described, advantages and drawbacks analyzed, and prospects for application in advanced fast reactors examined. Ways to improve reactor self-protection via reactivity feedback amplification and related problems are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs.

  2. Quantitative reactive modeling and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    Formal verification aims to improve the quality of software by detecting errors before they do harm. At the basis of formal verification is the logical notion of correctness , which purports to capture whether or not a program behaves as desired. We suggest that the boolean partition of software into correct and incorrect programs falls short of the practical need to assess the behavior of software in a more nuanced fashion against multiple criteria. We therefore propose to introduce quantitative fitness measures for programs, specifically for measuring the function, performance, and robustness of reactive programs such as concurrent processes. This article describes the goals of the ERC Advanced Investigator Project QUAREM. The project aims to build and evaluate a theory of quantitative fitness measures for reactive models. Such a theory must strive to obtain quantitative generalizations of the paradigms that have been success stories in qualitative reactive modeling, such as compositionality, property-preserving abstraction and abstraction refinement, model checking, and synthesis. The theory will be evaluated not only in the context of software and hardware engineering, but also in the context of systems biology. In particular, we will use the quantitative reactive models and fitness measures developed in this project for testing hypotheses about the mechanisms behind data from biological experiments.

  3. Separability of local reactivity descriptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The size-dependence of different local reactivity descriptors of dimer A2 and AB type of sys- tems is discussed. We derive analytic results of these descriptors calculated using finite difference approximation. In particular, we studied Fukui functions, relative electrophilicity and relative nucleo- philicity, local softness ...

  4. Linking new information to a reactivated memory requires consolidation and not reconsolidation mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A new memory is initially labile and becomes stabilized through a process of consolidation, which depends on gene expression. Stable memories, however, can again become labile if reactivated by recall and require another phase of protein synthesis in order to be maintained. This process is known as reconsolidation. The functional significance of the labile phase of reconsolidation is unknown; one hypothesis proposes that it is required to link new information with reactivated memories. Reconsolidation is distinct from the initial consolidation, and one distinction is that the requirement for specific proteins or general protein synthesis during the two processes occurs in different brain areas. Here, we identified an anatomically distinctive molecular requirement that doubly dissociates consolidation from reconsolidation of an inhibitory avoidance memory. We then used this requirement to investigate whether reconsolidation and consolidation are involved in linking new information with reactivated memories. In contrast to what the hypothesis predicted, we found that reconsolidation does not contribute to the formation of an association between new and reactivated information. Instead, it recruits mechanisms similar to those underlying consolidation of a new memory. Thus, linking new information to a reactivated memory is mediated by consolidation and not reconsolidation mechanisms.

  5. Depressive Symptoms, Rumination, and Emotion Reactivity Among Youth: Moderation by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Jennifer A; Borelli, Jessica L; Hilt, Lori M

    2018-06-07

    The emotion context-insensitivity hypothesis (ECI; Rottenberg et al., 2005) posits that depressive symptoms are associated with blunted emotional reactivity and is supported by the results of a meta-analysis (Bylsma et al., 2008). Yet it remains unclear how strongly ECI holds across emotional response domains, whether ECI operates similarly in male and female individuals, and whether this pattern of underreactivity is observed in youth. In contrast, rumination, a cognitive style strongly associated with depressive symptoms, may be associated with heightened reactivity. We assessed the effects of youth's depressive symptoms and rumination on subjective and physiological emotion reactivity (N = 160; M age  = 12.67, SD age  = 1.12; 48% female; 94% non-Hispanic). State sadness and respiratory sinus arrhythmia were assessed during a baseline activity (nature video) and a sad mood induction. As hypothesized, depressive symptoms predicted less subjective emotional reactivity, whereas rumination predicted more subjective reactivity. Exploratory analyses revealed that associations for physiological reactivity differed by child gender. ECI may be stronger in terms of subjective rather than physiological emotional reactivity.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of reactive oxygen species - a multi-valued logical model validated by formal concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollbold, Johannes; Jaster, Robert; Müller, Sarah; Rateitschak, Katja; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2014-09-24

    Recent findings suggest that in pancreatic acinar cells stimulated with bile acid, a pro-apoptotic effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) dominates their effect on necrosis and spreading of inflammation. The first effect presumably occurs via cytochrome C release from the inner mitochondrial membrane. A pro-necrotic effect - similar to the one of Ca2+ - can be strong opening of mitochondrial pores leading to breakdown of the membrane potential, ATP depletion, sustained Ca2+ increase and premature activation of digestive enzymes. To explain published data and to understand ROS effects during the onset of acute pancreatitis, a model using multi-valued logic is constructed. Formal concept analysis (FCA) is used to validate the model against data as well as to analyze and visualize rules that capture the dynamics. Simulations for two different levels of bile stimulation and for inhibition or addition of antioxidants reproduce the qualitative behaviour shown in the experiments. Based on reported differences of ROS production and of ROS induced pore opening, the model predicts a more uniform apoptosis/necrosis ratio for higher and lower bile stimulation in liver cells than in pancreatic acinar cells. FCA confirms that essential dynamical features of the data are captured by the model. For instance, high necrosis always occurs together with at least a medium level of apoptosis. At the same time, FCA helps to reveal subtle differences between data and simulations. The FCA visualization underlines the protective role of ROS against necrosis. The analysis of the model demonstrates how ROS and decreased antioxidant levels contribute to apoptosis. Studying the induction of necrosis via a sustained Ca2+ increase, we implemented the commonly accepted hypothesis of ATP depletion after strong bile stimulation. Using an alternative model, we demonstrate that this process is not necessary to generate the dynamics of the measured variables. Opening of plasma membrane channels could

  7. Interpreting sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, the term" sustainable development"has emerged as the principal concept in the development field. The concept emerged in the 1970s and was first promoted in the international environmental and development communities with the publication of the " world conservation strategy"(1980). It was popularized by the Brundtland report, " Our common future"(1987). The Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as " development which meets the needs of the present, without compromising the sustainability of future generation to meet their own needs". The Earth Summit(1992) established "sustainable development" as the most important policy of the 21st century. Since then, the relationship between development and environment has been widely discussed and sustainabale development is now an important part of the vocabulary of environmental policy research and analysis. In this paper, we begin by tracing the evolution of the concept of sustainable development. Definitions of sustainable development in ecology, economics and sociology are then explored and discussed. This paper also examine the contribution that a broadly-based concept of sustainable development can make: as a goal, an attitude and as a guiding principle for integrating economic development and environmental protection.

  8. Sustainable winegrowing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies

  9. Sustainability Infused Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Independent Schools Foundation Academy (ISF) in Hong Kong established a sustainability policy in 2015, which explicitly states, "an experimentally integrated, environmentally and ethically sustainable system of science education and conservation practices based on the 2012 Jeju Declaration of the World Conservation Congress will be implemented through the school". ISF Academy is a private Chinese bilingual school in Hong Kong serving over 1500 students K-12, following the framework and curriculum of the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO). The strategy behind the implementation of this policy includes: development of a scientific sustainable curriculum that is age appropriate; establish a culture of sustainability within the ISF community and beyond to the wider HK community; install sustainable infrastructure that allows students to learn; and learn first hand sustainable living practices. It is well understood that solutions to the environmental challenges facing Hong Kong and our planet will require multiple disciplines. The current sustainability programs at ISF include: a) a whole school aerobic food waste composting system and organic farming, b) energy consumption monitoring of existing buildings, c) upcoming installation of an air pollution monitoring equipment that will correlate with the AQHI data collected by the Hong Kong government, d) a Renewable Energy Education Center (REEC) that will teach students about RE and also produce solar energy for classroom consumption, and e) student lead environmental group that manages the paper and used cooking oil recycling on campus. The Shuyuan Science and Sustainability faculty work closely with classroom teachers to ensure that the above mentioned projects are incorporated into the curriculum throughout the school. Interdisciplinary units (IDU) of study are being developed that encourage faculty and students to work across subject areas. Projects include Personal Projects, Extended Essays

  10. A Hypothesis-Driven Approach to Site Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, W.

    2008-12-01

    Variability of subsurface formations and the scarcity of data lead to the notion of aquifer parameters as geostatistical random variables. Given an information need and limited resources for field campaigns, site investigation is often put into the context of optimal design. In optimal design, the types, numbers and positions of samples are optimized under case-specific objectives to meet the information needs. Past studies feature optimal data worth (balancing maximum financial profit in an engineering task versus the cost of additional sampling), or aim at a minimum prediction uncertainty of stochastic models for a prescribed investigation budget. Recent studies also account for other sources of uncertainty outside the hydrogeological range, such as uncertain toxicity, ingestion and behavioral parameters of the affected population when predicting the human health risk from groundwater contaminations. The current study looks at optimal site investigation from a new angle. Answering a yes/no question under uncertainty directly requires recasting the original question as a hypothesis test. Otherwise, false confidence in the resulting answer would be pretended. A straightforward example is whether a recent contaminant spill will cause contaminant concentrations in excess of a legal limit at a nearby drinking water well. This question can only be answered down to a specified chance of error, i.e., based on the significance level used in hypothesis tests. Optimal design is placed into the hypothesis-driven context by using the chance of providing a false yes/no answer as new criterion to be minimized. Different configurations apply for one-sided and two-sided hypothesis tests. If a false answer entails financial liability, the hypothesis-driven context can be re-cast in the context of data worth. The remaining difference is that failure is a hard constraint in the data worth context versus a monetary punishment term in the hypothesis-driven context. The basic principle

  11. Prospective detection of large prediction errors: a hypothesis testing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Real-time motion management is important in radiotherapy. In addition to effective monitoring schemes, prediction is required to compensate for system latency, so that treatment can be synchronized with tumor motion. However, it is difficult to predict tumor motion at all times, and it is critical to determine when large prediction errors may occur. Such information can be used to pause the treatment beam or adjust monitoring/prediction schemes. In this study, we propose a hypothesis testing approach for detecting instants corresponding to potentially large prediction errors in real time. We treat the future tumor location as a random variable, and obtain its empirical probability distribution with the kernel density estimation-based method. Under the null hypothesis, the model probability is assumed to be a concentrated Gaussian centered at the prediction output. Under the alternative hypothesis, the model distribution is assumed to be non-informative uniform, which reflects the situation that the future position cannot be inferred reliably. We derive the likelihood ratio test (LRT) for this hypothesis testing problem and show that with the method of moments for estimating the null hypothesis Gaussian parameters, the LRT reduces to a simple test on the empirical variance of the predictive random variable. This conforms to the intuition to expect a (potentially) large prediction error when the estimate is associated with high uncertainty, and to expect an accurate prediction when the uncertainty level is low. We tested the proposed method on patient-derived respiratory traces. The 'ground-truth' prediction error was evaluated by comparing the prediction values with retrospective observations, and the large prediction regions were subsequently delineated by thresholding the prediction errors. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to describe the performance of the proposed hypothesis testing method. Clinical implication was represented by miss

  12. Textiles and clothing sustainability nanotextiles and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the sustainability aspects of textiles and clothing sector in light of nanomaterials and technologies. The invasion of nano in every industrial sector has been important and has made remarkable changes as well as posed new challenges, including the textiles and clothing sector. There is quite a great deal of research happening in terms of nano materials for textiles across the globe, some of which are covered in this book. .

  13. Mismatch or cumulative stress : Toward an integrated hypothesis of programming effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the

  14. The sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robreau, Y.; Porcher, P.

    2002-11-01

    This document aims to define the sustainable development concept with a special attention for France and Israel position. The first part recalls the history of the sustainable development from the ''Man and Biosphere'' program of the UNESCO to Rio protocol. Then are described the principles of the sustainable development, the France plans and the France position at Johannesburg conference. The last part is devoted to the Israel position and a short presentation of the consequences of the greenhouse gases on the human health and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  15. Lean maturity, lean sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke; Nielsen, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    . A framework for describing levels of lean capability is presented, based on a brief review of the literature and experiences from 12 Danish companies currently implementing lean. Although still in its emerging phase, the framework contributes to both theory and practice by describing developmental stages......Although lean is rapidly growing in popularity, its implementation is far from problem free and companies may experience difficulties sustaining long term success. In this paper, it is suggested that sustainable lean requires attention to both performance improvement and capability development...... that support lean capability development and consequently, lean sustainability....

  16. Sustainable Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    The Danish public housing sector has more than 20 years of experience with sustainable facilities management based on user involvement. The paper outlines this development in a historical perspective and gives an analysis of different approaches to sustainable facilities management. The focus...... is on the housing departments and strateies for the management of the use of resources. The research methods used are case studies based on interviews in addition to literature studies. The paper explores lessons to be learned about sustainable facilities management in general, and points to a need for new...

  17. A sustainable woody biomass biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Lu, Houfang; Hu, Ruofei; Shupe, Alan; Lin, Lu; Liang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Woody biomass is renewable only if sustainable production is imposed. An optimum and sustainable biomass stand production rate is found to be one with the incremental growth rate at harvest equal to the average overall growth rate. Utilization of woody biomass leads to a sustainable economy. Woody biomass is comprised of at least four components: extractives, hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. While extractives and hemicellulose are least resistant to chemical and thermal degradation, cellulose is most resistant to chemical, thermal, and biological attack. The difference or heterogeneity in reactivity leads to the recalcitrance of woody biomass at conversion. A selection of processes is presented together as a biorefinery based on incremental sequential deconstruction, fractionation/conversion of woody biomass to achieve efficient separation of major components. A preference is given to a biorefinery absent of pretreatment and detoxification process that produce waste byproducts. While numerous biorefinery approaches are known, a focused review on the integrated studies of water-based biorefinery processes is presented. Hot-water extraction is the first process step to extract value from woody biomass while improving the quality of the remaining solid material. This first step removes extractives and hemicellulose fractions from woody biomass. While extractives and hemicellulose are largely removed in the extraction liquor, cellulose and lignin largely remain in the residual woody structure. Xylo-oligomers, aromatics and acetic acid in the hardwood extract are the major components having the greatest potential value for development. Higher temperature and longer residence time lead to higher mass removal. While high temperature (>200°C) can lead to nearly total dissolution, the amount of sugars present in the extraction liquor decreases rapidly with temperature. Dilute acid hydrolysis of concentrated wood extracts renders the wood extract with monomeric sugars

  18. Sustainable development - an entrepreneur's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrni, F.

    1995-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with in this paper: prizing the environment, inducing change, getting the right mix, energy and market place, financing sustainable development, trade and sustainable development, managing corporate change, the Sulzer strategy for sustainable development. (author)

  19. Analyse that! : understanding sustainable design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den G.J.W.; Wit, de M.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the analysis of sustainable building projects. Sustainable technology measures can easily be misinterpreted, consequently leading to unsustainable building solutions. Our research and educations aims at discovering new approaches for sustainable design. For building

  20. An omnibus test for the global null hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futschik, Andreas; Taus, Thomas; Zehetmayer, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    Global hypothesis tests are a useful tool in the context of clinical trials, genetic studies, or meta-analyses, when researchers are not interested in testing individual hypotheses, but in testing whether none of the hypotheses is false. There are several possibilities how to test the global null hypothesis when the individual null hypotheses are independent. If it is assumed that many of the individual null hypotheses are false, combination tests have been recommended to maximize power. If, however, it is assumed that only one or a few null hypotheses are false, global tests based on individual test statistics are more powerful (e.g. Bonferroni or Simes test). However, usually there is no a priori knowledge on the number of false individual null hypotheses. We therefore propose an omnibus test based on cumulative sums of the transformed p-values. We show that this test yields an impressive overall performance. The proposed method is implemented in an R-package called omnibus.