Nuansa, Citrasmara Galuh; Widodo, Wahyu
Sustainable development with three main pillars, namely environmental, economic, and social, is the concept of country's development to achieve inclusive economic growth, good environmental quality, and improvement of people's welfare. However, the dominance of economic factors cause various environmental problem. This phenomenon occurs in most of developing countries, including in Indonesia. The relationship between economic activity and environmental quality has been widely discussed and empirically tested by scholars. This descriptive research analysed the hypothesis called Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) from a perspective of sustainable development in Indonesia. EKC hypothesis illustrates the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation forming an inverted U-curve, indicating that at the beginning of development, environmental quality will decrease along with increasing economic growth, and then reached a certain point the environmental quality will gradually improve. In this paper will be discussed how the relationship between environmental quality and economic growth in Indonesia was investigated. The preliminary results show that most of the empirical studies use the conventional approach, in which the CO2 emission used as the proxy of environmental degradation. The existence of inverted U-curve is also inconclusive. Therefore, the extension research on the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality in Indonesia using the EKC hypothesis is required.
Rosati, Francesco; Morioka, Sandra; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly
Indications towards the need for development and implementation of solutions for more sustainable development are not recent. However, the world is still struggling to tackle these challenges, and sustainability is not an optional agenda, but rather it is an obligatory and necessary issue...... to stakeholders' expectations is supported by motivations derived from marketing, corporate social responsibility, international standards, sustainability reporting, labelling, etc. However, these demands are not always aligned with sustainability, creating tensions between stakeholder satisfaction and corporate...... as actors in the societal system. Thus, future researches are invited to contribute to further theoretical and empirical discussions to explore the potentials of fostering sustainable value capture....
Full Text Available Mitochondrial membrane potential is the major regulator of mitochondrial functions, including coupling efficiency and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Both functions are crucial for cell bioenergetics. We previously presented evidences for a specific modulation of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT appearing during aging that results in a decrease in membrane potential - and therefore ROS production – but surprisingly increases coupling efficiency under conditions of low ATP turnover. Careful study of the bioenergetic parameters (oxidation and phosphorylation rates, membrane potential of isolated mitochondria from skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius of aged and young rats revealed a remodeling at the level of the phosphorylation system, in the absence of alteration of the inner mitochondrial membrane (uncoupling or respiratory chain complexes regulation. We further observed a decrease in mitochondrial affinity for ADP in aged isolated mitochondria, and higher sensitivity of ANT to its specific inhibitor atractyloside. This age-induced modification of ANT results in an increase in the ADP concentration required to sustain the same ATP turnover as compared to young muscle, and therefore in a lower membrane potential under phosphorylating - in vivo - conditions. Thus, for equivalent ATP turnover (cellular ATP demand, coupling efficiency is even higher in aged muscle mitochondria, due to the down-regulation of inner membrane proton leak caused by the decrease in membrane potential. In the framework of the radical theory of aging, these modifications in ANT function may be the result of oxidative damage caused by intra mitochondrial ROS and may appear like a virtuous circle where ROS induce a mechanism that reduces their production, without causing uncoupling, and even leading in improved efficiency. Because of the importance of ROS as therapeutic targets, this new mechanism deserves further studies.
Johnson, Jeffrey D; Price, Mason H; Leiker, Emily K
Several fMRI studies have shown a correspondence between the brain regions activated during encoding and retrieval, consistent with the view that memory retrieval involves hippocampally-mediated reinstatement of cortical activity. With the limited temporal resolution of fMRI, the precise timing of such reactivation is unclear, calling into question the functional significance of these effects. Whereas reactivation influencing retrieval should emerge with neural correlates of retrieval success, that signifying post-retrieval monitoring would trail retrieval. The present study employed EEG to provide a temporal landmark of retrieval success from which we could investigate the sub-trial time course of reactivation. Pattern-classification analyses revealed that early-onsetting reactivation differentiated the outcome of recognition-memory judgments and was associated with individual differences in behavioral accuracy, while reactivation was also evident in a sustained form later in the trial. The EEG findings suggest that, whereas prior fMRI findings could be interpreted as reflecting the contribution of reinstatement to retrieval success, they could also indicate the maintenance of episodic information in service of post-retrieval evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Huan; Qu, Xue; Kim, Eunkyoung; Lei, Miao; Dai, Kai; Tan, Xiaoli; Xu, Miao; Li, Jinyang; Liu, Yangping; Shi, Xiaowen; Li, Peng; Payne, Gregory F; Liu, Changsheng
Open wounds and burns are prone to infection and there remains considerable interest in developing safe and effective mechanisms to confer antimicrobial activities to wound dressings. We report a biomimetic wound dressing for the in situ and sustained generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Specifically, we fabricate a catechol-modified chitosan film that mimics features of the melanin capsule generated during an insect immune response to infection. We use an electrochemical reverse engineering approach to demonstrate that this catechol-chitosan film possesses redox-activities and can be repeatedly oxidized and reduced. In vitro tests demonstrate that this film catalyzes the transfer of electrons from physiological reductant ascorbate to O 2 for sustained ROS generation, and confers ascorbate-dependent antimicrobial activities. In vivo antimicrobial experiment with a rat subcutaneous model indicates the catechol-chitosan film at reduced state inhibits the bacterial growth and alleviates the infection of the incisions. Open wound healing tests with a mouse model indicate that the catechol-chitosan film suppresses the bacterial population at the wound site, induces less inflammation and promotes wound healing. We envision this biomimetic approach for the sustained, localized and in situ generation of ROS could provide new opportunities for wound management by protecting against pathogen infection and potentially even enlisting ROS-mediated wound healing mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study presents the hydration reactivity and alkali silica reaction (ASR of ultrahigh strength concrete (UHSC that has been made more sustainable by using spent foundry sand. Spent foundry sand not only is sustainable but has supplementary cementitious material (SCM characteristics. Two series of UHSC mixtures were prepared using a nonreactive and reactive sand (in terms of ASR to investigate both the impact of a more reactive aggregate and the use of spent foundry sand. Conduction calorimetry was used to monitor the heat of hydration maintained under isothermal conditions, while ASR was investigated using the accelerated mortar bar test (AMBT. Additionally, the compressive strengths were measured for both series of mixtures at 7, 14, and 28 days to confirm high strength requirements. The compressive strengths ranged from 85 MPa (12,345 psi to 181.78 MPa (26,365 psi. This result demonstrates that a UHSC mixture was produced. The calorimetry results revealed a slight acceleration in the heat of hydration flow curve compared to the control from both aggregates indicating increased hydration reactivity from the addition of foundry waste. The combination of foundry sand and reactive sand was found to increase ASR reactivity with increasing additions of foundry sand up to 30% replacement.
Winward, Jennifer L; Bekman, Nicole M; Hanson, Karen L; Lejuez, Carl W; Brown, Sandra A
Negative affect and low distress tolerance have been associated with increased likelihood of alcohol consumption and relapse. This study utilized the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test - Computerized Version (PASAT-C) to examine affective reactivity, cognitive performance, and distress tolerance during early abstinence among heavy drinking adolescents. Participants, ages 16 to 18 (50% female), were 23 heavy episodic drinking youth (HED) and 23 demographically matched, nondrinking teens (CON). Both groups were drawn from the same schools and assessed at 3 time points: HED was first studied within 10 days (M = 4.26, SD = 4.4) of heavy episodic drinking and then at two 2-week intervals over 4 subsequent weeks of abstinence from alcohol and drugs. CON were studied at the same 2-week intervals. From the findings, it was observed that HED responded with greater emotional response to the PASAT-C (i.e., greater increases in frustration and irritability and greater decreases in happiness) at the initial assessment, but their affective responses diminished with sustained abstinence. CON and HED task performance did not differ at the initial assessment or across time. HED showed faster task discontinuation times to the PASAT-C at the first assessment, and both groups reduced task persistence across testings. Among HED, greater lifetime and recent alcohol consumption, alcohol-induced blackouts, and withdrawal symptoms were associated with increases in negative affect with PASAT-C exposure. Earlier age of onset of alcohol use was linked to poorer performance. Heavy episodic drinking adolescents demonstrated heightened emotional reactivity and poorer distress tolerance to a cognitively challenging task during early abstinence. The combination of elevated negative affect and low distress tolerance may place adolescents at a heightened risk of escalations in or return to alcohol involvement. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Barat, Corinne; Proust, Alizé; Deshiere, Alexandre; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Drouin, Jean; Tremblay, Michel J
The "shock and kill" HIV-1 cure strategy proposes eradication of stable cellular reservoirs by clinical treatment with latency-reversing agents (LRAs). Although resting CD4 + T cells latently infected with HIV-1 constitute the main reservoir that is targeted by these approaches, their consequences on other reservoirs such as the central nervous system are still unknown and should be taken into consideration. We performed experiments aimed at defining the possible role of astrocytes in HIV-1 persistence in the brain and the effect of LRA treatments on this viral sanctuary. We first demonstrate that the diminished HIV-1 production in a proliferating astrocyte culture is due to a reduced proliferative capacity of virus-infected cells compared with uninfected astrocytes. In contrast, infection of non-proliferating astrocytes led to a robust HIV-1 infection that was sustained for over 60 days. To identify astrocytes latently infected with HIV-1, we designed a new dual-color reporter virus called NL4.3 eGFP-IRES-Crimson that is fully infectious and encodes for all viral proteins. Although we detected a small fraction of astrocytes carrying silent HIV-1 proviruses, we did not observe any reactivation using various LRAs and even strong inducers such as tumor necrosis factor, thus suggesting that these proviruses were either not transcriptionally competent or in a state of deep latency. Our findings imply that astrocytes might not constitute a latent reservoir per se but that relentless virus production by this brain cell population could contribute to the neurological disorders seen in HIV-1-infected persons subjected to combination antiretroviral therapy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Hypoxia ischemia (HI-related brain injury is the major cause of long-term morbidity in neonates. One characteristic hallmark of neonatal HI is the development of reactive astrogliosis in the hippocampus. However, the impact of reactive astrogliosis in hippocampal damage after neonatal HI is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of Na(+/H(+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1 protein in mouse reactive hippocampal astrocyte function in an in vitro ischemia model (oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation, OGD/REOX. 2 h OGD significantly increased NHE1 protein expression and NHE1-mediated H(+ efflux in hippocampal astrocytes. NHE1 activity remained stimulated during 1-5 h REOX and returned to the basal level at 24 h REOX. NHE1 activation in hippocampal astrocytes resulted in intracellular Na(+ and Ca(2+ overload. The latter was mediated by reversal of Na(+/Ca(2+ exchange. Hippocampal astrocytes also exhibited a robust release of gliotransmitters (glutamate and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα during 1-24 h REOX. Interestingly, inhibition of NHE1 activity with its potent inhibitor HOE 642 not only reduced Na(+ overload but also gliotransmitter release from hippocampal astrocytes. The noncompetitive excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor TBOA showed a similar effect on blocking the glutamate release. Taken together, we concluded that NHE1 plays an essential role in maintaining H(+ homeostasis in hippocampal astrocytes. Over-stimulation of NHE1 activity following in vitro ischemia disrupts Na(+ and Ca(2+ homeostasis, which reduces Na(+-dependent glutamate uptake and promotes release of glutamate and cytokines from reactive astrocytes. Therefore, blocking sustained NHE1 activation in reactive astrocytes may provide neuroprotection following HI.
Cengiz, Pelin; Kintner, Douglas B; Chanana, Vishal; Yuan, Hui; Akture, Erinc; Kendigelen, Pinar; Begum, Gulnaz; Fidan, Emin; Uluc, Kutluay; Ferrazzano, Peter; Sun, Dandan
Hypoxia ischemia (HI)-related brain injury is the major cause of long-term morbidity in neonates. One characteristic hallmark of neonatal HI is the development of reactive astrogliosis in the hippocampus. However, the impact of reactive astrogliosis in hippocampal damage after neonatal HI is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) protein in mouse reactive hippocampal astrocyte function in an in vitro ischemia model (oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation, OGD/REOX). 2 h OGD significantly increased NHE1 protein expression and NHE1-mediated H(+) efflux in hippocampal astrocytes. NHE1 activity remained stimulated during 1-5 h REOX and returned to the basal level at 24 h REOX. NHE1 activation in hippocampal astrocytes resulted in intracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) overload. The latter was mediated by reversal of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange. Hippocampal astrocytes also exhibited a robust release of gliotransmitters (glutamate and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα) during 1-24 h REOX. Interestingly, inhibition of NHE1 activity with its potent inhibitor HOE 642 not only reduced Na(+) overload but also gliotransmitter release from hippocampal astrocytes. The noncompetitive excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor TBOA showed a similar effect on blocking the glutamate release. Taken together, we concluded that NHE1 plays an essential role in maintaining H(+) homeostasis in hippocampal astrocytes. Over-stimulation of NHE1 activity following in vitro ischemia disrupts Na(+) and Ca(2+) homeostasis, which reduces Na(+)-dependent glutamate uptake and promotes release of glutamate and cytokines from reactive astrocytes. Therefore, blocking sustained NHE1 activation in reactive astrocytes may provide neuroprotection following HI.
Herrera, Bobby Brooke; Tsai, Wen-Yang; Chang, Charlotte A; Hamel, Donald J; Wang, Wei-Kung; Lu, Yichen; Mboup, Souleymane; Kanki, Phyllis J
Recent studies on the role of T cells in Zika virus (ZIKV) infection have shown that T cell responses to Asian ZIKV infection are important for protection, and that previous dengue virus (DENV) exposure amplifies the protective T cell response to Asian ZIKV. Human T cell responses to African ZIKV infection, however, remain unexplored. Here, we utilized the modified anthrax toxin delivery system to develop a flavivirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. Using human ZIKV and DENV samples from Senegal, West Africa, our results demonstrate specific and cross-reactive T cell responses to nonstructural protein 3 (NS3). Specifically, we found that T cell responses to NS3 protease are ZIKV and DENV specific, but responses to NS3 helicase are cross-reactive. Sequential sample analyses revealed immune responses sustained many years after infection. These results have important implications for African ZIKV/DENV vaccine development, as well as for potential flavivirus diagnostics based on T cell responses. IMPORTANCE The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Latin America and the associated congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome have raised questions as to why we have not recognized these distinct clinical diseases in Africa. The human immunologic response to ZIKV and related flaviviruses in Africa represents a research gap that may shed light on the mechanisms contributing to protection. The goal of our study was to develop an inexpensive assay to detect and characterize the T cell response to African ZIKV and DENV. Our data show long-term specific and cross-reactive human immune responses against African ZIKV and DENV, suggesting the usefulness of a diagnostic based on the T cell response. Additionally, we show that prior flavivirus exposure influences the magnitude of the T cell response. The identification of immune responses to African ZIKV and DENV is of relevance to vaccine development. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.
Racine, Sarah E; Hebert, Karen R; Benning, Stephen D
Eating disorders are associated with both negative and positive emotional reactions towards food. Individual eating disorder symptoms may relate to distinct emotional responses to food, which could necessitate tailored treatments based on symptom presentation. We examined associations between eating disorder symptoms and psychophysiological responses to food versus neutral images in 87 college students [mean (SD) age = 19.70 (2.09); mean (SD) body mass index = 23.25(2.77)]. Reflexive and facial electromyography measures tapping negative emotional reactivity (startle blink reflex) and appraisal (corrugator muscle response) as well as positive emotional reactivity (postauricular reflex) and appraisal (zygomaticus muscle response) were collected. Eating disorder cognitions correlated with more corrugator activity to food versus neutral images, indicating negative appraisals of food. Binge eating was associated with increased postauricular reflex reactivity to food versus neutral images, suggesting enhanced appetitive motivation to food. The combination of cognitive eating disorder symptoms and binge eating may result in motivational conflict towards food. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Harris, Nora; Shealy, Tripp; Klotz, Leidy
Across fields, more sustainable and resilient outcomes are being realized through a whole systems design perspective, which guides decision-makers to consider the entire system affected including interdependent physical and social networks. Although infrastructure is extremely interdependent, consisting of diverse stakeholders and networks, the infrastructure design and construction process is often fragmented. This fragmentation can result in unnecessary tradeoffs, leading to poor outcomes f...
Kitai, Takeshi; Kaji, Shuichiro; Kim, Kitae; Ehara, Natsuhiko; Tani, Tomoko; Kinoshita, Makoto; Furukawa, Yutaka
The appropriate management of aortic intramural hematoma is still controversial, because a variety of aortic events can arise during follow-up in some patients. However, simplified identification of these patients remains challenging. The present study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of serial C-reactive protein measurements for the prediction of adverse events in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma. A total of 180 patients with aortic intramural hematoma were retrospectively reviewed. The C-reactive protein data were obtained at admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, and the maximum value was obtained during the acute phase. Adverse aorta-related events were defined by a composite of aortic rupture, aortic aneurysm, and surgical or endovascular aortic repair. The C-reactive protein value was 3.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 5.9, 9.0 ± 5.5, and 5.7 ± 4.5 mg/dL on admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, respectively. The maximal value of C-reactive protein was 12.4 ± 6.3 mg/dL at a mean of 4 days from the onset. Patients with elevated C-reactive protein levels (≥7.2 mg/dL) at 2 weeks had significantly greater rates of aorta-related events (P analysis, an elevated C-reactive protein level at 2 weeks (hazard ratio, 3.16; P value compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection (chi-square, 16.94 for ulcer-like projection only vs 34.32 with the addition of C-reactive protein at 2 weeks, P < .001). C-reactive protein was a simple and useful marker providing incremental prognostic information compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection in patients with aortic intramural hematoma. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Scott R.; Lee, Jinho; Stephens, John W.; Hostler, Robert W., Jr.; VonKamp, William D.
The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is the nation s only large-scale, non-vitiated, hypersonic propulsion test facility. The HTF, with its 4-story graphite induction heater, is capable of duplicating Mach 5, 6, and 7 flight conditions. This unique propulsion system test facility has experienced several standby and reactivation cycles. The intent of the paper is to overview the HTF capabilities to the propulsion community, present the current status of HTF, and share the lessons learned from putting a large-scale facility into mothball status for a later restart
Full Text Available Is known the fact that the Cymbidium hybridum orchid protocorms, submersed in liquid culture medium (in hypoxia conditions himself multiply with higher speed in comparison to aerated condition, on surface of agarized (solid culture media. Also, is known the fact that the Luffa ligno-skeleton (obtained from ripe pulp of Luffa cilindrica fruits lends successfully at its usage as wick in supply with nutrients of various plant species inoculs, cultivated “in vitro” on liquid media. In this work, we are presenting the role of Luffa ligno-skeleton in maintaining the Cymbidium hybridum protocorms, cultivated “in vitro”, on culture medium liquid surface (type of Murashige-Skoog, 1962.Behind these experiments, was proved that the ligno-skeleton of Luffa type of bridges for Cymbidium hybridum protocorms, sustained in aerated condition, is more efficient in bearing with those marked on solid culture medium, as in number, as in accumulation of fresh and dry weight, regardless of growth regulators included in media; on liquid culture media containing 1 mg/l AIB or 2 mg/l K as growth regulators, where bearing with the homologue culture variant (solidified media with agar-agar, with same mineral and organic composition, the differences was until 29.3% superior, and bearing with the witness medium (solid – agarized – medium, but without growth regulators until 30.2% biggest, concerning the number of protocorms.
de Godoy, Jos? Maria Pereira; de Godoy, Maria de F?tima Guerreiro
A series of questions are asked concerning this condition including as regards to its name, the consensus about the histopathological findings, physiological hypothesis and treatment of the disease. We established a hypothesis for cellulite and confirmed that the clinical response is compatible with this hypothesis. Hence this novel approach brings a modern physiological concept with physiopathologic basis and clinical proof of the hypothesis. We emphasize that the choice of patient, correct ...
The hypothesis of greater male variability in test results is discussed in its historical context, and reasons feminists have objected to the hypothesis are considered. The hypothesis acquires political importance if it is considered that variability results from biological, rather than cultural, differences. (SLD)
de Godoy, José Maria Pereira; de Godoy, Maria de Fátima Guerreiro
A series of questions are asked concerning this condition including as regards to its name, the consensus about the histopathological findings, physiological hypothesis and treatment of the disease. We established a hypothesis for cellulite and confirmed that the clinical response is compatible with this hypothesis. Hence this novel approach brings a modern physiological concept with physiopathologic basis and clinical proof of the hypothesis. We emphasize that the choice of patient, correct diagnosis of cellulite and the technique employed are fundamental to success. PMID:19756187
Ostrovskii, Victor; Kadyshevich, Elena
The paper develops the Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-hypothesis), according to which living-matter simplest elements (LMSEs, which are N-bases, riboses, nucleosides, nucleotides), DNA- and RNA-like molecules, amino-acids, and proto-cells repeatedly originated on the basis of thermodynamically controlled, natural, and inevitable processes governed by universal physical and chemical laws from CH4, niters, and phosphates under the Earth's surface or seabed within the crystal cavities of the honeycomb methane-hydrate structure at low temperatures; the chemical processes passed slowly through all successive chemical steps in the direction that is determined by a gradual decrease in the Gibbs free energy of reacting systems. The hypothesis formulation method is based on the thermodynamic directedness of natural movement and consists ofan attempt to mentally backtrack on the progression of nature and thus reveal principal milestones alongits route. The changes in Gibbs free energy are estimated for different steps of the living-matter origination process; special attention is paid to the processes of proto-cell formation. Just the occurrence of the gas-hydrate periodic honeycomb matrix filled with LMSEs almost completely in its final state accounts for size limitation in the DNA functional groups and the nonrandom location of N-bases in the DNA chains. The slowness of the low-temperature chemical transformations and their "thermodynamic front" guide the gross process of living matter origination and its successive steps. It is shown that the hypothesis is thermodynamically justified and testable and that many observed natural phenomena count in its favor.
Full Text Available The paper develops the Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-hypothesis, according to which living-matter simplest elements (LMSEs, which are N-bases, riboses, nucleosides, nucleotides, DNA- and RNA-like molecules, amino-acids, and proto-cells repeatedly originated on the basis of thermodynamically controlled, natural, and inevitable processes governed by universal physical and chemical laws from CH4, niters, and phosphates under the Earth's surface or seabed within the crystal cavities of the honeycomb methane-hydrate structure at low temperatures; the chemical processes passed slowly through all successive chemical steps in the direction that is determined by a gradual decrease in the Gibbs free energy of reacting systems. The hypothesis formulation method is based on the thermodynamic directedness of natural movement and consists ofan attempt to mentally backtrack on the progression of nature and thus reveal principal milestones alongits route. The changes in Gibbs free energy are estimated for different steps of the living-matter origination process; special attention is paid to the processes of proto-cell formation. Just the occurrence of the gas-hydrate periodic honeycomb matrix filled with LMSEs almost completely in its final state accounts for size limitation in the DNA functional groups and the nonrandom location of N-bases in the DNA chains. The slowness of the low-temperature chemical transformations and their “thermodynamic front” guide the gross process of living matter origination and its successive steps. It is shown that the hypothesis is thermodynamically justified and testable and that many observed natural phenomena count in its favor.
Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders
We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economistís model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...
Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders
We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economist's model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...
I.P. van Staveren (Irene)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article explores the Lehman Sisters Hypothesis. It reviews empirical literature about gender differences in behavioral, experimental, and neuro-economics as well as in other fields of behavioral research. It discusses gender differences along three dimensions of
Postma, Dirkje S.; Weiss, Scott T.; van den Berge, Maarten; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.
The Dutch hypothesis was first articulated in 1961, when many novel and advanced scientific techniques were not available, such as genomics techniques for pinpointing genes, gene expression, lipid and protein profiles, and the microbiome. In addition, computed tomographic scans and advanced analysis
Cornillie, Freddy; Hanauer, Stephen B; Diamond, Robert H; Wang, Jianping; Tang, Kezhen L; Xu, Zhenhua; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Séverine
Background Serum infliximab trough levels correlate with efficacy; dose escalation is often beneficial in patients with Crohn's disease who stop responding to infliximab treatment. Objective To carry out a post hoc analysis of A Crohn's Disease Clinical Trial Evaluating Infliximab in a New Long-term Treatment Regimen I (ACCENT I) to evaluate the association between serum infliximab trough levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) after 14 weeks of induction treatment with durable sustained long-term response (Crohn's Disease Activity Index decrease ≥70 points and reduction ≥25% from baseline). Design ACCENT I was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Week 14 trough levels and CRP percentage decrease from baseline to week 14 were compared between patients with and without durable sustained response through week 54. Sensitivity and specificity were determined to predict durable sustained response. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified optimal cut-off points; logistic regression determined ORs. Results After induction with 5 mg/kg infliximab, 25% (37/147) and 33% (47/144) of patients sustained week 14 response to infliximab 5 or 10 mg/kg, respectively, administered every 8 weeks without dose escalation, through week 54. Median week 14 trough levels of patients with and without durable sustained response to infliximab 5 mg/kg were 4.0 and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively (p=0.0331). Optimal predictors of durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg were week 14 trough level ≥3.5 µg/mL and ≥60% CRP decrease (ORs (95% CI), 3.5 (1.1 to 11.4) and 7.3 (1.4 to 36.7)), respectively, in patients with raised baseline CRP (>8.0 mg/L); area under the ROC curve was 0.75 for both predictors. A ≥3.5 µg/mL week 14 infliximab serum level did not predict durable sustained response to 10 mg/kg maintenance infliximab. Conclusions Patients with durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg had higher
Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto
The Drift Burst Hypothesis postulates the existence of short-lived locally explosive trends in the price paths of financial assets. The recent US equity and Treasury flash crashes can be viewed as two high profile manifestations of such dynamics, but we argue that drift bursts of varying magnitude are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the...
Andrews, Stephen A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sigeti, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
These are a set of slides about Bayesian hypothesis testing, where many hypotheses are tested. The conclusions are the following: The value of the Bayes factor obtained when using the median of the posterior marginal is almost the minimum value of the Bayes factor. The value of τ2 which minimizes the Bayes factor is a reasonable choice for this parameter. This allows a likelihood ratio to be computed with is the least favorable to H0.
Di Paolo, Ezequiel; De Jaegher, Hanne
Enactive approaches foreground the role of interpersonal interaction in explanations of social understanding. This motivates, in combination with a recent interest in neuroscientific studies involving actual interactions, the question of how interactive processes relate to neural mechanisms involved in social understanding. We introduce the Interactive Brain Hypothesis (IBH) in order to help map the spectrum of possible relations between social interaction and neural processes. The hypothesis states that interactive experience and skills play enabling roles in both the development and current function of social brain mechanisms, even in cases where social understanding happens in the absence of immediate interaction. We examine the plausibility of this hypothesis against developmental and neurobiological evidence and contrast it with the widespread assumption that mindreading is crucial to all social cognition. We describe the elements of social interaction that bear most directly on this hypothesis and discuss the empirical possibilities open to social neuroscience. We propose that the link between coordination dynamics and social understanding can be best grasped by studying transitions between states of coordination. These transitions form part of the self-organization of interaction processes that characterize the dynamics of social engagement. The patterns and synergies of this self-organization help explain how individuals understand each other. Various possibilities for role-taking emerge during interaction, determining a spectrum of participation. This view contrasts sharply with the observational stance that has guided research in social neuroscience until recently. We also introduce the concept of readiness to interact to describe the practices and dispositions that are summoned in situations of social significance (even if not interactive). This latter idea links interactive factors to more classical observational scenarios.
Ezequiel Alejandro Di Paolo
Full Text Available Enactive approaches foreground the role of interpersonal interaction in explanations of social understanding. This motivates, in combination with a recent interest in neuroscientific studies involving actual interactions, the question of how interactive processes relate to neural mechanisms involved in social understanding. We introduce the Interactive Brain Hypothesis in order to help map the possible relations between interaction and neural processes. The hypothesis states that interactive experience and skills play enabling roles in both the development and current function of social brain mechanisms, even in cases where social understanding happens in the absence of immediate interaction. We examine the plausibility of this hypothesis against developmental and neurobiological evidence and contrast it with the widespread assumption that mindreading is crucial to all social cognition. We describe the elements of social interaction that bear most directly on this hypothesis and discuss the empirical possibilities open to social neuroscience. We propose that the link between coordination dynamics and social understanding can be best grasped by studying transitions between states of coordination. These transitions form part of the self-organisation of interaction processes that characterise the dynamics of social engagement. The patterns and synergies of this self-organisation help explain how individuals understand each other. Various possibilities for role-taking emerge during interaction, determining a spectrum of participation. This view contrasts sharply with the observational stance that has guided research in social neuroscience until recently. We also introduce the concept of readiness to interact to describe the developed practices and dispositions that are summoned in situations of social significance (even if not interactive. This latter idea could link interactive factors to more classical observational scenarios.
Eudaldo Enrique Espinoza Freire
Full Text Available It is intended with this work to have a material with the fundamental contents, which enable the university professor to formulate the hypothesis, for the development of an investigation, taking into account the problem to be solved. For its elaboration, the search of information in primary documents was carried out, such as thesis of degree and reports of research results, selected on the basis of its relevance with the analyzed subject, current and reliability, secondary documents, as scientific articles published in journals of recognized prestige, the selection was made with the same terms as in the previous documents. It presents a conceptualization of the updated hypothesis, its characterization and an analysis of the structure of the hypothesis in which the determination of the variables is deepened. The involvement of the university professor in the teaching-research process currently faces some difficulties, which are manifested, among other aspects, in an unstable balance between teaching and research, which leads to a separation between them.
West, Damien; West, Bruce J.
The scaling of respiratory metabolism with body size in animals is considered by many to be a fundamental law of nature. One apparent consequence of this law is the scaling of physiologic time with body size, implying that physiologic time is separate and distinct from clock time. Physiologic time is manifest in allometry relations for lifespans, cardiac cycles, blood volume circulation, respiratory cycle, along with a number of other physiologic phenomena. Herein we present a theory of physiologic time that explains the allometry relation between time and total body mass averages as entailed by the hypothesis that the fluctuations in the total body mass are described by a scaling probability density.
Hueting, R.; Reijnders, L.
The notion sustainability has many definitions and interpretations, which are not always in favor of the development of sustainability. Therefore, a narrow definition of sustainability is required [nl
Dhansay, Taufeeq; Navabpour, Payman; de Wit, Maarten; Ustaszewski, Kamil
Understanding the kinematics of pre-existing fractures under the present-day stress field is an indispensable prerequisite for hydraulically increasing fracture-induced rock permeability, i.e. through hydraulic stimulation, which forms the basis of economically viable exploitation of resources such as natural gas and geothermal energy. Predicting the likelihood of reactivating pre-existing fractures in a target reservoir at particular fluid injection pressures requires detailed knowledge of the orientations and magnitudes of the prevailing stresses as well as pore fluid pressures. In the absence of actual in-situ stress measurements, e.g. derived from boreholes, as is mostly the case in previously underexplored ;frontier areas;, such predictions are often difficult. In this study, the potential of reactivating pre-existing fractures in a likely exploration region of the southern Karoo of South Africa is investigated. The orientations of the present-day in-situ stresses were assessed from surrounding earthquake focal mechanisms, implying c. NW-SE oriented maximum horizontal stress and a stress regime changing between strike-slip and normal faulting. A comparison with paleo-stress axes derived from inverted fault-slip data suggests that the stress field very likely did not experience any significant reorientation since Cretaceous times. Maximum possible in-situ stress magnitudes are estimated by assuming that these are limited by frictional strength on pre-existing planes and subsequently, slip and dilation tendency calculations were performed, assuming hydrostatic pore fluid pressures of c. 32 MPa at targeted reservoir depth. The results suggest that prevalent E-W and NW-SE oriented sub-vertical fractures are likely to be reactivated at wellhead pressures exceeding hydrostatic pore fluid pressures by as little as 2-5 MPa, while less prevalent sub-horizontal and moderately inclined fractures require higher wellhead pressures that are still technically feasible
E. G. Nisbet
Full Text Available We propose the hypothesis that natural selection, acting on the specificity or preference for CO2 over O2 of the enzyme rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, has controlled the CO2:O2 ratio of the atmosphere since the evolution of photosynthesis and has also sustained the Earth's greenhouse-set surface temperature. Rubisco works in partnership with the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase to control atmospheric pressure. Together, these two enzymes control global surface temperature and indirectly the pH and oxygenation of the ocean. Thus, the co-evolution of these two enzymes may have produced clement conditions on the Earth's surface, allowing life to be sustained.
The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust. PMID:24806729
Wampold, Bruce E.; And Others
Describes hypothesis validity as extent to which research results reflect theoretically derived predictions about relations between or among constructs. Discusses role of hypotheses in theory testing. Presents four threats to hypothesis validity: (1) inconsequential research hypotheses; (2) ambiguous research hypotheses; (3) noncongruence of…
Full Text Available Reactive arthritis is an acute, sterile, non-suppurative and inflammatory arthropaty which has occured as a result of an infectious processes, mostly after gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract infections. Reiter syndrome is a frequent type of reactive arthritis. Both reactive arthritis and Reiter syndrome belong to the group of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, associated with HLA-B27 positivity and characterized by ongoing inflammation after an infectious episode. The classical triad of Reiter syndrome is defined as arthritis, conjuctivitis and urethritis and is seen only in one third of patients with Reiter syndrome. Recently, seronegative asymmetric arthritis and typical extraarticular involvement are thought to be adequate for the diagnosis. However, there is no established criteria for the diagnosis of reactive arthritis and the number of randomized and controlled studies about the therapy is not enough. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 283-299
Full Text Available The distinction between safety and liveness properties is a fundamental classification with immediate implications on the feasibility and complexity of various monitoring, model checking, and synthesis problems. In this paper, we revisit the notion of safety for reactive systems, i.e., for systems whose behavior is characterized by the interplay of uncontrolled environment inputs and controlled system outputs. We show that reactive safety is a strictly larger class of properties than standard safety. We provide algorithms for checking if a property, given as a temporal formula or as a word or tree automaton, is a reactive safety property and for translating such properties into safety automata. Based on this construction, the standard verification and synthesis algorithms for safety properties immediately extend to the larger class of reactive safety.
Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...
Algeri, Sara; van Dyk, David A.
Hypothesis testing in presence of a nuisance parameter that is only identifiable under the alternative is challenging in part because standard asymptotic results (e.g., Wilks theorem for the generalized likelihood ratio test) do not apply. Several solutions have been proposed in the statistical literature and their practical implementation often reduces the problem into one of Testing One Hypothesis Multiple times (TOHM). Specifically, a fine discretization of the space of the non-identifiabl...
Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...
To pose a new hypothesis of schizophrenia that affirms and unifies conventional hypotheses. Outside the brain, there are 5-HTP-containing argyrophil cells that have tryptophan hydroxylase 1 without l-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Monoamine oxidase in the liver and lung metabolize 5-HT, rather than 5-HTP, and 5-HTP freely crosses the blood-brain barrier, converting to 5-HT in the brain. Therefore I postulate that hyperfunction of 5-HTP-containing argyrophil cells may be a cause of schizophrenia. I investigate the consistency of this hypothesis with other hypotheses using a deductive method. Overactive 5-HTP-containing argyrophil cells produce excess amounts of 5-HTP. Abundant 5-HTP increases 5-HT within the brain (linking to the 5-HT hypothesis), and leads to negative feedback of 5-HT synthesis at the rate-limiting step catalysed by tryptophan hydroxylase 2. Owing to this negative feedback, brain tryptophan is further metabolized via the kynurenine pathway. Increased kynurenic acid contributes to deficiencies of glutamate function and dopamine activity, known causes of schizophrenia. The 5-HTP hypothesis affirms conventional hypotheses, as the metabolic condition caused by acceleration of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and suppression of tryptophan hydroxylase 2, activates both 5-HT and kynurenic acid. In order to empirically test the theory, it will be useful to monitor serum 5-HTP and match it to different phases of schizophrenia. This hypothesis may signal a new era with schizophrenia treated as a brain-gut interaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The hypothesis that matter is made of some ultimate and indivisible objects, together with the restricted relativity principle, establishes a constraint on the kind of variables we are allowed to use for the variational description of elementary particles. We consider that the atomic hypothesis not only states the indivisibility of elementary particles, but also that these ultimate objects, if not annihilated, cannot be modified by any interaction so that all allowed states of an elementary particle are only kinematical modifications of any one of them. Therefore, an elementary particle cannot have excited states. In this way, the kinematical group of spacetime symmetries not only defines the symmetries of the system, but also the variables in terms of which the mathematical description of the elementary particles can be expressed in either the classical or the quantum mechanical description. When considering the interaction of two Dirac particles, the atomic hypothesis restricts the interaction Lagrangian to a kind of minimal coupling interaction
Kiss, A.A.; Rothenberg, G.
This chapter outlines the properties of biodiesel as renewable fuel, as well as the problems associated with its conventional production processes. The synthesis via fatty acid esterification using solid acid catalysts is investigated. The major challenge is finding a suitable catalyst that is
In the reaction to the long-range vision of RMNO, published in 1996, The Dutch government posed the question whether a far-going and progressive modernization policy will lead to competitive advantages of high-quality products on partly new markets. Such a question is connected to the so-called Porter hypothesis: 'By stimulating innovation, strict environmental regulations can actually enhance competitiveness', from which statement it can be concluded that environment and economy can work together quite well. A literature study has been carried out in order to determine under which conditions that hypothesis is endorsed in the scientific literature and policy documents. Recommendations are given for further studies. refs
Vaag, A A; Grunnet, L G; Arora, G P
Twenty years ago, Hales and Barker along with their co-workers published some of their pioneering papers proposing the 'thrifty phenotype hypothesis' in Diabetologia (4;35:595-601 and 3;36:62-67). Their postulate that fetal programming could represent an important player in the origin of type 2...... of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes is a multiple-organ disease, and developmental programming, with its idea of organ plasticity, is a plausible hypothesis for a common basis for the widespread organ dysfunctions in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Only two among the 45 known type 2...
Shahidi Bonjar MR
Full Text Available Mohammad Rashid Shahidi Bonjar,1 Leyla Shahidi Bonjar2 1School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman Iran; 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: This hypothesis proposes a new prospective approach to slow the aging process in older humans. The hypothesis could lead to developing new treatments for age-related illnesses and help humans to live longer. This hypothesis has no previous documentation in scientific media and has no protocol. Scientists have presented evidence that systemic aging is influenced by peculiar molecules in the blood. Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, and Harvard University in Cambridge discovered elevated titer of aging-related molecules (ARMs in blood, which trigger cascade of aging process in mice; they also indicated that the process can be reduced or even reversed. By inhibiting the production of ARMs, they could reduce age-related cognitive and physical declines. The present hypothesis offers a new approach to translate these findings into medical treatment: extracorporeal adjustment of ARMs would lead to slower rates of aging. A prospective “antiaging blood filtration column” (AABFC is a nanotechnological device that would fulfill the central role in this approach. An AABFC would set a near-youth homeostatic titer of ARMs in the blood. In this regard, the AABFC immobilizes ARMs from the blood while blood passes through the column. The AABFC harbors antibodies against ARMs. ARM antibodies would be conjugated irreversibly to ARMs on contact surfaces of the reaction platforms inside the AABFC till near-youth homeostasis is attained. The treatment is performed with the aid of a blood-circulating pump. Similar to a renal dialysis machine, blood would circulate from the body to the AABFC and from there back to the body in a closed circuit until ARMs were sufficiently depleted from the blood. The
Jan C. A. Boeyens
Full Text Available The self-similar symmetry that occurs between atomic nuclei, biological growth structures, the solar system, globular clusters and spiral galaxies suggests that a similar pattern should characterize atomic and molecular structures. This possibility is explored in terms of the current molecular structure-hypothesis and its extension into four-dimensional space-time. It is concluded that a quantum molecule only has structure in four dimensions and that classical (Newtonian structure, which occurs in three dimensions, cannot be simulated by quantum-chemical computation.
Mestrovic, S; Glassner, B
Commonalities among the events that appear on life events lists and among the types of social supports which have been found to reduce the likelihood of illness are reviewed in the life events literature in an attempt to find a context within sociological theory. Social integration seems to underlie the stress-illness process. In seeking a tradition from which to understand these facts, we selected Durkheim's works in the context of the homo duplex concept wherein social integration involves the interplay of individualism and social forces. After presenting a specific hypothesis for the stress literature, the paper concludes with implications and suggestions for empirical research.
Tarone, Aaron M; Sanford, Michelle R
Over the past several decades, there have been several strident exchanges regarding whether forensic entomologists estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), minimum PMI, or something else. During that time, there has been a proliferation of terminology reflecting this concern regarding "what we do." This has been a frustrating conversation for some in the community because much of this debate appears to be centered on what assumptions are acknowledged directly and which are embedded within a list of assumptions (or ignored altogether) in the literature and in case reports. An additional component of the conversation centers on a concern that moving away from the use of certain terminology like PMI acknowledges limitations and problems that would make the application of entomology appear less useful in court-a problem for lawyers, but one that should not be problematic for scientists in the forensic entomology community, as uncertainty is part of science that should and can be presented effectively in the courtroom (e.g., population genetic concepts in forensics). Unfortunately, a consequence of the way this conversation is conducted is that even as all involved in the debate acknowledge the concerns of their colleagues, parties continue to talk past one another advocating their preferred terminology. Progress will not be made until the community recognizes that all of the terms under consideration take the form of null hypothesis statements and that thinking about "what we do" as a null hypothesis has useful legal and scientific ramifications that transcend arguments over the usage of preferred terminology. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford
In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...
Dahl, Morten; Vestbo, Jørgen; Zacho, Jeppe
It is unclear whether elevated plasma C reactive protein (CRP) is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated plasma CRP causes COPD using a Mendelian randomisation design.......It is unclear whether elevated plasma C reactive protein (CRP) is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated plasma CRP causes COPD using a Mendelian randomisation design....
Perrine Marie RUBY
Full Text Available Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption, creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF. These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG. We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject’s hearing level. Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.4 ± 1.1 dream recalls per week and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.1 using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects’ quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000-1200ms during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs 14 ± 4 min. As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in
Ruby, Perrine; Blochet, Camille; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie
Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF). These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG). We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names) during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject's hearing level). Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.42 ± 0.25 SEM, dream recalls per week) and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.02) using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects' quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000-1200 ms) during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 4 min). As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in high and
Hristova, M; Aloe, L
An increasing number of researchers of the metabolic syndrome assume that many mechanisms are involved in its complex pathophysiology such as an increased sympathetic activity, disorders of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, the action of chronic subclinical infections, proinflammatory cytokines, and the effect of adipocytokines or psychoemotional stress. An increasing body of scientific research in this field confirms the role of the neurotrophins and mastocytes in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immune diseases. Recently it has been proved that neurotrophins and mastocytes have metabotrophic effects and take part in the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In the early stage of the metabolic syndrome we established a statistically significant increase in the plasma levels of the nerve growth factor. In the generalized stage the plasma levels of the neutrophines were statistically decreased in comparison to those in the healthy controls. We consider that the neurotrophin deficit is likely to play a significant pathogenic role in the development of the metabolic anthropometric and vascular manifestations of the generalized stage of MetSyn. We suggest a hypothesis for the etiopathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome based on the neuro-immuno-endocrine interactions. The specific pathogenic pathways of MetSyn development include: (1) increased tissue and plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1(IL-1), Interleukin-6 (IL-6 ) and tumor necrosis factor - alpha (TNF-alpha) caused by inflammatory and/or emotional distress; (2) increased plasma levels of neurotrophin - nerve growth factor (NGF) caused by the high IL-1, IL-6 and TNFalpha levels; (3) high plasma levels of NGF which enhance activation of: the autonomous nerve system--vegetodystonia (disbalance of neurotransmitters); Neuropeptide Y (NPY)--enhanced feeding, obesity and increased leptin plasma levels; hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis--increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and
Caudle Robert M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has indicated an increasingly complex role for astrocytes in the central nervous system. Astrocytes are now known to exchange information with neurons at synaptic junctions and to alter the information processing capabilities of the neurons. As an extension of this trend a hypothesis was proposed that astrocytes function to store information. To explore this idea the ion channels in biological membranes were compared to models known as cellular automata. These comparisons were made to test the hypothesis that ion channels in the membranes of astrocytes form a dynamic information storage device. Results Two dimensional cellular automata were found to behave similarly to ion channels in a membrane when they function at the boundary between order and chaos. The length of time information is stored in this class of cellular automata is exponentially related to the number of units. Therefore the length of time biological ion channels store information was plotted versus the estimated number of ion channels in the tissue. This analysis indicates that there is an exponential relationship between memory and the number of ion channels. Extrapolation of this relationship to the estimated number of ion channels in the astrocytes of a human brain indicates that memory can be stored in this system for an entire life span. Interestingly, this information is not affixed to any physical structure, but is stored as an organization of the activity of the ion channels. Further analysis of two dimensional cellular automata also demonstrates that these systems have both associative and temporal memory capabilities. Conclusion It is concluded that astrocytes may serve as a dynamic information sink for neurons. The memory in the astrocytes is stored by organizing the activity of ion channels and is not associated with a physical location such as a synapse. In order for this form of memory to be of significant duration it is necessary
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a brief low level exposure to cigarette smoke in rats with known low (Sprague-Dawley and high (Fisher airway responsiveness, to test the hypothesis that airways reactivity influences the severity or duration of pulmonary function alterations after cigarette smoke exposure.
Jayaraj, Richard L; Rodriguez, Eric A; Wang, Yi; Block, Michelle L
Accumulating research indicates that ambient outdoor air pollution impacts the brain and may affect neurodegenerative diseases, yet the potential underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The neuroinflammation hypothesis holds that elevation of cytokines and reactive oxygen species in the brain mediates the deleterious effects of urban air pollution on the central nervous system (CNS). Studies in human and animal research document that neuroinflammation occurs in response to several inhaled pollutants. Microglia are a prominent source of cytokines and reactive oxygen species in the brain, implicated in the progressive neuron damage in diverse neurodegenerative diseases, and activated by inhaled components of urban air pollution through both direct and indirect pathways. The MAC1-NOX2 pathway has been identified as a mechanism through which microglia respond to different forms of air pollution, suggesting a potential common deleterious pathway. Multiple direct and indirect pathways in response to air pollution exposure likely interact in concert to exert CNS effects.
Full Text Available The oxidative hypothesis of senescence, since its origin in 1956, has garnered significant evidence and growing support among scientists for the notion that free radicals play an important role in ageing, either as "damaging" molecules or as signaling molecules. Age-increasing oxidative injuries induced by free radicals, higher susceptibility to oxidative stress in short-lived organisms, genetic manipulations that alter both oxidative resistance and longevity and the anti-ageing effect of caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are a few examples of accepted scientific facts that support the oxidative theory of senescence. Though not completely understood due to the complex "network" of redox regulatory systems, the implication of oxidative stress in the ageing process is now well documented. Moreover, it is compatible with other current ageing theories (e.g., those implicating the mitochondrial damage/mitochondrial-lysosomal axis, stress-induced premature senescence, biological "garbage" accumulation, etc. This review is intended to summarize and critically discuss the redox mechanisms involved during the ageing process: sources of oxidant agents in ageing (mitochondrial -electron transport chain, nitric oxide synthase reaction- and non-mitochondrial- Fenton reaction, microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, peroxisomal β -oxidation and respiratory burst of phagocytic cells, antioxidant changes in ageing (enzymatic- superoxide dismutase, glutathione-reductase, glutathion peroxidase, catalase- and non-enzymatic glutathione, ascorbate, urate, bilirubine, melatonin, tocopherols, carotenoids, ubiquinol, alteration of oxidative damage repairing mechanisms and the role of free radicals as signaling molecules in ageing.
This book generalizes and extends the available theory in robust and decentralized hypothesis testing. In particular, it presents a robust test for modeling errors which is independent from the assumptions that a sufficiently large number of samples is available, and that the distance is the KL-divergence. Here, the distance can be chosen from a much general model, which includes the KL-divergence as a very special case. This is then extended by various means. A minimax robust test that is robust against both outliers as well as modeling errors is presented. Minimax robustness properties of the given tests are also explicitly proven for fixed sample size and sequential probability ratio tests. The theory of robust detection is extended to robust estimation and the theory of robust distributed detection is extended to classes of distributions, which are not necessarily stochastically bounded. It is shown that the quantization functions for the decision rules can also be chosen as non-monotone. Finally, the boo...
Morgenstern, David; King, Glenn F
Animal venoms are complex chemical mixtures that typically contain hundreds of proteins and non-proteinaceous compounds, resulting in a potent weapon for prey immobilization and predator deterrence. However, because venoms are protein-rich, they come with a high metabolic price tag. The metabolic cost of venom is sufficiently high to result in secondary loss of venom whenever its use becomes non-essential to survival of the animal. The high metabolic cost of venom leads to the prediction that venomous animals may have evolved strategies for minimizing venom expenditure. Indeed, various behaviors have been identified that appear consistent with frugality of venom use. This has led to formulation of the "venom optimization hypothesis" (Wigger et al. (2002) Toxicon 40, 749-752), also known as "venom metering", which postulates that venom is metabolically expensive and therefore used frugally through behavioral control. Here, we review the available data concerning economy of venom use by animals with either ancient or more recently evolved venom systems. We conclude that the convergent nature of the evidence in multiple taxa strongly suggests the existence of evolutionary pressures favoring frugal use of venom. However, there remains an unresolved dichotomy between this economy of venom use and the lavish biochemical complexity of venom, which includes a high degree of functional redundancy. We discuss the evidence for biochemical optimization of venom as a means of resolving this conundrum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Forrest, David V
In response to a new psychological study of persons who believe they have been abducted by space aliens that found that sleep paralysis, a history of being hypnotized, and preoccupation with the paranormal and extraterrestrial were predisposing experiences, I noted that many of the frequently reported particulars of the abduction experience bear more than a passing resemblance to medical-surgical procedures and propose that experience with these may also be contributory. There is the altered state of consciousness, uniformly colored figures with prominent eyes, in a high-tech room under a round bright saucerlike object; there is nakedness, pain and a loss of control while the body's boundaries are being probed; and yet the figures are thought benevolent. No medical-surgical history was apparently taken in the above mentioned study, but psychological laboratory work evaluated false memory formation. I discuss problems in assessing intraoperative awareness and ways in which the medical hypothesis could be elaborated and tested. If physicians are causing this syndrome in a percentage of patients, we should know about it; and persons who feel they have been abducted should be encouraged to inform their surgeons and anesthesiologists without challenging their beliefs.
... Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Reactive Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Reactive Arthritis Reactive arthritis is pain or swelling in a ...
Agner, T; Damm, P; Skouby, S O
The hypothesis was tested that a cyclic variation exists in skin reactivity to irritant stimuli. Twenty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles were challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate as an irritant patch test at day 1 and at days 9 through 11 of the menstrual cycle. The skin response...... in the menstrual cycle as evaluated by visual scoring (p less than 0.05) as well as by measurement of transepidermal water loss (p less than 0.05) and edema formation (p less than 0.005)....
Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio
Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...
Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Bjørklund, Geir
In this article the Proteasome, Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria (PERM) hypothesis is discussed. The complex machinery made by three homeostatic mechanisms involving the proteasome (P), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria (M) is addressed in order to elucidate the beneficial role of many xenobiotics, either trace metals or phytochemicals, which are spread in the human environment and in dietary habits, exerting their actions on the mechanisms underlying cell survival (apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and turnover, autophagy) and stress response. The "PERM hypothesis" suggests that xenobiotics can modulate this central signaling and the regulatory engine made fundamentally by the ER, mitochondria and proteasome, together with other ancillary components such as peroxisomes, by acting on the energetic balance, redox system and macromolecule turnover. In this context, reactive species and stressors are fundamentally signalling molecules that could act as negative-modulating signals if PERM-mediated control is offline, impaired or dysregulated, as occurs in metabolic syndrome, degenerative disorders, chronic inflammation and cancer. Calcium is an important oscillatory input of this regulation and, in this hypothesis, it might play a role in maintaining the correct rhythm of this PERM modulation, probably chaotic in its nature, and guiding cells to a more drastic decision, such as apoptosis. The commonest effort sustained by cells is to maintain their survival balance and the proterome has the fundamental task of supporting this mechanism. Mild stress is probably the main stimulus in this sense. Hormesis is therefore re-interpreted in the light of this hypothetical model and that experimental evidence arising from flavonoid and hormesis reasearch.
Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg
that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....
Dam, van Y.K.
In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the
Gabbay, Dov M
This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea
Post, Wendy J.; van Duijn, Marijtje A.J.; Makar, Katie; de Sousa, Bruno; Gould, Robert
The last decades a debate has been going on about the use of hypothesis testing. This has led some teachers to think that confidence intervals and effect sizes need to be taught instead of formal hypothesis testing with p-values. Although we see shortcomings of the use of p-values in statistical
Soklakov, Andrei N.; Schack, Ruediger
Hypothesis elimination is a special case of Bayesian updating, where each piece of new data rules out a set of prior hypotheses. We describe how to use Grover's algorithm to perform hypothesis elimination for a class of probability distributions encoded on a register of qubits, and establish a lower bound on the required computational resources.
Livingston, Jennifer A.; Gentile, J. Ronald
This report results from studies that tested two variations of Bloom's decreasing variability hypothesis using performance on successive units of achievement in four graduate classrooms that used mastery learning procedures. Data do not support the decreasing variability hypothesis; rather, they show no change over time. (SM)
Critics of null hypothesis significance testing suggest that (a) its basic logic is invalid and (b) it addresses a question that is of no interest. In contrast to (a), I argue that the underlying logic of hypothesis testing is actually extremely straightforward and compelling. To substantiate that, I present examples showing that hypothesis…
Gu, Xin; Hoijtink, Herbert; Mulder, J,
This paper investigates the classical type I and type II error probabilities of default Bayes factors for a Bayesian t test. Default Bayes factors quantify the relative evidence between the null hypothesis and the unrestricted alternative hypothesis without needing to specify prior distributions for
Jan 9, 2016 ... Starting with 'high scale mixing unification' hypothesis, we investigate the renormalization group evolution of mixing parameters and masses for both Dirac and Majorana-type neutrinos. Following this hypothesis, the PMNS mixing parameters are taken to be identical to the CKM ones at a unifying high ...
Full Text Available To examine which considerations play a role when individuals make decisions to purchase sustainable product varieties or not, we have conducted a large scale field experiment with more than 600 participating households. Households can vote on whether the budgets they receive should only be spent on purchasing the sustainable product variety, or whether every household in a group is free to spend their budget on any product variety. By conducting several treatments, we tested whether people tend to view sustainable consumption as a social dilemma or as a moral dilemma. We find little support for the hypothesis that social dilemma considerations are the key drivers of sustainable consumption behaviour. Participants seem to be caught in a moral dilemma in which they not only weigh their individual financial costs with the sustainable benefits but they also consider the consequences of restricting other people’s freedom of choice. Complementary survey results further substantiate this claim and show that many people are reluctant to impose restrictions on their peers, but, at the same time, our results also suggest substantial support for the government to regulate the availability of unsustainable product varieties.
Monnery-Patris, Sandrine; Wagner, Sandra; Rigal, Natalie; Schwartz, Camille; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie
Previous research has identified relationships between chemosensory reactivity and food neophobia in children. However, most studies have investigated this relationship using declarative data and without separately analysing smell and taste reactivity. Our first objective was to assess the relationships between smell and taste differential reactivity in toddlers (i.e. reactivity towards several stimuli), using experimental behavioural measurements. The second objective was to determine the relationships between smell (or taste) differential reactivity and food neophobia in toddlers, with the hypothesis that the more responsive a toddler was across food odours or tastes, the more neophobic s/he would be. An additional objective was to determine whether the potential relationships between smell (or taste) differential reactivity and food neophobia differ according to gender. One hundred and twenty-three toddlers aged from 20 to 22 months from the Opaline birth cohort (Observatory of Food Preferences in Infants and Children) were involved. A questionnaire was used to assess child's food neophobia. Toddlers' differential reactivity for smell (and for taste) was defined as the variability of behavioural responses over 8 odorants, and over the five basic tastes. Smell and taste differential reactivities were not correlated. Food neophobia scores were modestly but significantly positively correlated with smell differential reactivity but not with taste differential reactivity. When gender was considered, smell reactivity and neophobia were correlated only among boys. This indicates the need to study smell and taste reactivity separately to determine their associations with eating behaviours. This suggests that the rejection of novel foods in neophobic boys could be partly due to food odour. This finding is new and clearly requires further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kirchner, James; Pfister, Laurent
Well-posed hypothesis tests have spurred major advances in hydrological theory. However, a random sample of recent research papers suggests that in hydrology, as in other fields, hypothesis formulation and testing rarely correspond to the idealized model of the scientific method. Practices such as "p-hacking" or "HARKing" (Hypothesizing After the Results are Known) are major obstacles to more rigorous hypothesis testing in hydrology, along with the well-known problem of confirmation bias - the tendency to value and trust confirmations more than refutations - among both researchers and reviewers. Hypothesis testing is not the only recipe for scientific progress, however: exploratory research, driven by innovations in measurement and observation, has also underlain many key advances. Further improvements in observation and measurement will be vital to both exploratory research and hypothesis testing, and thus to advancing the science of hydrology.
Here, we put forward a redox molecular hypothesis about the natural biophysical substrate of visual perception and visual imagery. This hypothesis is based on the redox and bioluminescent processes of neuronal cells in retinotopically organized cytochrome oxidase-rich visual areas. Our hypothesis is in line with the functional roles of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in living cells that are not part of haphazard process, but rather a very strict mechanism used in signaling pathways. We point out that there is a direct relationship between neuronal activity and the biophoton emission process in the brain. Electrical and biochemical processes in the brain represent sensory information from the external world. During encoding or retrieval of information, electrical signals of neurons can be converted into synchronized biophoton signals by bioluminescent radical and non-radical processes. Therefore, information in the brain appears not only as an electrical (chemical) signal but also as a regulated biophoton (weak optical) signal inside neurons. During visual perception, the topological distribution of photon stimuli on the retina is represented by electrical neuronal activity in retinotopically organized visual areas. These retinotopic electrical signals in visual neurons can be converted into synchronized biophoton signals by radical and non-radical processes in retinotopically organized mitochondria-rich areas. As a result, regulated bioluminescent biophotons can create intrinsic pictures (depictive representation) in retinotopically organized cytochrome oxidase-rich visual areas during visual imagery and visual perception. The long-term visual memory is interpreted as epigenetic information regulated by free radicals and redox processes. This hypothesis does not claim to solve the secret of consciousness, but proposes that the evolution of higher levels of complexity made the intrinsic picture representation of the external visual world possible by regulated
Full Text Available Reactive perforating collagenosis is a rare cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology. We hereby describe a case of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis in a patient of diabetes and chronic renal failure.
Bailey, James; Bry, François; Eckert, Michael; Patrânjan, Paula Lavinia
Reactivity, the ability to detect simple and composite events and respond in a timely manner, is an essential requirement in many present-day information systems. With the emergence of new, dynamic Web applications, reactivity on the Web is receiving increasing attention. Reactive Web-based systems need to detect and react not only to simple events but also to complex, real-life situations. This paper introduces XChange, a language for programming reactive behaviour on the Web,...
Krishnan, Saras; Idris, Noraini
The reformation in statistics education over the past two decades has predominantly shifted the focus of statistical teaching and learning from procedural understanding to conceptual understanding. The emphasis of procedural understanding is on the formulas and calculation procedures. Meanwhile, conceptual understanding emphasizes students knowing why they are using a particular formula or executing a specific procedure. In addition, the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy offers a twodimensional framework to describe learning objectives comprising of the six revised cognition levels of original Bloom's taxonomy and four knowledge dimensions. Depending on the level of complexities, the four knowledge dimensions essentially distinguish basic understanding from the more connected understanding. This study identifiesthe factual, procedural and conceptual knowledgedimensions in hypothesis test problems. Hypothesis test being an important tool in making inferences about a population from sample informationis taught in many introductory statistics courses. However, researchers find that students in these courses still have difficulty in understanding the underlying concepts of hypothesis test. Past studies also show that even though students can perform the hypothesis testing procedure, they may not understand the rationale of executing these steps or know how to apply them in novel contexts. Besides knowing the procedural steps in conducting a hypothesis test, students must have fundamental statistical knowledge and deep understanding of the underlying inferential concepts such as sampling distribution and central limit theorem. By identifying the knowledge dimensions of hypothesis test problems in this study, suitable instructional and assessment strategies can be developed in future to enhance students' learning of hypothesis test as a valuable inferential tool.
Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch
Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...
Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina
The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.
Andersen, Nicolai Bo
This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...
Ghirardi, G.C.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.
It is proved that the Bohm-Aharonov hypothesis concerning largerly separated subsystems of composite quantum systems implies that it is impossible to express the dynamical evolution in terms of the density operator
Markram, Henry; Rinaldi, Tania; Markram, Kamila
Autism is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder with a polygenetic predisposition that seems to be triggered by multiple environmental factors during embryonic and/or early postnatal life. While significant advances have been made in identifying the neuronal structures and cells affected......, a unifying theory that could explain the manifold autistic symptoms has still not emerged. Based on recent synaptic, cellular, molecular, microcircuit, and behavioral results obtained with the valproic acid (VPA) rat model of autism, we propose here a unifying hypothesis where the core pathology...... of the autistic brain is hyper-reactivity and hyper-plasticity of local neuronal circuits. Such excessive neuronal processing in circumscribed circuits is suggested to lead to hyper-perception, hyper-attention, and hyper-memory, which may lie at the heart of most autistic symptoms. In this view, the autistic...
According to the sequential hypothesis (SH) memories acquired during wakefulness are processed during sleep in two serial steps respectively occurring during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. During SWS memories to be retained are distinguished from irrelevant or competing traces that undergo downgrading or elimination. Processed memories are stored again during REM sleep which integrates them with preexisting memories. The hypothesis received support from a wealth of ...
Grindsted, Thomas Skou
, has put a counter pressure on the university, forcing it to review its role as a driver for sustainable development. Today, universities and intergovernmental institutions have developed more than 31 SHE declarations, and more than 1400 universities have signed a SHE declaration globally. However....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable......Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn...
Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent
What. The chapter addresses designing for sustainability as interventions in socio-technical systems and social practices of users and communities. It calls for reflexive design practices challenging dominant regimes and shaping alternative design spaces. The specific case is the reconfiguration...... of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...... transition processes. Where. Addresses design processes aimed at sustainable transition enacted in complex social settings, socio-technical systems involving many different actors and agendas. How. The chapter outlines a conceptual and analytic framework for a reflexive design practice for sustainability...
Iles, Karen E; Song, Weifeng; Miller, David W; Dickinson, Dale A; Matalon, Sadis
Pulmonary edema occurs when fluid flux into the lung interstitium exceeds its removal, resulting in hypoxemia and even death. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) generally results when microvascular and alveolar permeability to plasma proteins increase, one possible etiology being oxidant injury. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) can modify or damage ion channels, such as epithelial sodium channels, which alters fluid balance. Experimental systems in which either RONS are increased or protective antioxidant mechanisms are decreased result in alterations of epithelial sodium channel activity and support the hypothesis that RONS are important in NPE. Both basic and clinical studies are needed to critically define the RONS-NPE connection and the capacity of antioxidant therapy (either alone or as a supplement to β-agonists) to improve patient outcome.
Öcal, Serkan; Harmancı, Özgür; Korkmaz, Murat; Ensaroğlu, Fatih; Çolak, Turan; Selçuk, Haldun; Moray, Gökhan; Haberal, Mehmet
Chronic hepatitis C virus infection compromises hemodialysis patients and increases liver-related mortality. Interferon treatment is associated with improved sustained virological response rates and increased risk of graft loss after kidney transplant. This may be related to the development of antihuman leukocyte antigen antibodies, which may be a surrogate marker of potent immune response. We evaluated panel reactive antibody 1 and 2 levels for prediction of sustained viral response in patients with kidney transplant. In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed data from hepatitis C virusinfected hemodialysis patients who received interferon treatment before kidney transplant. Panel reactive antibody > 20% was considered positive. Sustained viral response rates for interferon treatment were obtained and compared with panel reactive antibody 1 and 2 values. There were 40 patients (16 female and 24 male patients; mean age, 41.5 y; range, 18-65 y). Sustained viral response rate was 18/40 (45%). Panel reactive antibody 1 was negative in 31 patients and positive in 9 patients. Sustained viral response ratio was not correlated with panel reactive antibody 1 positivity. Panel reactive antibody 2 was negative in 31 patients (sustained viral response: present, 11 patients; absent, 20 patients) and positive in 9 patients (sustained viral response: present, 7 patients; absent, 2 patients). Sustained viral response ratio was significantly correlated with panel reactive antibody 2 positivity. We showed a correlation between panel reactive antibody 2 positivity and sustained viral response rates that may be a predictive tool for hepatitis C virus treatment response. In patients with other complications that compromise hepatitis C virus treatment, panel reactive antibody 2 may be a surrogate marker for sustained viral response prediction. The induction of cellular immunity may cause clearance of hepatitis C virus infection and formation of high panel reactive antibody 2
Szucs, Denes; Ioannidis, John P. A.
Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has several shortcomings that are likely contributing factors behind the widely debated replication crisis of (cognitive) neuroscience, psychology, and biomedical science in general. We review these shortcomings and suggest that, after sustained negative experience, NHST should no longer be the default, dominant statistical practice of all biomedical and psychological research. If theoretical predictions are weak we should not rely on all or nothing hypothesis tests. Different inferential methods may be most suitable for different types of research questions. Whenever researchers use NHST they should justify its use, and publish pre-study power calculations and effect sizes, including negative findings. Hypothesis-testing studies should be pre-registered and optimally raw data published. The current statistics lite educational approach for students that has sustained the widespread, spurious use of NHST should be phased out. PMID:28824397
Full Text Available In this article the Proteasome, Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria (PERM hypothesis is discussed. The complex machinery made by three homeostatic mechanisms involving the proteasome (P, endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria (M is addressed in order to elucidate the beneficial role of many xenobiotics, either trace metals or phytochemicals, which are spread in the human environment and in dietary habits, exerting their actions on the mechanisms underlying cell survival (apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and turnover, autophagy and stress response. The “PERM hypothesis” suggests that xenobiotics can modulate this central signaling and the regulatory engine made fundamentally by the ER, mitochondria and proteasome, together with other ancillary components such as peroxisomes, by acting on the energetic balance, redox system and macromolecule turnover. In this context, reactive species and stressors are fundamentally signalling molecules that could act as negative-modulating signals if PERM-mediated control is offline, impaired or dysregulated, as occurs in metabolic syndrome, degenerative disorders, chronic inflammation and cancer. Calcium is an important oscillatory input of this regulation and, in this hypothesis, it might play a role in maintaining the correct rhythm of this PERM modulation, probably chaotic in its nature, and guiding cells to a more drastic decision, such as apoptosis. The commonest effort sustained by cells is to maintain their survival balance and the proterome has the fundamental task of supporting this mechanism. Mild stress is probably the main stimulus in this sense. Hormesis is therefore re-interpreted in the light of this hypothetical model and that experimental evidence arising from flavonoid and hormesis reasearch.
Schwoegler, Stefan; Blackman, Sam; Holsopple, Jared; Hirsch, Michael J.
This paper discusses how methods used for conventional multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) can be extended to domain-agnostic tracking of entities from non-kinematic constraints such as those imposed by cyber attacks in a potentially dense false alarm background. MHT is widely recognized as the premier method to avoid corrupting tracks with spurious data in the kinematic domain but it has not been extensively applied to other problem domains. The traditional approach is to tightly couple track maintenance (prediction, gating, filtering, probabilistic pruning, and target confirmation) with hypothesis management (clustering, incompatibility maintenance, hypothesis formation, and Nassociation pruning). However, by separating the domain specific track maintenance portion from the domain agnostic hypothesis management piece, we can begin to apply the wealth of knowledge gained from ground and air tracking solutions to the cyber (and other) domains. These realizations led to the creation of Raytheon's Multiple Hypothesis Extensible Tracking Architecture (MHETA). In this paper, we showcase MHETA for the cyber domain, plugging in a well established method, CUBRC's INFormation Engine for Real-time Decision making, (INFERD), for the association portion of the MHT. The result is a CyberMHT. We demonstrate the power of MHETA-INFERD using simulated data. Using metrics from both the tracking and cyber domains, we show that while no tracker is perfect, by applying MHETA-INFERD, advanced nonkinematic tracks can be captured in an automated way, perform better than non-MHT approaches, and decrease analyst response time to cyber threats.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, it has been suspected that there is a relationship between therapy with some antibiotics and the onset of autism; but even more curious, some children benefited transiently from a subsequent treatment with a different antibiotic. Here, we speculate how aminoglycoside antibiotics might be associated with autism. Presentation We hypothesize that aminoglycoside antibiotics could a trigger the autism syndrome in susceptible infants by causing the stop codon readthrough, i.e., a misreading of the genetic code of a hypothetical critical gene, and/or b improve autism symptoms by correcting the premature stop codon mutation in a hypothetical polymorphic gene linked to autism. Testing Investigate, retrospectively, whether a link exists between aminoglycoside use (which is not extensive in children and the onset of autism symptoms (hypothesis "a", or between amino glycoside use and improvement of these symptoms (hypothesis "b". Whereas a prospective study to test hypothesis "a" is not ethically justifiable, a study could be designed to test hypothesis "b". Implications It should be stressed that at this stage no direct evidence supports our speculative hypothesis and that its main purpose is to initiate development of new ideas that, eventually, would improve our understanding of the pathobiology of autism.
Reactive Programming in gaining a lot of excitement. Many libraries, tools, and frameworks are beginning to make use of reactive libraries. Besides, applications dealing with big data or high frequency data can benefit from this programming paradigm. Come to this presentation to learn about what reactive programming is, what kind of problems it solves, how it solves them. We will take an example oriented approach to learning the programming model and the abstraction.
Rosas, Guillermo; Manzetti, Luigi
Do economic conditions drive voters to punish politicians that tolerate corruption? Previous scholarly work contends that citizens in young democracies support corrupt governments that are capable of promoting good economic outcomes, the so-called trade-off hypothesis. We test this hypothesis based...... on mass surveys in eighteen Latin American countries throughout 2004–2012. We find that citizens that report bribe attempts from bureaucrats are always more likely to report presidential disapproval than citizens that report no such attempts, that is, Latin American victims of corruption are not duped...... by good economic performance. However, we find some evidence for a weaker form of the trade-off hypothesis: presidential disapproval among corruption victims might be more pronounced in contexts of high inflation and high unemployment....
Lystbæk, Christian Tang
This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of alternative...... such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development...
Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía
Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...
Andersen, Nicolai Bo
This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...
This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.
Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.
Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim
This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...
The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...
Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.
Zheltyshev, V.; Ivanov, A.
Since 1980, the fast BN600 reactor with sodium coolant has been operated at Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant. The periodic monitoring of the reactivity modifications should be implemented in compliance with the standards and regulations applied in nuclear power engineering. The reactivity measurements are carried out in order to confirm the basic neutronic features of a BN600 reactor. The reactivity measurements are aimed to justify that nuclear safety is provided in course of the in-reactor installation of the experimental core components. Two reactivity meters are to be used on BN600 operation: 1. Digital on-line reactivity calculated under stationary reactor operation on power (approximation of the point-wise kinetics is applied). 2. Second reactivity meter used to define the reactor control rod operating components efficiency under reactor startup and take account of the changing efficiency of the sensor, however, this is more time-consumptive than the on-line reactivity meter. The application of two reactivity meters allows for the monitoring of the reactor reactivity under every operating mode. (authors)
Salmistraro, Matteo; Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren
for stereo sequences, exploiting an interpolated intra-view SI and two inter-view SIs. The quality of the SI has a major impact on the DVC Rate-Distortion (RD) performance. As the inter-view SIs individually present lower RD performance compared with the intra-view SI, we propose multi-hypothesis decoding...... for robust fusion and improved performance. Compared with a state-of-the-art single side information solution, the proposed DVC decoder improves the RD performance for all the chosen test sequences by up to 0.8 dB. The proposed multi-hypothesis decoder showed higher robustness compared with other fusion...
The psycho-social observation that the use of some psychoactive substances ("drugs") is often followed by the use of other and more problematic drugs has given rise to a cluster of so-called "gateway drug hypotheses," and such hypotheses have often played an important role in developing drug use policy. The current essay suggests that drug use policies that have drawn on versions of the hypothesis have involved an unjustified oversimplification of the dynamics of drug use, reflecting the interests of certain stakeholders rather than wise social policy. The hypothesis should be retired.
Carrizosa Umana, Julio
The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability
Gad, Ulrik Pram; Jakobsen, Uffe; Strandsbjerg, Jeppe
The concept of sustainability is of central importance in Arctic politics. However, for different actors (governments, indigenious peoples, NGOs) the concept implies different sets of precautions and opportunities. Sustainability, therefore, is much more a fundamental concept to be further...... elaborated than a definable term with a specific meaning. This is the core hypothesis in a collective research project, the POSUSA project (Politics of Sustainability in the Arctic) that aims to map and analyse the role of sustainability in various political and economic strategies in the Arctic....
Bass, Ellyn Charlotte; Stednitz, Sarah Josephine; Simonson, Kevin; Shen, Tori; Gahtan, Ethan
Experiences of social exclusion elicit social pain responses. The current study examined the ability of social exclusion to activate physiological stress responses and adaptively modulate affect and empathy consistent with "defensive emotional analgesia." Measures of affect and empathy, and saliva samples for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) analysis, were collected before and after subjects participated in a computer game ("Cyberball") designed to manipulate feelings of social exclusion. Contrary to our hypotheses, social exclusion was associated with a reduction in cortisol, and social inclusion with an increase in cortisol. Both Cyberball groups showed increases in sAA and decreases in both positive and negative affect, with the greatest drop in affect occurring after social exclusion. Empathy did not differ between the social exclusion and inclusion groups and was not correlated with cortisol or sAA levels. These results support the presence of a defensive response to social exclusion in which central stress pathways controlling cortisol release are inhibited. Cortisol and sAA were shown to have distinct patterns of responses to psychological stress, with sAA responding more rapidly. Related methodological concerns for the use of these physiological stress markers and of Cyberball in social neuroscience research are discussed.
Dr. W. R. eKlemm
Full Text Available Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses REM to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, 1 when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV, a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, 2 conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, 3 the last awakening during a night’s sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, 4 both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system 5 N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and 6 corticofugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.
Klemm, W R
Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses rapid eye movement (REM) to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, (1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV), a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, (2) conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, (3) the last awakening during a night's sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, (4) both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system (5) N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and (6) cortico-fugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.
Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye
Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott , offe...
This article describes the logical and rhetorical grounds for a multicultural pedagogy that teaches students the knowledge and skills needed to interact creatively in the public realm betwixt and between cultures. I begin by discussing the notion of incommensurability. I contend that this hypothesis was intended to perform a particular rhetorical…
According to the sequential hypothesis (SH) memories acquired during wakefulness are processed during sleep in two serial steps respectively occurring during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. During SWS memories to be retained are distinguished from irrelevant or competing traces that undergo downgrading or elimination. Processed memories are stored again during REM sleep which integrates them with preexisting memories. The hypothesis received support from a wealth of EEG, behavioral, and biochemical analyses of trained rats. Further evidence was provided by independent studies of human subjects. SH basic premises, data, and interpretations have been compared with corresponding viewpoints of the synaptic homeostatic hypothesis (SHY). Their similarities and differences are presented and discussed within the framework of sleep processing operations. SHY's emphasis on synaptic renormalization during SWS is acknowledged to underline a key sleep effect, but this cannot marginalize sleep's main role in selecting memories to be retained from downgrading traces, and in their integration with preexisting memories. In addition, SHY's synaptic renormalization raises an unsolved dilemma that clashes with the accepted memory storage mechanism exclusively based on modifications of synaptic strength. This difficulty may be bypassed by the assumption that SWS-processed memories are stored again by REM sleep in brain subnuclear quantum particles. Storing of memories in quantum particles may also occur in other vigilance states. Hints are provided on ways to subject the quantum hypothesis to experimental tests.
Sheĭkh-Zade, Iu R; Mukhambetaliev, G Kh; Cherednik, I L
A hypothesis is advanced of the heart rate variability being subjected to beat-to-beat regulation of cardiac cycle duration in order to ensure the resonance interaction between respiratory and own fluctuation of the arterial system volume for minimization of power expenses of cardiorespiratory system. Myogenic, parasympathetic and sympathetic machanisms of heart rate variability are described.
Mukharev, L. A.
A hypothesis is developed according to which the atmospheric UFO phenomenon has an electromagnetic nature. It is suggested that an atmospheric UFO is an agglomeration of charged atmospheric dust within which there exists a slowly damped electromagnetic field. This field is considered to be the source of the observed optical effects and the motive force of the UFO.
Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.
False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of
Significance: Utilizing an approach that is fundamentally different from previous efforts to confirm or refute the immortal strand hypothesis, we provide evidence against non-random segregation of DNA during stem cell replication. Our results strongly suggest that parental DNA is passed randomly to stem cell daughters and provides new insight into the mechanism of DNA replication in stem cells.
A founding concept in second language acquisition (SLA) research, fossilization has been fundamental to understanding second language (L2) development. The Fossilization Hypothesis, introduced in Selinker's seminal text (1972), has thus been one of the most influential theories, guiding a significant bulk of SLA research for four decades; 2012…
Chou, T.T.; Yang, C.N.
Remarks are made about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. In particular, the concept of favored and disfavored fragment distribution is introduced. Also, a sum rule is proved leading to a useful quantity called energy-fragmentation fraction. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs
Full Text Available According to the sequential hypothesis (SH memories acquired during wakefulness are processed during sleep in two serial steps respectively occurring during slow wave sleep (SWS and REM sleep. During SWS memories to be retained are distinguished from irrelevant or competing traces that undergo downgrading or elimination. Processed memories are stored again during REM sleep which integrates them with preexisting memories. The hypothesis received support from a wealth of EEG, behavioral, and biochemical analyses of trained rats. Further evidence was provided by independent studies of human subjects. SH basic premises, data, and interpretations have been compared with corresponding viewpoints of the synaptic homeostatic hypothesis (SHY. Their similarities and differences are presented and discussed within the framework of sleep processing operations. SHY’s emphasis on synaptic renormalization during SWS is acknowledged to underline a key sleep effect, but this cannot marginalize sleep’s main role in selecting memories to be retained from downgrading traces, and in their integration with preexisting memories. In addition, SHY’s synaptic renormalization raises an unsolved dilemma that clashes with the accepted memory storage mechanism exclusively based on modifications of synaptic strength. This difficulty may be bypassed by the assumption that SWS-processed memories are stored again by REM sleep in brain subnuclear quantum particles. Storing of memories in quantum particles may also occur in other vigilance states. Hints are provided on ways to subject the quantum hypothesis to experimental tests.
Potter, W. James; Chang, Ik Chin
Describes study of students in grades 8 through 12 that was conducted to determine the degree to which television messages influence a person's construction of reality (the cultivation hypothesis). Research methodology that tests the effects of television exposure is examined with emphasis on the importance of demographic control variables. (38…
Aug 9, 2010 ... Commentary: Human papillomavirus and tar hypothesis for squamous cell cervical cancer. Christina Bennett Allen E Kuhn Harry W Haverkos. Volume 35 Issue 3 September 2010 pp ... Keywords. Cervical cancer; co-factors; human papillomavirus; tar-based vaginal douche; tobacco smoke; wood smoke ...
Results of a study conducted in 14 villages of Sui Lin Township, Taiwan, suggest the hypothesis that, under conditions of extreme economic impoverishment and among children within populations where energy protein malnutrition is endemic, there is an inverse relationship between incidence of morbidity in infancy and measures of motor and mental…
Kragten, N.; Rözer, J.
The income inequality hypothesis states that income inequality has a negative effect on individual’s health, partially because it reduces social trust. This article aims to critically assess the income inequality hypothesis by comparing several analytical strategies, namely OLS regression,
Castejon, Carlos; Nuñez, Angel
One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear. It is still unknown how spatially distributed neuronal activity can be temporally integrated to contribute to cortical computations. A theoretical explanation integrating spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing is still lacking. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we propose a new functional theoretical framework to explain the computational roles of these ensembles in cortical processing. We suggest that complex neural computations underlying cortical processing could be temporally discrete and that sensory information would need to be quantized to be computed by the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we propose that cortical processing is produced by the computation of discrete spatio-temporal functional units that we have called "Discrete Results" (Discrete Results Hypothesis). This hypothesis represents a novel functional mechanism by which information processing is computed in the cortex. Furthermore, we propose that precise dynamic sequences of "Discrete Results" is the mechanism used by the cortex to extract, code, memorize and transmit neural information. The novel "Discrete Results" concept has the ability to match the spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing. We discuss the possible neural underpinnings of these functional computational units and describe the empirical evidence supporting our hypothesis. We propose that fast-spiking (FS
Stuewer, Roger H.
The paper in which Albert Einstein proposed his light-quantum hypothesis was the only one of his great papers of 1905 that he himself termed ``revolutionary.'' Contrary to widespread belief, Einstein did not propose his light-quantum hypothesis ``to explain the photoelectric effect.'' Instead, he based his argument for light quanta on the statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics, with the photoelectric effect being only one of three phenomena that he offered as possible experimental support for it. I will discuss Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and his introduction of the wave-particle duality in 1909 and then turn to the reception of his work on light quanta by his contemporaries. We will examine the reasons that prominent physicists advanced to reject Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis in succeeding years. Those physicists included Robert A. Millikan, even though he provided convincing experimental proof of the validity of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. The turning point came after Arthur Holly Compton discovered the Compton effect in late 1922, but even then Compton's discovery was contested both on experimental and on theoretical grounds. Niels Bohr, in particular, had never accepted the reality of light quanta and now, in 1924, proposed a theory, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory, which assumed that energy and momentum were conserved only statistically in microscopic interactions. Only after that theory was disproved experimentally in 1925 was Einstein's revolutionary light-quantum hypothesis generally accepted by physicists---a full two decades after Einstein had proposed it.
Bailey, Laura K; Davis, Ron
There are documented physiological differences between single and coupled individuals during the "honeymoon period" of nascent romantic relationships. One such difference is in autonomic reactivity, specifically heart rate variability (HRV) reactivity. This finding had previously been interpreted as evidence of a stress buffering effect of relationship formation. The present study explored among university women two competing longitudinal hypotheses conceptualizing differences in HRV reactivity as either a cause or a consequence of romantic relationship formation. Results did not support the hypothesis that HRV reactivity changes as a consequence of beginning a new romantic relationship. Instead, lower HRV reactivity predicted greater relationship formation amongst women with low BMI and higher resting HRV. The functioning of the heart therefore predicted the likelihood that an individual would find love. These interactions may be the result of differing success rates of various mating strategies for women with low and high BMI and HRV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Scully, Iiona D; Napper, Lucy E; Hupbach, Almut
According to the reconsolidation hypothesis, long-term memories return to a plastic state upon their reactivation, leaving them vulnerable to interference effects and requiring re-storage processes or else these memories might be permanently lost. The present study used a meta-analytic approach to critically evaluate the evidence for reactivation-induced changes in human episodic memory. Results indicated that reactivation makes episodic memories susceptible to physiological and behavioral interference. When applied shortly after reactivation, interference manipulations altered the amount of information that could be retrieved from the original learning event. This effect was more pronounced for remote memories and memories of narrative structure. Additionally, new learning following reactivation reliably increased the number of intrusions from new information into the original memory. These findings support a dynamic view of long-term memory by showing that memories can be changed long after they were acquired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a
Reitan Andersen, Kirsti
on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...... undertake the changes that are necessary to achieve greater sustainability—or at best continue to struggle in a globalized and highly interconnected industry to implement the necessary changes. In light of this failure, this thesis investigates how organizations can change towards practising sustainability...
councils’ and ‘sustainability roundtables’ and have been designed around a set of institutional features seeking to establish legitimacy, fend off possible criticism, and ‘sell’ certifications to potential users. The concept of ‘roundtabling’ emphasizes the fitting a variety of commodity...... extent these expectations are being met through the comparative case study of two sustainability certifications in the biofuel industry – in the context of a wider set of experiences in the agro-food and forestry sectors. I show that ‘roundtabling’ entails an ever more complex web of governance systems...
Lovallo, William R; Gerin, William
This article examines possible sources of heightened psychophysiological reactivity in relation to risk for hypertension and coronary artery disease. The idea that exaggerated reactions to psychological stress may predict greater risk for future disease has some support in the psychosomatic and behavioral medicine literature. However, the pathways by which exaggerated reactivity could arise in a given person and the implications of different sources of reactivity for potential disease relationships have received little attention. This topic is approached through a selective literature review and by means of a neurophysiologically based model of individual differences in physiological reactivity. Temperament characteristics, cognitive processes, neurophysiology, and peripheral physiology are used to indicate three levels that could contribute to exaggerated physiological reactivity. At the top level in the model, activity of the frontal cortex and limbic system establish cognitive-emotional sources of activation that may underlie exaggerated physiological reactivity. In the absence of these influences, large responses may be more likely when exaggerated subcortical response tendencies are present via the hypothalamus or brain stem. Finally, peripheral alterations may account for larger reactions in persons who have otherwise normal emotional and hypothalamic and brainstem response tendencies. Cognitive-emotional and hypothalamic-brainstem sources of altered reactivity may cause or aggravate disease. In contrast, altered peripheral reactivity suggests that a pathophysiologic process may be present, serving as a marker for disease. These three levels of analysis allow for organization of existing data in the area of cardiovascular reactivity and for planning future studies in a hypothesis-building framework.
Anderson, Mark A; Ao, Yan; Sofroniew, Michael V
Astrocytes respond to injury and disease in the central nervous system (CNS) with a process referred to as reactive astrogliosis. Recent progress demonstrates that reactive astrogliosis is not a simple all-or-none phenomenon, but is a finely gradated continuum of changes that range from reversible alterations in gene expression and cell hypertrophy, to scar formation with permanent tissue rearrangement. There is now compelling evidence that reactive astrocytes exhibit a substantial potential for heterogeneity at multiple levels, including gene expression, cell morphology, topography (distance from lesions), CNS regions, local (among neighboring cells), cell signaling and cell function. Structural and functional changes are regulated in reactive astrocytes by many different potential signaling events that occur in a context dependent manner. It is noteworthy that different stimuli of astrocyte reactivity can lead to similar degrees of GFAP upregulation while causing substantially different changes in transcriptome profiles and cell function. Thus, it is not possible to equate simple and uniform measures such as cell hypertrophy and upregulation of GFAP expression with a single, uniform concept of astrocyte reactivity. Instead, it is necessary to recognize the considerable potential for heterogeneity and determine the functional implications of astrocyte reactivity in a context specific manner as regulated by specific signaling events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malihe Aboie Mehrizi
Full Text Available The article deals with the examination of method of hypothesis in Plato's philosophy. This method, respectively, will be examined in three dialogues of Meno, Phaedon and Republic in which it is explicitly indicated. It will be shown the process of change of Plato’s attitude towards the position and usage of the method of hypothesis in his realm of philosophy. In Meno, considering the geometry, Plato attempts to introduce a method that can be used in the realm of philosophy. But, ultimately in Republic, Plato’s special attention to the method and its importance in the philosophical investigations, leads him to revise it. Here, finally Plato introduces the particular method of philosophy, i.e., the dialectic
This book introduces a paradigm of reverse hypothesis machines (RHM), focusing on knowledge innovation and machine learning. Knowledge- acquisition -based learning is constrained by large volumes of data and is time consuming. Hence Knowledge innovation based learning is the need of time. Since under-learning results in cognitive inabilities and over-learning compromises freedom, there is need for optimal machine learning. All existing learning techniques rely on mapping input and output and establishing mathematical relationships between them. Though methods change the paradigm remains the same—the forward hypothesis machine paradigm, which tries to minimize uncertainty. The RHM, on the other hand, makes use of uncertainty for creative learning. The approach uses limited data to help identify new and surprising solutions. It focuses on improving learnability, unlike traditional approaches, which focus on accuracy. The book is useful as a reference book for machine learning researchers and professionals as ...
Kaufmann, Robert K.; Juselius, Katarina
We test competing forms of the Milankovitch hypothesis by estimating the coefficients and diagnostic statistics for a cointegrated vector autoregressive model that includes 10 climate variables and four exogenous variables for solar insolation. The estimates are consistent with the physical...... ice volume and solar insolation. The estimated adjustment dynamics show that solar insolation affects an array of climate variables other than ice volume, each at a unique rate. This implies that previous efforts to test the strong form of the Milankovitch hypothesis by examining the relationship...... mechanisms postulated to drive glacial cycles. They show that the climate variables are driven partly by solar insolation, determining the timing and magnitude of glaciations and terminations, and partly by internal feedback dynamics, pushing the climate variables away from equilibrium. We argue...
Kim, Kwang-Ki K.
This paper considers multi-agent sequential hypothesis testing and presents a framework for strategic learning in sequential games with explicit consideration of both temporal and spatial coordination. The associated Bayes risk functions explicitly incorporate costs of taking private/public measurements, costs of time-difference and disagreement in actions of agents, and costs of false declaration/choices in the sequential hypothesis testing. The corresponding sequential decision processes have well-defined value functions with respect to (a) the belief states for the case of conditional independent private noisy measurements that are also assumed to be independent identically distributed over time, and (b) the information states for the case of correlated private noisy measurements. A sequential investment game of strategic coordination and delay is also discussed as an application of the proposed strategic learning rules.
Chin, Wen Cheong; Isa, Zaidi; Mohd Nor, Abu Hassan Shaari
This study investigates the heterogeneous market hypothesis using high frequency data. The cascaded heterogeneous trading activities with different time durations are modelled by the heterogeneous autoregressive framework. The empirical study indicated the presence of long memory behaviour and predictability elements in the financial time series which supported heterogeneous market hypothesis. Besides the common sum-of-square intraday realized volatility, we also advocated two power variation realized volatilities in forecast evaluation and risk measurement in order to overcome the possible abrupt jumps during the credit crisis. Finally, the empirical results are used in determining the market risk using the value-at-risk approach. The findings of this study have implications for informationally market efficiency analysis, portfolio strategies and risk managements.
This paper introduces the papers in the "Debates—Hypothesis testing in hydrology" series. The four articles in the series discuss whether and how the process of testing hypotheses leads to progress in hydrology. Repeated experiments with controlled boundary conditions are rarely feasible in hydrology. Research is therefore not easily aligned with the classical scientific method of testing hypotheses. Hypotheses in hydrology are often enshrined in computer models which are tested against observed data. Testability may be limited due to model complexity and data uncertainty. All four articles suggest that hypothesis testing has contributed to progress in hydrology and is needed in the future. However, the procedure is usually not as systematic as the philosophy of science suggests. A greater emphasis on a creative reasoning process on the basis of clues and explorative analyses is therefore needed.
One of the open questions in quantum thermodynamics reads: how can linear quantum dynamics provide chaos necessary for thermalization of an isolated quantum system? To this end, we perform an ab initio numerical analysis of a system of hard-core bosons on a lattice and show [Marcos Rigol, Vanja Dunjko & Maxim Olshanii, Nature 452, 854 (2008)] that the above controversy can be resolved via the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis suggested independently by Deutsch [J. M. Deutsch, Phys. Rev. A 43, 2046 (1991)] and Srednicki [M. Srednicki, Phys. Rev. E 50, 888 (1994)]. According to this hypothesis, in quantum systems thermalization happens in each individual eigenstate of the system separately, but it is hidden initially by coherences between them. In course of the time evolution the thermal properties become revealed through (linear) decoherence that needs not to be chaotic.
Gong, Yiyu; Zhang, Kai; Pu, Zhang; Li, Xuenan; Zuo, Xianghong; Zhen, Jiao; Sudan, Teng
According to the calculation model of minimum generator reactive power reserve of power system voltage stability under the premise of the guarantee, the reactive power management system with reactive power compensation combined generator, the formation of a multi-objective optimization problem, propose a reactive power reserve is considered the minimum generator reactive power compensation optimization method. This method through the improvement of the objective function and constraint conditions, when the system load growth, relying solely on reactive power generation system can not meet the requirement of safe operation, increase the reactive power reserve to solve the problem of minimum generator reactive power compensation in the case of load node.
Raufaste, C.; Bouret, Y.; Celestini, F.
We experimentally investigate the reactivity of Leidenfrost droplets with their supporting substrates. Several organic liquids are put into contact with a copper substrate heated above their Leidenfrost temperature. As the liquid evaporates, the gaseous flow cleans the superficial copper oxide formed at the substrate surface and the reaction maintains a native copper spot below the evaporating droplet. The copper spot can reach several times the droplet size for the most reactive organic compounds. This study shows an interesting coupling between the physics of the Leidenfrost effect and the mechanics of reactive flows. Different applications are proposed such as drop motion tracking and vapor flow monitoring.
Lafferty, Kevin D.
A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of...
Kevin D. Lafferty
Full Text Available A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.
Lafferty, Kevin D
A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.
Lafferty, Kevin D.
A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.
Problem statement: The interior angles sum of a number of Euclidean triangles was transformed into quadratic equations. The analysis of those quadratic equations yielded the following proposition: There exists Euclidean triangle whose interior angle sum is a straight angle. Approach: In this study, the researchers introduced a new hypothesis for quadratic equations and derived an entirely new result. Results: The result of the study was controversial, but mathematically consistent. Conclusion...
Lord Kelvin in 1901 tested an ``old and celebrated hypothesis'' that if we could see far enough into space the whole sky would be occupied with stellar disks all of perhaps the same brightness as the Sun. Kelvin was the first to solve quantitatively and correctly the riddle of a dark night sky, a riddle that had been previously solved qualitatively by Edgar Allan Poe, and is now known as Olbers' paradox.
Cheng, Y.; Gentine, P.; Sayde, C.; Tanner, E.; Ochsner, T. E.; Dong, J.
Taylor's hypothesis[Taylor, 1938] assumes that mean wind speed carries the spatial pattern of turbulent motion past a fixed point in a "frozen" way, which has been widely used to relate streamwise wavenumber and angular frequency . Experiments[Fisher, 1964; Tong, 1996] have shown some deviation from Taylor's hypothesis at highly turbulent intensity flows and at high wavenumbers. However, the velocity or scalar measurements have always been fixed at a few spatial points rather than distributed in space. This experiment was designed for the first time to directly compare the time and spatial spectrum of temperature to test Taylor's hypothesis, measuring temperature with high resolution in both time and space by Distributed Temperature Sensing utilizing the attenuation difference of Raman scattering in the optic fiber at the MOISST site Oklahoma. The length of transact is 233 meters along the dominant wind direction. The temperature sampling distance is 0.127m and sampling time frequency is 1 Hz. The heights of the 4 fiber cables parallel to ground are 1m, 1.254m, 1.508m and 1.762m respectively. Also, eddy covariance instrument was set up near the Distributed Temperature Sensing as comparison for temperature data. The temperature spatial spectrum could be obtained with one fixed time point, while the temperature time spectrum could be obtained with one fixed spatial point in the middle of transact. The preliminary results would be presented in the AGU fall meeting. Reference Fisher, M. J., and Davies, P.O.A.L (1964), Correlation measurements in a non-frozen pattern of turbulence, Journal of fluid mechanics, 18(1), 97-116. Taylor, G. I. (1938), The spectrum of turbulence, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 164(919), 476-490. Tong, C. (1996), Taylor's Hypothesis and Two-point Coherence Measurements, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 81(3), 399-410.
distinguished two forms of memory : deliberate recollection of prior events versus the unaware influence of prior events on the performance of a later task...attempts to remember information. The findings reported here contribute in particular to our understanding of the memory processes involved in hypothesis... influenced by prior exposure to relevant events. Indeed, since the prior events themselves often cannot be consciously retrieved, this latter form of memory
Muelenz, Cornelius; Hecht, Heiko; Gamer, Matthias
Although observers know about the law of reflection, their intuitive understanding of spatial locations in mirrors is often erroneous. Hecht et al. (2005) proposed a two-stage mirror-rotation hypothesis to explain these misconceptions. The hypothesis involves an egocentric bias to the effect that observers behave as if the mirror surface were rotated by about 2 degrees to be more orthogonal than is the case. We test four variants of the hypothesis, which differ depending on whether the virtual world, the mirror, or both are taken to be rotated. We devised an experimental setup that allowed us to distinguish between these variants. Our results confirm that the virtual world--and only the virtual world--is being rotated. Observers had to perform a localization task, using a mirror that was either fronto-parallel or rotated opposite the direction of the predicted effect. We were thus able to compensate for the effect. The positions of objects in mirrors were perceived in accordance with the erroneous conception that the virtual world behind the mirror is slightly rotated and that the reconstruction is based on the non-rotated fronto-parallel mirror. A covert rotation of the mirror by about 2 degrees against the predicted effect was able to compensate for the placement error.
Keselman, Alla; Browne, Allen C; Kaufman, David R
Despite the proliferation of consumer health sites, lay individuals often experience difficulty finding health information online. The present study attempts to understand users' information seeking difficulties by drawing on a hypothesis testing explanatory framework. It also addresses the role of user competencies and their interaction with internet resources. Twenty participants were interviewed about their understanding of a hypothetical scenario about a family member suffering from stable angina and then searched MedlinePlus consumer health information portal for information on the problem presented in the scenario. Participants' understanding of heart disease was analyzed via semantic analysis. Thematic coding was used to describe information seeking trajectories in terms of three key strategies: verification of the primary hypothesis, narrowing search within the general hypothesis area and bottom-up search. Compared to an expert model, participants' understanding of heart disease involved different key concepts, which were also differently grouped and defined. This understanding provided the framework for search-guiding hypotheses and results interpretation. Incorrect or imprecise domain knowledge led individuals to search for information on irrelevant sites, often seeking out data to confirm their incorrect initial hypotheses. Online search skills enhanced search efficiency, but did not eliminate these difficulties. Regardless of their web experience and general search skills, lay individuals may experience difficulty with health information searches. These difficulties may be related to formulating and evaluating hypotheses that are rooted in their domain knowledge. Informatics can provide support at the levels of health information portals, individual websites, and consumer education tools.
Gaygen, Daniel E.
The Orthographic Recoding Hypothesis [D. E. Gaygen and P. A. Luce, Percept. Psychophys. 60, 465-483 (1998)] was tested. According to this hypothesis, listeners recognize spoken words heard for the first time by mapping them onto stored representations of the orthographic forms of the words. Listeners have a stable orthographic representation of words, but no phonological representation, when those words have been read frequently but never heard or spoken. Such may be the case for low frequency words such as jargon. Three experiments using visually and auditorily presented nonword stimuli tested this hypothesis. The first two experiments were explicit tests of memory (old-new tests) for words presented visually. In the first experiment, the recognition of auditorily presented nonwords was facilitated when they previously appeared on a visually presented list. The second experiment was similar, but included a concurrent articulation task during a visual word list presentation, thus preventing covert rehearsal of the nonwords. The results were similar to the first experiment. The third experiment was an indirect test of memory (auditory lexical decision task) for visually presented nonwords. Auditorily presented nonwords were identified as nonwords significantly more slowly if they had previously appeared on the visually presented list accompanied by a concurrent articulation task.
Kuang, Xianwen; Goebel, Christian
challenges of sustaining collective action in China: the continuing existence of substantial grievances, the re-activation of strong social ties, the presence of unifying frames and an adaptive protest leadership. The comparison shows that especially the last factor is crucial: while the two villages were...... similar in all other respects, leadership in Village B was far more adaptive in Village A, which goes a long way towards explaining why collective action could be sustained twice as long in Village B....
dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong
Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence
I define "generous sustainability" as a combination of two conditions: neither instantaneous maximin utility nor attainable maximin utility should decrease over time. I provide a formal definition and study applications to a Climate Economy with bounded and with unbounded growth. Generosity is shown
This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.
This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.
Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.
Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.
Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten
The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...
Kristensen, Niels Heine
Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...
Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard
and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...
engineer primary school teachers for sustainable development in Onitsha North Local Government Area. Three research questions and a hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey research design was used. 300 primary ...
Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy
To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically
Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib
A quarter of humanity's current energy consumption is used for transportation (1). Low-temperature hydrogen fuel cells offer much promise for replacing this colossal use of fossil fuels with renewables; these fuel cells produce negligible emissions and have a mileage and filling time equal to a r......% of the annual automotive vehicle production. Lowering the Pt loading in a fuel cell to a sustainable level requires the reactivity of Pt to be tuned so that it accelerates oxygen reduction more effectively (3). Two reports in this issue address this challenge (4, 5)....... to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10...
and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline......As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase....../acid catalysts or biocatalysts (free or immobilised lipase enzymes). The reaction by-product glycerol is immiscible with the ester products (FAAE and oils/fats) in addition to the partial miscibility problem of methanol or ethanol with oils/fats. The insoluble parts of alcohol feeds or by-products form emulsion...
In this valuable work, all aspects of the reactive magnetron sputtering process, from the discharge up to the resulting thin film growth, are described in detail, allowing the reader to understand the complete process. Hence, this book gives necessary information for those who want to start with reactive magnetron sputtering, understand and investigate the technique, control their sputtering process and tune their existing process, obtaining the desired thin films.
Statistical hypothesis testing is ad hoc in two ways. First, setting probabilistic rejection criteria is, as Neyman (1957) put it, an act of will rather than an act of rationality. Second, physical theories like conservation laws do not inherently admit probabilistic predictions, and so we must use what are called epistemic bridge principles to connect model predictions with the actual methods of hypothesis testing. In practice, these bridge principles are likelihood functions, error functions, or performance metrics. I propose that the reason we are faced with these problems is because we have historically failed to account for a fundamental component of basic logic - namely the portion of logic that explains how epistemic states evolve in the presence of empirical data. This component of Cox' (1946) calculitic logic is called information theory (Knuth, 2005), and adding information theory our hypothetico-deductive account of science yields straightforward solutions to both of the above problems. This also yields a straightforward method for dealing with Popper's (1963) problem of verisimilitude by facilitating a quantitative approach to measuring process isomorphism. In practice, this involves data assimilation. Finally, information theory allows us to reliably bound measures of epistemic uncertainty, thereby avoiding the problem of Bayesian incoherency under misspecified priors (Grünwald, 2006). I therefore propose solutions to four of the fundamental problems inherent in both hypothetico-deductive and/or Bayesian hypothesis testing. - Neyman (1957) Inductive Behavior as a Basic Concept of Philosophy of Science. - Cox (1946) Probability, Frequency and Reasonable Expectation. - Knuth (2005) Lattice Duality: The Origin of Probability and Entropy. - Grünwald (2006). Bayesian Inconsistency under Misspecification. - Popper (1963) Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge.
Siegle, Greg J; D'Andrea, Wendy; Jones, Neil; Hallquist, Michael N; Stepp, Stephanie D; Fortunato, Andrea; Morse, Jennifer Q; Pilkonis, Paul A
Prolonged psychophysiological reactions to negative information have long been associated with negative thinking and feeling. This association is operationalized in the RDoC negative affect construct of loss, which is nominally indexed by prolonged physiological reactivity, cognitive loss-related constructs such as rumination and guilt, and more feeling-related constructs such as sadness, crying, and anhedonia. These associations have not been tested explicitly. If thinking and feeling aspects of loss reflect different physiological mechanisms, as might be suggested by their putative neurobiology, different intervention pathways might be suggested. Here we examined the extent to which self-reported negative thinking and feeling constructs were associated with prolonged pupillary reactivity following negative words and a subsequent cognitive distractor in a diverse heterogeneously diagnosed sample of N=84 participants. We also considered indices of abuse and variables associated with borderline personality disorder as possible moderators. Consistently, feeling-related negative affect constructs were related to prolonged pupillary reactivity during the distractor after a negative stimulus whereas thinking-related constructs were not. These data suggest that people who have sustained physiological reactions to emotional stimuli may be more strongly characterized by non-linguistic negative feelings than explicit cognitions related to loss. Sustained physiological reactions could reflect efforts to regulate feeling states. In contrast to cognitive and affective variables, abuse was associated with decreased physiological reactivity, consistent with decreased neural engagement. Interventions that target mechanisms underlying feelings and their regulation may be more mechanistically specific to sustained reactivity than those which directly address cognitions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
A comprehensive guide to statistical hypothesis testing with examples in SAS and R When analyzing datasets the following questions often arise:Is there a short hand procedure for a statistical test available in SAS or R?If so, how do I use it?If not, how do I program the test myself? This book answers these questions and provides an overview of the most commonstatistical test problems in a comprehensive way, making it easy to find and performan appropriate statistical test. A general summary of statistical test theory is presented, along with a basicdescription for each test, including the
The phenomenon of conscious awareness or consciousness is complicated but fascinating. Although this concept has intrigued the mankind since antiquity, exploration of consciousness from scientific perspectives is not very old. Among myriad of theories regarding nature, functions and mechanism of consciousness, off late, cognitive theories have received wider acceptance. One of the most exciting hypotheses in recent times has been the "conscious access hypotheses" based on the "global workspace model of consciousness". It underscores an important property of consciousness, the global access of information in cerebral cortex. Present article reviews the "conscious access hypothesis" in terms of its theoretical underpinnings as well as experimental supports it has received.
Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories – for substantively different reasons – predict that sibship size should...... to identify a unique RDH effect on educational attainment. Using sibling data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and a random effect Instrumental Variable model, I find that in addition to having a negative effect on cognitive ability, sibship size also has a strong negative effect on educational...
Cohen, Paul J
This exploration of a notorious mathematical problem is the work of the man who discovered the solution. The independence of the continuum hypothesis is the focus of this study by Paul J. Cohen. It presents not only an accessible technical explanation of the author's landmark proof but also a fine introduction to mathematical logic. An emeritus professor of mathematics at Stanford University, Dr. Cohen won two of the most prestigious awards in mathematics: in 1964, he was awarded the American Mathematical Society's Bôcher Prize for analysis; and in 1966, he received the Fields Medal for Logic.
Full Text Available Autism is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder with a polygenetic predisposition that seems to be triggered by multiple environmental factors during embryonic and/or early postnatal life. While significant advances have been made in identifying the neuronal structures and cells affected, a unifying theory that could explain the manifold autistic symptoms has still not emerged. Based on recent synaptic, cellular, molecular, microcircuit, and behavioral results obtained with the valproic acid (VPA rat model of autism, we propose here a unifying hypothesis where the core pathology of the autistic brain is hyper-reactivity and hyper-plasticity of local neuronal circuits. Such excessive neuronal processing in circumscribed circuits is suggested to lead to hyper-perception, hyper-attention, and hyper-memory, which may lie at the heart of most autistic symptoms. In this view, the autistic spectrum are disorders of hyper-functionality, which turns debilitating, as opposed to disorders of hypo-functionality, as is often assumed. We discuss how excessive neuronal processing may render the world painfully intense when the neocortex is affected and even aversive when the amygdala is affected, leading to social and environmental withdrawal. Excessive neuronal learning is also hypothesized to rapidly lock down the individual into a small repertoire of secure behavioral routines that are obsessively repeated. We further discuss the key autistic neuropathologies and several of the main theories of autism and re-interpret them in the light of the hypothesized Intense World Syndrome.
El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.
A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.
El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony
A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.
El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)
A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.
Full Text Available Over four decades, my ideas about the arts in human evolution have themselves evolved, from an original notion of art as a human behaviour of “making special” to a full-fledged hypothesis of artification. A summary of the gradual developmental path (or route of the hypothesis, based on ethological principles and concepts, is given, and an argument presented in which artification is described as an exaptation whose roots lie in adaptive features of ancestral mother–infant interaction that contributed to infant survival and maternal reproductive success. I show how the interaction displays features of a ritualised behavior whose operations (formalization, repetition, exaggeration, and elaboration can be regarded as characteristic elements of human ritual ceremonies as well as of art (including song, dance, performance, literary language, altered surroundings, and other examples of making ordinary sounds, movement, language, environments, objects, and bodies extraordinary. Participation in these behaviours in ritual practices served adaptive ends in early Homo by coordinating brain and body states, and thereby emotionally bonding members of a group in common cause as well as reducing existential anxiety in individuals. A final section situates artification within contemporary philosophical and popular ideas of art, claiming that artifying is not a synonym for or definition of art but foundational to any evolutionary discussion of artistic/aesthetic behaviour.
DeScioli, Peter; Kurzban, Robert
Exploration of the cognitive systems underlying human friendship will be advanced by identifying the evolved functions these systems perform. Here we propose that human friendship is caused, in part, by cognitive mechanisms designed to assemble support groups for potential conflicts. We use game theory to identify computations about friends that can increase performance in multi-agent conflicts. This analysis suggests that people would benefit from: 1) ranking friends, 2) hiding friend-ranking, and 3) ranking friends according to their own position in partners' rankings. These possible tactics motivate the hypotheses that people possess egocentric and allocentric representations of the social world, that people are motivated to conceal this information, and that egocentric friend-ranking is determined by allocentric representations of partners' friend-rankings (more than others' traits). We report results from three studies that confirm predictions derived from the alliance hypothesis. Our main empirical finding, replicated in three studies, was that people's rankings of their ten closest friends were predicted by their own perceived rank among their partners' other friends. This relationship remained strong after controlling for a variety of factors such as perceived similarity, familiarity, and benefits. Our results suggest that the alliance hypothesis merits further attention as a candidate explanation for human friendship.
Unnikrishnan, Archana; Hadad, Niran; Masser, Dustin R; Jackson, Jordan; Freeman, Willard M; Richardson, Arlan
The genomic hypomethylation hypothesis of aging proposes that an overall decrease in global DNA methylation occurs with age, and it has been argued that the decrease in global DNA methylation could be an important factor in aging, resulting in the relaxation of gene expression regulation and abnormal gene expression. Since it was initially observed that DNA methylation decreased with age in 1974, 16 articles have been published describing the effect of age on global DNA methylation in various tissues from rodents and humans. We critically reviewed the publications on the effect of age on DNA methylation and the expression of the enzymes involved in DNA methylation to evaluate the validity of the hypomethylation hypothesis of aging. On the basis of the current scientific literature, we conclude that a decrease in the global methylation of the genome occurs in most if not all tissues/cells as an animal ages. However, age-related changes in DNA methylation in specific regions or at specific sites in the genome occur even though the global DNA methylation does not change. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.
Allen, Sharon; Olson, Andrew; Menk, Jeremiah; Nixon, James
Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres. Alternatives like hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) may promote students' understanding of the contribution of physical examination to diagnostic reasoning. We sought to determine whether first-year medical students can effectively learn to perform a physical examination using an HDPE approach, and then tailor the examination to specific clinical scenarios. Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres CONTEXT: First-year medical students at the University of Minnesota were taught both traditional and HDPE approaches during a required 17-week clinical skills course in their first semester. The end-of-course evaluation assessed HDPE skills: students were assigned one of two cardiopulmonary cases. Each case included two diagnostic hypotheses. During an interaction with a standardised patient, students were asked to select physical examination manoeuvres in order to make a final diagnosis. Items were weighted and selection order was recorded. First-year students with minimal pathophysiology performed well. All students selected the correct diagnosis. Importantly, students varied the order when selecting examination manoeuvres depending on the diagnoses under consideration, demonstrating early clinical decision-making skills. An early introduction to HDPE may reinforce physical examination skills for hypothesis generation and testing, and can foster early clinical decision-making skills. This has important implications for further research in physical examination instruction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Shah Muhammad Imran
Full Text Available This study investigates the debt overhang hypothesis for Pakistan in the period 1960-2007. The study examines empirically the dynamic behaviour of GDP, debt services, the employed labour force and investment using the time series concepts of unit roots, cointegration, error correlation and causality. Our findings suggest that debt-servicing has a negative impact on the productivity of both labour and capital, and that in turn has adversely affected economic growth. By severely constraining the ability of the country to service debt, this lends support to the debt-overhang hypothesis in Pakistan. The long run relation between debt services and economic growth implies that future increases in output will drain away in form of high debt service payments to lender country as external debt acts like a tax on output. More specifically, foreign creditors will benefit more from the rise in productivity than will domestic producers and labour. This suggests that domestic labour and capital are the ultimate losers from this heavy debt burden.
Wilde, Mark M; Tomamichel, Marco; Lloyd, Seth; Berta, Mario
Quantum hypothesis testing is one of the most basic tasks in quantum information theory and has fundamental links with quantum communication and estimation theory. In this paper, we establish a formula that characterizes the decay rate of the minimal type-II error probability in a quantum hypothesis test of two Gaussian states given a fixed constraint on the type-I error probability. This formula is a direct function of the mean vectors and covariance matrices of the quantum Gaussian states in question. We give an application to quantum illumination, which is the task of determining whether there is a low-reflectivity object embedded in a target region with a bright thermal-noise bath. For the asymmetric-error setting, we find that a quantum illumination transmitter can achieve an error probability exponent stronger than a coherent-state transmitter of the same mean photon number, and furthermore, that it requires far fewer trials to do so. This occurs when the background thermal noise is either low or bright, which means that a quantum advantage is even easier to witness than in the symmetric-error setting because it occurs for a larger range of parameters. Going forward from here, we expect our formula to have applications in settings well beyond those considered in this paper, especially to quantum communication tasks involving quantum Gaussian channels.
Nuijten, Michèle B; Wetzels, Ruud; Matzke, Dora; Dolan, Conor V; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan
In order to quantify the relationship between multiple variables, researchers often carry out a mediation analysis. In such an analysis, a mediator (e.g., knowledge of a healthy diet) transmits the effect from an independent variable (e.g., classroom instruction on a healthy diet) to a dependent variable (e.g., consumption of fruits and vegetables). Almost all mediation analyses in psychology use frequentist estimation and hypothesis-testing techniques. A recent exception is Yuan and MacKinnon (Psychological Methods, 14, 301-322, 2009), who outlined a Bayesian parameter estimation procedure for mediation analysis. Here we complete the Bayesian alternative to frequentist mediation analysis by specifying a default Bayesian hypothesis test based on the Jeffreys-Zellner-Siow approach. We further extend this default Bayesian test by allowing a comparison to directional or one-sided alternatives, using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques implemented in JAGS. All Bayesian tests are implemented in the R package BayesMed (Nuijten, Wetzels, Matzke, Dolan, & Wagenmakers, 2014).
Pinter, Nicholas; Scott, Andrew C.; Daulton, Tyrone L.; Podoll, Andrew; Koeberl, Christian; Anderson, R. Scott; Ishman, Scott E.
The Younger Dryas (YD) impact hypothesis is a recent theory that suggests that a cometary or meteoritic body or bodies hit and/or exploded over North America 12,900 years ago, causing the YD climate episode, extinction of Pleistocene megafauna, demise of the Clovis archeological culture, and a range of other effects. Since gaining widespread attention in 2007, substantial research has focused on testing the 12 main signatures presented as evidence of a catastrophic extraterrestrial event 12,900 years ago. Here we present a review of the impact hypothesis, including its evolution and current variants, and of efforts to test and corroborate the hypothesis. The physical evidence interpreted as signatures of an impact event can be separated into two groups. The first group consists of evidence that has been largely rejected by the scientific community and is no longer in widespread discussion, including: particle tracks in archeological chert; magnetic nodules in Pleistocene bones; impact origin of the Carolina Bays; and elevated concentrations of radioactivity, iridium, and fullerenes enriched in 3He. The second group consists of evidence that has been active in recent research and discussions: carbon spheres and elongates, magnetic grains and magnetic spherules, byproducts of catastrophic wildfire, and nanodiamonds. Over time, however, these signatures have also seen contrary evidence rather than support. Recent studies have shown that carbon spheres and elongates do not represent extraterrestrial carbon nor impact-induced megafires, but are indistinguishable from fungal sclerotia and arthropod fecal material that are a small but common component of many terrestrial deposits. Magnetic grains and spherules are heterogeneously distributed in sediments, but reported measurements of unique peaks in concentrations at the YD onset have yet to be reproduced. The magnetic grains are certainly just iron-rich detrital grains, whereas reported YD magnetic spherules are
Copie, M.; Valantic, B.
Digital reactivity meters (DRM) are mostly used as measuring instruments, e.g. for calibration of control rods, and there are only a few cases of their incorporation into the control systems of the reactors. To move in this direction there is more development work needed. First of all, fast algorithms are needed for inverse kinetics equations to relieve the computer for more important tasks of reactor model solving in real time. The next problem, currently under investigation, is the incorporation of the reactor thermal-hydraulic model into the DRM so that it can be used in the power range. Such an extension of DHM allows presentation not only of the instantaneous reactivity of the system, but also the inserted reactivity can be estimated from the temperature reactivity feed-backs. One of the applications of this concept is the anomalous digital reactivity monitor (ADRN) as part of the reactor protection system. As a solution of the first problem, a fast algorithm for solving the inverse kinetics equations has been implemented in the off-line program RODCAL on CDC 1700 computer and tested for its accuracy by performing different control rod calibrations on the reactor TRIGA
Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yongju
Fourteen science high school students participated in this study, which investigated neural-network plasticity associated with hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-understanding in learning. The students were divided into two groups and participated in either hypothesis-generating or hypothesis-understanding type learning programs, which were…
Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio
Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.
There is mounting evidence that neural networks of the cerebral cortex exhibit scale invariant dynamics. At the larger scale, fMRI recordings have shown evidence for spatiotemporal long range correlations. On the other hand, at the smaller scales this scale invariance is marked by the power law distribution of the size and duration of spontaneous bursts of activity, which are referred as neuronal avalanches. The existence of such avalanches has been confirmed by several studies in vitro and in vivo, among different species and across multiple scales, from spatial scale of MEG and EEG down to single cell resolution. This prevalent scale free nature of cortical activity suggests the hypothesis that the cortex resides at a critical state between two phases of order (short-lasting activity) and disorder (long-lasting activity). In addition, it has been shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that being at criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing. However, despite the plenty of evidence and plausibility of the neural criticality hypothesis, still very little is known on how the brain may leverage such criticality to facilitate neural coding. Moreover, the emergent functions that may arise from critical dynamics is poorly understood. In the first part of this thesis, we review several pieces of evidence for the neural criticality hypothesis at different scales, as well as some of the most popular theories of self-organized criticality (SOC). Thereafter, we will focus on the most prominent evidence from small scales, namely neuronal avalanches. We will explore the effect of adaptation and how it can maintain scale free dynamics even at the presence of external stimuli. Using calcium imaging we also experimentally demonstrate the existence of scale free activity at the cellular resolution in vivo. Moreover, by exploring the subsampling issue in neural data, we will find some fundamental constraints of the conventional methods
Full Text Available , sustainable design is not compulsory at university so we still have a long way to go”. Van Wyk is certainly knowledge- able on this subject. He graduated as an architect in 1980 and practised in the field for many years. He also served as a member... at universities, it will take several years before the first students graduate and even longer before they become experienced. This vacuum can only be overcome when government takes the lead.” Nevertheless Van Wyk realises this is too much to expect from...
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that there are correlations between campus sustainability initiatives and environmental performance, as measured by resource consumption and waste generation performance metrics. Institutions of higher education would like to imply that their campus sustainability initiatives are good…
Dam, van Y.K.
Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the
Bayramoglu, Enis; Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel
The paper presents a multi-hypothesis filter library featuring a novel method for splitting Gaussians into ones with smaller variances. The library is written in C++ for high performance and the source code is open and free1. The multi-hypothesis filters commonly approximate the distribution...... transformations better, if the covariances of the individual hypotheses are sufficiently small. We propose a look-up table based method to calculate a set of Gaussian hypotheses approximating a wider Gaussian in order to improve the filter approximation. Python bindings for the library are also provided for fast...
A theoretical argument is presented which suggests that in using the linear hypothesis for all values of LET the low dose risk is overestimated for low LET but that it is underestimated for very high LET. The argument is based upon the idea that cell lesions which do not lead to cell death may in fact lead to a malignant cell. Expressions for the Surviving Fraction and the Cancer Risk based on this argument are given. An advantage of this very general approach is that is expresses cell survival and cancer risk entirely in terms of the cell lesions and avoids the rather contentious argument as to how the average number of lesions should be related to the dose. (U.K.)
Van Den Bergh, S.
Arguments in Curtis's (1917) paper related to the island universe hypothesis and the existence of novae in spiral nebulae are considered. It is noted that the maximum magnitude versus rate-of-decline relation for novae may be the best tool presently available for the calibration of the extragalactic distance scale. Light curve observations of six novae are used to determine a distance of 18.6 + or - 3.5 MPc to the Virgo cluster. Results suggest that Type Ia supernovae cannot easily be used as standard candles, and that Type II supernovae are unsuitable as distance indicators. Factors other than precursor mass are probably responsible for determining the ultimate fate of evolving stars. 83 references
Modules to predict the melt of snow on the ground are essential components of hydrological and climatological models. Energy to melt snow can come from shortwave or longwave radiation fluxes, turbulent heat fluxes from the atmosphere, conducted heat fluxes from the ground or advected heat in rain falling on snow. Multiple competing hypotheses (parametrizations) for these fluxes and how they are connected to model state variables are in current use. The multiple sources of energy and limited data to constrain them lead to a great deal of equifinality and difficulties in understanding model behaviour. This presentation will discuss how a multi-hypothesis snow model can be used to understand the complementary, competing and confounding influences of model structural choices, parameter uncertainty and input data errors on simulations of snowmelt.
Full Text Available We discuss the history of the extra dimensions hypothesis and the physics and phenomenology of models with large extra dimensions with an emphasis on the Randall- Sundrum (RS model with two branes. We argue that the Standard Model extension based on the RS model with two branes is phenomenologically acceptable only if the inter-brane distance is stabilized. Within such an extension of the Standard Model, we study the influence of the infinite Kaluza-Klein (KK towers of the bulk fields on collider processes. In particular, we discuss the modification of the scalar sector of the theory, the Higgs-radion mixing due to the coupling of the Higgs boson to the radion and its KK tower, and the experimental restrictions on the mass of the radion-dominated states.
Adams, P. J.
This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.
Kiss, A.A.; Dimian, A.C.; Rothenberg, G.
The properties and use of biodiesel as a renewable fuel as well as the problems associated with its current production processes are outlined. A novel sustainable esterification process based on catalytic reactive distillation is proposed. The pros and cons of manufacturing biodiesel via fatty acid
Full Text Available Adverse childhood experiences can deleteriously affect future physical and mental health, increasing risk for many illnesses, including psychiatric problems, sleep disorders, and, according to the present hypothesis, idiopathic nightmares. Much like post-traumatic nightmares, which are triggered by trauma and lead to recurrent emotional dreaming about the trauma, idiopathic nightmares are hypothesized to originate in early adverse experiences that lead in later life to the expression of early memories and emotions in dream content. Accordingly, the objectives of this paper are to (1 review existing literature on sleep, dreaming and nightmares in relation to early adverse experiences, drawing upon both empirical studies of dreaming and nightmares and books and chapters by recognized nightmare experts and (2 propose a new approach to explaining nightmares that is based upon the Stress Acceleration Hypothesis of mental illness. The latter stipulates that susceptibility to mental illness is increased by adversity occurring during a developmentally sensitive window for emotional maturation—the infantile amnesia period—that ends around age 3½. Early adversity accelerates the neural and behavioral maturation of emotional systems governing the expression, learning, and extinction of fear memories and may afford short-term adaptive value. But it also engenders long-term dysfunctional consequences including an increased risk for nightmares. Two mechanisms are proposed: (1 disruption of infantile amnesia allows normally forgotten early childhood memories to influence later emotions, cognitions and behavior, including the common expression of threats in nightmares; (2 alterations of normal emotion regulation processes of both waking and sleep lead to increased fear sensitivity and less effective fear extinction. These changes influence an affect network previously hypothesized to regulate fear extinction during REM sleep, disruption of which leads to
Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Nyvad, Bente
Recent advances regarding the caries process indicate that ecological phenomena induced by bacterial acid production tilt the de- and remineralization balance of the dental hard tissues towards demineralization through bacterial acid-induced adaptation and selection within the microbiota - from the dynamic stability stage to the aciduric stage via the acidogenic stage [Takahashi and Nyvad, 2008]. Dentin and root caries can also be partly explained by this hypothesis; however, the fact that these tissues contain a considerable amount of organic material suggests that protein degradation is involved in caries formation. In this review, we compiled relevant histological, biochemical, and microbiological information about dentin/root caries and refined the hypothesis by adding degradation of the organic matrix (the proteolytic stage) to the abovementioned stages. Bacterial acidification not only induces demineralization and exposure of the organic matrix in dentin/root surfaces but also activation of dentin-embedded and salivary matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsins. These phenomena initiate degradation of the demineralized organic matrix in dentin/root surfaces. While a bacterial involvement has never been confirmed in the initial degradation of organic material, the detection of proteolytic/amino acid-degrading bacteria and bacterial metabolites in dentin and root caries suggests a bacterial digestion and metabolism of partly degraded matrix. Moreover, bacterial metabolites might induce pulpitis as an inflammatory/immunomodulatory factor. Root and dentin surfaces are always at risk of becoming demineralized in the oral cavity, and exposed organic materials can be degraded by host-derived proteases contained in saliva and dentin itself. New approaches to the prevention and treatment of root/dentin caries are required. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available There is a rather generalized belief that the worst possible outcome for the application of immunological therapies against cancer is a null effect on tumor growth. However, a significant body of evidence summarized in the immunostimulatory hypothesis of cancer suggests that, upon certain circumstances, the growth of incipient and established tumors can be accelerated rather than inhibited by the immune response supposedly mounted to limit tumor growth. In order to provide more compelling evidence of this proposition, we have explored the growth behavior characteristics of twelve murine tumors -most of them of spontaneous origin- arisen in the colony of our laboratory, in putatively immunized and control mice. Using classical immunization procedures, 8 out of 12 tumors were actually stimulated in "immunized" mice while the remaining 4 were neither inhibited nor stimulated. Further, even these apparently non-antigenic tumors could reveal some antigenicity if more stringent than classical immunization procedures were used. This possibility was suggested by the results obtained with one of these four apparently non-antigenic tumors: the LB lymphoma. In effect, upon these stringent immunization pretreatments, LB was slightly inhibited or stimulated, depending on the titer of the immune reaction mounted against the tumor, with higher titers rendering inhibition and lower titers rendering tumor stimulation. All the above results are consistent with the immunostimulatory hypothesis that entails the important therapeutic implications -contrary to the orthodoxy- that, anti-tumor vaccines may run a real risk of doing harm if the vaccine-induced immunity is too weak to move the reaction into the inhibitory part of the immune response curve and that, a slight and prolonged immunodepression -rather than an immunostimulation- might interfere with the progression of some tumors and thus be an aid to cytotoxic therapies.
Adverse childhood experiences can deleteriously affect future physical and mental health, increasing risk for many illnesses, including psychiatric problems, sleep disorders, and, according to the present hypothesis, idiopathic nightmares. Much like post-traumatic nightmares, which are triggered by trauma and lead to recurrent emotional dreaming about the trauma, idiopathic nightmares are hypothesized to originate in early adverse experiences that lead in later life to the expression of early memories and emotions in dream content. Accordingly, the objectives of this paper are to (1) review existing literature on sleep, dreaming and nightmares in relation to early adverse experiences, drawing upon both empirical studies of dreaming and nightmares and books and chapters by recognized nightmare experts and (2) propose a new approach to explaining nightmares that is based upon the Stress Acceleration Hypothesis of mental illness. The latter stipulates that susceptibility to mental illness is increased by adversity occurring during a developmentally sensitive window for emotional maturation—the infantile amnesia period—that ends around age 3½. Early adversity accelerates the neural and behavioral maturation of emotional systems governing the expression, learning, and extinction of fear memories and may afford short-term adaptive value. But it also engenders long-term dysfunctional consequences including an increased risk for nightmares. Two mechanisms are proposed: (1) disruption of infantile amnesia allows normally forgotten early childhood memories to influence later emotions, cognitions and behavior, including the common expression of threats in nightmares; (2) alterations of normal emotion regulation processes of both waking and sleep lead to increased fear sensitivity and less effective fear extinction. These changes influence an affect network previously hypothesized to regulate fear extinction during REM sleep, disruption of which leads to nightmares. This
Emilia Mioara CÂMPEANU; Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU
Sustainable development and sustainable economy are mostly used concepts. Understanding clearly their meaning allows their use in an appropriate context and, therefore, their boundaries in terms of theoretical and practical approaches on which occasion it can be given their interdependencies. The paper aim is to analyze the interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy.
J.C.M. Baeten (Jos); S.P. Luttik (Bas); P.J.A. van Tilburg
textabstractWe propose reactive Turing machines (RTMs), extending classical Turing machines with a process-theoretical notion of interaction, and use it to define a notion of executable transition system. We show that every computable transition system with a bounded branching degree is simulated
If you are a Clojure developer who is interested in using Reactive Programming to build asynchronous and concurrent applications, this book is for you. Knowledge of Clojure and Leiningen is required. Basic understanding of ClojureScript will be helpful for the web chapters, although it is not strictly necessary.
Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).
CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian
Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...
Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.
Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...
The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies) dealing with: the 129 I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)
Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)
The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.
Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.
The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.
Schaltegger, Stefan; Beckmann, Markus; Hockerts, Kai
: a document analysis for developing a typology of ecopreneurs with user business models, and an in-depth case study analysis. We identify four patterns of entrepreneurial user business models in e-mobility: predominantly simple use, complementary business, feedback to core business, and additional business....... We also explore the transformation path of the case company, which starts with simple use and then moves to the feedback to core business pattern. By drawing on insights from lead user theory in innovation management and sustainable entrepreneurship, we ground the new concept in extant literature...... and develop propositions. These propositions uncover some properties of ecopreneurs, the diffusion of environmental technologies, and industry transformations due to user business models....
William Sims Bainbridge
Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.
This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.
Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Debnath, Monojit
Mounting evidence indicates that immune activation and/or immuno-inflammatory reactions during neurodevelopment apparently contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of schizophrenia. One of the important environmental factors that is known to trigger immune activation/inflammatory responses during early pregnancy is prenatal infection. Recent understanding from animal studies suggests that prenatal infection induced maternal immune activation (MIA)/inflammation in congruence with oxidative/nitrosative stress can lead to neurodevelopmental damage and behavioral abnormalities in the offspring. Although the underlying precise mechanistic processes of MIA/inflammation are yet to be completely elucidated, it is being increasingly recognized that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that form the first line of defense against invading microorganisms could participate in the prenatal infection induced immune insults. Interestingly, some of the TLRs, especially TLR3 and TLR4 that modulate neurodevelopment, neuronal survival and neuronal plasticity by regulating the neuro-immune cross-talk in the developing and adult brain could also be affected by prenatal infection. Importantly, sustained activation of TLR3/TLR4 due to environmental factors including infection and stress has been found to generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) as well as pro-inflammatory mediators during embryogenesis, which result into neuronal damage by necrosis/apoptosis. In recent times, ROS/RNS and immuno-inflammatory mediators are being increasingly linked to progressive brain changes in schizophrenia. Although a significant role of TLR3/TLR4 in neurodegeneration is gaining certainty, their importance in establishing a causal link between prenatal infection and immuno-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) responses and influence on adult presentation of schizophrenia is yet to be ascertained. We review here the current knowledge generated from
Kay, Bernard S.
I outline some of my work and results (some dating back to 1998, some more recent) on my matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis, according to which the entropy of a closed quantum gravitational system is equal to the system's matter-gravity entanglement entropy. The main arguments presented are: (1) that this hypothesis is capable of resolving what I call the second-law puzzle, i.e. the puzzle as to how the entropy increase of a closed system can be reconciled with the asssumption of unitary time-evolution; (2) that the black hole information loss puzzle may be regarded as a special case of this second law puzzle and that therefore the same resolution applies to it; (3) that the black hole thermal atmosphere puzzle (which I recall) can be resolved by adopting a radically different-from-usual description of quantum black hole equilibrium states, according to which they are total pure states, entangled between matter and gravity in such a way that the partial states of matter and gravity are each approximately thermal equilibrium states (at the Hawking temperature); (4) that the Susskind-Horowitz-Polchinski string-theoretic understanding of black hole entropy as the logarithm of the degeneracy of a long string (which is the weak string coupling limit of a black hole) cannot be quite correct but should be replaced by a modified understanding according to which it is the entanglement entropy between a long string and its stringy atmosphere, when in a total pure equilibrium state in a suitable box, which (in line with (3)) goes over, at strong-coupling, to a black hole in equilibrium with its thermal atmosphere. The modified understanding in (4) is based on a general result, which I also describe, which concerns the likely state of a quantum system when it is weakly coupled to an energy-bath and the total state is a random pure state with a given energy. This result generalizes Goldstein et al.'s `canonical typicality' result to systems which are not necessarily small.
Ambrosini, M V.; Giuditta, A
During the last 30 years, paradoxical sleep (PS) has been generally considered as the only type of sleep involved in memory processing, mainly for the consistent increase of PS episodes in laboratory animals learning a relatively complex task, and for the retention deficits induced by post-training PS deprivation. The vicissitudes of this idea, examined in detail by several laboratories, have been critically presented in a number of review articles However, according to a more comprehensive unitary proposal (the sequential hypothesis), memory processing during sleep does require the initial participation of slow-wave sleep (SS) in addition to the subsequent involvement of PS. The evidence supporting this hypothesis, largely derived from experiments concerning rats trained for a two-way active avoidance task, is reviewed here in some detail. Recent studies of human sleep are in full agreement with this view. In the rat, the main effect of learning on post-training SS consists in the selective increment in the average duration of SS episodes initiating different types of sleep sequences. Notably, following training for a two-way active avoidance task, the occurrence of this effect in sleep sequences including transition sleep (TS), such as SS-->TS-->W and SS-->TS-->PS, appears related to the processing of memories of the novel avoidance response. Conversely, the occurrence of the same effect in sleep sequences lacking TS may reflect the processing of memories of innate responses (escapes and freezings). Memories of innate and novel responses are assumed to engage in a dynamic competitive interaction to attain control of waking behaviour. Interestingly, in baseline sleep, variables of SS-->TS-->W and SS-->TS-->PS sequences, such as the average duration of SS, TS, and PS episodes, have proved to be good indices of the capacity to learn, as shown by their strong correlations with the number of avoidances scored by rats the following day. Comparable correlations have not
Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Dam, Catharina; Olsen, Dorthe
. As ACPAs have been suggested to be involved in the development of RA, knowledge about these antibodies may be crucial. In this study, we examined the influence of peptide backbone for ACPA reactivity in immunoassays. The antibodies were found to be reactive with a central Cit-Gly motif being essential...... is essential for antibody reactivity. Based on these findings it was speculated that any amino acid sequence, which brings the peptide into a properly folded structure for antibody recognition is sufficient for antibody reactivity. These findings are in accordance with the current hypothesis that structural...
Despite the predation costs, sleep is ubiquitous in the animal realm. Humans spend a third of their life sleeping, and the quality of sleep has been related to co-morbidity, Alzheimer disease, etc. Excessive wakefulness induces rapid changes in cognitive performances, and it is claimed that one could die of sleep deprivation as quickly as by absence of water. In this context, the fact that a few people are able to go without sleep for months, even years, without displaying any cognitive troubles requires explanations. Theories ascribing sleep to memory consolidation are unable to explain such observations. It is not the case of the theory of sleep as the hebbian reinforcement of the inhibitory synapses (ToS-HRIS). Hebbian learning (Long Term Depression - LTD) guarantees that an efficient inhibitory synapse will lose its efficiency just because it is efficient at avoiding the activation of the post-synaptic neuron. This erosion of the inhibition is replenished by hebbian learning (Long Term Potentiation - LTP) when pre and post-synaptic neurons are active together - which is exactly what happens with the travelling depolarization waves of the slow-wave sleep (SWS). The best documented cases of months-long insomnia are reports of patients with Morvan's syndrome. This syndrome has an autoimmune cause that impedes - among many things - the potassium channels of the post-synaptic neurons, increasing LTP and decreasing LTD. We hypothesize that the absence of inhibitory efficiency erosion during wakefulness (thanks to a decrease of inhibitory LTD) is the cause for an absence of slow-wave sleep (SWS), which results also in the absence of REM sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hazard, Dominique; Moreno, Carole; Foulquié, Didier; Delval, Eric; François, Dominique; Bouix, Jacques; Sallé, Guillaume; Boissy, Alain
Current trends in sheep farming practices rely on animals with a greater level of behavioral autonomy than before, a phenotype that actively contributes to the sustainability of animal production. Social reactivity and reactivity to humans are relevant behavioral traits in sheep, known for their strong gregariousness and weak tolerance to handling, which have previously been reported with moderate to high heritabilities. To identify loci underlying such behaviors, we performed a genome study in Romane lambs. The experiment was carried out on 934 male and female lambs allocated into 9 half-sib families (average of 103 lambs per family) and reared outside. After weaning, all the lambs were individually exposed to 4 standardized behavioral tests combining social isolation, exposure to humans or handling, confinement and novelty (i.e. arena test, corridor test, isolation box test, shearing test). A broad range of behaviors including vocalizations, locomotion, vigilance and flight distance, as well as the cortisol response to handling, were collected. All lambs were genotyped using the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip. QTL detection was performed by linkage, association and joint linkage and association analyses using the QTLmap software. Five main QTL regions were identified on sheep chromosomes (Ovis Aries Region, OAR) 12, 16, 19, 21 and 23 among many other QTLs with small to moderate effects. The QTLs on OAR12, 16 and 21 showed significant associations with social reactivity. The QTLs on OAR19 and 23 were found to be associated with reactivity to humans. No overlapping QTLs were identified for the different traits measured in the behavioral tests, supporting the hypothesis that different genetic factors influence social reactivity and tolerance to humans. The results of this study using ovine SNP data suggest that in domestic sheep the behavioral responses to social separation and exposure to humans are under polygenic influence. The most relevant QTLs reported in the
Fernandes, Yvens Barbosa; Ramina, Ricardo; Campos-Herrera, Cynthia Resende; Borges, Guilherme
Chiari I malformation (CM-I) is classically defined as a cerebellar tonsillar herniation (≥5 mm) through the foramen magnum. A decreased posterior fossa volume, mainly due to basioccipital hypoplasia and sometimes platybasia, leads to posterior fossa overcrowding and consequently cerebellar herniation. Regardless of radiological findings, embryological genetic hypothesis or any other postulations, the real cause behind this malformation is yet not well-elucidated and remains largely unknown. The aim of this paper is to approach CM-I under a broader and new perspective, conjoining anthropology, genetics and neurosurgery, with special focus on the substantial changes that have occurred in the posterior cranial base through human evolution. Important evolutionary allometric changes occurred during brain expansion and genetics studies of human evolution demonstrated an unexpected high rate of gene flow interchange and possibly interbreeding during this process. Based upon this review we hypothesize that CM-I may be the result of an evolutionary anthropological imprint, caused by evolving species populations that eventually met each other and mingled in the last 1.7 million years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis postulates an inverted-U-shaped relationship between different pollutants and per capita income, i.e., environmental pressure increases up to a certain level as income goes up; after that, it decreases. An EKC actually reveals how a technically specified measurement of environmental quality changes as the fortunes of a country change. A sizeable literature on EKC has grown in recent period. The common point of all the studies is the assertion that the environmental quality deteriorates at the early stages of economic development/growth and subsequently improves at the later stages. In other words, environmental pressure increases faster than income at early stages of development and slows down relative to GDP growth at higher income levels. This paper reviews some theoretical developments and empirical studies dealing with EKC phenomenon. Possible explanations for this EKC are seen in (1) the progress of economic development, from clean agrarian economy to polluting industrial economy to clean service economy; (2) tendency of people with higher income having higher preference for environmental quality, etc. Evidence of the existence of the EKC has been questioned from several corners. Only some air quality indicators, especially local pollutants, show the evidence of an EKC. However, an EKC is empirically observed, till there is no agreement in the literature on the income level at which environmental degradation starts declining. This paper provides an overview of the EKC literature, background history, conceptual insights, policy and the conceptual and methodological critique
The goal of this study was to investigate the visual spotting hypothesis in 10 experts and 10 apprentices as they perform back aerial somersaults from a standing position with no preparatory jumps (short flight duration condition) and after some preparatory jumps with a flight time of 1s (long flight duration condition). Differences in gaze behavior and kinematics were expected between experts and apprentices and between experimental conditions. Gaze behavior was measured using a portable and wireless eye-tracking system in combination with a movement-analysis system. Experts exhibited a smaller landing deviation from the middle of the trampoline bed than apprentices. Experts showed higher fixation ratios during the take-off and flight phase. Experts exhibited no blinks in any of the somersaults in both conditions, whereas apprentices showed significant blink ratios in both experimental conditions. The findings suggest that gymnasts can use visual spotting during the back aerial somersault, even when the time of flight is delimited. We conclude that knowledge about gaze-movement relationships may help coaches develop specific training programs in the learning process of the back aerial somersault.
The author provides the hypothesis on the "sinew-meridian system" in terms of the physiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of meridians and sinew-meridians. Meridians are nourished with blood and sinew-meridians are softened with yang qi . Meridians are circulated in linear form and sinew-meridians are distributed in centripetal state. Meridians are communicated externally and internally and sinew-meridians are connected with tendons and bones. Meridians pertain to zangfu organs and sinew-meridians stabilize zangfu organs. Meridians nourish five sensory organs and sinew-meridians moisten nine orifices. Meridians are characterized as nourishment and sinew-meridians as solidity. Meridians emphasize the conditions of either deficiency or excess, and sinew-meridians as either cold or heat. The meridian disorder is located deeply and of complex and sinew-meridian's is located superficially and of simplicity. The meridian disorder is difficult to treat and with poor therapeutic effect and the sinew-meridian disorder is easy to treat and with rapid therapeutic effect. The "sinew-meridian system" composes of meridian-collateral system and tendon-skin system, in which the meridian-collateral system includes the twelve meridians, eight extra meridians and fifteen collaterals, being relevant with nutrition and blood, acting on transporting qi , blood and message; the tendon-skin system includes twelve sinew-meridians and twelve meridians of cutaneous regions, being relevant with defensive qi , acting on governing the motor function and protecting the body.
Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Krasniqi, A
Iron hypothesis has been a controversial subject for over 30 years as many studies support its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, while other studies found no evidence to support it. The conflicting results are accounted for by the non-homogeneity of trial design in terms of population inclusion criteria and different endpoints, non-uniform use of parameters for assessing iron role, and incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action. The nature of iron is dual, being of crucial importance for the human body, but also toxic as "free iron" induces oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, there are efficient and complex mechanisms against iron-induced oxidative stress, which could be reproduced for creating new, intelligent antioxidants. Iron depletion improves the cardiovascular prognosis only if serum concentration is at the lowest limit of normal ranges. However, low iron levels and the type of dietary iron intake correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, influence the ischemic endpoints in the elderly, and exert negative impact on heart failure prognosis. So far, the causal relation and involved mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Iron overload is a difficult and frequent condition, involving the cardiovascular system by specific pathogenic pathways, therefore determining a particular form of restrictive cardiomyopathy and vaso-occlusive arterial damage.
The explicit formulas of Riemann and Guinand-Weil relate the set of prime numbers with the set of nontrivial zeros of the zeta function of Riemann. We recall Alain Connes' spectral interpretation of the critical zeros of the Riemann zeta function as eigenvalues of the absorption spectrum of an unbounded operator in a suitable Hilbert space. We then give a spectral interpretation of the zeros of the Dedekind zeta function of an algebraic number field K of degree n in an automorphic setting. If K is a complex quadratic field, the torical forms are the functions defined on the modular surface X, such that the sum of this function over the "Gauss set" of K is zero, and Eisenstein series provide such torical forms. In the case of a general number field, one can associate to K a maximal torus T of the general linear group G. The torical forms are the functions defined on the modular variety X associated to G, such that the integral over the subvariety induced by T is zero. Alternately, the torical forms are the functions which are orthogonal to orbital series on X. We show here that the Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to certain conditions bearing on spaces of torical forms, constructed from Eisenstein series, the torical wave packets. Furthermore, we define a Hilbert space and a self-adjoint operator on this space, whose spectrum equals the set of critical zeros of the Dedekind zeta function of K.
Edelstein, E M; Rosenzweig, M S; Daneo-Moore, L; Higgins, M L
The mass doubling times of exponential-phase cultures of Streptococcus faecalis were varied from 30 to 110 min by omitting glutamine from a defined growth medium and providing different concentrations of glutamate (ranging from 300 to 14 mug/ml). After Formalin fixation, cells were dried by the critical point method, and carbon-platinum replicas were prepared. The surface area and volume of cell poles seen in these replicas were estimated by a computer-assisted, three-dimensional reconstruction technique. It was found that the amount of surface area and volume of poles seen in these replicas were independent of the growth rate of culture from which the samples were taken. These observations were consistent with the unit cell model hypothesis of Donachie and Begg, in which a small number of surface sites would produce a constant amount of new cell surface regardless of the mass doubling time of the culture. However, measurements of the thickness of the cell wall taken from thin sections of the same cells showed that the cell wall increased in thickness as a function of the increase in cellular peptidoglycan content which occurs when the growth rate of this organism is slowed down by a decrease in glutamate concentration. Thus, it would seem that although the size of polar shells made by S. faecalis is invariant with growth rate, the amount of wall precursors used to construct these shells is not.
The social brain hypothesis is a useful heuristic for understanding schizophrenia. It focuses attention on the core Bleulerian concept of autistic alienation and is consistent with well-replicated findings of social brain dysfunction in schizophrenia as well as contemporary theories of human cognitive and brain evolution. The contributions of Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Wittgenstein allow us to arrive at a new "philosophy of interpersonal relatedness", which better reflects the "embodied mind" and signifies the end of Cartesian dualistic thinking. In this paper I review the evolution, development and neurobiology of the social brain - the anatomical and functional substrate for adaptive social behaviour and cognition. Functional imaging identifies fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal cortical networks as comprising the social brain, while the discovery of "mirror neurons" provides an understanding of social cognition at a cellular level. Patients with schizophrenia display abnormalities in a wide range of social cognition tasks such as emotion recognition, theory of mind and affective responsiveness. Furthermore, recent research indicates that schizophrenia is a disorder of functional and structural connectivity of social brain networks. These findings lend support to the claim that schizophrenia represents a costly by-product of social brain evolution in Homo sapiens. Individuals with this disorder find themselves seriously disadvantaged in the social arena and vulnerable to the stresses of their complex social environments. This state of "disembodiment" and interpersonal alienation is the core phenomenon of schizophrenia and the root cause of intolerable suffering in the lives of those affected. PMID:16946939
The group Parkinson Inside Out is composed of health professionals and academic researchers who have been diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease. In our discussions we try to make use of both our inside perspective as patients, and our outside perspective as professionals. In this paper, we apply the two perspectives to the Impulse Control Disorders. These impulsive behaviour patterns are thought to be relatively uncommon side effects of some of the medication used in dopamine replacement therapy. The phenomenon is usually described as relatively rare (controlling impulses is a very common experience for patients undergoing dopamine replacement therapy. They result from difficulties in decision making engendered by variations in dopamine accessibility in the reward centre of the brain. Only in a minority do the consequences grow to the damaging proportions of a disorder, but most patients are probably affected to some degree. Seeing, and measuring, decision difficulties as a continuous dimension, rather than as a discrete category, brings increased possibilities for early detection and continuous monitoring. With reliable measures of the propensity for impulsive decision making, it may become possible to both reap the benefits and avoid the dangers of the dopamine agonists. We point to ways of empirically testing our continuity hypothesis.
Daniel Currie Hall
Full Text Available The Contrastivist Hypothesis (CH; Hall 2007; Dresher 2009 holds that the only features that can be phonologically active in any language are those that serve to distinguish phonemes, which presupposes that phonemic status is categorical. Many researchers, however, demonstrate the existence of gradient relations. For instance, Hall (2009 quantifies these using the information-theoretic measure of entropy (unpredictability of distribution and shows that a pair of sounds may have an entropy between 0 (totally predictable and 1 (totally unpredictable. We argue that the existence of such intermediate degrees of contrastiveness does not make the CH untenable, but rather offers insight into contrastive hierarchies. The existence of a continuum does not preclude categorical distinctions: a categorical line can be drawn between zero entropy (entirely predictable, and thus by the CH phonologically inactive and non-zero entropy (at least partially contrastive, and thus potentially phonologically active. But this does not mean that intermediate degrees of surface contrastiveness are entirely irrelevant to the CH; rather, we argue, they can shed light on how deeply ingrained a phonemic distinction is in the phonological system. As an example, we provide a case study from Pulaar [ATR] harmony, which has previously been claimed to be problematic for the CH.
Wang, J.; Bras, R. L.; Lerdau, M.; Salvucci, G. D.; Wofsy, S.
The argument is that the fundamental mechanisms behind bare soil evaporation are also responsible for plant transpiration except that stomata affect the exchange of water vapor between the evaporating surface and the atmosphere. It is hypothesized that the system of liquid water in leaf tissues and the water vapor in the atmosphere tries to evolve towards a potential equilibrium as quickly as possible by maximizing transpiration. In the proposed theory, CO2 flux is used as a non-parametric equivalent of stomatal conductance as CO2 and water vapor diffuse in and out of leaves through the same path. It is further assumed that stomatal aperture is directly controlled by guard cell turgor (or leaf water potential). Transpiration is formulated as a function of leaf temperature, leaf water potential/stomatal conductance (or CO2 flux as the surrogate), and sensible heat flux (characterizing transport mechanism) at a given level of radiative energy input. Optimization of transpiration constrained by the energy balance equation leads to vanishing derivatives of transpiration with respect to leaf temperature and CO2 flux. Effect of vapor pressure deficit on transpiration is also investigated. Preliminary tests using field experimental measurements lead to encouraging evidence in support of the hypothesis. It is found that transpiration is fairly insensitive to atmospheric humidity as suggested by several earlier studies.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is probably no single way to age. Indeed, so far there is no single accepted explanation or mechanisms of aging (although more than 300 theories have been proposed. There is an overall decline in tissue regenerative potential with age, and the question arises as to whether this is due to the intrinsic aging of stem cells or rather to the impairment of stem cell function in the aged tissue environment. CONTENT: Recent data suggest that we age, in part, because our self-renewing stem cells grow old as a result of heritable intrinsic events, such as DNA damage, as well as extrinsic forces, such as changes in their supporting niches. Mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer, such as senescence and apoptosis, which rely on telomere shortening and the activities of p53 and p16INK4a may also induce an unwanted consequence: a decline in the replicative function of certain stem cells types with advancing age. This decrease regenerative capacity appears to pointing to the stem cell hypothesis of aging. SUMMARY: Recent evidence suggested that we grow old partly because of our stem cells grow old as a result of mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer over a lifetime. We believe that a further, more precise mechanistic understanding of this process will be required before this knowledge can be translated into human anti-aging therapies. KEYWORDS: stem cells, senescence, telomere, DNA damage, epigenetic, aging.
Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey using quarterly data in period from 2003:Q1 to 2015:Q1. Hypothesis argues that there is causality relationship from real export to real Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Johansen cointegration test, Gregory-Hansen cointegration test, Toda-Yamamoto causality test, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS, Canonical cointegrating regression (CCR and Dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS methods were used in this study. Findings can be summarized as follows: a According to Johansen cointegration test there is no relationship among variables in the long-run whereas Gregory-Hansen cointegration test has determined relationship in the long-run; b According to Toda-Yamamoto causality test there is bidirectional causality between real export and real GDP. This finding proves the validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey; c According to FMOLS, CCR, DOLS methods a 1% increase in the real export increases the real GDP by 1.5195%, 1.5552%, 1.3171% respectively in the long-run. These methods prove the validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey.
Chrysikou, Evangelia G; Weber, Matthew J; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L
The prefrontal cortex exerts top-down influences on several aspects of higher-order cognition by functioning as a filtering mechanism that biases bottom-up sensory information toward a response that is optimal in context. However, research also indicates that not all aspects of complex cognition benefit from prefrontal regulation. Here we review and synthesize this research with an emphasis on the domains of learning and creative cognition, and outline how the appropriate level of cognitive control in a given situation can vary depending on the organism's goals and the characteristics of the given task. We offer a matched filter hypothesis for cognitive control, which proposes that the optimal level of cognitive control is task-dependent, with high levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are explicit, rule-based, verbal or abstract, and can be accomplished given the capacity limits of working memory and with low levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are implicit, reward-based, non-verbal or intuitive, and which can be accomplished irrespective of working memory limitations. Our approach promotes a view of cognitive control as a tool adapted to a subset of common challenges, rather than an all-purpose optimization system suited to every problem the organism might encounter. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.
Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.
Snyder, Robin E
Although perturbations from a stable equilibrium must ultimately vanish, they can grow initially, and the maximum initial growth rate is called reactivity. Reactivity thus identifies systems that may undergo transient population surges or drops in response to perturbations; however, we lack biological and mathematical intuition about what makes a system reactive. This paper presents upper and lower bounds on reactivity for an arbitrary linearized model, explores their strictness, and discusses their biological implications. I find that less stable systems (i.e. systems with long transients) have a smaller possible range of reactivities for which no perturbations grow. Systems with more species have a higher capacity to be reactive, assuming species interactions do not weaken too rapidly as the number of species increases. Finally, I find that in discrete time, reactivity is determined largely by mean interaction strength and neither discrete nor continuous time reactivity are sensitive to food web topology. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chubraeva, L.; Timofeev, S.
The paper reviews main stages of development of reactive power generators, describes the 1-st and 2-nd generation of synchronous condensers with conventional cooling systems and a new generation – superconductive synchronous condensers. Asynchronous non- salient pole condensers expand the class of rotating compensating devices. Comparison of dynamic performance of conventional synchronous condensers, cryogenic condensers and SVC is presented. The variant of a model 5 MVA HTSC synchronous condenser intended for wind power plants is described.
Donev, Aleksandar; Yang, Chiao-Yu; Kim, Changho
We develop a Split Reactive Brownian Dynamics (SRBD) algorithm for particle simulations of reaction-diffusion systems based on the Doi or volume reactivity model, in which pairs of particles react with a specified Poisson rate if they are closer than a chosen reactive distance. In our Doi model, we ensure that the microscopic reaction rules for various association and dissociation reactions are consistent with detailed balance (time reversibility) at thermodynamic equilibrium. The SRBD algorithm uses Strang splitting in time to separate reaction and diffusion and solves both the diffusion-only and reaction-only subproblems exactly, even at high packing densities. To efficiently process reactions without uncontrolled approximations, SRBD employs an event-driven algorithm that processes reactions in a time-ordered sequence over the duration of the time step. A grid of cells with size larger than all of the reactive distances is used to schedule and process the reactions, but unlike traditional grid-based methods such as reaction-diffusion master equation algorithms, the results of SRBD are statistically independent of the size of the grid used to accelerate the processing of reactions. We use the SRBD algorithm to compute the effective macroscopic reaction rate for both reaction-limited and diffusion-limited irreversible association in three dimensions and compare to existing theoretical predictions at low and moderate densities. We also study long-time tails in the time correlation functions for reversible association at thermodynamic equilibrium and compare to recent theoretical predictions. Finally, we compare different particle and continuum methods on a model exhibiting a Turing-like instability and pattern formation. Our studies reinforce the common finding that microscopic mechanisms and correlations matter for diffusion-limited systems, making continuum and even mesoscopic modeling of such systems difficult or impossible. We also find that for models in which
Zamanian, JL; Xu, L; Foo, LC; Nouri, N; Zhou, L; Giffard, RG; Barres, BA
Reactive astrogliosis is characterized by a profound change in astrocyte phenotype in response to all CNS injuries and diseases. To better understand the reactive astrocyte state, we used Affymetrix GeneChip arrays to profile gene expression in populations of reactive astrocytes isolated at various time points after induction using two mouse injury models, ischemic stroke and neuroinflammation. We find reactive gliosis consists of a rapid, but quickly attenuated induction of gene expression a...
Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.
Ortiz, Samira; Castro-Sitiriche, Marcel; Amador, Isamar
A strong positive relationship among quality of life and electricity consumption at impoverished countries is found in many studies. However, previous work has presented that the positive relationship does not hold beyond certain electricity consumption threshold. Consequently, there is a need of exploring the possibility for communities to live with sustainable level of energy consumption without sacrificing their quality of life. The Gallup-Healthways Report measures global citizen’s wellbeing. This paper provides a new outlook using these elements to explore the relationships among actual percentage of population thriving in most countries and their energy consumption. A measurement of efficiency is computed to determine an adjusted relative social value of energy considering the variability in the happy life years as a function of electric power consumption. Adjustment is performed so single components don’t dominate in the measurement. It is interesting to note that the countries with the highest relative social value of energy are in the top 10 countries of the Gallup report.
Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.
The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.
Yen, A. S.
Recent lab results show that oxygen evolves from superoxide-coated mineral grains upon exposure to water vapor. This observation is additional support of the hypothesis that UV-generated O2 is responsible for the reactivity of the martian soil. Discussion of current NASA research opportunities, status of various programs within the Solar System Exploration Division, and employment opportunities within NASA Headquarters to support these programs. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Craddock, Travis J. A.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Chopra, Deepak; Casey, Noel; Goldstein, Lee E.; Hameroff, Stuart R.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ), intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau), and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques) not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1) used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2) performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3) used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of polymerized
Travis J A Craddock
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau, and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1 used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2 performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3 used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of
NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.
Pro Reactive Extensions and LINQ is a deep dive into the next important technology for .NET developers: Reactive Extensions. This in-depth tutorial goes beyond what is available anywhere else to teach how to write WPF, Silverlight, and Windows Phone applications using the Reactive Extensions (Rx) to handle events and asynchronous method calls. Reactive programming allows you to turn those aspects of your code that are currently imperative into something much more event-driven and flexible. For this reason, it's sometimes referred to as LINQ for Events. Reactive programming hinges on the concep
Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky
Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed...
Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten
Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (COSI...
Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank
he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are
This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.
Too, Linda; Bajracharya, Bhishna
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the major factors necessary for engaging university campus community in sustainability. While general awareness in sustainability issues has improved in recent years through mass media coverage, this knowledge is not always translated into actual sustainable practice. Studies have indicated that…
Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent
Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.
McCann, S M; Licinio, J; Wong, M L; Yu, W H; Karanth, S; Rettorri, V
Nitric oxide (NO), generated by endothelial (e) NO synthase (NOS) and neuronal (n) NOS, plays a ubiquitous role in the body in controlling the function of almost every, if not every, organ system. Bacterial and viral products, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induce inducible (i) NOS synthesis that produces massive amounts of NO toxic to the invading viruses and bacteria, but also host cells by inactivation of enzymes leading to cell death. The actions of all forms of NOS are mediated not only by the free radical oxidant properties of this soluble gas, but also by its activation of guanylate cyclase (GC), leading to the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) that mediates many of its physiological actions. In addition, NO activates cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, leading to the production of physiologically relevant quantities of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotrienes. In the case of iNOS, the massive release of NO, PGE2, and leukotrienes produces toxic effects. Systemic injection of LPS causes induction of interleukin (IL)-1 beta mRNA followed by IL-beta synthesis that induces iNOS mRNA with a latency of two and four hours, respectively, in the anterior pituitary and pineal glands, meninges, and choroid plexus, regions outside the blood-brain barrier, and shortly thereafter, in hypothalamic regions, such as the temperature-regulating centers, paraventricular nucleus containing releasing and inhibiting hormone neurons, and the arcuate nucleus, a region containing these neurons and axons bound for the median eminence. We are currently determining if LPS similarly activates cytokine and iNOS production in the cardiovascular system and the gonads. Our hypothesis is that recurrent infections over the life span play a significant role in producing aging changes in all systems outside the blood-brain barrier via release of toxic quantities of NO. NO may be a major factor in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Considerable evidence
Zamanian, JL; Xu, L; Foo, LC; Nouri, N; Zhou, L; Giffard, RG; Barres, BA
Reactive astrogliosis is characterized by a profound change in astrocyte phenotype in response to all CNS injuries and diseases. To better understand the reactive astrocyte state, we used Affymetrix GeneChip arrays to profile gene expression in populations of reactive astrocytes isolated at various time points after induction using two mouse injury models, ischemic stroke and neuroinflammation. We find reactive gliosis consists of a rapid, but quickly attenuated induction of gene expression after insult and identify two induced genes, Lcn2 and Serpina3n, as strong markers of reactive astrocytes. Strikingly, reactive astrocyte phenotype strongly depended on the type of inducing injury. Although there is a core set of genes that is up-regulated in reactive astrocytes from both injury models, at least 50% of the altered gene expression is specific to a given injury type. Reactive astrocytes in ischemia exhibited a molecular phenotype that suggests that they may be beneficial or protective, whereas reactive astrocytes induced by LPS exhibited a phenotype that suggests that they may be detrimental. These findings demonstrate that, despite well established commonalities, astrocyte reactive gliosis is a highly heterogeneous state in which astrocyte activities are altered to respond to the specific injury. This raises the question of how many subtypes of reactive astrocytes exist. Our findings provide transcriptome databases for two subtypes of reactive astrocytes that will be highly useful in generating new and testable hypotheses of their function, as well as for providing new markers to detect different types of reactive astrocytes in human neurological diseases. PMID:22553043
Neijenst, H.; Degenhart, Herman; Raatgeep, Rolien; Kerrebijn, K.F.
textabstractThe hypothesis that increased reactivity in asthma is not always limited to the bronchi but also exists in the mediator releasing system was investigated in forty‐five asthmatic children, approximately half of whom had exercise‐induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). The bronchial threshold to histamine was measured as an indicator of the reactivity of the bronchi and the histamine release from leucocytes without adding allergen (spontaneous histamine release) was considered as an indi...
Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F
The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
David T S Hayman
Full Text Available Rabies virus kills tens of thousands of people globally each year, especially in resource-limited countries. Yet, there are genetically- and antigenically-related lyssaviruses, all capable of causing the disease rabies, circulating globally among bats without causing conspicuous disease outbreaks. The species richness and greater genetic diversity of African lyssaviruses, along with the lack of antibody cross-reactivity among them, has led to the hypothesis that Africa is the origin of lyssaviruses. This hypothesis was tested using a probabilistic phylogeographical approach. The nucleoprotein gene sequences from 153 representatives of 16 lyssavirus species, collected between 1956 and 2015, were used to develop a phylogenetic tree which incorporated relevant geographic and temporal data relating to the viruses. In addition, complete genome sequences from all 16 (putative species were analysed. The most probable ancestral distribution for the internal nodes was inferred using three different approaches and was confirmed by analysis of complete genomes. These results support a Palearctic origin for lyssaviruses (posterior probability = 0.85, challenging the 'out of Africa' hypothesis, and suggest three independent transmission events to the Afrotropical region, representing the three phylogroups that form the three major lyssavirus clades.
Sun, Deyi; Yuan, Ding; Zhang, Xiangsheng
Non-union after bone fracture is rather common with an increasing frequency of incidence rate due to poorly treated early operations, among which the mechanism of atrophic non-union remains unclear. Previous opinions showed that impaired blood supply of affected limbs might mostly contribute to the atrophic non-union, which discriminated it with hypertrophic non-union. Nevertheless, there had been increasingly adequate evidences supporting that normal blood supplies existed in atrophic non-unions, as well as in hypertrophic non-unions or healthy bone fractures. Our hypothesis, based on the newly acquired evidences of atrophic non-union, was that there existed mesenchymal stem cells in the area of atrophic non-union. These mesenchymal stem cells, which remained temporally quiescent, could perform re-ossification under certain growth conditions, such as pressure during callus distraction with external fixator. According to the hypothesis, treatment for atrophic non-union should focus on the stimulation and reactivation of endogenetic mesenchymal stem cells or transplantation of autologous normal mesenchymal stem cells. This hypothesis may shed some light on the mechanism of atrophic non-union. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hald, Kim Sundtoft
Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed....
Dam, van Y.K.
Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the
Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011
With this review of campus sustainability efforts in 2010, the editors aim to give readers--those who are often immersed in the day-to-day particulars of sustainability efforts--the same chance to take a step back and take a broader look at where they stand with sustainability in higher education. This inaugural 2010 Campus Sustainability Review…
The reactor core model in the most commonly used computer programs for safety analysis is a point kinetics model. The core average fission rate is calculated knowing the reactivity, neutron generation time and delayed-neutron parameters. The reactivity is a time dependent function taking account of the effect of changes in water density and temperature, fuel temperature, control rod position and soluble boron concentration. In this presentation some of the alternative ways of representing this reactivity function are reviewed
Nance, K.V.; Renner, J.B.; Brashear, H.R.; Siegal, G.P.; North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC
Florid reactive periostitis is a rare, benign process usually occurring in the small, tubular bones of the hands and feet. Typically the lesion occurs in an adolescent or young adult and presents as a small area of pain and erythema over the affected bone. Although the histologic features may suggest malignancy, there is usually little radiographic evidence to support such a diagnosis. In the following report an unusual example of this entity is described whose large size and relentless local progression led to initial diagnostic uncertainty and eventual aggressive management. This case suggests that a wide spectrum of radiologic and morphologic changes may be seen in this entity and that a seemingly unrelated genetic disease may alter the typical clinical course. (orig.)
Full Text Available Sarcoid like reaction is a well-known entity that occurs as a consequence to several malignancies or their therapies. Immunotherapy has gained a lot of interest in the past few years and has recently gained approval as first line therapy in multiple advanced stage malignancies. Pneumonitis has been described as complication of such therapy. Granulomatous inflammation has been only rarely reported subsequent to immunotherapy. We describe a case of granulomatous inflammation reactivation affecting the lungs in a patient previously exposed to Pembrolizumab and have evidence of a distant granulomatous infection. We discuss potential mechanisms of the inflammation and assert the importance of immunosuppression in controlling the dis-inhibited immune system.
This report is a review of some of the important aspects of the analysis of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). One important aspect is the calculation of positive void reactivity. To study this subject the lattice physics codes used for void worth calculations and the coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic codes used for the transient analysis are reviewed. Also reviewed are the measurements used to help validate the codes. The application of these codes to large LOCAs is studied with attention focused on the uncertainty factor for the void worth used to bias the results. Another aspect of the subject dealt with in the report is the acceptance criteria that are applied. This includes the criterion for peak fuel enthalpy and the question of whether prompt criticality should also be a criterion. To study the former, fuel behavior measurements and calculations are reviewed. (Author) (49 refs., 2 figs., tab.)
on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming to provide local citizens...
by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...
Reativação do perímetro irrigado de Gravatá: uma abordagem otimizante sobre agricultura irrigada e sustentabilidade hídrica Reactivation of the irrigated perimeter of Gravatá: an optimization approach to irrigated agriculture and water sustainability
Cícero A. G. Lima
Full Text Available Neste trabalho se analisa a possibilidade de reativação do Perímetro Irrigado de Gravatá, com uma área potencial de 934 ha, localizado na bacia do Rio Piancó, no sudoeste do Estado da Paraíba. Com tal objetivo utilizaram-se o modelo de otimização ORNAP, para seleção, alocação de área e demandas hídricas mensais das culturas e o modelo de simulação MODSIM P32 para verificação da sustentabilidade hídrica dos reservatórios Canoas e Saco de Nova Olinda, responsáveis pelo suprimento de água para o perímetro; depois se avaliou o comportamento hídrico do sistema, através de análises, para diversos cenários climáticos e de volumes iniciais nos reservatórios considerando-se um horizonte de planejamento de dois anos. O estudo mostrou que, com as mudanças propostas no plano de cultivo e no sistema de irrigação e se utilizando de modelo de alocação otimizada de água através de um plano de operação dos reservatórios, é possível, mesmo em condições climáticas e de volumes iniciais nos reservatórios desfavoráveis, irrigar até 70% da área potencial do referido perímetro.This work is concerned with the possibility of reactivation of Irrigated Perimeter of Gravatá, with potential land availability of 934 ha, which is located at Piancó river basin in the southern part of Paraiba State. To perform the analysis, the ORNAP optimization model was used to allocate optimal irrigated areas to a pre-selected set of crops, as well as their water requirement, and the MODSIM P32, a simulation model, was used to verify the water sustainability of Canoas and Saco de Nova Olinda reservoirs, which supply water. The hydro behavior of system was verified through the design of scenarios for climatic and initial volumes for the reservoirs, taking into account a planning time horizon of two years. The results have shown that up to 70% of the available land can be irrigated, even with unfavorable climatic conditions and initial
Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den
In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)
Battiti, Roberto; Mascia, Franco
Reactive Search integrates sub-symbolic machine learning techniques into search heuristics for solving complex optimization problems. By automatically adjusting the working parameters, a reactive search self-tunes and adapts, effectively learning by doing until a solution is found. Intelligent Optimization, a superset of Reactive Search, concerns online and off-line schemes based on the use of memory, adaptation, incremental development of models, experimental algorithms applied to optimization, intelligent tuning and design of heuristics. Reactive Search and Intelligent Optimization is an exc
phage and host survivals of about 5 times 10-6 and 1 times 10-1, respectively. Intracellular development of W-reactivated P78 was followed by one-step growth experiments. Conditions which allowed maximal W-reactivation also extended the period of phage production and yielded a somewhat reduced burst......Weigle (W)-reactivation was demonstrated in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus for the UV-irra-diated lysogenic phage P78. The reactivation factor (survival of irradiated phage on irradiated bacteria/ survival on unirradiated bacteria) reached a maximum value of 20. This was obtained at UV-doses giving...
Weigle (W)-reactivation was demonstrated in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus for the UV-irradiated lysogenic phage P78. The reactivation factor (survival of irradiated phage on irradiated bacteria/survival on unirradiated bacteria) reached a maximum value of 20. This was obtained at UV-doses giving phage and host survivals of about 5 x 10 -6 and 1 x 10 -1 , respectively. Intracellular development of W-reactivated P78 was followed by one-step growth experiments. Conditions which allowed maximal W-reactivation also extended the period of phage production and yielded a somewhat reduced burst size. (author)
Full Text Available Rape is a recurrent adaptive problem of female humans and females of a number of non-human animals. Rape has various physiological and reproductive costs to the victim. The costs of rape are furthermore exaggerated by social rejection and blaming of a victim, particularly by men. The negative perception of raped women by men has received little attention from an evolutionary perspective. Across two independent studies, we investigated whether the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (the STD hypothesis, Hypothesis 1 or paternity uncertainty (the cuckoldry hypothesis, Hypothesis 2 influence the negative perception of raped women by men. Raped women received lower attractiveness score than non-raped women, especially in long-term mate attractiveness score. The perceived attractiveness of raped women was not influenced by the presence of experimentally manipulated STD cues on faces of putative rapists. Women raped by three men received lower attractiveness score than women raped by one man. These results provide stronger support for the cuckoldry hypothesis (Hypothesis 2 than for the STD hypothesis (Hypothesis 1. Single men perceived raped women as more attractive than men in a committed relationship (Hypothesis 3, suggesting that the mating opportunities mediate men’s perception of victims of rape. Overall, our results suggest that the risk of cuckoldry underlie the negative perception of victims of rape by men rather than the fear of disease transmission.
Rosen, Marc A.
Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that engineering processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on the environment. Many factors that need to be considered and appropriate...
Bang, Anne Louise; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin
and solid perspective on how to keep constructive design research on track, this paper offers a model for understanding the role of hypothesis in constructive design research. The model allows for understanding the hypothesis’s relation to research motivation, questions, experiments, evaluation...... position of the hypothesis as a key-governing element even in artistic led research processes....
Vácha, Lukáš; Vošvrda, Miloslav
Roč. 14, č. 2 (2005), s. 172-179 ISSN 1210-0455 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 454/2004/A EK/FSV Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : efficient market hypothesis * fractal market hypothesis * agent's investment horizons Subject RIV: AH - Economics
Hypothesis testing is one of the more difficult concepts for students to master in a basic, undergraduate statistics course. Students often are puzzled as to why statisticians simply don't calculate the probability that a hypothesis is true. This article presents an exercise that forces students to lay out on their own a procedure for testing a…
A new `hidden colour hypothesis' within the framework of QCD, as an extension of and in keeping with the spirit of the `colour singlet hypothesis' is hereby proposed. As such it should play a role in a consistent description of exotic hadrons, such as diquonia, pentaquarks, dibaryons etc. How these exotic hadrons are ...
Abstract. A new 'hidden colour hypothesis' within the framework of QCD, as an exten- sion of and in keeping with the spirit of the 'colour singlet hypothesis' is hereby proposed. As such it should play a role in a consistent description of exotic hadrons, such as diquonia, pentaquarks, dibaryons etc. How these exotic hadrons ...
Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Graves, Christopher R.
A new hypothesis for the electrochemical reaction mechanism in solid oxide cell ceramic oxygen electrodes is proposed based on literature including our own results. The hypothesis postulates that the observed thin layers of SrO-La2O3 on top of ceramic perovskite and other Ruddlesden-Popper...
van Hoesel, A.; Hoek, W.Z.; Pennock, G.M.; Drury, Martyn
The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis suggests that multiple extraterrestrial airbursts or impacts resulted in the Younger Dryas cooling, extensive wildfires, megafaunal extinctions and changes in human population. After the hypothesis was first published in 2007, it gained much criticism, as the
Mahaboob, B.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Mokeshrayalu, G.; Balasiddamuni, P.
This research paper discusses the method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative Nonlinear Least Squares (NLLS) estimator. Takeshi Amemiya  explained this method. However in the present research paper, a modified Wald test statistic due to Engle, Robert  is proposed to test the nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator. An alternative method for testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals has been proposed. In this research article an innovative method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative restricted NLLS estimator is derived. Pesaran and Deaton  explained the methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis. This paper uses asymptotic properties of nonlinear least squares estimator proposed by Jenrich . The main purpose of this paper is to provide very innovative methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator, iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals and iterative restricted NLLS estimator. Eakambaram et al.  discussed least absolute deviation estimations versus nonlinear regression model with heteroscedastic errors and also they studied the problem of heteroscedasticity with reference to nonlinear regression models with suitable illustration. William Grene  examined the interaction effect in nonlinear models disused by Ai and Norton  and suggested ways to examine the effects that do not involve statistical testing. Peter  provided guidelines for identifying composite hypothesis and addressing the probability of false rejection for multiple hypotheses.
The Critical Period Hypothesis aims to investigate the reason for significant difference between first language acquisition and second language acquisition. Over the past few decades, researchers carried out a series of studies to test the validity of the hypothesis. Although there were certain limitations in these studies, most of their results…
Painter, John; Parker, Matthew; Lowenthal, Phillip; Flood, Jennifer; Fu, Yunxin; Asis, Redentor; Reves, Randall
Rationale: Current guidelines limit latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) evaluation to persons in the United States less than or equal to 5 years based on the assumption that high TB rates among recent entrants are attributable to high LTBI reactivation risk, which declines over time. We hypothesized that high postarrival TB rates may instead be caused by imported active TB. Objectives: Estimate reactivation and imported TB in an immigrant cohort. Methods: We linked preimmigration records from a cohort of California-bound Filipino immigrants during 2001–2010 with subsequent TB reports. TB was likely LTBI reactivation if the immigrant had no evidence of active TB at preimmigration examination, likely imported if preimmigration radiograph was abnormal and TB was reported less than or equal to 6 months after arrival, and likely reactivation of inactive TB if radiograph was abnormal but TB was reported more than 6 months after arrival. Measurements and Main Results: Among 123,114 immigrants, 793 TB cases were reported. Within 1 year of preimmigration examination, 85% of TB was imported; 6 and 9% were reactivation of LTBI and inactive TB, respectively. Conversely, during Years 2–9 after U.S. entry, 76 and 24% were reactivation of LTBI and inactive TB, respectively. The rate of LTBI reactivation (32 per 100,000) did not decline during Years 1–9. Conclusions: High postarrival TB rates were caused by detection of imported TB through active postarrival surveillance. Among immigrants without active TB at baseline, reported TB did not decline over 9 years, indicating sustained high risk of LTBI reactivation. Revised guidelines should support LTBI screening and treatment more than 5 years after U.S. arrival. PMID:24308495
Holmes, Alex; Singh, Bruce; McColl, Geoff
The "hypothesis-driven interview" was articulated by George Engel as a method of raising and testing hypotheses in the process of building a biopsychosocial formulation and determining the most likely diagnosis. This interview was a forerunner of the modern medical interview as well as the contemporary psychiatric assessment. The objective of this article is to describe the hypothesis-driven interview and to explore its relationship with the contemporary medical interview. The literature on the medical and hypothesis-driven interview was reviewed. Key features of each were identified. The hypothesis-driven interview shares much with the contemporary medical interview. In addition, it enhances the application of communication skills and allows the interviewer to develop a formulation during the course of the assessment. The hypothesis-driven interview is well suited to the aims of a contemporary psychiatric assessment.
How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...... by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...
decline in hydroxyl radical generation could be attributed to two key parameters. First, increased aggregate size was associated with increased particle shadowing, as determined from the observed decrease in the rate of optically induced transitions. Secondly, aggregate structure was associated both with increased shadowing (denser aggregates exhibited more shadowing than similarly sized loose aggregates), and with an increase in radical quenching on neighboring particle surfaces in an aggregate. Aggregation had a positive impact on hydroxylated fullerene membrane separation, increasing removal efficiency to around 80%, regardless of transmembrane pressure. However, the type of electrolyte used determined whether aggregation was successful at increasing removal. Divalent ions, capable of forming strong covalent bonds with surface oxygen groups, increased removal efficiency and made it pressure insensitive. In contrast, monovalent ions increased removal efficiency slightly, but maintained the pressure dependence of the removal efficiency. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that divalently aggregated hydroxylated fullerenes deform under increased pressure and partially penetrate the membrane. Finally, nanoparticle reactive properties depend on the primary particle aggregation state. Both size and structure are key factors when evaluating nanomaterial reactivity under aggregation-inducing conditions. However, the impact of aggregation is not easily predicted. Some materials exhibit a decreased reactivity while others experience an increase. Therefore, the impact of aggregation on nanoparticle reactive properties must be evaluated on a material-by-material basis, while considering all of the particle and aggregate characteristics as well as environmental ones.
Drake, Christopher L.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Roth, Thomas
Study Objectives: Determine the genetic and environmental contributions to sleep reactivity and insomnia. Design: Population-based twin cohort. Participants: 1782 individual twins (988 monozygotic or MZ; 1,086 dizygotic or DZ), including 744 complete twin pairs (377 MZ and 367 DZ). Mean age was 22.5 ± 2.8 years; gender distribution was 59% women. Measurements: Sleep reactivity was measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST). The criterion for insomnia was having difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or nonrefreshing sleep “usually or always” for ≥ 1 month, with at least “somewhat” interference with daily functioning. Results: The prevalence of insomnia was 21%. Heritability estimates for sleep reactivity were 29% for females and 43% for males. The environmental variance for sleep reactivity was greater for females and entirely due to nonshared effects. Insomnia was 43% to 55% heritable for males and females, respectively; the sex difference was not significant. The genetic variances in insomnia and FIRST scores were correlated (r = 0.54 in females, r = 0.64 in males), as were the environmental variances (r = 0.32 in females, r = 0.37 in males). In terms of individual insomnia symptoms, difficulty staying asleep (25% to 35%) and nonrefreshing sleep (34% to 35%) showed relatively more genetic influences than difficulty falling asleep (0%). Conclusions: Sleep reactivity to stress has a substantial genetic component, as well as an environmental component. The finding that FIRST scores and insomnia symptoms share genetic influences is consistent with the hypothesis that sleep reactivity may be a genetic vulnerability for developing insomnia. Citation: Drake CL; Friedman NP; Wright KP; Roth T. Sleep reactivity and insomnia: genetic and environmental influences. SLEEP 2011;34(9):1179-1188. PMID:21886355
Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator
Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would
Unzué Belmonte, Dácil; Barão, Lúcia; Vandevenne, Floor; Schoelynck, Jonas; Struyf, Eric; Meire, Patrick
The Si cycle is a globally important biogeochemical cycle, with strong connections to other biogeochemical cycles, including C. Silica is taken up by plants to form protective structures called phytoliths, which become a part of the soil and contribute strongly to soil Si cycling upon litter burial. Different silica fractions are found in soils, with phytoliths among the most easily soluble, especially compared to silicate minerals. A whole set of secondary non-biogenic fractions exist, that also have a high reactivity (adsorbed Si, reactive secondary minerals…). A good characterization of the different fractions of reactive silica is crucial to move forward knowledge on ecosystem Si cycling, which has been recognized in the last decade as crucial for terrestrial Si fluxes. A new method to analyze the different fractions of silica in soils has been described by Koning et al. (2002) and adapted by our research team (Barão et al. 2013). Using a continuous extraction of Si and aluminum in 0.5M NaOH, biogenic and non-biogenic reactive fractions are separated based on their Si/Al ratios and their reactivity in NaOH. Applying this new method I will investigate three emerging ideas on how humans can affect directly terrestrial Si fluxes. -Land use. I expect strong silica fractionation and reactivity differences in different land uses. These effects due to agricultural and forestry management have already been shown earlier in temperate soils (Vandevenne et al. 2012). Now we will test this hypothesis in recently deforested soils, in the south of Brazil. 'Pristine' forest, managed forest and tobacco field soils (with and without rotation crops) will be studied. This research belongs to an interdisciplinary project on soils and global change. -Fire. According to the IPCC report, extreme events such as fires (number and intensity) would increase due to climate change. We analyzed litter from spruce forest, beech forest and peat soils at two burning levels, after 350°C and
Full Text Available Based on the threshold panel data model, this study employs the quarterly panel data of 38 countries between 1981 and 2014 to test whether economic growth asymmetry, expected inflation, and unexpected inflation affect the Fisher hypothesis and Fama’s proxy hypothesis. The empirical results show the following: (1 When real economic growth rate is greater than the threshold (-0.009, Fisher hypothesis is supported. (2 When real economic growth rate is less than the threshold (-0.009, two scenarios hold true: before real variables are included, Fisher hypothesis is rejected; and when real variables are included, real economic growth is negative, inflation is expected, and thus, Fama’s hypothesis is supported.
Garcia, Carlos Hernando
A market to five years that it will move near $63.000 millions, starting from the production of 254.000 reserves that Ecopetrol requires for its maintenance and operation, it was projected with base in the offer study and it demands that they carried out the universities Javeriana and Industrial of Santander for the Colombian Company of Petroleum around the metal mechanic sector. In accordance with the figures of the report, Ecopetrol, like one of the state entities selected by the national government to design pilot programs, guided to reactivate the Colombian industry; it is projecting a good perspective for the Colombian economy and the invigoration of the national productive sector. In practical terms, the report points out that Ecopetrol, in its different operative centers, will require in next five years the quantity of had restored before mentioned in the lines of mechanical stamps, centrifugal bombs, inter chambers of heat, compressors and valves of security; pieces that are elaborated by international makers in 99%. To produce them nationally would represent to the company an economy of 52% of the total value of the purchases in next five years and a reduction of time of delivery of 17 weeks to one week
Shcherbina, O. A.; Shembeleva, E. A.
The basic approaches to decision making and modeling tourism sustainable development are reviewed. Dynamics of a sustainable development is considered in the Forrester's system dynamics. Multidimensionality of tourism sustainable development and multicriteria issues of sustainable development are analyzed. Decision Support Systems (DSS) and Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) as an effective technique in examining and visualizing impacts of policies, sustainable tourism development strategies within an integrated and dynamic framework are discussed. Main modules that may be utilized for integrated modeling sustainable tourism development are proposed.
Full Text Available The recession that most of the world economies have been facing in the last years has caused a great interest in the study of its macroeconomic effects. In this context, a debate has resurged regarding the advertising investment, as for its potential capacity to impel the consumer spending and to impact positively on the economic recovery. This idea, sustained in the so-called Galbraith's hypothesis, constitutes the core of this paper, where the main objective is to test that hypothesis by means of an empirical analysis. In this study, we focus on the Spanish case and the data correspond to the period 1976 -2010. A cointegration analysis is carried out, using two different approaches (Engle-Granger test and Gregory-Hansen test, respectively, to determine if there is any relationship between the advertising investment and six macromagnitudes (GDP, National Income, Consumption, Savings and Fixed Capital Formation, as well as the registered unemployment rate. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that Galbraith's hypothesis is not fulfilled for the Spanish case.
Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.
This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.
The linear no-threshold hypothesis is the basis for radiation protection standards in the United States. In the words of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), the hypothesis is: open-quotes In the interest of estimating effects in humans conservatively, it is not unreasonable to follow the assumption of a linear relationship between dose and effect in the low dose regions for which direct observational data are not available.close quotes The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) stated the hypothesis in a slightly different manner: open-quotes One such basic assumption ... is that ... there is ... a linear relationship without threshold between dose and the probability of an effect. The hypothesis was necessary 50 yr ago when it was first enunciated because the dose-effect curve for ionizing radiation for effects in humans was not known. The ICRP and NCRP needed a model to extrapolate high-dose effects to low-dose effects. So the linear no-threshold hypothesis was born. Certain details of the history of the development and use of the linear hypothesis are presented. In particular, use of the hypothesis by the U.S. regulatory agencies is examined. Over time, the sense of the hypothesis has been corrupted. The corruption of the hypothesis into the current paradigm of open-quote a little radiation, no matter how small, can and will harm youclose quotes is presented. The reasons the corruption occurred are proposed. The effects of the corruption are enumerated, specifically, the use of the corruption by the antinuclear forces in the United States and some of the huge costs to U.S. taxpayers due to the corruption. An alternative basis for radiation protection standards to assure public safety, based on the weight of scientific evidence on radiation health effects, is proposed
This thesis deals with sustainable marketing, as well as the necessity for more sustainability. The purpose of this thesis was to determine the importance of sustainable marketing for companies. The theoretical part is divided into sustainability and sustainable marketing. Sustainability covers current issues and sustainable development, which form a background for a better understanding of sustainable marketing. Sustainable marketing includes a definition of the concept, as well as susta...
Pope, Jenny; Annandale, David; Morrison-Saunders, Angus
Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many
Full Text Available In the past decade, the developments of vehicle detection have been significantly improved. By utilizing cameras, vehicles can be detected in the Regions of Interest (ROI in complex environments. However, vision techniques often suffer from false positives and limited field of view. In this paper, a LiDAR based vehicle detection approach is proposed by using the Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD filter. The proposed approach consists of two phases: the hypothesis generation phase to detect potential objects and the hypothesis verification phase to classify objects. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in complex scenarios, compared with the state-of-the-art.
Full Text Available Hypothesis testing (or statistical inference is one of the major applications of biostatistics. Much of medical research begins with a research question that can be framed as a hypothesis. Inferential statistics begins with a null hypothesis that reflects the conservative position of no change or no difference in comparison to baseline or between groups. Usually, the researcher has reason to believe that there is some effect or some difference which is the alternative hypothesis. The researcher therefore proceeds to study samples and measure outcomes in the hope of generating evidence strong enough for the statistician to be able to reject the null hypothesis. The concept of the P value is almost universally used in hypothesis testing. It denotes the probability of obtaining by chance a result at least as extreme as that observed, even when the null hypothesis is true and no real difference exists. Usually, if P is < 0.05 the null hypothesis is rejected and sample results are deemed statistically significant. With the increasing availability of computers and access to specialized statistical software, the drudgery involved in statistical calculations is now a thing of the past, once the learning curve of the software has been traversed. The life sciences researcher is therefore free to devote oneself to optimally designing the study, carefully selecting the hypothesis tests to be applied, and taking care in conducting the study well. Unfortunately, selecting the right test seems difficult initially. Thinking of the research hypothesis as addressing one of five generic research questions helps in selection of the right hypothesis test. In addition, it is important to be clear about the nature of the variables (e.g., numerical vs. categorical; parametric vs. nonparametric and the number of groups or data sets being compared (e.g., two or more than two at a time. The same research question may be explored by more than one type of hypothesis test
Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Kjærgård, Bente
and sustainability. Third, we use examples from agriculture and food production to illustrate that health and sustainability are mutually enabling and constraining. We conclude that while the renewed focus on food security and food inequalities has brought the health and sustainability dimensions of the food system...... onto the political agenda, the conceptualization of duality between health and sustainability could be a new platform for a critical and theoretical stance towards the market-oriented food system strategy. Thinking along the lines of duality means that the integration of health promotion strategies...... and sustainable development strategies cannot be based on an approach to integration in which either health or sustainability is given precedence over the other. From a duality perspective, integration means conceiving sustainability from a health perspective and health from a sustainability perspective....
Gibberd, Jeremy T
Full Text Available . In this paper these are referred to as ‘Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability’. Neighbourhood Facilities for Sustainability (NFS) are initiatives undertaken by individuals and communities to build local sustainable systems which not only improve...
Sustainable development equally includes environmental protection including biodiversity, economic growth and social equity, both within and between generations. The paper first reviews different aspects related to the sustainable use of livestock biodiversity and property regimes that influence
"The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook’s content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key asse...
/ It is legitimate to ask whether and in what form tourism might contribute to sustainable development. This is not the same as sustainable tourism which, as a single-sector approach to development, may overlook important linkages with other sectors. If tourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then it must be economically viable, ecologically sensitive and culturally appropriate. Ecotourism is often advocated as being a sustainable form of tourism but imprecision in terminology clouds basic issues and there are strong economic, ecological, and cultural reasons for believing that, even in its purest forms, ecotourism is likely to present substantial challenges to destination areas, particularly if it competes for scarce resources and displaces existing uses and users. Sustainable tourism and ecotourism are not synonyms, many forms of ecotourism may not be sustainable, and if ecotourism is to contribute to sustainable development, then careful planning and management will be required.KEY WORDS: Ecotourism; Sustainable development; Development; Tourism
Analysing processes of social learning this work addresses how action research can further new research orientations towards sustainability. Empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating...... on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming to provide local citizens...
Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.
Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair
instrument in the pursuit of sustainability. Prior Work - Extant literature identifies two main approaches to sustainable entrepreneurship. (i) traditional exploitation of environmentally relevant opportunities and (ii) institutional entrepreneurship creating opportunities. We identify a novel form......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action. Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship. Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship - resource oriented...... entrepreneurship - which uses bricolage in various ways to create sustainable solutions. Implications and value - The concept of resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurship contributes to the theoretical understanding of how entrepreneurial action can support sustainability, Furthermore the case study has...
H.J. Neijenst (H.); H.J. Degenhart (Herman); R.H. Raatgeep (Rolien); K.F. Kerrebijn
textabstractThe hypothesis that increased reactivity in asthma is not always limited to the bronchi but also exists in the mediator releasing system was investigated in forty‐five asthmatic children, approximately half of whom had exercise‐induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). The bronchial threshold
Leong, Wai Fun; Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Elias, Ryan J.; Lecomte, Jérôme; Villeneuve, Pierre; Zhao, Yu; Coupland, John N.
Hypothesis: The reactivity of small molecules in emulsions is believed to depend on their partitioning between phases, yet this is hard to verify experimentally in situ. In the present work, we use electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to simultaneously measure the distribution and
Chemical products can be obtained by process pathways involving varying amounts and types of resources, utilities, and byproduct formation. When such competing process options such as six processes for making methanol as are considered in this study, it is necessary to identify the most sustainable option. Sustainability of a chemical process is generally evaluated with indicators that require process and chemical property data. These indicators individually reflect the impacts of the process on areas of sustainability, such as the environment or society. In order to choose among several alternative processes an overall comparative analysis is essential. Generally net profit will show the most economic process. A mixed integer optimization problem can also be solved to identify the most economic among competing processes. This method uses economic optimization and leaves aside the environmental and societal impacts. To make a decision on the most sustainable process, the method presented here rationally aggregates the sustainability indicators into a single index called sustainability footprint (De). Process flow and economic data were used to compute the indicator values. Results from sustainability footprint (De) are compared with those from solving a mixed integer optimization problem. In order to identify the rank order of importance of the indicators, a multivariate analysis is performed using partial least square variable importance in projection (PLS-VIP)
Baker, Gail A.
The Gaia Hypothesis emphasizes the interactions and feedback mechanisms between the living and nonliving process that take place on Earth. Employing this concept in instruction can emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of science and give a planetary perspective of biology. (PR)
Vestbo, J; Prescott, E
BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic obstructive lung disease show increased airways responsiveness to histamine. We investigated the hypothesis that increased airways responsiveness predicts the development and remission of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: We used data from 24-year follo...
Bencko, V.; Šíma, Petr
Roč. 2, 6 March (2017), č. článku 1244. ISSN 2474-1663 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : allergy disorders * atopic disorders * hygiene hypothesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology
Glahn, C. (2008). Cross-system log file analysis for hypothesis testing. Presented at Empowering Learners for Lifelong Competence Development: pedagogical, organisational and technological issues. 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. April, 10, 2008, Madrid, Spain.
Hansen, V. L.
An alternate hypothesis of crustal plateau formation through deformation and progressive crystallization of a huge lava pond, that results from massive melting of the mantle due to bolide impact with ancient thin Venus lithosphere is presented.
Drago, A.; Masina, I.; Pagliara, G.
The OPERA Collaboration reported evidence for muonic neutrinos traveling slightly faster than light in vacuum. While waiting further checks from the experimental community, here we aim at exploring some theoretical consequences of the hypothesis that muonic neutrinos are superluminal, considering...
Christiansen, Søren; Kleinman, Ralph E.
It is shown that the Rayleigh hypothesis does notgovern convergence of the simple point collocationapproach to the numerical solutions of scatteringby a sinusoidal grating. A recently developed numerical technique, interval arithmetic, is employed to perform some decisive numerical experiments...
Electron spin is an important concept in atomic physics and quantum mechanics. The emergence and acceptance of the hypothesis of electron spin has a special place in history, and is reviewed here from three aspects
Demetrius, Lloyd A.
Epidemiological and biochemical studies show that the sporadic forms of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) are characterized by the following hallmarks: (a) An exponential increase with age; (b) Selective neuronal vulnerability; (c) Inverse cancer comorbidity. The present article appeals to these hallmarks to evaluate and contrast two competing models of AD: the amyloid hypothesis (a neuron-centric mechanism) and the Inverse Warburg hypothesis (a neuron-astrocytic mechanism). We show that these three hallmarks of AD conflict with the amyloid hypothesis, but are consistent with the Inverse Warburg hypothesis, a bioenergetic model which postulates that AD is the result of a cascade of three events—mitochondrial dysregulation, metabolic reprogramming (the Inverse Warburg effect), and natural selection. We also provide an explanation for the failures of the clinical trials based on amyloid immunization, and we propose a new class of therapeutic strategies consistent with the neuroenergetic selection model.
Full Text Available The Saxe/Goldstein Hypothesis was generated within the processual archaeology milieu and therefore it was supposed to allow reconstructing the social dimensions of past populations by studying their mortuary practices. In its original form stated that the emergency of formal cemeteries would be the result of an increase on the competition for vital resources. This would lead to the formation of corporate groups of descent whose main objectives were to monopolize the access to vital resources. Later, a reformulated version of this hypothesis was developed emphasizing the relationship between the presence of formal cemeteries and mobility pattern of human groups. In this contribution we present a critical review on the formation of this hypothesis and discuss its limitations. Finally, two examples taken from the Brazilian archaeological record are used to show how the lack of a critical posture in relation to the Saxe/Goldstein Hypothesis may lead to fragile interpretations of the archaeological record.
Diezel, W.; Meffert, H.; Guenther, W.; Huse, K.; Soennichsen, N.
In the culture medium of human fibroblasts a proteolytic activity is evident after UV irradiation (290 - 320 nm). The effect of this proteolytic activity on human serum results in an electrophoretic mobility towards the anode of the C3 component of complement, which thus proves to be activated. In discussing recent and former results, a hypothesis on the exacerbation of lupus erythematodes visceralis is presented: UV irradiation causes peroxydation of lipids resulting in the release of proteolytic enzymes from lysosomal membranes and activation of the complemental system. Thus the reactivity of the immune system is increased and the disease becomes exacerbated. Further the following hypothetic aspects are discussed: porphyrins cause enhanced peroxydation of lipids, increased synthesis rate of porphyrins by drugs, decrease of lipid peroxydation by antioxidants, e.g. vitamin E, in relation to possible therapeutic effects
Kaneko, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Masafumi; Matsuura, Shojiro
Experimental techniques for reactivity determination of a reactor have been one of the long standing subjects in reactor physics. Recently, such a requirement was proposed by the reactor designers and operators that the values of reactivity should be measured more accurately. This is because importance is emphasized for the role of reactivity to the performance of reactor safety, economics and operability. Motivated by the requirement, some remarkable progresses are being made for the improvement of the experimental techniques. Then, the present review summarizes the research activities on this subject, identifies several reactor physics problems to be overcome, and makes mention of the future targets. (auth.)
Sustainable development concept approaches quality of life in complexity, as economic, social and environmental issues, promoting the idea of balance between economic development, social equity, efficient utilization and environment conservation. An essential condition for achieving sustainable development is the right mix of macroeconomic policies coherent, consistent with resources to ensure sustainability of materials and energy used for growth.
Selvanathan, Rani G.
There are many definitions that are attributable to the meaning of sustainability. Sustainability can be viewed as long-lasting, effective result of a project, venture, action, or investment without consuming additional future resources. Because of the wide nature of its applicability, a universal measure of sustainability is hard to come by. This…
Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke; Nielsen, Jacob
Although lean is rapidly growing in popularity, its implementation is far from problem free and companies may experience difficulties sustaining long term success. In this paper, it is suggested that sustainable lean requires attention to both performance improvement and capability development...... that support lean capability development and consequently, lean sustainability....
Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.
Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.
Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nichols, Teresa A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
As described in this report, we have made substantial progress across the 25 roadmaps of the Sustainable Campus Initiative. The report also outlines our plans to continue integrating sustainable practices into the planning, execution, and evaluation of all ORNL activities. We appreciate your interest in our journey to sustainability, and we welcome your comments, questions, and suggestions.
Soysal, Mehmet; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.
The fast evolution of sustainability leads to the development of a new fast-growing concept called sustainable logistics management. This research addresses recent business trends and challenges in logistics and their implications for sustainable logistics management. Additionally, we discuss policy
Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.
In the framework of the sustainable development week (june 2003), Actu Environnement published a complete document on the sustainable development to inform the public, recall the main steps of this notion (Rio conference and the following conferences) and the possible employments. It presents also the main organizations acting in the sustainable development domain. (A.L.B.)
Mainstreaming Environment and Sustainability into African Universities (MESA) and the. Education for Sustainable Development in Africa (ESDA) project. Developed by the United. Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the MESA brings environment and sustainability concerns into the mainstream in terms of teaching, ...
Aiking, H.; de Boer, J.
The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In
Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…
Abdul Ghapor Hussin
Full Text Available This paper presents the hypothesis testing of parameters for ordinary linear circular regression model assuming the circular random error distributed as von Misses distribution. The main interests are in testing of the intercept and slope parameter of the regression line. As an illustration, this hypothesis testing will be used in analyzing the wind and wave direction data recorded by two different techniques which are HF radar system and anchored wave buoy.
Testing of the null hypothesis is a fundamental aspect of the scientific method and has its basis in the falsification theory of Karl Popper. Null hypothesis testing makes use of deductive reasoning to ensure that the truth of conclusions is irrefutable. In contrast, attempting to demonstrate the new facts on the basis of testing the experimental or research hypothesis makes use of inductive reasoning and is prone to the problem of the Uniformity of Nature assumption described by David Hume in the eighteenth century. Despite this issue and the well documented solution provided by Popper's falsification theory, the majority of publications are still written such that they suggest the research hypothesis is being tested. This is contrary to accepted scientific convention and possibly highlights a poor understanding of the application of conventional significance-based data analysis approaches. Our work should remain driven by conjecture and attempted falsification such that it is always the null hypothesis that is tested. The write up of our studies should make it clear that we are indeed testing the null hypothesis and conforming to the established and accepted philosophical conventions of the scientific method.
Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred
The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on
Sijtsema, Jelle; Nederhof, Esther; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Ellis, Bruce J.
The biological sensitivity to context hypothesis posits that high physiological reactivity (i.e., increases in arousal from baseline) constitutes heightened sensitivity to environmental influences, for better or worse. To test this hypothesis, we examined the interactive effects of family cohesion
Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; de Jong, Ana-Rae; Lodder, Gerrit; Overkleeft, Herman S.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.
This review describes our recent studies toward the reactivity and selectivity of mannopyranosyl uronic acid donors, which have been found to be very powerful donors for the construction of beta-mannosidic linkages.
Abstract. This study investigated the motivational strategies that would be adopted to re-engineer primary school teachers for sustainable development in Onitsha. North Local Government Area. Three research questions and a hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey research design was used.
Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders
LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report...... is then demonstrated, and the strategy of LCA to achieving environmental protection, namely to guide the reduction of environmental impacts per delivery of a function, is explained. The attempt to broaden the scope of LCA, beyond environmental protection, by so-called life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA......) is outlined. Finally, the limitations of LCA in guiding a sustainable development are discussed....
A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.
to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming......How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...
Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming
Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years
Maazoun, F; Deschamps, O; Barros-Kogel, E; Ngwem, E; Fauchet, N; Buffet, P; Froissart, A
Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly is a rare and severe form of chronic malaria. This condition is a common cause of splenomegaly in endemic areas. The pathophysiology of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly involves an intense immune reaction (predominantly B cell-driven) to repeated/chronic infections with Plasmodium sp. The diagnosis may be difficult, due to a poorly specific clinical presentation (splenomegaly, fatigue, cytopenias), a long delay between residence in a malaria-endemic area and onset of symptoms, and a frequent absence of parasites on conventional thin and thick blood smears. A strongly contributive laboratory parameter is the presence of high levels of total immunoglobulin M. When the diagnostic of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly is considered, search for anti-Plasmodium antibodies and Plasmodium nucleic acids (genus and species) by PCR is useful. Diagnosis of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly relies on the simultaneous presence of epidemiological, clinical, biological and follow-up findings. Regression of both splenomegaly and hypersplenism following antimalarial therapy allows the differential diagnosis with splenic lymphoma, a common complication of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly. Although rare in Western countries, hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly deserves increased medical awareness to reduce the incidence of incorrect diagnosis, to prevent progression to splenic lymphoma and to avoid splenectomy. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Valeri, B O; Gaspardo, C M; Martinez, F E; Linhares, M B M
Early and repeated experiences of pain may have long-term effects on vulnerable newborns hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), and neonatal pain responses may be affected by a variety of factors that neonates encounter. We tested the hypothesis that male preterm neonates exhibited greater pain sensitivity than females by assessing biobehavioural pain reactivity and recovery patterns to painful procedure. Fifty-three infants born preterm and low birthweight who were admitted to NICU were observed during five phases (baseline, antisepsis, puncture, recovery-dressing and recovery-resting). Behavioural pain reactivity was measured using the Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) and the Sleep-Wake States Scale (SWS). The heart rate (HR) was continuously recorded. All measures were assessed based on scores and magnitude of responses. We found that male and female preterm neonates had similar patterns of behavioural pain reactivity and recovery; there were no statistical differences between groups in NFCS and SWS scores. However, male preterm infants presented higher HR immediately in the first minute of the puncture phase and also higher change in maximum HR between the baseline and puncture phases, than female preterm infants. Although we found that male infants showed higher physiological reactivity to painful stimulus in some HR parameters than female infants, the evidences were not sufficient to confirm the influence of sex on biobehavioural response to pain in vulnerable neonates. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Kjӕrgård, Bente; Land, Birgit; Bransholm Pedersen, Kirsten
In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the 'duality of structure' is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion and sustainability. Third, we use examples from agriculture and food production to illustrate that health and sustainability are mutually enabling and constraining. We conclude that while the renewed focus on food security and food inequalities has brought the health and sustainability dimensions of the food system onto the political agenda, the conceptualization of duality between health and sustainability could be a new platform for a critical and theoretical stance towards the market-oriented food system strategy. Thinking along the lines of duality means that the integration of health promotion strategies and sustainable development strategies cannot be based on an approach to integration in which either health or sustainability is given precedence over the other. From a duality perspective, integration means conceiving sustainability from a health perspective and health from a sustainability perspective. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Feldman, Greg; Lavalle, Jayne; Gildawie, Kelsea; Greeson, Jeffrey M.
Both dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness training may help to uncouple the degree to which distress is experienced in response to aversive internal experience and external events. Because emotional reactivity is a transdiagnostic process implicated in numerous psychological disorders, dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness training could exert mental health benefits, in part, by buffering emotional reactivity. The present studies examine whether dispositional mindfulness moderates two understudied processes in stress reactivity research: the degree of concordance between subjective and physiological reactivity to a laboratory stressor (Study 1); and the degree of dysphoric mood reactivity to lapses in executive functioning in daily life (Study 2). In both studies, lower emotional reactivity to aversive experiences was observed among individuals scoring higher in mindfulness, particularly non-judging, relative to those scoring lower in mindfulness. These findings support the hypothesis that higher dispositional mindfulness fosters lower emotional reactivity. Results are discussed in terms of implications for applying mindfulness-based interventions to a range of psychological disorders in which people have difficulty regulating emotional reactions to stress. PMID:27087863
Paz, C. V.; Vásquez, S. R.; Flores, N.; García, L.; Rico, J. L.
In this work, we present a theoretical study of methyl methacrylate (MMA) living anionic polymerization. The study was addressed to understanding two important experimental observations made for Michael Szwarc in 1956. The unexpected effect of reactive sites concentration in the propagation rate, and the self-killer behavior of MMA (deactivating of living anionic polymerization). The theoretical calculations were performed by density functional theory (DFT) to obtain the frontier molecular orbitals values. These values were used to calculate and analyze the chemical interaction descriptors in DFT-Koopmans’ theorem. As a result, it was observed that the longest chain-length species (related with low concentration of reactive sites) exhibit the highest reactivity (behavior associated with the increase of the propagation rate). The improvement in this reactivity was attributed to the crosslinking produced in the polymethyl methacrylate chains. Meanwhile, the self-killer behavior was associated with the intermolecular forces present in the reactive sites. This behavior was associated to an obstruction in solvation, since the active sites remained active through all propagation species. The theoretical results were in good agreement with the Szwarc experiments.
van Schaik, Carel P; Burkart, Judith M
If social learning is more efficient than independent individual exploration, animals should learn vital cultural skills exclusively, and routine skills faster, through social learning, provided they actually use social learning preferentially. Animals with opportunities for social learning indeed do so. Moreover, more frequent opportunities for social learning should boost an individual's repertoire of learned skills. This prediction is confirmed by comparisons among wild great ape populations and by social deprivation and enculturation experiments. These findings shaped the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which complements the traditional benefit hypotheses for the evolution of intelligence by specifying the conditions in which these benefits can be reaped. The evolutionary version of the hypothesis argues that species with frequent opportunities for social learning should more readily respond to selection for a greater number of learned skills. Because improved social learning also improves asocial learning, the hypothesis predicts a positive interspecific correlation between social-learning performance and individual learning ability. Variation among primates supports this prediction. The hypothesis also predicts that more heavily cultural species should be more intelligent. Preliminary tests involving birds and mammals support this prediction too. The cultural intelligence hypothesis can also account for the unusual cognitive abilities of humans, as well as our unique mechanisms of skill transfer.
Al-Mulali, Usama; Saboori, Behnaz; Ozturk, Ilhan
This study investigates the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam during the period 1981–2011. To realize the goals of this study, a pollution model was established applying the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology. The results revealed that the pollution haven hypothesis does exist in Vietnam because capital increases pollution. In addition, imports also increase pollution which indicates that most of Vietnam's imported products are energy intensive and highly polluted. However, exports have no effect on pollution which indicates that the level of exports is not significant enough to affect pollution. Moreover, fossil fuel energy consumption increases pollution while renewable energy consumption has no significant effect in reducing pollution. Furthermore, labor force reduces pollution since most of Vietnam's labor force is in the agricultural and services sectors which are less energy intensive than the industrial sector. Based on the obtained results, the EKC hypothesis does not exist because the relationship between GDP and pollution is positive in both the short and long run. - Highlights: • The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam is investigated. • The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology was utilized. • The EKC hypothesis does not exist
Aiello, Timothy P; Whitaker-Azmitia, Patricia M
The phenotypic expression of autism spectrum disorders varies widely in severity and characteristics and it is, therefore, likely that a number of etiological factors are involved. However, one finding which has been found consistently is that there is a greater incidence of autism in boys than girls. Recently, attention has been given to the extreme male hypothesis-that is that autism behaviors are an extreme form of typical male behaviors, including lack of empathy and language deficits but an increase in so-called systemizing behaviors, such as attention to detail and collecting. This points to the possibility that an alteration during sexual differentiation of the brain may occur in autism. During sexual differentiation of the brain, two brain regions are highly sexually dimorphic-the amygdala and the hypothalamus. Both of these regions are also implicated in the neuroendocrine hypothesis of autism, wherein a balance between oxytocin and cortisol may contribute to the disorder. We are thus proposing that the extreme male hypothesis and the neuroendocrine hypothesis are in fact compatible in that sexual differentiation of the brain towards an extreme male phenotype would result in the neuroendocrine changes proposed in autism. We have preliminary data, treating developing rat pups with the differentiating hormone 17-β estradiol during a critical time and showing changes in social behaviors and oxytocin, to support this hypothesis. Further studies should be undertaken to confirm the role of extremes of normal sexual differentiation in producing the neuroendocrine changes associated with autism. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Przybylski, Andrew K; Wang, John C
A growing research literature suggests that regular electronic game play and game-based training programs may confer practically significant benefits to cognitive functioning. Most evidence supporting this idea, the gaming-enhancement hypothesis , has been collected in small-scale studies of university students and older adults. This research investigated the hypothesis in a general way with a large sample of 1,847 school-aged children. Our aim was to examine the relations between young people's gaming experiences and an objective test of reasoning performance. Using a Bayesian hypothesis testing approach, evidence for the gaming-enhancement and null hypotheses were compared. Results provided no substantive evidence supporting the idea that having preference for or regularly playing commercially available games was positively associated with reasoning ability. Evidence ranged from equivocal to very strong in support for the null hypothesis over what was predicted. The discussion focuses on the value of Bayesian hypothesis testing for investigating electronic gaming effects, the importance of open science practices, and pre-registered designs to improve the quality of future work.
van Schaik, Carel P.; Burkart, Judith M.
If social learning is more efficient than independent individual exploration, animals should learn vital cultural skills exclusively, and routine skills faster, through social learning, provided they actually use social learning preferentially. Animals with opportunities for social learning indeed do so. Moreover, more frequent opportunities for social learning should boost an individual's repertoire of learned skills. This prediction is confirmed by comparisons among wild great ape populations and by social deprivation and enculturation experiments. These findings shaped the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which complements the traditional benefit hypotheses for the evolution of intelligence by specifying the conditions in which these benefits can be reaped. The evolutionary version of the hypothesis argues that species with frequent opportunities for social learning should more readily respond to selection for a greater number of learned skills. Because improved social learning also improves asocial learning, the hypothesis predicts a positive interspecific correlation between social-learning performance and individual learning ability. Variation among primates supports this prediction. The hypothesis also predicts that more heavily cultural species should be more intelligent. Preliminary tests involving birds and mammals support this prediction too. The cultural intelligence hypothesis can also account for the unusual cognitive abilities of humans, as well as our unique mechanisms of skill transfer. PMID:21357223
Andrew K. Przybylski
Full Text Available A growing research literature suggests that regular electronic game play and game-based training programs may confer practically significant benefits to cognitive functioning. Most evidence supporting this idea, the gaming-enhancement hypothesis, has been collected in small-scale studies of university students and older adults. This research investigated the hypothesis in a general way with a large sample of 1,847 school-aged children. Our aim was to examine the relations between young people’s gaming experiences and an objective test of reasoning performance. Using a Bayesian hypothesis testing approach, evidence for the gaming-enhancement and null hypotheses were compared. Results provided no substantive evidence supporting the idea that having preference for or regularly playing commercially available games was positively associated with reasoning ability. Evidence ranged from equivocal to very strong in support for the null hypothesis over what was predicted. The discussion focuses on the value of Bayesian hypothesis testing for investigating electronic gaming effects, the importance of open science practices, and pre-registered designs to improve the quality of future work.
Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Wemm, Stephanie; Wulfert, Edelgard
Research has shown that measures of reactivity to distress-including distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress-are dysregulated in women who misuse alcohol. These variables may interact and create a risk profile for young adult women, reflecting patterns of stress reactivity that confer a risk for alcohol misuse. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the independent and interactive associations of subjective distress tolerance, behavioral distress tolerance, and physiological stress reactivity with women's alcohol misuse. The study was conducted with a sample of 91 college women recruited on a large northeastern university campus. Results showed that subjective levels of distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress (skin conductance reactivity, SCR), but not behavioral distress tolerance, were independently associated with alcohol misuse. In addition, subjective distress tolerance moderated the relationship between SCR and negative alcohol-related consequences. Specifically, women with low physiological reactivity (SCR) to a stressful task and greater urge to quickly rid themselves of distress (low subjective distress tolerance) endorsed a significantly greater number of adverse consequences from their alcohol use. These results extend prior findings by showing that, even among a nonclinical sample of women, lower stress reactivity in combination with low subjective distress tolerance is associated with increased risk for various drinking-related negative consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Wu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Xiao-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Qian, Gui-Xia; Niu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Cun-Zhu; Zhang, Qing; Li, Ang
Sustainability is the theme of our time and also the grandest challenge to humanity. Since the 1970s, the term, sustainable development, has frequently appeared in the scientific literature, governmental documents, media promotions for public goods, and commercial advertisements. However, the science that provides the theoretical foundation and practical guidance for sustainable development--sustainability science--only began to emerge in the beginning of the 21st century. Nevertheless, the field has rapidly developed in depth and expanded in scope during the past decade, with its core concepts and research methods coalescing. China, as the most populous country in the world and home to the philosophical root of sustainability science-the unity of man and nature, is obligated to take upon the challenge of our time, to facilitate global sustainability while pursuing the Chinese Dream, and to play a leading role in the development of sustainability science. Toward this grandiose goal, this paper presents the first Chinese introduction to sustainability science, which discusses its basic concepts, research questions, and future directions. Sustainability science is the study of the dynamic relationship between humans and the environment, particularly focusing on the vulnerability, robustness, resilience, and stability of the coupled human-environment system. It is a transdisciplinary science that integrates natural sciences with humanities and social sciences. It hinges on the environment-economy-society nexus, and merges basic and applied research. The key components of sustainability often change with time, place, and culture, and thus sustainability science needs to emphasize multi-scale studies in space and time, with emphasis on landscapes and regions over a horizon of 50 to 100 years. It needs to focus on the relationship between ecosystem services and human well-being, as influenced by biodiversity and ecosystem processes as well as climate change, land use
Cary, Daniele C; Fujinaga, Koh; Peterlin, B Matija
While highly active anti-retroviral therapy has greatly improved the lives of HIV infected individuals, these treatments are unable to eradicate the virus. Current approaches to reactivate the virus have been limited by toxicity, lack of an orally available therapy, and limited responses in primary CD4+ T cells and in clinical trials. The PKC agonist ingenol, purified from Euphorbia plants, is a potent T cell activator and reactivates latent HIV. Euphorbia kansui itself has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat ascites, fluid retention, and cancer. We demonstrate that an extract of this plant, Euphorbia kansui, is capable of recapitulating T cell activation induced by the purified ingenol. Indeed, Euphorbia kansui induced expression of the early T cell activation marker CD69 and P-TEFb in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Euphorbia kansui reactivated latent HIV in a CD4+ T cell model of latency and in HIV+ HAART suppressed PBMC. When combined with the other latency reversing agents, the effective dose of Euphorbia kansui required to reactive HIV was reduced 10-fold and resulted in synergistic reactivation of latent HIV. We conclude that Euphorbia Euphorbia kansui reactivates latent HIV and activates CD4+ T cells. When used in combination with a latency reversing agent, the effective dose of Euphorbia kansui is reduced; which suggests its application as a combination strategy to reactivate latent HIV while limiting the toxicity due to global T cell activation. As a natural product, which has been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years, Euphorbia kansui is attractive as a potential treatment strategy, particularly in resource poor countries with limited treatment options. Further clinical testing will be required to determine its safety with current anti-retroviral therapies.
Daniele C Cary
Full Text Available While highly active anti-retroviral therapy has greatly improved the lives of HIV infected individuals, these treatments are unable to eradicate the virus. Current approaches to reactivate the virus have been limited by toxicity, lack of an orally available therapy, and limited responses in primary CD4+ T cells and in clinical trials. The PKC agonist ingenol, purified from Euphorbia plants, is a potent T cell activator and reactivates latent HIV. Euphorbia kansui itself has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat ascites, fluid retention, and cancer. We demonstrate that an extract of this plant, Euphorbia kansui, is capable of recapitulating T cell activation induced by the purified ingenol. Indeed, Euphorbia kansui induced expression of the early T cell activation marker CD69 and P-TEFb in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Euphorbia kansui reactivated latent HIV in a CD4+ T cell model of latency and in HIV+ HAART suppressed PBMC. When combined with the other latency reversing agents, the effective dose of Euphorbia kansui required to reactive HIV was reduced 10-fold and resulted in synergistic reactivation of latent HIV. We conclude that Euphorbia Euphorbia kansui reactivates latent HIV and activates CD4+ T cells. When used in combination with a latency reversing agent, the effective dose of Euphorbia kansui is reduced; which suggests its application as a combination strategy to reactivate latent HIV while limiting the toxicity due to global T cell activation. As a natural product, which has been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years, Euphorbia kansui is attractive as a potential treatment strategy, particularly in resource poor countries with limited treatment options. Further clinical testing will be required to determine its safety with current anti-retroviral therapies.
Yen, John; McNeese, Michael; Mullen, Tracy; Hall, David; Fan, Xiaocong; Liu, Peng
Intelligence workers such as analysts, commanders, and soldiers often need a hypothesis reasoning framework to gain improved situation awareness of the highly dynamic cyber space. The development of such a framework requires the integration of interdisciplinary techniques, including supports for distributed cognition (human-in-the-loop hypothesis generation), supports for team collaboration (identification of information for hypothesis evaluation), and supports for resource-constrained information collection (hypotheses competing for information collection resources). We here describe a cognitively-inspired framework that is built upon Klein’s recognition-primed decision model and integrates the three components of Endsley’s situation awareness model. The framework naturally connects the logic world of tools for cyber situation awareness with the mental world of human analysts, enabling the perception, comprehension, and prediction of cyber situations for better prevention, survival, and response to cyber attacks by adapting missions at the operational, tactical, and strategic levels.
Streiner, David L
Introductory statistics classes teach us that we can never prove the null hypothesis; all we can do is reject or fail to reject it. However, there are times when it is necessary to try to prove the nonexistence of a difference between groups. This most often happens within the context of comparing a new treatment against an established one and showing that the new intervention is not inferior to the standard. This article first outlines the logic of "noninferiority" testing by differentiating between the null hypothesis (that which we are trying to nullify) and the "nill" hypothesis (there is no difference), reversing the role of the null and alternate hypotheses, and defining an interval within which groups are said to be equivalent. We then work through an example and show how to calculate sample sizes for noninferiority studies.
Billinger, Sandra A; Vidoni, Eric D; Morris, Jill K; Thyfault, John P; Burns, Jeffrey M
Positive physiologic and cognitive responses to aerobic exercise have resulted in a proposed cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness hypothesis in which fitness gains drive changes leading to cognitive benefit. The purpose of this study was to directly assess the CR fitness hypothesis. Using data from an aerobic exercise trial, we examined individuals who completed cardiopulmonary and cognitive testing at baseline and 26 weeks. Change in cognitive test performance was not related to CR fitness change (r 2 = .06, p = .06). However, in the subset of individuals who gave excellent effort during exercise testing, change in cognitive test performance was related to CR fitness change (r 2 = .33, p fitness hypothesis and mechanisms by which physiologic adaptation may drive cognitive change.
Miller, Carlin J; Miller, Scott R; Bloom, Juliana S; Jones, Lauren; Lindstrom, William; Craggs, Jason; Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Gilger, Jeffrey W; Hynd, George W
The double-deficit hypothesis of dyslexia posits that reading deficits are more severe in individuals with weaknesses in phonological awareness and rapid naming than in individuals with deficits in only one of these reading composite skills. In this study, the hypothesis was tested in an adult sample as a model of reading achievement. Participants were parents of children referred for evaluation of reading difficulties. Approximately half of all participants reported difficulty learning to read in childhood and a small subset demonstrated ongoing weaknesses in reading. Structural equation modeling results suggest that the double-deficit hypothesis is an accurate model for understanding adult reading achievement. Better reading achievement was associated with better phonological awareness and faster rapid automatized naming in adults. Posthoc analyses indicated that individuals with double deficits had significantly lower reading achievement than individuals with single deficits or no deficits.
D. N. Pantazis
Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.
ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators. Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...
Full Text Available The growing concern over global warming and significant ecological changes requires sustainable development in all fields of science and technology. Concrete not only consumes huge amount of energy and natural sources, but also emits large amount of CO2, mainly due to the production of cement. It is evident that such large amount of concrete production has put significant impact on the energy, resource, environment, and ecology of the society. Hence, how to develop the concrete technology in a sustainable way has become a significant issue. In this paper, some of Korean researches for sustainable development of concrete are presented. These are sustainable strengthening for deteriorated concrete structure, sustainable reinforcement of new concrete structure, sustainable concrete using recycled aggregate and supplementary cementing materials and finally application of each technique to precast concrete.
Lauring, Gert Michael
Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... When designing sustainable housing, energy optimization and satisfactory indoor climates are central issues that need to be incorporated from early design phases if to reach a coherent design. It might also be argued that the energy consumption of contemporary buildings only plays a rela-tively minor...
Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld
Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...
Kaur, Jasmeet; Rickman, Douglas; Schoonen, Martin A.
The current interest in human exploration of the Moon and past experiences of Apollo astronauts has rekindled interest into the possible harmful effects of lunar dust on human health. In comparison to the Apollo-era explorations, human explorers may be weeks on the Moon, which will raise the risk of inhalation exposure. The mineralogical composition of lunar dust is well documented, but its effects on human health are not fully understood. With the aim of understanding the reactivity of dusts that may be encountered on geologically different lunar terrains, we have studied Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation by a suite of lunar simulants of different mineralogical-chemical composition dispersed in water and Simulated Lung Fluid (SLF). To further explore the reactivity of simulants under lunar environmental conditions, we compared the reactivity of simulants both in air and inert atmosphere. As the impact of micrometeorites with consequent shock-induced stresses is a major environmental factor on the Moon, we also studied the effect of mechanical stress on samples. Mechanical stress was induced by hand crushing the samples both in air and inert atmosphere. The reactivity of samples after crushing was analyzed for a period of up to nine days. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water and SLF was analyzed by an in situ electrochemical probe and hydroxyl radical (•OH) by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and Adenine probe. Out of all simulants, CSM-CL-S was found to be the most reactive simulant followed by OB-1 and then JSC-1A simulant. The overall reactivity of samples in the inert atmosphere was higher than in air. Fresh crushed samples showed a higher level of reactivity than uncrushed samples. Simulant samples treated to create agglutination, including the formation of zero-valent iron, showed less reactivity than untreated simulants. ROS generation in SLF is initially slower than in deionized water (DI), but the ROS formation is sustained for as long as 7
Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Chunwang; Ma, Daqing
With the increasing requirements on the power supply quality and reliability of distribution network, voltage and reactive power regulation of substations has become one of the indispensable ways to ensure voltage quality and reactive power balance and to improve the economy and reliability of distribution network. Therefore, it is a general concern of the current power workers and operators that what kind of flexible and effective control method should be used to adjust the on-load tap-changer (OLTC) transformer and shunt compensation capacitor in a substation to achieve reactive power balance in situ, improve voltage pass rate, increase power factor and reduce active power loss. In this paper, based on the traditional nine-zone diagram and combining with the characteristics of substation, a fuzzy variable-center nine-zone diagram control method is proposed and used to make a comprehensive regulation of substation voltage and reactive power. Through the calculation and simulation of the example, this method is proved to have satisfactorily reconciled the contradiction between reactive power and voltage in real-time control and achieved the basic goal of real-time control of the substation, providing a reference value to the practical application of the substation real-time control method.
Full Text Available Background. It has recently been reported that hepatitis B (HBV reactivation often occurs after the use of rituximab and stem cell transplantation in patients with lymphoma who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg negative. However, clinical data on HBV reactivation in multiple myeloma (MM is limited to only a few reported cases. Bortezomib and lenalidomide have remarkable activity in MM with manageable toxicity profiles, but reactivation of viral infections may emerge as a problem. We present a case of MM that developed HBV reactivation after bortezomib and lenalidomide therapy. Case Report. A 73-year-old female with a history of marginal cell lymphoma was monitored without requiring therapy. In 2009, she developed MM, presenting as a plasmacytoma requiring vertebral decompression and focal radiation. While receiving radiation she developed renal failure and was started on bortezomib and liposomal doxorubicin. After a transient response to 5 cycles, treatment was switched to lenalidomide. Preceding therapy initiation, her serology indicated resolved infection. Serial monitoring for HBV displayed seroconversion one month after change in therapy. Conclusion. Bortezomib associated late HBV reactivation appears to be a unique event that requires further confirmation and brings to discussion whether hepatitis B core positive individuals would benefit from monitoring of HBV activation while on therapy.
The Siberian taiga explosion of 30 June 1908 remains one of the great mysteries of the 20th century: millions of trees put down over an area of 2200 km2 without trace of a crater or meteorite fragments. Hundred years of failed searches have followed, resulting in as many flawed hypothesis which could not offer satisfactory explanations: meteorite, comet, UFO, etc. In the author's opinion, the cause is that the energy the explorers looked for was simply not there! The author's hypothesis is that a meteoroid encountered a gas pouch in the atmosphere, producing a devastating explosion, its effects being amplified by soil fluidization.
Shibuya, Yoshikata; Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard
In an important paper on the English “double-object”, or ditransitive, construction, Richard Hudson proposes a hypothesis that conflates the ditransitive direct object, or O2, and the monotransitive direct object, or OO, into the same syntactic functional category. While making important departures....... Applying simple collexeme analysis and multifactorial heatmap analysis to instances of OOs and O2s in ICE-GB, this paper shows that the usage-patterns of both are far too complex, displaying cross-register variation, for the OO = O2 hypothesis to be tenable. The findings provide support for a usage...
Jun 18, 2007 ... Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important ... Few chemically different dyes such as Reactive Black (75%), Reactive Yellow (70%),. Reactive Red (33%) and ..... Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin degrading ...
Full Text Available Much of the literature on sustainability has tried to define the “virtuous behaviour” of “agents” (man and his social and economic organizations so that it respects the “sustainability constraint.” This paper provides a “mirror-image” approach, based on the idea that it is above all necessary to understand why men and organizations tend to develop, at times unconsciously and dishonestly, damaging behaviour that turns into non-sustainability. In other words, to orient man toward sustainable behaviour it is indispensable to understand the “reasons” for the behaviour that produces non-sustainable effects. Regarding sustainability problems, we shall introduce the hypothesis that non-sustainable behaviour is not irrational in an absolute sense but derives from the action of three connected “behavioural archetypes” that accurately describe the “natural” behaviour of individuals in pursuing their aims: behaving in a way that will provide evident short-term advantages, both individual and local, while ignoring the disadvantages and harm such behaviour produces in the long run, at the collective and global level. To solve the problem, we shall try to identify the “levers” that weaken the archetypes and reverse their effects, thereby requiring sacrifices which are unacceptable to some. The paper presents four emblematic cases of non-sustainable behaviour and demonstrates that sustainability must become a fundamental strategic driver.
Prof. Ion Stancu, PhD.; Lect. Adriana Lăzărescu, PhD.
Sustainable development focuses on meeting the needs of present without compromising future generations’ prospects of meeting the same needs plus those which will be present then. The concept of sustainable development was internationally established within the report “Our Common Future” of the World Commission on Environment and Development (a commission convened in 1983 by the General Assembly of United Nations). Reaching global sustainability, satisfying the needs of present without compro...
Supply chains are increasingly global, often reaching to developing regions. The media pressure brand owners to be responsible, but a product is only as sustainable as the practices of all the companies involved in manufacturing it are. It’s not enough that the brand owner acts responsibly; sustainable practices have to reach component and raw material suppliers upstream. Image risk has often been recognized as reason for investing in sustainability. In the supply chain context, supplier m...
Skjold, Else; Csaba, Fabian
of fur as material used to establish social distinctions from at least medieval times to the present, and been subject to moral condemnation and controversy. Our case inquiry review recent research projects and industry initiatives that seek to determine whether the fur can be seen as sustainable or not....... The paper discusses whether fur is about to lose or reclaim its legitimacy in an era of sustainable luxury, and concludes with reflections on depth and sustainable luxury?...
An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related ...... to the use of natural resources and other matters, and how that kind of issues can be dealt with in education as ESD....
Afgan, Naim H. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Al Gobaisi, Darwish; Carvalho, Maria G. [International Foundation for Water Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Cumo, Maurizio [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy)
The paper presents an overview of sustainable energy development and is aimed to emphasize the important aspects relevant to this activity. A short introduction, related to the present energy outlook with a survey of available data, is presented. This gives the possibility to assess the motivation for a sustainable energy development. Special attention is devoted to the definition of sustainability and its generic meaning. In this respect, particular attention is devoted to the discussion of different aspects of sustainability in the present world. In order to present an engineering approach to the sustainable development, attention is devoted to the review of sustainability criterions as they have to be introduced in the future products. The main emphasis is given to review a potential development in the energy engineering science which may lead to a sustainable energy development. Seven major areas are listed with specific problems and their relevance to the sustainable energy development. This includes the following areas: energy resources and development: efficiency assessment; clean air technologies; information technologies; new and renewable energy resources; environment capacity; mitigation of nuclear power threat to the environment. The education system is the milestone for any economic development. In this respect, sustainable energy development will require special attention to be devoted to the new development of the education system. The distance learning education system is envisages as the potential option for the knowledge dissemination of the new energy technologies. (Author)
To provide information to organizations to help them implement sustainable food management, including joining the Food Recovery Challenge. To provide education and information to communities and concerned citizens.
Watson, Rosina; Nielsen, Kristian Roed; Wilson, Hugh N.
Sustainable entrepreneurship—entrepreneurship with social and ecological gains as well as economic ones—can significantly address societal and environmental challenges, however, it is not clear how policy can support it. The authors develop a policy framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, using...... impact/performance; and innovating government. Contributions to entrepreneurship policy literature include measuring impact/performance and open policy innovation for entrepreneurship policy. Contributions to sustainability policy literature include empowering individuals as entrepreneurs and not just...... consumers. A sustainable entrepreneurship framework is developed. A method for crowdsourcing policy innovations is outlined....
Hald, Kim Sundtoft
Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior....... Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed....
of enforceable business contracts, SCCs are considered to overcome the heavily criticized softness of other CSR regulation and, therefore, to be more successful in fostering ethical behaviour of suppliers who are legally independent but often in economic and business terms dependent on the sourcing companies...... but also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability...
Fungal growth was not observed at pH 2. Maximum fungal decolourisation ocurred at pH 3 for anionic reactive dyes (RR, RBB, RB) and pH 6 for cationic MB dye. The fungal dye bioremoval was associated with the surface charge of the fungus due to electrostatic interactions. Growing R. arrhizus strain decolourised 100% of ...
Amar-Halpert, Rotem; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Nemni, Shlomi; Rosenblatt, Jonathan D; Censor, Nitzan
Human perception thresholds can improve through learning. Here we report findings challenging the fundamental 'practice makes perfect' basis of procedural learning theory, showing that brief reactivations of encoded visual memories are sufficient to improve perceptual discrimination thresholds. Learning was comparable to standard practice-induced learning and was not due to short training per se, nor to an epiphenomenon of primed retrieval enhancement. The results demonstrate that basic perceptual functions can be substantially improved by memory reactivation, supporting a new account of perceptual learning dynamics.
Battaner, E; Florido, E; Jimenez-Vicente, J
We propose a hypothesis of the truncation of stellar discs based on the magnetic model of the rotation curve of spiral galaxies. Once the disc had formed and acquired its present structure, approximately, three balanced forces were acting on the initial gas: gravity and magnetic forces, inwards, and
Bosse, Marie-Line; Tainturier, Marie Josephe; Valdois, Sylviane
The visual attention (VA) span is defined as the amount of distinct visual elements which can be processed in parallel in a multi-element array. Both recent empirical data and theoretical accounts suggest that a VA span deficit might contribute to developmental dyslexia, independently of a phonological disorder. In this study, this hypothesis was…
Vatka, Emma; Rytkönen, Seppo; Orell, Markku
The temporal mismatch hypothesis suggests that fitness is related to the degree of temporal synchrony between the energetic needs of the offspring and their food supply. The hypothesis has been a basis in studying the influence of climate warming on nature. This study enhances the knowledge on prevalence of temporal mismatches and their consequences in boreal populations, and questions the role of the temporal mismatch hypothesis as the principal explanation for the evolution of timing of breeding. To test this, we examined if synchrony with caterpillar prey or timing of breeding per se better explains reproductive output in North European parid populations. We compared responses of temperate-origin species, the great tit (Parus major) and the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus), and a boreal species, the willow tit (Poecile montanus). We found that phenologies of caterpillars and great tits, but not of blue tits, have advanced during the past decades. Phenologies correlated with spring temperatures that may function as cues about the timing of the food peak for great and blue tits. The breeding of great and blue tits and their caterpillar food remained synchronous. Synchrony explained breeding success better than timing of breeding alone. However, the synchrony effect arose only in certain conditions, such as with high caterpillar abundances or high breeding densities. Breeding before good synchrony seems advantageous at high latitudes, especially in the willow tit. Thus, the temporal mismatch hypothesis appears insufficient in explaining the evolution of timing of breeding.
Frane, Andrew V.
Scientific research often involves testing more than one hypothesis at a time, which can inflate the probability that a Type I error (false discovery) will occur. To prevent this Type I error inflation, adjustments can be made to the testing procedure that compensate for the number of tests. Yet many researchers believe that such adjustments are…
de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Reijsbergen, D.P.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.
We present a web-based interactive comparison of hypothesis tests as are used in statistical model checking, providing users and tool developers with more insight into their characteristics. Parameters can be modified easily and their influence is visualized in real time; an integrated simulation
Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Klaus D
implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated with schizophrenia...
making analysis . Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 69, 149-163. Mueller, S. T., & Piper, B. J. (2014). The Psychology...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 2013 Decision Environment...and Heuristics in Individual and Collective Hypothesis Generation Drew A. Leins Jim Leonard Laura A. Zimmerman Applied Research Associates
I.P. van Staveren (Irene)
textabstractAbstract This article tests the Lehman Sisters Hypothesis in two complementary, although incomplete ways. It reviews the diverse empirical literature in behavioral, experimental, and neuroeconomics as well as related fields of behavioral research. And it presents the findings from an
I.P. van Staveren (Irene)
textabstractThis article tests the Lehman Sisters Hypothesis in two complementary, although incomplete ways. It reviews the diverse empirical literature in behavioural, experimental, and neuroeconomics as well as related fields of behavioural research. And it presents the findings from an
Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between current account and government budget deficits in Tanzania. The paper tests the validity of the twin deficits hypothesis, using annual time series data for the 1966-2015 period. The paper is thought to be significant because the concept of the twin deficit hypothesis is fraught with controversy. Some researches support the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between current account deficits and fiscal deficits in the economy while others do not. In this paper, the empirical tests fail to reject the twin deficits hypothesis, indicating that rising budget deficits put more strain on the current account deficits in Tanzania. Specifically, the Vector Error Correction Model results support the conventional theory of a positive relationship between fiscal and external balances, with a relatively high speed of adjustment toward the equilibrium position. This evidence is consistent with a small open economy. To address the problem that may result from this kind of relationship, appropriate policy variables for reducing budget deficits such as reduction in non-development expenditure, enhancement of domestic revenue collection and actively fight corruption and tax evasion should be adopted. The government should also target export oriented firms and encourage an import substitution industry by creating favorable business environments.
Using logistic regression correlation, while accounting for other variables, demonstrated stronger correlation between age at menarche and weight than menarche and height. Conclusion: Study demonstrated leveling off of menarche at between 13 and 14 years in our practice and agreed with hypothesis of critical weight of ...
Denison, Stephanie; Bonawitz, Elizabeth; Gopnik, Alison; Griffiths, Thomas L.
We present a proposal--"The Sampling Hypothesis"--suggesting that the variability in young children's responses may be part of a rational strategy for inductive inference. In particular, we argue that young learners may be randomly sampling from the set of possible hypotheses that explain the observed data, producing different hypotheses with…
van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Janowsky, David S; Olivier, Berend; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A
Bipolar disorder is a unique illness characterized by fluctuations between mood states of depression and mania. Originally, an adrenergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis was postulated to underlie these different affective states. In this review, we update this hypothesis with recent findings from human and animal studies, suggesting that a catecholaminergic-cholinergic hypothesis may be more relevant. Evidence from neuroimaging studies, neuropharmacological interventions, and genetic associations support the notion that increased cholinergic functioning underlies depression, whereas increased activations of the catecholamines (dopamine and norepinephrine) underlie mania. Elevated functional acetylcholine during depression may affect both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a compensatory fashion. Increased functional dopamine and norepinephrine during mania on the other hand may affect receptor expression and functioning of dopamine reuptake transporters. Despite increasing evidence supporting this hypothesis, a relationship between these two neurotransmitter systems that could explain cycling between states of depression and mania is missing. Future studies should focus on the influence of environmental stimuli and genetic susceptibilities that may affect the catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance underlying cycling between the affective states. Overall, observations from recent studies add important data to this revised balance theory of bipolar disorder, renewing interest in this field of research. PMID:25107282
Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Moller, K.; Jensen, P.O.
The present paper presents a hypothesis aimed at explaining why venous leg ulcers, pressure ulcers, and diabetic foot ulcers develop into a chronic state. We propose that the lack of proper wound healing is at least in part caused by inefficient eradication of infecting, opportunistic pathogens...
Boserup, Simon Halphen; Pinje, Jori Veng
A robust prediction from the tax evasion literature is that optimal auditing induces a regressive bias in effective tax rates compared to statutory rates. If correct, this will have important distributional consequences. Nevertheless, the regressive bias hypothesis has never been tested empirically...
The primary objective of this paper is to test the hypothesis of efficiency wage in the context of Tanzania labour market. The test is facilitated via estimating the correlation between firm level productivity and firm level weighted average wage in Tanzania manufacturing enterprises. The study uses panel dimension of the data ...
This paper defines the terms "hypothesis," "prediction," and "conclusion" and shows how to use the terms correctly in scientific investigations in both the school and science education research contexts. The scientific method, or hypothetico-deductive (HD) approach, is described and it is argued that an understanding of the scientific method,…
Smith, Alexandra E; Dalecki, Stefan J; Crystal, Jonathon D
Rats retain source memory (memory for the origin of information) over a retention interval of at least 1 week, whereas their spatial working memory (radial maze locations) decays within approximately 1 day. We have argued that different forgetting functions dissociate memory systems. However, the two tasks, in our previous work, used different reward values. The source memory task used multiple pellets of a preferred food flavor (chocolate), whereas the spatial working memory task provided access to a single pellet of standard chow-flavored food at each location. Thus, according to the reward-value hypothesis, enhanced performance in the source memory task stems from enhanced encoding/memory of a preferred reward. We tested the reward-value hypothesis by using a standard 8-arm radial maze task to compare spatial working memory accuracy of rats rewarded with either multiple chocolate or chow pellets at each location using a between-subjects design. The reward-value hypothesis predicts superior accuracy for high-valued rewards. We documented equivalent spatial memory accuracy for high- and low-value rewards. Importantly, a 24-h retention interval produced equivalent spatial working memory accuracy for both flavors. These data are inconsistent with the reward-value hypothesis and suggest that reward value does not explain our earlier findings that source memory survives unusually long retention intervals.
This paper derives asymptotic power envelopes for tests of the unit root hypothesis in a zero-mean AR(1) model. The power envelopes are derived using the limits of experiments approach and are semiparametric in the sense that the underlying error distribution is treated as an unknown...
This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…
boundary in the case of diffusion induced grain boundary migration (DIGM) and liquid film migration (LFM). In the present work, the validity of diffusional coherency strain hypothesis is verified in Mg–Al alloy, which exhibits discontinuous precipitation. Samples were tested with an applied stress simultaneously with disconti-.
employed the ARDL model, which allows for variables of different integration orders to be examined in the same ... determined rate following the introduction of the broad-based interbank foreign exchange rate system in Zambia ... overshooting hypothesis for Taiwan and Turkey, respectively. This study should fill the gap in ...
The hypothesis that national price levels should be equal when expressed in a common currency has been widely studied. However, evidence from empirical literature is mixed on the validity of purchasing power parity (PPP) in the long run. This paper examined the long run validity of PPP using the bilateral real exchange ...
Sako, H.; Kagehiro, T.; Fujisawa, H.
The socalled multiple hypothesis technique is applied to solve a recognition problem that can be divided into at least two subproblems. The principle of the technique is to solve the subproblems by recognisers, a prerecogniser and a postrecogniser, and to allow the prerecogniser to leave
James S. Clark; Shannon LaDeau; Ines Ibanez
Colonization-competition trade-offs represent a stabilizing mechanism that is thought to maintain diversity of forest trees. If so, then early-successional species should benefit from high capacity to colonize new sites, and late-successional species should be good competitors. Tests of this hypothesis in forests have been precluded by an inability to estimate...
Barr, Dale J.; Levy, Roger; Scheepers, Christoph; Tily, Harry J.
Linear mixed-effects models (LMEMs) have become increasingly prominent in psycholinguistics and related areas. However, many researchers do not seem to appreciate how random effects structures affect the generalizability of an analysis. Here, we argue that researchers using LMEMs for confirmatory hypothesis testing should minimally adhere to the…
This review covers the past year’s papers germane to the Barker hypothesis. While much of the literature has centered on maternal and developmental nutrition, new findings have emerged on the ability of toxic exposures during development to impact fetal/developmental programming....
Smith, Gregory A.; Stevenson, Robert B.
A study of two schools in northern Australia demonstrated the impact on Education for Sustainability (EfS) initiatives of a disruptive policy environment set in motion by neoliberal reforms focused on standards, accountability, and international competitiveness. In one of the schools, a culture characterized by trust and an emphasis on cultivating…
Ben Youssef, Adel; Hammoudeh, Shawkat; Omri, Anis
The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis has been recognized in the environmental economics literature since the 1990's. Various statistical tests have been used on time series, cross section and panel data related to single and groups of countries to validate this hypothesis. In the literature, the validation has always been conducted by using a single equation. However, since both the environment and income variables are endogenous, the estimation of a single equation model when simultaneity exists produces inconsistent and biased estimates. Therefore, we formulate simultaneous two-equation models to investigate the EKC hypothesis for fifty-six countries, using annual panel data from 1990 to 2012, with the end year is determined by data availability for the panel. To make the panel data analysis more homogeneous, we investigate this issue for a three income-based panels (namely, high-, middle-, and low-income panels) given several explanatory variables. Our results indicate that there exists a bidirectional causality between economic growth and pollution emissions in the overall panels. We also find that the relationship is nonlinear and has an inverted U-shape for all the considered panels. Policy implications are provided. - Highlights: • We have given a new look for the validity of the EKC hypothesis. • We formulate two-simultaneous equation models to validate this hypothesis for fifty-six countries. • We find a bidirectional causality between economic growth and pollution emissions. • We also discover an inverted U-shaped between environmental degradation and economic growth. • This relationship varies at different stages of economic development.
Full Text Available Many have documented the difficulty of using the current paradigm of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs to test and validate the effectiveness of alternative medical systems such as Ayurveda. This paper critiques the applicability of RCTs for all clinical knowledge-seeking endeavors, of which Ayurveda research is a part. This is done by examining statistical hypothesis testing, the underlying foundation of RCTs, from a practical and philosophical perspective. In the philosophical critique, the two main worldviews of probability are that of the Bayesian and the frequentist. The frequentist worldview is a special case of the Bayesian worldview requiring the unrealistic assumptions of knowing nothing about the universe and believing that all observations are unrelated to each other. Many have claimed that the first belief is necessary for science, and this claim is debunked by comparing variations in learning with different prior beliefs. Moving beyond the Bayesian and frequentist worldviews, the notion of hypothesis testing itself is challenged on the grounds that a hypothesis is an unclear distinction, and assigning a probability on an unclear distinction is an exercise that does not lead to clarity of action. This critique is of the theory itself and not any particular application of statistical hypothesis testing. A decision-making frame is proposed as a way of both addressing this critique and transcending ideological debates on probability. An example of a Bayesian decision-making approach is shown as an alternative to statistical hypothesis testing, utilizing data from a past clinical trial that studied the effect of Aspirin on heart attacks in a sample population of doctors. As a big reason for the prevalence of RCTs in academia is legislation requiring it, the ethics of legislating the use of statistical methods for clinical research is also examined.
Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A
In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.
Edi Nugroho Soebandrija, Khristian
This paper comprises discussion of Green Innovation and Sustainable Industrial Systems within Sustainability and Company Improvement Perspective of beverage manufacturing company (BMC). The stakeholder theory is the grand theory for the company improvement perspective in this paper. The data processing in this paper is conducted through software which are SEM-PLS with SmartPLS 2.0 and SPSS 19. The specified objective of this paper has focus on sustainability as one of 6 variables, in lieu of those 6 variables as the big picture. The reason behind this focus on sustainability is the fact that there are assorted challenges in sustainability that is ranging from economic, environment and company perspectives. Those challenges in sustainability include the sustainable service supply chain management and its involvement of society. The overall objective is to analyze relationship hypothesis of 6 variables, 4 of them (leadership, organizational learning, innovation, and performance) are based on Malcolm Baldrige’s performance excellence concept to achieve sustainability and competitive advantage through company-competitor and customer questionnaire, and its relation to Total Quality Management (TQM) and Quality Management System (QMS). In conclusion, the spearheaded of company improvement in this paper is in term of consumer satisfaction through 99.997% quality standards. These can be achieved by ambidexterity through exploitation and exploration innovation. Furthermore, in this paper, TQM enables to obtain popularity brand index achievement that is greater than 45.9%. Subsequently, ISO22000 of food security standard encompasses quality standard of ISO9000 and HACCP. Through the ambidexterity of exploitation and exploration (Non Standard Product Inspection) NOSPI machine, the company improvement generates the achievement of 75% automation, 99.997% quality control standard and 80% of waste reduction.
The Comprehension Hypothesis (CH) is the most powerful hypothesis in the field of Second Language Acquisition despite the presence of the rivals the skill-building hypothesis, the output hypothesis, and the interaction hypothesis. The competing hypotheses state that consciously learned linguistic knowledge is a necessary step for the development…
Su, Wen-Pin; Wen, Chi-Chung; Hsiung, Chao A.; Su, Ih-Jen; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Chang, Ming-Chih; Tsao, Chao-Jung; Kao, Woei-Yao; Uen, Wu-Ching; Hsu, Chiun; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Lu, Yen-Shen; Tien, Hwei-Fan; Chao, Tsu-Yi; Chen, Li-Tzong; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Chen, Pei-Jer
AIM: To investigate the long-term consequences of chemotherapy-related HBV reactivation in patients with lymphoma. METHODS: This study was based on the database of published prospective study evaluating HBV reactivation in HBV lymphoma patients during chemotherapy. Deteriorated liver reserve (DLR) was defined as development of either one of the following conditions during follow-up: (1) newly onset parenchyma liver disease, splenomegaly or ascites without evidence of lymphoma involvement; (2) decrease of the ratio (albumin/globulin ratio) to less than 0.8 or increase of the ratio of INR of prothrombin time to larger than 1.2 without evidence of malnutrition or infection. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed by imaging studies. RESULTS: A total of 49 patients were included. The median follow-up was 6.2 years (range, 3.9-8.1 years). There were 31 patients with and 18 patients without HBV reactivation. Although there was no difference of overall survival (OS) and chemotherapy response rate between the two groups, DLR developed more frequently in patients with HBV reactivation (48.4% vs 16.7%; P = 0.0342). Among the HBV reactivators, HBV genotype C was associated with a higher risk of developing DLR (P = 0.0768) and liver cirrhosis (P = 0.003). Four of five patients with sustained high titer of HBV DNA and two of three patients with multiple HBV reactivation developed DLR. Further, patients with a sustained high titer of HBV DNA had the shortest OS among the HBV reactivators (P = 0.0000). No patients in the non-HBV reactivation group developed hepatic failure or liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy-related HBV reactivation is associated with the long-term effect of deterioration of hepatic function. PMID:16149133
Lawrence, Joanne; Rasche, Andreas; Kenny, Kevina
Sustainability, as it relates to both social and environmental issues, is treated very differently among companies that incorporate the subject into their business strategies. In this case, we explore sustainability at Unilever whose management addresses it not as a risk to be managed or cost...
Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....
Tollin, Karin; Vej, Jesper
of marketing. The central contribution of the typology is a strategic and managerial view on sustainability. Furthermore, the typology shows that sustainability in business is enacted from different areas of competences and fields in the literature (e.g. supply chain management, corporate branding, value...
It is the objective of this thesis to demonstrate exergy analysis as a powerful instrument to obtain sustainable development. An important aspect of sustainable development is the minimisation of irreversibilities caused by the use of non-renewables. In order to limit the scope of this thesis
Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…
Wolfram, N.J.E.; Lago, P.; Osborne, Francesco
The intersection between software engineering research and issues related to sustainability and green IT has been the subject of increasing attention. In spite of that, we observe that sustainability is still not clearly defined, or understood, in the field of software engineering. This lack of
BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.
of default rules in subconscious decision-making, this research finds that, ultimately, awareness drives the demand necessary for the creation of sustainable consumption. Whereas direct appeal to individuals has a disappointing level of influence on sustainability choices, it is understood that green...
Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte
The Danish public housing sector has more than 20 years of experience with sustainable facilities management based on user involvement. The paper outlines this development in a historical perspective and gives an analysis of different approaches to sustainable facilities management. The focus...
Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John
Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…
Sustainable agriculture practices are increasingly being used by farmers to maintain soil quality, increase biodiversity, and promote production of food that is environmentally safe. There are several types of sustainable agriculture practices such as organic farming, crop rotation, and aquaculture. This lesson plan focuses on the sustainable…
According to the definition by the Brundtland Commission sustainable development is the 'development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'. In this article an alternative science-based approach to the definition and understanding of sustainability is presented. (author) 1 tab., 4 refs
John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak
The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...
A series of papers contributed by a diversified collection of researchers endeavor to depict sustainability science as an incomplete but necessary global endeavor. Their concern rests on the perceived inability of science and technology to solely lead the development of sustain...
Hjalager, Anne Mette
This article recognises the immense and growing interest for the development of a sustainable tourism. However, it demonstrates a gap between general awareness and preferences on the one hand, and the practices and behaviour of tourists and tourist industries on the other hand. The constraints...... sustainability....
Lee, S.; Hill, G.; Sauerbruch, M.; Hutton, L.; Knowles, R.; Bothwell, K.; Brennan, J.; Jauslin, D.; Holzheu, H.; AlSayyad, N.; Arboleda, G.; Bharne, V.; Røstvik, H.; Kuma, K.; Sunikka-Blank, M.; Glaser, M.; Pero, E.; Sjkonsberg, M.; Teuffel, P.; Mangone, G.; Finocchiaro, L.; Hestnes, A.; Briggs, D.; Frampton, K.; Lee, S.
The purpose of this book is to reveal, explore and further the debate on the aesthetic potentials of sustainable architecture and its practice. This book opens a new area of scholarship and discourse in the design and production of sustainable architecture, one that is based in aesthetics. The
Sustainable development and carrying capacity are concepts that denote meeting society's needs without compromising the survival of future generations. The United States and other industrialized countries are pursuing a self-destructive course when fueling their economies by consuming their capital and degrading and depleting their resource base. Maximum exploitation of all resources has been the guiding ethic without paying respect to the environmental consequences. A sustainable society is still possible if strong political leadership and an ecologically literate society with an environmental ethic evolves. In the 1990s the world's population is calculated to increase to 6.3 billion people, the population of the United States already exceeds its carrying capacity and neither of these population increases are sustainable in the long run. In 1916 the US had 98 million people, and in 1994 it had about 260 million and it is still growing. The consequences are already obvious: the National Park System had just 358,000 visitors in 1916, 33 million in 1950, 172 million in 1970, and over 270 million in 1993. Often economists are an impediment to a sustainable economy because they fail to factor in the accumulated environmental deficit or annual cost of environmental deterioration when measuring annual economic output. Fortunately, in the US a conservation ethic is beginning to develop that will eventually become a strong social, political, and economic force. For instance, Wisconsin has mandated environmental education in every school from kindergarten through 12th grade. Such a program will provide the moral and political support to move the country to a sustainable economy. Even losing nations have recovered from World War II, but there is no recovery from destroyed ecosystems.
System Innovation for Sustainability 2 focuses on change towards sustainable personal mobility based on implemented cases analysed from a system perspective. It examines what changes can be made to help us reduce our need for mobility, or start to make use of more sustainable mobility systems...... in order to provide sustainable solutions to our current ‘lock-in’ problems. Three major problem areas are considered (the ‘three Cs’): carbon emissions (and the growing contribution of mobility to the climate change crisis), congestion, and casualties. And each strategy proposed addresses one or more...... such as governments, manufacturers and consumers to intervene in the complex system to promote sustainable mobility. It concludes with a reflection on problems, trends and action needed. The ‘System Innovation for Sustainability’ series is the fruit of the first major international research network on SCP...
Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present. The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability? Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...
Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars
took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability......Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...... sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...
Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.
This paper discusses sustainability in a world that has changed rapidly. The author suggests that ecological assumptions embedded in communism and capitalism are badly flawed, but the flaws were not apparent when there were fewer than a billion people on earth living at low technology levels. Sustaining the earth's vital signs is a challenge to our perception of time, and the numbers - population, environmental damage, oil consumption, waste disposal - are too large to comprehend easily. There is a global debate about what sustainability means. In fact the challenge of sustainability is 6 different challenges: overcoming the tendency to deny inconvenient realities; establishing accurate indicators of human and ecological health; questions about the kinds of technology necessary to make the transition to sustainability; education; the need for an emotional bond between man and nature; rebuilding the existing democratic institutions. 16 refs
Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated
Each of the reactive groups might form cross- linking networks under thermal curing reaction with curing agents to bring about high cross- linking density. So, it was considered worthwhile to study the synthesis, characterization and curing reaction of the maleimidophenyl glycidylether epoxy compounds with different amines.
Gorse, R.A. Jr.; Lii, R.R.; Saunders, B.B.
Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) reacts with gas-phase hydroxyl radicals on every third collision, whereas the corresponding reaction in aqueous solution is considerably slower. The high gas-phase reactivity explains the predicted inhibitory effect of DEHA in atmospheric smog processes. Results from the studies in the aqueous phase are helpful in predicting the mechanism of the reaction of DEHA with hydroxyl radicals
which are ratios of electrophilic to nucleophilic FF and vice-versa respectively, have been identified as more reliable criteria for intra-molecular reactivity.16. More recently, Parr and co-workers have defined a new concept of global philicity21 from which Chatta- raj and co-workers have defined local philicity indices,22 which ...
Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is
Real-time motion management is important in radiotherapy. In addition to effective monitoring schemes, prediction is required to compensate for system latency, so that treatment can be synchronized with tumor motion. However, it is difficult to predict tumor motion at all times, and it is critical to determine when large prediction errors may occur. Such information can be used to pause the treatment beam or adjust monitoring/prediction schemes. In this study, we propose a hypothesis testing approach for detecting instants corresponding to potentially large prediction errors in real time. We treat the future tumor location as a random variable, and obtain its empirical probability distribution with the kernel density estimation-based method. Under the null hypothesis, the model probability is assumed to be a concentrated Gaussian centered at the prediction output. Under the alternative hypothesis, the model distribution is assumed to be non-informative uniform, which reflects the situation that the future position cannot be inferred reliably. We derive the likelihood ratio test (LRT) for this hypothesis testing problem and show that with the method of moments for estimating the null hypothesis Gaussian parameters, the LRT reduces to a simple test on the empirical variance of the predictive random variable. This conforms to the intuition to expect a (potentially) large prediction error when the estimate is associated with high uncertainty, and to expect an accurate prediction when the uncertainty level is low. We tested the proposed method on patient-derived respiratory traces. The 'ground-truth' prediction error was evaluated by comparing the prediction values with retrospective observations, and the large prediction regions were subsequently delineated by thresholding the prediction errors. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to describe the performance of the proposed hypothesis testing method. Clinical implication was represented by miss
Wollbold, Johannes; Jaster, Robert; Müller, Sarah; Rateitschak, Katja; Wolkenhauer, Olaf
Recent findings suggest that in pancreatic acinar cells stimulated with bile acid, a pro-apoptotic effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) dominates their effect on necrosis and spreading of inflammation. The first effect presumably occurs via cytochrome C release from the inner mitochondrial membrane. A pro-necrotic effect - similar to the one of Ca2+ - can be strong opening of mitochondrial pores leading to breakdown of the membrane potential, ATP depletion, sustained Ca2+ increase and premature activation of digestive enzymes. To explain published data and to understand ROS effects during the onset of acute pancreatitis, a model using multi-valued logic is constructed. Formal concept analysis (FCA) is used to validate the model against data as well as to analyze and visualize rules that capture the dynamics. Simulations for two different levels of bile stimulation and for inhibition or addition of antioxidants reproduce the qualitative behaviour shown in the experiments. Based on reported differences of ROS production and of ROS induced pore opening, the model predicts a more uniform apoptosis/necrosis ratio for higher and lower bile stimulation in liver cells than in pancreatic acinar cells. FCA confirms that essential dynamical features of the data are captured by the model. For instance, high necrosis always occurs together with at least a medium level of apoptosis. At the same time, FCA helps to reveal subtle differences between data and simulations. The FCA visualization underlines the protective role of ROS against necrosis. The analysis of the model demonstrates how ROS and decreased antioxidant levels contribute to apoptosis. Studying the induction of necrosis via a sustained Ca2+ increase, we implemented the commonly accepted hypothesis of ATP depletion after strong bile stimulation. Using an alternative model, we demonstrate that this process is not necessary to generate the dynamics of the measured variables. Opening of plasma membrane channels could
Bolten, Margarete; Nast, Irina; Skrundz, Marta; Stadler, Christina; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Meinlschmidt, Gunther
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation during pregnancy is linked to dysfunctional behavioral outcomes in the offspring. According to Belsky's differential susceptibility hypothesis, individuals vary regarding their developmental plasticity. Translating the differential susceptibility hypothesis to the field of fetal programming, we hypothesize that infants' temperament, as the constitutionally based reactivity to stimulation, moderates prenatal environmental effects on postnatal emotion regulation. Maternal HPA axis activity and stress-reactivity during pregnancy was estimated, by measuring cortisol concentrations in saliva, collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 min after awakening and in blood, collected during a laboratory stress test (Trier Social Stress Test), respectively. Newborns reactivity to stimulation was evaluated between postnatal day 10 and 14 using the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale. Infant's self-quieting-activities, as an indicator of emotion regulation, were evaluated at the age of six months during the still face paradigm. Maternal cortisol reactivity to stress during pregnancy was associated with infant's emotion regulation at the age of six months. Whereas cortisol levels after awakening in mid and late pregnancy were not associated with emotion regulation. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that in interaction with neonatal reactivity, both, prenatal maternal HPA activity as well as prenatal maternal HPA reactivity to stress predicted emotion regulation. The findings indicate that newborns' reactivity to stimulation is moderating the association between prenatal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids and emotion regulation in infancy. Data suggests that temperamental characteristics of the newborn are a relevant differential susceptibility factor with regard to prenatal effects on emotion regulation. © 2013.
Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies
C. Shannon Stokes
Full Text Available Previous studies in developed countries have found a micro-level association between teenage fertility and girls' educational attainment but researchers still debate the policy implications of these associations. First, are these associations causal? Second, are they substantively important enough, at the macro-level, to warrant policy attention? In other words, how much would policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy among teens pay off in terms of narrowing national gender gaps in educational attainment? Third, under what contexts are these payoffs likely to be important? This paper focuses on the latter two questions. We begin by proposing a contextual hypothesis to explain cross-national variation in the gender-equity payoffs from reducing unintended teen fertility. We then test this hypothesis, using DHS data from 38 countries.
Neuberger, J W; Feiler, C; Maier, H; Schleich, W P
We analyze the Newton flow of the Riemann zeta function ζ and rederive in an elementary way the Riemann–von Mangoldt estimate of the number of non-trivial zeros below a given imaginary part. The representation of the flow on the Riemann sphere highlights the importance of the North pole as the starting and turning point of the separatrices, that is of the continental divides of the Newton flow. We argue that the resulting patterns may lead to deeper insight into the Riemann hypothesis. For this purpose we also compare and contrast the Newton flow of ζ with that of a function which in many ways is similar to ζ, but violates the Riemann hypothesis. (invited comment)
Full Text Available Abstract Many studies have shown that hydrogen can play important roles on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other protective effects. Ohsawa et al have proved that hydrogen can electively and directly scavenge hydroxyl radical. But this mechanism cannot explain more new experimental results. In this article, the hypothesis, which is inspired by H2 could bind to the metal as a ligand, come up to explain its extensive biology effect: Hydrogen could regulate particular metalloproteins by bonding (M–H2 interaction it. And then it could affect the metabolization of ROS and signal transduction. Metalloproteins may be ones of the target molecules of H2 action. Metal ions may be appropriate role sites for H2 molecules. The hypothesis pointed out a new direction to clarify its mechanisms.
Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze the current debt crisis in Greece based on the financial instability hypothesis developed by Hyman Minsky. This article shows that the hypothesis provides an understanding of how an economy endogenously becomes “financially fragile” and thus prone to crises. The authors analyze how public and private sector behavior in the Greek economy led to the country's debt crisis. In particular, based on a sample of 36 Greek companies, the authors show that between 2001 and 2014, the majority of those companies had switched to fragile financial structures. Special attention is devoted to the negative consequences of applying the neoclassical doctrine of “austerity measures” in Greece as the principal “anti-crisis” concept of mainstream economic science.
Carole J. Proctor
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterised by the aggregation of two quite different proteins, namely, amyloid-beta (Aβ, which forms extracellular plaques, and tau, the main component of cytoplasmic neurofibrillary tangles. The amyloid hypothesis proposes that Aβ plaques precede tangle formation but there is still much controversy concerning the order of events and the linkage between Aβ and tau alterations is still unknown. Mathematical modelling has become an essential tool for generating and evaluating hypotheses involving complex systems. We have therefore used this approach to discover the most probable pathway linking Aβ and tau. The model supports a complex pathway linking Aβ and tau via GSK3β, p53, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the pathway contains a cycle with multiple points of entry. It is this property of the pathway which enables the model to be consistent with both the amyloid hypothesis for familial AD and a more complex pathway for sporadic forms.
Pope, Carley J; Oinonen, Kirsten; Mazmanian, Dwight; Stone, Suzanne
Previous women's health practitioners and researchers have postulated that some women are particularly sensitive to hormonal changes occurring during reproductive events. We hypothesize that some women are particularly sensitive to hormonal changes occurring across their reproductive lifespan. To evaluate this hypothesis, we reviewed findings from the existing literature and findings from our own lab. Taken together, the evidence we present shows a recurring pattern of hormonal sensitivity at predictable but different times across the lifespan of some women (i.e., menarche, the premenstrual phase, hormonal contraceptive use, pregnancy, the postpartum period, and menopause). These findings provide support for the hypothesis that there is a subgroup of women who are more susceptible to physical, psychological, and sexual symptoms related to hormonal shifts or abrupt hormonal fluctuations that occur throughout the reproductive lifespan. We propose that this pattern reflects a Hormonal Sensitivity Syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hoorens, Vera; Van Damme, Carolien; Helweg-Larsen, Marie; Sedikides, Constantine
According to the hubris hypothesis, observers respond more unfavorably to individuals who express their positive self-views comparatively than to those who express their positive self-views non-comparatively, because observers infer that the former hold a more disparaging view of others and particularly of observers. Two experiments extended the hubris hypothesis in the domain of optimism. Observers attributed less warmth (but not less competence) to, and showed less interest in affiliating with, an individual displaying comparative optimism (the belief that one's future will be better than others' future) than with an individual displaying absolute optimism (the belief that one's future will be good). Observers responded differently to individuals displaying comparative versus absolute optimism, because they inferred that the former held a gloomier view of the observers' future. Consistent with previous research, observers still attributed more positive traits to a comparative or absolute optimist than to a comparative or absolute pessimist. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Menopause is puzzling because life-history theory predicts there should be no selection for outliving one's reproductive capacity. Adaptive explanations of menopause offered thus far turn on women's long-term investment in offspring and grandoffspring, all variations on the grandmother hypothesis. Here, I offer a very different explanation. The patriarch hypothesis proposes that once males became capable of maintaining high status and reproductive access beyond their peak physical condition, selection favored the extension of maximum life span in males. Because the relevant genes were not on the Y chromosome, life span increased in females as well. However, the female reproductive span was constrained by the depletion of viable oocytes, which resulted in menopause.
Barage, Sagar H; Sonawane, Kailas D
Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Various therapeutic approaches are being used to improve the cholinergic neurotransmission, but their role in AD pathogenesis is still unknown. Although, an increase in tau protein concentration in CSF has been described in AD, but several issues remains unclear. Extensive and accurate analysis of CSF could be helpful to define presence of tau proteins in physiological conditions, or released during the progression of neurodegenerative disease. The amyloid cascade hypothesis postulates that the neurodegeneration in AD caused by abnormal accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques in various areas of the brain. The amyloid hypothesis has continued to gain support over the last two decades, particularly from genetic studies. Therefore, current research progress in several areas of therapies shall provide an effective treatment to cure this devastating disease. This review critically evaluates general biochemical and physiological functions of Aβ directed therapeutics and their relevance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Lim, Robert H; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lin, Li-Ling; Grome, Rebekah E; Farrell, Jerome A; Blackmon, Sha'kema
Acculturation literature has evolved over the past several decades and has highlighted the dynamic ways in which individuals negotiate experiences in multiple cultural contexts. The present study extends this literature by testing M. J. Miller and R. H. Lim's (2010) domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis-that individuals might use different acculturation strategies (i.e., assimilated, bicultural, separated, and marginalized strategies; J. W. Berry, 2003) across behavioral and values domains-in 3 independent cluster analyses with Asian American participants. Present findings supported the domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis as 67% to 72% of participants from 3 independent samples using different strategies across behavioral and values domains. Consistent with theory, a number of acculturation strategy cluster group differences emerged across generational status, acculturative stress, mental health symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Study limitations and future directions for research are discussed.
R. Anastasia Endang Susilawati
Full Text Available In this paper, we test political cost hypothesis in Indonesian market. Political cost hypothesis said that some firms that are more vulnerable to political cost than the others manage income downward to avoiding the attention of government and regulator. In this context we evaluate firms with high investment opportunity set (IOS. Firm with high IOS faces more political cost than firm with low IOS. So it is hypotesized that they will be lowering income to minimize the political cost, like increasing demand of labor union, government intrusion, antitrust regulator and the other. Consistent with previous study, we find that firm with high investment opportunity set manage accrual downward to counter the potential government intrusions and to reduce the political cost.
Dribus, Benjamin F
This book evaluates and suggests potentially critical improvements to causal set theory, one of the best-motivated approaches to the outstanding problems of fundamental physics. Spacetime structure is of central importance to physics beyond general relativity and the standard model. The causal metric hypothesis treats causal relations as the basis of this structure. The book develops the consequences of this hypothesis under the assumption of a fundamental scale, with smooth spacetime geometry viewed as emergent. This approach resembles causal set theory, but differs in important ways; for example, the relative viewpoint, emphasizing relations between pairs of events, and relationships between pairs of histories, is central. The book culminates in a dynamical law for quantum spacetime, derived via generalized path summation.
This book provides a concise and integrated overview of hypothesis testing in four important subject areas, namely linear and nonlinear models, multivariate analysis, and large sample theory. The approach used is a geometrical one based on the concept of projections and their associated idempotent matrices, thus largely avoiding the need to involve matrix ranks. It is shown that all the hypotheses encountered are either linear or asymptotically linear, and that all the underlying models used are either exactly or asymptotically linear normal models. This equivalence can be used, for example, to extend the concept of orthogonality in the analysis of variance to other models, and to show that the asymptotic equivalence of the likelihood ratio, Wald, and Score (Lagrange Multiplier) hypothesis tests generally applies.
Ibarra, D. L.
The Independent Schools Foundation Academy (ISF) in Hong Kong established a sustainability policy in 2015, which explicitly states, "an experimentally integrated, environmentally and ethically sustainable system of science education and conservation practices based on the 2012 Jeju Declaration of the World Conservation Congress will be implemented through the school". ISF Academy is a private Chinese bilingual school in Hong Kong serving over 1500 students K-12, following the framework and curriculum of the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO). The strategy behind the implementation of this policy includes: development of a scientific sustainable curriculum that is age appropriate; establish a culture of sustainability within the ISF community and beyond to the wider HK community; install sustainable infrastructure that allows students to learn; and learn first hand sustainable living practices. It is well understood that solutions to the environmental challenges facing Hong Kong and our planet will require multiple disciplines. The current sustainability programs at ISF include: a) a whole school aerobic food waste composting system and organic farming, b) energy consumption monitoring of existing buildings, c) upcoming installation of an air pollution monitoring equipment that will correlate with the AQHI data collected by the Hong Kong government, d) a Renewable Energy Education Center (REEC) that will teach students about RE and also produce solar energy for classroom consumption, and e) student lead environmental group that manages the paper and used cooking oil recycling on campus. The Shuyuan Science and Sustainability faculty work closely with classroom teachers to ensure that the above mentioned projects are incorporated into the curriculum throughout the school. Interdisciplinary units (IDU) of study are being developed that encourage faculty and students to work across subject areas. Projects include Personal Projects, Extended Essays
Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera
Full Text Available Research on the characteristics of specialized vocabulary usually replicates studies that deal with general words, e.g. they typically describe frequent terms and focus on their linguistic characteristics to aid in the learning and acquisition of the terms. We dispute this practise, as we believe that the basic characteristic of terms is that they are coined to restrict meaning, i.e. to be as precise and as specific as possible in a particular context. For instance, around 70% of English and Spanish accounting terms are multi-word terms, most of which contain more than three orthographic words that syntactically behave in a way that is very different from the syntactic behaviour of the node on which they are formed (Fuertes-Olivera and Tarp, forthcoming. This has prompted us to propose a research framework that investigates whether or not the literal translation hypothesis, which has been addressed in several areas of translation studies, can also be applied in ESP teaching/learning environments. If plausible, the assumptions on which this hypothesis is based can shed light on how learners disambiguate terms they encounter. Within this framework, this paper presents evidence that the literal translation hypothesis is possible in ESP; it offers the results of a pilot study that sheds light on how this hypothesis may work, and also discusses its usability in the context of ESP learning. In particular, this paper presents strategies for teaching multi-word terms that are different from those currently based on corpus data. We believe that exercises such as “cloze”, “fill in” and similar “guessing” exercises must be abandoned in ESP teaching/learning environments. Instead, we propose exercises that reproduce L1 teaching and learning activities, i.e., exercises that are typically used when acquiring specialised knowledge and skills in any domain, e.g. taking part in meetings and giving presentations in a business context.
Sharpe, C R
In this article the author proposes that the multicentricity of breast cancer might be explained by a developmental hypothesis. Genetic alterations ("hits") occurring in epithelial stem cells during the development of the breast may be transmitted to populations of daughter cells during growth. As a result, areas of the breast may be predisposed to malignant transformation with the occurrence of further genetic hits. Areas with the same predisposition should be anatomically connected, and ear...
Paul R. Milgrom
The Invisibility Hypothesis holds that the job skills of disadvantaged workers are not easily discovered by potential new employers, but that promotion enhances visibility and alleviates this problem. Then, at a competitive labor market equilibrium, firms profit by hiding talented disadvantaged workers in low level jobs. Consequently, those workers are paid less on average and promoted less often than others with the same education and ability. As a result of the inefficient and discriminator...
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evolution of MiltonFriedman's permanent income hypothesis from the 1940s to 1960s, andhow it became the paradigm of modern consumption theory. Modellingunobservables, such as permanent income and permanent consumption, isa long-standing issue in economics and econometrics. While theconventional approach has been to set an empirical model to make"permanent income" measurable, the historical change in the meaningof that theoretical construct is al...
The refined similarity hypothesis for isotropic turbulenceestablished by Kolmogorov in 1962 is generalized so that thestatistics of similarity variable may have a slight scale-ratiodependence. A reasonable form of the dependence is given on the basisof a recent multifractal model of intermittent energy dissipation andon some theoretical and experimental knowledge. This modificationleads us to predict reasonable values of all the Kolmogorov prefactorsand the scalings of longitudinal as well as transverse velocitystructure functions in isotropic turbulence.
An emotional version of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that differences in language emotionalities influence differences among cultures no less than conceptual differences. Conceptual contents of languages and cultures to significant extent are determined by words and their semantic differences; these could be borrowed among languages and exchanged among cultures. Emotional differences, as suggested in the paper, are related to grammar and mostly cannot be borrowed. Conceptual and emotional ...
Full Text Available Aquagenic keratoderma has been described as a transient condition affecting predominantly young females and defined clinically by the appearance of palmar hyper-wrinkling accentuated after immersion in water. We present two new cases with aquagenic palmoplantar acrokeratoderma - a child and a young male. A significant clinical improvement was achieved after topical treatment with aluminum salts. Aquagenic palmar keratoderma may be a clue to cystic fibrosis in adolescents and young adults. We developed a new hypothesis on its pathogenesis.
Full Text Available This paper is about understanding through deep market analysis what are the issues and opportunities in distribution. It highlights the detailed hypotheses driven ‘diagnostic’ framework to perform this analysis and shows the selling force role in successfully managing distribution excellence as a change intervention. For each issue we built the most common hypotheses which can conduct to a certain situation and we have highlighted different type of key questions which can describe each hypothesis.
Tsagris, Michail; Preston, Simon; Wood, Andrew T. A.
In the context of data that lie on the simplex, we investigate use of empirical and exponential empirical likelihood, and Hotelling and James statistics, to test the null hypothesis of equal population means based on two independent samples. We perform an extensive numerical study using data simulated from various distributions on the simplex. The results, taken together with practical considerations regarding implementation, support the use of bootstrap-calibrated James statis...
In this note, we present a hypothesis for the emergence of the phenomenon of sleep in organisms with sufficiently developed central nervous systems. We argue that sleep emerges because individual neurons must periodically enter a resting state and perform various ``garbage collection'' activities. Because the proper functioning of the central nervous system is dependent on the interconnections amongst a large collection of individual neurons, it becomes optimal, from the standpoint of the org...
Umemura, I.; Yamamoto, K.
Characteristic features of an SU(7) GUT are discussed, in which the fundamental representation 7 consists of SU(5)'5 and its two singlets with charge q = +-1/2. The so-called survival hypothesis for fermions is naturally evaded by a kind of electric charge conservation due to q = +-1/2, and a brief comment on the suppression of the νsub(e) mass is given also. (orig.)
Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Stentoft-Hansen, Nils Lauge; Søltoft-Jensen, Henrik
Psychotic depression (PD) is classified as a subtype of severe depression in the current diagnostic manuals. Accordingly, it is a common conception among psychiatrists that psychotic features in depression arise as a consequence of depressive severity. The aim of this study was to determine whether...... the severity of depressive and psychotic symptoms correlate in accordance with this "severity-psychosis" hypothesis and to detect potential differences in the clinical features of PD and non-psychotic depression (non-PD)....
Cohen, Samuel R; Cohen, Eric P
Injury and organ failure after irradiation of late-responding tissues is a substantial problem in radiation oncology and a major threat after accidental or belligerent exposures. The mechanisms of injury may include death of clonogens, vascular injury, activation of cytokine networks, and/or chronic oxidative stress. Knowledge of mechanisms may guide optimal use of mitigators. The hypothesis of chronic oxidative stress as a mechanism of late radiation injury has received much attention. We re...
Pekny, Milos; Pekna, Marcela
Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that provide nutrients, recycle neurotransmitters, as well as fulfill a wide range of other homeostasis maintaining functions. During the past two decades, astrocytes emerged also as increasingly important regulators of neuronal functions including the generation of new nerve cells and structural as well as functional synapse remodeling. Reactive gliosis or reactive astrogliosis is a term coined for the morphological and functional changes seen in astroglial cells/astrocytes responding to CNS injury and other neurological diseases. Whereas this defensive reaction of astrocytes is conceivably aimed at handling the acute stress, limiting tissue damage, and restoring homeostasis, it may also inhibit adaptive neural plasticity mechanisms underlying recovery of function. Understanding the multifaceted roles of astrocytes in the healthy and diseased CNS will undoubtedly contribute to the development of treatment strategies that will, in a context-dependent manner and at appropriate time points, modulate reactive astrogliosis to promote brain repair and reduce the neurological impairment. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
This book highlights the sustainability aspects of textiles and clothing sector in light of nanomaterials and technologies. The invasion of nano in every industrial sector has been important and has made remarkable changes as well as posed new challenges, including the textiles and clothing sector. There is quite a great deal of research happening in terms of nano materials for textiles across the globe, some of which are covered in this book. .
Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte
The Danish public housing sector has more than 20 years of experience with sustainable facilities management based on user involvement. The paper outlines this development in a historical perspective and gives an analysis of different approaches to sustainable facilities management. The focus...... is on the housing departments and strateies for the management of the use of resources. The research methods used are case studies based on interviews in addition to literature studies. The paper explores lessons to be learned about sustainable facilities management in general, and points to a need for new...
Grewatsch, Sylvia; Rohrbeck, René; Madsen, Henning
This paper aims to advance the understanding of the circumstances under which corporate sustainability (CS) pays off. On the basis of a review of 129 major papers from both the sustainability and general management literature, we discuss the development of the research field. In addition we discuss...... antecedents and outcomes. To overcome this limitation we propose an integrated typology which may facilitate more research on the link between corporate sustainability performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP). Our expectation is that the strategy type might play a moderating or mediating...
Edgeman, Rick; Williams, Joseph; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær
Sustainable Enterprise Excellence balances complementary and competing interests of key stakeholder segments, including society and the natural environment and increases the likelihood of superior and sustainable competitive positioning and hence long-term enterprise success that is defined...... by continuously relevant and responsible governance, strategy, actions and performance consistent with high-level organizational resilience, robustness and resplendence (R3). This is accomplished through organizational design and function emphasizing innovation, enterprise intelligence & analytics, operational......, supply chain, customer-related, human capital, financial, marketplace, societal, and environmental performance. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence integrates ethical, efficient and effective (E3) enterprise governance with 3E (equity, ecology, economy) Triple Top Line strategy throughout enterprise...
Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke; Nielsen, Jacob
Although lean is rapidly growing in popularity, its implementation is far from problem free and companies may experience difficulties sustaining long term success. In this paper, it is suggested that sustainable lean requires attention to both performance improvement and capability development....... A framework for describing levels of lean capability is presented, based on a brief review of the literature and experiences from 12 Danish companies currently implementing lean. Although still in its emerging phase, the framework contributes to both theory and practice by describing developmental stages...... that support lean capability development and consequently, lean sustainability....
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian
While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...... these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers...... and researchers before, during and after design processes. View full text Download full text...
Robreau, Y.; Porcher, P.
This document aims to define the sustainable development concept with a special attention for France and Israel position. The first part recalls the history of the sustainable development from the ''Man and Biosphere'' program of the UNESCO to Rio protocol. Then are described the principles of the sustainable development, the France plans and the France position at Johannesburg conference. The last part is devoted to the Israel position and a short presentation of the consequences of the greenhouse gases on the human health and the environment. (A.L.B.)
Rasmussen, Tove Arendt
Experience understood as experience-based consumption is by now fairly absent from the research agenda of the different theories on sustainable consumption. On the basis of Colin Campbell’s notion of romantic ethics and emotional sentimentality in modern hedonism, I claim that sustainable....... Very often, however, the actual purchase does not live up to the demands of doing good in the sustainable consumption chain, and the individual might end up with a guilty conscience, which again is a possible trigger for lingering in a sentimental mode of guilt. Emotions of sentimentality may actually...
Rodríguez, Carlos C.
The form and shape of a hypothesis space imposes natural objective constraints to any inferential process. This contribution summarizes what is currently known and the mathematics that are thought to be needed for new developments in this area. For example, it is well known that the quality of best possible estimators deteriorates with increasing volume, dimension and curvature of the hypothesis space. It is also known that regular statistical parametric models are finite dimensional Riemannian manifolds admitting a family of dual affine connections. Fisher information is the metric induced on the hypothesis space by the Hellinger distance. Nonparametric models are infinite dimensional manifolds. Global negative curvature implies asymptotic inadmissibility of uniform priors. When there is uncertainty about the model and the prior, entropic methods are more robust than standard Bayesian inference. The presence of some types of singularities allow the existence of faster than normal estimators …, etc. The large number of fundamental statistical concepts with geometric and topological content suggest to try to look at Riemannian Geometry, Algebraic Geometry, K-theory, Algebraic Topology, Knot-theory and other branches of current mathematics, not as empty esoteric abstractions but as allies for statistical inference.